(Map Q5)
(area only; site unmarked)

The sign of a tavern in Gracechurch St., Lond., which was kept at one time by the comedian Tarlton. In Tarlton's Jests we are told "Tarlton dwelt in Gracious St. at the sign of the Saba, a tavern."

(Map H5)

On the South side of Fleet St., Lond., W. of St. Bride's Ch. It included what is now called S. Sqre. It gets its name from S. House, the town residence of the Bps. of S. from the 13th cent. onward. S. Sqre. was the great court of the House, and S. C. ran right down to the river and included what is now Dorset St. In 1564 the whole estate passed to Sir Richd. Sackville, and his son, 1st Earl of Dorset, enlarged the house and called it Dorset House. In 1629 the then Earl of Dorset leased a piece of land, about where the S. Hotel now stands, to Gunell and Blagrave, who built there the S. C. Theatre. It was a private theatre, and took the place of the old Whitefriars Theatre; indeed, it is often called the Whitefriars in the plays. It was pulled down by a company of soldiers instigate by the Puritans in 1649, and was not rebuilt till 1660. The whole property, including Dorset House and the Theatre, was destroyed in the Gt. Fire. In Marmion's Leaguer, acted there in 1631, it is referred to as "the Muses' Colony, New planted in this soil." In Epistle Dedicatory to his Histrio-mastix (1633), Prynne says, "2 old play-houses, the Fortune and the Red Bull, have lately been re-edified and enlarged, and one new one (Whitefriars) erected"; this last being S. C. The scene of Randolph's Muses' is a theatre, probably S. C. In the records of Sir Henry Herbert, Master of the Revels, under date Feb. 16th, 1634, it is stated that Cromes, a broker of Long Lane, was committed to the Marshalsey "for lending a church-robe with the name of Jesus upon it to the players in S. C. to present a flamen, a priest of the heathens." In Epilogue to Brome's Antipodes, it is said: "The play was well acted at S. C." In Actors' Remonstrance (1643) the authors say, "It is not unknown to all the audiences that have frequented the private houses of Black-friars, the Cockpit, and S. C., without austerity we have purged our stages from all obscene and scurrilous jests." In Historia Histrionica (1699), it is mentioned amongst the theatres existing before the wars as "the private house in S. C."


The sign of a tavern in Lond., which still remains at 17 Newgate St., on the South side of the st. The sign probably represented the meeting between Gabriel and the Virgin Mary. Its fuller title was "The S. and Cat." Possibly a figure of St. Catharine was introduced into the original sign-board. In Feversham iii. 4, Shakebag says, "Then, Michael, this shall be your penance, to feast us all at the S." In Milkmaids iii. 1, Smirke says, "I left him condoling with 2 or 3 of his friends at the sign of the Lamentation," and Frederick corrects him: "The S. thou meanst." In Look about xx., Block says, "One of the drawers of the S. told me that he had took up a chamber there." In News Barthol. Fair mention is made of a S. at Billingsgate.


The precincts of a ch. or royal palace within which criminals, except those guilty of sacrilege or treason, and debtors were immune from arrest. The right was abolished for criminal cases in 1625, and for civil cases in 1722. The name was specially applied to the precincts on the N. and W. sides of Westminster Abbey. They included the Great, or Broad, and the Little Sanctuaries. The space on which St. Margaret's Ch. and the Westminster Hospital now stand is still called Broad S. Here Elizabeth, Q. of Edward IV, took refuge in 1471 and gave birth to Edward V. Later she and her sons again sought s. there from Richd. of Gloucester. In H6 C. iv. 4, 31, Elizabeth says, "I'll hence forthwith unto the S. To save at least the heir of Edward's right." This was in 1471. In True Tragedy, Haz., p. 81, the little D. of York cries to the Messenger: "What art thou that with ghastly looks presseth into S. to affright our mother Q.?" In R3 ii. 4, the Q. says, "Come, come, my boy, we will to S." In iii. 1, 44, Buckingham urges Gloucester to drag the boys out: "Oft have I heard of s.-men, But s.-children ne'er till now." Deloney, in Reading ix., tells of a Fleming "who took s. at Westminster." In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, Mrs. Tattle professes to have all the news "of Tuttle st., and both the Alm'ries, the two Sanctuaries." Other sanctuaries in London were as follows: qq.v. In the list of taverns in News Barthol. Fair one is called "St.-Martins in the Sentree": it was built on the site of the old St. Martin's-le-Grand.


A popular tavern sign. There was a "Sarezon Hed" at Nottingham in 1510. There was one in Lond. outside Aldgate (Map S4)–area only; site unmarked; but the most famous, thanks largely to Dickens, was the one on the N. side of Snow Hill without Newgate (Map J4). In 1522 it is recorded to have had 30 beds and stabling for 40 horses. In Dekker's Satiro i. 2, 362, Tucca says to Horace (Jonson), "Dost stare, my Sarsens H. at Newgate? Dost gloat?" In Deloney's Craft ii. 6, "Harry . . . smeared Tom Drum's face with his blood that he made him look like . . . the Sarazines H. without Newgate." In Tarlton's Jests we read of a man's fat red face: "it fits like the S. H. without Newgate." In Dekker's Shoemaker's v. 1, Eyre says to his wife, "Lady Madgy, thou hadst never covered thy S. H. with this French flap but for my fine journeyman's portuguese." The Inn was pulled down when the Holborn Viaduct was built, but the sign remains at the corner of Cock Lane and Snow Hill. There was also a S. H. at Islington, where is laid the scene of Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsdon (1641).






An ancient Abbey of the Cluniac order in Bermondsey, which stood at the junction of Bermondsey St. and Abbey St., where is now the ch. of St. Mary Magdalen. It was built in 1082, and dissolved by Henry VIII. The Cross, or Rood, over the gate was found in the Thames in 1118, and had a great reputation for miracle-working. Pilgrims flocked to it, and, along with many other similar objects of popular reverence, it was taken down in 1558. It would seem, however, to have been restored to its place later, for it appears in a drawing of the Abbey made in 1679 and engraved by Wilkinson in Londinia Illustrata. In J. Heywood's Four PP. i. the Palmer tells how he has visited "Saynt Savyour's." John Paston, writing in 1465, begs Margery Paston "to visit the rood of Northedor and St. Savyour at Bermondsey while ye abide in Lond." Weever, p. 111, says, "The image of the Rood of St. Saviour at Bermondsey was brought up to Lond. and burnt at Chelsea, anno 30 Henry VIII." This was perhaps a wooden copy of the original cross.


(see MARY (SAINT) OVERIES). Taylor, the Water-poet, describes himself as "I John Taylor of St. Saviour's in Southwark."

(Map D5)

A palace in Lond., on the N. bank of the Thames between the Strand and the river, W. of Somerset House. It was built by Peter of S., who visited England on the occasion of the marriage of his niece Eleanor to Henry III, and had this palace formally granted to him in 1248 and was created Earl of Richmond. He bestowed it on the Fratres de Monte Jovis, a fraternity whose headquarters were in his Duchy of S. but who had a Priory at Hornchurch in Essex. Q. Eleanor bought it from them for her 2nd son, Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, and it remained for a long time the Lond. house of the Lancaster family. Here was imprisoned the French K. John, who was taken prisoner at Poitiers; after his release he remained at the S., where he died in 1364. In 1381 it was completely destroyed by Wat Tyler and his rebels, and remained a heap of ruins till it was rebuilt by Henry VII in 1505 as a Hospital of St. John the Baptist for the housing of 100 poor people. It was suppressed in 1553 and its furniture transferred to Bridewell, but it was reendowed by Q. Mary and continued to be used as a hospital till 1702, when it was finally dissolved. The buildings were then used for various purposes–as printing offices, a military prison, and places of worship for the French and the Dutch; they were finally swept away, all but the Chapel, when Waterloo Bdge. was built. The Chapel of St. Mary in the Hospital, otherwise of St. John the Baptist in the S., dates from the early 16th cent. and, happily, still survives. Its precincts were a Sanctuary, which was haunted by all sorts of bad characters, and the chapel was constantly used for the celebration of irregular marriages of the Fleet type. Recorder Fleetwood, writing in 1560 about the rogues and vagabonds of Lond., says, "The chief nursery of all these evil people is the S." The name has received quite a new connotation through the S. Theatre and the S. Hotel.

The scene of R2 i. 1 is laid in the D. of Lancaster's Palace; doubtless the S. is intended. In Straw iii., the Lord Mayor says, "The rebels are defacing houses of hostelity, St. John's in Smithfield, the S, and such like." In the Nine Worthies of London (1592), we are told about the rebels: "Earls' manor houses were by them destroyed, the S., and St. Jones by Smithfield spoiled." In H6 B. iv. 7, 2, Cade directs his followers: "Now go some and pull down the S."; but this is a reminiscence of Wat Tyler's work, for the S. was still in ruins. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. v. 2, the Master of Bridewell tells how it was endowed "With all the bedding and the furniture Once proper to an Hospital belonging to a D. of S." There must have been a striking clock in the tower, for in Middleton's R. G. iii. 1, Laxton says, "Hark I what's this? 1, 2, 3; 3 by the clock at S." In Dekker's Shoemaker's iv. 5, Firk says, "Master Bridegroom and Mrs. Bride in the mean time shall chop up the matter at the S." In Middleton's Five Gallants ii. 31, Primero complains, "I have had 2 [knights' heirs] stolen away at once and married at S." In his Chess iv. 4, the Black Knight (Gondomar) promises "a S. dame" that she should have a child, "if she could stride over St. Rumbaut's breeches, a relique kept at Mechlin." A S. dame is either a runaway bride or a woman of bad reputation; there is probably also a reference to the fact that the "Fat Bishop," Antonio of Spalato, was at this time Master of the S. Hospital. In Barry's Ram ii. 4, Smallshanks says, "'Foot, wench, we will be married tonight; we'll sup at the Mitre and from thence my brother and we three will to the S."

(Map O4)
(area only; site unmarked)

On the N. side of the Poultry, Lond., by St. Mildred's ch., where the poulterers used to scald their fowls. In Jonson's Christmas, Christmas says, "My daughter Cis is an honest cook's wife And comes out of S. A."

(Map K4?)
(area only; site unmarked)

Somewhere is the neighbourhood of Smithfield, Lond.; possibly the corner of Cock Lane and Giltspur St. In Promos ii. iv. 1, Gresco says to the watch, "Search Ducke Alley, Cocklane, and S.C." The scene is in Julio in Austria, but these places are all in Lond.

