(Sh. = Sheba, Sn. = Sabaean): An ancient kingdom is South Arabia. Recent discoveries of inscriptions and coins have proved its antiquity and importance. It is called Sh. in the A.V. of the Bible, but Saba is the correct form. Gold, precious stones and spices were imported by the Hebrews from S. It is best known through the visit of its Q. to the court of Solomon, as recorded in I Kings x. 1–13. In Marlowe's Faustus xii., Faustus says, "When it is winter here with us, in the contrary circle it is summer with them, as in India, S., and farther countries in the E." In Chapman's Bussy v. 1, Bussy says, "Haste thee where the grey-eyed morn perfumes Her rosy chariot with Sn. spices." In Massinger's Lover i. 1, Matilda says, "I can accept from you One grain of incense with devotion offered Beyond all perfumes or Sn. spices." In his Great Duke ii. 3, Sanazarro speaks of "these smooth gales that glide O'er happy Araby or rich S., Creating in their passage gums and spices." In B. & F. Fair Maid I. i.1, Alberto says, "He came so perfumed as he had robbed S. or Arabia of their wealth And stored it in one suit." In their False One ii. 1, Caesar says, "Fling on your spices, Make a Sn. bed, and place this phoenix [the body of Pompey] Where the hot sun may emulate his virtues." Milton, P. L. iv. 162, speaks of "Sn. odours from the spicy shore of Araby the Blest." Rabelais, in Pantagruel iv. 54, says, "The best incense is produced in S." Massinger, in Bondman iv. 3, speaks of "Whole hecatombs or Sn. gums." The Q. of Sh. or S. is referred to in Marlowe's Faustus v., where Mephistopheles promises Faust that his wife shall be "as wise as S." In Clyomon H. 2, she is called "sage S." In H8 v. 5, 42, Cranmer predicts of the infant Princess Elizabeth "S. was never More covetous of wisdom and fair virtue Than this pure soul shall be." Lodge, in Answer to Gosson ad fin., prays for Q. Elizabeth: "God enlarge her wisdom that like S. she may seek after a Solomon"–a pretty broad hint to the Virgin Q.! Withers I Loved a Lass (1629) begins: "I loved a lass, a fair one, As fair as e'er was seen; She was indeed a rare one, Another Sh.'s Queen." In Cowley's Cutter [a.k.a. The Guardian] ii. 2, Puny addresses Aurelia as "My dear Q. of Sh."


The sign of a tavern in Gracechurch St., Lond., which was kept at one time by the comedian Tarlton. In Tarlton's Jests we are told "Tarlton dwelt in Gracious St. at the sign of the Saba, a tavern."


(the SAVUS, now the SAVE). A river rising in the Corinthian Alps and flowing E. along the borders of Bosnia and Serbia into the Danube. In Peele's Old Wives 885, Eumenides says to Delia, "For thy sweet sake I sailed up Danuby As far as Saba, whose enhancing streams Cut 'twixt the Tartars and the Russians." In Greene's Orlando i. 1, 66, Mandrecarde says, "I crossed up Danuby As high as Saba whose inhancing streams Cut 'twixt the Tartares and the Russians."




(Se.= Sabine). An ancient Italian tribe occupying the mountainous dist. N.E. of Latium. Their chief towns were as follows: According to legend, the original settlers on the Palatine at Rome were without women; and so they arranged to hold a festival to which the S. were invited. They then seized upon the Se. women and carried them off for their wives. A war followed, but the women rushed in between the contending armies, and a peace was made by which the S. were admitted to union with the Romans and were settled on the Quirinal.

Numa Pompilius, 2nd K. of Rome, was a Se. Later, we find them fighting against the Romans, by whom they were decisively defeated is 449 B.C, and again, after a long period of quiescence, in 290. From this time their national existence was at an end. In B. & F. Valentinian iii. 1, Lucina says, "The curses that I owe to enemies, Even those the S. sent, when Romulus (As thou hast me) ravished their noble maids, Made more and heavier, light on thee!" In Kyd's Cornelia iii., Cicero speaks of Rome as "This stately town, so often hazarded Against the Samnites, Sabins, and fierce Latins." The scene of B. & F. Friends is laid partly in the country of the S. in the time of Titus Martius (presumably Ancus Martins is intended), K. of Rome; and the action includes an imaginary war with the S. In iii. 1, Sir Pergamus boasts of having conquered "bold Arminius, The stoutest champion of the Sabinets."

The S. were supposed to be expert in magic arts. Hence, in Jonson's Poetaster iii. 1, 219, Horace says, "I now remember me, Sir, of a sad fate A cunning woman, one Sabella, sung, When in her urn she cast my destiny." This is a translation of Horace, Sat. i. 9, 29. The Se. flower, or Herba Sabina, was a kind of juniper. Spenser, in Virgil's Gnat 673, mentions amongst sweet flowers "the Se. flower." Rabelais, in Pantagruel iii. 50, mentions amongst plants that have their name from the place where they grow, "Se., from a territory of that appelation."




A town in Silesia, abt. 130 m. South-W. of Berlin, on the right bank of the Bober. In Glapthorne's Wallenstein ii. 3 Hungary speaks of "The general of your forces of Gloyawe, Mechlenburg, S., Friedland."


A Centaur who was fabled to have come to the help of the Trojans in the Trojan War. Shakespeare makes the S. the sign of the Tavern in Venice where Othello has his lodging. In Oth. i. 1, 159, Iago bids Brabantio "Lead to the S. the raised search." In i. 3, 115, Othello begs the Senators to "Send for the lady to the S."


A city of Hispanic Tarraconensis, on the E. coast near the mouth of the Pallantias, 90 m. South of the mouth of the Ebro. The modern town of Murviedro occupies its site. It was besieged and taken by Hannibal in 218 B.C., in spite of the fact that it was in alliance with Rome, arid this was the proximate cause of the 2nd Punic War. The sack of the city was marked by ruthless savagery. 8 years afterwards it was recovered by the Romans and constituted a Colonia. Jonson opens his Pindaric Ode on Corey and Morison: "Brave infant of S., clear Thy coming forth in that great year When the prodigious Hannibal did crown His rage with razing your immortal town." The story of this infant, who went back into his mother's womb in horror at the siege, is told in Pliny, Nat. Hist. vii. 3. In Nabbes' Hannibal i. 5, a messenger brings word: "Sagunt, Locris, Tarracon, all these are re-o'ercome by Scipio."


A tributary of the Elbe, flowing into it on its left bank, some 15 m. above Magdeburg. It is now called the Scale. In H5 i. 2, 45, the Archbp. of Canterbury describes the land Salique as lying "Between the floods of S. and of Elbe." In line 63, he says that "Charles the Gt. did seat the French Beyond the river S. in the year 805."


One of the most ancient and picturesque cities in Spain, on the Tormes, 172 m. N.W. of Madrid. The Plaza Mayor is one of the largest and finest squares in Europe. The glory of S. is its University, founded in 1200 by Alphonso IX, and for the next 400 years one of the chief seats of learning in Europe. In Lust's Domin. ii. 1, the K. says to Mendoza, "We here create you S.'s Duke." In Jonson's New Inn ii. 2, Tipto says to Fly, "I'll have thee a doctor, Thou shalt be one, thou hast a doctor's look, A face disputative of S." In Middleton's Gipsy i. 3, Roderigo says, "Speed me To S.;– court my studies now For physic 'gainst infection of the mind." In B. & F. Span. Cur. i. 1, Leandro says to Ascanio, "If you'll spend some years is S., I'll supply your studies with all conveniences." In Shirley's Brothers ii. 1, Fernando says, "Alberto was the flower of 's time at S." In Tuke's Five Hours ii. 1, Diego says, "After I had spent years at S., my father was utterly undone." In B.&F. Pilgrimage i. 2, Theodosia says, "I have a brother, student in S." In their Custom ii. 1, Donna Guiomar says that she has provided for her son "The choicest masters and of greatest name of S." In Lady Alimony iii. 1, a Citizen speaks of "losses which they had sustained through the hostile piracy of the S." apparently a ship named after the city.


(i.e. SALAMIS). An island in the Bay of Eleusis between Attica and Megaris. Telamon, the son of Aeacus, fled thither after the murder of his half-brother Phocus, and his son Ajax came thence to the Trojan War. The island came into the possession of Athens in the time of Solon. It was the scene of the defeat of the Persian fleet by the Greeks 480 B.C. It was one of the seven claimants to be the birthplace of Homer. It is now called Koluri. In T. Heywood's B. Age ii, Telamon says, "From populous S. I., Telamon, am come." Lodge, in Answer to Gosson, p. 11, asks: "Why seek the Smirnians to recover from the Salaminians the praise of Homer?"


The old name of Famagosta in Cyprus. See under MESSALINE.


An ancient seaport of Apulia, on the coast of the Adriatic, now separated from the sea by a large marshy lake, the Lago di Salpi. It is abt. 190 m. E. of Rome, and is now quite deserted. In the 2nd Punic War it revolted to Hannibal after the battle of Cannae, and remained in his possession till 210 B.C. In Nabbes' Hannibal i. 4, Hannibal is represented as falling in love with a lady "of Salapia."


(a shortened form of JERUSALEM, q.v.). In Jonson's Alchemist iv. 3, Doll, in her affectation of madness, says, "We call the Rabbins and the heathen Greeks to come from S. and from Athens and teach the people of Great Britain." Spenser, F. Q. iv. 1, 22, calls it "sacred S." Milton, in Ode on Passion 39, says, "My spirit some transporting cherub feels To bear me where the towers of S. stood."


(more properly SALIM). Mentioned in John iii. 23, as near to Aenon, where John the Baptist was exercising his ministry. Somewhere near the Jordan, its exact site has not been determined. Milton, in P. R. ii. 21, represents the disciples as seeking the Lord, just before His baptism, "in Jericho, The city of Palms, Aenon, and Salem old." It looks as if Milton confounded it with Jerusalem.


(Se. = Salerne). The old Salernum, a city an the W. coast of Italy, at the head of the Gulf of Salerno, 34 m. South-E. of Naples. From the 9th cent. A.D. it was in the hands of the Lombards, but .was taken from them by Robert Guiscard in the 11th cent. and made the capital of the Norman Kings of the Two Sicilia. In 1194 it was taken and sacked by the Emperor Henry VI, and the capital was transferred to Palermo. It was later annexed to the crown of Naples, and the heir-apparent was styled Prince of S. The Cathedral of St. Matthew was founded in 1076, and contains the bones of the Apostle. The University, founded in 1150, was one of the chief seats of learning in Italy, and its medical school was especially famous. The hero of Tancred and Gismonda, or Gismond of Salerne, is described as the K. of Naples and Prince of Se. In World Child 170, Manhood says, "Manhood mighty am I named in every country, for S. and Samers . . . have I conquered clean." The reference is to the taking of S. by Henry VI. In Barnes' Charter iv. 3, Lucretia says, "The Prince of Se. solemnly did swear These eyes were quivers."

A Latin poem composed with irregular internal rhymes was written in the 13th cent. by Johannes de Mediolano, with a prose commentary by Arnaldus de Villa Nova, under the title of Regimen Sanitatis Salerni (see below). Hence Salernian (or Salernitan) verse came to mean rhymed Latin verse. Dekker, in Hornbook c. ii., says to the gallant, "Care you not for those coarse painted cloth rhymes made by the University of Se., that come over you with Sit brevis, aut nullus, tibi somnus meridianus." In Laelia iii. 2, 160, Petrus says, "Variorum ciborum commixtio pessimam Causatur digestionem; in schola Salerna est In versu." In iv. 3, 42, he says "Non hoc meum, sed Scholae Salernae consilium est"; to which Stragalcius answers, "Schola Salerna mendax venifica est. Nemo sanior est quam egomet sum Qui plus edo ac bibo quam tres Scholae Salernae." Hall, in Satires iv. 4, 22, says, "Never have I St. rhymes professed, To be some lady's trencher-critic guest." Puttenham, Art of Poesie i. 7, says, "Some poets thought themselves no small fools when they could make their verses go all in rhyme, as did the School of Se." Burton, A. M. ii. 2, 6, 4, says, "This is one of the Salernitan doctors, Dr. Merriman, Dr. Diet, and Dr. Quiet." The reference is to a passage in the Regimen: "Si tibi deficiant medic, medici tibi fiant Haec trial mens laeta, requies, moderata diaeta."


The land inhabited by the Salian Franks. In H5 i. 2, 51, the Archbp. describes the land S. as lying 'twixt Elbe and Sala, and as being "at this time in Germany called Meisen." It is far more probable that the Salic Land was in Batavia; and the name, if derived from a river at all, is rather to be connected with the Yssel than the Saale; but most likely it has nothing to do with either.


The Sarisberic of Domesday Book. The official site of the city was at Old Sarum, 11/2 m. N. of the present city or New Sarum, which is the capital of Wilts., and lies at the junction of the Avon, Wiley, Bourne, and Nadder, 82 m. South-W. of Lond. Old Sarum dates back to British times; but the cathedral was transferred to New Sarum by Bp. Poore in 1218, and the town around it laid out by him. Old Sarum was soon entirely deserted, but it retained its representation in Parliament until 1832, though latterly it had not a single inhabitant: the most typical instance of a rotten borough. The Cathedral was founded in 1220 and dedicated in 1258; the famous spire, 404 ft. high, was added between 1335 and 1375. In Middleton's Queenborough iv. 3, Hengist is described as treacherously capturing Vortiger on "a plain near S." The incident took place at Stonehenge on S. Plain, q.v. In R3 iv. 4, 537, the K. cries, "Away towards S.!" and later, "Some one take order Buckingham be brought To S." In v. 1, the execution of Buckingham in an open place at S. is described. In H8 i. 2, 196, Buckingham is reported to have said, "I would have played The part my father meant to act upon The usurper Richd, who, being at S., Made suit to come in 's presence; which, if granted . . . he would have put his knife into him." In Ford's Warbeck iv. 4, the K. commands: "Set forward toward S."; and v. 2 is laid at S, where Warbeck, having been captured at Beaulieu, is brought before the K. In Hycke, p. 102, Frewyll tells how "At S. at Petty Judas we made royal cheer." Petty Judas was the Jewish quarter of the city. In Jonson's Epicoene ii. 1, Truewit warns Morose that his wife will be a states-woman, "know all the news, what was done at S., what at the Bath." Probably the reference is to the prominent position of Cecil, Earl of S, in the court of James I. In Brome's Ct. Beggar, iii. 1, Ferdinand asks: "What do you think of S. steeple for a fit hunting-spear to incounter with the whore of Babilion?" In Bale's Johan 1361, Wealth says of the Pope's Interdict: "The bp. of Salysbery and the bp. of Rochester Shall execute it in Scotland everywhere." But the Interdict did not extend to Scotland, and, anyhow, these bps. had no jurisdiction there. Lyly, in Pappe with an Hatchett, p. 56, says, "The tales shall be told secundum usum Sarum; the Dean of S. can tell twenty."

S. has been a territorial title in the English peerage since the reign of Henry I. The Earl of S. who appears in K.J. was William de Longespee, a natural son of Henry II, created Earl by Richd. I on the death of his father-in-law, William de Evreux, the 2nd Earl. At first he sided with the K. against the Barons, but later he joined them in their support of the Dauphin. In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 1, Lancaster says, "4 Earldoms have I beside Lancaster: Derby, S, Lincoln, Leicester." Henry de Lacy married Margaret, Countess of S., in 1257, and claimed the title in her right; and Thomas of Lancaster gained it by marrying their daughter and heiress, Alice. The Countess of S., whom Edward III woos in Acts i. and ii. of the play of that name, was the wife of William de Montacute, one of the founders of the Order of the Garter; indeed, the tradition is that the garter picked up by the K. was that of the Countess of S. The S., who in R2 supports the cause of the hapless K., was John de Montacute; he headed a revolt against Henry IV, and was beheaded by the rabble at Cirencester in 1400. In R2 v. 6, 8, Northumberland reports that he has sent to Lond. "the heads of Oxford, S, Blount, and Kent." In H5 iv. 3, the S., who takes part in the battle of Agincourt and is described by Bedford as being "as full of valour as of kindness; Princely in both," was Thomas de Montacute, son of the last-named Earl; his death at the siege of Orleans in 1428 is described in H6 A. i. 4. His title descended to Richd. Neville, who married his daughter and heiress Alice and was the father of Warwick the King-maker; he joined the Yorkists, as described in H6 B. v. 1, and commanded their forces at the 1st battle of St. Albans (H6 B. v. 3); he was taken prisoner by Margaret at the battle of Wakefield and beheaded in 1460. The title then descended to his son Richd., Earl of Warwick, who was killed at Barnet in 1471. George, D. of Clarence, married his daughter Isabel, and received the earldom in 1472. The infant son of Richd. III was made Earl in 1477, but died in 1484. Margaret, daughter of George of Clarence, was made Countess in 1513, but was attainted and beheaded in 1541. The earldom was revived in the person of Robert Cecil, created 1605: from him the present Marquess is descended. Philip Massinger was born at S. in 1584.


On the South side of Fleet St., Lond., W. of St. Bride's Ch. It included what is now called S. Sqre. It gets its name from S. House, the town residence of the Bps. of S. from the 13th cent. onward. S. Sqre. was the great court of the House, and S. C. ran right down to the river and included what is now Dorset St. In 1564 the whole estate passed to Sir Richd. Sackville, and his son, 1st Earl of Dorset, enlarged the house and called it Dorset House. In 1629 the then Earl of Dorset leased a piece of land, about where the S. Hotel now stands, to Gunell and Blagrave, who built there the S. C. Theatre. It was a private theatre, and took the place of the old Whitefriars Theatre; indeed, it is often called the Whitefriars in the plays. It was pulled down by a company of soldiers instigate by the Puritans in 1649, and was not rebuilt till 1660. The whole property, including Dorset House and the Theatre, was destroyed in the Gt. Fire. In Marmion's Leaguer, acted there in 1631, it is referred to as "the Muses' Colony, New planted in this soil." In Epistle Dedicatory to his Histrio-mastix (1633), Prynne says, "2 old play-houses, the Fortune and the Red Bull, have lately been re-edified and enlarged, and one new one (Whitefriars) erected"; this last being S. C. The scene of Randolph's Muses' is a theatre, probably S. C. In the records of Sir Henry Herbert, Master of the Revels, under date Feb. 16th, 1634, it is stated that Cromes, a broker of Long Lane, was committed to the Marshalsey "for lending a church-robe with the name of Jesus upon it to the players in S. C. to present a flamen, a priest of the heathens." In Epilogue to Brome's Antipodes, it is said: "The play was well acted at S. C." In Actors' Remonstrance (1643) the authors say, "It is not unknown to all the audiences that have frequented the private houses of Black-friars, the Cockpit, and S. C., without austerity we have purged our stages from all obscene and scurrilous jests." In Historia Histrionica (1699), it is mentioned amongst the theatres existing before the wars as "the private house in S. C."


A great plain in Wilts, N. of S., abt. 20 m. broad and 14 long. It is covered with a fine grass which makes it an excellent sheep-walk. In the centre of the P, 9 m. N. of S., is the remarkable Druidical circle called Stonehenge. According to one legend it was set up by Merlin as a monument to his mother Joan; and no one was able to count the stones correctly, through his magic. The P. was a notorious haunt of footpads and highwaymen. In Oldcastle iv. 3, when Cobham is arrested and about to be sent to Southampton to the K., his servant Harpool says, "O that thou and I were within 20 m. of it, on S. P.!" where they would be safe owing to its solitude and size. In Randolph's Muses' iii. 1, Banausus says, "I have a rare device to set Dutch windmills upon Newmarket Heath and S. P., to drain the fens"; Colax points out: "The fens, Sir, are not there"; and Banausus retorts: "But who knows but they may be?" In Treasure, Haz. iii. 267, Inclination says, "I can remember when Noe's ship was made and builded on S. P.; the same year the weather-cock of Pawls caught the pip." In Merlin i. Merlin says to his mother, "When you die, I will erect a monument Upon the verdant plains of S. No K. shall have so high a sepulchre, With pendulous stones that I will hang by art Where neither lime nor mortar shall be used, A dark enigma to the memory, For none shall have the power to number them." In Lear ii.2, 89, Kent says to Oswald, "Goose, if I had you upon Sarum P. I'd drive ye cackling home to Camelot." Apparently Shakespeare identified Camelot with Winchester (see under CAMELOT). Geese, as well as sheep, are plentifully pastured on S. P. The wearisome joke about the Winchester Goose is here insinuated.

In Cartwright's Ordinary iv. 2, Moth says, "So did the Saxon upon thylke plain of Sarum done to death by treachery The lords of merry England; nem esur saxes." For the story see under SAXON. Act iv. sc. 3 of Middleton's Queenborough is occupied with this incident, and is located at "A plain near S." In John Evangel. 362, Idle says of Sensuality: "I left him in the p. of S. He told me that he would lift Some good fellow from his thrift." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Sogliardo says of Shift: "He has been the only Bidstand that ever kept New-market, S.-p.," etc. In Fulwell's Like, Haz. iii. 326, Roister says, "Sometimes I pitch a field on S. P." Middleton, in Black Book, p. 20, says, "Some times they are clerks of Newmarket Heath, sometimes the sheriffs of S. P. They make many a man stand at Hockley-in-the-Hole." On p. 37 the Devil makes Gregory the Cut-pusse "keeper of Combe park, sergeant of S. P." Dekker, in Bellman, says, All travellers are so beaten to the trials of this law [i.e. the law of highway robbery] that if they have but rode over Shooters Hill or S. P. they are perfect in the principles of it." In Brome's Academy v. 2, Valentine, asked if he can read, says: "I had done ill to venture on S. P. else"; i.e. if he could not read his neck-verse, and so save himself from hanging. In Penn. Parl., section 58 runs: "Also soldiers, that have no means to thrive by plain dealing, we think it necessary that 4 times in the year they go a-fishing on S. P." Stubbes, in Anat. Abuses, p. 53, says that to get money for fine clothes young gallants "will either sell or mortgage their lands on Suters Hill and Stangate Hole and S. P. with loss of their lives at Tyburne in a rope." The scene of George Wilde's Converted Robber (1637) is laid on S. P.


A fountain springing from the foot of the N. hill of Halicarnassus, q.v. The water was supposed to have an enervating influence on those who drank of it, because its tutelary nymph was one who refused to join in the chase and spent her time in idleness. She fell in love with Hermaphroditus and embraced him as he was bathing in the pool, and the two were merged into one hermaphrodite person. In Apius 425, Apius says, "Oh Gods above, bend down to hear my cry, As once he did to S. in pond hard Lyzia by! Oh that Virginia were in case as sometime Salmasis!" In Peele's Arraignment i. 5, Oenone says, "S., resembling idleness, Turns men to women." Davenant's 's Salmacida Prol. says, "On the top of the right horn of the hill which surrounds Halicarnassus is a famous fountain of most clear water and exquisite taste, called S." In Marmion's Leaguer i. 4, Fidelio characterises a lady as being "As chaste as S. amidst the streams." The story is the subject of Francis Beaumont's poem Salmacis and Hermaphroditus.


(now SOLOMON ISLANDS). A large group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, stretching diagonally from the South point of New Ireland to the New Hebrides. They were discovered by the Spanish navigator Mendana in 1567, and named, from. prospective wealth, Islas de Salomon. Nash, in Larsen, p. 311, speaks of men doing a feat of arms "that from Salomons Islands to St. Magnus corner might cry clang again," i.e. from one end of the earth to the other.


A spt. in Cornwall at the N.W. corner of Plymouth Sound, 4 m. from Plymouth. Two of the ships in the fleet seen by Hycke, p. 88, going from England to Ireland were "the Star of Salte-Ashe with the Jhesus of Plumouth."


(also SALUCA, SALUCES, SALUTIA; i.e. SALUZZO). A city in Piedmont, 30 m. South of Turin, between the Po and the Vraita. It was the seat of a famous Marquessate which began with Manfred in 1142 and continued till the death of Gabriel, when it was seized by the French. Henri IV restored it to Charles Emmanuel of Savoy. One of the Marquises was the husband of Griselda, the heroine of Chaucer's Clerkes Tale; the castle in which she was confined is still to be seen in the lower part of the town, and is used as a penitentiary. In Dist. Emp. iv. 2, Richd. is described as "count of Poyteers, marquis of Saluca." This is in the time of Charlemagne, and is not historical. The scene of Chaucer's Clerkes Tale is "Saluces"; it is also the scene of Phillips' Grissill, where it is called "Salutia." In Chapman's Consp. Byron i. 1, the D. of Savoy swears "by my dearest marquissate of Salusses." He was the Charles Emmanuel mentioned above.


The sign of a tavern in Lond., which still remains at 17 Newgate St., on the South side of the st. The sign probably represented the meeting between Gabriel and the Virgin Mary. Its fuller title was "The S. and Cat." Possibly a figure of St. Catharine was introduced into the original sign-board. In Feversham iii. 4, Shakebag says, "Then, Michael, this shall be your penance, to feast us all at the S." In Milkmaids iii. 1, Smirke says, "I left him condoling with 2 or 3 of his friends at the sign of the Lamentation," and Frederick corrects him: "The S. thou meanst." In Look about xx., Block says, "One of the drawers of the S. told me that he had took up a chamber there." In News Barthol. Fair mention is made of a S. at Billingsgate.




A fortified town on the South bank of the Danube at its junction with the Jessava, 24 m. South-E. of Belgrade. It was often taken and retaken by the Turks and Hungarians during the 15th cent. In Selimus 506, Baiazet says, "We give to him all great Semendria Bordering on Bulgrade of Hungaria."


An ancient city in central Asia, abt. 500 M. South-E. of the Sea of Aral, and 145 m. E. of Bokhara. It was destroyed by Alexander the Gt., but afterwards rebuilt. In A.D. 711 it was taken by the Arabs, and soon became one of the leading centres of Mohammedan learning. In 1219 it was pillaged by Jenghiz Khan, but Timur (Tamburlaine), who was born at Kesh, or Shahr-i-Sabz, 50 m. south of Samarkand, made it his capital and restored its former splendours. His palaces and tomb are still to be seen there. It is now in the possession of Russia, having been annexed to that Empire in 1868. The walls form a circuit of 8 miles but only a small part of the city is inhabited. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. iv. 2, Tamburlaine apostrophizes it: "O S., where I breathed first And joyed the fire of this martial flesh, Blush, blush, fair city, at thy honour's foil." In Milton, P.L. ii. 389, Adam sees in vision "Samarchand by Oxus, Temir's throne." Temir is Timour; S. is 200 m. N. of the Oxus. Hall, in Quo Vadis, p. 37, mentions as a sample of travellers' tales "The Samarcandian lamb, which groweth out of the earth by the navel."


now SEBASTIYEH (Sn. = Samaritan). A city in Palestine, abt. 32 m. N. of Jerusalem. It was made the capital of the Northern Kingdom (Israel) by Omri, and remained so till it was taken and destroyed by Sargon of Assyria in 721 B.C. The inhabitants were transported to Mesopotamia, and their place taken by settlers brought from various parts of the Assyrian Empire. These newcomers partially adopted the Jewish religion, but were not acknowledged by the Judaeans as true members of the Chosen People. After the return of the Jews from the Captivity in Babylon in 538 hostilities broke out between them and the Sns., and the latter seceded from the Jews and built a temple of their own, on Mt. Gerizim. The bitter feeling lasted all through the rest of the history of the Jews, and in our Lord's time "there were no dealings between the Jews and the Sns." One of the best-known incidents of the Gospel story is the conversation between our Lord and the woman of S. recorded in John iv.; and the parable of the Good Sn. (Luke x. 33) has given to the word the meaning of a benevolent person. The Sn. sect, with its temple and its own version of the Pentateuch, has continued up to the present day.

In Bale's Promises vi., Esaias says, "The K. of Judah in Jerusalem did dwell And in S. the K. of Israel." In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass i. 1, Rasni, K. of Nineveh, says, "I beat proud Jeroboam from his holds, Winning from Cades [i.e. Kedesh-Naphtali] to S." This is not true, as no attack was made by Assyria on Israel during the reign of Jeroboam II. In v. 1, 1901, Jonas says to Ninivie, "Thine eldest sister is Ladama, And Sodome on the right hand seated is." Mr. J. C. Smith conjectures for Ladama "S." and compares Ezekiel xxiii. 33, where the prophet threatens Judah "with the cup of thy sister S." Deighton, with more probability, suggests "Et Adama," i.e. Admah, one of the cities of the Plain associated with Sodom and Gomorrha in their overthrow (see Gen. xiv. 8, and Deuteronomy xxix. 23). In Chaucer, C. T. D. 16, the wife of Bath says, "Beside a welle Jhesus, God and man, Spak in repreeve of the Sn." In York M.P. xlvi. 290, James declares his intention of preaching to the "Samaritanus." Milton, P. R. iii. 359, supposes our Lord "possessed of David's throne By free consent of all, none opposite, Sn. or Jew." In his Animadvers. 21, he characterizes the Anglican Liturgy as "Sn. trumpery."


Occurs in a list of countries mentioned by Manhood in World Child 170: "Manhood mighty am I named in every country, For Salerno and Samers and Andaluse Have I conquered clean." Possibly it is meant for Samos, q.v., which was ravaged in 1453 by Mohammed II and finally added to the Turkish empire in 1550.


A powerful tribe inhabiting the dist. of central Italy to the E. of Latium and W. of, Apulia. 3 wars with the S. are recorded in the history of Rome, in 343, 326, and 298 B.C. respectively. Subsequently the S. supported Pyrrhus against Rome, but in 272 they were finally subdued. They revolted in the Social War of 90 B.C., but without success. In Kyd's Cornelia iii, Cicero speaks of Rome as "This stately town so often hazarded Against the S., Sabins, and fierce Latins." In Pembroke's Antonie iv. 1456, Caesar asks, "What rebel Samnite . . . hath wrought such woe to Rome" as Antony? The S, like the Sabines, were supposed to have special skill in magic arts. In Lelia iii. 3, 51, Virginius says of his daughter: "Veneficae utinam Samniae enecandam dedissem!"


A Mongolian people living on the coast of the Arctic Ocean in N.E. Russia, E. of the White Sea. Purchas, in Pilgrims (1614) 432, says, "The Samoits, or Samoyeds, are clad from head to foot in deers-skins." Milton, P. L. x. 696, speaks of winds blowing "from the north of Norumbega, and the Samoed shore."


(Sn. = Samian). An island in the AEgean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor between Ephesus and Miletus, separated by a narrow channel from the promontory of Mycale. It was an Ionian colony, and came to the zenith of its glory under the rule of the tyrant Polycrates in the 6th cent. B.C. From his death in 522 to the battle of Mycale in 480 it was under the power of the Persians; it then became a member of the Athenian Confederacy. After many vicissitudes it was added to the Roman Province of Asia 129 B.C. It was sacked by the Arabs in the 8th cent., but was recovered by the Emperor Leo in the 13th. After being successively held by the Venetians and the Genoese, it was finally added to the Ottoman Empire in 1550. The island is full of game, and produces good wine. Its pottery was famous in antiquity. The temple of Hera (Juno) was one of the finest in the Greek world, though only a single column of it now remains. S. was the birth-place of Pythagoras, and, according to one tradition, of AEsop.

In Treasure, Haz. iii. 272, Lust says, "I remember AEsop's advice which he gave to the Samies against K. Croesus." In Nabbes' Hannibal i. 1, Maharball says, "Here are we feasted With more than Sn. gluttony." The allusion is to the luxury of the court of Polycrates. Montaigne (Florio's Trans. 1603), ii. 12, tells of the "humour of Polycrates, the tyrant of S., who, to interrupt the course of his continual happiness . . . cast the richest and most precious jewel he had into the sea." In Gascoigne's Government ii. 1, Gnomaticus says, "History accuseth Apollonius for neglecting of his charge in S." Hall, in Sat. vi. 1, says, "Do thou disdain . . . The tongue-tied silence of the Sn. sage." i.e. Pythagorass, who prescribed silent meditation to his disciples. Milton, P. L. v. 26.5, compares Satan approaching the earth to a pilot who "from amidst the Cyclades Delos or S. first appearing kens." S. is not one of the Cyclades; but Milton may mean that the pilot is approaching from the Cyclades. In Nash's Summers, p. 100, Christmas says, "I must rig ship to S. for peacocks." In Nabbes' Microcosmus iii., Sensuality promises Physander, amongst other dainties, "Sn. peacocks." The Sn. peacocks gained their celebrity from their association with the worship of Hera, or Juno, to whom they were sacred.


A large island in the N. of the AEgean Sea, opposite the mouth of the Hebrus. Its highest peak rises to 5240 ft. and is a conspicuous object. The Cabiric Mysteries originated in S. In T. Heywood's B. Age iii, Hercules says, "Have we in the Argoe pierced S, The Chersoneson Sea, the Hellespont?" In Iron Age A. ii, Achilles says that Hector has conquered "Pannonia, Illyria, and S."


An imaginary place in the imaginary kingdom of Francelia. In Suckling's Goblins v., Piramont speaks of the time "when Sanborn's fatal field was fought."


(probably SAMSOON is meant). A port on the Black Sea in Asia Minor, 166 m. West of Trebizond. It carries on a considerable trade with Constantinople. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. ii. 1, the K. of Trebizond announces that he has brought troops from "Riso, S. and the bordering towns That touch the end of famous Euphrates."


A hill in Italy, near the coast, and close to the mouth of the Arno. In Day's Law Tricks i. 1, Polymetis says, "In S. M, neighbour to Sardinia, where silver Arno courts the fresh banks, my sister met at the temple"–and was carried off by Turkish pirates.


The precincts of a ch. or royal palace within which criminals, except those guilty of sacrilege or treason, and debtors were immune from arrest. The right was abolished for criminal cases in 1625, and for civil cases in 1722. The name was specially applied to the precincts on the N. and W. sides of Westminster Abbey. They included the Great, or Broad, and the Little Sanctuaries. The space on which St. Margaret's Ch. and the Westminster Hospital now stand is still called Broad S. Here Elizabeth, Q. of Edward IV, took refuge in 1471 and gave birth to Edward V. Later she and her sons again sought s. there from Richd. of Gloucester. In H6 C. iv. 4, 31, Elizabeth says, "I'll hence forthwith unto the S. To save at least the heir of Edward's right." This was in 1471. In True Tragedy, Haz., p. 81, the little D. of York cries to the Messenger: "What art thou that with ghastly looks presseth into S. to affright our mother Q.?" In R3 ii. 4, the Q. says, "Come, come, my boy, we will to S." In iii. 1, 44, Buckingham urges Gloucester to drag the boys out: "Oft have I heard of s.-men, But s.-children ne'er till now." Deloney, in Reading ix., tells of a Fleming "who took s. at Westminster." In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, Mrs. Tattle professes to have all the news "of Tuttle st., and both the Alm'ries, the two Sanctuaries." Other sanctuaries in London were as follows: qq.v. In the list of taverns in News Barthol. Fair one is called "St.-Martins in the Sentree": it was built on the site of the old St. Martin's-le-Grand.


A vill. in Yorks., on the Calder, 2 m. South-E. of Wakefield. The Castle was built by John, Earl of Warren; it was assigned as a residence to Baliol by Edward III in 1333. Later it became the property of Richd. of York. It was dismantled by the Parliament in 1646, and little is left of it save a few scattered stones. In H6 C. i. 2, 63, York says, "Sir John and Sir Hugh Mortimer, mine uncles, You are come to S. in a happy hour." The scene is laid in S. Castle. In True Trag., p. 17, York says, "Myself here in Sandall castell will provide both men and monie."


A town in Kent near the E. coast, 12 m. due E. of Canterbury, and opposite the Goodwin Sands. It was one of the Cinque Ports, and had a large trade until the port got silted up about the beginning of the 16th cent. It gave its name to a kind of cord, and an adventure of John Montague, the 4th Earl of S., who sat gambling for 24 hours with no food save some slices of beef between pieces of bread, caused the name of sandwich to be given to that form of refreshment.

In W. Rowley's Shoemaker v. 1, 51, Barnaby brings word: The enemy is landed at S., set ashore at Dover, and arrived at Rumny Marsh." In Three Ladies ii, Simony says that Friar Austin "landed about Rye, S., or Dover." His actual landing place appears to have been the island of Thanet, a few m. N. of S. Later is the same Act, Lucre mentions S. amongst other towns where, in consequence of their great trade, she has infinite numbers that "great rents upon little room do bestow." Drayton, in Barons' Wars iii. 46, tells of ships waiting "at S." to bring the Q. to France. In Apius, Haz. iv. 129, Haphazard says, "Conscience, sailing by Sandwitche, he sunk for his sin": i.e. in the Goodwin Sands. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. i. 1, Smoke says, "I hope Smoke the smith of Chepstead is as good a man as Chub the chandler of S." Both are among the rebels. In Glapthorne's Wit v. 1, a watchman gives the rest news which "came up in a carrotboat from S." In Webster's Cuckold v. 1, Lessenham says that since Richfield defeated the Spanish ships off Margate "Dover and S. and Margate and all the coast is full of you."


A monastery at Venice. In Jonson's Volpone v. 8, Voltore is sentenced to be confined is "the monastery of San Spirito."


(probably SAWSTON is meant). A vill. 6 m. South of Cambridge. It possesses a church partly of Norman date, and a fine manor house dating from 1557. In Mankind 23, New Guise says, "First I shall begin at Master Huntington of Sanston; from thence I shall go to William Murley of Hanston, and so forth to Pilchard of Trumpington." See under HANSTON.


A misprint for Sauromats, the latter being another form of Sarmatians. See SARMATIA. In T. Heywood's Dialogues iii. 1821, Earth speaks of inquiring news "from the remote estates of (the oft-shifting place) the Sanzonats." In the note, however, the word is printed Sauromats, and they are defined as the inhabitants of Russia and Tartaria.


(Ss.= Saracens). The derivation of the word is unknown, but it was applied by the Romans to the tribes of Syria and Arabia; then it comes to mean an Arab, and is specifically applied to the Mohammedans of Palestine, against whom the Crusaders fought. Then it stands for any enemy of the Christian faith. The dark, moustachioed faces of the Ss. were regarded as peculiarly ugly, and they were supposed to be utterly barbarous and cruel. In R2 iv. 1, 95, Carlisle says, "Many a time hath banished Norfolk fought Against black pagans, Turks, and Ss." In Peele's Ed. I. i. 1, Edward says, "Welcome, sweet Nell, Whose eyes have seen the slaughtered Ss. Piled in the ditches of Jerusalem." In Fulwell's Like, Haz. iii. 336, Virtuous Living says, "O gracious God, how highly art thou of all men to be praised, of Christians, Ss., Jews, and also Turks." In B. & F. Pestle iii. 2, Ralph exhorts Tapstero: "Spill the blood of treacherous Ss." In Shirley's Imposture v. 1, when Hortensio speaks of Pandolfo's having killed 6 great Turks, he corrects him, "It was but 5, Sir, and a S." In Bale's Johan 1297, the K. says that the Pope had bound his predecessor, Henry II, "3 year after to maintain battle free Against the Sarazens which vexed the Spaniards sore." As a matter of fact, the Pope excused Henry from going on a crusade if he should be fighting against the Moors in Spain. In Jonson's Prince Henry's Barriers, Merlin describes how "Coeur de Lion like a storm Pours on the Ss." In Spenser's F. Q. i. 2, 12, the knight fights with "A faithless Sarazin, all armed to point."

In Nash's Wilton E. 1, Jack speaks of "one that has a sulphurous, big, swollen face like a S." One of the characters in Davenant's Britannia has "a S.'s face with great, black moustachoes." In Cockayne's Obstinate i. 1, Jaques says, "I fear he is some S.: he looks so dismal." In W. Rowley's All's Lost ii. 2, 22, Dionysia says, "Do you think a Sarazin's head or a blackamoor's face can affright me?" In Field's Weathercock i. 2, Abraham asks, "What is yon gentleman? He looks so like a S. that, as I am a Christian, I cannot endure him." Hall, in Sat. vi. 1, 13, describes a man with a face "like a painted, staring S." In Ret. Pernass. iv. 2, Furor addresses the Recorder as "Thou slimy-sprighted, unkind S." In Middleton's Mad World ii. 4, Sir Bounteous says, "If I be not ashamed to look my lord in the face, I am a S." Nash, in Saffron Walden O. 2, says, "He was thus saracenly sentencing it against me," i.e. savagely. In Shirley's Riches i., Clod says, "You march [on Lord Mayor's day] to the Guildhall, where you look on the giants and feed like Ss. till you have no stomach to Paul's in the afternoon."


A popular tavern sign. There was a "Sarezon Hed" at Nottingham in 1510. There was one in Lond. outside Aldgate; but the most famous, thanks largely to Dickens, was the one on the N. side of Snow Hill without Newgate. In 1522 it is recorded to have had 30 beds and stabling for 40 horses. In Dekker's Satiro i. 2, 362, Tucca says to Horace (Jonson), "Dost stare, my Sarsens H. at Newgate? Dost gloat?" In Deloney's Craft ii. 6, "Harry . . . smeared Tom Drum's face with his blood that he made him look like . . . the Sarazines H. without Newgate." In Tarlton's Jests we read of a man's fat red face: "it fits like the S. H. without Newgate." In Dekker's Shoemaker's v. 1, Eyre says to his wife, "Lady Madgy, thou hadst never covered thy S. H. with this French flap but for my fine journeyman's portuguese." The Inn was pulled down when the Holborn Viaduct was built, but the sign remains at the corner of Cock Lane and Snow Hill. There was also a S. H. at Islington, where is laid the scene of Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsdon (1641).


Probably a mistake for Samara, the old name of the river Somme, in N. France, flowing past Amiens, the old Samarobriva, into the English Channel. Caesar met the States of Gaul at Samarobriva in 54 B.C. In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, Caesar, boasting of his exploits, says: "Arar and proud Saramna speaks my praise."