(Map B5)

An irregular group of buildings in Lond., lying South of Charing Cross, between Whitehall and the Thames. It derived its name from a palace which stood there, which was first granted to Kenneth III of S. by K. Edgar and was the official residence of the Kings of S. when they came to Lond. The last of their representatives to occupy it was Margaret, sister of Henry VIII and wife of James IV of S. In the reign of Elizabeth it fell into decay, but it was partially restored by James I and used as Government offices. In 1829 it became the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police. Here Milton was accommodated from 1649 to 1652, whilst he was acting as Latin Secretary to the Council of State.

(Map J4)

A lane in Lond., now represented by a narrow alley running from Farringdon St. into Fleet Lane, behind Cassell's premises in Ludgate KW. Formerly it ran from Snow Hill to Fleet Lane, and at its foot on the Fleet River was a landing-stage where the boats, bringing sea-borne coal, discharged their freight. It is mentioned in the Pipe Rolls as early as 1228. Here was St. George's Inn, one of the oldest Schools of Law in Lond. In Elizabethan times it was chiefly occupied by ale-houses, cook-shops, and chandlers' stores. In Jonson's Jonson's Alchemist iii. 2, Drugger relates how he was cured of a headache by a good old woman; "Yes, faith," he says, "she dwells in S. L., did cure me With sodden ale and pellitory of the wall; Cost me but 2d." One of Peele's Jests is located "at a blind alehouse in S. L."



(Map K4)

(Pr. = Pulcher). A ch. in Lond., on the N. side of Newgate St. between Giltspur St. and Snow Hill, diagonally opposite to the old Newgate Prison, now the new Central Criminal Court. It was originally built in the 12th cent., and named in honour of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. It was rebuilt in the middle of the 15th cent., and the square tower with its 4 corner spires, and the fine South-E. porch, are probably part of the ch. then erected. It was partially destroyed in the Gt. Fire, and repaired under Wren's direction. Since then it has suffered many restorations. The name was pronounced with the accent on the 2nd syllable, and is commonly abbreviated to St. Pr's. It had a clock in the tower, and a fine peal of bells. The graveyard was much used in the years when the Plague raged in Lond. In 1605 a certain Robert Dowe left money to provide for the rigging of a passing-bell at St. S: when prisoners from Newgate were executed; and also for the visitation of the prisoners by the bellman on the night preceding their execution, when he rang his bell and recited the following doggrel: "All ye that in the condemned hold do he, Prepare you, for tomorrow you shall die; Watch all and pray, the hour is drawing near That you before the Almighty must appear; Examine well yourselves, in time repent, That you may not to eternal flames be sent. And when St. Pr's. bell tomorrow tolls, The Lord above have mercy on your souls. Past 12 o'clock." The poor wretches, on their way to Tyburn, were also addressed as they passed the ch., and presented with a nosegay. In the description of the execution of Humphrey Lloyd (1607) we are told: "When he was being drawn in the cart with others toward execution, and aft the carts being stayed before St. S. ch., where the most christian and charitable deed of Master Doove at every such time is worthily performed, etc." Jonson, in Voyage, says, "Cannot the Plague-bill keep you back, nor bells of loud S. with their hourly knell?" Dekker, in Wonderful Year, says, "The 3 bald sextons of limping St. Giles, St. S, aced St. Olaves, ruled the roast more hotly than ever did the triumviri of Rome "Middleton, in Black Book, p. 25, speaks of sheets "smudged so dirtily as if they had been stolen by night out of St. Pr's. churchyard," where they would have been used as shrouds for the dead.

In Jonson's Devil v. 5, Shackles tells how Pug has blown down part of the prison at Newgate and "left Such an infernal stink and steam behind You cannot see St. Pr's. steeple yet." In his Epicoene iv. 2, Truewit tells Dawe that Sir Amorous was so well armed "You would think he meant to murder all St. Pr's. parish." Dekker, in Hornbook iv., advises the gallant to set his watch by St. Paul's, "which, I assure you, goes truer by 5 notes than St. S. chimes." Taylor Works ii. 81, says that Coryat's fame "shall ring Louder than St. Pr's. bell." In Old Meg, p. 1, we are told, "Never had St. S. a truer ring of bells "than the Hereford Morris-dancers.

(Map H5)

A building in Lond. for the lodging of the Serjeants-at-Law and the Judges. The 1st S. I. was in Chancery Lane, on the E. side, close to Fleet St. The site is now occupied by the Law Union and Rock Life Insurance Company's building. The 2nd I. was at 50 Fleet St., where now is the Norwich Union Life Office. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire, and on its site the Amicable Assurance Society's premises were erected. It was so near to Ram Alley that the judges protested more than once against the annoyance caused to them by the stench and smell of the tobacco smoked there. The Society of S. was dissolved in 1876, and their property sold. The portraits, coats of arms, and plate, were bought by Serjeant Cox, and transferred to his house at Mill Hill. Machin's Dumb Knight was published "by William Sheares at his shop in Chancery Lane near S.I. 1633." T. Heywood's Hogsdon was "printed by M.P. for Henry Shaphard and are to be sold at his shop in Chancery Lane at the sign of the Bible between S. I. and Fleet st. 1638." The Tragedy of Mariam was "printed by Thomas Creede for Richard Hawkins, and are to be sold at his shop in Chancery Lane, near unto Sargeants Inne. 16l3."


A parish on the N. bank of the Thames, between Wapping and Limehouse. Like most ports, it had an unsavoury reputation. In Jonson's Magnetic ii. 1, Polish says, "Have you an oar in the cockboat, 'cause you are a sailor's wife and come from S.?" In Launching we read: "The East Indian gates stand open wide to entertain the needy and the poor . . . Ratcliffe cannot complain . . . nor S. cry against their niggardliness." In Webster's Cuckold ii. 3, Compass mentions Limehouse and S. as amongst the suburbs of Lond.; where suburb means a haunt of loose women.



(Map G5)
"Shire Lane"

i.e. Shire Lane. In Lond., running South from Little Lincoln's Inn Fields into Fleet St., close by Temple Bar. It acquired a very disreputable character, and in spite of the change of name to Lower Serle's Place in 1845, it retained it, until it was swept away altogether by the erection of the new Law Courts. In this Lane was the famous Trumpet Tavern. In Wise Men iii. 4, Antonio says, "Go to Mrs. Sylvester in Sheerelane, desire her to lend me a pair of sheets."


A tavern sign in Lond. There was a S. tavern in the Strand just outside Temple Bar at the corner of little Shire Lane; another at Charing Cross, and a 3rd by the Exchange. In T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, Valerius sings: "To the S. the merchants go." In the list of Inns in News Barthol. Fair we find, "The Windmill at Lothbury, the S. at the Exchange."


The sign of a tavern in Lond. In Dekker's Northward ii. 1, Doll says, "So will we 4 be drunk i' th' Shipwreck tavern."

(Map J5)

A st. in Lond., running N. from Fleet St. opposite St. Bride's Ch., to Holborn. It is older than Fleet St. itself, and is mentioned as Vicus de Solande in the reign of John. It became successively Scholond, Scholane, and then, by Hobson-Jobson, S. L. Here the Dominican Friars had their first Lond. settlement in the 13th cent. Sir Henry Wootton; in 1633, speaks of a visit he paid to "the Cockpit in S.L." The Gt. Fire swept it all away except the N. end where St. Andrew's Ch. stood; but the ch. was pulled down abt. 10 years later, and the construction of the Holborn Viaduct has completed the transformation of that end of the L. In S. L. lived John Florio, the translator of Montaigne, and in Gunpowder Alley, leading off it, Lilly the astrologer lived, and Lovelace the poet died. In Ret. Pernass. i. 4, Philomusus says, "Let our lodging stand here filthy [?fitly] in Shooe-l., for, if our comings in be not the better, Lond. may shortly throw an old shoe after us." In Barry's Ram iii. 2, Throate says, "Let the coach stay at S. L. end"; and later in the scene Smallshanks says, "Come, we will find her; Let's first along S. L., then straight up Holborn." In Middleton's R. G. iii. 3, when Dapper escapes from the serjeants in Holborn, Curtlax cries: "Run down S. L. and meet him." S. L. was the home of the designers of rude woodcuts and signs. In Whimsies (1631) we read of "a Sussex dragon, some sea or inland monster, drawn out by some S. L. man." In Nabbes' Presentation for Prince (1638) the almanack-maker says, "Instead of Shoelane hangings, may the walls of my house be painted with chalk."

(Map M5)

The H. of the Guild of Cordwainers in Lond. The Guild was incorporated in 1410, and had 3 successive halls on the same site, at what is now 7 Cannon St., on the N. side, between Old Change and Friday St. It is abt. 300 yards from St. Martins-le-Grand. The present H. was built in 1788. Lyly, in Pappe with an Hatchett Eliz. Pamph, p. 56, charges Martin Marprelate Z9 having drawn Divinity from "the Colleges of Oxford and Cambridge to Shoomakers Hall in Sanct Martin's."


A steep hill, formerly very narrow and overshadowed with trees, abt. 7 m. out of Lond. on the Great Dover Road, just beyond Charlton. It was a notorious haunt of highwaymen, and in the time of Richd. II was widened to make it safer, but with little effect. In 1733 the gradient was lessened 2nd the road slightly diverted; but the footpad's trade continued to flourish until the tag of the 19th cent. In J. Heywood's Weather, p. 100, Merry Report claims to have been "at Sudbury, Southampton, at S. H." In Fair Women ii. 220, Old John is met by Bean, who is going from Lond. to Greenwich., and says he is on his way "to drive home a cow and a calf that is in my close at S. H. foot."