(Sn. = Sardinian). A large island in the Mediterranean between Italy and Spain, South of Corsica. The Carthaginians held it from 512 to 238 B.C., when it was taken by the Romans. After the fall of the Western Empire it was successively occupied by the Vandals and the Goths, but in A.D. 665 it asserted its independence and for the next 4 cents. was governed by its own kings. In 1050 the Pisans came to rescue it from the attacks of the Saracens, and held it till 1325, when the Pope gave it to the K. of Aragon, and it remained a Spanish Province till 1713. By the treaty of Utrecht it was handed over to Austria, who conferred it in 1720 On the D. of Savoy with the title of K. of Sardinia. It is now part of the united kingdom of Italy.

In Ant. ii. 6, 39, Pompey says to Caesar, "You have made me offer of Sicily, S." This was in 41 B.C., when Octavian sought to make an arrangement with Sextus Pompeius under which the latter was to have control of Sicily, S., and Corsica. In Davenant's Platonic v. 7, Theander says, "The arms I won at Capua are thine, and those Sn. horse I chose for our last war." In Ford's Trial iii. 4, Benatzi says, "I was born at sea as my mother was in passage from Cape Ludugory to Cape Cagliari, toward Africa, in S." In Day's Law Tricks i. 1, Polymetis speaks of "Sancta Monte, neighbour to S." This hill was, as the context shows, on the coast of Italy, near the mouth of the Arno; therefore over against S. The eating of a certain herb (Herba Sardonia) which grows in S. was said to produce a sort of facial convulsion resembling a grin, which was usually followed by death. Hence the phrase "Sardonian, or Sardonic, laughter," meaning bitter, scornful laughter without any merriment in it. In Spenser F. Q. v. 9, 12, the monster Guyle "gan . . . with Sardonian smile Laughing on her, his false intent to shade." Chapman, in Odyss. xx. 457, speaks of "A laughter . . . most Sardonian, With scorn and wrath mixed." Greene, in Menaphon (1589) 62, asks: "Have you fatted me so long with Sardenian smiles, that . . . I might perish in your wiles?" The fish called a Sardine possibly derived its name from its being caught around S. In Boorde Intro. of Knowledge (1547) xxviii. 195, the Spaniard says, "I was born in Aragon . . . Masyl bacon and sardyns I do eat and sell." In B. & F. Cure ii. 1, Lazarillo begs for "a pilcher, Signor, a surdiny, an olive." In their Pilgrimage i. 1, Incubo says that Theodosia looks ready to eat "a fine piece of kid now and fresh garlic With a sardina and Zant oil."


The sea between Sicily and Sardinia. E. D., in Trans. of Theocritus (1588) xvi., says, "Out of our island [Sicily] drive our enemies . . . Along the Sardine Sea."


The capital of the kingdom of Lydia, lying at the N. base of Mt. Tmolus, on the Pactolus, abt. 100 m. from the coast of Asia Minor. It attained its greatest splendour in the time of Croesus, became then part of the Persian Empire, was conquered by Alexander the Gt., and after his death fell to the Seleucid kings of Syria. It revolted from Antiochus the Gt., but was taken by him after a long siege. After the battle of Magnesia it became part of the Roman Empire, and so remained till the coming of the Seljuk Turks in the 14th cent. It was taken and destroyed by Timor in 1402, and since then has been entirely deserted. The site is marked by an insignificant vill. called Sart. In Massinger's Believe v. 1, Cornelia, referring to Antiochus the Gt., says to Marcellus, "You had the honour in his court at S. To be styled his friend." Brutus and Cassius met at S. immediately before their defeat and deaths at Philippi. In J. C. iv. 2, the scene is a camp near S.; and Lucilius reports of Cassius and his troops: "They mean this night in S. to be quartered." They arrive, and the next scene takes place there. In iv. 3, 3, Cassius upbraids Brutus for condemning Lucius Pella "For taking bribes here of the Sardians." In v. 1, 80, Cassius says, "Coming from S., on our former ensign 2 mighty eagles fell." In v. 5, 18, Brutus says, "The ghost of Caesar hath appeared to me two several times by night; at S. once, And this last night here in Philippi fields." The scene of Cartwright's Slave is laid at S. S. gave its name to the sard, or sardius, stone, a kind of yellow cornelian. Lodge, in Wits Miserie 76, says, "The stone Sardius hindereth the properties" of wrath.




A term somewhat vaguely applied to a vast dist. stretching from the Vistula to the Volga, and from the Baltic to the Caspian. In Fisher's Fuimus iii. 2, Laberius boasts: "A Roman never daunted was with looks, Else had not Samertane and Lybian bugbears Been captive led in chains." In Glapthorne's Hollander iv. 1, Sir Martin speaks of "odours precious as the Sarmatick gums." Barnes, in Parthenophil Elegy xvii. 11, says, "Here am I, in perpetual bondage tied, Than if with savage Sauromates far worse." Milton, P. R. iv. 78, describes embassies coming to Rome from "Germans and Scythian, and Sarmatians N. Beyond Danubius to the Tauric pool," i.e. the Sea of Azov. T. Heywood, in Hierarchie ix., p. 574, says, "In John Milesius any man may reade of divels in S. honored, Call'd Kottri or Kibaldi."


Another form of Tyre, q.v. Milton, P. L. xi. 243, describes Michael as wearing "A military vest of purple . . . Livelier than Meliboean, or the grain of S." grain meaning dye.








(i.e. ADALIA, the ancient ATTALIA). A port on the South coast of Asia Minor in Pamphylia, at the mouth of the Cataphractes. In Coventry M. P. of Mary Magdalen 1438, the sailors sing, "Yonder is the land of S." Chaucer's Knight was "at Satalye" when it was won from the Turks by Pierre de Lusignan in 1352 (C. T. A. 53).




In T. Heywood's Prentices, p. 101, the Souldan describes his army as drawn "From S. eastward unto Nubia's bounds." I conjecture that Suakim, which in Heylyn is spelt Suachen, is meant. It is a seaport on the coast of Nubia, on the Red Sea. Eastward, if so, should rather be westward; for S. is on the E. coast of Nubia; but I imagine Heywood's geographical knowledge was somewhat vague.


An ancient Abbey of the Cluniac order in Bermondsey, which stood at the junction of Bermondsey St. and Abbey St., where is now the ch. of St. Mary Magdalen. It was built in 1082, and dissolved by Henry VIII. The Cross, or Rood, over the gate was found in the Thames in 1118, and had a great reputation for miracle-working. Pilgrims flocked to it, and, along with many other similar objects of popular reverence, it was taken down in 1558. It would seem, however, to have been restored to its place later, for it appears in a drawing of the Abbey made in 1679 and engraved by Wilkinson in Londinia Illustrata. In J. Heywood's Four PP. i. the Palmer tells how he has visited "Saynt Savyour's." John Paston, writing in 1465, begs Margery Paston "to visit the rood of Northedor and St. Savyour at Bermondsey while ye abide in Lond." Weever, p. 111, says, "The image of the Rood of St. Saviour at Bermondsey was brought up to Lond. and burnt at Chelsea, anno 30 Henry VIII." This was perhaps a wooden copy of the original cross.


(see MARY (SAINT) OVERIES). Taylor, the Water-poet, describes himself as "I John Taylor of St. Saviour's in Southwark."


A duchy lying N.W. of the Alps and originally stretching from Lake Geneva to the Mediterranean, and separated from France by the Rhône. Its Dukes were descended from Humbert the White, who died in 1048. They had from time to time considerable possessions in Piedmont, and though the old Duchy is now part of France the descendants of its Dukes are the Kings of United Italy. During our period the Dukes were Emmanuel Philibert (1553), Charles Emmanuel the Great (1580), and Victor Amadeus (1630). An entirely unhistorical D. of S. is one of the candidates for the Empire in W. Smith's Hector. In Chapman's Trag. Byron i. 1, Byron instructs La Fin to report to the K. that he was charged "to propound my marriage With the 3rd daughter of the D. of S., Which you have done, and I rejected it." This was Charles Emmanuel. In B. & F. Wild Goose iii. 1, Lugier tells of "a countryman of mine, a brave Savoyard, nephew to the D," i.e. Charles Emmanuel. In Cockayne's Trapolin i. 2, Horatio introduces himself as "2nd son unto the D. of S. and the Piedmont Prince." In Webster's White Devil iv. 2, one of the ambassadors is "my lord of S., knight of the Annunciation." This was an Order instituted by Amadeus VI in 1362, to commemorate the defence of Rhodes against the Turk by Amadeus I. The gold collar of the Order was specially massive, and the motto F.E.R.T. was supposed to stand for "Fortitudo Ejus Rhodum Tenuit." In Jonson's New Inn ii. 2, Tipto exhorts Lord Beaufort: "Put on the S. chain about thy neck "–probably referring to the chain of the Order. The passage is plagiarized in B. & F. Pilgrimage i. 1, The scenes of Davenant's Love and Honour and Shirley's Grateful Servant are laid in S.


A palace in Lond., on the N. bank of the Thames between the Strand and the river, W. of Somerset House. It was built by Peter of S., who visited England on the occasion of the marriage of his niece Eleanor to Henry III, and had this palace formally granted to him in 1248 and was created Earl of Richmond. He bestowed it on the Fratres de Monte Jovis, a fraternity whose headquarters were in his Duchy of S. but who had a Priory at Hornchurch in Essex. Q. Eleanor bought it from them for her 2nd son, Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, and it remained for a long time the Lond. house of the Lancaster family. Here was imprisoned the French K. John, who was taken prisoner at Poitiers; after his release he remained at the S., where he died in 1364. In 1381 it was completely destroyed by Wat Tyler and his rebels, and remained a heap of ruins till it was rebuilt by Henry VII in 1505 as a Hospital of St. John the Baptist for the housing of 100 poor people. It was suppressed in 1553 and its furniture transferred to Bridewell, but it was reendowed by Q. Mary and continued to be used as a hospital till 1702, when it was finally dissolved. The buildings were then used for various purposes–as printing offices, a military prison, and places of worship for the French and the Dutch; they were finally swept away, all but the Chapel, when Waterloo Bdge. was built. The Chapel of St. Mary in the Hospital, otherwise of St. John the Baptist in the S., dates from the early 16th cent. and, happily, still survives. Its precincts were a Sanctuary, which was haunted by all sorts of bad characters, and the chapel was constantly used for the celebration of irregular marriages of the Fleet type. Recorder Fleetwood, writing in 1560 about the rogues and vagabonds of Lond., says, "The chief nursery of all these evil people is the S." The name has received quite a new connotation through the S. Theatre and the S. Hotel.

The scene of R2 i. 1 is laid in the D. of Lancaster's Palace; doubtless the S. is intended. In Straw iii., the Lord Mayor says, "The rebels are defacing houses of hostelity, St. John's in Smithfield, the S, and such like." In the Nine Worthies of London (1592), we are told about the rebels: "Earls' manor houses were by them destroyed, the S., and St. Jones by Smithfield spoiled." In H6 B. iv. 7, 2, Cade directs his followers: "Now go some and pull down the S."; but this is a reminiscence of Wat Tyler's work, for the S. was still in ruins. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. v. 2, the Master of Bridewell tells how it was endowed "With all the bedding and the furniture Once proper to an Hospital belonging to a D. of S." There must have been a striking clock in the tower, for in Middleton's R. G. iii. 1, Laxton says, "Hark I what's this? 1, 2, 3; 3 by the clock at S." In Dekker's Shoemaker's iv. 5, Firk says, "Master Bridegroom and Mrs. Bride in the mean time shall chop up the matter at the S." In Middleton's Five Gallants ii. 31, Primero complains, "I have had 2 [knights' heirs] stolen away at once and married at S." In his Chess iv. 4, the Black Knight (Gondomar) promises "a S. dame" that she should have a child, "if she could stride over St. Rumbaut's breeches, a relique kept at Mechlin." A S. dame is either a runaway bride or a woman of bad reputation; there is probably also a reference to the fact that the "Fat Bishop," Antonio of Spalato, was at this time Master of the S. Hospital. In Barry's Ram ii. 4, Smallshanks says, "'Foot, wench, we will be married tonight; we'll sup at the Mitre and from thence my brother and we three will to the S."


(Sy. = Saxony). The name of a Teutonic tribe living, when we first hear of them, in what is now Holstein. Thence some of them passed over the North Sea to Britain, and settled there during the later years of the 5th cent. The name is still heard in the last syllable of Essex, Middlesex, Sussex, and Wessex. In our plays these invaders are called Ss., and the word then comes to be used for an Englishman as distinguished from a Welsh or Irish man. The old English language is called S., and the word is applied also to simple English not augmented with words of French or Latin origin. The Ss. also penetrated, southwards into Germany, where they settled in the dist. lying N. of Bohemia, between the Rhine and the Elbe, now called Sy. They were conquered by Charlemagne and incorporated into the Frankish Empire; but their Dukes gradually grew in power until by the 12th cent. Sy. was one of the 4 great German principalities and its Dukes were Electors of the Empire. Under that title Frederick (died 1428) became one of the most powerful princes in Germany. In the reign of Frederick the Wise (1486–1525) Sy. welcomed the doctrines of the Reformation; and Luther's Translation of the Bible made the S. dialect the standard language of Germany. The Dukes during our period were Augustus I (1553–1586), Christian I (1586–1591), Christian II (1591–1611) and John George (1611–1656). After the Napoleonic wars the N. part of Sy. became a province of Prussia, the remainder forming the kingdom of Sy., now [ed. note: in 1925], under a republican Government, a member of the German Empire. There are also several S. Duchies (Weimar, &c.), likewise members of that Empire.

  1. Saxon in the sense of the settlers in England. In Merlin i. 2, Artesia speaks of herself as "The sister of the S. general." In Hughes' Misfort. Arth. iii. 1, Arthur describes Modred's army as made up of "Sluggish Ss' crew, and Irish kerns, And Scottish aid, and false red-shatiked Picts." Boorde, in Intro. of Knowledge (1547) xvi. 164, says, "I do marvel greatly how the Ss. should conquer Englonde." In Spenser F. Q. i. 1, 65, St. George is said to have sprung "from ancient race of S. kings that . . . High reared their royal throne in Britain's land." In Cartwright's Ordinary ii. 2, Moth speaks of Thursday as "Ycleped so from Thor the Ss' god." In iv. 2, he says, "So did the Ss. done to death by treachery the lords of England; Nem esur saxes." The allusion is to the story of the treachery of Hengist, who invited the British to a feast on Salisbury Plain and then instructed the Ss., at the word "Nem eower seaxes "(i.e. Take your knives), to fall on their guests and murder them. This story is the subject of Middleton's Queenborough iv. 3. In Brome's Queen's Exch. i. 1, Segebert says to Bertha, "Your majestic father made The Ss. happy and yourself a q." Hall, in Sat. v. 1, 70, calls Alfred "the S. king." The language spoken in England before the Conquest began about 1600 to be called English-S., or Anglo-S.; and Old S. was used to mean plain, simple English. Puttenham, Art of, Poesie ii. 3, says, "Our natural and primitive language of the S. English bears not any words (at least very few) of more syllables than one." In i. xxx, 72, he calls "song" "our natural S. English word." In Nash's Summers, p. 37, Orion says, "Dogs bark as good old S. as may be." In B. & F. Wife i. 2, Podramo says of a letter: "'Tis a woman's, Sir, I know by the hand and the false orthography; they write old S."

  2. Saxony in the sense of the German Dukedom and Electorate. In H5 i. 2, 46, the Archbp. speaks of "the land Salique Between the floods of Sala and of Elbe Where Charles the Gt., having subdued the Ss., There left behind and settled certain French." He goes on to say that this was what "Is at this day in Germany called Meisen." In Greene's Friar vii, Mason tells how the K. is coming to Oxford with "The Almain monarch arid the S. duke." If any particular D. is intended, it must be Albert I or II. The scene of Milkmaids is laid at the court of John Earnest, D. of Sy.: presumably the John who was D. 1525–1532. In ii. 2, Julia says "Faustus did fetch Bruno's wife, duchess of Saxonia, in the dead time of winter, grapes she longed for." In the Faust-Buch this story is told of the Duchess of Anhalt, which Marlowe, in his Faustus, follows. In Chettle's Hoffman there is a John, D. of Sy., who calls himself "mad John of Sy." The scene of Dodypoll is partly in the Court of S-y.; and in ii. 3, we are told that the D. Alphonso has been proposing marriage with "Katharine, sister to the S. d." The scene of Costly Wh. is laid at the court of Sy. A D. of Sy. figures in Defiance of Fortune (1590), and another in Evoradanus, Prince of Denmark (1605). The D. of Sy. appears as one of the Electors in Chapman's Alphonsus: in ii. 34, he calls himself "Augustus, D. of S."; he was really Albrecht I; his daughter Hedewick, who marries the English Prince Edward, is entirely fictitious. He also appears in W. Smith's Hector. In Fair Em, William the Conqueror masquerades as "William of Sy.," possibly, as Fleay thinks, because William Kemp, who is supposed to be meant by William the Conqueror, had recently been in Sy. The Ss. shared with the rest of the Germans the reputation of being hard drinkers. In Merch. i. 2, 91, Nerissa asks, "How like you the young German, the D. of Sy.'s nephew?" and Portia replies: "Very vilely in the morning when he is sober, and most vilely in the afternoon when he is drunk." In Davenant's Wits iv., Thwack promises himself "Wine ever flowing is large S. romekins About my board." Fynes Moryson, Itiner. iii. 2, 4, says, "The Netherlanders use less excess in drinking than the Ss, and more than other Germans."

    In Chapman's Alphonsus iii. 1, 61, Alphonsus says, "In S. land you know it is the use That the first night the bridegroom spares the bride." This practice, known as the Toby-night, from the story in the Apocrypha of Tobit's abstinence, was a rule of the. Ch., observed both in France and Germany, and was not a S. custom specially. In the same play iii. 1, 113, it is announced that Richd. is going to bring a company of boors and maidens "to dance a S. round."


A vill. in W. Riding Yorks, abt. 4 m. South of Towton, and 11 E. of Leeds. Towton Heath lies between Towton and S., and was the scene of the battle of 1461, in which the Yorkists totally defeated the Lancastrians. The scene of H6 C. ii. 3 is "a field of battle between Towton and S."


(more fully, SANTA MARIA S.C.). A ch. outside Rome on the road to Ostia. It is close to the ch. of San Paolo alle Tre Fontane, which marks the traditional spot of the execution of the Apostle. It was built over the cemetery of St. Zeno. It derives its name from a vision of a ladder reaching to heaven seen by St. Bernard. The ch. was restored in 1582, and is an octagonal building with a cupola in the centre. Special Indulgences were attached to worship offered there. In Bale's Johan 2107, Dissimulation, after poisoning himself and the K., says, "Sing for my soul a mass of S. Celi That I may climb up aloft with Enoch and Heli." A Will is quoted in The Academy, Jan. 3rd, 1891, dated 13 Hen. VII, in which money is left for the singing of a mass "at Rome at S. Cely." Bacon, Works iii. fol. 183, says, "In the ch. of the blessed Virgin Mary is th'alter which is called s. c.; if they there sing mass for the souls that are in purgatory, the said souls are delivered out of hand." Latimer has many scornful references to it in his sermons.


On the N. side of the Poultry, Lond., by St. Mildred's ch., where the poulterers used to scald their fowls. In Jonson's Christmas, Christmas says, "My daughter Cis is an honest cook's wife And comes out of S. A."






One of the rivers of Ancient Troy, now the Bunarbaschi, rising in Mt. Ida and flowing into the sea just South of Kum Kali at the entrance to the Dardanelles. In T. Heywood's B. Age iii., Anchises says, "S. fields they [the Greeks] have strewed with carcases." In Chapman's Consp. Byron ii. 1, Byron says, "Like Pelides in S.'s flood, Up to the ears in surges will I fight." In Nero iii. 2, Nero says, "Priam saw his Troy burnt . . . whilst thy pure streams, Divine S., did run Phrygian blood." In Pembroke's Antonie ii. 20, Philostratus speaks of "Red S.'s armour-dogged streams." Spenser, F. Q. iii. 5, tells how the Trojan ladies "saw the fields of fair S. strown With carcases of noble warriors"; and in iv. 11, 20, he calls it "Divine S., purpled yet with blood of Greeks and Trojans." Lodge, in Answer to Gosson, p. 14, says that "S . . . . maketh gray yellow "–a bit of Euphuistic natural history.


(ISKANDEROON, or ALEXANDRETTA). A spt. on the coast of Syria, abt. 70 m. W. of Aleppo, of which it forms the natural port. It gets its name from Alexander the Gt., who founded it. Sir Kenelm Digby defeated the Venetians near the Gulf of S. in 1628. Jonson, in Underwoods xcvi., on Sir Kenelm Digby, says, "Witness his action done at S. Upon his birthday, the 11th of June." Dekker, in Lanthorn, tells of a woman who, trying to inveigle merchants into her company, pretends that "she is wife to the master of a ship, and they bring news that her husband put in at the Straytes, or at Venice, or S."–and is therefore out of the way.


A name applied to Norway, Sweden, sad part of Denmark; it is sometimes used to include Iceland also. Burton, A. M. i. 2, 1, 2, says, "Nothing so familiar as for witches and sorcerers, in Lapland, Lithuania, and all over Scandia, to sell winds to mariners and cause tempests."


A town on the coast of Yorks. in the N. Riding, 39 m. N.E. of York. The Castle, standing on a hill above the town, was built in the reign of Stephen. It is now in ruins. Piers Gaveston sought refuge here from the Barons, but was taken and beheaded. It was besieged and battered by Cromwell, and the castle subsequently dismantled by the Parliament. The phrase "a S. warning," which meant a sudden surprise with no warning at all seems to have originated from the summary way of dealing with thieves which was practised there. In Marlowe's Ed. II ii. 4, Edward says to Gaveston and his friends, "Fly, fly, my lords, the earls have got the hold, Take shipping and away to S." In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage, which is another version of All's One: A Yorkshire Tragedy of the Calverley family, the husband is called Scarborow; probably to suggest his Yorks. origin. J. Heywood, in Proverbs E. ii., says,. "A day ere I was wed I bad you, (quoth I); S. warning I had (quoth he), thereby I kept me thence." In Life of Story (1571) Harl. Misc. i. 414, Story says, "Indeed I had Scarborowes warning to come to this arraignment, for I knew nothing thereof until 7 of the clock in the morning." Puttenham, Art of Poesie iii. 18, gives as a proverbial speech, "Skarborow warning, for a sudden commandment allowing no respect or delay to bethink a man of his business."




A town in South Holland, on the right bank of the Maas, 4 m. W. of Rotterdam. It is chiefly noted for its manufacture of gin, or hollands, which it often called S. In Shirley's Imposture v. 4, Volterino says, "I left her [the witch] in a sieve was bound for Scotland, whence she was determined to take egg-shell to S."


(perhaps HUISSEN is intended). A town is Gelderland, 3 m. South-E. of Arnhem, formerly strongly fortified and possessed of an ancient castle. For references to this place see under BOUTTERSHEIM.






A group of islands belonging to the British Crown, lying at the entrance to the English Channel, abt. 25 m. W. of Land's End. Their number is variously reckoned from 40 to 140; only 5, however, are inhabited; the rest are mere rocks. They are probably the Cassiterides of the ancients. In Armin's Moreclacke G. 1, the Governor of S. bids the gentlemen "Welcome to S.," and the scene of part of the play is laid there.






Somewhere is the neighbourhood of Smithfield, Lond.; possibly the corner of Cock Lane and Giltspur St. In Promos ii. iv. 1, Gresco says to the watch, "Search Ducke Alley, Cocklane, and S.C." The scene is in Julio in Austria, but these places are all in Lond.


An ancient royal city in Scotland, 2 M. N. of Perth. Here the Scottish kings were crowned on the Stone of Destiny, supposed to be the one on which Jacob reposed at Bethel. It was brought to England by Edward I in 1296, and is now [ed. note: in 1925; the stone was returned to Scotland in 1996] enclosed in the Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey. Little is left of the old city except a cross and the fragmentary ruins of the Abbey. In Mac. ii. 4, 31, Macduff says that Macbeth has "gone to S. to be invested." In v. 3, 75, Malcolm invites the lords "to see us crowned at S."


(Ssh. = Scottish, Sh. = Scotch). The part of Great Britain N. of the Tweed and Solway Firth. The Romans penetrated it as far as the Tay, but effected no permanent conquest. They found it inhabited by the Picts and the Scots, the latter of whom certainly, and the former possibly, were of Gaelic origin. The Teutonic invaders of Britain established themselves in the South-E. part of the country, afterwards called Lothian, and became the ancestors of the Lowland Sh., who spoke a dialect of English akin to that of Northumberland and Yorks. The Gaelic tribes were driven into the N. and W., retaining their own speech and independence; whilst Lothian belonged to the English kingdom of Northumbria. About the 9th century the Highlands grew into a united kingdom, and in 1018 Malcolm won Lothian, which henceforth remained an integral part of the Ssh. kingdom. In spite of the attacks of Edward I, II, and III, the Ssh. kings maintained their independence until the union of the crowns of England and S., in the person of James VI of S. and I of England, in 1603. The Parliaments were not united till 1707. The Ssh. people embraced the Presbyterian form of the Reformed faith in the 16th century, and the Ch. of S. remained Presbyterian in spite of the Union. The accession of James I brought a large number of Scotsmen into England, where they were regarded with a good deal of jealousy and dislike, as our plays testify.

General and Geographical References. Hycke, p. 88, boasts that in the course of his travels he has been "in midges of Scotlonde." In H4 A. iii. 1, 45, Glendower speaks of "the sea That chides the banks of England, S., Wales." In Err. iii. 2, 122, Dromio found S. "by the barrenness, hard in the palm of the hand" of his kitchen-maid. Lyly, in Pappe with an Hatchet, p. 46, says, "We care not for a Ssh. mist, though it wet us to the skin." Taylor, in Penniless, says, "The old proverb of a Ssh. mist was verified, in wetting me to the skin." A Ssh. mist means a shower of fine rain.

Historical Allusions. In Fisher's Fuimus i. 3, Cassibelan says, "Androgeus, haste thee to the Scots and Picts, 2 names which now Albania's kingdom share." In Hughes' Misfort. Arth. iii. 1, Arthur describes Modred's army as made up of "Sluggish Saxons' crew and Irish kerns And Ssh. aid and false red-shanked Picts." In Mac., Shakespeare tells the story of the murder of K. Duncan by Macbeth and the latter's accession to the throne of S.; and his death at the battle of Dunsinane. The historic period is 1041–1057; but Holinshed, who was Shakespeare's authority, contains little that is strictly historical except the murder of Duncan. In iv. 3, 164, Macduff asks, "Stands S. where it did?" and Ross replies, "Alas, poor country, Almost afraid to know itself; it cannot Be called our mother, but our grave." In v. 8, 63, Malcolm says, "My thanes and kinsmen, Henceforth be Earls, the first that ever S. In such an honour named." Holinshed is the authority for this statement. In Peele's Ed. I, Edward makes Baliol K. of S. in 1292, and his subsequent rebellion and defeat in 1296 are described. In Marlowe's Ed. II ii. 2, reference is made to the raids of the Sh. on England; and Lancaster quotes a ballad made by the "fleering Scots"–"Maids of England, sore may you mourn For the lemans you have lost at Bannocksbourn." The battle of Bannockburn was won by the Scots in 1314. In Ed. III, David II of S. appears, and the siege by him of Roxburgh Castle and his subsequent retreat form the subject of Act 1. In H5 i. 2, 160, Canterbury recalls how, in the days of Edward III, England took and impounded "as a stray The K. of Scots." David II was taken prisoner by Q. Eleanor, at Neville's Cross, in 1346, and kept in captivity for 11 years. In H4 A. i. 1, 54, Westmoreland mentions "brave Archibald, That ever valiant and approved Scot," as Percy's opponent at Holmedon Hill; and a further report declares that "10,000 Scots" were slain there. In i. 3, 214, Hotspur declines to give up his prisoners to the K.: "By God, he shall not have a Scot of them." Later in the scene, Worcester advises him to deliver up his Ssh. prisoners without ransom, "And make the Douglas' son your only mean For powers in S." Thus, as Hotspur sees, "The powers of S. and of York" are to join with Mortimer to attack Henry IV. The battle of Holmedon Hill took place on Sept. 14, 1402; Archibald was the Earl of Douglas. In ii. 4, 116, the Prince describes Hotspur as "he that kills me some six or seven dozen of Scots at a breakfast." In ii. 4, 377, Falstaff calls Douglas "that sprightly Scot of Scots that runs a horseback up a hill perpendicular." In iii. 2, 164, Blunt says, "Lord Mortimer of S. hath sent word That Douglas and the English rebels met At Shrewsbury." There was no such person as Lord Mortimer of S.; the man intended is George Dunbar, Earl of March in the peerage of S. The Mortimers were Earls of March in the peerage of England, whence the confusion arises. Moreover, Edmund Mortimer in this play was not the Earl of March at all, but the 2nd son of the 3rd Earl, Edmund, and uncle to the 5th Earl, also Edmund. In H4 B. ii. 3, 50, Lady Northumberland advises her husband, "Fly to S.!" and he resolves to do so. In iv. 4, 98, Harcourt brings word: "The Earl of Northumberland and the Lord Bardolph. With a great power of English and of Scots, Are by the sheriff of Yorks. overthrown." This was at the battle of Bramham Moor in 1408. In H5 i. 2, 142, the K. says, "We fear the main intendment of the Scot Who still hath been a giddy neighbour to us; For . . . my great-grandfather Never went with his forces into France But that the Scot on his unfurnished kingdom Came, pouring like the tide into a breach." Westmoreland adds, "There's a saying very old and true, `If that you will France win, Then with S. first begin'; For once the eagle England being in prey, To her unguarded nest the weasel Scot Comes sneaking, and so sucks her princely eggs." The same proverb is quoted by Oxford in Fam. Vict., Haz., p. 350. In H6 C. iii. 1, 13, K. Henry says, "From S. am I stolen, even of pure love, To greet mine own land with my wishful sight." Henry fled to S. after the battle of Hexham in 1464, but returned to England in disguise the next year, and was recognized and taken prisoner. In iii. 3, 26, Margaret says that Henry "is forced to live in S. a forlorn," and adds, "S. hath will to help but cannot help." Warwick, in 151, retorts: "Henry now lives in S. at his ease." In R3 iii. 7, 17, Buckingham says to Gloucester, "I laid open all your victories in S." Gloucester was in command of the expedition against S. in 1482, when he invested Berwick, and recovered it for England. In Greene's George, one of the characters is James of S.; Edward is the contemporary K. of England, so that James III and Edward IV would seem to be intended. Other indications point to Edward III, but there was no Ssh. K. James contemporary with him. In Ford's Warbeck, James IV of S. is one of the characters, and a large part of the play is occupied with Warbeck's residence at his Court, and the consequent invasion of S. by the English. In iv. 2, Astley says, "If these Sh. garboils do not fadge to our minds, we will run pell-mell amongst the Cornish chuffs." Milton, in Sonn. to Cromwell, says, "Darwen stream with blood of Scots imbrued, And Dunbar field resounds thy praises loud." The references are to the battles of Preston (1648) and Dunbar (1650), in which Cromwell defeated the Sh. In Hester, Anon. Pl. ii. 265, Ambition says, "If war should chance either with S. or France, This gear would not go right "–a very daring anachronism. Greene wrote a play entitled The Scottish History of James IV, slain at Flodden. The plot, however, is entirely fictitious.

English Dislike of the Scots who came to England with James I. In Eastward iii. 3, Seagull, speaking of Virginia, says: "you shall live freely there without serjeants or courtiers or lawyers or intelligencers; only a few industrious Scots, perhaps, who indeed are dispersed over the face of the whole earth. But as for them, there are no greater friends to Englishmen and England when they are out on't, in the world, than they are; and, for my own part, I would a hundred thousand of them were there; for we are all one countrymen now, you know." This was the passage which gave such offence to James, and led to the imprisonment of the authors, Chapman, Marston, and Jonson. In Barry's Ram iv. 1, Sir Oliver says, sarcastically, "English love Scots, Welshmen love each other." In Sharpham's Fleire ii. 169, Fleire says that the Ladies at Court "love the fine little Scottes spur, it makes the court jennet curvet, curvet gallantly." In iii. 173, Knight says, "Many of our ladies delight much in the Ssh. music." "Ay," says Fleire, "with their instruments," where a double entendre is meant. In Suckling's Brennoralt, the rebel Lithuanians are meant for the Ssh. malcontents of 1639. Donne, in Eleg. (1633) xi. 42, speaks of "S., which knew no state, proud in one day," i.e. the day of the accession of James VI to the throne of England. James is said to have knighted 700 persons during the first 3 months of his residence in England. Hence Sh. knight became a term of contempt. In Eastward ii. 2, Quicksilver warns Sir Petronel that his wife will say "she could have been made a lady by a Sh. knight and never ha' married him;" a declaration by writing, word, or sign, even without witnesses, or notorious cohabitation, being sufficient in old Ssh. law to establish a marriage. In Kyd's Soliman i. the Englishman says, "In S. was I made a knight." But as the play was produced in 1588 the reference cannot be to James's knights–unless the passage is a later insertion. In Chapman's Bussy i. 2, 124, L'Anou says, "The D. mistakes him . . . for some knight of the new edition."

The Patron Saint of S. is St. Andrew. According to tradition, St. Regulus brought some of the bones of the apostle Andrew to S. in the 9th cent., and enshrined them at the monastery around which the city of St. Andrews sprang up. St. Andrew's Cross is represented in the shape of an X or saltire, and is white on a blue field. It is embodied in the Union Jack. In Kirke's Champions i. Andrew says, "For bonny S. Andrew will advance." The Arms of S. are described by Heylyn (s.v. SCOTLAND) as "Sol [i.e. Or] a Lion rampant within a double tressure counterflowered."

Louis XI of France enrolled a body of Scottish archers to be his bodyguard. Readers of Scott's Quentin Durward will recall them. In Chapman's Trag. Byron v. 1, the Chancellor says, "This was it that made Louis the 11th renounce his countrymen And call the valiant Scots out of their kingdom To use their greater virtues and their faiths . . . in his royal guard."

S, like most northern countries, was supposed to be the home of witchcraft and enchantment. The 3 Witches in Macbeth are typical examples. In Shirley's Imposture v. 4, Volterino says, "I left her [the witch] in a sieve was bound for S." In Dodypoll iii. 2, Alberdure says, "This is Melpomene, that Ssh. witch." The reference is to the trial of certain Sh. witches in 1590. In T. Heywood's Witches i., Winny says, "You look like one o' the Ssh. wayward sisters": referring to the witches in Macbeth.

National Characteristics. Boorde, in Intro. of Knowledge iv., says that the N. Scots are like the wild Irish, rude and unmannered; they are very poor, and live is single-roomed huts; they hate all Englishmen, and are great boasters and liars. Still, they are hardy and strong, and are good musicians. They are accustomed to swear by "the foul evil," and they have always been true to the French. English is spoken in the South, but a speech like Irish in the N. of the country. In H4 A. iv. 1, 85, Douglas says, "There is not such a word Spoke of in S. as this term of fear." In v. 4, 119, Falstaff says, "'Twas time to counterfeit or that termagant Scot had paid me scot and lot too." In H4 A. v. 3, 11, Blunt says to Douglas, "I was not born a yielder, thou proud Scot." In Chapman's Caesar ii. 1, 116, Ophioneus says, "Thou shalt . . . cheat with the Englishman, brag with the Scot, and turn all this to religion." In Merch. i. 2, 83, Portia says of the Ssh. lord who has come wooing her: "He hath a neighbourly charity in him, for he borrowed a box of the ear of the Englishman, and swore he would pay him again when he was able." After the accession of James the players prudently altered "Ssh." to "other." In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius celebrates the charms of "The Italian in her high chapins, Sh. lass, and lovely Frail too."

Dress and Appearance. Both Sh. and Irish are nicknamed "Red-shanks" from their going bare-legged. In Middleton's Quarrel ii. 2, Chough refers to the Sh. and Irish as "red-shanks." Elder, in a Letter (1542) in Bannatyne Misc. i. 10, speaks of "The yrische lords of S., commonly called the Reddshanckes and by historiographers Pictis." See under REDSHANK. In Ford's Warbeck iii. 2, a masque is presented by "4 Sh. antics, accordingly habited." Dekker, in Hornbook iv., says that a gallant must be "ingenious in the trussing of a new Sh.-hose." The Sh. cap, or Glengarry bonnet, is familiar. In Locrine iv. 2, the direction is: "Enter Strumbo with a pitch-fork and a Sh.-cap." In Spenser's Mother Hubberd 210, the Ape, who is dressed as a soldier, has "Upon his head an old Sh. cap . . . With a plume feather, all to pieces tore." In Scot. Presb. v. 1, Anarchy says to Directory, "Sir, you must go, but not to S.; that's but purgatory–yet where you'll find many blue bonnets more, I mean, to hell." The Farthingale was a kind of crinoline, fitting tightly round the waist, and projecting stiffly over the hips. In Eastward i. 1, Poldavy, the French tailor, enters with a Sh. farthingale; and when Girtred asks: "Is this a right Scot? Does it clip close and bear up round?" he answers: "Fine and stiffly, i' faith; it will keep your thighs so cool and make your waist so small." In Dekker's Westward i. 1, Birdlime says, "This [i.e. to control one's husband] is better wit than to learn how to wear a Sh. farthingale." The falls are a kind of hanging veil; the bum a sort of bustle. In Dekker's Westward ii. 2, Birdlime says, "She's in that French gown, Sh. falls, Sh. bum, and Italian headtire you sent her."

The Sh. jig, or reel, is a lively dance, performed to a tune in triple, usually 6/8 time. In Ado ii. 1, 77, Beatrice says, "Wooing, wedding, and repenting is as a Sh. jig, a measure, and a cinque pace; the first suit is hot and hasty like a Sh. jig, and full as fantastical." In Greene's James IV prol., Bohan says, "I have 2 sons That with one Ssh. jig Shall break the necks of thy antiques." The phrase is sometimes used in an obscene sense, as in Dekker's Westward v. 2, where Sir Gosling says, "The bawd shall teach me a Sh. jig"; and in Richard's Misogonus ii. 2, where Misogonus says, "I would ask no more of her than one Ssh. jig."

The language of the natives in the rural Highlands of S. is a branch of the Celtic family, but what is usually meant by Sh. in our dramatists is the dialect of English spoken in the Lowlands. Dekker, in Lanthorn, says that, before the confusion of tongues at Babel, "the quick Ssh. dialect, sister to the English, had not then a tongue." Specimens are found in the talk of the Scots capt., Jamie, in H5; thus in iii. 2, he says, "It sall be vary gud, gud feith, gud captains both; and I sall quit you with gud leve, as I may pick occasion; that sall, I, marry." Jonson introduces fragments of the same sort of talk in the Sad Shepherd, e.g, "He neer fra' hence sall neis her in the wind"; "Shew yoursell to all the shepherds bauldly; gaang among 'em, be mickel in their eye, frequent and fugeand." Other examples occur in Greene's James IV, Thomas of Reading, Conflict of Conscience, and Club Law. In Sampson's Vow ii. 1, 11, Doisells, the French commander at Leith, says, "The Sh. language I am perfect in." In Killigrew's Parson v. 4, the Capt. says to Lady Loveall, "I'll help you to the jewel, the Sh. dictionary will tell you the value of it." Jewel is used here with a possible reference to the Sh. word "jevel," which means to spill a liquid, but I have not been able to find the point of the reference to the Sh. dictionary.

Various Articles Specified as Scotch.


An irregular group of buildings in Lond., lying South of Charing Cross, between Whitehall and the Thames. It derived its name from a palace which stood there, which was first granted to Kenneth III of S. by K. Edgar and was the official residence of the Kings of S. when they came to Lond. The last of their representatives to occupy it was Margaret, sister of Henry VIII and wife of James IV of S. In the reign of Elizabeth it fell into decay, but it was partially restored by James I and used as Government offices. In 1829 it became the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police. Here Milton was accommodated from 1649 to 1652, whilst he was acting as Latin Secretary to the Council of State.


A vill., apparently in Yorks.; it has not been identified. Dyce suggests Scrivelsby or Scamblesby, both in Lincs.; but their position is not suitable. In George i., Johnny says to the K. of Scots, "The Earl of Kendall vows to meet you at Scrasblesea, God willing."


A hall in the Doge's Palace in Venice. It occupies part of the façade towards the Piazetta. The 41 nobles who elected the Doge were chosen here. It now contains the MSS and early printed books of the Library. The scene of Jonson's Volpone iv. 2, is laid in "The Scrutineo, or Senate House" at Venice.


A rocky promontory on the Italian side of the Straits of Messina, 15 m. N. of Rhegium. According to Homer, the promontory was the home of a ravenous monster who attracted sailors by siren songs and then devoured them. By the arts of Circe, S. was turned into a pack of hounds from her waist downwards and then flung herself into the sea, and was changed into, or inhabited, the rock that bore her name. Opposite to it, near Messina, is the whirlpool Charybdis; in trying to avoid S., there was a danger of failing into Charybdis; hence S. and Charybdis stand for 2 alternatives either of which is fraught with peril. In Span. Trag. v., the Viceroy says, "Let the wind and tide hale me along To Sylla's barking and untamed gulf." Milton, P. L. ii. 660, referring to the dogs that barked round the waist of Sin, says, "Far less abhorred than these Vexed S., bathing in the sea that parts Calabria from the hoarse Trinacrian shore." W. Smith, in Chloris (1596) xxxv. 6, speaks of his love "passing the gaping S.'s waves." In Mason's Mulleasses 2259, Julia says, "Thy Mermaid eloquence Sounds harsher in my ears than Silla's dogs Unto the frighted seaman."