In Hycke, p. 90, the hero tells us that Ill Will is "Brother to Jack Puller of Shoters hyll." Again, p. 96, Imaginacion says, "Well, fellows, now let us go our way For a' Shoters hyll we have a game to play." Again, p. 104, Frewyll says, "If I might make 3 good voyages to Shoters hyl Then would I never travel the sea more." In Oldcastle i. 3, Butter says, "Coming oer S.-H., there came one to me like a sailor and asked my money. I was never so robbed is all my life." In iii. 4, Sir John, the parson-highwayman, says, "God-a-mercy, neighbour S. H, you ha' paid your tithe honestly." This was after a successful highway robbery. In Mayne's Match iii. 4, Plotwell says, if his uncle marries," The sleight upon the cards, the hollow die, Park Corner, and S. H., are my revenue." Stubbes, in Anat. of Abuses (1583), p. 53, speaks of men who mortgage their lands, and then take to robbery "on Suters h. and Stangate hole with loss of their lives at Tiburne in a rope." Dekker, in Bellman, says, "All travellers are so beaten to the trials of this law [i.e. the law of highway robbery] that, if they have but rode over S. H. or Salisbury Plain, they are perfect in the principles of it." In Fair Women ii. 782, the 1st lord says, "A cruel murther's done Near S. H., and here's a letter come From Woolwich . . . Noting the manner and the marks of him That did that impious deed." Hall, in Sat. vi. 1, 67, says that the traveller hopes that "The. vale of Standgate, or the Suters h., Or western plains, ace free from feared ill."

(Map Q1)

A parish in N.E. Lond., lying South of Old St, between City Road and Bethnall Green. The S. High St. is a continuation of Norton Folgate as far as the corner of Old St. and Hackney Road. The name was erroneously derived from a story that the famous Jane Shore died there; but we read, in Piers B. 13, 340, of a certain Dame Emme "of Shordyche," which sufficiently disproves this derivation; although it is perpetuated by the Jane Shore tavern at 103 S. High St., and is supported by T. Heywood's Ed. IV B., where Catesby says, after relating the deaths of Shore and his wife, "The people for ever mean to call the ditch Shores ditch in the memory of them." The name was originally Soerdich, and is derived from the name,of the Lords of the Manor, one of whom, Sir John de Soerdich, was a famous diplomatist in the reign of Edward III.

In W. Rowley's New Wonder v., Foster's wife says, "The K. comes to see Master Brewen's hospital and old St. Mary's spital here by S." Brewen's hospital was on the N. side of Spital Sq., near the South end of Norton Folgate. In Dekker's Westward ii. 2, Monopoly says, "I'm to sup this night at the Lion in S." As the High St. was part of the old Roman road to the N., it had many taverns for the accommodation of travellers. The road was not too good, for in the account of the preparations for the return of Charles I to Lond. in 1641 we read that the way from Kingsland to S. was impassable for their Majesties "in regard of the depth and foulness of it." In Niccholas' Marriage and Wiving vi., we are told of the origin of the name of the spring called "Dame Annis a Clare," which is stated to be "a spring near S." See ANNIS A CLERE. In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 1, Frisco, leading Delion and Alvaro on a wild-goose chase through Lond. by night., says, "We are now at the farthest end of S., for this is the maypole." If he means the famous Maypole in Leadenhall St. they were certainly at the farthest end of S, and a good deal farther!About 1604 one "Master John Tyce, living near S. Ch.," introduced the making of taffetas, cloth of tissue, velvets, and satins into Lond. In S. were the first two Lond. playhouses, the Theatre and the Curtain, q.v. Many of the actors and playwrights lived in the parish, and were buried in the church of St. Leonard, q.v. A fragment from the Bodleian Aubrey MS. 8 fol. 4.5, says, "He was not a company keeper; lived in S., would not be debauched, and if invited to write, he was in pain." This passage is believed by Mr. Madan, Sir Sidney Lee, and Sir George Warner to refer to Shakespeare. It is otherwise probable that he lived in S. when he first came to Lond.

S. had the worst of reputations as a haunt of loose women and bad characters generally. In Pilg. Pernass. v. 1, Philomusus says, "An honest man May chastely dwell in unchaste Shordiche st." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iv. 5, Bobadill says that his quarters have been "in divers skirts i' the town, as Turnbull, Whitechapel, S." In his Devil i. 1, Iniquity proposes to Pug to visit "S., Whitechapel, and so to St. Kathern's." In Jack Drum ii. 359, Drum says, "'Tis easier to find virginity in S. than to hear of my mistress." In Randolph's Muses iv. 3, justice Nimis talks with complacency of the revenues he gets from Clerkenwell and Turnbal "with my Pickt-hatch grange and S. farm." Nash, in Wonderful Year (1591) says, "I find that the altitude of that place (Peticote Lane) and of S. are all one elevated; and 2 degrees and under the zenith or vertical point of Venus." In his Pierce F. 4, he says, "Examine how every yard house in S. is maintained, and tell me how many she-inmates you find." In Dekker's If it be 352, Pluto asks "The bawd of S., is that hell-cat come?" Middleton, in Hubburd, says, "S. was the only Cole-Harbour and sanctuary for wenches and soldiers." In his No Wit iv. 2, Sarsenet says, "A man may smell her meaning, though his hose wanted reparations and the bridge left at S." In his. Inner Tem. 172, Dr. Almanac says, "Stand forth, Shrove Tuesday I 'tis in your charge to puff dower bawdy houses, cause spoil in S." Dekker, in Owl's Almanac, says, "Shrove Tuesday falls on that day on which the prentises pulled down the Cockpit and on which they did always use to rifle Madam Leake's house at the upper end of S." The prentices had licence on Shrove Tuesday to attack any houses of ill-fame and despoil them. In Killigrew's Parson iv. 1, Wanton says, "Never to love, seldom enjoy, and always tell–foh! it stinks worse than S. dirt." Hall, in Sat. i. 9, 21, asks: "What if some S. fury should incite Some lust-stung letcher?" S. R., in Letting of Honour's Blood (1611), mentions, "some coward gull That is but champion to a Sdrab." Marston, in Sat. i. 4, says, "He'll cleanse himself to S. purity." In S. Rowland's Honour's Looking Glass (1608), his servant takes the Country Gull "unto S., where the whores keep hell." The title D. of S. is said to have been sportively conferred by Henry VIII on Barlo, one of his guards, who lived in S., for his skill in archery; and the custom of annually conferring this title was kept up till 1683. Hence the D. of S. means a pinchbeck or imitation peer. Dekker, in News from Hell, says that in Charon's boat "The D. of Guize and the D. of S. have not the breadth of a bench between them." In his Armourers he says, "Arrows flew faster than they did at a cat in a basket, when Prince Arthur or the D. of S. struck up the drum in the field." in Jonson's Devil iv. 3, Wittipol says to Manly, "We'll leave you here To be made D. of S. with a project." In The Poor Man's Petition (1603) xvi., it is asked., "Good K., make not good lord of Lincoln D. of Shoreditche."


The crypt of a ch., specifically applied to the chapel of St. Faith in St. Paul's Cathedral, Lond. Sermons were preached there when the weather was too bad for them to be delivered at the Cross. One of Latimer's sermons was "preached in the Shroudes at Pauls Ch. in Lond. on the 18th day of January anno 1548." Hakluyt, in Voyages ii. 1, 153 (1599), tells of "a ch. under the ground like to the shroudes in Pauls."

(Map M3)

Lond., runs W. from wood St., Cheapside, to Falcon Sq. It was probably so called from the silversmiths who had their shops there. In this st. is the Hall of the Parish Clerks' Company. In Jonson's Epicoene iv. 1, Otter says of his wife: "All her teeth were made in the Blackfriars, both her eyebrows in the Strand, and her hair in S.-st." In his Staple iii. 2, Censure says, "A notable tough rascal, this old Pennyboy! Right city-bred!" to which Mirth replies: "In S.-st., the region of money, a good seat for an usurer." Shakespeare at one time lodged with one Christopher Mountjoy in S. St.


A door in the middle aisle of Old St. Paul's, Lond, on which advertisements of various kinds, especially those of servants needing employment, were posted up. They began (in Latin) with the words "Si Quis," i.e. "If any one "sc. wants a servant, etc. Dekker, in Hornbook iv., advises the gallant, "The first time you venture into Powles, presume not to fetch as much as one whole turn in the middle aisle, no, nor to cast an eye to Si Quis door (pasted and plastered up with serving-men's supplications)." Hall, in Sat. ii. 5, says, "Saw'st thou ever Si Quis patched on Paul's ch. door, To seek some. vacant vicarage before?" In Jonson's Ev. Man O. ii. 2, we have a stage direction: "Enter Shift with 2 si-quisses in his hand." When Mitis asks: "What makes he in Paul's now?" Cordatus says, "Troth, for the advancement of a si quis or two." In iii. 1, Shift says, "I have set up my bills without discovery." Puntarvolo comes in and reads one of them, beginning: "If there be any lady or gentleman "wanting a gentleman usher, etc.

(Map J2)
(area only; site unmarked)

An old spring on the W. side of Clerkenwell Ch., Lond. The name is preserved in Skinner St. which leads to the point where the old wen was. The Skin Market on each side of what is now Percival St. continued till the middle of the 18th cent. At Skinners Well the clerks of Lond. performed what is styled a Ludus valde sumptuosus in 1384, which lasted 5 days; similar performances are recorded in 1391 and 1409. The subjects of these plays were the Scriptural stories from the Creation to the Last Judgment.

(Map C7)
(area only; site unmarked)

The embankment along the Thames which was built to protect the low-lying dist. of Lambeth Marsh from inundations. It was used as a landing-place for those who crossed the river to Lambeth. In Middleton's R. G. v. 2, a servant says of the runaway lovers: "They were met upon the water an hour since, Sir, Putting in towards the S. , "'The S.?" says Sir Alexander; "come, gentlemen, 'Tis Lambeth works against us."

(Map V5)

An open space, E. of the Tower of Lond., just outside the city walls. It was a haunt of riverside thieves, and was often used as the place for their execution. In Contention, Part I, Haz., p. 497, Lord Skayles says of Jack Cade: "The rebels have attempted to win the Tower, But get you to S. and gather head And thither will I send you Mathew Goffe." In H6 B. iv. 6, 13, Dick reports to Cade: "There's an army gathered together in S." The next scene is laid in S., and Mathew Goffe is slain. Evidently East S. is intended.