In Merch. iii. 5, 19, Launcelot says to Jessica, "When I shun S., your father, I fall into Charybdis, your mother." In Brandon's Octavia 620, Octavia says, "What Sylla, what Charybdis, can impart But half those horrors which in thee appear?" In Greene's Alphonsus iii. 3, 1085, Iphigina says, "So shall we soon eschew Caribdis' lake And headlong fall to Syllae's greedy gulf." In the old Timon v. 5, Timon says, "In the wide-devouring S.'s gulf, Or in Charybdis I will drown myself." In Haughton's Englishmen ii. 2, Pisaro, speaking of the Spanish pirates, says: "Roaring Charybdis nor devouring S. Were half such terror to the antique world." In Chapman's Bussy iii. 1, Montsurry says that women "in their hearts are S. and Charybdis." In Wilson's Swisser iv. 2, Ariolus says, "I am just like a weather-beaten vessel tossed from rock to rock, from S. to Charybdis." In Shirley's Ct. Secret iv. 1, Pedro says, "I have dangerous sailing betwixt your Grace's S. and her Charybdis." In Milton's Comus 257, Comus says that when the Sirens sang "S. wept and chid Her barking waves into attention; And fell Charybdis murmured soft applause." In Apius Haz. iv. 139, Virginius says, "The huge Carrebd his hazards thou for him Hast oft assayed, was Silla's force by thee oft shunned or yet Lady Circe's land?" Middleton, in Black Book Intro., p. 6, speaks of "S. and Charybdis, those 2 cormorants and Woolners of the sea." Richard Woolner, of Windsor, was a notorious glutton of the time.


(i.e. SCYLACE). An ancient Pelasgian town on the Propontis, E. of Cyzicus. It was one of the 12 coast towns taken by Achilles before his quarrel with Agamemnon (Homer, Iliad ix. 328). In T. Heywood's Iron Age A. v., Ulysses claims: "'Twas I sacked Thebes, Chriseis, and Scylla, with Lernessus walls."


Probably the plain of Azgar is meant; it lies on the W. coast of Morocco, South of Alcazar. In Peele's Alcazar i. 2, the Moor orders "Pisano, march away before to Scyras."


(more properly SCYROS). An island in the AEgean Sea, one of the N. Sporades, abt. 40 m. E. of Euboea. Here Achilles was concealed by Thetis; and it was here that Theseus met his death. Lyly, in Euphues Anat. Wit, p. 74, speaks of "the men in the island of S. which pull up the old tree when they see the young begin to spring." In Euphues England, p. 207, he tells a story of one Cassander who dwelt "in the island S." No authority for either statement has been discovered.


(Sn. = Scythian). The Greek name for the country inhabited by the Sns., a nomadic tribe probably of Indo-Germanic affinities, but supposed by some authorities to have been akin to the Ottoman Turks, or the Mongols. They wandered over the region to the R. of the Black Sea, which constitutes the Steppes of Southern Russia, but their habitation had no very definite boundaries. Towards the end of the 7th cent. B.C. they pressed South into the Assyrian Empire and into Asia Minor, and threw even Palestine into a panic terror, as may be seen from the prophecies of Jeremiah. Cyrus attacked the Massagetae, a Sn. tribe, and offered marriage to their Q. Tomyris; she rejected his offer, and afterwards defeated and slew him. Darius, and later, Alexander the Gt, invaded S. The lass team of the Sns. disappeared about 100 B.C., but the name continued to be applied in a vague way to the tribes of central Russia and Asia. Timur or Tamburlaine is often described as a Sn. The Sns., as Purchas says, "grew into a proverb of immane cruelty"; they are spoken of as barbarous, pitiless, and savage. They were supposed to guard their women with great care, and to inflict the severest penalties for adultery. Their country was thought of as mountainous and cold.

One of the characters in Jonson's Queens is "Victorious Thomyris of S." In H6 A. ii.3, 6, the Countess of Auvergne says, "I shall as famous be by this exploit As Sn. Tomyris by Cyrus' death." In Lyly's Campaspe iii. 4, Hephaestion describes "the Sns., careless what courage or fortune can do "awaiting the attack of Alexander. In Chapman's Trag. Byron iv. 1, Byron says that Alexander taught "The Sns. to inter, not eat their parents." In Caesar's Rev. iii. 4, Caesar says, "I'll fill Armenian plains and Medians' hills With carcasses of bastard Sn. brood." In Greene's Alphonsus iii. 1, Amurack bids Bajazet "Go post away apace to Siria, S., and Albania, and all other lands Which owe their homage to high Amurack." In Marlowe's Tamb. A. prol. the hero is described as "the Sn. Tamburlaine"; in i. 1, he is called "that sturdy Sn. thief," "that paltry Sn.," etc. In Selimus 2439 Selim calls him "great Tamburlaine the Sn. thief." In Dekker's Fortunatus i. 1, Fortune speaks of him as "that great Sn. swain, Fortune's best minion, warlike Tamburlaine." He was born at Kesh, near Samarkand, and was of Mongolian descent. Milton, P. R. iii. 301, says, "Now the Parthian k. In Ctesiphon hath gathered all his host Against the Sn, whose incursions wild Have wasted Sogdiana." This is unhistorical, but is invented in order to give the poet an opportunity of describing the various nations in the Parthian host. In iv. 78, our Lord sees embassies coming to Rome, "Germans, and Sns., and Sarmatians." According to the legend, followed in Locrine, The Sns. or Huns, under their chief, Humber, invaded Britain in the days of Brutus and his sons, and Humber was drowned in the river that bears his name. Milton Vac. Ex. 99 speaks of "Humber loud that keeps the Sn's. name."

The Sns. were expert archers. In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] ii. 3, Puny says, "Come away like an arrow out of a Sn. bow." But it is their barbarity that is most insisted on in the plays. In Tit. i. 1, 131, Chiron exclaims, "Was ever S. half so barbarous?" In Lear i. 1, 118, Lear says, ". The barbarous Sn, Or he that makes his generation messes To gorge his appetite, shall to my bosom Be as well neighboured . . . As thou, my sometime daughter." In the old Timon ii. 4, Demeas says to the serjeants, "Where hale ye me, Getes, cannibals, ye cruel Sns.?" In Marlowe's Tamb. B. iii. 4, Olympia says, "Those barbarous Sns., full of cruelty, Will hew us piecemeal." In Ed. III ii. 1, the K. speaks of "such sweet laments That it may make a flint-heart Sythian pitiful." In York. Trag. viii., the Master says, "The Sns. or the marble-hearted Fates Could not have acted more remorseless deeds." In Chivalry F. 4, Katharine says, "No bloody Sn. or inhuman Turk But would ha' trembled to ha' touched his skin." In Nero i. 4, Scaevola says of the Emperor: "Hath he not broached His own wife's breast, and torn with Sn. hands His mother's bowels up?" In Field's Weathercock ii. 1, Scudmore affirms that "wild Virginia, black Afric, or the shaggy S." have more conscience than old Worldly. In Shirley's Traitor iv. 1, Sciarrha says, "Let me die A death that may draw tears from Sns." In his Dukes Mist. iii. 3, Leontio says, "What Sn. can behold an outrage done upon those eyes, and not melt his rough nature in soft compassion?" In Glapthorne's Wallenstein ii. 2, Frederic says, "She bears a spell about her that would charm A Sn's. native fierceness into softness." In Davenant's Platonic ii. 5, Theander asks, "Was she by a Sn. nursed That she is grown so cruel?" In his Wits ii., Pallatine says, "I was not bred on Sn. rocks." In Cuckqueans ii. 1, Nim exclaims, "O more than Sn' inhospitality!" In Cowley's Riddle iv., the Maid says, "Sure he has charms about him that might . . . move a Sn. rock." In Lady Mother v. 2, Thorowgood says, "I should esteem it As base and black a sin as Sns. do Adultery."

In B. & F. Valentin. v. 2, Valentinian cries for "Drink, drink, colder, colder Than snow on Sn. mtns." In their Double Mar. iii. 3, Virolet says, "Let me declare thy virtues Chaster than crystal on the Sn. clifts." In their Four Plays in One, Triumph of Death V"., Gabriella asks, "What Sn. snow so white? what crystal chaster!" In Wilson's Swisser iii. 3, the K. says, "Thou art more cold than frozen Sns. are." In Nabbes' Hannibal iii. 4, Massanissa says to Sophonisba, "This will make that ivory breast as cold As Sn. sands, bleaked with continual freezing Into a seeming crystal."

In Chapman's Bussy i. 1, Monsieur says, "The rude Sns. Painted blind Fortune's powerful hands with wings To show her gifts come swift and suddenly." I have not been able to find his authority for this. In Tiberius 152, Asinius suggests "the Sithian baths "as one part of the Roman Empire that may be chosen by Tiberius as his residence, if he declines the throne. Probably the author means the German Spa, for "Sn." is used sometimes by the Elizabethans in the widest sense, including all the old German tribes. just above Asinius has spoken of the English wells, which shows that the author was thinking in modern terms. But it is not improbable that Sithian is a misprint for Sirian, which takes its place in 1, 167. In May's Agrippina iv. 470, Petronius says, "The Sn. yields His early fleece "for the luxury of Rome. But May has mistranslated the Latin original, which is Seres, i.e. the Serians or Chinese; Serian wool meaning silk.


Another name for the Black Sea, q.v. E. D., in Trans. of Theocritus (1598) xvi., says, "Let the poets strive, K. Hiero's glory for to strain Beyond the Scythean sea."


A lane in Lond., now represented by a narrow alley running from Farringdon St. into Fleet Lane, behind Cassell's premises in Ludgate KW. Formerly it ran from Snow Hill to Fleet Lane, and at its foot on the Fleet River was a landing-stage where the boats, bringing sea-borne coal, discharged their freight. It is mentioned in the Pipe Rolls as early as 1228. Here was St. George's Inn, one of the oldest Schools of Law in Lond. In Elizabethan times it was chiefly occupied by ale-houses, cook-shops, and chandlers' stores. In Jonson's Jonson's Alchemist iii. 2, Drugger relates how he was cured of a headache by a good old woman; "Yes, faith," he says, "she dwells in S. L., did cure me With sodden ale and pellitory of the wall; Cost me but 2d." One of Peele's Jests is located "at a blind alehouse in S. L."


A ch. in Madrid. In Shirley's Brothers i. 1, Fernando says, "I was at St. Sebastian's last Sunday."


A monastery in Naples. I have not succeeded in identifying it further. ln Webster's Law Case ii. 2, Romelio says, "Take up the body and convey it To St. Sebastian's monastery."


A tower, apparently near to the Porta del Popolo. which is at the N. end of the Corso at Rome, and was the gate through which the Flaminian Way entered the city. There is a Porta di San Sebastiano at the extreme South of the city where the old Appian Way comes in. It was a fine gate, flanked with a couple of towers. Probably Barnes was a little confused in his topography when, in his Charter ii. 1, Alexander orders Castilian to "fortify upon the tower of St. Sebastian affronting that port where proud Charles should enter, called Santa Maria di Popolo."


(the present NABLOUS). A town lying in the valley between mts. Ebal and Gerizim, in the centre of Palestine, 6 m. South-E. of Samaria. Here Abraham encamped when he first entered the land of Canaan (Gen. xii. 6, 7). Jacob's Well and Joseph's Tomb are in its immediate neighbourhood. Milton P. L. xii. 136, says of Abraham: "I see his tents Pitched about Sechem."


A town in N. France on the tight bank of the Meuse, 130 m. N.E. of Paris. Dr. Johnson derives the word S.-chair from the name of the town, but the derivation is uncertain. S.-chairs were introduced into England from Naples about 1634. In Brome's Sparagas iv. 1, Sam says of Mrs. Brittleware: "She's now gone forth in one o' the new hand-litters; what call ye it, a S.!" In 1, 3, he spells it Sedam.


A town in South Staffs., abt. 10 m. N.W. of Birmingham. The inhabitants were chiefly engaged in blacksmith's work. It is associated with the S. Curse, quoted below. It should be noted, however, that Middleton, in City Madam ii. 2, quotes the curse with the addition "as the Scotchman says." In B. & F. Prize v. 2, Jaques says, "A Sedgly curse light on him Which is, Pedro, The fiend ride through him booted and spurred, with a scythe at his back." In Suckling's Goblins i., Peligin says, "Now the Sedgly curse upon thee; The great fiend ride through thee booted and spurred with a scythe on his neck."


A tribe of the ancient Britons, whose home appears to have been in Hants. In Fisher's Fuimus iv. 4, Mandubratius says, "By me the Trinobants submit, and Segontiacs."


A city in Spain, in Old Castile, 4,5 m. N.W. of Madrid. The cathedral, with its 3 naves, is one of the finest in Spain, and the Roman aqueduct of 170 arches is perhaps the most remarkable relic of the Romans in the peninsula. The scene of B. & F. Pilgrim is laid in Segovia and its neighbourhood. It is an adaptation of Lope de Vega's El Peregrino en sua Patria. Act v. sc. 6 takes place in the cathedral.


A river in N. France, rising in the heights of Langres, and flowing past Troyes, Paris, and Rouen in a N.E. direction to the sea, which it enters at Havre after a course of abt. 470 m. In Fam. Vict., Haz., p. 357, the Archbp. of Burges brings word that Henry "is already landed At Kidcocks in Normandy upon the river of Sene, And laid his siege to the garrison town of Harflew." Kidcocks is a curious attempt to render Chef de Caux. Drayton, in Odes (1606) xii. 6, says, "At Caux, the mouth of S., With all his martial train, Landed K. Harry." In Marlowe's Massacre, p. 233, Guise says, "There are a hundred Protestants Which we have chased into the river S." In B. & F. Gentleman iv. 4, Marine says, "Not all the water in the river S. Can wash the blood out of these princely veins." In Cartwright's Ordinary ii. 2, Moth exclaims, "I am jolly now as fish in S," where there is probably a pun on the other meaning of seine, viz. a net.


A maritime city in N. Syria, N. of the mouth of the Orontes. It lay at the foot of Mt. Coryphaeum, and was very strongly fortified. It was built by Seleucus Nicator about the beginning of the 3rd cent. B.C. It became the port of Antioch. In Tiberius 1824, Germanicus says of Tigramena: "Were it Pireus or Seleucia, Germanicus would never leave assault."


A city near the W. extremity of the South coast of Sicily. Its extensive and striking ruins are called Torre dei Pulci. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. iv. 4, Tamburlaine compares himself to "an almond tree y-mounted high Upon the lofty and celestial mt. of evergreen Selinus." The passage is taken from Spenser's F. Q. 1, 7, 32, where the form is Selinis.


A fishing vill. in South-W. Sussex, near the end of S. Bill, abt. 65 m. South-W. of Lond. It was famous for its crabs, lobsters, and other shell-fish. In Jonson's Volpone ii. 1, Sir Politick has discovered that Stone, the Fool, was a spy, and distributed intelligence to ambassadors "Sometimes in Colchester oysters and your S. cockles."


In ancient times there appear to have been 3 Senacula or S. Houses at Rome: But in later times the S. had no fixed place of meeting, but used various temples for the purpose, such as those of Apollo on the Palatine, of Concord, of Fides, and of Quirinus. The meeting at which Caesar was murdered was held in the Theatre of Pompeius. In Cor., the S. H. is mentioned more than once; and it is clear, from ii. 2, that Shakespeare conceived it to be in the Capitol, as is further shown by J. C. ii. 4, 24, where Portia asks, "Is Caesar yet gone to the Capitol!" and Ham iii. 2, 109, where Polonius says, "I did enact Julius Caesar; I was killed i' the Capitol."




The Amorite name for the Hermon range is N. Palestine. Milton P. L. xii. 146, says of Abraham: "His sons Shall dwell to S., that long ridge of hills." He is following 1 Chron. v. 23, but he misunderstands the phrase "S. and Mt. Hermon," which means "S., that is, Mt. Hermon," and makes the S. range distinct from Hermon, and further South. Cf. Deut. iii. 9, "Hermon the Sidonians call Sirion, and the Amorites call it S."


The Vulgate form of Shinar, the Hebrew name for the whole of Babylonia, possibly derived from an early form of the Babylonian name Sumer. Milton P. L. iii. 467, speaks of "The builders next of Babel on the plain of Sennaar."






(i.e. SEPPHORIS). A town is Upper Galilee, 10 m. W. of Mt. Tabor. It came into prominence during the reign of Herod the Gt.; if air made the capital of Galilee in the time of Herod Antipas, and was known later as Diocaesareia. It is represented by the vill. of Sephurieh, 5 m. N. of Nazareth. In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass v., Jonas says to Rasni, "As the kids that feed on Sepher plains So be the seed and offspring of your loins." The quartos read Lepher; Dyce suggested Sepher, the Vulgate spelling of the Shapher in Numbers xxxiii. 23, but this Shapher is a mtn. in the Desert of the Wanderings; I think Sepphoris is more likely to have been intended.


The ch. of the Holy S. in Jerusalem, which was much frequented by pilgrims. It stands on the E. side of Christian St., in the N.W. of the city. The original ch. was erected by Constantine's order in A.D. 333; it was greatly damaged by fire in 1808. It contains not only the supposed s. of our Lord, but also Mt. Calvary, the Pillar of Scourging, and many other equally dubious sites. Its recovery from the Saracens was the avowed object of the Crusades. In Look about xxxiii., Richard says, "I will to Palestine And pay my vows before the S." In R2 ii. 1, 55, Gaunt speaks of "the s. in stubborn Jewry of the world's ransom, blessed Mary's son." In H4 A. i. 1, 19, the K. announces his purpose to lead an English force" As far as to the s. of Christ." In Webster's Weakest i. 1, K. Louis says, "Are not our vows already registered Upon the unvalued S. of Christ!" Louis IX vowed a Crusade in 1244, but was not able to go to Palestine till 1248. In Day's Travails, p. 50, the Sultan Ahmed I claims to be "last protector of the Sepulcher of Juries God and crucified King." In J. Heywood's Four PP. i. 14, the Palmer says, "At Hierusalem have I been Before Christ's blessed Sepulchre."


(Pr. = Pulcher). A ch. in Lond., on the N. side of Newgate St. between Giltspur St. and Snow Hill, diagonally opposite to the old Newgate Prison, now the new Central Criminal Court. It was originally built in the 12th cent., and named in honour of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. It was rebuilt in the middle of the 15th cent., and the square tower with its 4 corner spires, and the fine South-E. porch, are probably part of the ch. then erected. It was partially destroyed in the Gt. Fire, and repaired under Wren's direction. Since then it has suffered many restorations. The name was pronounced with the accent on the 2nd syllable, and is commonly abbreviated to St. Pr's. It had a clock in the tower, and a fine peal of bells. The graveyard was much used in the years when the Plague raged in Lond. In 1605 a certain Robert Dowe left money to provide for the rigging of a passing-bell at St. S: when prisoners from Newgate were executed; and also for the visitation of the prisoners by the bellman on the night preceding their execution, when he rang his bell and recited the following doggrel: "All ye that in the condemned hold do he, Prepare you, for tomorrow you shall die; Watch all and pray, the hour is drawing near That you before the Almighty must appear; Examine well yourselves, in time repent, That you may not to eternal flames be sent. And when St. Pr's. bell tomorrow tolls, The Lord above have mercy on your souls. Past 12 o'clock." The poor wretches, on their way to Tyburn, were also addressed as they passed the ch., and presented with a nosegay. In the description of the execution of Humphrey Lloyd (1607) we are told: "When he was being drawn in the cart with others toward execution, and aft the carts being stayed before St. S. ch., where the most christian and charitable deed of Master Doove at every such time is worthily performed, etc." Jonson, in Voyage, says, "Cannot the Plague-bill keep you back, nor bells of loud S. with their hourly knell?" Dekker, in Wonderful Year, says, "The 3 bald sextons of limping St. Giles, St. S, aced St. Olaves, ruled the roast more hotly than ever did the triumviri of Rome "Middleton, in Black Book, p. 25, speaks of sheets "smudged so dirtily as if they had been stolen by night out of St. Pr's. churchyard," where they would have been used as shrouds for the dead.

In Jonson's Devil v. 5, Shackles tells how Pug has blown down part of the prison at Newgate and "left Such an infernal stink and steam behind You cannot see St. Pr's. steeple yet." In his Epicoene iv. 2, Truewit tells Dawe that Sir Amorous was so well armed "You would think he meant to murder all St. Pr's. parish." Dekker, in Hornbook iv., advises the gallant to set his watch by St. Paul's, "which, I assure you, goes truer by 5 notes than St. S. chimes." Taylor Works ii. 81, says that Coryat's fame "shall ring Louder than St. Pr's. bell." In Old Meg, p. 1, we are told, "Never had St. S. a truer ring of bells "than the Hereford Morris-dancers.


A huge quicksand on the Coast of Egypt, E. of the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, at the foot of Mt. Casius. It is now almost dried up; but Diodorus i. 30, relates that Darius Ochus lost his army there in 350 B.C. Milton P. L., ii. 592, compares Hell to "that Serbonian bog Betwixt Damietta and Mt. Casius old Where armies whole have sunk."


The name of the people inhabiting N.W. China. Heylyn says, "China is thought to have been the ancient habitation of the S., who, being excellent in the weaving of silks, which they made of a fine wool growing on the leaves of trees, occasioned all silks to be called Serica." In Lyly's Endymion i. 3, Sir Thopas says, "I go clothed with artillery; it is not silks, nor tissues, nor the fine wool of Ceres." In his Sapho iii. 1, Pandion says, "The S. wool being softest and whitest fretteth soonest and deepest." In Nero iv. 1, Nero says to Poppaea, "The S. and the feathered man of Ind Shall their fine arts and curious labours bring." Lyly, in Euphues England, p. 374, says, "The softness of wool which the S. send sticketh so fast to the skin that . . . it fetcheth blood." Rabelais, in Pantagruel iii. 5, speaks of "the lanific trees of S."


Possibly means connected with the Serapeum, the temple of Serapis at Alexandria, founded by Ptolemy Soter, and reputed to be second only to the Capitol at Rome. It was destroyed by Theodosius in A.D. 389. In Chapman's Blind Beggar ix. 102, Leon says, "As I was walking through the Serian groves I saw the desperate Count . . . Fly through the deserts to the Memphic shades."


The country of the Seres, q.v. In Gascoigne's Steel Glass 768, we read of the luxurious courtiers: "For whom soft silks do sail from Sericane." Milton P. L. iii. 438, speaks of "the barren plains of Sericana, where Chinese drive With sails and wind their cany waggons light."


One of the islands of the Cyclades in the AEgean Sea, between Cythnos and Siphnos. It is abt. 12 m. in circumference. The Roman Emperors used it as a place of banishment for criminals. Gosson, in School of Abuse, p. 29 (Arber), says, "They that are born in Seriphos . . . where they see nothing but foxes and hares, will never be persuaded that there are huger beasts."


A building in Lond. for the lodging of the Serjeants-at-Law and the Judges. The 1st S. I. was in Chancery Lane, on the E. side, close to Fleet St. The site is now occupied by the Law Union and Rock Life Insurance Company's building. The 2nd I. was at 50 Fleet St., where now is the Norwich Union Life Office. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire, and on its site the Amicable Assurance Society's premises were erected. It was so near to Ram Alley that the judges protested more than once against the annoyance caused to them by the stench and smell of the tobacco smoked there. The Society of S. was dissolved in 1876, and their property sold. The portraits, coats of arms, and plate, were bought by Serjeant Cox, and transferred to his house at Mill Hill. Machin's Dumb Knight was published "by William Sheares at his shop in Chancery Lane near S.I. 1633." T. Heywood's Hogsdon was "printed by M.P. for Henry Shaphard and are to be sold at his shop in Chancery Lane at the sign of the Bible between S. I. and Fleet st. 1638." The Tragedy of Mariam was "printed by Thomas Creede for Richard Hawkins, and are to be sold at his shop in Chancery Lane, near unto Sargeants Inne. 16l3."


A cape on the W. coast of Africa, abt. 500 m. N.W. of Cape Palmas. The name is also applied to the dist. round the cape, which became a British colony in 1787. Milton, P. L. x. 703, describes the rush of the South winds "Notus an Afer, black with thunderous clouds, From Serraliona." Hexham, in Mercator ii. 426, says, "Sierra Liona is . . . a very high mt . . . . from whence there comes fearful noises and great tempest."


(i.e. SESSA, the old SUESSA AURUNCA). A town in Italy in the Terra di Lavoro, 30 m- fr. of Naples, and a few m. from the coast of the Gulf of Gaeta. In B. & F. Double Mar. i. 2, Ferrand says, "There rides a pirate near, The D. of Sesse, my enemy and this country's"; i.e. Naples. The D. finally takes Naples and kills the tyrant Ferrand.


A town in the Thracian. Chersonesus, on the European side of the Hellespont, at its narrowest part, opposite to Abydos. Its site is E. of the fort of Kilid Bahr. According to the well-known legend, Leander used to swim the Hellespont from Abydos to S. to see Hero, who guided him by a light placed in her tower. He was finally drowned in one of his nocturnal efforts to reach his lady-love. The story gained wide currency in Elizabethan times through Marlowe's treatment of it in his Hero and Leander. The straits are about a mile wide at this point; and it was here that Xerxes built his bridge of boats for his army to cross over into Europe. Marlowe, in Hero and Leander i., says, "On Hellespont . . . 2 cities stood, The one Abydos, the other S. hight. At S. Hero dwelt." Chapman, in his completion of Marlowe's Poem in 1598, divided it into 6 Sestiads, with a sort of play on the word. In Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, Leatherhead quotes the above passage, but says it is too learned and poetical for his audience; and so, in his puppet-play, he says, "At the Bankside is our S.," and his Leander swims the Thames from Puddle-Wharf to the Bankside. In Ed. III ii.2, the K. says to the Countess of Salisbury, "I will through a Hellespont of blood To arrive at Cestus where my Hero lies." In Shrew, Haz., p. 497, one of the characters in which is the D. of Cestus, Polidor says to Aurelius, "Welcome from Cestus, famous for the love of good Leander and his Tragedy." In B. & F. Maid in Mill iv. 1, Aminta says, "Sir, your Hymen-taper I'll light up for you; the window shall show you the way to S." Nash, in Lenten, p. 317, says of Leander: "At S. was his soul." W. Smith, in Chloris (1596) xvii. 4, says of Leander: "Through Hellespont he swam to Cestos main"; and in xxv. 9, "Love made Leander pass the dreadful flood Which Cestos from Abydos doth divide." The author of Zepheria (1594) viii. 10, speaks of "the light which Sestyan Hero showed Arm-finned Leander to direct in waves." In Mason's Mulleasses 1839, Timoclea says, "Now like the Sestian maid May I court Leander swimming in my arms."


May be a misprint for Scythian or Syrian, though Wagner's conjecture "sedarn," i.e. cedarn, makes the best sense. In Greene's Friar viii., Edward speaks of "Frigates bottomed with rich Sethin planks, Topt with the lofty firs of Lebanon." See Sir A. Ward's note on this passage.


An ancient town in Latium, now Sezze, 40 m. South-E. of Rome. Its wine was greatly esteemed in the 1st cent. A.D., and was said to have been brought into notice by Augustus. Milton, P. R. iv. 117, referring to the Roman epicures, speaks of "Their wines of Setia, Cales, and Falerne."




(Sa. = Sabrina). The longest river in England except the Thames. It rises on the E. flank of Plinlimmon in Montgomeryshire, and flows in a semi-circular course of abt. 200 m. past Welshpool, Shrewsbury, Tewkesbury, and Gloucester, into the Bristol Channel, which forms its estuary. The British name was Hafren, which the Romans transliterated into Sa. From the name the legend arose that Sa., the daughter of Locrine, was drowned in the river by Gwendolen, the 2nd wife of Locrine. The story of Sa.'s death is told in the last Act of Locrine, where Gwendolen says, "Because this river was the place Where little Sabren resolutely died, Sabren for ever shall the same be called." Sa. appears as the nymph of the river in Milton's Comus, where her death is related, and she is described (825) as "a gentle nymph that with moist curb Sways the smooth S. stream." In Fisher's Fuimus ii. 5, Belinus speaks of the S. as "That boiling stream where Sabrine lost her breath." In Dekker's Northward ii. 1, Doll says, "Look how Sa. sunk i' th' river S." Milton Vac. Ex. 96, calls it "S. swift, guilty of maiden's death."

Spenser, in the river list F. Q. iv. I 1, 30, calls it "the stately S." Drayton, in Idea (1594) xxxii. 2, says, "Stately S. for her shore is praised." Spenser, F. Q. ii. 10, 14, says that Camber possessed the Western part of Britain "Which S. now from Logris doth depart "Logris meaning England. In W. Rowley's Shoemaker iii. 2, 185, Sir Hugh says, "There's not a crag beyond the S. flood But I have held against the Roman foes." In Cym. iii. 5, 17, Cymbeline orders: "Leave not the worthy Lucius Till he have crossed the S." In Death Huntington ii. 2, young Brian speaks of "the Lord of the March That lies on Wye, Lug, and the S. streams." In H4 A. i. 3, 98, Hotspur tells of the fight between Mortimer and Glendower "on the gentle S.'s sedgy bank," and how they drank 3 times "of swift S.'s flood." In iii. 1, 66, Glendower boasts: "Thrice from the banks of Wye And sandy-bottomed S. have I sent him [K. Henry] Bootless home." In the following proposal for the division of England, Glendower's share is "from Trent and S. hitherto All westward, Wales beyond the S. shore." In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage ii. 2, the Clown comes on, weeping, and exclaims: "Mine eyes are S.' plain S.; the Thames nor the river of Tweed are nothing to them"; where the S. is regarded as longer than the Thames, which it is, if the Bristol Channel be counted as its mouth.


(i.e. ST. SEVER). A city in South-W. France, in the department of Landes, abt. 80 m. South of Bourdeaux. It was twice taken during the wars of the 16th cent. In Chapman's Trag. Byron v. 1, Byron says of Picote: "I only did employ him . . . for the reduction of Severre to the service of the K."


One of the most important cities in Spain, on the left bank of the Guadalquiver, 355 m. South-W. of Madrid. It was the capital of the Roman Province of Baetica, and the Roman aqueduct, with its 410 arches, was used until quite recently to bring water to the city. In the 5th cent. the Vandals had their Court there. The Moors took it in 714, and it remained in their hands till 1248, when it was taken by Ferdinand III. The Moorish occupation has left its mark on the appearance of the city, and the Moorish Palace, called the Alcazar, begun in 1181, ranks next to the Alhambra of Granada, as an example of Moorish architecture. The Cathedral of Sta. Maria de la Sede is the next largest in Europe after St. Peter's at Rome. It was begun in 1403 and finished in 1519. The Giralda, or Bell-tower, is of Moorish construction, and dates from the 12th cent. It has long been famous for its olive-oil, silks, and oranges. The pun on S. and Civil was too obvious to be missed by the Elizabethans, from Shakespeare downwards.

Hycke, p. 88, claims to have been "in Spayne, Portyngale, Sevyll, also in Almayne." In Marlowe's Jew iv. 1, Barabas has debts owing "In Florence, Venice, Antwerp, Lond., S." In Look about xxxiii., Skink says of a Spaniard: "Rivo will he cry and Castile too, And wonders in the land of S. do." In T. Heywood's Challenge ii. 1, the Clown says, "The most beauties of Spain have been oft in Civill," with a pun on uncivil. In Dekker's Match me i., Cordolante says, "Horses we'll forthwith hire And quick to Sivell." In Stucley 2154, Philip says, "Come, lords, to horse; to Cyvilt lies our way." In Ford's Sacrifice i. 2, D'Avolos says of Roseilli: "I hear he departed towards Benevento, determining to pass to S., minding to visit his cousin in the Spanish court." In Middleton's Gipsy ii. 1, Alvarez says, "Does Madrill yield no money? S. shall. Is S. close-fisted? Valladoly is open." In Jonson's New Inn iv. 2, Tipto says of the visitors: "They are [Spaniards] have been at S. in their days, And at Madrid too." In B. & F. Care ii. 1, Metaldi addresses Pachieco as "my most ingenious cobbler of S." In their Rule a Wife i. 6, Estifania says of her furniture: "I have, besides, as fair as Sevil, Or any town in Spain, can parallel." In Webster's Law Case ii. 1, Sanitonella tells of "Don Crispiano, the famous corregidor of S., who by his mere practice of the law hath gotten 30,000 ducats a year."

In Haughton's Englishmen ii. 2, Pisaro reads from a letter: We have sent unto your Worship sack, S. oils, pepper, Barbary sugar." In Cromwell iii. 3, Hales says, "They that are rich in Spain spare belly-food To deck their backs with an Italian hood And silks of Civill." Nash, in Strange News, Works ii. 282, says, "For the order of my life, it is as civil as a Civil orange." In Ado ii. 1, 304, Beatrice says, "The Count is neither sad, nor sick, nor merry, nor well; but civil, Count, civil as an orange and something of that jealous complexion"; yellow being the colour of jealousy. In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Bastard says, ." Thy name shall live nor be forgotten When Sivil oranges be rotten." In Rowley's All's Lost i. 3, 38, Jaques says of Margaretta: "She has cried oranges the most of her time here in Civill; now a fine orange for her crest, with Civillity written round about it, would speak wondrous well." In Apius, Haz., iv. 151, Haphazard says, "He never learned his manners in Sivill," i.e. he is an uncivil wretch. S. is the scene of B. & F. Love's Cure, Rawlins' Rebellion, and Lady Alimony. The scene of W. Rowley's All's Lost is partly laid in S., but this is an error; the Court of Roderick, the last of the Visigothic Kings of Spain, in whose reign thi's play is supposed to take place, was at Toledo.


A parish on the N. bank of the Thames, between Wapping and Limehouse. Like most ports, it had an unsavoury reputation. In Jonson's Magnetic ii. 1, Polish says, "Have you an oar in the cockboat, 'cause you are a sailor's wife and come from S.?" In Launching we read: "The East Indian gates stand open wide to entertain the needy and the poor . . . Ratcliffe cannot complain . . . nor S. cry against their niggardliness." In Webster's Cuckold ii. 3, Compass mentions Limehouse and S. as amongst the suburbs of Lond.; where suburb means a haunt of loose women.


The name. of one of the Tartar tribes, but I cannot exactly identify it In Dekker's if it be, 277, Ruffman says, "A shalcan Tartar being my grandfather, Men call me Shalkan Bohor."


The dist. on the coast of Palestine, stretching some 55 m., from Joppa to Mt. Carmel. It is famous for the variety and beauty of its wild flowers. In Song of Solomon ii. 1, the Shulamite says, "I am the rose of S."; an unfortunate translation, which has given currency to the idea that S. is fertile in roses, which is not the case; the word means the White Narcissus. Herrick, in School or Pearl of Putney, speaks of "S., where eternal roses grow"; and in Ode to Nicholas Herrick, of "S., where a spring of roses have an endless flourishing."


The sign of a carriers' inn at St, Albans. In Oldcastle v. 5, 12, the Constable reports: "A lusty priest we found in bed yonder at the Sheeres."




The old name of Richmond, Surrey, q.v. Henry I had a palace here, and Chaucer was clerk of works to the Palace in the reign of Richd. II. In 1449 it was burnt down, but Henry VII rebuilt it and named it Richmond after his earldom. It was partly puffed down by Parliament during the Commonwealth, and its destruction was completed in the next cent. Chaucer, in Legend of Good Women 497, says, "When this book is made, give it the Q. On my behalfe, at Eltham, or at Sheene." In Trag. Richd. II. iv. 2, 41, in answer to Woodstock's question "Where lies the Q., Sir?" a servant says, "At S., my lord; most sick and so much altered As those about her fears her sudden death." Fuller, Holy State x., says that Richd. II "so fervently loved Anna of Bohemia, his Q., that when she died at S. in Surrey he both cursed the place and also out of madness overthrew the whole house." Anne died there in June 1394. In Cromwell i. 2, Cromwell says he will one day build a palace" As fine as is K. Henries house at S." Fynes Moryson,. in Itiner. (1617), mentions the K.'s palace of S.


i.e. Shire Lane. In Lond., running South from Little Lincoln's Inn Fields into Fleet St., close by Temple Bar. It acquired a very disreputable character, and in spite of the change of name to Lower Serle's Place in 1845, it retained it, until it was swept away altogether by the erection of the new Law Courts. In this Lane was the famous Trumpet Tavern. In Wise Men iii. 4, Antonio says, "Go to Mrs. Sylvester in Sheerelane, desire her to lend me a pair of sheets."


A town in the South part of the W. Riding Yorks, on the rivers Don and Rother, abt. 160 m. N. of Lond. The Lordship of S. was in the Furnival family in the reign of Richd. I; in 1406 it passed to the Talbots. The manufacture of cutlery dates from the earliest times and is still the staple business of the town. In H6 A. iv. 7, 66, Talbot is described as "Lord Furnival of S." In Chaucer's C. T. A. 3933, the Reeve says of the Miller: 44A S. thwitel baar he in his hose." In Dekker's Edmonton ii. 2, Someron says, "get, the bridegroom and bride come; the new pair of S. knives, fitted both to one sheath." Laneham, in Letter 38, describes the ancient minstrel with "a pair of capped S. knives hanging at the side." Nash, in Lenten iii. 178, says, "Tell me if our English sconces be not right S. or no."


An island in Kent, on the South side of the estuary of the Thames, separated from the mainland by a branch of the Medway. Sheerness stands at its N.W. extremity. It is just opposite to Faversham. In Feversham ii. 1, Bradshaw says, "Master Greene, I'll leave you, for I must to the ile of Sheppy with speed." In iii. 6, Lord Cheiny says to Arden, "You are a stranger, man, in the ile of Sheppy."


(Sy. = Sherry), XERES or JEREZ, specifically JEREZ DE LA FRONTERA. A town in Spain in the province of Andalusia, 16 m. N.E. of Cadiz. It gave its name to S. Sack or S. wine, which came to be called briefly S, and then, from a mistaken notion that S. was a plural, Sy. In H4 B. iv. 3, 111, Falstaff indulges in a eulogy of "a good S. sack," which later he describes as "an excellent S." In Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, Okes says, "Sack!you said but e'en now it should be sy."; and Jonas replies: "Why, so it is; sy,." In his New Inn i. I, the Host says, "Be merry and drink sy.; that's my posy." In Middleton's Mad World v. 1., Sir Bounteous cries: "Some sy. for my lord's players there 1, "See also XERES.




A forest in the centre of Notts., between Mansfield and Kneesal. It is chiefly famous as the resort of Robin Hood and his comrades. In Massinger's New Way i. 3 (the scene of which is the country round S.) Furnace says, "There came last night from the forest of S. the fattest stag I ever cooked." In Jonson's Love's Welcome, which was performed at Welbeck in Notts, Accidence speaks of "odd tales of our outlaw, O Robin Hood, That revelled here in S." In Munday's 2 plays on the Downfall and the Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington, the Earl is galled, iii the title, "Robin Hood of merry Sherwoods." In the Downfall ii. 2, Robin says, "I am resolved To keep is S. till the K.s return." The name was so familiar that it came to be used generically for any forest. Phaer, in trans. of Aeneid (1562) renders Lucus ingens by "The shirwood great."




A tavern sign in Lond. There was a S. tavern in the Strand just outside Temple Bar at the corner of little Shire Lane; another at Charing Cross, and a 3rd by the Exchange. In T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, Valerius sings: "To the S. the merchants go." In the list of Inns in News Barthol. Fair we find, "The Windmill at Lothbury, the S. at the Exchange."


The sign of a tavern in Lond. In Dekker's Northward ii. 1, Doll says, "So will we 4 be drunk i' th' Shipwreck tavern."


A coarse attempt at a pun on the name of the Scythians. In Locrine ii. 3, 61, Strumbo says, "By the common soldiers of the Shitens, the Scithians–what do you call them?–[the city] with all the suburbs were burnt to the ground."


A st. in Lond., running N. from Fleet St. opposite St. Bride's Ch., to Holborn. It is older than Fleet St. itself, and is mentioned as Vicus de Solande in the reign of John. It became successively Scholond, Scholane, and then, by Hobson-Jobson, S. L. Here the Dominican Friars had their first Lond. settlement in the 13th cent. Sir Henry Wootton; in 1633, speaks of a visit he paid to "the Cockpit in S.L." The Gt. Fire swept it all away except the N. end where St. Andrew's Ch. stood; but the ch. was pulled down abt. 10 years later, and the construction of the Holborn Viaduct has completed the transformation of that end of the L. In S. L. lived John Florio, the translator of Montaigne, and in Gunpowder Alley, leading off it, Lilly the astrologer lived, and Lovelace the poet died. In Ret. Pernass. i. 4, Philomusus says, "Let our lodging stand here filthy [?fitly] in Shooe-l., for, if our comings in be not the better, Lond. may shortly throw an old shoe after us." In Barry's Ram iii. 2, Throate says, "Let the coach stay at S. L. end"; and later in the scene Smallshanks says, "Come, we will find her; Let's first along S. L., then straight up Holborn." In Middleton's R. G. iii. 3, when Dapper escapes from the serjeants in Holborn, Curtlax cries: "Run down S. L. and meet him." S. L. was the home of the designers of rude woodcuts and signs. In Whimsies (1631) we read of "a Sussex dragon, some sea or inland monster, drawn out by some S. L. man." In Nabbes' Presentation for Prince (1638) the almanack-maker says, "Instead of Shoelane hangings, may the walls of my house be painted with chalk."


The H. of the Guild of Cordwainers in Lond. The Guild was incorporated in 1410, and had 3 successive halls on the same site, at what is now 7 Cannon St., on the N. side, between Old Change and Friday St. It is abt. 300 yards from St. Martins-le-Grand. The present H. was built in 1788. Lyly, in Pappe with an Hatchett Eliz. Pamph, p. 56, charges Martin Marprelate Z9 having drawn Divinity from "the Colleges of Oxford and Cambridge to Shoomakers Hall in Sanct Martin's."