(Map K3)

Originally the smethe, i.e. smooth, field. An open space between 5 and 6 acres in extent, lying in the triangle formed by Holborn, Aldersgate St., and Charterhouse St., in Lond. On its E. side was the ch. and hospital of St. Bartholomew. It was the market for horses, cattle, sheep, and hay, from very early times until 1855, when the cattle market was removed to Copenhagen Fields, though the hay market was stiff continued; and the N. side was appropriated for the Metropolitan meat market. The open space lent itself to jousts and tournaments, and was also used for executions. Many martyrs were burnt at the stake at a point opposite the entrance to the ch. of St. Bartholomew, where, in 1849, excavations discovered, abt. 3 ft. below the surface, the ashes which marked the site of the burnings; a granite slab in the wall of St. Bartholomew's Hospital indicates the. spot. Howes, in Annales (1631), says, "This field was for many years called Ruffians Hall by reason it was the usual place of frays and common fighting during the time that swords and bucklers were in use." Here was held the famous Fair of St. Bartholomew on August 24th (see under BARTHOLOMEW, ST.). It was in S. that Sir W. Walworth slew Wat Tyler, on June 15th, 1381. In 1615 the whole place was paved and drained at a cost of about £1600.

Historical Allusions. In Straw ii., the Lord Mayor says, "The rebels are defacing houses of hostelity, St. John's in S., the Savoy, and such like." The Priory of St. John was a little N. of S. In Johnson's Nine Worthies (1592), an account is given of the death of Wat Tyler at the hands of Walworth at the place appointed for the meeting of the rebels and the K. "in S." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. i. 17, the Mayor says, "Such a rebel was by Walworth, the Lord Mayor of Lond., stabbed dead in S."

The Horse and Cattle Market. In H4 B. i. 2, 57, the Page says to Falstaff that Bardolph is "gone into S. to buy your worship a horse," to which Falstaff replies, "I bought him in Paul's and he'll buy me a horse in S.; an I could get me but a wife in the Stews, I were manned, horsed, and wived!" In More iv. 1, the Clown says, "Many such rewards would make us all ride, and horse us with the best nags in S." In Middleton's R. G. iii. 1, Laxfield asks, "Are we fitted with good frampul jades?" and the Coachman replies, "The best in S., I warrant you, Sir." The note in the Mermaid edition–"a noted market for worthless horses"–is quite misleading; there were bad horses sold at S., but there were good ones too; and the Coachman is praising, not running down, his steeds. In Jonson's Tub i. 2, Puppy says, "What's that, a horse? Can scourse [i.e. deal] nought but a horse, and that in Smithveld?" Jonson, in Discoveries, p. 697, says that one who does courtesies merely for his own sake "hath his horse well drest for S." In W. Rowley's New Wonder ii. 1, the Widow says, "'Tis thought, if the horse-market be removed, that S. shall be so employed," sc. as a market for the sale of widows. In the Cobler of Canterbury a couplet runs: "When in S. on Fridays no jades you can see, Then the Cobler of Rumney shall a cuckold be." Friday was the day of the horse-market. In Dekker's Lanthorn, chapter x. is headed "The knavery of horsecoursers in S. discovered"; and an account follows of the various tricks which gave to the phrase "a S. bargain "the meaning of a deal in which the buyer is swindled. In Brome's Damoiselle ii. 1, Amphilus asks of his mare: "Was it well done of her to die to-day, when she had been i' my purse to-morrow in S.?" He had ridden her up from the country to sell her. In Jonson's Barthol. iii. 1, Waspe says to Cokes, "Will you scourse with him? You are in S., you may fit yourself with a fine easy-going street-nag for your saddle." In B. & F. Prize i. 4, Rowland says, "When I credit women more, may I to S., and there buy a jade, and know him to be so, that breaks my neck!" Burton, A. M. iii. 5, 4, 2, quotes a proverb: "He that buys a horse is S. and hires a servant in Pauls, shall likely have a jade to his horsy knave for his man." Lupton, in London Carbonadoed (1632), says, "He that fights upon a horse in this place [Smithfield] from an old horse-courser, sound both in wind and limb, may light of an honest wife in the stews." In Curates Conference (1641), Needham says, "Juniors and dunces take possession of Colleges; and scholarships and fellowships are bought and sold, as horses in S." In Massinger's Madam i. 2, Plenty says, "The wool of my sheep, or a score or two of fat oxen in S., give me money for my expenses." The presence of the drovers brought it about that there were many taverns in S. In B. & F. Wit S. W. iv. 1, Ruinous makes "the Goat at S. Pens "the rendezvous for his companions in vice.

Bartholomew Fair. In Jonson's Barthol., Ind., the Stage-keeper, pretending to decry the play, says, "When't comes to the Fair once, you were e'en as good go to Virginia, for any thing there is of S. He has not hit the humours, he does not know them." In his Volpone v. 2, the Merchant says of Sir Politick's performance: "'Twere a rare motion [i.e. puppet-show] to be seen in Fleet-st., or S. in the fair." In Davenant's Plymouth iii. 1, Seawit says, "My father fought pitched battles in S. without blood." Boxing and wrestling were features of the Fair. In Abington ii. 4, Coomes says, "I had a sword, ay, the flower of S. for a sword, a right fox, i' faith." Swords were sold at the Pair; and there were many armourers' shops in the neighbourhood of S. In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Thorowgood, in his schemes for improving Lond., says, "S. shall be A Romish cirque or Grecian hippodrome."

Executions. In H6 B. ii. 3, 7, the K. says, "The witch in S. shall be burned to ashes And you 3 shall be strangled on the gallows." The witch was Margery Jourdemain of Eye. The gallows was erected at the Elms between the horse-pond and Turnmill Brook, and was the usual place of execution before the removal of the gallows to Tyburn in the reign of Henry IV. In Jonson's Barthol. iv. 1, Cokes says, "Bartholomew Fair, quoth he!an ever any Bartholomew had that luck in't that I have had, I'll be martyred for him, and in S., too." Perhaps an allusion to the Protestants martyred at S. in Queen Mary's time. In Brome's Sparagus i. 5, Friswood says, "Let me see the paper; I would be loth to shorten his days with the danger of my neck, or making a bon-fire in S." In Fair Women ii. 1531, Tom says, "S. is full of people, and the sheriffs man told us it [the execution] would be to-day." In the pamphlet of this murder we are told that the execution took place in S., and that the spectators thronged the housetops and even the battlements of St. Bartholomews.

Trials by Combat were held in S. The fist between Homer and Peter in H6 B. ii. 3, is a parody of an actual appeal to combat which was fought in S. between John David and his ma ter, William Catur, is 1446. In Treasure, Haz. iii. 266, Lust, after wrestling with just, says, "I shall meet you in S. or else otherwhere; By His flesh and blood I will not then forbear." In Jonson's Barthol., Ind., the Bookholder exhorts the audience "not to look back to the sword and buckler age of S., but content himself with the present." Nash, is Christ's Tears, says, "No S. ruffianly swash-buckler will come off with such harsh, hell-raking oaths as they."

(Map K3)

A wooden barrier on the North of S., Lond., which marked the boundary between the City Liberties and the County of Middlesex. The rune survived tiff the building of the new Meat Market which covered the site. Taylor, in Works ii. 102, calls a certain woman "the honestest woman that dwells between S. B. and Clerkenwell." This is a left-handed compliment, as the dist. was one of evil repute. In Greene's Thieves, Kate says, "I'll so set his name out, that the boys at S. B. shall chalk him on the back for a crosbite."


The lanes occupied by houses of ill-fame in Lond. The best known was a lane on the W. of Spitalfields leading from Bell Lane to Artillery St. near Bishopsgate Without, close to Petticoat Lane, now Middlesex St. In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Iniquity says to Pug, "We will make forth our sallies Down Petticoat Lane and up the Smock-alleys."


Probably a nick-name for a Lane of ill-repute in Lond.; I cannot identify it further. In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] i. 5, Worm says, "Did I not see thee once in a quarrel at ninepins behind Sodom-Lane disarmed with one of the pins? "

(Map E5)

A palace in Lond. on the South side of the Strand between Strand Lane and Wellington St. The 1st S. H. was built by the Protector S. in the reign of Edward VI in 1549. It occupied the sites of the old ch. of St. Mary-at-Strand and the Inns of the Bps. of Chester and Worcester, which were palled down to make room for it. James I gave it to his Q. in 1616, and in her honour it was renamed Denmark H. A chapel was built by Inigo Jones for Q. Henrietta Maria in 1632. All these buildings were pulled down in 1775 and replaced by the present S. H., with its fine façade towards the Thames. It is used partly as Government offices, partly for the work of King's College. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 3z6, the Swordbearer says, "The Q. comes along the Strand from S. H." Daniel's Hymen's Triumph was performed here in 16l4 in honour of the wedding of Lord Roxborough. See also DENMARK HOUSE.

(Map N5)

A st. in Lond, now called Queen St., running South from Cheapside to Southwark Bdge., a little E. of the Ch. of St. Mary-le-Bow. It was so cared from the soapmakers, or soapers, who dwelt there. The name was altered to Queen St. in 1667 in honour of the wife of Charles II. In Middleton's Triumph Truth we are told: "At Soper-lane end a Senate-house [was] erected "as a part of the scenery of the pageant.

(Map Q8)

A borough, formerly independent of the Lond. city government, but now under the jurisdiction of the Lord Mayor and Council. It lies on the South side of the Thames between Lambeth and Deptford. It was known, in contrast to the City of Lond., as the Borough; and its principal st., running from the foot of Lond. Bdge. to Newington Causeway, is still called the Borough High St. It is in the county of Surrey. The parish ch. of St. Saviour's, formerly St. Mary Overy, still stands as it was in Elizabethan times; to the W. of it was Winchester House; and further still to the W. was the Bankside, with the Stews or Bordello, where most of the Elizabethan theatres were erected, including the Globe, the Rose, the Swan, and the bear-baiting ring at Paris Garden. The highway from Lond. to the South was the Old Kent Road and the Borough High St.; and in this last were many famous hostelries such as the Tabard, whence Chaucer's Pilgrims started for Canterbury, the White Hart, which was Jack Cade's headquarters, the George, the Bell, and the Bear at the Bridgefoot. Here too were the prisons of King's Bench, the Marshalsea, the White Lion, the Borough Compter, and the Clink. The S. Fair (also called the Lady Fair and St. Margaret's Fair) was reckoned, with Bartholomew Fair and Sturbridge Fair, as one of the 3 most frequented in the kingdom. It was held between the Tabard and St. George's Ch. on Sept. 7th, 8th, and 9th.

In H6 B. iv. 4, 27, a messenger brings word: "The rebels are in S.," i.e. Jack Cade's followers; and in iv. 8, 20, Cade says, "Hath my sword therefore broke through Lond. gates that you should leave me at the White Hart in S.?" In Straw ii. a messenger reports: "They [the rebels] have spoiled all S., broke up the Marshalsea and the King's Bench." In Oldcastle iii. 4, the scene of which is Blackheath, Sir John warns the disguised K.: "Thou mayst hap be met with again [by Highwaymen] before thou come to S." Blackheath was a notorious resort of these gentry. Chaucer, C. T. A. 20, tells how he lay "in Southwerk at the Tabard," where he met the pilgrims; and in A. 718, he speaks of "this gentil hostelrye That highte the Tabard faste by the Belle in Southwerk." In A. 3140, the Miller blames "the ale of Southwerk "for his drunken plight. Nash, in Pierce D. 3, says, "Chaucer's host, Baly in S., shall be talked of whilst there ever be a bad house in S." In Piers C. vii. 83, we are told of a "souter of Southwerk "who appears to have been a dealer in sorcery and magic cures. In Goosecap i. 1, Jack compares Bullaker, the French page, to "the great baboon that was to be seen in S."–probably at the Fair. In B. & F. Pestle Ind., the Citizen says, "Let's have the waits of S.; they are as rare fellows as any are in England; and that will fetch them all oer the water with a vengeance."

In Feversham v. 1, Shakebag proposes to take shelter after the murder of Arden with "a bonnie northern lass, the widow Chambley," who dwells "in S." In Greene's Friar vii., Ralph says, "I will make a ship that shall hold all your colleges and so carry away the niniversity [sic] with a fair wind to the Bankside in S." In Marmion's Companion iii. 4, Capt. Whibble says, "There's a good plump wench, my hostess, a waterman's widow, at the sign of the Red Lattice in S., shall bid thee welcome." In Cobler of Canterbury, the cobbler says, "When S. Bankside hath no pretty wenches Then the cobler of Rumney shall a cuckold be.," Nash, in Pierce F. 4, says, "Make a privy search in S. and tell me how many she-inmates you find." In News from Hell, the Cardinal speaks of "all the whores and thieves that live in Westminster, Covent Garden, Holborn, Grub Street, Clerkenwell, Rosemary Lane, Turnbull-street, Ratcliff, S. Bankside, and Kent-st." When Harman (Caveat ii.) lost his copper cauldron he tells how he "gave warning in Sothwarke, Kent St., and Barmesey st. to all the tinkers there dwelling."





(Map Q2)
(area only; site unmarked)

The fields belonging to the Spittle of S. Mary (see SPITTLE). About 1650 they began to be built over, and in 1685, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, were occupied by French refugees (Huguenots), who were engaged in silk-weaving. It is now a densely populated and poor dist., extending from Bishopsgate to Bethnal Green. There were silk-weavers there as early as 1620, as the first quotation shows. In Middleton's Tennis, the scholar speaks of "Job, a venerable silk-weaver, Jehu, a throwster [i.e. a twister of silk fibres] dwelling i' the S." In Armin's Moreclacke D. 1, Tutch says, "The winter nights be short And brickhill beds Does hide our heads As spittell fields report." The clay from the fields was made into bricks, and the warm kilns were used for sleeping-places by tramps. In Day's B. Beggar i., lady Elinor says, "Walk before me into Spittle-felds."

SPITTLE, or, later, SPITAL

(Sl. = Spital). An aphetic form of hospital. It is used generically for any place for the reception of the sick; but it came to mean a lazar-house for the poorest classes, and specially for those afflicted with various forms of venereal disease. To found such institutions was considered a worthy form of philanthropy. In Nobody 304, the Servant says that Nobody "gives to orphans and for widows builds Almshouses, Ss, and large Hospitals." Burton, A. M. iii. 1, 3, 1, says, "Put up a supplication to him in the name of . . . an hospital, a s., a prison." Chapman, in Hum. Day sc. 7, speaks of iron and steel as "good s.-founders, enemies to whole skins." In Massinger's Dowry iii. 1, Romont says, "I will rather choose a s. sinner, Carted an age before, though 3 parts rotten." Nash, in Summers G. 2, says, "It is the S.-houses' guise Over the gate to write their founders' names." In Tim. iv. 3, 39, Timon speaks of the wappened widow "whom the s.-house Would cast the gorge at." In H5 v. 1, 86, Pistol laments: "My Nell is dead i' the sl. of malady of France." In Dekker's Satiro iii. 1, 289, Tucca calls Mrs. Miniver "My Lady ath' Hospitall." Specifically it is used for the Hospital of St. Mary, or St. Mary's S., founded in Lond. by Walter Brune and his wife Rosia in 1197. It stood on the N. side of what is now Sl. Square. It was surrendered to the K. at the time of the dissolution of the Monasteries, and then had beds for 180 sick people. The buildings were destroyed, but the churchyard, which occupied Sl. Sq., remained, and the pulpit cross at its N.E. corner, from which the annual S. sermons were preached on Good Friday, and Easter Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday. The Lord Mayor and Corporation attended in their robes, and the boys from Christ's Hospital were always brought there. The Cross was destroyed in the Civil Wars, but the sermon was continued, first at St. Bridget's, Fleet St., and then at Christ Ch., Newgate St. The dist. in the neighbourhood of the hospital was called the S, and the name survives in Spitalfields. It had a bad reputation as a haunt of thieves and loose women. In Eastward v. 5, Quicksilver sings, "So shall you thrive by little and little, Scape Tyburn, Compters, and the S." In Davenport's New Trick i. 2, Slightall, wanting a whore, bids Roger go "Search all the Allyes, S., or Turnball." Nash, in Pierce, says, "I commend our unclean sisters in Shoreditch, the S., Southwark, Westminster, and Turnbull St. to the protection of your [the devil's] portership." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 1, Knowell says of his son's letter, which is dated from the Windmill, "From the Bordello it might come as well, The S., or Picthatch."

References to the S. sermons are numerous. Skelton, in Colin Clout 1186, says, "At Saynt Mary Spyttel They set not by us a whistle." In More i. 1, Lincolne says, "You know the S. sermons begin the next week; I have drawn a bill of our wrongs and the strangers' insolencies"; and George adds: "Which he mesas the preachers there shall openly publish in the pulpit." In i. 3, Cholmeley says, "This follows on the doctor's publishing The bill of wrongs in public at the S." Jonson, in Underwoods lx., tells of a poet that "commended the French hood and scarlet gown The Lady Mayoress passed in through the town Unto the S. sermon." In his Magnetic i. 1, Polish says of Placentia: "She would dispute with the Doctors of Divinity at her own table, and the S. preachers." In Cartwright's Ordinary i. 1, Slicer, anticipating civic honours, says, "I shall sleep one day in my chain and scarlet at St.-sermon." Armin, in Ninnies, says, "On Easter Sunday the ancient custom is that all the children of the hospital [i.e. Christ's Hospital] go before my Lord Mayor to the S. that the world may witness the works of God and man in maintenance of so many poor people." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 270, John says, "Once in a year a man might find you quartered between the Mouth at Bishopsgate and the preaching place in the S." In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 1, Frisco says, "Your French spirit is up so far already that you brought me this way because you would find a charm for it at the Blue Boar in the S."


The sign of a bookseller's shop in St. Paul's Churchyard, Lond. The 2nd quarto of Troil. was "Imprinted by G. Eld for R. Bonian and H. Walley, and are to be sold at the spred Eagle in Paules Churchyard over against the great N. door. 1609." B. & F. Shepherdess was "Printed at Lond. for R. Bonian and H. Walley, and are to be sold at the spred Eagle over against the great N. door of S. Paules." Middleton's Five Gallants was "Imprinted at Lond. for Richd. Bonian, dwelling at the sign of the Spred-Eagle right over against the great N. door of St. Paules ch."


A garden in Lond, laid out abt. A.D. 1600 between Sts James's Park and Whitehall. It was so called from a spring which wan set going by the pressure of the foot of the passer-by on a hidden board, and sprinkled plentifully all who were in its neighbourhood. There is a metal tree in the grounds of Chatsworth House which plays a similar trick. In 1629 a bowling green was added to the attractions of the garden, which became a fashionable resort for the ladies and gentlemen of the early Stuart times. After the Restoration the ground was built over, but still retained its old name. The offices of the Admiralty and the London County Council are there. In B. & F. Triumph Death i., Sophocles says, "Sophocles would . . . Like a s.-g., shoot his scornful blood Into their eyes, durst come to tread on him." In Alimony iv. 2, Caveare says, "It might be styled the S. G. for variety of all delights." In Shirley's Hyde Park ii. 4, Mrs. Carol bargains: "I'll not be Bound from S.-g. and the 'Sparagus." In his Ball iv. 3, Winfield says to the ladies, "I do allow you Hyde Park and S. G." In Brome's M. Beggars ii. 1, Vincent proposes: "Shall we make a fling to Lond. and see how the spring appears there in the S. G.?" In Mayne's Match i. 4, Newcut says that Aurelia has been thrice is the field to answer challenges of wit "in S. G." in Davenant's Wits i. 2, the elder Palatine says, "So live that towers shall call their monies in, remove their bank to Ordinaries, S.-g, and Hyde Park." In Killigrew's Parson iii. 2, Careless says, "Let's go walk in S.-g." John Milton lodged for a time in 1649 "at one Thomson's, next door to the Bull Head Tavern at Charing Cross, opening into the S. G."


Probably the Three Squirrels is meant, a tavern in Southwark, the exact location of which is uncertain (see THREE SQUIRRELS). In Brome's Moor iv. 2, Quicksands says he knows his wife's haunts "At Bridgefoot Bear, the Tunnes, the Cats, the Squirels."


A hill 4 m. N. of Lond., between Stoke-Newington and Tottenham, on the North Road. It commands a fine view of Lond. Here James I was met by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen on his first public entry into Lond. in May 1603.


A water-conduit in Cheapside, E. of the Cross, opposite the end of Milk St. It was in the form of a pillar with a dome-shaped top; statues adorned its sides, and a figure of Fame, blowing a trumpet, stood on the summit. It was repaired, or rather re-erected, about 1620. It was often used as a place of execution (see also under CHEAPSIDE). In Contention i., Haz., p. 502, Cade says of Lord Saye: "Go take him to the S. in Cheapside and chop off his head." In More iii. 1, a Messenger brings orders that a gibbet "be erected in Cheapside hard by the S." In Middleton's Michaelmas ii. 1, Shortyard says, "Sometimes I carry my water all Lond. over, only to deliver it proudly at the S." In his No Wit ii. 1, Weatherwise says, "At S. she sold fish, where [her husband] drew water." In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Iniquity says, "I will fetch thee a leap From the top of Paul's steeple to the S. in Cheap." In Phillip's Grissil 34, Politick Persuasion tells how, when he was saved from destruction 2s he fell from the sky, "The Cross in Chepe for joy did play on a bagpipe, and the S. did dance." In Middleton's Quiet Life i. 1, Water-Camlet says there is nothing new in Cheapside "but the S.";, and in his Aries he tells how his Lordship "was gracefully conducted toward the new S."