A steep hill, formerly very narrow and overshadowed with trees, abt. 7 m. out of Lond. on the Great Dover Road, just beyond Charlton. It was a notorious haunt of highwaymen, and in the time of Richd. II was widened to make it safer, but with little effect. In 1733 the gradient was lessened 2nd the road slightly diverted; but the footpad's trade continued to flourish until the tag of the 19th cent. In J. Heywood's Weather, p. 100, Merry Report claims to have been "at Sudbury, Southampton, at S. H." In Fair Women ii. 220, Old John is met by Bean, who is going from Lond. to Greenwich., and says he is on his way "to drive home a cow and a calf that is in my close at S. H. foot."

In Hycke, p. 90, the hero tells us that Ill Will is "Brother to Jack Puller of Shoters hyll." Again, p. 96, Imaginacion says, "Well, fellows, now let us go our way For a' Shoters hyll we have a game to play." Again, p. 104, Frewyll says, "If I might make 3 good voyages to Shoters hyl Then would I never travel the sea more." In Oldcastle i. 3, Butter says, "Coming oer S.-H., there came one to me like a sailor and asked my money. I was never so robbed is all my life." In iii. 4, Sir John, the parson-highwayman, says, "God-a-mercy, neighbour S. H, you ha' paid your tithe honestly." This was after a successful highway robbery. In Mayne's Match iii. 4, Plotwell says, if his uncle marries," The sleight upon the cards, the hollow die, Park Corner, and S. H., are my revenue." Stubbes, in Anat. of Abuses (1583), p. 53, speaks of men who mortgage their lands, and then take to robbery "on Suters h. and Stangate hole with loss of their lives at Tiburne in a rope." Dekker, in Bellman, says, "All travellers are so beaten to the trials of this law [i.e. the law of highway robbery] that, if they have but rode over S. H. or Salisbury Plain, they are perfect in the principles of it." In Fair Women ii. 782, the 1st lord says, "A cruel murther's done Near S. H., and here's a letter come From Woolwich . . . Noting the manner and the marks of him That did that impious deed." Hall, in Sat. vi. 1, 67, says that the traveller hopes that "The. vale of Standgate, or the Suters h., Or western plains, ace free from feared ill."


A parish in N.E. Lond., lying South of Old St, between City Road and Bethnall Green. The S. High St. is a continuation of Norton Folgate as far as the corner of Old St. and Hackney Road. The name was erroneously derived from a story that the famous Jane Shore died there; but we read, in Piers B. 13, 340, of a certain Dame Emme "of Shordyche," which sufficiently disproves this derivation; although it is perpetuated by the Jane Shore tavern at 103 S. High St., and is supported by T. Heywood's Ed. IV B., where Catesby says, after relating the deaths of Shore and his wife, "The people for ever mean to call the ditch Shores ditch in the memory of them." The name was originally Soerdich, and is derived from the name,of the Lords of the Manor, one of whom, Sir John de Soerdich, was a famous diplomatist in the reign of Edward III.

In W. Rowley's New Wonder v., Foster's wife says, "The K. comes to see Master Brewen's hospital and old St. Mary's spital here by S." Brewen's hospital was on the N. side of Spital Sq., near the South end of Norton Folgate. In Dekker's Westward ii. 2, Monopoly says, "I'm to sup this night at the Lion in S." As the High St. was part of the old Roman road to the N., it had many taverns for the accommodation of travellers. The road was not too good, for in the account of the preparations for the return of Charles I to Lond. in 1641 we read that the way from Kingsland to S. was impassable for their Majesties "in regard of the depth and foulness of it." In Niccholas' Marriage and Wiving vi., we are told of the origin of the name of the spring called "Dame Annis a Clare," which is stated to be "a spring near S." See ANNIS A CLERE. In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 1, Frisco, leading Delion and Alvaro on a wild-goose chase through Lond. by night., says, "We are now at the farthest end of S., for this is the maypole." If he means the famous Maypole in Leadenhall St. they were certainly at the farthest end of S, and a good deal farther!About 1604 one "Master John Tyce, living near S. Ch.," introduced the making of taffetas, cloth of tissue, velvets, and satins into Lond. In S. were the first two Lond. playhouses, the Theatre and the Curtain, q.v. Many of the actors and playwrights lived in the parish, and were buried in the church of St. Leonard, q.v. A fragment from the Bodleian Aubrey MS. 8 fol. 4.5, says, "He was not a company keeper; lived in S., would not be debauched, and if invited to write, he was in pain." This passage is believed by Mr. Madan, Sir Sidney Lee, and Sir George Warner to refer to Shakespeare. It is otherwise probable that he lived in S. when he first came to Lond.

S. had the worst of reputations as a haunt of loose women and bad characters generally. In Pilg. Pernass. v. 1, Philomusus says, "An honest man May chastely dwell in unchaste Shordiche st." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iv. 5, Bobadill says that his quarters have been "in divers skirts i' the town, as Turnbull, Whitechapel, S." In his Devil i. 1, Iniquity proposes to Pug to visit "S., Whitechapel, and so to St. Kathern's." In Jack Drum ii. 359, Drum says, "'Tis easier to find virginity in S. than to hear of my mistress." In Randolph's Muses iv. 3, justice Nimis talks with complacency of the revenues he gets from Clerkenwell and Turnbal "with my Pickt-hatch grange and S. farm." Nash, in Wonderful Year (1591) says, "I find that the altitude of that place (Peticote Lane) and of S. are all one elevated; and 2 degrees and under the zenith or vertical point of Venus." In his Pierce F. 4, he says, "Examine how every yard house in S. is maintained, and tell me how many she-inmates you find." In Dekker's If it be 352, Pluto asks "The bawd of S., is that hell-cat come?" Middleton, in Hubburd, says, "S. was the only Cole-Harbour and sanctuary for wenches and soldiers." In his No Wit iv. 2, Sarsenet says, "A man may smell her meaning, though his hose wanted reparations and the bridge left at S." In his. Inner Tem. 172, Dr. Almanac says, "Stand forth, Shrove Tuesday I 'tis in your charge to puff dower bawdy houses, cause spoil in S." Dekker, in Owl's Almanac, says, "Shrove Tuesday falls on that day on which the prentises pulled down the Cockpit and on which they did always use to rifle Madam Leake's house at the upper end of S." The prentices had licence on Shrove Tuesday to attack any houses of ill-fame and despoil them. In Killigrew's Parson iv. 1, Wanton says, "Never to love, seldom enjoy, and always tell–foh! it stinks worse than S. dirt." Hall, in Sat. i. 9, 21, asks: "What if some S. fury should incite Some lust-stung letcher?" S. R., in Letting of Honour's Blood (1611), mentions, "some coward gull That is but champion to a Sdrab." Marston, in Sat. i. 4, says, "He'll cleanse himself to S. purity." In S. Rowland's Honour's Looking Glass (1608), his servant takes the Country Gull "unto S., where the whores keep hell." The title D. of S. is said to have been sportively conferred by Henry VIII on Barlo, one of his guards, who lived in S., for his skill in archery; and the custom of annually conferring this title was kept up till 1683. Hence the D. of S. means a pinchbeck or imitation peer. Dekker, in News from Hell, says that in Charon's boat "The D. of Guize and the D. of S. have not the breadth of a bench between them." In his Armourers he says, "Arrows flew faster than they did at a cat in a basket, when Prince Arthur or the D. of S. struck up the drum in the field." in Jonson's Devil iv. 3, Wittipol says to Manly, "We'll leave you here To be made D. of S. with a project." In The Poor Man's Petition (1603) xvi., it is asked., "Good K., make not good lord of Lincoln D. of Shoreditche."


The residence of Lord Cheiny, in Kent, not far from Faversham. In Feversham ii. 6, Will says of Arden: "The Lord Cheiny bids him to a feast to his house at S." In iv. 4, Rede says, "He is coming from S. as I understand; here I'll intercept him"'


A vill. abt. 1 mile from Stratford-on-Avon, reached by way of Rother St. The cottage, now shown as Anne Hathaway's, was first tenanted by the Hathaways in 1556, and was purchased by Anne's eldest brother, Bartholomew, in 1610. It was almost certainly to this cottage that Shakespeare came courting his future wife. [ed note: using a pedometer and taking the footpaths, the distance between Anne Hathaway's cottage and the Shakespeare Birthplace is 0.71 miles.]


A vill. in Norfolk, near Downham, abt. 35 m. W. of Norwich. In Day's B. Beggar ii., Strowd says, "Yonder's old Simson's son of S. T."


The county town of Shropsh., strongly situated on a peninsula formed by a loop of the Severn, 138 m. N.W. of Lond. It was founded in the 5th cent., under the name of Pangwerne, as a defence against the Saxons; but it was captured by them and called Scrobbes-byrig. It was always important as a frontier fortress, and was often besieged by the Welsh. The Earldom was granted by William the Conqueror to Roger de Montgomery, who built the Castle and the Abbey of SS. Peter and Paul, of both of which some remains still exist. St. Mary's Ch. dates from the 10th cent., and some fragments of the old city wall survive. Edward I made it for a time the seat of his government, and in 1283 a Parliament was held there, which tried and condemned to death David, the last of the old Princes of Wales. Richd. II also held a Parliament here in 1398. The battle, in which Henry IV defeated the rebels under the Earl of Northumberland, was fought near S. on JuIy 23rd, 1403. A Free Grammar School was founded by Edward VI in 1551, which has attained a high reputation. John Talbot was created, Earl in 1442, and the title still remains in the Talbot family.

In Val. Welsh. i. 1, the Bardh says, "Octavian himself in person comes To S., where the great Earl of March The father, of our valiant Welshman [i.e. Caractacus] Himself doth bring to supplant treason." Of course, there was neither a S. nor an Earl of March in the time of Caractacus. In Peele's Ed. I, p. 72, the K. orders "Messenger, hie, thee back to S."; and the scene in which the execution of David is described takes place there. The battle of S. is the subject of H4 A. iv. 1 and 3, and v. 1–5. In iii. 1, 86, the rebels arrange to meet the Scottish power "at S." In iii. 2, 166, we learn from Blunt that "Douglas and the English rebels met The 11th of this month at S." In iv. 2, 59, Falstaff, meeting Prince Hal, says, "I thought your Honour had already been at S." In iv. 4, 10, the Archbp. says, "Tomorrow . . . is a day Wherein the fortune of 10,000 men Must bide the touch; for, Sir, at S. The K . . . . Meets with lord Harry." In v. 4, 151, Falstaff relates how he fought "a long hour by S. dock "with Hotspur. In H4 B. prol. 34, we read of "that royal field of S." In i. 1, news of the battle is brought to Northumberland by Bardolph, Travers, and Norton, in succession. In i. 2, 167, the Chief Justice says to Falstaff, "Your day's service at S. hath a little gilded o'er your night's exploit on Gad's-hill." In H6 A. iii. 4, 27, the K. says to Talbot, "We here create you Earl of S." This is an anticipation; the scene takes place in 1431, and Talbot was not created Earl till 1442. In iv. 7, 6 1, he is properly spoken of, after his death, as "Valiant Talbot, Earl of S."

The S. who appears in More was George, a greatgrandson of the great Earl. In True Trag. v., "Lord Talbut, the Earl of S. son and heir," is mentioned as one of Richmond's helpers. This is probably the same George Talbot; he was Earl from 1473 to 1538. His son was Francis, but he was not old enough in 1485 to have led troops to Richmond's aid. One of the subordinate subjects of Lyly's Endymion is a quarrel between George Talbot, Earl of S., and his wife; Geron representing the Earl, and Dipsas the Countess. The boys of S. School are recorded to have given performances of plays in a quarry outside the walls, under their master, Thomas Ashton, in the 16th cent. (see Churchyard's Worthiness of Wales (reprint), p. 85). Abraham Fraunce was a native of S, and was educated at the Grammar School.


The county in England on the borders of Wales, between Cheshire and Herefordsh. It shared with Cheshire the reputation of producing the best cheese in England. In Dekker's Northward ii. 1, Jenkins says, "If you will go down with S. carriers, you shall have Welsh enough in your pellies 4,o weeks." John Marston, the dramatist, belonged to a S. family.


The crypt of a ch., specifically applied to the chapel of St. Faith in St. Paul's Cathedral, Lond. Sermons were preached there when the weather was too bad for them to be delivered at the Cross. One of Latimer's sermons was "preached in the Shroudes at Pauls Ch. in Lond. on the 18th day of January anno 1548." Hakluyt, in Voyages ii. 1, 153 (1599), tells of "a ch. under the ground like to the shroudes in Pauls."




A town in the land of Moab, E. of the Jordan, 4 m. N.W. of Heshbon; now SUMIA. It was celebrated for its vines. Milton, P. L. i. 410, says that Chemosh was worshipped in "The flowery dale of Sibma clad with vines."


A tribe of Gauls, originally settled on the E. bank of the Rhine, between the Sieg and the Lippe. They made a vigorous resistance against Tiberius, but were defeated, and 40,000 of them transferred to the region between the Meuse and the Rhine. In Jonson's Sejanus iii. 1, Silius says, "I have charged, alone, into the troops of curled Sicambrians, routed them." Jonson borrows the epithet "curled "from Martial, who says they came "crinibus in nodum tortis."


(i.e. SICILIAN). See SICILY. Cowley, is His Mistress' Coldness iv, says, "Alphaeus found not a more secret trace, His loved Sicanian fountain to embrace"; i.e. the spring of Arethusa, q.v.


A town in Belgium in the province of Limburg, 55 m. E. of Brussels. Burton A. M. ii. 1, 3, says, "Many mad persons are daily cured . . . by our Lady of Sichem, in the Low Countries." Hall, in Epp. i. 5, asks: "Why doth she [the Virgin Mary] that cure at Zichem which at Halle she could not?"


(Sa. = Sicilia, Sn. = Sicilian, Ss. = Sicilies). The large triangular island immediately South of Italy, in the Mediterranean. It was renowned in ancient times for its fruitfulness, and was called the granary of the world. One of its most striking natural features is the active volcano, AEtna, which rises to a height of nearly 11,000 ft. The most ancient inhabitants were the Siculi, who appear to have crossed the Straits of Messina from Italy. Phoenician colonies were founded on the N. cad N.W. coasts at an early date, and were soon followed by Greek colonies, chiefly on the South and E. coasts. One of the earliest of the Greek tyrants was Phalaris of Agrigentum, who was said to have constructed a brazen bull in which he immolated the victims of his suspicion, and in which he himself was ultimately roasted to death. Syracuse rose to be the most powerful of the Greet cities, and successfully repelled the attack of the Athenian expedition in 415 B.C.; Syracuse being a Dorian colony from Corinth, and so opposed to Athens in the Peloponnesian War. Dionysius began his splendid reign there in 405, in the course of which he drove back the Carthaginians into the N.W. part of the island. In 344 Timoleon came to Syracuse and freed the Greet cities from the growing domination of the Carthaginians. In 270 Hieron became K. of Syracuse, and his alliance with the Romans was the first step which led to the incorporation of S. in the Roman dominions in 210. During the 9th cent. A.D., S. was conquered by the Saracens, who made their capital at the old Phoenician town of Panormus, and held the island for over 250 years. In 1060 Count Roger of Normandy invaded S., and after 30 years of war conquered the whole island. In 1194 the Emperor Henry VI took the island from the last of the Norman dynasty, William III, and bequeathed it to his son Frederick II, "Stupor Mundi." Frederick's natural son, Manfred, seized the throne in 1258, but was defeated and slain by Charles of Anjou in 1266. On Easter Monday 1282, the people of Palermo revolted against the tyranny of Charles, and massacred the French at a signal given by the Vesper Bell; this was the so-called Sn. Vespers. The French were expelled and the Aragonese dynasty founded by Pedro of Aragon. He became K. of the two Ss., one being the island, and the other the Southern part of Italy, of which Naples was the capital. Ferdinand of Aragon took the title of K. of the two Ss. in 1479, and from him the title descended to the Emperor Charles V, and his son, Philip II of Spain. After many vicissitudes and changes S., with Naples, was, by the prowess of Garibaldi, united to Italy under the rule of the house of Savoy, in 1860. See NAPLES.

General References. In Chapman's Caesar i. 2, 274, Caesar tells of a man so keen-sighted that "in S. he could discern the Carthaginian navy . . . Though full a day and night's sail distant thence." Plutarch is the authority for this story. In Chapman's May Day v. 1, 235, Honorio says of Lucretia: "Her father being a Sn. Bed thence for a disastrous act." In Gascoigne's Supposes i. 1, Polynesta describes Erostrato as "a gentleman that came from Sa. to study in this city"; i.e. Ferrara. Later, when Balia asks "Are there no other Sns. here?" she answers: "Very few that pass this way, and few or none that tarry here any time." In Haughton's Englishmen ii. 2, Pisaro, hearing that his vessels have been captured by pirates in the Straits of Gibraltar, complains that his sailors did not go for Tripoly, "Being on the other side of S. As near as where they were unto the Straits." In Cuckqueans iv. 8, Floradin says, "I have travelled Italy and Scicilie."

Allusions to the History. In Massinger's Virgin v. 2, Theophilus says, "Let me feel, As the Sn. did his brazen bull, The horridest you can find." In Rawlins' Rebellion ii., Philippa challenges Machvile to practice "Sn. tyranny on my resolute body, Proof against pain," i.e. such tortures as Phalaris and Dionysius invented. In Marlowe's Jew v. 4, Calymath speaks of "S., Where Syracusian Dionysius reigned." The scene of Edwards' Damon is in "Dionisius palace" in Syracuse. In Massinger's Bondman, Timoleon is one of the chief characters; in i. 2, he says, "S. being afire, she [Corinth] is not safe." In Kyd's Cornelia i., Cicero says, "Carthage and S. we have subdued." In Ant. ii. 6, 35, Pompeius says to Caesar, "You have made me offer of S., Sardinia; and I must Rid all the sea of pirates." In line 46 he reminds Antony, "When Caesar and your brother were at blows Your mother came to S., and did find Her welcome friendly." This was in 40 B.C., when Lucius Antonius and Fulvia, the wife of Antony, attacked Caesar. In iii. 6, 24, one of Antony's charges against Caesar is "that, having in S. Sextus Pompeius spoiled, we had not rated him [Antony] His part of the isle." This was in 36 B.C., when Agrippa defeated the fleet of Pompeius and drove him in flight to Asia. In Caesar's Rev. i., chor. 2, Discord says, "Pompey rode, clad In the Sn. pirates' overthrow." The reference seems to be to the victory of Pompeius Magnus over the Cilician (not Sn.) pirates in 67 B.C.; but the author may have been thinking of the successes of the younger Pompeius in S. in 43 B.C. and confused the two. In Thracian i. 1, Radagon describes himself as "Son to thy enemy, Sa.'s K." The story is pure romance and has nothing historical in it. The legend of K. Robert of S. is well known through Longfellow's version of it. It is taken from the fiesta Romanorum, and has an analogue in the Talmud. In the Gesta, the Emperor Jovinian is the hero. Longfellow makes the hero "Robert of S., brother of Pope Urbane, And Valmond, Emperor of Allemaine"; but them is no basis of fact behind it. In World Child 173, Conscience says, "Beware of pride and think on K. Robert of S. How he for pride in great poverty fell." A Ludus de Kyng Robert of Cesill was produced in 1453, and a play on the same subject in 1529. In Massinger's Maid Hon., Roberto, K. of S., is one of the characters; but at a much later date than is thinkable for the Robert of the legend. Burton, A. M. Intro., mentions, among the barbarities of mankind, "those French massacres, Sn. evensongs." Cotgrave (1611) defines Vespres Siciliennes as "mischiefs done or death inflicted in a place and time of imagined security." In Peele's Ed. I i. 1, the Q. Mother tells how Edward is at hand with "The poor remainder of the royal fleet Preserved by miracle in Sicil road." It was while at anchor off S. that Edward received the news of his father's death. In Ed. III iii. 1, the K. of France says, "The Ks. of Bohemia and of Cycelie are become confederate with us." The K. of S. at this time (1346) was Peter, the son of Frederick. The K. of Sicil mentioned often in H6 B. and H6 C., and called more exactly in C. i. 4, 22, "the K. of Naples, of both the Sicils and Jerusalem," was Regnier or Rayner or Réné, D. of Anjou, and father of Margaret of Anjou, the wife of Henry VI. Q. Joanna left the kingdom of the Two Ss. to him in 1435, but Alfonso made a successful counter-claim, and Regnier never had more than the empty title. In Barnes' Charter iii. 3, Frescobaldi says, "I was myself brought up a page under Rayner, K. of S." In Shirley's Young Admiral i. 1, Cesario says to the K. of Naples, "Your son has defeated the Sn. bravely." In May's Heir iv. 2, Eubulus boasts that his ancestors "have been props of the Sn. crown . . . 'Gainst the hot French and Neapolitan." In W.T. Leontes is the K. of S, and Sa. is the scene of the first three (except iii. 3) and the last Acts. The historic period is quite indefinite. In Shakespeare's source, the History of Dorastus and Fawnia, the parts of the Kings of Bohemia and S. are reversed. In B. & F. Philaster, the hero is heir to the crown of S., but in i. 1, we are told that the Spanish Prince is likely to enjoy "both these kingdoms of S. and Calabria." Philaster, however, ultimately comes by his own. There is an imaginary Atticus, K. of S., in Swetnam.

The Fruitfulness of Sicily. In Nabbes' Hannibal v. 1, Hannibal calls S. "the world's granary." In Ford's Sun iv. 1, Autumn says, "A hundred grains Both from the Baltic and Sn. fields Shall be co-gested for thy sacrifice." Ignoto, in Eng. Helicon (1614), p. 250, says, "The corn of Sicil buys the western spice." In Rutter's Shepherd Hol. i. 4, Mirtillus asks: "Would you for all that fruitful S. can yield change one lock of your mistress' hair?" In Chapman's Caesar ii. 1, 169, Ophioneus calls Sa. "the very storehouse of the Romans." In Tiberius 149, Asinius speaks of "the fruitful S." In Massinger's Maid Hon. i. 1, Beroldo gives a long description of the island, pointing out the absence of gold and silver mines, of silkworms, and other sources of wealth, and concludes: "Nature did design us to be warriors."

Natural Products and Features. Nash, in Wilton 122, says, "Goats then bare wool, as it is recorded in S. they do yet." In Deloney's Craft ii. 6, Tom says that in Arcadia asses "swarm as thick as bees in S." (see HYBLA). In Lyly's Sapho ii. 4, Phao speaks of "our Sn. stone which groweth hardest by hammering." In Euphues Anat. Wit 38, he says that women harden their hearts "like the stone of Sa., the which the more it is beaten the harder it is." Lyly probably confuses Sn. with Silician, i.e. made of silex or flint. In T. Heywood's S. Age i., Pretus says, "Expose thyself Unto that monstrous beast of Cicily Called the Chimera." The legendary home of the Chimera was Lycia; but it was probably the personification of a volcano them and Heywood may have transferred it to AEtna; unless, indeed, Cicily is a slip for Lycia. The island of the Sirens, from whom Odysseus escaped by filling his ears with wax, was somewhere near S., if not S. itself. 1n Marmion's Leaguer iii. 4, Philautus says, "When she flatters . . . I will seal my ears with wax Took from that boat that rowed with a deaf oar From the sweet tunes of the Sn. shore." The whirlpool of Charybdis,was near the coast of S. In Chapman's Rev. Bussy iv. 2, 37, Renel says, "The woes are bloody that in women reign. The Sicile Gulf keeps fear in less degree." In Locrine i. 1, 107, Brutus speaks of passing "the Cicillian gulf "on his way from S. to Aquitania. In Tit. iii. 1, 242, Marcus says, "Now let hot AEtna cool in S., And be my heart an ever-burning fire." In Greene's Orlando ii. 1, 618, Orlando cries: "AEtna, forsake the bounds of S. For now in me thy restless flames appear." In v. 1, 1232, he speaks of "aspiring thoughts That burns as do the fires of Cicely." In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass iii. 2, 1192, the Magus says, The bill of Scicely . . . Sometime on sudden loth evacuate Whole flakes of fire and spews out from below The smoky brands that Vulcan's bellows drive."

S. was the home of Theocritus (born in Syracuse about 315 B.C.), Bion, and Moschus, the fathers of Pastoral Poetry. Hence the Sn. Muse means the Muse of Pastoral Poetry. Milton, in Lycidas 132, says, "Return, Alpheus, that dread voice is past That shrunk thy streams; return, Sn. Muse, And call the vales." The scenes of the following plays are laid in Sicily: Ado, W.T., Davenant's Platonic, Machin's Dumb Knight, May's Heir, Brome's Concubine, Cowley's Riddle, and Suckling's Sad One. See also under MESSINA, PALERMO, and SYRACUSE.


now VASILIKI. An ancient city of the Peloponnesus, lying abt. 2 m. from the Southern shore of the Gulf of Corinth, 15 m. N.W. of that city. It was famous for its olives, which Vergil calls "Sicyoniae baccae." In Ant. i. 2, 123, news is brought to Antony that his wife Fulvia has died "in S." as she was on her way from Italy to Asia to meet him. In T. Heywood's Dialogues xiv. 192, Crates tells of "2 rich men Being from S. unto Cyrra bound "who "Were in the mid way near Iapygium drowned." Cyrra, or Cirrha, is on the opposite shore of the Gulf of Corinth to S.; but it does not appear how these unhappy navigators got near Iapygium on their way. In Ford's Sun iv. 1, Autumn says, "Tiber shall pay thee apples and S. olives."


One of the most ancient cities of the Phoenicians, on the coast of Syria, about midway between Tyre and Beytout. It had a fine double harbour, now mostly silted up, and was a great commercial centre through which the products of the East were distributed to the countries on the Mediterranean. It was closely connected with Tyre, though it is still a question which was the mother-city. Both were regarded as cities of great wealth and luxury. Carthage was a colony of Tyre, and Dido is represented as the daughter of the King of Tyre. In Marlowe's Dido i. Venus tells Aeneas that in Carthage "Sidonian Dido reigns as Q." In Brandon's Octavia 524, Byllius mentions "Blanckbourg, a city near to S. placed "(see BLANCKBOURG). Milton P. L. i. 441, speaks of Astarte, "To whose bright image nightly by the moon Sidonian virgins paid their vows and songs." Astarte was a Phoenician goddess. In Cyrus i., Araspes says, "The covering is of blue Sydonian silk." The Phoenician dyes, prepared from the Murex, were famous throughout the ancient world. Greene, in Quip, p. 246, complains that the Milliners have "almost made England as full of proud fopperies as Tyre and S. were."


A city in Tuscany, standing on a hill 60 m. South of Florence, and 160 N.W. of Rome. of its earlier history little is known, but we find it in the 12th and 13th cents. under a more or less popular government, and engaged on the Ghibelline side in constant wars with Florence. Under the magistracy of the Nine, established in 1287, it entered on a period of prosperity, during which its University, founded in 1203, was reestablished and enlarged, and most of its public buildings begun. Wars with Charles IV took place in the 14th cent., and fresh quarrels with Florence resulted in an alliance with Milan and the acknowledgement of the suzerainty of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, which, however, only Lasted a very short time. The 15th cent. was filled with wars against Florence; for a brief period (1495–1512) Pandolfo Petrucci was supreme, but he did not succeed in founding a permanent dynasty; indeed, but for this short interlude, there was never any D. or Grand Signor of S.; and the personages who appear in some of our dramas under such a title are quite imaginary. Until it was finally annexed to Florence in 1557, S. maintained a republican form of government. It had the honour in 1859 of taking the first step toward the unification of Italy by voting for the annexation of Tuscany to Piedmont under Victor Emmanuel II. The Cathedral and the Palace, as well as many other public buildings, are well known both for their own splendour and for the magnificence of their art treasures. In All's Well i. 2, 1, the K. says, "The Florentines and Senoys are by the ears, Have fought with equal fortune and continue A braving war." The statement is taken from Boccaccio, whose Decameron is dated 1348; hence this war may have been that of 1260–69, the last one before that date. But Shakespeare neither knew nor cared when it was. In Gascoigne's Supposes ii. 1, Erostrato tells an imaginary story of how the customs officers in S. had interfered with the baggage of Count Hercules of Ferrara, and he had consequently sworn to be revenged on any Sienese who should be found in Ferrara; the date is 1508–1559. In B. & F. Women Pleased ii. 5, a Counsellor tells of a treaty between his royal mistress, the Duchess of Florence, and "S.'s D." A war follows between Florence and S., in which "the D. of S." is taken prisoner; but the Duchess of Florence offers him her hand and they are married. The whole story is imaginary. In Massinger's Great Duke i. 1, Contarino speaks of the great services done by Sanazzaro to Florence in the wars "'gainst Pisa and S." Cosmo de Medici besieged and took S. in 1555, and it was almost immediately annexed to Florence. In his Maid Hon., one of the characters is Aurelia, Duchess of S., and many of the scenes are laid in or near the city; but the whole thing is unhistorical, and there never was any Duchess Aurelia. In Shirley's Traitor i. 2, Lorenzo asks: "Is it possible A treason hatched is Florence 'gainst the D. Should have no eyes at home to penetrate The growing danger . . . but at S. One must, with a perspective, discover all?" Again we have to do, not with history, but with fiction.

In Middleton's Gipsy ii. 2, Sancho says, "I have an aunt in S. in Italy, I'll go see her." In Cockayne's Trapolin i. 2, Trapolin says he has often written letters "as when a lady writes to her brother at S." In ii. 3, Horatio characterizes it as "fine-languaged S." In Greene's Prier ix., Vandermast boasts: "I have given non-plus to the Paduans To them of Sien, Florence, and Bologna," where the Universities of these places are intended. S. is the scene of Ford's Fancies, and of Davenant's Cr. Brother; in the former appears an unhistorical cal Octavio, Marquess of S. In brief, there is little or nothing historical in any of the plays that deal with the Court of S., except that the authors knew something of the state of war which normally subsisted between S. and Florence.


The promontory at the era N.W. corner of Asia Minor, at the entrance of the Hellespont, now called Yenisheri. Here the Greeks were reported to have had their naval camp during the Trojan War; and a mound near the promontory is the traditional tomb of Achilles. In Shrew iii. 1, 28, Lucentio quotes Ovid's line, "Hic ibat Simois, hic est Sigeia tellus "("Here flowed the Simois, here is the land of Sigeum ").


A province of Prussia, lying between Bohemia and Poland. It once was part of Poland, but was ceded to the K. of Bohemia in 1355. The K. of Hungary took it in 1478, and in 1526 it became part of the Austrian dominions. It was treacherously seized and annexed to Prussia in 1740 by Frederick the Great. This act led to the War of the Austrian Succession (1741–1748), and was partly the cause of the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). In Cuckqueans iv. 8, Claribel says, "I have visited Moldavia and Livonia, Pamphlagonia and S." I suspect, from its position next to Pamphlagonia, that Cilicia is intended, q.v. But S. is near Moldavia, and may be the right reading.




A town is Palatine, now Seilun, in the tribe of Ephraim, 20 m. N. of Jerusalem. The Ark was taken there when the Israelites first entered Canaan, and it remained the central national sanctuary until it was destroyed by the Philistines in the time of Samuel. In Milton's S.A. 1674, the Chorus speaks of God as "our living Dread, who dwells in Silo, his bright sanctuary."


(now SILWAN). A vill. South-E of Jerusalem, on the opposite side of the valley of the Kedron. The Pool of Siloam still remains under the name of Birket Silwan. Isaiah (viii. 6) refers to "the waters of Siloah that go softly," and probably means the rock-cut conduit by which the water of the Pool was conveyed into the city. Milton, P. L. i. 11, speaks of "Siloa's brook that flowed Fast by the Oracle of God." He probably meant the brook Kedron, which flows under the E. wall of the Temple on Mt. Moriah; though clearly the passage in Isaiah was in his mind.


A tribe of ancient Britons who inhabited what is now Glamorgansh., Monmouthsh., and Herefordsh. They were amongst the most determined opponents both of the Romans and the Saxons. Henry Vaughan, who was born in Brecknocksh., calls himself in the title-page of his Silex Scintillans (1650) "Henry Vaughan Silurist." Is Fisher's Fps ii. 5, Belinus says, "Them the Silures flank, 8,000 stout."


Lond., runs W. from wood St., Cheapside, to Falcon Sq. It was probably so called from the silversmiths who had their shops there. In this st. is the Hall of the Parish Clerks' Company. In Jonson's Epicoene iv. 1, Otter says of his wife: "All her teeth were made in the Blackfriars, both her eyebrows in the Strand, and her hair in S.-st." In his Staple iii. 2, Censure says, "A notable tough rascal, this old Pennyboy! Right city-bred!" to which Mirth replies: "In S.-st., the region of money, a good seat for an usurer." Shakespeare at one time lodged with one Christopher Mountjoy in S. St.




A mtn. torrent rising in the Ida range and flowing past Troy into the Scamander. It is the modem Dumbrek Chai, which, however, has diverted its course and flows direct into the Hellespont. In Sackville's Gorboduc iii. 1, 2, Gorboduc talks of "S. stained streams Flowing with blood of Trojan princes slain." In Locrine ii. 3, 33, Thrasimachus speaks of "Hector and Troilus . . . . the Graecians over Simoeis." In Lucr. 1437, we read, "From the strand of Dardan where they fought To S. reedy banks the red blood ran." In Taming of a Shrew, Haz., p. 513, Ferando swears, "More fair and radiant is my lovely Kate Than silver Zanthus when he doth embrace The ruddy Simies at Ida's feet." Zanthus [Xanthus] was the name of the Scamander amongst the Gods. In T. Heywood's B. Age iii., Anchises says, "Scamander fields They have strewed with carcases, and S. streams Already purpled with the blood of Trojans." In Jonson's Poetaster i. 1, Ovid writes: "Homer will live Whilst Tenedois stands or Ide, Or to the sea fleet S. doth slide." In Marmion's Leaguer ii. 1, Fidelio says, "I would have you Fair and pleasant as Love's Q. When she Anchises came to kiss On the banks of S." Aphrodite fell in love with Anchises of Troy and bore him Aeneas. In Shrew iii. 1, 28, Lucentio quotes Ovid's line: "Hic ibat, S., hic est Sigeia tellus, "and translates "Hic ibat, as I told you before, S., I am Lucentio," and Bianca retorts: "Hic ibat S, I know you not."


(i.e. CHINESE). The name Tsin for China was known as early as the 12th cent. B.C. Milton, P. L. xi. 390, mentions, amongst the great cities of the world, "Paquin, of Sinaean kings "(i.e. PEKIN, q.v.).


A mtn. in the Southern part of the between the Gulfs of Suez and Akabah. is now generally identified with Ras-es-Sufsafeh, at the head of the plain of Er-Rahah. Here, according to Jewish tradition, the Law was given through Moses to the children of Israel after their Exodus from Egypt. It is called Horeb in some of the sources of the O.T. It was to the dist. near S. that Moses fled from Egypt, and here he kept the flocks of Jethro. In York M. P. ii. 94, Moses says, "Now am I here to keep Set under Synay side, the bp. Jethro sheep." In Harrowing of Hell 222, Moses says, "Lord, thou gave me with all skill The law of Sinay upon the hill." Milton P. L. i. 7, invokes the "Heavenly Muse that on the secret top of Oreb, or of S., didst inspire That shepherd"; i.e. Moses. In xii. 227, Michael predicts the giving of the law by "God from the mt. of S." In Ode on Nativity 158, Milton describes the trumpet of the Resurrection as sounding "With such a horrid clang As on mt. S. rang "(see Exodus xix. 16). In Spenser's Sheph. Cal. July, 73, Morrell, discoursing of hills, says: "Of Synah can I tell thee more." Montaigne (Florio's Trans, 1603) ii. 12, says, "We are no nearer heaven on the top of Sina mt. than in the bottom of the deepest sea." Peele, in Bethsabe prol., speaks of the Muse of David: "Decking her temples with the glorious flowers Heavens rained on tops of Sion and Mt. S." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. iii. 1, the K. of Jerusalem says that his troops "On Mt. S. with their ensigns spread Look like the party-coloured clouds of heaven." It is, of course, absurd to suppose that troops from Palestine would rendezvous at Mt. S.


(the ancient SENA GALLICA). A town in Italy on the Adriatic, 17 m. N. of Ancona. Here Caesar Borgia perfidiously massacred his allies in 1502. In Barnes' Charter iv. 5, Guicchiardine says, "Caesar Betrayed the D. of Fermo at Sinigaglia." In Cockayne's Trapolin ii. 3, Horatio calls it "ill-aired Simegallia."


One of the hills on which Jerusalem was built. It has been customary to apply the name to the South-W. hill; but recent researches have shown that the original Mt. S. or City of David was upon the Southern spur of the Temple MU, or Mt. Moriah. The word is often used as equivalent to Jerusalem; and in later times it,came to be a synonym for Heaven; and also for the Christian Ch. In Peele's Bethsabe ii. 1, Bethsabe says, "Jerusalem is filled with thy complaint, And in the sts. of S. sits thy grief." Milton, P. L. i. 10, says to the Heavenly Muse, "if S. hill Delight thee more . . . I thence Invoke thy aid to my adventurous song." In 386 he speaks of "Jehovah thundering out of S., throned Between the cherubim." In 453 he calls the women of Jerusalem "S.'s daughters." In 442 he says that Astarte was "In S. also not unsung." In iii. 30, he mentions "S. and the flowery brooks beneath." In 530 he describes the passage from the outside of the stellar Universe to the earth as being directly "Over Mt. S." In P. R. iv. 347, the Hebrew Psalms are called "S.'s songs." Hall, in Sat. i. 8, 3, says, in reference to the religious poets of his time: "Parnassus is transformed to S. hill," and calls them "Ye S. Muses." In Mariam i. 6, Constabarus speaks of Herod's temple as "the stately carved edifice That on Mt. S. makes so fair a show." Herod's Temple was, however, on Mt. Moriah, not on Mt. S. In T. Heywood's Traveller i. 1, Mrs. Wincott speaks of young Geraldine's discourse: "Whether S. and those hills about With the adjacent towns and villages Keep that proportioned distance as we read." T. Heywood's Prentices ends 'IS. and Jerusalem are won." The Puritans used S. to mean the true Ch, i.e. themselves; and Babylon for the Roman and Anglican churches. In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] v. 6, Tabitha says, "Brother Abednego . . . you will not open before S. in the dressings of Babylon?" i.e. preach in a surplice.


A mansion on the N. bank of the Thames, abt. 1 m. South of Brentford, and near the W. end of Kew Gardens. It was formerly a nunnery, founded in 1414 by Henry V. At the dissolution of the monasteries it was seized by the K., and the nuns ultimately found their way to Lisbon. Edward VI gave it to the D. of Somerset, who began the present mansion; afterwards it was bestowed on the D. of Northumberland, and it still remains in the possession of that family. When Northumberland H. at Charing Cross was pulled down in 1874, the famous lion that surmounted it was transferred to S. H., where it may now be seen. In Peele's Jests we are told that "George took a walk from Brainford to S., where, having the advantage of a pair of oars at hand, he made this journey to Lond."


A spur of Mt. Tmolus in Lydia between the river Hermus and the city of Smyrna; now called Sipuli Dagh. In certain conditions of the light one of the cliffs seems to resemble the figure of a woman, and it was supposed by the ancients to be Niobe, who, through her grief at the loss of her children, was said to have been turned into this. perpetually weeping rock. In Pembroke's Antonie ii. 368, the Chorus says of Niobe" She yet doth mount where with his top to skies Mt. Sipylus doth rise."


A door in the middle aisle of Old St. Paul's, Lond, on which advertisements of various kinds, especially those of servants needing employment, were posted up. They began (in Latin) with the words "Si Quis," i.e. "If any one "sc. wants a servant, etc. Dekker, in Hornbook iv., advises the gallant, "The first time you venture into Powles, presume not to fetch as much as one whole turn in the middle aisle, no, nor to cast an eye to Si Quis door (pasted and plastered up with serving-men's supplications)." Hall, in Sat. ii. 5, says, "Saw'st thou ever Si Quis patched on Paul's ch. door, To seek some. vacant vicarage before?" In Jonson's Ev. Man O. ii. 2, we have a stage direction: "Enter Shift with 2 si-quisses in his hand." When Mitis asks: "What makes he in Paul's now?" Cordatus says, "Troth, for the advancement of a si quis or two." In iii. 1, Shift says, "I have set up my bills without discovery." Puntarvolo comes in and reads one of them, beginning: "If there be any lady or gentleman "wanting a gentleman usher, etc.








The Capella Sistina built by Sixtus IV in 1473. It is in the Vatican at Rome, at the N.E. of St. Peter's. It is chiefly memorable for the frescoes of Michel Angelo. In Barnes' Charter iii. 5, the page, being asked the time, says, "By Sisto's horologe 'tis struck eleven."


The valley N.E. of the Dead Sea, in the plains of Moab; now Ghor es Seisaban. The Israelites were encamped here when they were seduced into idolatry by the Moabites (Numbers xxv. 1). Milton P. L. 1, 413, tells how Peor "enticed Israel in Sittim, on their march from Nile."


A town in Kent, 38 m. South-E. of Lond, and abt. 9 m. E. of Faversham. It was on the Pilgrims' Road to Canterbury, In Chaucer's C. T. D. 847, the Sumnour says, "'I bishrewe me But if I telle tales two or thre of Freres, er I come to Sidyngborne." In Feversham ii. 1, Will says, "Sirrah Shakebag, canst thou remember since we trolled the bowl at Sittingburgh where I broke the tapster's head of the Lyon with a cudgel-stick?"




The Scheldt, a river rising in N. France and flowing through Belgium past Oudenarde, Ghent, and Antwerp to the North Sea, which it reaches by 2 channels, the E. and W. Scheldt. At Antwerp it is 1600 ft. wide and 45 deep, and forms a capacious and safe harbour. Spenser, F. Q. ii. 10, 24, referring to the mythical victories of the 2nd Brute over the men of Hainault, says, "Let Scaldis tell . . . What colour were their waters that same day." Bryskett, in Astrophel (1591), says of the death of Sidney: "The Scheldt, the Danow self, this great mischance did rue." In Larum A. 3, Danila says, "They do not sink The Prince of Orenge ships but suffer them To lie so near within the river Skalde."


An old spring on the W. side of Clerkenwell Ch., Lond. The name is preserved in Skinner St. which leads to the point where the old wen was. The Skin Market on each side of what is now Percival St. continued till the middle of the 18th cent. At Skinners Well the clerks of Lond. performed what is styled a Ludus valde sumptuosus in 1384, which lasted 5 days; similar performances are recorded in 1391 and 1409. The subjects of these plays were the Scriptural stories from the Creation to the Last Judgment.


A general name for the Slav races, which include the Russians, Bulgarians, Servo-Croats, Poles, Czechs, Moravians, and Wends. Popularly it is used as equivalent to Russian. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 1, Uribassa reports: "K. Sigismund hath brought from Christendom More than his camp of stout Hungarians, Sclavonians, Almain rutters, Muffes, and Danes." In Middleton's [ed. note: Dekker's] Hon. Wh. B. iv. 1, Matheo says, "Lodovico is a noble S.; it's more rare to see him in a woman's company than for a Spaniard to go into England and to challenge the English fencers there." The Russians were supposed to be very cold-blooded and indifferent to women. Donne, in Sat. (1593) ii. 59, speaks of "words . . . More, more than 10 Sclavonians, scolding." In Shirley's Gamester iii, Sclavonia is used as a name for an imaginary land of gamblers, probably because they are the slaves of their bad habit. The Nephew speaks of it as Sclavonia; Wilding objects that that they know that country; "but," says the Nephew, "you do not know that Sclavonia I mean"; and pro proceeds to describe under this disguise the follies of the gaming-house.


The embankment along the Thames which was built to protect the low-lying dist. of Lambeth Marsh from inundations. It was used as a landing-place for those who crossed the river to Lambeth. In Middleton's R. G. v. 2, a servant says of the runaway lovers: "They were met upon the water an hour since, Sir, Putting in towards the S. , "'The S.?" says Sir Alexander; "come, gentlemen, 'Tis Lambeth works against us."


A fortified town in Holland, near the mouth of the Scheldt, 10 m. E. of Bruges. It was taken by Prince Maurice in 1604. In Webster's Weakest v. 3, Villiers says, "This gentlewoman . . . Being embarked for England with her daughter, 'Twixt S. in Flanders, where she went aboard, And Goodwin Sands by sturdy adverse winds Was beaten back upon the coast of France." In Barnavelt iv. 5, Barnavelt asks: "When the Sluice was lost and all in mutiny in Middleborough, who durst step in before me to do these countries service?" In T. Heywood's Challenge ii. 1, the Clown punningly says, "At Sluce we were both well washed." In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 4, Tristram says that the pander, the bawd, and the whore "lived by Flushing, by S., and the Groyne." It is unnecessary to explain the unsavoury double entendres.




An open space, E. of the Tower of Lond., just outside the city walls. It was a haunt of riverside thieves, and was often used as the place for their execution. In Contention, Part I, Haz., p. 497, Lord Skayles says of Jack Cade: "The rebels have attempted to win the Tower, But get you to S. and gather head And thither will I send you Mathew Goffe." In H6 B. iv. 6, 13, Dick reports to Cade: "There's an army gathered together in S." The next scene is laid in S., and Mathew Goffe is slain. Evidently East S. is intended.


Originally the smethe, i.e. smooth, field. An open space between 5 and 6 acres in extent, lying in the triangle formed by Holborn, Aldersgate St., and Charterhouse St., in Lond. On its E. side was the ch. and hospital of St. Bartholomew. It was the market for horses, cattle, sheep, and hay, from very early times until 1855, when the cattle market was removed to Copenhagen Fields, though the hay market was stiff continued; and the N. side was appropriated for the Metropolitan meat market. The open space lent itself to jousts and tournaments, and was also used for executions. Many martyrs were burnt at the stake at a point opposite the entrance to the ch. of St. Bartholomew, where, in 1849, excavations discovered, abt. 3 ft. below the surface, the ashes which marked the site of the burnings; a granite slab in the wall of St. Bartholomew's Hospital indicates the. spot. Howes, in Annales (1631), says, "This field was for many years called Ruffians Hall by reason it was the usual place of frays and common fighting during the time that swords and bucklers were in use." Here was held the famous Fair of St. Bartholomew on August 24th (see under BARTHOLOMEW, ST.). It was in S. that Sir W. Walworth slew Wat Tyler, on June 15th, 1381. In 1615 the whole place was paved and drained at a cost of about £1600.

Historical Allusions. In Straw ii., the Lord Mayor says, "The rebels are defacing houses of hostelity, St. John's in S., the Savoy, and such like." The Priory of St. John was a little N. of S. In Johnson's Nine Worthies (1592), an account is given of the death of Wat Tyler at the hands of Walworth at the place appointed for the meeting of the rebels and the K. "in S." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. i. 17, the Mayor says, "Such a rebel was by Walworth, the Lord Mayor of Lond., stabbed dead in S."

The Horse and Cattle Market. In H4 B. i. 2, 57, the Page says to Falstaff that Bardolph is "gone into S. to buy your worship a horse," to which Falstaff replies, "I bought him in Paul's and he'll buy me a horse in S.; an I could get me but a wife in the Stews, I were manned, horsed, and wived!" In More iv. 1, the Clown says, "Many such rewards would make us all ride, and horse us with the best nags in S." In Middleton's R. G. iii. 1, Laxfield asks, "Are we fitted with good frampul jades?" and the Coachman replies, "The best in S., I warrant you, Sir." The note in the Mermaid edition–"a noted market for worthless horses"–is quite misleading; there were bad horses sold at S., but there were good ones too; and the Coachman is praising, not running down, his steeds. In Jonson's Tub i. 2, Puppy says, "What's that, a horse? Can scourse [i.e. deal] nought but a horse, and that in Smithveld?" Jonson, in Discoveries, p. 697, says that one who does courtesies merely for his own sake "hath his horse well drest for S." In W. Rowley's New Wonder ii. 1, the Widow says, "'Tis thought, if the horse-market be removed, that S. shall be so employed," sc. as a market for the sale of widows. In the Cobler of Canterbury a couplet runs: "When in S. on Fridays no jades you can see, Then the Cobler of Rumney shall a cuckold be." Friday was the day of the horse-market. In Dekker's Lanthorn, chapter x. is headed "The knavery of horsecoursers in S. discovered"; and an account follows of the various tricks which gave to the phrase "a S. bargain "the meaning of a deal in which the buyer is swindled. In Brome's Damoiselle ii. 1, Amphilus asks of his mare: "Was it well done of her to die to-day, when she had been i' my purse to-morrow in S.?" He had ridden her up from the country to sell her. In Jonson's Barthol. iii. 1, Waspe says to Cokes, "Will you scourse with him? You are in S., you may fit yourself with a fine easy-going street-nag for your saddle." In B. & F. Prize i. 4, Rowland says, "When I credit women more, may I to S., and there buy a jade, and know him to be so, that breaks my neck!" Burton, A. M. iii. 5, 4, 2, quotes a proverb: "He that buys a horse is S. and hires a servant in Pauls, shall likely have a jade to his horsy knave for his man." Lupton, in London Carbonadoed (1632), says, "He that fights upon a horse in this place [Smithfield] from an old horse-courser, sound both in wind and limb, may light of an honest wife in the stews." In Curates Conference (1641), Needham says, "Juniors and dunces take possession of Colleges; and scholarships and fellowships are bought and sold, as horses in S." In Massinger's Madam i. 2, Plenty says, "The wool of my sheep, or a score or two of fat oxen in S., give me money for my expenses." The presence of the drovers brought it about that there were many taverns in S. In B. & F. Wit S. W. iv. 1, Ruinous makes "the Goat at S. Pens "the rendezvous for his companions in vice.

Bartholomew Fair. In Jonson's Barthol., Ind., the Stage-keeper, pretending to decry the play, says, "When't comes to the Fair once, you were e'en as good go to Virginia, for any thing there is of S. He has not hit the humours, he does not know them." In his Volpone v. 2, the Merchant says of Sir Politick's performance: "'Twere a rare motion [i.e. puppet-show] to be seen in Fleet-st., or S. in the fair." In Davenant's Plymouth iii. 1, Seawit says, "My father fought pitched battles in S. without blood." Boxing and wrestling were features of the Fair. In Abington ii. 4, Coomes says, "I had a sword, ay, the flower of S. for a sword, a right fox, i' faith." Swords were sold at the Pair; and there were many armourers' shops in the neighbourhood of S. In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Thorowgood, in his schemes for improving Lond., says, "S. shall be A Romish cirque or Grecian hippodrome."

Executions. In H6 B. ii. 3, 7, the K. says, "The witch in S. shall be burned to ashes And you 3 shall be strangled on the gallows." The witch was Margery Jourdemain of Eye. The gallows was erected at the Elms between the horse-pond and Turnmill Brook, and was the usual place of execution before the removal of the gallows to Tyburn in the reign of Henry IV. In Jonson's Barthol. iv. 1, Cokes says, "Bartholomew Fair, quoth he!an ever any Bartholomew had that luck in't that I have had, I'll be martyred for him, and in S., too." Perhaps an allusion to the Protestants martyred at S. in Queen Mary's time. In Brome's Sparagus i. 5, Friswood says, "Let me see the paper; I would be loth to shorten his days with the danger of my neck, or making a bon-fire in S." In Fair Women ii. 1531, Tom says, "S. is full of people, and the sheriffs man told us it [the execution] would be to-day." In the pamphlet of this murder we are told that the execution took place in S., and that the spectators thronged the housetops and even the battlements of St. Bartholomews.

Trials by Combat were held in S. The fist between Homer and Peter in H6 B. ii. 3, is a parody of an actual appeal to combat which was fought in S. between John David and his ma ter, William Catur, is 1446. In Treasure, Haz. iii. 266, Lust, after wrestling with just, says, "I shall meet you in S. or else otherwhere; By His flesh and blood I will not then forbear." In Jonson's Barthol., Ind., the Bookholder exhorts the audience "not to look back to the sword and buckler age of S., but content himself with the present." Nash, is Christ's Tears, says, "No S. ruffianly swash-buckler will come off with such harsh, hell-raking oaths as they."


A wooden barrier on the North of S., Lond., which marked the boundary between the City Liberties and the County of Middlesex. The rune survived tiff the building of the new Meat Market which covered the site. Taylor, in Works ii. 102, calls a certain woman "the honestest woman that dwells between S. B. and Clerkenwell." This is a left-handed compliment, as the dist. was one of evil repute. In Greene's Thieves, Kate says, "I'll so set his name out, that the boys at S. B. shall chalk him on the back for a crosbite."


The lanes occupied by houses of ill-fame in Lond. The best known was a lane on the W. of Spitalfields leading from Bell Lane to Artillery St. near Bishopsgate Without, close to Petticoat Lane, now Middlesex St. In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Iniquity says to Pug, "We will make forth our sallies Down Petticoat Lane and up the Smock-alleys."


The largest and most important city in Asia Minot , and a great trade centre. It stands at the head of the Gulf of S., about midway down the W. coast of the peninsula. Old S. lay some 3 m. N. of the present city. It was destroyed by the Lydian K. Sadyattes about 700 B.C. The new city on the present site was built 4 cents. later by Alexander the Gt. S. was one of the claimants to be the birthplace of Homer. In Selimus 1928, Corcut says, "I fled fast to S., where we might await the arrival of some ship that might transport us safely unto Rhodes." Lyly, in prol. to Gallathea, says, "Ios and S. were 2 sweet cities; Homer was born is the one and buried in the other." Lodge, is Answer to Gosson, p. 11, asks, "Why seek the Smirnians to recover from the Salaminians the praise of Homer?"


A mtn. range in Carnarvonsh., the highest peak of which is the loftiest mtn. in South Britain and reaches a height of 3571 ft. The last refuge of the Welsh was in this range, but it was penetrated and reduced by Edward I. The native name was Craig-Eriri, q.v. In Peele's Ed. I i., Sussex says, "The men sad women of Sowdon [an obvious misprint] have sent in great abundance of cattle and corn." Drayton, in Polyolb. ix. 169, says, "Snowdony, a hill, imperial in his seat, Is from his mighty foot unto his head so great That, were his Wales distrest, or of his help had need, He all her flocks. and herds for many months could feed."


(an obvious misprint for LORRAINE, q.v.). In Chapman's Rev. Bussy v. 1, Guise speaks of advertisements he has received in regard to the Catholic League "from Rome and Spain, Soccaine and Savoy "(Mermaid edition).


An ancient city in Palestine, E. of the Jordan; probably N. of the Dead Sea, though some authorities would place it at its South end. According to Gen. xix. it was destroyed by fire from heaven along with the 4 other Cities of the Plain, viz. Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim, and Zoar. Its wickedness became proverbial; and from the incident recorded in Gen. xix. 4, 5, Sodomy came to mean unnatural sexual crime. The burning of S. and Gomorrah was the subject of a popular Motion or Puppet-play. Protestant writers often use S. as a synonym for the Ch. of Rome. A kind of apple was supposed to grow near its site which looked fresh and sweet but turned to ashes in the mouth-possibly the fruit of Solanum Sodomeum. Phillip, in Grissil 386, says, "As God did plague S. and Gomorrah in his ire So will be destroy the wicked with flaming fire." In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass i. 2, the Angel compares Nineveh to S. and Gomorrah full of sin." In Shirley's Duke's Mist. iv. 1, Horatio says of a lady's painted face: "Her cheeks represent Gomorrah and her sister S. burning." In Jack Drum iv. 205, Pasquil says, "Then comes pale-faced lust; next S., then Gomorha." In Bale's Johan 190, the K. says, "The Romish ch. I mean, more vile than ever was S." In his Promises iii., Pater Coelestis says, "The vile Sodomites live so unnaturally That their sin vengeance asketh continually." In his Three Laws ii., Idolatry says, "I dwelt among the Sodomites, the Benjamites, and Midianites, And now the popish hypocrites embrace me everywhere." In the prol. to the same play, he speaks of "Idols and stinking Sodometry." Taylor, in Works iii. 137, says, "The Pope then caused all priests to leave their wives To lead foul Sodomitick single lives." Nash, in Wilton, speaks of "the art of whoring, the art of poisoning, the set of Sodomitry." Milton, P. L. i. 503, speaking of the sins of the sons of Belial, says: "Witness the street of S."

In Jonson's Barthol. v. 1, Leatherhead says, "O the motions that I have given light to!Jerusalem was a stately thing, and so was Nineveh, and the City of Norwich, and S. and Gomorrah." .In Webster's White Devil iii. 1, Monticelso says of Vittoria: "You see, my, what goodly fruit she seems; Yet like those apples travellers report To grow where S. and Gomorrah stow, I will but touch her, and you straight shall see She'll fall to dust and ashes." Maundeville says they are full fair apples, but have coal and cinders within; though he frankly admits, "I neither saw nor heard of any." Milton P.L. x. 562, says, "Greedily they plucked The fruitage fair to eight, like that which grew Near that bituminous Luke where 9. 9d . . . . They . . . instead of fruit, Chewed bitter ashes."


Probably a nick-name for a Lane of ill-repute in Lond.; I cannot identify it further. In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] i. 5, Worm says, "Did I not see thee once in a quarrel at ninepins behind Sodom-Lane disarmed with one of the pins? "


A dist. on the South-E. coast of Africa on the Mozambique Channel, between Delagoa Bay and the Zambesi. It exported a certain amount of gold-dust, and was hence by some commentators identified with the Ophir from which Solomon brought gold. Milton, P. L. xi. 400, mentions among the kingdoms shown in vision to Adam "Mombaza, and Quiloa, and Melind, And Sofala, thought Ophir."


A dist. in Central Asia, South-E. of the Sea of Aral, between the Oxus and the Jaxartes. It roughly corresponds to Turkestan and Bokkhara. Alexander the Gt. conquered the country, and seems to have spent nearly 3 years there and in the neighbouring Bactriana. In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, Caesar says of Alexander: "Bactrians and Zogdians, known but by their names, Were by his arms subdued." In Chapman's Trag. Byron iv. 1, Byron says, "The great Macedon Was said . . . To bring the barbarous Sogdians to nourish Not kill, their aged parents as before." Milton, P. R. iii. 302, describes an imaginary expedition of the Parthian K. "Against the Scythian, whose incursions wild Have wasted Sogdiana."


A town on the east of Cilicia in Asia Minor, abt. 30 m. W. of Tarsus. The Greek spoken by the inhabitants was very corrupt, this gave the word solecism, for a piece of bad grammar or construction; and then for an error in etiquette, or any impropriety. in Lyly's Midas iii. 1, the K. calls to mind "my cruelties in Lycaonia, my usurping in Getulia, my oppression in Sola." Nash, in Foure Lett. Conf. 70, challenges his critics: "Suck out one soloecisme or misshapen English word if thou canst." In Massinger Unnat. Coin. iii. 1, the Steward says, "He ne'er observed you . . . take A say of venison or stale fowl by your mm, Which is a solecism at another's table." In Jonson's Cynthia v. 2, Amorphus says, "Forgive it now; it was the solaecism of my stars." In his Epigrams cxvi., he speaks of "A desperate solaecism is truth and wit."


(probably SOLETO is meant). A town in the heel of Italy, a few m. South of Lecco. It still possesses 2 convents. In Brome's Concubine v. 9, the K. says, "I vowed my after life unto the monastery of holy Augustinians at Solanto."


A city of N. Syria, apparently somewhere between Aleppo and Tripoli; possibly Baalbek is meant, the old name of which, Heliopolis, might be translated by Sol-dino, the city of the Sun. It lies about half-way between Tripoli and Damascus. In Marlowe's Tamb. D. iii. 1, the K. of Soria says, "From Soria with 70,000 strong Ta'en from Aleppo, Soldino, Tripoli, And so on to my city of Damasco, I march."


(i.e. SOLESMES). A town in N. France near the boundary of Belgium, 20 m. E. of Cambrai. In Barnavelt iii., Barnavelt has letters from "the K. of Swechland sand the Count of Solems."


(an obvious misprint for SABINES, q.v.). In Tiberius 1840, Germanicus, referring to ancient Roman history, says, "Witness the tempests of the Solines troops and Titias Titaias' [i.e. Titus Tatius] doubtful treachery."


A palace in Lond. on the South side of the Strand between Strand Lane and Wellington St. The 1st S. H. was built by the Protector S. in the reign of Edward VI in 1549. It occupied the sites of the old ch. of St. Mary-at-Strand and the Inns of the Bps. of Chester and Worcester, which were palled down to make room for it. James I gave it to his Q. in 1616, and in her honour it was renamed Denmark H. A chapel was built by Inigo Jones for Q. Henrietta Maria in 1632. All these buildings were pulled down in 1775 and replaced by the present S. H., with its fine façade towards the Thames. It is used partly as Government offices, partly for the work of King's College. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 3z6, the Swordbearer says, "The Q. comes along the Strand from S. H." Daniel's Hymen's Triumph was performed here in 16l4 in honour of the wedding of Lord Roxborough. See also DENMARK HOUSE.


(Srt.=Somerset). A county in South W. of England. The S. dialect is characterized by the flattening of s to x and f to v, and the county is often called Zomerzetshire in consequence; ich is used for I, and contractions like cham (I am), chave (I have), chill (I will) are common. Specimens of this dialect are found in Respublica, Horestes, King Lear, Gurton, Sparagus, and other plays in which rustics are introduced. The county shared with the rest of the W. country a great reputation for skill in wrestling. In Respublica v. 6, Avarice says, "I would have brought half Kent into Northumberland, And S. should have raught to Cumberland." In Middleton's Quarrel v. 1, Chough passes through "Wookey in S." on his way from Cornwall to Lond. Wookey Hole is a famous cavern in the Mendip Hills. In Brome's Sparagus ii. 3, Hoyden says that his father was "as rank a clown as any in S."; and in iv. a, Tom says, "Did you know a zuster of Mr. Striker's that was married into Zummerzet shire?" In Hercules i. 3, 471, marg. Dromio, describing the behaviour of his fellow-passengers at sea, says: "One did, I take it, the S. trick fairly over; but indeed he never came back again." There is a pun here on the word somersault, which has nothing to do with S. wrestling, though it is often, by a sort of Hobson-Jobson derivation, spelled Srt. Thus Nash, in Saffron Walden Intro., desires that his pen may be inspired "with some of his nimblest Pomados and Sommersets." In, B. & F. Fair Maid I. iv. 2, Forobosco says, "Now I will only make him break his neck in doing a sommerset."

Srt. was a territorial title in the English Peerage. The Srt. of H6 A. was John, son of John Beaufort, eldest natural son of John of Gaunt. He succeeded his brother as Earl of Srt. in 1418, and was created D. in 1443; he died the following year. He was made Capt.-General of France in 1443., In ii. 4, he is represented as having selected the red rose as the badge of the Lancastrian party in the famous scene in the Temple Garden. He is present in iv. 1, at the coronation of Henry in Paris in 143 1, and quarrels with York, but is reconciled by the K. In iv. 3, 9, York blames "that villain Srt." for not having sent him reinforcements in France; and in iv. 1, Srt. excuses himself on the ground that the expedition led by York and Talbot was "too rashly plotted." But as this took place at the time of Talbot's death, viz. 1453, it is clear that Shakespeare confuses John of Srt. with his brother Edmund, who was created D. in 1447 and sent to France as regent. He is present in H6 B. i. i. In i. 2, 29, Gloucester relates how he dreamed that "Edmund, D. of Srt, lost his head." In v. 2, Richd. of Gloucester kills him at the 1st battle of St. Albans; and in H6 C. i. 1, flings his head down on the floor of Parliament House. He was succeeded by his son Henry, who was beheaded after the battle of Hexham in 1463. His brother Edmund succeeded him and is the Srt. who appears at Edward's court in iv. 1–which is a mistake, for he was always on the side of Henry–and who is beheaded after the battle of Tewkesbury in v. 5. In v. 7, 5, Edward boasts: "We have mowed down 3 Dukes of Srt, three-fold renowned For hardy and undoubted champions." The present Dukes are descended from Edward Seymour, who was created D. in 1547 and is best known as the Protector Srt. He was beheaded, but the title was restored to his heir in 1660. He is the D. of Srt. who, in Feversham i. 1, is reported to have given the lands of the Abbey of Faversham to Arden; Arden's murder took place in 1550.


A river in N. France, rising near St. Quentin, and flowing in a W. direction through the old Province of Picardy, past Amiens and Abbeville into the English Channel. Cressy and Agincourt both lie N. of the Somme. In Ed. III iii. 5, the K. says, just before the battle of Cressy, "Where's the Frenchman by whose cunning guide We found the shallow of this river Some?" In H5 iii. 5, 1, the French K. says of Henry, just before the battle of Agincourt."Tis certain he hath passed the river Somme."


A st. in Lond, now called Queen St., running South from Cheapside to Southwark Bdge., a little E. of the Ch. of St. Mary-le-Bow. It was so cared from the soapmakers, or soapers, who dwelt there. The name was altered to Queen St. in 1667 in honour of the wife of Charles II. In Middleton's Triumph Truth we are told: "At Soper-lane end a Senate-house [was] erected "as a part of the scenery of the pageant.


The cathedral at Constantinople built by the emperor Justinian A.D. 531–538 The dome rises 180 ft. above the pavement. It was converted, or rather perverted, into a mosque by the Turks. Boorde, in Intro. of Knowledge, p. 172, says, "The ch. is called Saynte Sophyes ch., in the which be a wonderful sight of priests."


In Paris, the seat of the Académie de France, on the E. side of the Boulevard Michel, near the Luxembourg and the Panthéon. It was originally a theological college, built by Robert de Sorbon about 1255. It grew to be the headquarters of learning in Paris, and discussions on all subjects were held there. It was mainly, however, a school of theology, and its professors were resorted to for decisions on points of theology and canonical law. It had the honour of introducing printing into France is 1469. Richelieu reconstructed the buildings, but it was suppressed at the Revolution in 1790. It was re-established as the Académie de Paris in 1808, and its buildings were once more reconstructed in 1884. The old ch. is, however, retained. Rabelais, in Pantagruel ii. 10, describes how Pantagruel "went afterwards to the S, where he maintained argument against all the theologians or divines for the space of 6 weeks." In Chapman's D'Olive i. 1, D'Olive boasts that his chambers shall be "a second S. where all doubts or differences of learning, honour, duellism, criticism, and poetry shall be disputed." In Marlowe's Massacre i. 9, Ramus says, "The blockish Sorbonnists Attribute as much unto their own works As to the service of the eternal God."


(now the WADY SURAR). It runs from the N. of Jerusalem westward to Beth-Shemesh, and forms the easiest way from the Philistine Plain to that city. Sorek itself lies 16 m. due W. of Jerusalem, near the entrance of the Wady. In Milton's S. A. 229, Samson says, "the next I took to wife . . . was in the vale of Sorec, Dalila." See Judges xvi. 4.


Probably the dist. round Tyre, the old name of which was Sor, is meant; or it may be a variant spelling of Syria. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. ii. 2, Frederick mentions amongst the allies of Tamburlaine "the Kings of S. and Jerusalem." In iii. 1, the K. of S. says, "From S. with 70,000 strong Ta'en from Aleppo, Soldino, Tripoli, I march." In Jonson's Volpone iv. 1, Sir Politick has a plan to discover the plague in "a ship newly arrived from S. or from any suspected part of all the Levant."




(apparently meant for SURREY, q.v.). In Skelton's Elinour Rumming pass. 1, it is said that that lady "dwelt in Sothray In a certain stead Beside Leatherhead." Leatherhead is in Surrey.


The strait between the island of Zealand and Sweden, leading from the Cattegat into the Baltic. At its narrowest point, between Elsinore and Helsingborg, it is only 3 m. wide. All vessels passing through the S. had to anchor at Elsinore and pay a customs fee to Denmark. In Webster's Cuckold iv. 1, Pettifog says, "Custom is not more truly paid in the S. of Denmark."


A town in Warwicksh., 9 m. E. of Warwick, and 11 South-E. of Coventry. In H6 C. v. 1, 9, Somerville reports: "At S. did I leave him [Clarence] with his forces." Warwick, who is looking westward towards Warwick from the walls of Coventry, hears a drum in that direction, and says, "Then Clarence is at hand." Somerset corrects him: "It is not his, my lord; here S. lies," pointing to the South-E. In Downfall Huntington i. 3, Little John says, "At Romford, S., Wortley, Hothersfield, of all your cattle money shall be made." There was an annual horse and cattle fair at S. every July.


or HAMPTON q.v. A spt. in Hants, at the head of S. Water, 74 m. South-W. of Lond. In J. Heywood's Weather p. 100, Merry Report names "S." as one of the places he has visited. The scene of H5 ii. 2 is laid at S, just before Henry sailed thence for France. In chorus ii. 35, it is said, "The scene is now transported, gentles, to S." In ii. 3, 48, Nym says, "Shall we shog? the K. will be gone from S." In Fam. Vict., Haz., p. 353, the K. says, "I will that there be provided a great navy of ships With all speed at South-Hampton." In Oldcastle iv. 3, the Bp. of Rochester says, "The K. is departed on his way for France And at S. doth repose this night." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A., P54, Morton says to Falconbridge, "Thou joinest in confederacy with France And cam'st with them to burn S. here." It was regarded as a long way from Lond. In Darius 67, Iniquity says of the Pope: "He hath as much lands as lieth between this and S." In Bale's Laws iii. i. Infidelity says, "For such another [service] would I to S.," i.e. "I would go a long way." Bevis of S. was one of the popular heroes of ancient romance. He performed great exploits in Armenia and Syria, slew the giant Ascopart and the dragon of Colein, and finally returned to England, where he died. His sword was called Morglay, and his steed Arundel. In Ret. Pernass. prol., Momus says, "There's never a tale in Sir John Mandevil or Bevis of S. but hath a better ending." The Earl of S. to whom Shakespeare dedicated his Venus and Adonis and Lucrece was Henry Wriothesley, who succeeded his father in 1581, was attainted in 1598, but restored to his titles and honours in 1603.


Used especially by Scottish writers for an Englishman, one living South of the Tweed. In Chaucer C. T. 1. 42, the Parson says, "But, trusteth well, I am a southren man, I kan nat geeste 'rum, ram, ruf' by lettre," i.e. I cannot tell a tale in alliterative metre like the N. poets.


(the SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN). In As You Like It iii. 2, 208, Rosalind says, "One inch of delay more is a S. S. of discovery," i.e. leaves a whole S. S. of unknown places to be still discovered. Warburton's emendation, "a S. S. off discovery," is ingenious but unnecessary. Drayton, Polyolb. xix. 365, says, "Brave Candish . . . through the S. Seas passed, about this earthly ball." Wilbye, in First Set of Madrigals (1598), speaks of "Coral and ambergris sweeter and dearer Than which the S. Seas or Moluccas lead us." In B. & F. Women Pleased i. 2, Lopes enumerates amongst his jewels "the S. S.'s treasure, Pearl fair and orient."


A borough, formerly independent of the Lond. city government, but now under the jurisdiction of the Lord Mayor and Council. It lies on the South side of the Thames between Lambeth and Deptford. It was known, in contrast to the City of Lond., as the Borough; and its principal st., running from the foot of Lond. Bdge. to Newington Causeway, is still called the Borough High St. It is in the county of Surrey. The parish ch. of St. Saviour's, formerly St. Mary Overy, still stands as it was in Elizabethan times; to the W. of it was Winchester House; and further still to the W. was the Bankside, with the Stews or Bordello, where most of the Elizabethan theatres were erected, including the Globe, the Rose, the Swan, and the bear-baiting ring at Paris Garden. The highway from Lond. to the South was the Old Kent Road and the Borough High St.; and in this last were many famous hostelries such as the Tabard, whence Chaucer's Pilgrims started for Canterbury, the White Hart, which was Jack Cade's headquarters, the George, the Bell, and the Bear at the Bridgefoot. Here too were the prisons of King's Bench, the Marshalsea, the White Lion, the Borough Compter, and the Clink. The S. Fair (also called the Lady Fair and St. Margaret's Fair) was reckoned, with Bartholomew Fair and Sturbridge Fair, as one of the 3 most frequented in the kingdom. It was held between the Tabard and St. George's Ch. on Sept. 7th, 8th, and 9th.

In H6 B. iv. 4, 27, a messenger brings word: "The rebels are in S.," i.e. Jack Cade's followers; and in iv. 8, 20, Cade says, "Hath my sword therefore broke through Lond. gates that you should leave me at the White Hart in S.?" In Straw ii. a messenger reports: "They [the rebels] have spoiled all S., broke up the Marshalsea and the King's Bench." In Oldcastle iii. 4, the scene of which is Blackheath, Sir John warns the disguised K.: "Thou mayst hap be met with again [by Highwaymen] before thou come to S." Blackheath was a notorious resort of these gentry. Chaucer, C. T. A. 20, tells how he lay "in Southwerk at the Tabard," where he met the pilgrims; and in A. 718, he speaks of "this gentil hostelrye That highte the Tabard faste by the Belle in Southwerk." In A. 3140, the Miller blames "the ale of Southwerk "for his drunken plight. Nash, in Pierce D. 3, says, "Chaucer's host, Baly in S., shall be talked of whilst there ever be a bad house in S." In Piers C. vii. 83, we are told of a "souter of Southwerk "who appears to have been a dealer in sorcery and magic cures. In Goosecap i. 1, Jack compares Bullaker, the French page, to "the great baboon that was to be seen in S."–probably at the Fair. In B. & F. Pestle Ind., the Citizen says, "Let's have the waits of S.; they are as rare fellows as any are in England; and that will fetch them all oer the water with a vengeance."

In Feversham v. 1, Shakebag proposes to take shelter after the murder of Arden with "a bonnie northern lass, the widow Chambley," who dwells "in S." In Greene's Friar vii., Ralph says, "I will make a ship that shall hold all your colleges and so carry away the niniversity [sic] with a fair wind to the Bankside in S." In Marmion's Companion iii. 4, Capt. Whibble says, "There's a good plump wench, my hostess, a waterman's widow, at the sign of the Red Lattice in S., shall bid thee welcome." In Cobler of Canterbury, the cobbler says, "When S. Bankside hath no pretty wenches Then the cobler of Rumney shall a cuckold be.," Nash, in Pierce F. 4, says, "Make a privy search in S. and tell me how many she-inmates you find." In News from Hell, the Cardinal speaks of "all the whores and thieves that live in Westminster, Covent Garden, Holborn, Grub Street, Clerkenwell, Rosemary Lane, Turnbull-street, Ratcliff, S. Bankside, and Kent-st." When Harman (Caveat ii.) lost his copper cauldron he tells how he "gave warning in Sothwarke, Kent St., and Barmesey st. to all the tinkers there dwelling."


A town in Notts., 14 m. N.E. of Nottingham. The ch. of St. Mary at S. was much resorted to by pilgrims. It was founded by Paulinus, and is a fine building. In J. Heywood's Four PP. i., the Palmer claims to have been "at our Lady of Southwele." In Downfall Huntington iii. 2, Tuck says, "I'll unto S. And buy all the knacks."


A misprint for SNOWDON, q.v.


A town in Belgium, 16 m. South of Liège, famous for its springs of various kinds of mineral waters. It first attracted attention in England in the latter part of the 16th cent., and soon became a popular resort for invalids of all kinds. Later the name was applied generically to other places where mineral springs were found, like Harrogate and Cheltenham. Heylyn (s.v. BELGIUM) says, "In this forest [Ardennes] or about the edges thereof are the famous hot baths,; frequented from all the places of Europe, called the S.; not so pleasant as wholesome, not so wholesome as famous." Hall, in 'Epp. i. 5, says, "We passed to the S., a vill. famous for her medicinal and mineral waters, impounded of iron and copperice; a water move wholesome than pleasant, and yet more famous than wholesome." Puttenham, Art of Poesie iii. 24, relates that "in the time of Charles the ninth, French K," he visited "the Spaw waters." Charles reigned from 1560 to 1574. Montaigne (Florio's Trans. 1603) ii. 15, says, "They of Tuscany esteem the Bathes of Spawe more than their own,." Spenser, F. Q. i. ii, 30, speaks of "Th' English Bath and eke the german Spau." In Jonson's New World, the Herald says of the wells in the Moon: "Your Tunbridge or the Spaw itself are mere puddle to them." In Massinger's Parl. Love ii. 3, Clarindore says that one drop of his lady's perspiration would purchase "The farfamed English Bath or German, S." In Webster's Malfi iii. 1, Cariola advises the Duchess to "go visit the S. in Germany." In Killigrew's Parson v. 4, Sad says, "You'll both live to repent before you have done travelling to the Epsoms, Burbons, and the Spaws, to cure those travelled diseases." In B. & F. Scornful iii. 2, Lovel says, "He has yet, past cure of physic, S., or any diet, a primitive pox." Taylor, in Works i. 83 (1630), says, "St. Winifred's Well, the Bath, or the Spaw, are not to be compared with this ship for speedy ease and cure."


(Sh. = Spanish, Sd. = Spaniard). The Roman Hispania; the South-W. peninsula of Europe, excluding Portugal. The Phoenicians planted colonies on the coast, and the country came in early times under the dominion of Carthage, from whom it was taken by Rome as the result of the Punic wars. It was divided by the Romans into 2 provinces, Hispania Ulterior and Citerior, of which only the latter was fully subdued and organized. In A.D. 256 it was ravaged by the Franks, and after making a fine recovery it was again overrun about A.D. 400 by the Vandals and Goths. The Visigoths established their authority under Walia in 418; and their kingdom Listed tiff 711, when Tarik and his 5000 Saracens crossed the Straits of Gibraltar, defeated Roderick near Xeres, and speedily subjugated the whole country. During the 8th–10th cents. Christian kingdoms were gradually organized in the N. in Leon, Navarre, Castile, and Aragon, and grew in power and influence. The marriage between Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile in 1469 led to the union of the whole of Christian S. under one crown; Granada was taken in 1492, and the power of the Moors destroyed; and they were finally expelled from S. in 1609. Under the rule of Charles I, better known as the Emperor Charles V, S. rose to the height of her influence in Europe, largely through the immense wealth which she gained from her discoveries and conquests in Peru, Mexico, and the W. Indies. Under his successor, Philip II, S. became the champion of Roman Catholicism against the doctrines of the Reformation, and the establishment of the Inquisition effectually stifled all freedom of thought. Her chief enemies were England and the provinces of the Netherlands; the defeat of the Sh. Armada in 1588 was the first important check to Philip's ambitions; and the revolt of the Netherlands led ultimately to the establishment of the United Provinces. The expulsion of the Moors in 1609 dealt a fatal blow to the industrial development of the country, and its later story has been one of steady decline into political insignificance. Plays based on Sh. history, real or imaginary, begin with Kyd's Span. Trag., and are continued in Greene's Alphonsus, Peele's Alcazar, Stucley, and the anonymous Lust's Domin. Later we have Shirley's Spanish Duke of Lerma, Rawlins' Rebellion, and W. Rowley's All's Lost. A lost play by Hathway and Rankins (1601) was entitled The Conquest of Spain by John of Gaunt. The novels of Cervantes, and the plays of Lope de Vega and others, were drawn upon for Plot and incident by the English dramatists, particularly by Beaumont sad Fletcher, Massinger, and Webster.

General Allusions.–In L.L.L. i. 1, 154, Armada is described as "a refined traveller of S." His name was probably suggested by the Sh. Armada of 1588. Hycke, p. 88, says, "I have been in Fraunce, Irlonde, sad is Spayne." In Marlowe's Faustus iii., Faust says, "I'll join the hills that bind the Afric shore And make that country continent to S." In Grim ii. 1, Belphegor claims to be "a Sd. born, No baser than the best blood of Castile." In Chapman's Blind Beggar ii., Bragadino affirms: "I am Signor Bragadino, the martial Spaniardo." In Webster's Wyat xi., Brett suggests an absurd derivation for Sd., which incidentally shows that the word was pronounced as a dissyllable, Spanyard: "A Sd. is called so because he's a Span-yard his yard is but a span."

Historical References.–In T. Heywood's B. Age iii., Hercules says, "The 3-headed Gerion sways in S." Hercules was reported to have visited S., where he killed the giant Geryon and erected the so-called Pillars of Hercules on either side of the Straits of Gibraltar, or, according to another account, in the neighbourhood of Cadiz (see under CALES). In Nero v. 1, Tigellinus reports that news has come that "S.'s revolted, Portingale hath joined." This was at the end of Nero's reign, when the legions of Gaul and S. acclaimed Galba as Emperor. In J. C. i. 2, 1119, Cassius says of Cams: "He had a fever when he was in S." Caesar was in S. as Quaestor in 68 B.C., and as Praetor in 60. Plutarch tells us that the falling sickness first took him "in Corduba, a city of S." In Davenant's Distresses ii., Androlio says, "Such scratching for females was ne'er heard of since first the hot Moors did overcome S." In Dist. Emp. i. 1, Reinaldo says, "I am come from Orlando, who in Spayne Hath with his own fame mixed your happiness By a blest victory." In Bale's Johan 1297, the K. says that the Pope had bound his predecessor, Henry II, "3 year after to maintain battle free Against the Sarazens which vexed the Spanyards sore." This was not exactly the case; the Pope excused Henry from going to the Holy Land on a crusade, if he should be fighting the Saracens in S. The Lady Blanch, in K.J., was the daughter of Alphonso VIII of S. and Eleanor, daughter of Henry II of England, and married the Dauphin of France, afterwards Louis VIII. Elinor, 1, Q. of Edward I, appears in Peele's play as "the K. of S.'s daughter"; her father was Ferdinand III of Castile. Peele, in her person, satirises the pride and cruelty of the Sds. In H6 C. iii. 3, 82, Oxford affirms: "great John of Gaunt . . . did subdue the greatest part of S." This is a gross exaggeration; John of Gaunt, after the death of his Duchess, Blanch (celebrated by Chaucer), married the daughter of Pedro the Cruel and assumed the title of K. oaf Castile, but the throne was in the possession of Henry of Trastamara, and John oaf Gaunt 's expedition, undertaken in 1388 to dispossess him, was a dismal failure. In H8 ii. 4., 47, allusion is made to Ferdinand of S., the father of Catherine of Aragon. This was Ferdinand II, who, by his marriage with Isabella of Castile, united the 2 kingdoms. In Devonshire v. 1, Henrico enumerates: "the K. of S's 7 kingdoms, Gallicia, Navarre, the 2 Castiles, Leon, Arragon, Valentia, Granada, and Portugal to make up 8." In Jonson's Staple, the Infanta of S., with whom James I had tried to arrange a marriage with Prince Charles without success, is caricatured in the Princess Pecunia, daughter of the K. of Ophir, and princess of the mines of South America and Hungary. in Underwoods lxv. 36, asks, "What is't to me . . . whether the match from S. was. ever meant?"