A part of Lambeth, W. of Westminster Bdge., where St. Thomas's Hospital now stands. It was on the old Roman Rd. from Lond. to the Sussex coast, and was infested by highwaymen. It lay just opposite to the Palace of Westminster. The st. at the back of the Hospital still retains the name. Howes, in his Annales, tells of the masquers from the Inner Temple at the marriage of the Princess Elizabeth in 1613 that "they had 3 peals of ordnance in 3 several spaces upon the shore, viz. when they embarked, as they passed by the Temple, and at Strangate when they arrived at Court"; where Strangate is an obvious misprint for S. Stubbes, in Anat. Abuses, p. 53, speaks of men who "will either sell or mortgage their lands "and then try to recover their fortunes "on Suters Hill and S. hole, with loss of their lives at Tyburne in a rope." Latimer, in his 3rd Sermon to Edward VI, says, "Had they a standing at Shooter's Hill or at Stangat Hole to take a purse?" Hall, Sat. vi. 1, 67, says that the traveller hopes "The vale of Standgate or the Sitters Hill, Or W. plain are free from feared ill."

(Map G4)

An old Inn of Chancery in Lond., connected with Gray's Inn, on the South side of Holborn, opposite the end of Gray's Inn Road. In 1884 it was sold to the Prudential Assurance Society, which has restored its fine timbered font, one of the best remaining examples of the former street architecture of Lond. Milkmaids was "printed by Bernard Alsop for Lawrence Chapman, and are to be sold at his shop in Holborne over against Staple Inne, hard by the Barres. 1620."

STAR [1]

A Lond. tavern sign. There was a S. in Bread St. with an entrance from Cheapside; and another in Coleman St. where Cromwell and the Puritans met in 1648 to arrange for the trial of the K. In T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, Valerius, in his list of taverns, sings, "The shepherd to the S." He is thinking of the shepherds and the S. of Bethlehem. In his F. M. Exch. ii. p. 22, Flower says, "He entreats me to meet him at the Starre in Cheapside." In More ii. 1, Harry says that he broke Garret's usher's head "when he played his scholar's prize at the Starre in Bread St." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iv. 1, Matthew, when his authorship of his verses is questioned, says, "Ask Capt. Bobadill; he saw me write them at the S. yonder." In the quarto of 1601, it is "at the Mitre," q.v.

STAR [2]

A Lond. booksellers' sign. Chaunticleers was "printed for Simon Miller at the Star in St. Paul's churchyard. 1659." The Hog hath lost was printed" for Richd. Redmer at the W. door of St. Paul's at the sign of the Star. 1614."


The ancient Council Chamber of the Royal Palace of Westminster; it stood parallel with the river on the E. side of New Palace Yard. It was probably so cared from the golden stars which decorated the ceiling. It was rebuilt by Elizabeth, and over the door was a rose on a star, the initials E.R., and the date 1602. It was puffed down in 1836, and the oak-panelling and chimney-piece were bought by Sir Edward Cust and taken to decorate his dining hall at Leasowe Castle in Cheshire. It is chiefly memorable for the fact that it was used by the King's Council, sitting as a Court of justice; and the Court itself was consequently called the Court of the S. C. It was first established in the reign of Edward III, and sat in the Chambre do Estoiles. In Henry VIs reign we find it spoken of as the King's Council "in camera stellata." It was reorganized by the Act of 3 Henry VII, and revived in 31 Henry VIII. Its constitution and jurisdiction were vague; but as it proceeded without any attention to the usual methods of the Common Law and could inflict any penalty short of death it became a monstrous instrument of tyranny under the first 2 Stuart kings, and was abolished by Parliament in 1641.

Skelton, in Why Conte ye not to Court 185, says of Wolsey: "In the C. of Stars All matters there he mars." In M.W.W. i. 1, 2, Shallow threatens "Sir Hugh, persuade me not; I will make a S.-c. matter of it." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 1, Carlo advises Sogliardo, "Now you are a gentleman, never discourse under a nobleman; though you saw him but riding to the S.-c. it's all one." In Wise Men vi. 2, Antonio says, "I fear the S.-c. because she hath witness [of his swindling]." In Brome's Moor i. 2, Nathanel asks about Quicksands, the money-lender: "Is he then hoisted into the S.-c. for his notorious practices? "In Jonson's Magnetic iii. 4, Compass speaks of "one that hath lost his ears by a just sentence of the S.-c., a right valiant knave, and has an histrionical contempt of what a man fears most." The reference is to William Prynne, who was sentenced by the S. C. to lose both his ears, pay a heavy fine, and suffer imprisonment for life for the publication in 1632 of his Histrio-mastrix; he endured the cutting off of his ears with remarkable fortitude. In his Epig. liv. 2, he says, "Cheveril cries out my verses libels are, And threatens the S. C." Shirley, in C. Maid v. 1, says, "You have conspired to rob, cheat, and undo me; I'll have you all s.-chambered." Dekker, in Bellman, speaks of the S.-c. as a haunt of foists and pickpockets. The term is generalized to mean any Court of Justice, especially the Last Judgment. In Day's Parl. Bees xii. prol., we have "Oberon in his S.-C. sits." In Ed. III ii. 2, the Countess says, "When to the great Starre-c. o'er our heads The universal session calls to count This packing evil, we both shall tremble for it." In Tourneur's Atheist's T. v. 1, D'Amville says, "I'll prove thee forger of false assurances; In yon S. C. thou shalt answer it." It is also used for the open air under the starry sky. In Webster's A. and Virginia i. 4, 7, Virginius says, "This 3 months did we never house our heads But in yon great s.-c."


Formerly a very extensive parish in the E. end of Lond., including Stratford, Whitechapel, Shadwell, Mile End, Poplar, Spitalfields, Ratcliff, Limehouse, and Bethnall Green. It was thus practically coextensive with the E. End of Lond., N. of the Thames. The parish ch. was St. Dunstan's, built in the 14th cent. There is a popular tradition that all persons born in English ships at sea belong to this parish; as the old rhyme says, "He who sails on the wide sea Is a parishioner of S." In Look about xxv., Lady Fauconbridge says, "At S. by the summer house There is a tavern which I sometimes use; It is the Hind." In ii., Gloucester says to Richd.: "You'll think of him [Fauconbridge] if you can step Into his bower at S." In Day's B. Beggar i., Playnseys says, "Sir Robert Westford lies at S." Dekker, in Wonderful Year, tells a ghost story about the sexton of S. Possibly the raisin wine called Stepony took its name from S. Blount, in Glossogr. §.v., defines Stipone as "a kind of sweet compound liquor, drunk in some places of Lond. in the summer time."


Generically for any house of ill-fame, but used specifically for the collection of such houses on the Bankside in Southwark, known also as the Bordello. Fuller, Church Hist. v. 16, 39, says that the name was derived from certain stews, or fishponds, which were once there, and that there were 16 houses "distinguished by several signs." Attempts to regulate these infamous places were made from time to time; and in 1545 they were suppressed by statute; but it was soon evaded and became a dead letter. Fuller, in Holy State v. 1, says, "Some conceive that when K. Henry VIII destroyed the publics. in this land, which till his time stood on the Bank's Side in Southwark, next the BearGarden, he rather scattered than quenched the fire." In S. Rowley's When You A. 3, Wolsey asks: "Are those proclamations sent For ordering those brothels called the Stewes? "In World Child 180, Folly says, "Over Lond. Bdge. I ran And the straight way to the S. I came." In R2 v. 3, 16, young Prince Hat is reported as saying "he would unto the S. And from the common'st creature pluck a glove And wear it as a favour." In H4 B. i. 2, 60, Falstaff, having got a horse in Smithfield and a servant in Paul's Walk, says, "An I could get me but a wife in the S, I were manned, horsed, and wived." Langland, in Piers A. vii. 65, speaks of "Jacke the jogelour and Jonete of the stuyues." In Towneley M. P. xxx. 350, the author apostrophises: "Ye Janettys of the stewys and lychoures on lofte." Skelton, in Magnificence 1226, says, "Some of them runneth straight to the stuse." See also BANKSIDE, BORDELLO, SOUTHWARK, WINCHESTER HOUSE.

(Map O6)

A hall in Lond. where the merchants of the Hanseatic League had their headquarters. They obtained a settlement in Lond. in 1250, and later were granted certain privileges by the City on condition of their keeping Bishopsgate in repair, and helping to defend it when necessary. The feeling against aliens, however, led to attacks upon them in the reign of Henry VIII, and their monopoly was taken away by Edward VI. In 1597 they were expelled from the country; and the Hall then became a favourite resort for the drinking of Rhenish wines. Neats' tongues and other provocatives of thirst could be obtained there. The S. stood in Upper Thames St. on a site now covered by Cannon St. Station. It was a stone building with 3 arches towards the st. In the Hall were Holbein's paintings of Riches and Poverty.

In S. Rowley's When You D. 2, the Constable reports: "There are 2 strangers, merchants of the S., Cruelly slain." In Underwit iii. 3, Engine says, "Oh, the neats' tongues and partargoes that I have eaten at S.!" In iv. 1, there is a song with these lines: "The S.'s Rhenish wine and Divell's white, Who doth not in them sometimes take delight?" In Barnes' Charter iii. 5, Bagnioli says, "They transported from Lambechia land [i.e. Lambeth] Fall anchor at the S. tavern." In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says to Judith, "Meet him this afternoon at the Rhenish wine house i' th' S." In v. 2, Birdlime wants to speak "with the gentlewomen that drunk with your Worship at the Dutch house of meeting," i.e. the S., where ii. 3 takes place. In Shirley's Ball iv. 2, Rainbow says that Bostock "curses tapsters For failing you at Fish-st, or the S." In his Pleasure v. 1, Bornwell says, "By that time we shall whirl in coaches To the Dutch magazine of sauce, the S., Where deal and backrag and what strange wines else They dare but give a name to in the reckoning Shall flow into our room . . . and drown Westphalias, tongues, and anchovies." In Ford's Queers iii. 1770, Pynto says, "The good man was made drunk at the S. at a beaver of Dutch bread and rhenish wine." Nabbes, in Bride ii. 6, says, "Who would let a cit breathe upon her varnish for the promise of a dry neat's tongue and a pottle of Rhenish at the S.?" Nash, in Pierce F. 1, says, "Men when they are idle and know not what to do, saith one 'Let us go to the S. and drink Rhenish wine." In Brome's Moor iv. 2, Quicksands says he saw his wife "at the S. With such a gallant, sousing their dried tongues In Rhenish, Deal, and Backrag." Deloney, in Newberie ii., says, "Rennish wine at this wedding was as plentiful as beer or ale; for the merchants had sent thither 10 tunnes of the best in the S."