No event in our history has stimulated the national and religious consciousness of the people so much as the defeat of the invincible Armada of Philip II in 1588. It was a God-given triumph both for political independence and for. the Protestant faith, and dates were long afterwards reckoned from '88. Philip and his Sds. were regarded with bitter hatred. 1n Greene's Orlando v. 1, Brandemart says, "What I dare, let say the Pitt And Sd. tall, who manned with mighty fleets Came to subdue my ilands to their K., Filling our seas with stately argosies . . . Which Brandemart rebated from his coast And sent them home ballast with little wealth." Nash, in Lenten (Harl. Misc. vi. 149), says, "They were nothing behind in number with the invincible S. armada, though they were not such Gargantuan boysterous gulliguts as they." In Jonson's Prince Henry's Barriers, Mercury tells of the action "here of '88 against the proud Armada, styled by Spain the INVINCIBLE." In his Jonson's Alchemist iv. 2, Dame Pliant says, "Truly I shall never brook a Sd.; Never since '88 could I abide them." In his New Inn iv. 2, Huffle says, "So you will name no Sd., I will pledge you"; and later he exclaims: "Sds.!Pilchers!" and says, "I have heard the Sh. name Is terrible to children in some countries, And used to make them eat their bread-and-butter Or take their wormseed." In Devonshire i. 2, two merchants discuss the origin of the hatred of S. towards England, and derive it from religious motives: "When England threw off the yoke of Rome, S. sprang from her," and the Armada followed; and then Drake, "That glory of his country, and S.'s terror, Harried the Indies." "The Sh. Inquisition," says cue of them in reference. to the Armada, "was aboard every ship with whips strung with wire and knives to cut our throats." In Three Lords, Dods., vi. 451, Policy says, "pelf will muster upon Mile-End-Green That John the Sd., will in rage run mad," Later, Pompo says, "Honour in not in S, doth grow"; and Fraud says, "The Sds. are coming with great power." In Shirley's Fair One iv. 2, Treedle says, "We can have drums in the country and the train-band, and then let the Sds. come an they dare." In B. & F. Thomas iii. 3, a ballad is referred to, entitled "The landing of the Sds. at Bow, with the bloody battle of Mile-End." In Histrio v. 234, Perpetuana cries, "O sweet heart, the Sds. are come! We shall all be killed, they say!" The author of Tarlton's Jests relates: "Tarlton, being asked what countryman the devil was, quoth Tarlton: A Sd.; for Sds., like the devil, trouble the whole world." In the Introduction to Jonson's Barthol., the Stage-keeper laments the absence from the. play of "a juggler with a well-educated ape, to come over the chain for the K. of England, and back again for the Prince, and sit still on his arse fair the Pope and the K. of S." In Webster's Wyat, the hatred in England of S. and of the marriage of Mary wins Philip of S., is strongly expressed. In ix., Wyat says, "Philip is a Sd., a proud nation, Whom naturally out countrymen abhor."

S., indeed, is used as a synonym for Hell. In Fulwell's Like, Haz. iii. 357, Newfangle, carried off on the Devil's back, says, "Farewell, for now must I make a journey into S." In Horestes D. 3, the Vice says to Fame, "Whither dost thou think for to go? to Purgatory or Spayne?" The Sh. Inquisition was the object of special detestation. In Cromwell iii. 3, Hales says, "Pride, the Inquisition, and this belly-evil [i.e. meagre diet] Are in my judgment S.'s three-headed devil." In Marlowe's Massacre, p. 237, Navarre says, "S. is the Council-chamber of the Pope, S. is the place where he makes peace or war." In Brome's Ct. Beggar iii. 1, Raphael says, "I will shun this place more than I would the Sh. Inquisition." Dekker, in Lanthorn, says that the Masquers "had a drum, the head of it being covered with the skins of 2 flayed Sh. Inquisitors." In Larum B. 2, one of the citizens of Antwerp says that D'Alva was "worse than the Sh. Inquisition." Burton, A. M. Intro, speaks of "that 4th Fury, the Sh. Inquisition."

Spain and the Netherlands. In Davenant's Wits v. 3, Twack tells of an ape "led captive by the Hollanders, because he came aloft for S. and would not for the States." Apes were trained to climb up a pole or jump over their chain on the mention of a country or religion which the audience would be likely to favour, but to pay no attention to the name of any other. Similarly, in Shirley's Bird iv. 1, Bonamico tells of the "horse that snorts at S. by an instinct of nature." In Underwit v. 3, Engine says, "My story would draw more audience than the motion of Ninivie, or the horse that snorts at S." In Shirley's Constant iii. 1, Clement says, "If the K. of S. had but that politic head, I know who might go fish for the Low Countries." In Larum, the story of the Sh. Fury after the capture of Antwerp in 1576 is graphically told.

Spain and The Indies.–In Err. iii. 2, 131, Dromio felt S. "hot in the breath "of his kitchen-maid; and he locates the Indies in her nose "all o'er embellished with rubies, carbuncles, sapphires, declining their rich aspect to the hot breath of S.; who sent whole armadoes of carracks to be ballast at her nose." In Jonson's Jonson's Alchemist iii, 2, Subtle promises Ananias so much gold that he shall be of power "to buy S. out of his Indies." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 2, Callapine talks of bringing "armadoes from the coasts of S. Fraughted with gold of rich America." In Middleton's Blurt iv. 2, Lazarillo says, "The Sh. fleet is bringing gold enough to discharge all, from the Indies." In Devonshire i. 2, an English merchant says, "Did not Spayne fetch gold from the W. Indies for us?" In Brome's Ct. Beggar i. 1, Gabriel speaks of "treasure of a deeper value than all the Hollanders have waited for these 7 years out of the Sh. plate-fleet," i.e. the fleet which annually brought the, tribute from America to S. In B. & F. Care iii. 1, Piorato speaks of Malroda, his mistress, as "the most wealthy mine of S," sc. in America.

Spain was the wealthiest and most powerful nation in Europe; hence "to call a man K. of S." was to pay him the highest possible compliment. In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 3, when the Lord Mayor says to Eyre, "I hope ere noon to call you sheriff," Eyre replies, "I would not care, my lord, if you might call me K. of S." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. v. 4, Puntarvolo says, "Open no door; if the Adelantado of S. [i.e. the K.'s Deputy] were here, he should not enter." In Jeronimo ii. 1, Balthezar says, "For all S.'s wealth I'd not grasp hands." In Brome's Northern iii. 2, a song runs, "Nay, would my Philip come again, I would not change my state For his great namesake's wealth of S," i.e. Philip II. The Sh. soldiers were supposed to be the best in the world. In Jonson's New Inn iii. 1, Tipto speaks of the "Sh. militia "as the finest soldiers. The Sh. privateers did much mischief to English merchants. In Haughton's Englishmen ii. 2, Pisaro, hearing of the capture of 3 English vessels by 2 Sh. gallies, exclaims: "A plague upon these Sh. galley pirates!"

The Patron Saint of S. was James, the brother of John, who was put to death by Herod. His body was said to have been miraculously transported to Santiago in Galicia, and was preserved in the cathedral there, which became a great centre for pilgrimages. In Kirke's Champions i. 1, James says, "James stands for S." In Lust's Domin. iv. 2, Philip cries, "St. Jaques for the right of S.!" In Kirke's Champions iv. 1, James says, "S. gave me birth, the Golden Fleece mine arms "–which is doubly absurd, for James was a Jew of Palestine, and the order of the Golden Fleece was instituted by Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430.

National Character. Heylyn (s.v. SPAIN) says of the Sh.: "They are much given to women, impudent braggarts, and extremely proud in the lowest ebb of fortune. Indeed their gait is (gennet-wise) very stately and majestical. But, not to conceal their virtues and make ourselves merry only at their follies, they are questionless a people very grave in their carriages, and in offices of piety very devout; to their K. very obedient; and of their civil duties to their betters not unmindful. But that in them which deserveth the greatest commendations is an unmoved patience in suffering adversities, accompanied with a settled resolution to overcome them. It is said that the French are wiser than they seem, and the Sds. seem wiser than they are. In matters of war the Sds. are too slow and dun, losing many fair occasions by delays. The women are sober, loving their husbands or friends, wonderful delicate, curious in painting or perfuming . . . . Their fare is for the most part on sallets and fruits of the earth." In Jonson's New Inn iv. 2, Tipto gives the recipe for a Sd. thus: "Valour 2 ounces; prudence half a dram; justice a pennyweight; religion 3 scruples; and of gravidad a face-full." His gravity, he goes on to say, "breeds respect to him from savages and reputation from all the sons of men." In Marston's Malcontent iii. 1, Bilioso says, "Your Lordship shall ever find amongst an hundred Sds. threescore braggarts." Hall, in Characters (1608), p. 139, says that the Vain-glorious man is "a Sh. souldier on an Italian Theater; a bladder full of wind, a skin full of words; a foole's wonder, and a wise man's foole." In Ford's Sacrifice i. 1, Fernando says, "In S. you lose experience; 'tis a climate Too hot to nourish arts; the nation proud And in their pride unsociable; the Court More pliable to glorify itself Than do a stranger grace." In B. & F. Philaster i. 1, Cleremont says, "This speech calls him Sd., being nothing but a large inventory of his own commendations." In Chapman's Consp. Byron ii. 1, K. Henri speaks of "The any-way encroaching pride of S." In Kyd's Soliman, "the fiery Sd." is one of the competitors in the tournament in act i. In Brewer's Lingua i. 1, Lingua speaks of "the braving Sh." In Gascoigne's Government iii. 6, the Chorus says, "A Sh. trick it hath been counted oft To seem a thing, yet not to wish to be." Nash, in Pierce B. 4, says, "Properly pride is the disease of the Sd., who is born a braggart." In Tiberius 683, Sejanus says that the man who would climb must be all things to all men; "Drink with the Germaine, with the Sd. brave," i.e. brag. In Jonson's Devil iii. 1, Wittipol says, "You must furnish me with compliments in the manner of S, my coach, my granduennas." In his Epicoene ii. 1, Morose bids his man answer him by gestures and shrugs: "Your Italian and Sd. are wise in these, and it is a frugal and comely gravity." In Shirley's Pleasure iv. 2, Littleworth says, "Your cloak's too long, and doth smell too much of Sh. gravity." In Massinger's Guardian ii. 1, Calipso says of the French: "Their free breeding knows not the Sh. and Italian preciseness practised among us." In B. & F. Cure ii. 1, Lazarillo says, "We are all signors here in S., from the jakes-farmer to the grandee." In Glapthorne's Wallenstein ii. 2, Newman says, "You must not accost her in the Sh. garb, as if you had been new eating of a radish, and meant to swallow her as mutton to't." In his Privilege ii. 1, Bonivet says, "Your Sd. is of a stolid, serious, and haughty garb; acts all his words with shrugs and gestures; is of diet sparing." In Shirley's Courtier iv. 2, Volterre says, "The Sd. reserves all passion; when in discourse his toothpick is stiff his parenthesis." In B. & F. Pilgrim ii. 1, Pedro says to Roderigo, "Thou shamest the Sh. honour." In Middleton's Gipsy i. 1, Roderigo says, "It's as rare to see a Sd. a drunkard as a German sober." In B. & F. French Law. i. 1, Cleremont, speaking of duels, says, "In all The fair dominions of the Sh. K. They are never heard of." In Per. iv. 2, 101, Soult says, "There was a Sd.'s mouth so watered, that he went to bed to her very description." In Cromwell iii. 3, Cromwell says, "Lust dwells in France, In Italie, and S." In B. & F. Cure i. 21 Bobadilla, having seduced a girl, says, "I but taught her a Sh. trick, in charity." In Glapthorne's Hollander ii. 1, Mrs. Mixum says, "Your Sd. is too hasty, he will not give a woman time to say her prayers after she is in bed."

Spanish Women.–In Jonson's Jonson's Alchemist iv. 2, Subtle says, "It is the Sh. fashion for the women To make first court." In May's Old Couple iii. 1, Euphues says, "I see thou mean'st . . . to bring back The ancient Sh. custom, where the women Inherited the land, ruled the estates; The men were given in marriage to the women With portions, and had jointures made to them." In Massinger's New Way v. 1, Lovell says, "I grant, were I a Sd., to marry a widow might disparage me." In Davenant's Distresses i. 1, Leonte says, "Our Sh. custom warrants ladies in music to admit their lovers' evening and morning plaints." In Massinger's Guardian ii. 5, Calipso talks of "the stately dame of S." In B. & F. Rule a Wife Prol. we have: "Ladies, be not angry if you see A young fresh beauty, wanton, and too free, Seek to abuse her husband; still, 'tis S." In Middleton's Blurt i. 2, Lazarillo says, "Your monkey is your only beast to your Sh. lady."

The Diet of the Sds. was largely made up of salads and fruits, and was despised by the English as being meagre. In Mayne's Match iii. 3, Plotwell says, "We Did keep strict diet, had our Sh. fare, 4 olives among 3." In Cromwell iii. 3, Hales says, "We English are of more freer souls Than hunger-starved and ill-complexioned Sds. They that are rich in S. spare belly-food, To deck their backs with an Italian hood And silks of Civill." In Middleton's Gipsy, ii. 1, Antonio says, "We Sds. are no great feeders." In Ford's Trial iii. 1, Banatzi begs for "Sh. salads-poignant!" In Dekker's Westward in. 4, Mrs. Honeysuckle describes the fare in the Counter as "a Sh. dinner-a pilcher; and a Dutch supper-butter and onions." In Middleton's Blurt i. 2, a song runs: "What meat eats the Sd.?Dried pilchers and poor-John." In Brome's Northern v. 8, Bulfinch says of the Sds.: "They are a people of very spare diet, and therefore seldom fat." Donne, in Supping Hours, speaks of the diet of Nebuchadnezzar, when he became a beast, as "A salad worse than Sh. dieting." In Lyly's Midas, the Prologue says, "Enquire at Ordinaries; there must be salads for the Italian; picktooths for the Sd." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. iii. 3, Bots says, "We have meats of all sorts; that which is rotten-roasted for Don Spaniardo." Nash, in Wilton K. 1, says, "In S. they have better bread than any we have." In Davenport's New Trick iii. 1, Friar John says, "The best wheat's in S."

National Dances.–In Jonson's Jonson's Alchemist iv. 2, Face says, "Your Sh. pavin Is the best dance." The Pavin, or Pavan, was a stately dance in duple time, possibly derived from the Lat. pavo, a peacock. In Dekker's Fortunatus iii. 1, Cyprus asks the Insultado to dance; "I have heard the Sh. dance is full of state"; to which the Sd. replies: "Verdad, Senor; la danza espaniola es muy alta, majestica, y para monarcas; vuestra Inglesa, baja, fantastica, y muy humilde." When he has finished his dance, Agrypine says, "The Sd.'s dance is, as his deeds be, full of pride." In Middleton's Blurt iv. 2, Lazarillo dances the "Sh. pavin." In Devonshire i. 2, an English merchant says of S.: She played the Sh. pavins Under our windows, we in our beds lay laughing." Dekker, in News from Hell, says the Devil "shall now for my pleasure tickle up the Sh. pavin."

Personal Appearance, Dress, &c.–In L.L.L. i. 1, 174, the K. refers to "tawny S." In Jonson's Jonson's Alchemist iv. 1, Subtle says of the disguised Surly: "He does look too fat to be a Sd."; and goes on to speak of his . . . scurvy, yellow Madrid face." In Barnes' Charter iv. 3, Lucretia says, "Oft have I wished the colour of this hair More bright and not of such a Sh. dye." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. i. 1, Lodovico commends "the Sd. for a little foot." In Greene's Quip, p. 230, the barber asks: "Will you have your worship's hair cut like a Sd, long at the ears, and curled like to the a ends of an old cast periwig!" In Webster's White Devil ii. 4, Flamineo says of the, Sh. ambassador: "He carries his face in's ruff, as I have seen a serving man carry glasses in a cypress hatband, monstrous steady, for fear of breaking; he looks like the claw of a blackbird, first salted and then broiled in a candle." Nash, in Wilton K. 1, says: "From Spain what bringeth our traveller? A full-crowned hat of the fashion of an old deep porringer, a diminutive Alderman's ruff with short strings, a close-bellied doublet coming down with a peak behind as far as the crupper, and cut off before by the breastbone like a partlet or neckercher, a wide pair of gascoynes which ungathered would make a couple of women's riding kirtles, huge hangers that have half a cowhide in them, a rapier that is lineally descended from half a dozen Dukes at the least. He hath in either shoe as much taffeta for his tyings as would serve for an ancient," i.e. an ensign or flag. In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius sings, "The Sd.'s constant to his block," i.e. the shape of his hat. In B. & F. Cure ii. 1, Lazarillo asks: "Are you not a Portuguese born, though now your blockhead be covered with the Sh. block, and your lashed shoulders with a velvet pee?" In their Friends i. 1, Marius says that he has not spent 5 years in travelling "to bring home a Sh. block Or a French compliment." In Peele's Jests we are told how someone found George "in a Sh. platter-fashioned hat." In Brewer's Lingua iii. 5, Phantastes describes the "fantastical guff "as wearing "a Sh. felt." In Trag. Richd. II. ii, 3, 91, Richd. and his favourites are described as wearing "French hose, Italian cloaks, and Sh. hats." Rabelais, in Gargantua prol. says, "There are of those who wear Sh. caps who have but little of the valour of Sds. in them."

In Jonson's Jonson's Alchemist iv. 1, Surly, disguised as a Sd., wears "a deep ruff "and "a short cloak." In iv. a, Face says, "Your Sh. stoup is the best garb; your Sh. beard is the best cut; your Sh. ruffs are the best wear." In Massinger's Madam iv. 4, Luke taunts the ladies with their "Hungerford bands And Sh. quellio ruffs," i.e. ruffs for the neck. In Shirley's Love Maze v. 5, Thorney describes his master as "in a Sh. ruff and long French stockings." In Biome's City Wit iv. 1, Crasy speaks of "your tiffany dress, Sh. ruff, and silver bodkin." In Band, Ruffe, Band says to Ruffe, "There's ne'er a Sh. ruff of you all can do it." In Shirley's Fair One ii. 1, the Tutor says, "Are not Italian heads, Sh. shoulders, Dutch bellies, and French legs the only notions of your reformed English gentleman?" In B. & F. Captain iii. 3, Frank describes the old footman in his old velvet trunks and his sliced Sh. jerkin, like Don John." In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius sings: "The Sd. loves his ancient slop," i.e. breeches. In Jonson's Jonson's Alchemist iv. 4, Ananias says of Sh. slops: "They are profane, lewd, superstitious, and idolatrous breeches "–all this because S. was a Roman Catholic country. In Marmion's Companion i. 4, when the Tailor says to Careless, "You'll have your suit of the Sh. fashion?" he replies, "What, with a wallets behind me? No, by this air!" Dekker, in Hornbook i., says that in the Golden Age "there was neither the Sh. slop nor the skipper's galligaskin." In his Northward iii. 1, Doll says, "St. Anthony's fire light in your Sh. slops!" In T. Heywood's Challenge iii., Manhurst speaks of" a Sh. slop, good easy. wear, but they are loose and somewhat too open below." In Ado iii. 2, 33, Don Pedro describes Benedick as "a Sd. from the hip upward, no doublet." Probably he means that he wore a Sh. cloak, often used as a disguise, which would cover his doublet. In Peele's Ed. I i., Elinor says, "I mete to seed for tailors into S. That shall confer on some fantastic suits." in Middleton's Blurt ii. 2, Curvetto speaks of "a dapper cloak with Sh.-buttoned cape." In Devonshire v. ii, Pike says, "There's a Sh. shirt, richly laced and seamed." Carey, in Present State of England (1627), denounces "the Sh. shoes with glittering roses." In B. & F. Prize i. 4, Livia says to Rowland, "If I want Sh. gloves It may be I shall grace you to accept them." In Chapman's Consp. Byron i. ii, the Archduke of Austria is reported to have presented every gentleman in the embassy with "a pair of Sh. gloves." In Brief Conceipt of English Policy (1581), it is said: "There is no man that can be contented now with any other gloves than be made is France or in Spayne."

The leather of Cordova was celebrated from the time of the Moors, and was used for shoes, gloves, wallets, etc. Hence tour word "cordwainer "for a shoemaker. In H4 A. ii. 4, 80, Prince Hal describes the Host of the Boar's Head as "This leathern-jerkin, crystal-button, nott-pated, agate-ring, puke-stocking, caddis-garter, smooth-tongue, Sh-pouch"; which probably means that he carried at his girdle a pouch of Sh. leather. In B. & F. Shepherdess i. 1, the shepherd boy puts on "His hanging scrip of finest Cordovan." In Jonson's Devil iv. 1, Wittipol talks of "Sh. pumps of perfumed leather." In his Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Fastidius Brisk has a pair of boots "being Sh. leather, not subject to tear." In Massinger's Madam i. 1, Lady Frugal hag given orders for some shoes, to be made "of the Sh. perfumed kin." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. A. i.2, Fustigo says', "We Milaners love to strut upon Sh. leather, Ire Haughton's Englishmen iv. 2, Marina speaks of one of her suitors as "That base Italian, That Sh.-leather spruce companion," i.e. wearing Sh.-leather shoes. In B. & F. Thomas v. 1, Thomas cries to the blackamoor whom he finds in his bed, "Plague o' your Sh.-leather hide!" meaning that it is tawny. In Stucley 321, Stucley says "I will draw you on a wench as a squirrel's skin will draw on a Sh. shoe." Gascoigne, in Steel Glass 374, denounces "Our knit silk socks and Sh.-leather shoes "as marks of luxury. In Cooke's Good Wife iii. 3, Fuller says, "My Sh. shoe was cut too broad at toe." In Webster's Wyat, p. 46, Brett says, "Wear your own neat's-leather shoes; scorn Sh. leather cry A fig for the Sd.!" In Marston's Courtezan i. 1, Malheureux says, "Do not suffer thy sorrowful nose to drop on thy Sh.-leather jerkin." In Greene's James IV iv. 3, Slipper says, "My mother was a Sd., and being well tanned and dressed by a good fellow, an Englishman, is grown to some wealth; as when I have my upper parts clad in her husband's costly Sh. leather, I may be told to kiss the fairest lady's foot in this country." In Middleton's Blurt i. 2, Pilcher says, "I am follower to that Sh.-leather gentleman," i.e. Lazarillo. In iii. 3, when Lazarillo talks Sh., Imperia says, "Nay, 'tis Greek to me; I never had remnant of his Sh.-leather learning." In Dekker's Match me ii., Bilbo says, "There's not any Deigo that treads upon Sh. leather goes more upright." In Jonson's Devil ii. 1, Meercraft has a plan "for medicining the leather to a height of improved ware, like your borachio of S." The borachio was a wine-skin made of goat's leather. Greene, in Quip, p. 219, speaks of "a costly pair of velvet breeches whose panes was drawn out with the best Sh. satin." In Ital. Gent. i. 3, one of the ingredients of Medusa's love-charm is "cinders of fine Sh. silk."

The Sh. ladies made great use of perfumes, fucuses, and face-washes. In Jonson's Staple i. 1, Fashioner the Tailor scents his suits with "Right Sh. perfume, the Lady Estifania's." In his Devil iv. 1, Wittipol says that the Sh. fucuses are infinite; and spends 20 lines in enumerating their varieties; but above all,. he says, "is the water of the white hen of the Lady Estifania's," for which he proceeds to give the recipe. In his Underwoods iii. 12, he tells of a lady who never "got Sh. receipt to make her teeth to rot." In his Jonson's Alchemist iv. 2, Face says, "Your Sh. titillation in a glove [is] The best perfume." In his Cynthia v. 2, the Perfumer says, "The gloves are right, Sir; they shall still retain their first scent, true Sh." In Shirley's Hyde Park iv. 3, Ms. Carol says of a pair of gloves: "I'll have 'em Sh. scent." In Goosecap, ii. 1, Tales promises "He will perfume your gloves most delicately and give them the right Sh. titillation." In Jonson's Devil iv. 1, Wittipol talks of "your piveti, Sh. coal, to burn and sweeten a room." It was a kind of perfume used for fumigation. In Ado i. 3, 62, Borachio, whose name is Sh., tells how he overheard the Prince's conversation, "Being entertained for a perfumer, as I was smoking a musty room."

The Sh. language is one of the Romance group, and was derived from the Latin. One of the Knights in Per. ii. 2, 27, bears on his shield the motto thus, in Sh., "Piu por dulzura que por fuerza," i.e. more by gentleness than by force; but piu is not Sh., but Italian: the Sh. would be mas. In B. & F. Fair Maid I. ii. 1, the Clown says he will conjure in Sh. "That roars best and will appear more dreadful." In Shirley's Courtier ii. 2, Volterre says, "Yo sol el vestro servidor"; Depazzi asks: "What's this?" and Giotto answers. "Between Goth and Vandal Sh."

Trade and Manufactures.–The Pistolet was the Sh. écu or crown, sad was worth about 6/-. In Lust's Domin. iv. 5, Philip says, "I will load thee with Sh. pistolets." Gold was found in the sands of the Tagus in ancient times; hence, in Tiberias 149, Asinius offers to Tiberius "gold of S." Sh. steel was the best in the world, and was used for the manufacture of needles, pikes, and swords. The swords of Toledo were famous during the 16th and 17th cents, and the manufacture of them is stiff carried on there. In Jonson's New Inn iii. 1, Tipto says that hinges will crack "though they be Sh. iron"; in i. 1, the Host talks of dissecting a cheesemite "with a neat Sh. needle." Greene, in Quip, p. 237, says, "I spied a tailor's morice pike on his breast, a Sh. needle." Later, he says that the tailor formerly "had no other cognizance but a plain Sh. needle with a Welsh cricket [i.e. a louse] on the top." In Lyly's Gallathea iii. 3, Raffe says to the Alchemist, "Did you not promise me That of a Sh. needle you would build A silver steeple?" In Rawlins' Rebellion i., Virmine says, "If virmine slip from the back of a tailor, spit him with a Sh. needle." In Middleton's Blurt ii. 1, Truepenny asks: "Did my mistress prick you with the Sh. needle of her love!" In T. Heywood's Challenge ii. 1, the Clown says, "The creature you talk of is a needle, a very Sh. needle." In Nabbes' C. Garden iii. 1, a tailor is called "the knight of the Sh. needle." In Ford's Queen i. 170, Bufo says, "I will shred you both so small that a very botcher shall thread Sh. needles with every fillet of your itchy flesh." In B. & F. Pestle v. 2, Hammerton is armed with "a corselet and a Sh. pike." In Jonson's Jonson's Alchemist iv. 2, Face says, "For your Sh. pike and Sh. blade Let your poor captain speak." In B. & F. Cure i. 2, Bobadilla says, "He shall to the wars, use his Sh. pike." In Goosecap iv. 1, Kingcob says, "From the Sh. pike to the Sh. needle he [Sir Gyles] shall play with any knight in England," i.e. he could both fence and do embroidery! In Devonshire v. 1, Pike speaks of "a glass as deep as a Sh. pike is long." In Ford's Sun ii. 1, Folly says, "He is a French gentleman that trails a Sh. pike: a tailor," where pike is used jestingly for a needle. In Oth. v. 2, 251, Othello says he has "a sword of S., the Isebrook's temper "(see under INNSBRUCK). In Rom. i. 4, 84, Mercutio speaks of "Sh. blades"; though Armado, in L.L.L. i. 2, 183, confesses that "Cupid's butt-shaft is too much odds for a Sd.'s rapier." Parolles, in All's Well iv. 1, 52, carries "a Sh. sword." In Ford's 'Tis Pity i. 2, Vasques says to Grimaldi, whom he has worsted in a duel, "Spoonmeat is a wholesomer diet than a Sh. blade." In B. & F. Custom ii. 3, Duarte says, "I'll show you now the difference between a Sh. rapier and your pure Pisa." In Shirley's Imposture iii. 1, Bertold says, "He had better eat my Sd. than mention me with any scruple of dishonour." In Day's B. Beggar v., Playnster says, "You have been in S. And well are practised in the desperate fight of single rapier," Hall, in Sat. iv. 4, tells of one rushing Into a quarrel "With a broad Scot or pro . . . of S." in for Cutlers, Sword says of Rapier: "Hang him, I defy him, base Sd.!" Lyly, in Euphues Anat. Wit., p. 140, mentions "the Sh. rapier "as part of the equipment of a fashionable gentleman.

Cottons were first manufactured in Italy after the art had been introduced from the East; the Sh. cottons were of inferior quality. In B. & F. Wit Money iii. 4, Lance speaks of cloth of silver being "Turned into Sh. cottons for a penance." Possibly there is a reference to the cotton robes worn by the victims at the Autos da Fe.

Foods and Natural Products.–WINES. were made in S., the most important being the Sherry or Sack from Xeres. The wine from the Canaries, which belonged to S. at this time, was also much esteemed. In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius sings, "The Sd. tastes his sherry." In Middleton's Gipsy ii. I, Alvarez says, "Do not our Sh. wines please us? Italian then can, French can." In Grim ii., Castiliano says, "Let's in and hansel our new mansion house With a carousing round of Sh. wine." In Bale's Johan 268, Dissimulation says, "A better drink is not in Portugal or S." In Glapthorne's Hollander iv. 1, Fortress says, "This is legitimate blood of the Sh. grape." In Chaunticleers xiii., Welcome complains:: "Men lei rather be drunk like the Sd. with Canary than with their own native beer." OIL was made from the berries of the olive, which is abundant in S. In Marlowe's Jew i. 1, Barabas talks of "Sh. oils and wines of Greece "as amongst the commodities in which he traded. The MIROBOLAN was a kind of dried plum; the proper spelling is Myrobolan. In Greene's Friar ix. 271, Bacon mentions, amongst other dainties, "Mirobolans of S." Greene, in Discovery of Cozenage (1591), says, "I have men Sh. mirobolanes and yet am nothing the more metamorphosed." Lord Bacon says that they are sweet before they are ripe. The ORANGES of Seville were especially esteemed. In Jonson's Devil ii. 1, Pug says that to bring a devil from hell into Lond. "had been such a subtlety As to transport fresh oranges into S."; cf. the phrase "to bring coals to Newcastle." The PELLITORY (Anacyclus Pyrethrum) was imported into S. from Barbary, and was supposed to be good for the toothache. In Lyly's Midas iii. 2, Motto speaks of "some pellitory fetched from S." as a remedy for toothache. In Webster's Law Case iv. 2, Sanitonella says that what she has in her bag is neither "green ginger nor pellitory of S.; yet 'twill stop a hollow tooth better than either of them;' The POTATO was introduced into S. from Quito by Cardan about the middle of the 16th cent. It was regarded as a powerful aphrodisiac. Taylor, in Works i. 81, mentions "Sh. potatoes" amongst delicacies affected by ladies; and later says, "Sh. potatoes are accounted dainty "because of their rarity. TOBACCO was brought to S. from America, and thence distributed to other European countries. In Nabbes' Bride iii. 4, the 1st Blade says, "Do you disparage my tobacco? I assure you, Sir, it is right Sh." Earle, in Microcosmog. xxvii., gays that a tobacco-seller's shop is "the place only where S. is commended and preferred before England itself." The SPANISH Yaw was imported into England for the making of bows. Drayton, in Odes (1606) xii. 73, says, "The English archery Stuck the French horses With Sh. Yew so strong, Arrows a clothyard long."

Various Articles Specified as Spanish.
  1. The CARRACK was a large ship of burden used by the Sds. and Portuguese for their trade to the W. Indies. In Err. iii. 2, 140, Dromio says of his kitchenmaid: "S . . . . sent whole Armadoes of carracks to be ballast at her nose." T. Heywood, in Fortune iv. 1, speaks of "any carract that does trade for S." In B. & F. Elder B. i. 1, Andrew says that his master's books "would sink a Sh. carrack without other ballast."
  2. The CARVIL was a small, light, fast ship of war, peculiar to S. and Portugal. In Dekker's Match me iii. 1, Valasco says, "A pinnace is come to the Court, and our Sh. carvils, the Armada of our great vessels, dare not stir for her."
  3. The CAROCHE was a luxurious kind of carriage. In B. & F. Fair Maid I. iv. 2, the Host says, "We shall have 'em come hurrying. hither in feather-beds," and explains that he means "in feather-beds that move upon 4 wheels–in Sh. Caroches."
  4. SPANISH CRICKET, or MOTH, was used for a louse. In Wit and Wisdom i. 3, Snatch says, "My hose be full of Sh. crickets." In Skelton's Magnificence, fol. xiv., Folly, picking a louse from the shoulder of Crafty Conveyance, exclaims: "By the Mass, a Sh. moght [i.e. moth] with a gray list." The FIG of S. is an ejaculation of contempt, derived from the Sh. "clot la higa," i.e. to give the fig;. the fig being a gesture made by thrusting the thumb between 2 of the fingers. The phrase is also used to mean a poisoned fig, as in Times Whistle iii. 1151, "Long he shall not so, if Figs of S. their force retain." Pistol uses the expression in H5 iii. 6, 61; and in H4 B. v. 3, 123, he says, "When Pistol lies, do this! [making the gesture described] And fig me like the bragging Sd.!" In Webster's White Devil iv. 1, Flamineo says, "I do now look for a Sh.fig of an Italian salad daily," i.e. he expects to be poisoned. In Essex's Ghost (1624), Essex says of Don John of Aquila: "Either with that or else by a Sh. fig the good Don discontentedly departed this life." In Shirley's Maid's Rev. i. 2, Montenegro says, "I care not a Sh. fig what you count me." Nash, in Wilton 1. 4, says, "To see poor English asses, how soberly they swallow Sh. figs!" In Shirley's Ct. Secret iv. 1, Pedro says, "There's spice in your closet; or we have Sh. figs." In Noble Soldier v. 4, after the K. has drunk a poisoned goblet, Malatesta exclaims: "It is speeding, as all our Sh. figs are."
  5. The SPANISH FLY, or CANTHARIDES, was often used for poisoning people. In Chapman's Alphonsus iii. 1, 179, Saxony says, "Dunk not, Prince Palatine! Throw it on the ground! It is not good to trust his Sh. flies."
  6. Readers of George Borrow do not need to be told that the GIPSIES are very numerous in S. In Middleton's Gipsy ii. 1, Alvarez says, "We are no red-ochred rascals umbered with soot and bacon, as the English gipsies are; no, our stile has higher steps to climb over, Sh. gipsies, noble gipsies."
  7. The Sh. JENNETS were of Arab strain, and were highly valued. In Jonson's Jonson's Alchemist iv. 2, Face says, "Your Sh. jennet Is the best horse." In Peele's Ed. I xxv., Gloster orders: "With Sh. steeds, as swift as fleeting wind, Convey these princes to their funeral." In Webster's Malfi i. 1, Roderigo says of Castruccio's Sh. jennet: "He is all fire"; and Ferdinand adds: "I think he was begot by the wind; he runs as if he were ballassed with quicksilver." In B. & F. Valentin. ii. 1, Chilax wagers his horse, "the dappled Sd." Dekker, in Hornbook v, advises the would-be gallant to ride to the Ordinary "upon your galloway-nag or your Sh. jennet." In Noble Soldier ii. 1, the old soldier Baltasar calls the courtiers "mere Sh. jennets." In Devonshire ii. 4, Dick says, "My Devonshire worship shall teach your Sh. jennet an English gallop." In Sampson's Vow i. 1, 140, Ursula says, "We must be coupled in wedlock like your Barbary horse and Sh. gennet, for breed's sake." In B. & F. Thierry i. 1, Theodoret compares Brunhalt's lovers to "Sh. jennets." In their Princess i. 1, Piniero speaks of the great pride "we Portugals or the Sds." take "in riding, in managing a great horse."
  8. The name for the CULEX MOSQUITO is Sh., and it is often distinguished as the Sh. mosquito. Phillips, in Hakluyt 568, says, "we were also oftentimes greatly annoyed with a kind of fly . . . the Spanyards cared them Musketas." In O. E. Repl. Libel (1600) iii. 7, 35, it is said: "He is like a fly, or rather, because he speaketh so much for Sds, a Sh. mosqueta." In Devonshire iv. 1, Buzzano curses "your Sh. flies, the pocky stinging musquitoes."


A spt. in Dalmatia on the E. coast of the Adriatic, opposite to Ancona. The palace, built by Dioclesian after his abdication, is still fairly well preserved. The Cathedral was once the Temple of Jupiter. It is the seat of an Archbishopric; and Antonio, Bp. of S., is the Fat Bp. in Middleton's Chess. In iii. 1, he says, "Expect my books against you Printed at Douay, Brussels, or S." In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, Thomas reports: "There is a legacy left to the King's Players . . . by the Right Reverend Archbp. of S." The reference is to Middleton's play.




(Sn. = Spartan), or LACEDAEMON. The capital of the ancient Greek Laconia, situated on the right bank of the Eurotas, at the foot of Mt. Taygetus, abt. 20 m. from the sea. Apollo, as the leader of the Dorian migration to the Peloponnesus, was regarded with special veneration at S.; and this city was the birthplace of Leda, the swan-mother of Helen. Helen became the wife of Menelaus, the K. of S., and her rape by Paris was the cause of the Trojan war. It was through the legislation of Lycurgus in the 9th cent. B.C. that S. became one of the leading cities of Greece. It was governed by 2 kings and a body of 5 Ephors, who gradually usurped almost all the executive power. The object of Lycurgus was to make the Sns. warriors; to that end their food was coarse and simple, their black broth being famous throughout Greece; the boys were mined to endure hardship and were encouraged to steal, though they were severely punished if they were caught. The story of the boy who let a stolen fox gnaw his vitals rather than let it be discovered that he had stolen it, is well known. The Sn. brevity of speech, or Laconism, was also characteristic; and their women had the reputation of being the most chaste in Greece, though precisely the opposite is alleged of them by Euripides and others. Hunting in the ranges of Taygetus and Parnon was encouraged, and the hounds of Sn. breed were the best in the world. S. took part in the repulse of the Persians in 480 B.C., and the exploit of their K., Leonidas, at Thermopylae is one of the bestknown incidents in Greek history. Later, S. became the great rival of Athens, and the war between them filled the Greek world from 431 B.C.–until the ascendancy of Philp of Macedon put an end to the internecine quarrels of the Hellenes. S. was taken by Alaric in A.D. 396, and was finally deserted by its inhabitants in the 13th cent., when they migrated to Mistra, 2 m. to the W. Latterly the site has been again occupied by New S. The heir to the throne of Greece holds the title of D. of S.

In Barclay's Lost Lady i. 1, the Physician says, "These noble kingdoms, Thessaly and S., Have still been emulous and jealous.," The scene of Ford's Heart is laid at S., but no particular time is indicated, and the play has no historical basis. In iv. 1, Tecnicus exclaims "O S.! O Lacedaemon! double-named, but one in fate!" In B. & F. Mad Lover iv. 4, the K. of Paphos says, "The Sns. are in arms and like to win all." Here again the story is entirely unhistorical. In Per. ii. 2, 18, "a knight of S." appears.

In Lyly's Maid's Meta. iii. 1, Apollo, telling the story of the death of Hyacinthus, says: "Accursed be the time When I from Delphos took my journey down To see the games in noble S. town." Hyacinthus was the son of Amyclas, K. of S., and was accidentally killed by Apollo as he was throwing the discus. In T. Heywood's wood's Dialogues 5395, Juno says, "Thebes Afforded an Alcmena; S. nursed A swan-like Leda." Milton, P. L. x. 674, speaks of Castor and Pollux as "the Sn. twins." They were the sons of Tyndareus of S., and were buried there. In Fair Infant 26, he calls young Hyacinth "the pride of Sn. land." In Chettle's Hoffman C. 4, Austria says, "Saxon's proud wanton sons were entertained Like Priam's firebrand [i.e. Paris] at S." In Troil. ii, 2, 183, Hector says, "If Helen then be wife to S.'s K . . . . these moral laws of nature and of nations speak aloud To have her back returned." In Richards' Messalina iii. 1309, Montanus speaks of a beauty: "More delicate than was the Sn. queen," i.e. Helen. Tofte, in Laura (1597) ii. 3, 1, calls Helen "that Sn. lass, The flower of Greece, Dan Paris' costly joy." In Gascoigne's Government ii. 1, Gnomaticus says, "Lycurgus reduced the Spartanes unto civility." In Wilson's Cobler 563, Clio records "The love Lycurgus bore to Sns.' state." In Davenant's Rutland, p. 210, Aristophanes says of Diogenes: "If the Ephori and Kings of S. invited him to their mess, he would for indecency's sake eat their broth without a spoon." In Tomkis' Albumazar i. 1, Albumazar says of theft: "The Sns. held it lawful." In Massinger's Guardian iii. 6, Calipso says, "Like a truebred Sn. boy With silence I endured it." Donne, in Sat. iv. 68, says, "S.'s fashion To teach by painting drunkards, doth not taste now." In Randolph's Muses i. 4, Mime relates: "The Sns. when they strove t'express the loathsomeness of drunkenness to their children, brought a slave, Some captive Helot, overcharged with wine, Reeling in thus." The Sns. were said to have taught their boys sobriety by exhibiting drunken helots in their presence In Davenant's Rutland, p. 225, the Londoner says to & Parisian, "Your nation affects not such brevity of speech as was practised by the Sns." In the same play, p. 205, Diogenes says to the Athenians, "You have now heard 'em as frowardly as you used to hear the ambassadors of S., from whom you seldom like anything but their brevity." Sidney, in Astrophel xcii. 3, asks: "Do you cutted Sns. imitate?" Cutted means abbreviated. In Massinger's Milan i. 3, Sforza compares Marcelia to "those canonized ladies S. boasts of." In B. & F. Thierry iv. 2, Martell says that in Ordella "AU was that Athens, Rome, or warlike S. Have registered for good in their best women." In their Corinth iv. 3, Theanor says, "As for my fear . . . Our mother was a Sn. princess born That never taught me . . . such a word." Herrick, in Vision (1647), says of his mistress: "Her dress Was like a sprightly Spartaness."