(Map O5)

A fish and flesh mkt. in Lond., on the site of the present Mansion House, between Walbrook and St. Swithin Lane. It was established in 1282, and Stow, in his Survey 178, says that it took its name from a pair of S. which formerly stood there. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt as a fruit market. In 1737 it was removed to Farringdon St., where it was known as Fleet Mkt. Sir Philip Sidney, in Remedy for Love, says of the fragrance emitted by Philoclea and Pamela: "No such-like smell you, if you range To th' S. or Cornhill's square Exchange." Dekker, in Bellman, mentions it as a haunt of pickpockets. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 282, Tawniecoat says, "'Tis in this lane; I turned on the right hand, coming from the S." Later in the play Hobson says, "I am old Hobson, a haberdasher, and dwelling by the S."

(Map C5/D4/E5–G5)

A st. in Lond., running W. from the Griffin which marks the site of Temple Bar to Charing Cross. As the name implies, it was close to the strand or shore of the Thames, and was the means of communication between Lond. and Westminster. In Chancery Rolls (1246) it is mentioned as "Vicus qui vocatur le Stronde." Properly it only extended from Essex St. to Charing Cross, the part between Essex St. and Temple Bar being called Temple Bar Without. It was first paved in 1532, as it had become very dangerous and "fun of pits and sloughs." Its condition was not unproved by the brooks which ran across it at frequent intervals, draining the fields to the N.; some of them were broad enough to require bridging, 2 of the best-known bdges. being Strand Bdge. at the end of Strand Lane, and Ivy Bdge. by Ivy Lane. Immediately W. of Temple Bar was Butchers' Row, named from the butchers' stalls which occupied its Southern side, facing into the S. Next came the ch. of St. Clement Danes, and W. of it again Holywell St. A little further on, opposite Somerset House, was the Maypole, which occupied the site of the old S. Cross. The Ch. of St. Mary-le-S. was built at this point in 1714, to take the place of the old Ch. of the Nativity of our Lady and the Innocents pulled down by Protector Somerset to make room for his palace, Somerset House. The South side of the S. was at first occupied chiefly by the town houses of some of the Bps., whose sacred character made them safer from attack, and who therefore ventured to live outside the walls of the city. As times became more secure, these sites were taken over by various noblemen. Starting from Temple Bar, there were on ibe South side of the S., in order, Essex House, Arundel House, Somerset House, which was built on the sites of the houses of the, Bps. of Chester, Llandaff, and Worcester, the Savoy Palace-used during our period as a hospital and almshouse–with a school and chapel attached; Worcester House, formerly the residence of the Bps. of Carlisle; Salisbury House, built by Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury; Durham House, the Inn of the Bp of Durham, taken possession of by Henry VIII and occupied for a time first by the Princess Elizabeth, and then by Sir Walter Raleigh; on the site of its stables, fronting the S., James I built his New Exchange, or Britain's Burse; the site of the palace itself is now occupied by the Adelphi. Next came York House, of which the handsome water-gate still remains on the Thames Embankment; it was successively in the possession of the Bps. of Norwich, Brandon, D. of Suffolk, Heath, Archbp. of York, from whom it got its name, and George Villiers, D. of Buckingham. Last came Northumberland House, the palace of the Percys, which survived till 1874. On the N. side, in the time of Elizabeth, were mainly open fields; though Wimbledon House, built by Sir Edward Cecil, was erected about the close of the 16th cent, to the W. of Catherine St.; and next to it was Burleigh, or Cecil, House, on the site of which the Exeter Change was built in the reign of William and Mary. During the reign of James I the S. came to be the fashionable residential quarter of Lond., the West End of those days. The N. side was gradually taken up by houses, and shops were also established, chiefly to supply the needs of the fashionable folk of the neighbourhood. There were, however, shops between Temple Bar and St. Clement Danes before this, especially in Butcher's Row, which appears to date from the reign of Edward I. Sylvester, in his translation of Du Bartas' Divine Weeks and Works (1590) iii. 2, 2, says, "Here to the Thames-ward, all along the S., The stately houses of the nobles stand."

In H8 v. 4, 55, the porter's man says, "[The woman] cried out Clubs, when I might see from far some 40 truncheoners draw to her succour, which were the hope of the S., where she was quartered." These would be prentices from the shops near Temple Bar. In B. & F. Pestle iv. 5, the citizen's wife suggests that Ralph shall "dance the Morris for the credit of the S." Accordingly Ralph appears dressed as a may-lord and says, "By the common counsel of my fellows in the S. With gilded staff and crossed scarf the Maylord here I stand." Pasquil's Palinodia (1619) says, "Within the spacious passage of the S. Objected to our sight a summer-broach Ycleaped a Maypole." In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Iniquity suggests to Pug, "If thou hadst rather to the S. down to fail 'Gainst the lawyers come dabbled from Westminster Hall." In Underwit iii. 3, Courtwell talks of "marching with the puisnes to Westminster In our torn gowns embroidered with S. dirt, To hear the law." In Jonson's Epicoene i. 1, Clermont says of the fop La-Foole: "He has a lodging in the S. for the purpose of inviting his guests aloud out of his window, as they ride by in coaches." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque i. 1, Sir Lionel Rash says, "To-morrow I remove into the S. There for this quarter dwell." In Middleton's Chaste Maid v. 1, Mrs. Allwit says, "Let's let out lodgings then And take a house in the S." In Shirley's Pleasure i. 2, Celestina says, "I live i' the S., whither few ladies come, To live and purchase more than fame. I will Be hospitable then, and spare no cost . . . I'll have My house the Academy of Wits . . . my balcony Shall be the courtier's idol." In Underwit i. 1, Device says, "There's a ball to-night in the S." In Brome's Ct. Biggar i. 1, Charissa upbraids Mendicant for giving up the delights of a country life "for a lodging is the S." In his Northern ii. 5, Pate says, "I will acquaint thee with an old ladies' usher in the S. that shall give thee thy gait, thy postures, and thy language." In his Sparagus iv. 10, Sam says that Mrs. Brittleware has gone "down towards the S. in a new litter with the number one-and-twenty in the breech of it." In Nabbes' Totenham ii. 3, Mrs. Stichall says, "By my S.-honesty, I'll to Totenham Court after my husband." In Middleton's Hubburd, p. 77, the young gallant is advised that "his lodging must be about the S. in any case, being remote from the handicraft of the City."

In Mayne's Match i. 4, Plotwell says to the a young Templars," In these colours you set out the S. and adorn Fleet-st." In Marston's Malcontent Ind., Sinklow says of his feather: "I have worn it up and down the S. and met [the herald] 40 times, and yet he dares not to challenge ft." In Stucley 364, we are introduced to "Blunt of the S., the buckler-maker." In Jonson's Epicoene iv. 1, Otter says of his wife: "Both her eye-brows [were made] in the S." In Dekker's Northward v. 1, Bellamont says, "There is a new trade come up for cast gentlewomen, of periwig-making; let your wife set up in the S." In Glapthorne's Wit iv. 1, Valentine says, "'Tis a peruke; I saw it at the Frenchman's in the S." In his Gamester v. 1, Hazard says of a frail lady: "Let her make the best on't; set up shop i' the S. or Westminster." In W. Rowley's Match-Mid. i. 3, Bloodhound sends his boy to a tallow-chandler's "in the S." to recover a debt; probably he lived in Butchers' Row.

(Map F5)
(area only; site unmarked)

A bdge. that crossed the brook running from St. Clements Well across the S. and down S. Lane, Lond. The landing-place at the foot of the lane was also called S.-bdge.; this is the bdge. intended in the quotation. In Shirley's Pleasure iv. 2, Lady Bornwell says, "You may take water at S.-bdge."


One of the Southern suburbs of Lond., formerly a vill. on the Brighton Rd., South of Wandsworth Common, abt. 6 m. in a direct line from St. Paul's. Nash, in Summers i. 1, speaks of "the finest set of morris-dancers that is between this and Streatham."


(Sb. = Suburb). The districts immediately outside the walls of a city; especially those in the outskirts of Lond. As the city-gates were closed during the night, the s. were left very much to themselves; and the state of things that prevailed can be readily imagined. Hence the word is almost always used by the dramatists in a bad sense, and implies a dist. where loose living is the rule. Chettle, in Kind Hart's Dream (1592), says, "The s. of the city are in many places no other but dark dens for adulterers, thieves, murderers, and every mischief-worker." In Meas. i. 2, 98, Pompey tells of an edict that "all houses in the s. of Vienna must be puffed down"; where houses of ill-fame are meant In ii. 1, 65, Elbow says of Pompey: "He is one that serves a bad woman, whose house, Sir, was, as they say, plucked down in the s." In H8 v. 4, 76, the Lord Chamberlain says to the Porter, "There's a trim rabble let in; are all these your faithful friends of the s.?" In J. C. ii. 1, 285, Portia asks Brutus: "Dwell I but in the s. of your good pleasure? If it be no more, Portia is Brutus' harlot, not his wife." Nash' in Christ's Tears (1593) ii. 148, asks: "Lond., what are thy s. but licensed Stews?" In Nobody i., we are told: "Here's queans maintained in every sb. street." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 3, Knowell says of Stephen: "If I can but hold him up to his height, It will do well for a sb.-humour." In B. & F. Friends ii. 1, Philadelphia says, "To yield At first encounter may befit the state of some suburban strumpet." In Middleton's R. G. ii. 1, Goshawk says, "He keeps a whore in the s." In Sharpham's Fleire ii. 29, Fleire says, "They scorn to have a Suburbian bawd lend 'em a taffaty gown." In B. & F. Wild Goose ii. 3, Rosalura says to Mirabel, "It seems ye are hot; the s. will supply ye." In their Thomas ii. 2, Dorothea advises Thomas, "Get a new mistress, Some sb. saint, that 6d. and some oaths Will draw to parley." In their Cure ii. 1, Pachieco says, "I have found a thief or a whore there, when the whole s. could not furnish me." In their Prize iv. 5, Pedro speaks of "one of those that multiply i' th' s. for single money." In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says, "The s. and those without the Bars have more privilege than they within the freedom." In Webster's Cuckold ii. 3, Compass says, "Blackwall . . . can't hold out always, no more than Limehouse or Shadwell or the strongest s. about Lond." In Strode's Float. Isl. v. 11, Prudentius says, "Melancolico and Concupiscence Shall keep their state; i' th' s. or New-England." Dekker, in Lanthorn, says, "These Sb. sinners have no lands to live upon but their legs." W. Rowley, in Search 37, says, "We should return back to the suburbian bordello." Massinger, in Madam iii. 1, talks of "swaggering suburbian roarers." In Randolph's Muses, iv. 2, Anaiskyntia boasts that she has had "good practice in the S.," where they are very subject to "the French disease."