In M.N.D. iv. i. 119, Hippolita says, "I was with Hercules and Cadmus once When in a wood of Crete they bayed the bear With hounds of S.; never did I hear such gallant chiding." Theseus answers: "My hounds are bred out of the Sn. kind, So flewed, so sanded; and their heads are hung With ears that sweep away the morning dew . . . . A cry more tunable Was never holla'd to nor cheered with horn In Crete, in S, nor in Thessaly." In Oth. v. 2, 361, Lodovico addresses Iago: "O Sn. dog, More fell than anguish, hunger, or the sea"; "dog "here being a term of contempt, and "Sn." an equivalent for "unfeeling." In Day's Galls ii. 2, Dametas says, "He expects your presence to see the fleshing of a couple of Sn. hounds." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Carlo says, "There's a fellow now, looks like one of the patricians of S.; a good bloodhound, a close-mouthed dog, he follows the scent well." In B. & F. Wild Goose i. 3, Mirabel says, "My dogs must look their names too, and all Sn, Lelaps, Melampus; no more Fox and Bawdy-face!" In H. Shirley's Mart. Soldier iii. i. the Clown says, "A pack of the bravest Sn. dogs in the world, if they do but once open, it will make a forest echo as if a ring of bells were in it; admirably flewed and for dewlaps they are as big as vintners' bags." In Jonson's Satyr, the Satyr says, "The dog [was] of S. bred and good As can ring within a wood." In Tiberius 256, Tiberius says, "Never could S. glory of such prey As for to have an Emperor at bay." See also LACONIA, LACEDAEMON.


(i.e. SPEZIA). A spt. on the W. coast of Italy, on the gulf of the same name, 50 m. South-E. of Genoa. It has a fine harbour. In Barnes' Charter i. 1, Charles says to Montpansier, "March with your regiments To Pontremols. There shall you find the Swiss With their artillery newly by sea Brought unto Spetia."


more properly SPERCHEIUS. A river in Thessaly, now the Elladha, flowing from Mt. Tymphrestus into the Malian Gulf. In T. Heywood's B. Age iii, Medea goes to gather simples "By the swift Sperchius stream."




The fields belonging to the Spittle of S. Mary (see SPITTLE). About 1650 they began to be built over, and in 1685, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, were occupied by French refugees (Huguenots), who were engaged in silk-weaving. It is now a densely populated and poor dist., extending from Bishopsgate to Bethnal Green. There were silk-weavers there as early as 1620, as the first quotation shows. In Middleton's Tennis, the scholar speaks of "Job, a venerable silk-weaver, Jehu, a throwster [i.e. a twister of silk fibres] dwelling i' the S." In Armin's Moreclacke D. 1, Tutch says, "The winter nights be short And brickhill beds Does hide our heads As spittell fields report." The clay from the fields was made into bricks, and the warm kilns were used for sleeping-places by tramps. In Day's B. Beggar i., lady Elinor says, "Walk before me into Spittle-felds."

SPITTLE, or, later, SPITAL

(Sl. = Spital). An aphetic form of hospital. It is used generically for any place for the reception of the sick; but it came to mean a lazar-house for the poorest classes, and specially for those afflicted with various forms of venereal disease. To found such institutions was considered a worthy form of philanthropy. In Nobody 304, the Servant says that Nobody "gives to orphans and for widows builds Almshouses, Ss, and large Hospitals." Burton, A. M. iii. 1, 3, 1, says, "Put up a supplication to him in the name of . . . an hospital, a s., a prison." Chapman, in Hum. Day sc. 7, speaks of iron and steel as "good s.-founders, enemies to whole skins." In Massinger's Dowry iii. 1, Romont says, "I will rather choose a s. sinner, Carted an age before, though 3 parts rotten." Nash, in Summers G. 2, says, "It is the S.-houses' guise Over the gate to write their founders' names." In Tim. iv. 3, 39, Timon speaks of the wappened widow "whom the s.-house Would cast the gorge at." In H5 v. 1, 86, Pistol laments: "My Nell is dead i' the sl. of malady of France." In Dekker's Satiro iii. 1, 289, Tucca calls Mrs. Miniver "My Lady ath' Hospitall." Specifically it is used for the Hospital of St. Mary, or St. Mary's S., founded in Lond. by Walter Brune and his wife Rosia in 1197. It stood on the N. side of what is now Sl. Square. It was surrendered to the K. at the time of the dissolution of the Monasteries, and then had beds for 180 sick people. The buildings were destroyed, but the churchyard, which occupied Sl. Sq., remained, and the pulpit cross at its N.E. corner, from which the annual S. sermons were preached on Good Friday, and Easter Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday. The Lord Mayor and Corporation attended in their robes, and the boys from Christ's Hospital were always brought there. The Cross was destroyed in the Civil Wars, but the sermon was continued, first at St. Bridget's, Fleet St., and then at Christ Ch., Newgate St. The dist. in the neighbourhood of the hospital was called the S, and the name survives in Spitalfields. It had a bad reputation as a haunt of thieves and loose women. In Eastward v. 5, Quicksilver sings, "So shall you thrive by little and little, Scape Tyburn, Compters, and the S." In Davenport's New Trick i. 2, Slightall, wanting a whore, bids Roger go "Search all the Allyes, S., or Turnball." Nash, in Pierce, says, "I commend our unclean sisters in Shoreditch, the S., Southwark, Westminster, and Turnbull St. to the protection of your [the devil's] portership." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 1, Knowell says of his son's letter, which is dated from the Windmill, "From the Bordello it might come as well, The S., or Picthatch."

References to the S. sermons are numerous. Skelton, in Colin Clout 1186, says, "At Saynt Mary Spyttel They set not by us a whistle." In More i. 1, Lincolne says, "You know the S. sermons begin the next week; I have drawn a bill of our wrongs and the strangers' insolencies"; and George adds: "Which he mesas the preachers there shall openly publish in the pulpit." In i. 3, Cholmeley says, "This follows on the doctor's publishing The bill of wrongs in public at the S." Jonson, in Underwoods lx., tells of a poet that "commended the French hood and scarlet gown The Lady Mayoress passed in through the town Unto the S. sermon." In his Magnetic i. 1, Polish says of Placentia: "She would dispute with the Doctors of Divinity at her own table, and the S. preachers." In Cartwright's Ordinary i. 1, Slicer, anticipating civic honours, says, "I shall sleep one day in my chain and scarlet at St.-sermon." Armin, in Ninnies, says, "On Easter Sunday the ancient custom is that all the children of the hospital [i.e. Christ's Hospital] go before my Lord Mayor to the S. that the world may witness the works of God and man in maintenance of so many poor people." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 270, John says, "Once in a year a man might find you quartered between the Mouth at Bishopsgate and the preaching place in the S." In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 1, Frisco says, "Your French spirit is up so far already that you brought me this way because you would find a charm for it at the Blue Boar in the S."


A city in Italy in Umbria, on the Marseggia, a tributary of the Tiber, 611 m. N.E. of Rome. In Barnes' Charter ii. 1, the hope offers to Charles "to render presently the citadels of Terracina, Civita Vecchia, and Spoleto."


The sign of a bookseller's shop in St. Paul's Churchyard, Lond. The 2nd quarto of Troil. was "Imprinted by G. Eld for R. Bonian and H. Walley, and are to be sold at the spred Eagle in Paules Churchyard over against the great N. door. 1609." B. & F. Shepherdess was "Printed at Lond. for R. Bonian and H. Walley, and are to be sold at the spred Eagle over against the great N. door of S. Paules." Middleton's Five Gallants was "Imprinted at Lond. for Richd. Bonian, dwelling at the sign of the Spred-Eagle right over against the great N. door of St. Paules ch."


A garden in Lond, laid out abt. A.D. 1600 between Sts James's Park and Whitehall. It was so called from a spring which wan set going by the pressure of the foot of the passer-by on a hidden board, and sprinkled plentifully all who were in its neighbourhood. There is a metal tree in the grounds of Chatsworth House which plays a similar trick. In 1629 a bowling green was added to the attractions of the garden, which became a fashionable resort for the ladies and gentlemen of the early Stuart times. After the Restoration the ground was built over, but still retained its old name. The offices of the Admiralty and the London County Council are there. In B. & F. Triumph Death i., Sophocles says, "Sophocles would . . . Like a s.-g., shoot his scornful blood Into their eyes, durst come to tread on him." In Alimony iv. 2, Caveare says, "It might be styled the S. G. for variety of all delights." In Shirley's Hyde Park ii. 4, Mrs. Carol bargains: "I'll not be Bound from S.-g. and the 'Sparagus." In his Ball iv. 3, Winfield says to the ladies, "I do allow you Hyde Park and S. G." In Brome's M. Beggars ii. 1, Vincent proposes: "Shall we make a fling to Lond. and see how the spring appears there in the S. G.?" In Mayne's Match i. 4, Newcut says that Aurelia has been thrice is the field to answer challenges of wit "in S. G." in Davenant's Wits i. 2, the elder Palatine says, "So live that towers shall call their monies in, remove their bank to Ordinaries, S.-g, and Hyde Park." In Killigrew's Parson iii. 2, Careless says, "Let's go walk in S.-g." John Milton lodged for a time in 1649 "at one Thomson's, next door to the Bull Head Tavern at Charing Cross, opening into the S. G."


(another form of PRUCE, or PRUSSIA, q.v.). Chaucer, in Death of Blaunche io25, praises the Duchess because "She wolde not . . . send men into Walakye, To Sprewse and ynto Tartarye "in order to prove their devotion to her. In Bale's Johan 182, Sedition says, "The Pope's ambassador am I continually . . . In Pole, Spruse, and Berne." Fuller, Holy War v. 3, 233, says, "The Teutonick order defended S.-land against the Tartarian." Hence it is used of anything obtained from Prussia, as S. beer, S. leather, S. fir, etc. Nash, in Works ii. 221, speaks of "a broker in a s.-leather jerkin." In his Prognostication, he predicts: "Many shall have more S. beer in their bellies than wit in their heads." The land of S. appears to be used, like the land of Cockayne, for a place where all sorts of good things are plentiful. In Chapman's Mid. Temp. 30, Capriccio says, "He shall live in the land of S., milk and honey flowing into his mouth sleeping."


An imaginary name for one of the peoples whom Gelasimus intended to visit. In the old Timon v. 1, Gelasimus reads from his guide-book: "From Gurgustidonia to the S. 8.3, from the S. to the Pigmies 801/2 m."


Probably the Three Squirrels is meant, a tavern in Southwark, the exact location of which is uncertain (see THREE SQUIRRELS). In Brome's Moor iv. 2, Quicksands says he knows his wife's haunts "At Bridgefoot Bear, the Tunnes, the Cats, the Squirels."


The county town of Staffs., on the Sow, 123 m. N.W. of Lond. In the reign of William the Conqueror, William de S., the ancestor of the famous S. family, took his name from the town, and rebuilt the old castle, 11/2 m. South-W. of it, which was destroyed in the Civil War by the Parliament but has recently been rebuilt. S. blue was a kind of blue cloth, made there; a S. knot is the true-love-knot, the badge of the S. family; S. law is club law, with a pun on staff. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. i., p. 80, Howard says of the Tanner of Tamworth: "His son lies prisoner in S. jail." Tamworth is in Staffs., 25 m. South-E. of S. In his Captives iii. 2, Ashburne says, "I will lay thee prostrate Beneath these staves and halberts." "Is this law?" asks Mildew–" Yes," answers Godfrey, "S's. law." In Hay and Work (1589) A. 3, we have: "I threatened him with blows and to deal by s. law." In Towneley M.P. iii. 2w, we have: "Thou were worthy be dad In S. blue; for thou art alway adread."

There is an entirely mythical S. in Middleton's Queenborough . The Lord S. whom Douglas claims to have killed at Shrewsbury in H4 A. v. 3, and who, in H4 B. i. 1, 18, is falsely said to have fled the field, is Edmund de S., the 5th Earl. In H6 B. i. 4, 55, the S. to whom the custody of the Duchess is committed is Sir Humphrey S., who, along with his brother William, was murdered by Cade and his followers, as is implied in H6 B. iv. 3. In H6 C. i. 1, 7, York says, "Lord Clifford and Lord S., all abreast, Charged our main battle's front"; and in line 10 Edward says, "Lord S.'s father, D. of Buckingham, Is either slain or wounded dangerously." This S., D. of Buckingham, is the Buckingham of H6 B.; he was Humphrey, 6th Earl of S., and was created D. of Buckingham in 1444. He was not killed, as Shakespeare here implies, at St. Alban's, but 4 years later, at the battle of Northampton. His son, Sir Humphrey S., was killed at St. Alban's is 1455; he is the Lord S. of H6 C. i. 1, 7. The S. mentioned in H6 C. iv. 1, 1 30, is Sir Humphrey S. of Southwick, cousin to the 2 brothers who were killed in the Cade Rebellion; he was beheaded is 1469. The Buckingham of R3 was also 7th Earl of S., being the son of the Humphrey killed at St. Alban's. He was beheaded in 1483; but his honours were restored to his son Edward, 8th Earl, in 1486. This Edward is the Buckingham of H8, who was beheaded in 1521. In H8 i. 1, 200, he is correctly described as "The D. of Buckingham, and Earl of Hereford, S., and Northampton."


A county in the midlands of England. The great industries of the "Black Country "and the Potteries are comparatively modern; the county meant for our dramatists merely a rustic and uncultivated part of the English out-land. In H4 B. iii. 2, 20, "Little John Doit of S.," mentioned by justice Shallow as one of his boon-companions in his law-student days, was probably an acquaintance of Shakespeare's during his early life at Stratford; for Stratford is only 20 m. from the nearest point of S. In Middleton's Trick to Catch ii. 1, the Widow Medler is described as "the rich widow in S." In Davenant's Plymouth iii. 1, Inland, a country fellow, says, "All S. cannot show her equal." In Dekker's Northward iii. 2, Squirrel says that a man can get no more hold of a woman's honesty "than of a buff 'nointed with soap and baited with a shoal of fiddlers in S." He is thinking of the famous annual bullchase at Tudberry, q.v.


(Se. = Stagerite). A city on the E. coast of the Chalcidic peninsula, on the Sinus Strymomcus in Macedonia. It was the birthplace of Aristotle. Jonson, in Underwoods W. 90, speaks of Poetry as having been "lighted by the Stagirite." In Davenant's Platonic ii. 4, Buonateste speaks of Aristotle as "the learned Stagirite." Cowley, in Motto (1656) 27, says, "Welcome, great Stagirite, and teach me now All I was born to know." In Dekker's Satiro iv. 1, 165, Tucca says to Horace (Jonson), "When the Ses. banished thee into the Ile of Dogs, thou turnedst Bandog, and ever since bitest." Ses. is used here punningly for writers for the stage, with a reference to Aristotle as the greatest of dramatic critics. So in Richards' Messalina i. 571, Messalina asks: "What is that Se.'s name, he that last night in the play Did personate the part of Troylus?"


A town in Middlesex, on the N. bank of the Thames, 17 m. W. of Lond. by road. It was a favourite place for a jaunt with the Londoners. Nearly opposite to it, oil the South bank of the river, is the strip of land known as Runnymede, where K. John signed Magna Charta in 1215. In H5 ii. 3, 2, the hostess says to Pistol, who is about to start from Lond. to Southampton on his way to France, "Prithee, honey-sweet husband, let me bring thee to S." In Massinger's Madam ii. 1, Luke speaks to young Goldwire of "The raptures of being hurried in a coach To Brentford, S., or Barnet." In Middleton's R. G. ii. 1, Laxton asks Moll to go with him "to Brainford, S., or Ware "for a jaunt together. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 1, Shift professes to teach a man how to inhale 3 whiffs of tobacco, and then "expose one at Hounslow, a 2nd at S., and a 3rd at Bagshot." In Middleton's Quarrel v. 1, Chough boasts that he could have had a whore on his way from Cornwall to London at "Maidenhead in Berkshire; and did I come in by Maidenhead to go out by S.?" The puns are too obvious to need explanation. In Davenport's Matilda ii. 4, Fitxwater relates how John signed the Charter "in a field called Running-mead 'Twixt S. and Windsor." Raleigh, in Prerogative of Parl., says, "The K. was forced to grant the charter of Magna Charta at such time as he was environed with an army in the meadows of Staynes."


A mkt. town in Lincs., on the borders of Rutland, 89 m. N. of Lond., on the Welland. One of the Elinor Crosses was erected here, but was destroyed by the Puritans. There were 3 great fairs for horses and stock held annually in February, Lent, and August. During the reign of Edward III a number of Oxford professors and students migrated to S., and started a rival University there. The K. interfered and broke up the fledgling University in 1335; but it was still regarded with suspicion, and a University Statute, as late as 1425, compelled all teachers in Oxford to swear that they would not lecture or read at S. In H4 B. m. 2, 43, Shallow asks: "How a good yoke of bullocks at S. Fair?" Spenser, F. Q. iv. 11, 35, quotes a prophecy, alleged to have been uttered by Merlin, that the Welland "shall see S., though now homely hid, Then shine in learning more than ever did Cambridge or Oxford." Drayton, Polyolb. viii. 61, speaks of K. Bladud as "He from learned Greece that by the liberal arts To S., in this isle, seemed Athens to transfer."


A hill 4 m. N. of Lond., between Stoke-Newington and Tottenham, on the North Road. It commands a fine view of Lond. Here James I was met by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen on his first public entry into Lond. in May 1603.


A water-condtut in Cheapside, E. of the Cross, opposite the end of Milk St. It was in the form of a pillar with a dome-shaped top; statues adorned its sides, and a figure of Fame, blowing a trumpet, stood on the summit. It was repaired, or rather re-erected, about 1620. It was often used as a place of execution (see also under CHEAPSIDE). In Contention i., Haz., p. 502, Cade says of Lord Saye: "Go take him to the S. in Cheapside and chop off his head." In More iii. 1, a Messenger brings orders that a gibbet "be erected in Cheapside hard by the S." In Middleton's Michaelmas ii. 1, Shortyard says, "Sometimes I carry my water all Lond. over, only to deliver it proudly at the S." In his No Wit ii. 1, Weatherwise says, "At S. she sold fish, where [her husband] drew water." In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Iniquity says, "I will fetch thee a leap From the top of Paul's steeple to the S. in Cheap." In Phillip's Grissil 34, Politick Persuasion tells how, when he was saved from destruction 2s he fell from the sky, "The Cross in Chepe for joy did play on a bagpipe, and the S. did dance." In Middleton's Quiet Life i. 1, Water-Camlet says there is nothing new in Cheapside "but the S.";, and in his Aries he tells how his Lordship "was gracefully conducted toward the new S."


A part of Lambeth, W. of Westminster Bdge., where St. Thomas's Hospital now stands. It was on the old Roman Rd. from Lond. to the Sussex coast, and was infested by highwaymen. It lay just opposite to the Palace of Westminster. The st. at the back of the Hospital still retains the name. Howes, in his Annales, tells of the masquers from the Inner Temple at the marriage of the Princess Elizabeth in 1613 that "they had 3 peals of ordnance in 3 several spaces upon the shore, viz. when they embarked, as they passed by the Temple, and at Strangate when they arrived at Court"; where Strangate is an obvious misprint for S. Stubbes, in Anat. Abuses, p. 53, speaks of men who "will either sell or mortgage their lands "and then try to recover their fortunes "on Suters Hill and S. hole, with loss of their lives at Tyburne in a rope." Latimer, in his 3rd Sermon to Edward VI, says, "Had they a standing at Shooter's Hill or at Stangat Hole to take a purse?" Hall, Sat. vi. 1, 67, says that the traveller hopes "The vale of Standgate or the Sitters Hill, Or W. plain are free from feared ill."


An old Inn of Chancery in Lond., connected with Gray's Inn, on the South side of Holborn, opposite the end of Gray's Inn Road. In 1884 it was sold to the Prudential Assurance Society, which has restored its fine timbered font, one of the best remaining examples of the former street architecture of Lond. Milkmaids was "printed by Bernard Alsop for Lawrence Chapman, and are to be sold at his shop in Holborne over against Staple Inne, hard by the Barres. 1620."

STAR [1]

A Lond. tavern sign. There was a S. in Bread St. with an entrance from Cheapside; and another in Coleman St. where Cromwell and the Puritans met in 1648 to arrange for the trial of the K. In T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, Valerius, in his list of taverns, sings, "The shepherd to the S." He is thinking of the shepherds and the S. of Bethlehem. In his F. M. Exch. ii. p. 22, Flower says, "He entreats me to meet him at the Starre in Cheapside." In More ii. 1, Harry says that he broke Garret's usher's head "when he played his scholar's prize at the Starre in Bread St." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iv. 1, Matthew, when his authorship of his verses is questioned, says, "Ask Capt. Bobadill; he saw me write them at the S. yonder." In the quarto of 1601, it is "at the Mitre," q.v.

STAR [2]

A Lond. booksellers' sign. Chaunticleers was "printed for Simon Miller at the Star in St. Paul's churchyard. 1659." The Hog hath lost was printed" for Richd. Redmer at the W. door of St. Paul's at the sign of the Star. 1614."


The ancient Council Chamber of the Royal Palace of Westminster; it stood parallel with the river on the E. side of New Palace Yard. It was probably so cared from the golden stars which decorated the ceiling. It was rebuilt by Elizabeth, and over the door was a rose on a star, the initials E.R., and the date 1602. It was puffed down in 1836, and the oak-panelling and chimney-piece were bought by Sir Edward Cust and taken to decorate his dining hall at Leasowe Castle in Cheshire. It is chiefly memorable for the fact that it was used by the King's Council, sitting as a Court of justice; and the Court itself was consequently called the Court of the S. C. It was first established in the reign of Edward III, and sat in the Chambre do Estoiles. In Henry VIs reign we find it spoken of as the King's Council "in camera stellata." It was reorganized by the Act of 3 Henry VII, and revived in 31 Henry VIII. Its constitution and jurisdiction were vague; but as it proceeded without any attention to the usual methods of the Common Law and could inflict any penalty short of death it became a monstrous instrument of tyranny under the first 2 Stuart kings, and was abolished by Parliament in 1641.

Skelton, in Why Conte ye not to Court 185, says of Wolsey: "In the C. of Stars All matters there he mars." In M.W.W. i. 1, 2, Shallow threatens "Sir Hugh, persuade me not; I will make a S.-c. matter of it." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 1, Carlo advises Sogliardo, "Now you are a gentleman, never discourse under a nobleman; though you saw him but riding to the S.-c. it's all one." In Wise Men vi. 2, Antonio says, "I fear the S.-c. because she hath witness [of his swindling]." In Brome's Moor i. 2, Nathanel asks about Quicksands, the money-lender: "Is he then hoisted into the S.-c. for his notorious practices? "In Jonson's Magnetic iii. 4, Compass speaks of "one that hath lost his ears by a just sentence of the S.-c., a right valiant knave, and has an histrionical contempt of what a man fears most." The reference is to William Prynne, who was sentenced by the S. C. to lose both his ears, pay a heavy fine, and suffer imprisonment for life for the publication in 1632 of his Histrio-mastrix; he endured the cutting off of his ears with remarkable fortitude. In his Epig. liv. 2, he says, "Cheveril cries out my verses libels are, And threatens the S. C." Shirley, in C. Maid v. 1, says, "You have conspired to rob, cheat, and undo me; I'll have you all s.-chambered." Dekker, in Bellman, speaks of the S.-c. as a haunt of foists and pickpockets. The term is generalized to mean any Court of Justice, especially the Last Judgment. In Day's Parl. Bees xii. prol., we have "Oberon in his S.-C. sits." In Ed. III ii. 2, the Countess says, "When to the great Starre-c. o'er our heads The universal session calls to count This packing evil, we both shall tremble for it." In Tourneur's Atheist's T. v. 1, D'Amville says, "I'll prove thee forger of false assurances; In yon S. C. thou shalt answer it." It is also used for the open air under the starry sky. In Webster's A. and Virginia i. 4, 7, Virginius says, "This 3 months did we never house our heads But in yon great s.-c."


The Hotel de Ville at Antwerp; a fine building in the Italian style on the W. side of the Grande Place, opposite the Cathedral. It was partially destroyed in the siege of 1576, and rebuilt in 1581. In Larum A. 4, Danila orders his gunner to fire at "the State-house where the Dutch Sit swilling in the pride of their excess."


The governing body of the Netherlands, first constituted by Philip the Good in 3!464. The word is not used for the United Provinces themselves, as we use United S. for the Republic of America, but for the Council that governed them. In B. & F. Span. Cur. i. 1, Leandro says, "'Tis now is fashion to have your gallants set down in a tavern what defence my lords the S. prepare." In Davenant's Wits v. 3, Thwack tells of an ape which "came aloft for Spain and would not for the S." Various animals were trained to give indication of their masters' political and religious sympathies by mounting a pole or shaking their heads, when the cause they favoured was mentioned. In Scot. Presb. ii. 1, Anarchy says, "How bravely Holland thrives, guided by S., where people rule the people." Hall, in Epp. ii. 2, speculates "whether it were safer for the S. to lay down arms, and be at once still and free."


Formerly a very extensive parish in the E. end of Lond., including Stratford, Whitechapel, Shadwell, Mile End, Poplar, Spitalfields, Ratcliff, Limehouse, and Bethnall Green. It was thus practically coextensive with the E. End of Lond., N. of the Thames. The parish ch. was St. Dunstan's, built in the 14th cent. There is a popular tradition that all persons born in English ships at sea belong to this parish; as the old rhyme says, "He who sails on the wide sea Is a parishioner of S." In Look about xxv., Lady Fauconbridge says, "At S. by the summer house There is a tavern which I sometimes use; It is the Hind." In ii., Gloucester says to Richd.: "You'll think of him [Fauconbridge] if you can step Into his bower at S." In Day's B. Beggar i., Playnseys says, "Sir Robert Westford lies at S." Dekker, in Wonderful Year, tells a ghost story about the sexton of S. Possibly the raisin wine called Stepony took its name from S. Blount, in Glossogr. §.v., defines Stipone as "a kind of sweet compound liquor, drunk in some places of Lond. in the summer time."


Generically for any house of ill-fame, but used specifically for the collection of such houses on the Bankside in Southwark, known also as the Bordello. Fuller, Church Hist. v. 16, 39, says that the name was derived from certain stews, or fishponds, which were once there, and that there were 16 houses "distinguished by several signs." Attempts to regulate these infamous places were made from time to time; and in 1545 they were suppressed by statute; but it was soon evaded and became a dead letter. Fuller, in Holy State v. 1, says, "Some conceive that when K. Henry VIII destroyed the publics. in this land, which till his time stood on the Bank's Side in Southwark, next the BearGarden, he rather scattered than quenched the fire." In S. Rowley's When You A. 3, Wolsey asks: "Are those proclamations sent For ordering those brothels called the Stewes? "In World Child 180, Folly says, "Over Lond. Bdge. I ran And the straight way to the S. I came." In R2 v. 3, 16, young Prince Hat is reported as saying "he would unto the S. And from the common'st creature pluck a glove And wear it as a favour." In H4 B. i. 2, 60, Falstaff, having got a horse in Smithfield and a servant in Paul's Walk, says, "An I could get me but a wife in the S, I were manned, horsed, and wived." Langland, in Piers A. vii. 65, speaks of "Jacke the jogelour and Jonete of the stuyues." In Towneley M. P. xxx. 350, the author apostrophises: "Ye Janettys of the stewys and lychoures on lofte." Skelton, in Magnificence 1226, says, "Some of them runneth straight to the stuse." See also BANKSIDE, BORDELLO, SOUTHWARK, WINCHESTER HOUSE.


A hall in Lond. where the merchants of the Hanseatic League had their headquarters. They obtained a settlement in Lond. in 1250, and later were granted certain privileges by the City on condition of their keeping Bishopsgate in repair, and helping to defend it when necessary. The feeling against aliens, however, led to attacks upon them in the reign of Henry VIII, and their monopoly was taken away by Edward VI. In 1597 they were expelled from the country; and the Hall then became a favourite resort for the drinking of Rhenish wines. Neats' tongues and other provocatives of thirst could be obtained there. The S. stood in Upper Thames St. on a site now covered by Cannon St. Station. It was a stone building with 3 arches towards the st. In the Hall were Holbein's paintings of Riches and Poverty.

In S. Rowley's When You D. 2, the Constable reports: "There are 2 strangers, merchants of the S., Cruelly slain." In Underwit iii. 3, Engine says, "Oh, the neats' tongues and partargoes that I have eaten at S.!" In iv. 1, there is a song with these lines: "The S.'s Rhenish wine and Divell's white, Who doth not in them sometimes take delight?" In Barnes' Charter iii. 5, Bagnioli says, "They transported from Lambechia land [i.e. Lambeth] Fall anchor at the S. tavern." In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says to Judith, "Meet him this afternoon at the Rhenish wine house i' th' S." In v. 2, Birdlime wants to speak "with the gentlewomen that drunk with your Worship at the Dutch house of meeting," i.e. the S., where ii. 3 takes place. In Shirley's Ball iv. 2, Rainbow says that Bostock "curses tapsters For failing you at Fish-st, or the S." In his Pleasure v. 1, Bornwell says, "By that time we shall whirl in coaches To the Dutch magazine of sauce, the S., Where deal and backrag and what strange wines else They dare but give a name to in the reckoning Shall flow into our room . . . and drown Westphalias, tongues, and anchovies." In Ford's Queers iii. 1770, Pynto says, "The good man was made drunk at the S. at a beaver of Dutch bread and rhenish wine." Nabbes, in Bride ii. 6, says, "Who would let a cit breathe upon her varnish for the promise of a dry neat's tongue and a pottle of Rhenish at the S.?" Nash, in Pierce F. 1, says, "Men when they are idle and know not what to do, saith one 'Let us go to the S. and drink Rhenish wine." In Brome's Moor iv. 2, Quicksands says he saw his wife "at the S. With such a gallant, sousing their dried tongues In Rhenish, Deal, and Backrag." Deloney, in Newberie ii., says, "Rennish wine at this wedding was as plentiful as beer or ale; for the merchants had sent thither 10 tunnes of the best in the S."




A city in Hanover, 22 M. W. of Hamburg, on the Schwinge, near its junction with the Elbe. The port dues of Hanover used to be collected at the mouth of the Schwinge. The English merchants removed their headquarters from Hamburg to S. towards the end of the 16th cent, through a quarrel with the Hamburg people. Heylyn, writing in 1621, says, "The English house is now at S., being by reason of the wars in these parts removed from Antwerpe." In Haughton's Englishmen ii. 1, Pisaro says, "What, shall I have these cloths? For I would ship them straight away for S." In ii. 2, Heigham says to Vandal the Dutchman, "Your best way were to ship yourself for S., and there to barter yourself for a commodity." In Dekker's Westward i. 1, Justiniano says, "I have sold my house; I am going for S. next tide." In Jonson's Volpone ii. 1, Peregrine says, "There was a whale discovered in the river as high as Woolwich, that had waited there for the subversion of the Stode fleet," i.e. in order to sink the fleet that was bound from Lond. for S.


A colonnade in Athens, lying E. of the Pnyx and South of the Areopagus, at the N.W. corner of the Agora. It had 3 walls which were covered with famous paintings. It was here that the philosopher Zeno lectured; and from this his followers derived their name of Stoics. In Milton P. R. iv. 253, the Tempter says to our Lord, as he shows him Athens, "Within the walls then view The schools of ancient sages . . . painted Stoa next." In line 280, he speaks of "the Stoic severe"; and in Comus 707, of "Those budge doctors of the Stoick fur." In Shrew i. 1, 31, Tranio says, "Let's be no Stoics nor no stocks, I pray."


A fish and flesh mkt. in Lond., on the site of the present Mansion House, between Walbrook and St. Swithin Lane. It was established in 1282, and Stow, in his Survey 178, says that it took its name from a pair of S. which formerly stood there. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt as a fruit market. In 1737 it was removed to Farringdon St., where it was known as Fleet Mkt. Sir Philip Sidney, in Remedy for Love, says of the fragrance emitted by Philoclea and Pamela: "No such-like smell you, if you range To th' S. or Cornhill's square Exchange." Dekker, in Bellman, mentions it as a haunt of pickpockets. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 282, Tawniecoat says, "'Tis in this lane; I turned on the right hand, coming from the S." Later in the play Hobson says, "I am old Hobson, a haberdasher, and dwelling by the S."


Some dist. is intended in the neighbourhood of the Dniester (Tyras) and Podolia. There is a river Stokhod flowing N., through the N.W. of Volhynia and the South-W. of Minsk into the Pripet; and the dist. Watered by it would suit the context fairly well. On the other hand, stok is a not uncommon termination of Slavonic place-names (Bialystok, Vladivostok) which Marlowe may have seized upon. Codemia may conceivably be a perversion of Colomea in Gallicia. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 3, Theridamas reports: "By the river Tyras I subdued Stoka, Podolia, and Codemia."


Apparently some river in Poland or W. Russia is intended; but the topography of this play is almost all fictitious. In Suckling's Brennoralt i., Iphigene says, "Would we were again By Stolden banks in happy solitude."


The famous Druidical circle in Wilts., 9 m. N. of Salisbury., It is said by Geoffrey of Monmouth to have been erected by the magic art of Merlin. It was the scene of the massacre of the Britons by Hengist; and Aurelius, one of the last of the British kings, was said to have been buried there. Boorde, in Intro. of Knowledge i. 120, says, "Upon the plain of Salysbury is the stonege, which is certain great stones, some standing, and some lying overthwart." Spenser, F. Q. ii. 10, 66, tells the story of Hengist's massacre, and says that he who lists "Th' eternal marks of treason may at Stonheng view." In the next stanza he tells how Aurelius . . . now entombed lies at Stonheng by the heath." Drayton, Polyolb. iii. 43, says that Salisbury Plain "Hath worthily obtained, that Stonendge there should stand." A play entitled Stonehenge, by John Speed, was acted at Cambridge in 1636. See also HANGING STONES, SALISBURY PLAIN.


A town in Bucks, almost at its junction with Bedford and Northants, on the Ouse, 52 m. N.W. of Lond., along Watling St., the next stage northwards from Fenny Stratford. It is abt. 17 m. South of Northampton, and 30 N.W. of St. Alban's. In R3 ii. 4, 2, the Archbp. of York says of the young K. and his train: "Last night, I hear, they lay at Northampton; At S. S. will they be tonight." In True Tragedy, p. 76, Richd. says, "Let us take post horse to S. S., where happily I'll say grace to the Princes' dinner." In Oldcastle v. 3, the scene of which is St. Alban's, the Hostler says, "O, Tom is gone? from hence; he's at the Three Horse-loaves at S.S." In The Puritan iii. 5, Edmund says, "Why, look you, I should marry a Poticary's daughter, and 'twas told me she lost her maidenhead at S. S."; where, of course, a pun is intended.


A hitherto unsolved Shakespearian riddle. Nobody has yet discovered the source of the allusion, or the location of the Strachy; it has a Scotch look about it, but the only hope is that some one may come across the story somewhere or other. In Tw. N. ii. 5, 45, Malvolio says, "The lady of the Strachy married the yeoman of the wardrobe."


Generically any narrow passage or water-way between 2 larger bodies of water; but in our period used specifically of the S. of Gibraltar between the South of Spain and N. Africa at the entrance of the Mediterranean. All the commerce of the Levant came through the S., and they were infested with Spanish and Moorish pirates who made attacks on the merchant ships passing through. In Wit Woman 326, Giro says to Ferio, "You were to go to the port about your pinnaces that is lately come in from the Straites." In Wilson's Cobler 100, Sateros says, "The coal-black Moor that revels in the Straights Have I repelled." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 2, Callapine promises his keeper "A thousand galleys I freely give thee, which shall cut the S. And bring armadoes from the coasts of Spain." In Dekker's Match me v. 1, Gazetto says, "Once hence, you may fl to the Straights and then cross oer to Barbary." In his Lanthorn, he tells of a prostitute trying to inveigle merchants into her house by saying that her husband "put in at the Straytes or at Venice or Scanderoon," i.e. is far away. In T. Heywood's Fortune iii. 3, the Merchant says, "I am now upon a voyage to the S. myself." In W. Rowley's New Wonder iii., Stephen says, "I want some English traffic; my voyage is to the S." In Haughton's Englishmen ii. 2, Pisaro speaks of the terror the pirates "Have made the S. 'twixt Spain and Barbary." In B. & F. Subject iii. 4, Theodore asks: "What would ye give now To find the rich Moluccas? to pass the S.?" where perhaps the S. of Malacca are intended. In Thomas iv. 5, Francisco asks the sailors "Whither are ye bound, friends?" and they answer: "Down to the Streights." In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Valentine says that wives ruin their husbands "beyond redemption from the Indies, the Streights, or Barbary." In B. & F. Scornful ii. 3, Savil says to his master, who is proposing to sell his lands to get means for his drinking and gambling, "If you'll turn up the S., you may; for you have no calling for drink there but with a cannon; nor no scoring but on your ship's sides." In Massinger's Unnat. Com. i. 1, Malefort asks: "Who sunk the Turkish gallies in the streights But Malefort?" Hall, in Heaven upon Earth (1624) 25, says, "Thy goods are embarked; now thou wishest a direct N.-wind to drive thee to the Strayts; and then a W. to run in."

The word is used figuratively for a difficult situation. In Armin's MorecIacke D. 3r, Sir William says, "Thou art in the S, Moll; and the pirates' shots will sink thee." The name was applied in current slam to the alleys and courts off the Strand and Fleet St., in Lond.; partly because of their narrowness, but more particularly because they were infested with adventurers of all kinds in quest of money, like the pirates that attacked the merchant-ships in the S. In Jonson's Barthol. ii. 1, Overdo says, "Look into any angle of the town, the Streights or the Bermudas, where the quarreling lesson is read, and how do they entertain the time but with bottle-ale and tobacco?" In his Underwoods xxx., he says, "These men:. turn pirates here at land, Have their Bermudas and their Streights i' the Strand." It is also applied, with a reference to the S. of Magellan, to a disreputable dist. somewhere near Bunhill Fields, Lond. In B. & F. Friends i. 2, Blacksnout says that he got a wound in the groin "at the siege of Bunnil, passing the straights 'twixt Mayor's Lane and Terra del Fuego, the fiery isle"; where I suggest that Mayor's Lane is a misprint for Magellan.


A st. in Lond., running W. from the Griffin which marks the site of Temple Bar to Charing Cross. As the name implies, it was close to the strand or shore of the Thames, and was the means of communication between Lond. and Westminster. In Chancery Rolls (1246) it is mentioned as "Vicus qui vocatur le Stronde." Properly it only extended from Essex St. to Charing Cross, the part between Essex St. and Temple Bar being called Temple Bar Without. It was first paved in 1532, as it had become very dangerous and "fun of pits and sloughs." Its condition was not unproved by the brooks which ran across it at frequent intervals, draining the fields to the N.; some of them were broad enough to require bridging, 2 of the best-known bdges. being Strand Bdge. at the end of Strand Lane, and Ivy Bdge. by Ivy Lane. Immediately W. of Temple Bar was Butchers' Row, named from the butchers' stalls which occupied its Southern side, facing into the S. Next came the ch. of St. Clement Danes, and W. of it again Holywell St. A little further on, opposite Somerset House, was the Maypole, which occupied the site of the old S. Cross. The Ch. of St. Mary-le-S. was built at this point in 1714, to take the place of the old Ch. of the Nativity of our Lady and the Innocents pulled down by Protector Somerset to make room for his palace, Somerset House. The South side of the S. was at first occupied chiefly by the town houses of some of the Bps., whose sacred character made them safer from attack, and who therefore ventured to live outside the walls of the city. As times became more secure, these sites were taken over by various noblemen. Starting from Temple Bar, there were on ibe South side of the S., in order, Essex House, Arundel House, Somerset House, which was built on the sites of the houses of the, Bps. of Chester, Llandaff, and Worcester, the Savoy Palace-used during our period as a hospital and almshouse–with a school and chapel attached; Worcester House, formerly the residence of the Bps. of Carlisle; Salisbury House, built by Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury; Durham House, the Inn of the Bp of Durham, taken possession of by Henry VIII and occupied for a time first by the Princess Elizabeth, and then by Sir Walter Raleigh; on the site of its stables, fronting the S., James I built his New Exchange, or Britain's Burse; the site of the palace itself is now occupied by the Adelphi. Next came York House, of which the handsome water-gate still remains on the Thames Embankment; it was successively in the possession of the Bps. of Norwich, Brandon, D. of Suffolk, Heath, Archbp. of York, from whom it got its name, and George Villiers, D. of Buckingham. Last came Northumberland House, the palace of the Percys, which survived till 1874. On the N. side, in the time of Elizabeth, were mainly open fields; though Wimbledon House, built by Sir Edward Cecil, was erected about the close of the 16th cent, to the W. of Catherine St.; and next to it was Burleigh, or Cecil, House, on the site of which the Exeter Change was built in the reign of William and Mary. During the reign of James I the S. came to be the fashionable residential quarter of Lond., the West End of those days. The N. side was gradually taken up by houses, and shops were also established, chiefly to supply the needs of the fashionable folk of the neighbourhood. There were, however, shops between Temple Bar and St. Clement Danes before this, especially in Butcher's Row, which appears to date from the reign of Edward I. Sylvester, in his translation of Du Bartas' Divine Weeks and Works (1590) iii. 2, 2, says, "Here to the Thames-ward, all along the S., The stately houses of the nobles stand."