A meadow lying somewhere South-E. of Bethnall Green, between the Whitechapel Rd. and Limehouse. In Day's B. Beggar iv., young Strowd says, "I'll but cross o'er the Summer lay by the Broomfield." See BROOMFIELD.

SUN [1]

A Lond. tavern sign. Taylor, in Works i. 125, says, "I have fared better at three Suns, in Aldersgate St., Cripplegate, and New Fish St." In Middleton's No Wit ii. 1, Pickadill says, "Your sun-cup! Some cup, I warrant, that he stole out of the Sun-tavem." Herrick, in Ode to Jonson, speaks of "those lyric feasts Made at the Sun, the Dog, the Triple Tun." In Wit Woman 1636, Braggardo orders: "Go you to the Sunne and fetch me a gallon of Ipocras." In B. & F. Custom iii. 3, Jaques says that the Dane "lies at the sign of the Sun to be new-breeched." This was at Lisbon. Brereton, Marginalia on B. do F., plausibly suggests Tun, in allusion to the tubs used in treating his malady.

SUN [2]

A bookseller's sign in Lond. An early edition of Colin Clout was "imprinted at Lond. in Paules churche yard at the sign of the Sunne by Anthony Kytson." Lodge's Wounds of Civil War was "Printed by John Danter and are to be sold at the sign of the Sunne in Paul's Churchyard. 1594." The 2nd Quarto of Pericles was "Imprinted at Lond. for Henry Gosson and are to be sold at the sign of the Sunne in Paternoster Row. 1609."


(see BARBER SURGEONS HALL). It was not until 1745 that the Surgeons separated from the Barbers and got a Hall of their own, first in Stationers Hall, then in the Old Bailey, and finally in Lincoln's Inn Fields.


A southern county of England, lying South of the Thames between Middlesex and Sussex. The part of Lond. to the South of the Thames is in S.; and as that side of the river was outside the jurisdiction of the Middlesex magistrates, who were strongly opposed to the Theatres, the actors migrated to the Bankside in Southwark and built there the Globe, the Rose, and the Swan. S. is a territorial title in the English Peerage. In R2 iv. 1, S. defends Aumerle against the charges of Fitzwater. This was Thomas s. Holland, 3rd Earl of Kent, created D. of S. in 1397. For his share in the plot against Henry IV he was degraded by Parliament in 1399, and beheaded at Cirencester in the following year. He is one of the characters in Trag. Richd. II. The Earl of S. mentioned in H4 B. iii. 1, was Thomas Fitzalan, son of Richard Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel and S., who was beheaded in 1397 and his title conferred on the Thomas Holland named above; but on Holland's death it was restored to the Fitzalans in the person of Thomas. He died in 1415.

In R3 v. 3, the Earl of S. appears as commanding a division for Richd. at the Battle of Bosworth. This was Thomas Howard, created Earl in 1483. He was taken prisoner at Bosworth and imprisoned in the Tower for 3J years. He then made his peace with Henry, and was restored to his Earldom in 1489. He appears in Ford's Warbeck as one of the K.'s supporters. He commanded the English forces at Flodden, and was in consequence restored to his father's title of D. of Norfolk in 1514. He thereupon surrendered the title of Earl of S. to his son, Thomas Howard, for the term of his own life. On his death, in 1524, Thomas became D. of Norfolk, and the courtesy title of Earl of S. passed to his son, Henry Howard, the poet. Henry was beheaded on Tower Hill in 1547, though his father Norfolk escaped through the death of the K. On the death of Norfolk in 1554, Henry's son and heir became D. of Norfolk and Earl of S.; he was attainted and beheaded in 1572 for conspiring against Elizabeth. The S. who appears in More i. 3 is the hero of Flodden. In Shakespeare's Henry VIII there is some confusion. The D. of Norfolk of i. 1 is, of course, Thomas of Flodden fame. In ii. 1, 43, we are told that the Earl of S. was sent to Ireland, and in haste, too, lest he should help his "father." This was Thomas, the son of the Flodden man, and son-in-law of Buckingham, who is the "father "spoken of. He himself says, in iii. 2, 253, "Thy ambition . . . robbed this bewailing land of noble Buckingham, my father-in-law . . . . You sent me deputy for Ireland Far from his succour." But this scene is supposed to take place in 1529, when Thomas Howard was D. 6f Norfolk. Shakespeare, however, introduces the D. of Norfolk in the same scene; so that it looks as if by S. he means Henry Howard, though this throws all his facts wrong; for it was Thomas who was son-in-law to Buckingham and Deputy for Ireland. At the coronation of Anne Boleyn in iv. 1, the D. of Norfolk acts as Earl Marshal, and the Earl of S. bears the Q.'s sceptre with the Dove. This was in 1533, and S. is the poet-peer.




Another name for the Charterhouse school, founded by Thomas Sutton in Lond. in 1609 (see CHARTER HOUSE). Dekker, in Rod for Runaways (1623), says, "He lay upon straw under Sutton's Hospital wall near the highway."

SWAN [1]

A booksellers' sign in London. Impatient Poverty was "imprinted at Lond. in Paul's churchyard at the sign of the S. by John King 1562." Nice Wanton has the same imprint in 1560. At the same sign and in the same year was printed The Proud Wives Paternoster. Harcourt's Voyage to Guiana was "printed by John Beale for W. Welby, and are to be sold at his shop in Paul's Churchyard at the sign of the S. 1613." T. Heywood's Dialogues was "printed by R.D. for R.H. and are to be sold by Thomas Stater at the S. in Duck Lane."

SWAN [2]

A London tavern sign. There were several S. taverns in Lond. The most important were: The S. iii Newgate; it stood on the N. side of Newgate near the Gate. In Hycke, p. 100, Frewyl says of Imaginacion: "He was lodged at Newgate at the swanne, And every man took him for a gentleman." Marmion's Leaguer was "printed at Lond. by L.B. for John Grove, dwelling in S. Yard within Newgate. 1632." The S. in Old Fish St. In the list of Taverns in News Barthol. Fair we find "Old Fish st. at the S." In Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, Leatherhead says that "Hero is come over into Fish-st. to eat some fresh herring; Leander says no more, but as fast as he can Gets on all his best clothes and will after to the S." The S. in Dowgate; it is mentioned as "a Tavern well known." This is probably the S. of Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 1, where Haas says, "Bringt Master Eyre tot det signe un Swannekin," i.e. Bring Master Eyre to the sign of the S. He was to meet a ship-captain there. The S. at Charing Cross. Aubrey, iii. 415, tells how Ben Jonson wrote a grace, ending: "God bless, me and God bless Raph." When the K. asked him who Raph was he "told him 'twas the drawer at the Swanne Tavern by Charing Cross."

There were other Swans: It is not possible to say which of them all is intended in the following passages: In Tom Tyler i. 2, Strife says, "The ale-wife of the S. is filling the can." In Nabbes' Bride i. 4, Rhenish says, "And Rhenish, the S. hath none better." Lyly, in Pappe with an Hatchett, p. 57, mentions: "My old hostess of the Swanne in Warwick."

(Map P6)

Commonly called the Old S.; a landing place on the N. bank of the Thames, just above Lond. Bdge. The name still remains in Old S. Pier. It was usual to disembark at the Old S. and walk round to Billingsgate, in order to avoid the peril of shooting the Bdge. Nash, in Prognostication, says, "Watermen that want fares shall sit and blow their fingers till their fellows row betwixt the Old S. and Westminster." Selimus was "printed by Thomas Creede dwelling in Thames St. at the sign of the Kathern Wheel near the old Swanne."

(Map J7)

A theatre in Lond., projected in 1594 and probably built in 1596. It stood in Paris Garden, q.v. It was used for plays till 1620, and was still standing, though in a ruinous condition, in 1632. Its main interest arises from the fact that it was visited in 1596 by a certain John de Witt. He made a sketch of its interior, which was discovered in the library of the University of Utrecht a few years ago. The S. on the flag identifies it. The drawing has been often reproduced, and has given rise to a voluminous discussion on the staging of Elizabethan plays, which is not yet over. De Witt says that it was built of flint stones, and held 3000 persons. In Middleton's R. G. v. 1, Moll says, "There's a knight lost his purse at the last new play in the S." Goodman, in Marmion's Leaguer (1632), speaks of the theatre as "now fallen to decay and, like a dying Swanne hanging down her head, seemed to sing her own dirge." Taylor, Works (1632), speaks of "poor old Vennor . . . who acted England's Joy first at the S." England's Joy was a play, probably by N. Breton, now lost [ed. note: England's Joy was the infamous "hoax show" of 1602 that was never acted. A plot survives by Richard Vennar. The only extant play certainly to be performed at the Swan was Thomas Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside of 1611–1613].

(Map O5)

A ch. in Lond. on the N. side of Cannon St. It is known to have existed as early as 1331. It was rebuilt by Sir John Hind about 1400. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt by Wren. Lond. Stone (q.v.) is built into the wall of the ch. In Middleton's Aries, one of the city fathers whose memory is honoured is "John Hinde, a re-edifier of the parish ch. of S. Swithin by Lond. Stone."