In H8 v. 4, 55, the porter's man says, "[The woman] cried out Clubs, when I might see from far some 40 truncheoners draw to her succour, which were the hope of the S., where she was quartered." These would be prentices from the shops near Temple Bar. In B. & F. Pestle iv. 5, the citizen's wife suggests that Ralph shall "dance the Morris for the credit of the S." Accordingly Ralph appears dressed as a may-lord and says, "By the common counsel of my fellows in the S. With gilded staff and crossed scarf the Maylord here I stand." Pasquil's Palinodia (1619) says, "Within the spacious passage of the S. Objected to our sight a summer-broach Ycleaped a Maypole." In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Iniquity suggests to Pug, "If thou hadst rather to the S. down to fail 'Gainst the lawyers come dabbled from Westminster Hall." In Underwit iii. 3, Courtwell talks of "marching with the puisnes to Westminster In our torn gowns embroidered with S. dirt, To hear the law." In Jonson's Epicoene i. 1, Clermont says of the fop La-Foole: "He has a lodging in the S. for the purpose of inviting his guests aloud out of his window, as they ride by in coaches." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque i. 1, Sir Lionel Rash says, "To-morrow I remove into the S. There for this quarter dwell." In Middleton's Chaste Maid v. 1, Mrs. Allwit says, "Let's let out lodgings then And take a house in the S." In Shirley's Pleasure i. 2, Celestina says, "I live i' the S., whither few ladies come, To live and purchase more than fame. I will Be hospitable then, and spare no cost . . . I'll have My house the Academy of Wits . . . my balcony Shall be the courtier's idol." In Underwit i. 1, Device says, "There's a ball to-night in the S." In Brome's Ct. Biggar i. 1, Charissa upbraids Mendicant for giving up the delights of a country life "for a lodging is the S." In his Northern ii. 5, Pate says, "I will acquaint thee with an old ladies' usher in the S. that shall give thee thy gait, thy postures, and thy language." In his Sparagus iv. 10, Sam says that Mrs. Brittleware has gone "down towards the S. in a new litter with the number one-and-twenty in the breech of it." In Nabbes' Totenham ii. 3, Mrs. Stichall says, "By my S.-honesty, I'll to Totenham Court after my husband." In Middleton's Hubburd, p. 77, the young gallant is advised that "his lodging must be about the S. in any case, being remote from the handicraft of the City."

In Mayne's Match i. 4, Plotwell says to the a young Templars," In these colours you set out the S. and adorn Fleet-st." In Marston's Malcontent Ind., Sinklow says of his feather: "I have worn it up and down the S. and met [the herald] 40 times, and yet he dares not to challenge ft." In Stucley 364, we are introduced to "Blunt of the S., the buckler-maker." In Jonson's Epicoene iv. 1, Otter says of his wife: "Both her eye-brows [were made] in the S." In Dekker's Northward v. 1, Bellamont says, "There is a new trade come up for cast gentlewomen, of periwig-making; let your wife set up in the S." In Glapthorne's Wit iv. 1, Valentine says, "'Tis a peruke; I saw it at the Frenchman's in the S." In his Gamester v. 1, Hazard says of a frail lady: "Let her make the best on't; set up shop i' the S. or Westminster." In W. Rowley's Match-Mid. i. 3, Bloodhound sends his boy to a tallow-chandler's "in the S." to recover a debt; probably he lived in Butchers' Row.


A bdge. that crossed the brook running from St. Clements Well across the S. and down S. Lane, Lond. The landing-place at the foot of the lane was also called S.-bdge.; this is the bdge. intended in the quotation. In Shirley's Pleasure iv. 2, Lady Bornwell says, "You may take water at S.-bdge."




See Bow. In Day's B. Beggar iii., Canby says, "Go take my horse at the Bell at S." In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 5, the Lord Mayor says, "Spend these 2 angels in beer at S.-B." In T. Heywood's wood's Ed. IV B. 27, Club says, "Tell them, they come, Instead of pudding pies and S. cakes To make's a banquet here." Kemp, in Nine Days' Wonder, says that he went through S. on his dance to Norwich "to keep a custom that many hold, that Mile End is no walk without a recreation at S.-B. with cream and cakes." In Penn. Parl. 59, it is provided "that you suit yourselves handsomely against goose-feast; and if you meet not a fair lass betwixt St. Paul's and S. that day, we will bestow a new suit of satin upon you."


The bdge. over the Lea at S.-at-Bow, from the arches or bows of which the village had its name (see Bow). In Merry Devil i. 4, Fabel says, "I'll make the brined sea to rise at Ware And drown the marshes unto S. Bdge."


A town in South Warwicksh., 10 m. South-W. of Warwick, and 95 m. N.W. of Lond. by road, lying on the Avon, which is crossed by a fine stone bdge. of 14 arches built by Sir Hugh Clopton, a native of S, who became Lord Mayor of Lond. in 1492. It was widened in 1814. Here Shakespeare was born, almost certainly in the house still preserved in Henley St. He was christened in the Ch. of the Holy Trinity, April 26th, 1564, and went to the King Edward Grammar School, where Thomas Hunt was master from 1572 to 1577. In 1597 he bought New Place, one of the finest mansions in the town, built by Sir Hugh Clopton. The house has gone, but the site is preserved as a public garden. Here he died on April 23rd, 1616, and was buried in the ch. of the Holy Trinity. The Harvard House and the Guild Chapel remain as they were in his time; and his memory has been perpetuated by the American Memorial Fountain in Rother St. and the fine Memorial Theatre erected in 1877. Digger, in Verses prefixed to the 1st Folio edition of Shakespeare, speaks of the day when "Time dissolves thy S. monument."


One of the Southern suburbs of Lond., formerly a vill. on the Brighton Rd., South of Wandsworth Common, abt. 6 m. in a direct line from St. Paul's. Nash, in Summers i. 1, speaks of "the finest set of morris-dancers that is between this and Streatham."




(the STRYMON). One of the largest rivers in Macedonia, and at one time its E. boundary. It runs South from Mt. Scomius, and enters the sea near Amphipolis. Philippi lies abt. 40 m. E. of it. In Caesar's Rev. v. 1, Antony says of Cassius: "Silver Stremonia shall echo the terror of thy dismal flight." The reference is to the battle of Philippi, in which Antony defeated Brutus and Cassius 42 B.C. Spenser, in Ruines of Time 593, extols the swans "of white Strimonian brood."


The Latin name of Gran, a city in Hungary, 25 m. N.W. of Pesth, on the right bank of the Danube. It is the see of the Primate of Hungary. St. Stephen, 1st K. of Hungary, was born here; and it was long the residence of the Kings. It was often taken by the Turks, and again retaken; but it was not till 1683 that it was finally wrested from them. It was, however, temporarily recovered in 1596, and it is this occasion to which Bobadil refers in Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 1, when he boasts that he was "at the beleaguering of Strigonium where 700 resolute gentlemen lost their lives upon the breach." Sir Thomas Arundel greatly dlstinguished himself at this siege, and was made a Count of the Empire by Rudolf, and Lord Arundel of Wardour by Elizabeth, in consequence.


A town in Gloucestersh., 9 miles South of Gloucester. It was the centre of the W. of England cloth manufacture. In Skelton's Magnificence fol. xii., Fancy says, "Her eyen glent From Tyne to Trent, From Stroude to Kent," i.e. through the whole length and breadth of England.


A field abt. 1/2 m. square, lying just N. of Cambridge, between it and Chesterton, on the Sture. A great fair was held here annually on Sept. 19th, and continued a fortnight. It was one of the most frequented fairs in England, and during its continuance hackney coaches ran from Lond. day and night to bring the citizens to it. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 258, Hobson asks: "What's the news At bawdy Bamwell and at S. Fair?" In Wise Men ii. 3, Vulcano says, "I can chop Logick as I list; I learnt it at S. Fair." In Brewer's Lingua iii. 6, Phantastes says, "I wonder that you presented us not with the sight of Nineveh, Babylon, London, or some S. Fair monsters." Nineveh and the rest were motions, or puppet shows. In iv. 6, Tactus says, "There is such calling for fardingales, kirtles, busk-points, shoe-ties, etc., that 7 pedlars' shops, nay, all S. fair, will scarce furnish her." In Groundwork of Conny-Catching (1592), we are told of a new trick by which "one got a bag of cheese the last S. Fair." In Dekker's Dead Term, Lond. says, "Many coming thither [i.e. to S. Fair] have taken that place for myself, and have not stuck to call it by the name of Little Lond." In his Northward i. 1, Bellamont says, "I have observed very much with being at S.; it hath afforded me mirth beyond the length of 5 Latin comedies"; and proceeds to give a lively description of it. In B. & F. Prize ii. 6, Pedro declares: "There are more women marching hitherward than e'er turned tail at S.-fair." Earle, in Microcosmog. lxviii., says that the gull-citizen "bears a pretty kind of foolish love to scholars, and to Cambridge especially for S. fair's sake." Randolph, in Conceited Pedlar (1630), says, "I am a pedlar and I sell my ware This brave Saint Barthol or S. fair." Drayton, Polyolb. xxi. 70, makes Gogmagog promise the nymph Granta "Bezides, at S. Fair chill buy thee many a thing."


(Sn. = Stygian). In the Greek mythology, one of the rivers of the Infernal regions. According to Vergil it flowed through a vast marsh, or pool, and encircled Hell 9 times. Disembodied spirits were ferried across by Charon. The oath by the S. was the most binding that could be taken, and could not be broken, even by Zeus himself. There is an actual S. in N.E. Arcadia, which forms the highest waterfall in Greece; it is known now as Mauraneria, and is still regarded with superstitious awe by the inhabitants of the neighbourhood. Like Dante, the Elizabethans transferred the scenery and rivers of the Greek Hades to the Christian Hell; and the adjective Stygian is used as a synonym for infernal. In Troil. iii. 2, 10, Troilus says, "I stalk about her door, Like a strange soul upon the Sn. banks, Staying for waftage. O, be thou my Charon!" In v. 4, 19, Troilus cries to Diomed: "Fly not! for shouldst thou take the river S., I would swim after." In Tit. i. 1, 88, Titus asks: "Why sufferest thou thy sons, unburied yet, To hover on the dreadful shore of S.?" It was believed that the souls of those whose bodies had not been buried could not secure passage across the S. into Hades. In R3 i. 4, 45, Clarence says, "My soul Passed methought the melancholy flood With that grim ferryman which poets write of." In T. Heywood's Gold. Age v., Homer says, "Pluto's made Emperour commanding Hell Where S. and Lethe flow." In Suckling's Goblins iii., the Thief says of the Poet. "He hath made such a description of S. and the Ferry, and verily thinks he hath passed them." In Wilson's Cobler 620, Charon says to the Cobler, "Come, if thou wilt, over S."; and he replies, "Over stix, ay, and over stones!" Later, in line 677, Charon says that to accommodate the crowds that are coming to Hell "Cocytus, Lethe, Phlegeton, shall aft be digged into S." In Jonson's Cynthia i. 1, Cupid says to Mercury, "You have the marshalling of all the ghosts too that pass the Sn. ferry, and I suspect you for a share with the old sculler there." In Locrine iv. 4, Humber invokes, "You ghastly devils of the ninefold Stickes." In Kirke's Champions iv., Leonides says, "There the Thracian [i.e. Orpheus] sits Hard by the sullen waters of black S., Fingering his lute." In Massinger's Roman Actor iii. 2, Caesar says, "I'll afflict your souls And force them groaning to the Sn. lake." In the old Timon iv. 2, Timon says, "I'll headlong tumble into S. his lake."

Milton, P. L. ii. 577, names as the first of the rivers of Hell "Abhorred S, the flood of deadly hate." In i. 239, Satan and Beelzebub are represented as "glorying to have scaped the Sn. flood"; in ii. 506, the assembly of fallen angels is described as "The Sn. council"; and in 875 they are called "the Sn. powers." In iii. 14, the poet speaks of himself as having "Escaped the Sn. pool, though long detained In that obscure sojourn." In x. 453, the devils are "the Sn. throng." In L'Allegro 3, Melancholy is "of Cerberus and 'blackest Midnight born In Sn. cave forlorn." In Comus 182, Comus says, "the dragon womb of Sn. darkness spews her thickest gloom." In Chapman's Trag. Byron iv. 1, Byron talks of "the Sn. flood "of the envies of his foes. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. v. 1, Bajazet says, "O life more loathsome to my vexed thoughts Than noisome parbreak of the Sn. snakes." In Jonson's Catiline iii. 2, Cicero calls Catiline's conspiracy "a Sn. practice." In Chapman's Chabot v. 2, 37, the Advocate speaks of the Chancellor as "The very fen and Sn. abyss "of corruption. In Philotus 123, Flavius conjures the spirits "By Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, By Lethe, S, and Acheron." In Webster's White Devil v. 6, Flamineo says, "What a religious oath was S., that the gods never durst swear by and violate." In T. Heywood's S. Age v, Jupiter swears "By dreadful S, an oath I cannot change." In Greene's Alphonsus iii. 2, 367, Medea says, "I conjure thee By stinking S. and filthy Flegeton." In Chapman's Trag. Byron v. 1, Byron says of the K.: "By his vows And oaths so Sn. [he] had my nerves and will In more awe than his own." In Marlowe's Faustus vii., Faust swears "by the kingdoms of infemal rule, of S., of Acheron, and the fiery lake of ever-burning Phlegethon." In his Tamb. A. v. 1, Bajazet speaks of a star that "countermands the gods More than Cimmerian S. or destiny." In Beaumont's Salmacis, Venus "made Vulcan swear By dreadful S., the oath that gods do fear." Spenser, F. Q. iii. 6, 24, makes Phcebe say, "By Sn. lake I vow, whose sad annoy The gods do dread." In Chapman's Consp. Byron v. 2, 46, Byron says, "'Twas . . . a repulse As miserably cold as Sn. water That from sincere earth issues, and doth break The strongest vessels, not to be contained But in the tough hoof of a patient ass." Pliny says that the waters of the S. corroded everything except the hoof of tin ass.


(Sb. = Suburb). The districts immediately outside the walls of a city; especially those in the outskirts of Lond. As the city-gates were closed during the night, the s. were left very much to themselves; and the state of things that prevailed can be readily imagined. Hence the word is almost always used by the dramatists in a bad sense, and implies a dist. where loose living is the rule. Chettle, in Kind Hart's Dream (1592), says, "The s. of the city are in many places no other but dark dens for adulterers, thieves, murderers, and every mischief-worker." In Meas. i. 2, 98, Pompey tells of an edict that "all houses in the s. of Vienna must be puffed down"; where houses of ill-fame are meant In ii. 1, 65, Elbow says of Pompey: "He is one that serves a bad woman, whose house, Sir, was, as they say, plucked down in the s." In H8 v. 4, 76, the Lord Chamberlain says to the Porter, "There's a trim rabble let in; are all these your faithful friends of the s.?" In J. C. ii. 1, 285, Portia asks Brutus: "Dwell I but in the s. of your good pleasure? If it be no more, Portia is Brutus' harlot, not his wife." Nash' in Christ's Tears (1593) ii. 148, asks: "Lond., what are thy s. but licensed Stews?" In Nobody i., we are told: "Here's queans maintained in every sb. street." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 3, Knowell says of Stephen: "If I can but hold him up to his height, It will do well for a sb.-humour." In B. & F. Friends ii. 1, Philadelphia says, "To yield At first encounter may befit the state of some suburban strumpet." In Middleton's R. G. ii. 1, Goshawk says, "He keeps a whore in the s." In Sharpham's Fleire ii. 29, Fleire says, "They scorn to have a Suburbian bawd lend 'em a taffaty gown." In B. & F. Wild Goose ii. 3, Rosalura says to Mirabel, "It seems ye are hot; the s. will supply ye." In their Thomas ii. 2, Dorothea advises Thomas, "Get a new mistress, Some sb. saint, that 6d. and some oaths Will draw to parley." In their Cure ii. 1, Pachieco says, "I have found a thief or a whore there, when the whole s. could not furnish me." In their Prize iv. 5, Pedro speaks of "one of those that multiply i' th' s. for single money." In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says, "The s. and those without the Bars have more privilege than they within the freedom." In Webster's Cuckold ii. 3, Compass says, "Blackwall . . . can't hold out always, no more than Limehouse or Shadwell or the strongest s. about Lond." In Strode's Float. Isl. v. 11, Prudentius says, "Melancolico and Concupiscence Shall keep their state; i' th' s. or New-England." Dekker, in Lanthorn, says, "These Sb. sinners have no lands to live upon but their legs." W. Rowley, in Search 37, says, "We should return back to the suburbian bordello." Massinger, in Madam iii. 1, talks of "swaggering suburbian roarers." In Randolph's Muses, iv. 2, Anaiskyntia boasts that she has had "good practice in the S.," where they are very subject to "the French disease."


(i.e. THE BOOTHS). A vill. in Palestine, now Tell Deir Allah, 1 m. N. of the Jabbok and abt. 3 m. E. of the Jordan. In Milton S.A. 278, the Chorus recalls "How Succoth and the fort of Penuel Their great deliverer contemned, The matchless Gideon." (See Judges viii. 5–16.)


A town in Valentia, on the E. coast of Spain at the mouth of the Xucar, from which river it got its alternative name, Xucar or Sucor. In Peele's Alcazar iii. prol., we are told: "At Sucor de Tupea He [the K. of Spain] met in person with the Portugal [i.e. Sebastian] And treateth of a marriage with the K." The next scene describes this meeting.


A town in Suffolk on the left bank of the Stour, 17 m. E. of Ipswich. In J. Heywood's Weather, p. 100, Merry Report says, "I have been at S., Southampton, at Shooters Hill." In Tarlton's News out of Purgatory, we read that he saw there "certain women hanged up by the tongue for scolding, and especially one Botcher's wife of S., who was an archgossip in that faculty. "Lyly, in Pappe with a; Hatchett, Eliz. Pamph. p. 54, says, "At S. the Martin-mongers swarmed to a lecture like bears to a honey-pot." Puritanism was strong in Norfolk and Suffolk.


A vill. in Gloucestersh., 18 m. N.E. of Gloucester, and near to Tewkesbury. In its ruined ch. Katharine Parr was buried. There are also the remains of an ancient castle dating from the reign of Henry VI. In Thersites, Anon. Pl. i. 2X7, the hero says, "Tom Tumbler of Tewkesbury will wipe William Waterman, Simon Sadler of Sudeley that served the sow."


An ancient Duchy in South-W Germany, extending from the angle of the Rhine at Bâle, northwards to the Danube. It included Wurtemburg, Baden, and Hohenzollern, with part of Bavaria Its capital is Augsburg. It was one of the 10 "circles" into which Germany was divided in 1512. The Heroine of Marston's Insatiate is an entirely fictitious Isabella, "Countess of Suevia."


The county on the E. coast of England between Norfolk and Essex. It formed the Southern portion of the old kingdom of E. Anglia, and suffered much from the incursions of the Danes. It is almost entirely agricultural, and was famous for its cheeses 2nd other dairy produce. Like Norfolk, it was in the main Puritan in its sympathies. In Brewer's Lovesick v. 1, Alured reports that the Danes have "planted themselves In Norfolk, S., and Cambridgesh." In H6 C. i. 1, 156, Northumberland speaks of the!power of Warwick in "Essex, Norfolk, S., and Kent"; and in iv. 8, 12, Warwick sends Clarence to "stir up in S., Norfolk, and in Kent The knights and gentlemen to come with thee." In Middleton's Quiet Life ii. 1, Mrs. Knavesby says, "I am a S. woman, my Lord." In Brome's Moor iv. 5, Quicksands says, "I placed no child in Norfolk nor S., nor any folk." In Greene's Friar i., Prince Edward says of Margaret of Fressingfield: "A bonnier wench all S. cannot yield." In Killigrew's Parson i. 3, Jolly says, "There's Jack Careless, he carried out as good staple-manners as any was in S., and now he is returned with a shrug and a trick to stand crooked." Drayton, Polyolb. xix. 3, 99, says, "From the Suffolcean side yet those which Stour prefer Their princely Orwell praise." In Davenant's Wits iii., Snore says, "My watch are above at Trea Trip for a black pudding and a pound of S. cheese." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 259, Tawnie says, "A long slender poking-stick is the all in all with your S. Puritan." In Day's B. Beggar iv., Strowd says, "There were a sort of tumblers at Windham Fair last year, and they have made it so stale in Norfolk and S. that every wench is turned tumbler."

S. is a territorial title in the English Peerage. The Earl of S. (who is wrongly called D. of S.) in Oldcastle i. 2, ii. 2, etc., is Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of that family. He was killed at Harfleur on Sept. 18th, 1415. The Earl whose death at Agincourt a little more than a month later is described in H5 iv. 6 was Michael de la Pole, son of the preceding Earl. The S. who, in H6 A. v. 3, woos Margaret of Anjou for the K. and falls in love with her himself is William de la Pole, son of the foregoing; he was created Marquis in 1444, and D. in 1448. In H6 B. i. 1, 45, he is called "William de la Pole, Marquess of S."; and in line 64 the K. says, "We here create thee the 1st Duke of S." He forfeited the K.'s confidence by his plot against Gloucester, and was taken and beheaded at sea in 1450, as described in iv. i. The S. who was High-Steward at the coronation of Anne Boleyn in H8 iv. 1, and with whom the K. was left playing primero in v. 1, 8, was Charles Brandon created D. in 1514. He married Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VII and Q. Dowager of France. He appears in Cromwell as the messenger who brings to Cromwell the news of his knighthood; and he is prominent in S. Rowley's When You. He died in 1545. On his death the title became extinct, and was conferred by Edward VI on the Marquis of Dorset, the father of Lady Jane Grey, who was beheaded in 1554. He is one of the characters in Webster's Wyat. Thomas Drue produced a play entitled The Duchess of S. about 1620. The Earldom came into the Howard family, its present holders, in 1603


A meadow lying somewhere South-E. of Bethnall Green, between the Whitechapel Rd. and Limehouse. In Day's B. Beggar iv., young Strowd says, "I'll but cross o'er the Summer lay by the Broomfield." See BROOMFIELD.

SUN [1]

A Lond. tavern sign. Taylor, in Works i. 125, says, "I have fared better at three Suns, in Aldersgate St., Cripplegate, and New Fish St." In Middleton's No Wit ii. 1, Pickadill says, "Your sun-cup! Some cup, I warrant, that he stole out of the Sun-tavem." Herrick, in Ode to Jonson, speaks of "those lyric feasts Made at the Sun, the Dog, the Triple Tun." In Wit Woman 1636, Braggardo orders: "Go you to the Sunne and fetch me a gallon of Ipocras." In B. & F. Custom iii. 3, Jaques says that the Dane "lies at the sign of the Sun to be new-breeched." This was at Lisbon. Brereton, Marginalia on B. do F., plausibly suggests Tun, in allusion to the tubs used in treating his malady.

SUN [2]

A bookseller's sign in Lond. An early edition of Colin Clout was "imprinted at Lond. in Paules churche yard at the sign of the Sunne by Anthony Kytson." Lodge's Wounds of Civil War was "Printed by John Danter and are to be sold at the sign of the Sunne in Paul's Churchyard. 1594." The 2nd Quarto of Pericles was "Imprinted at Lond. for Henry Gosson and are to be sold at the sign of the Sunne in Paternoster Row. 1609."


A city in Gudjerat on the W. coast of India, 160 m. N. of Bombay. It was founded in the early part of the 16th cent., and rapidly rose to be an important commercial port. It lies on the South bank of the Tapti, about 14 m. from its mouth. It was held by the Portuguese from 1573 to 1612; but when Webster's play was written it had passed into the hands of the English East India Company. It was one of the most populous cities in India in the 18th cent., but most of its trade has since been absorbed by Bombay. In Webster's Cuckold ii. 3, Compass says, "If you'll believe me, I have been at Surat."


(see BARBER SURGEONS HALL). It was not until 1745 that the Surgeons separated from the Barbers and got a Hall of their own, first in Stationers Hall, then in the Old Bailey, and finally in Lincoln's Inn Fields.


A southern county of England, lying South of the Thames between Middlesex and Sussex. The part of Lond. to the South of the Thames is in S.; and as that side of the river was outside the jurisdiction of the Middlesex magistrates, who were strongly opposed to the Theatres, the actors migrated to the Bankside in Southwark and built there the Globe, the Rose, and the Swan. S. is a territorial title in the English Peerage. In R2 iv. 1, S. defends Aumerle against the charges of Fitzwater. This was Thomas s. Holland, 3rd Earl of Kent, created D. of S. in 1397. For his share in the plot against Henry IV he was degraded by Parliament in 1399, and beheaded at Cirencester in the following year. He is one of the characters in Trag. Richd. II. The Earl of S. mentioned in H4 B. iii. 1, was Thomas Fitzalan, son of Richard Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel and S., who was beheaded in 1397 and his title conferred on the Thomas Holland named above; but on Holland's death it was restored to the Fitzalans in the person of Thomas. He died in 1415.

In R3 v. 3, the Earl of S. appears as commanding a division for Richd. at the Battle of Bosworth. This was Thomas Howard, created Earl in 1483. He was taken prisoner at Bosworth and imprisoned in the Tower for 3J years. He then made his peace with Henry, and was restored to his Earldom in 1489. He appears in Ford's Warbeck as one of the K.'s supporters. He commanded the English forces at Flodden, and was in consequence restored to his father's title of D. of Norfolk in 1514. He thereupon surrendered the title of Earl of S. to his son, Thomas Howard, for the term of his own life. On his death, in 1524, Thomas became D. of Norfolk, and the courtesy title of Earl of S. passed to his son, Henry Howard, the poet. Henry was beheaded on Tower Hill in 1547, though his father Norfolk escaped through the death of the K. On the death of Norfolk in 1554, Henry's son and heir became D. of Norfolk and Earl of S.; he was attainted and beheaded in 1572 for conspiring against Elizabeth. The S. who appears in More i. 3 is the hero of Flodden. In Shakespeare's Henry VIII there is some confusion. The D. of Norfolk of i. 1 is, of course, Thomas of Flodden fame. In ii. 1, 43, we are told that the Earl of S. was sent to Ireland, and in haste, too, lest he should help his "father." This was Thomas, the son of the Flodden man, and son-in-law of Buckingham, who is the "father "spoken of. He himself says, in iii. 2, 253, "Thy ambition . . . robbed this bewailing land of noble Buckingham, my father-in-law . . . . You sent me deputy for Ireland Far from his succour." But this scene is supposed to take place in 1529, when Thomas Howard was D. 6f Norfolk. Shakespeare, however, introduces the D. of Norfolk in the same scene; so that it looks as if by S. he means Henry Howard, though this throws all his facts wrong; for it was Thomas who was son-in-law to Buckingham and Deputy for Ireland. At the coronation of Anne Boleyn in iv. 1, the D. of Norfolk acts as Earl Marshal, and the Earl of S. bears the Q.'s sceptre with the Dove. This was in 1533, and S. is the poet-peer.


A province in South-W. Morocco, South of the Atlas range. In Stucley 2446, Muly Hamet calls himself "K. of mighty Sus." Milton, P. L. xi., 403, mentions "The kingdoms of Almansor, Fez, and Sus."


The capital of, the ancient Kings of Persia founded by Darius Hystaspes on the site of an older city destroyed by Assur-bani-pal. It is now a mass of mounds on the left bank of the Shaur, 15 m. South-E. of Dizful, and 250 South-E. of Bagdad. It is Shushan the Palace of the book of Esther. In Hester 286, the scribe calls it "Susis, our noble city of might." In Cyrus B. 3, Panthea is described as "wife unto the absent Susan k, Abracadate." In Nero iii. 3, Seneca says, "We beg not now To have our consuls tread on Asian lungs Or spurn the quivered S. at their feet." Milton, P. L. x. 308, speaks of Xerxes coming to attack Greece "From S., his Memnonian palace high." S. is called Memnonia by Herodotus (v. 54) because it was built by Tithonus, the father of Memnon. In P. R. iii. 188, the Tempter points out to our Lord "S. by Choaspes' amber stream.


A large province lying between the Persian Gulf and Media, W. of Persia. It corresponds roughly to the modern Fars; its capital was Susa. Milton, P.R. iii. 321, describes the forces of the K. of Parthia as coming partly from "the south of Susiana."


The county in England on the South coast between Kent and Hampshire. In Davenant's Wits iv. 1, Palatine says, "My clothes, they are rags; yet they will serve for the winter, Sir, when I ride post in S. ways." A pamphlet published in 16l4 tells of "a strange and monstrous serpent or dragon lately discovered in S., 2 m. from Horsam, in a wood caned St. Leonard's Forest, and 30 m. from Lond." It is stated to have been 9 ft. long with large feet, and to have "cast his venom about 4 roods from him." In Jonson's New World, the factor speaks of "your printed conundrums of the serpent in S." In B. & F. Wit Money ii. 4, Lance suggests as a topic for Francisco to write about "Dragons in S." In Braithwaite's Whimsies (1631), we read of "a S. dragon drawn by some Shoe-lane man." In Work for Cutlers, when Sword derives his pedigree from "St. George his sword that killed the dragon," Rapier says, "Ay, the dragon in S. th'other day." S. was a territorial title in the English Peerage. Warren, Earl of S., appears in Greene's Friar. But the play takes place in the latter part of the reign of Henry III, and there was no Earl of S. from 1243, when the last of the de Albini family died, until 1283, when John Plantagenet, or De Warren, was made Earl of Surrey and S. No doubt this man is intended; but he was not Earl of S. during Henry's reign. He appears in Peele's Ed. I, when he gives £500 to the King's College for maimed soldiers. The scene, however, takes place immediately on Edward's return from Palestine in 1274; so that there is again an anticipation of the title. Iron-smelting was carried on in some parts of S. Jonson, in Undenvoods W. 184, demands that Vulcan should be condemned "to some hill-foot (out in S.), to an iron mill."




The popular pronunciation of Sutton-Coldfeld, a town in N. Warwicksh, 26 m. N.W. of Warwick, and a short 20 m. N.W. of Coventry, on the road to Shrewsbury. In H4 A. iv. 2, 3, Falstaff, on the way to Shrewsbury with his contingent, says, "Bardolph, get thee before to Coventry; fill me a bottle of sack; our soldiers shall march through; we'll to S.-C. tonight." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 45, Hobs, the tanner of Tamworth, says, "I am just akin to S. windmill; I can grind which way soe'er the wind blow." S.-Coldfeld is about 7 m. South of Tamworth. Burton, A.M. ii. 1, 3, says, "S.-coldfield in Warwicksh., where I was once a grammar scholar, stands loco ingrato et sterili, but in an excellent air, and full of all manner of pleasures."


Another name for the Charterhouse school, founded by Thomas Sutton in Lond. in 1609 (see CHARTER HOUSE). Dekker, in Rod for Runaways (1623), says, "He lay upon straw under Sutton's Hospital wall near the highway."


A town in Norfolk, 27 m. W. of Norwich. In Mankind 23, Nought, who is going out to steal horses, says, "I shall go to William Patrick of Massingham; I shall spare Master Allington of Bottisham, and Hammond of Swaffham."

SWAN [1]

A booksellers' sign in London. Impatient Poverty was "imprinted at Lond. in Paul's churchyard at the sign of the S. by John King 1562." Nice Wanton has the same imprint in 1560. At the same sign and in the same year was printed The Proud Wives Paternoster. Harcourt's Voyage to Guiana was "printed by John Beale for W. Welby, and are to be sold at his shop in Paul's Churchyard at the sign of the S. 1613." T. Heywood's Dialogues was "printed by R.D. for R.H. and are to be sold by Thomas Stater at the S. in Duck Lane."

SWAN [2]

A London tavern sign. There were several S. taverns in Lond. The most important were: The S. iii Newgate; it stood on the N. side of Newgate near the Gate. In Hycke, p. 100, Frewyl says of Imaginacion: "He was lodged at Newgate at the swanne, And every man took him for a gentleman." Marmion's Leaguer was "printed at Lond. by L.B. for John Grove, dwelling in S. Yard within Newgate. 1632." The S. in Old Fish St. In the list of Taverns in News Barthol. Fair we find "Old Fish st. at the S." In Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, Leatherhead says that "Hero is come over into Fish-st. to eat some fresh herring; Leander says no more, but as fast as he can Gets on all his best clothes and will after to the S." The S. in Dowgate; it is mentioned as "a Tavern well known." This is probably the S. of Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 1, where Haas says, "Bringt Master Eyre tot det signe un Swannekin," i.e. Bring Master Eyre to the sign of the S. He was to meet a ship-captain there. The S. at Charing Cross. Aubrey, iii. 415, tells how Ben Jonson wrote a grace, ending: "God bless, me and God bless Raph." When the K. asked him who Raph was he "told him 'twas the drawer at the Swanne Tavern by Charing Cross."

There were other Swans: It is not possible to say which of them all is intended in the following passages: In Tom Tyler i. 2, Strife says, "The ale-wife of the S. is filling the can." In Nabbes' Bride i. 4, Rhenish says, "And Rhenish, the S. hath none better." Lyly, in Pappe with an Hatchett, p. 57, mentions: "My old hostess of the Swanne in Warwick."


Commonly called the Old S.; a landing place on the N. bank of the Thames, just above Lond. Bdge. The name still remains in Old S. Pier. It was usual to disembark at the Old S. and walk round to Billingsgate, in order to avoid the peril of shooting the Bdge. Nash, in Prognostication, says, "Watermen that want fares shall sit and blow their fingers till their fellows row betwixt the Old S. and Westminster." Selimus was "printed by Thomas Creede dwelling in Thames St. at the sign of the Kathern Wheel near the old Swanne."


A theatre in Lond., projected in 1594 and probably built in 1596. It stood in Paris Garden, q.v. It was used for plays till 1620, and was still standing, though in a ruinous condition, in 1632. Its main interest arises from the fact that it was visited in 1596 by a certain John de Witt. He made a sketch of its interior, which was discovered in the library of the University of Utrecht a few years ago. The S. on the flag identifies it. The drawing has been often reproduced, and has given rise to a voluminous discussion on the staging of Elizabethan plays, which is not yet over. De Witt says that it was built of flint stones, and held 3000 persons. In Middleton's R. G. v. 1, Moll says, "There's a knight lost his purse at the last new play in the S." Goodman, in Marmion's Leaguer (1632), speaks of the theatre as "now fallen to decay and, like a dying Swanne hanging down her head, seemed to sing her own dirge." Taylor, Works (1632), speaks of "poor old Vennor . . . who acted England's Joy first at the S." England's Joy was a play, probably by N. Breton, now lost [ed. note: England's Joy was the infamous "hoax show" of 1602 that was never acted. A plot survives by Richard Vennar. The only extant play certainly to be performed at the Swan was Thomas Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside of 1611–1613].






The country on the E. of the Scandinavian peninsula. It was called in Old English, Sweoland; in the 12th cent. we find Suane or Swane; in the 14th it becomes Swetherlond or Sweathland; and in the beginning of the 17th S. comes into use. The modern kingdom of S. may be said to have been founded by Gustavus Vasa (1523–1560). Under Charles IX (1600–1611) it became definitely Protestant, and his son, Gustavus Adolphus (1611–1632), was the leading champion of Protestantism in the Thirty Years War. In 1630 he led 15,000 men into Germany, and achieved many victories; but his meteoric career was cut short by his death at the Battle of Lutzen, and he was succeeded by his daughter Christina. Heylyn (s.v. SWETHLAND) speaks of the Swedes as valiant and hospitable. In Clyomon, Clamydes is the "son of the K. of Suavia," probably a misprint for Suania; at any rate the context shows that S. is intended. The time is the reign of Alexander the Gt, and the story is wildly unhistorical. In Barnavelt iii. 5, Barnavelt has letters from "the K. of Swechland and the Count of Solems." In Glapthorne's Wallenstein i. 1, Leslie says, "Wallenstein has given to death that thunderbolt of war, the Swedish k." In Mayne's Match iv. 1, Seathrift says, "You did follow the Elephant so long and K. of S., that people at last came in to see you." From the context the K. of S. would seem to have been a puppet-pjay on the life and death of Gustavus Adolphus. Milton, is Sonnet to Skinner 8, advises him not to trouble about "what the Swede intend and what the French." In all these passages Gustavus Adolphus is the K. referred to.

S. produced excellent iron. In Alimony iii. 6, the Ghost says to Crinon, "Thy gain Has lined thy shoulders with a Swedish chain." Swedish, or Sweathland, horses were beginning to be imported into England but they were not, according to Markham, well-conditioned, and were mostly pied, their legs being white and their bodies another colour. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 4, Carlo says, "You shall sweat there in courting your mistress as wen as in all the stoves in S." These stoves, or what we should call Turkish Baths, are most often referred to as Russian; but the same thing is meant. S. shared with Iceland and other N. lands the reputation of being the home of witchcraft. In Marmion's Leaguer v. 4, Trimalchio excuses himself from fighting with Miscellanio on the ground that "he has lain with an old witch in S., and is grown stick-five," i.e. invulnerable.


(more properly SWINESHEAD). A vill. is Lincs., 7 m. South-W. of Boston. It was a spt. in the reign of John, but it is now some distance from the coast through the silting up of the shore. Half a mile E. of the vill. was a Cistercian Convent, founded by Robert de Greslei in 1134, which has completely disappeared. According to the story in Trouble. Reign, the K. was poisoned at S. Abbey by a monk, and died there; and Shakespeare followed this account. But as a matter of fact he came to the Abbey after his disaster in crossing the Wash, and was there seized by a fever; he went on, however, to Sleaford, and thence to Newark Castle, where he died. In Bale's Johan 267, the monk who poisoned John is called Dissimulation; but says, "Simon of Swynsett my very name is perdee." In Trouble. Reign, Haz., p. 314, the Monk, in offering the poisoned cup to the K., says, "Wassell, my Liege, and as a poor monk may say, welcome to S." After John's death the young K. Henry says, "Let not a stone of S. Abbey stand, But pull the house about the Friars' ears." In K.J. v. 3, the K. says, "Set on towards S."; and the scene of his death is laid in the orchard in S. Abbey.


A ch. in Lond. on the N. side of Cannon St. It is known to have existed as early as 1331. It was rebuilt by Sir John Hind about 1400. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt by Wren. Lond. Stone (q.v.) is built into the wall of the ch. In Middleton's Aries, one of the city fathers whose memory is honoured is "John Hinde, a re-edifier of the parish ch. of S. Swithin by Lond. Stone."


A curious old ch. built by K. John over the postern of St. Michael, or King's Gate. Doubtless it was from it that Brewer took the name of the supposed Abbey. In Brewer's Lovesick i. 1, the aged father of St. Swithin's Abbey mounts the walls of Winchester in order to urge the soldiers to fight.


(Sr. = Switzer, Ss. = Swiss). A confederation of 22 cantons in the mountainous dist. in the heart of Europe lying between France, Italy, Austria, and Germany. Its history begins with the Everlasting League formed in 7297 by the three Forest Cantons–Uri, Schwyz, and Nidwald–for mutual protection against the house of Hapsburg. The great victory of Morgarten over the Austrians in 1315 extended their influence; and in 1353 the league was joined by Lucerne, Zurich, Zug, Glarus, and Berne. The decisive victory of Sempach in 1386 led to their complete deliverance from the Hapsburgs in 1394. For the next hundred years they were fighting for similar freedom from the Empire, and practically gained it in 1499, though it was not formally granted till 1648. The number of Cantons rose to 13 in 1513, to 19 in 1803, and to 22–Neuchâtel, the Valais (Treaty of Westphalia), and Geneva being the last three to join–in 1815. During the 16th cent. the practice began of hiring the Ss. as mercenaries, chiefly by the French and Milanese; and they became famous throughout Europe as men who would fight for anyone who paid them. The bodyguard guard of the French kings was composed of Srs. tiff the Revolution; and they still form the domestic Guard of the Pope. Heylyn (s.v. HELVETIA) says, "The people are very warlike; and since by reason of their situation they have no vent of men by traffic, they use to employ themselves in the service of any which will hire them." In Shirley's Opportunity iii. 1, Pimponio, who is very drunk, cries: "Now let all the cantons of Ss. come!" In Massinger's Dowry i. 2, Romont speaks of the services rendered by the late Marshall at Granson, Morat, Nancy, "Against the subtle fox of France, the politic Louis, Or the more desperate Ss." These battles were won by the Ss. in affiance with Louis of France against Charles the Bold of Burgundy in 1475ף, and laid the foundation of the Ss. nationality and resulted in their practical emancipation from the Empire in 1499. Shakespeare, in defiance of chronology, gives Hamlet's uncle a bodyguard of S& In Ham. iv. 5, 97, the K. cries: "Where are my Srs.? Let them guard the door." In Marlowe's Massacre, p. 231, Anjou says, "Srs., keep you the streets; And at each corner shall the K.'s guard stand." In B. & F. Double Mar. iv. 7, the D. of Sesse says, "Thus attired like Srs., we may be admitted among his [the D. of Naples] guard," and adds: "'Tis the profession of all our nation to serve faithfully Where they're best paid."

In Chapman's Rev. Bussy i. 1, Monsieur calls Clermont "A fellow only that consists of sinews; Mere S., apt for any execution." In Trag. Byron i. 7, Henri says of Byron: "At 74 years of age he was made Colonel To all the Suisses serving then in Flanders." In iii. 1, D'Escures brings word that the K. has "sent to his ambassador, De Vic, To make demand in S. for the raising With utmost diligence of 6000 men." In Marston's Malcontent i. 7. Passarello says, "He'll lie like to your Sr. or lawyer; he'll be of any side for most money." In Davenport's Survey of Sciences, he says, "Law, Logick, Srs., fight on any side." In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Honeysuckle says, "I will make more haste home than a stipendiary Sr. does after he's paid." In Barnes' Charter i. 1, Charles orders Montpensier: "March with your regiments To Pontremols. There shall you find the Ss. With their artillery, newly brought by sea unto Spetia." In B. & F. Gentleman iii. 1, when Jaques says that Marine is a D., Clerimont asks, mockingly: "Was it not clerk to the great band of marrow-bones That people call the Srs.?"–where marrow-bones means pugilists. In Davenant's U. Lovers iii. 1, Rangone says, "It [the fort] is fortified with 2 regiments of Switz." In his Siege ii. 1, Ariotto says, "Had I not seen thee I had maintained the combat stiff with those 7 Srs." In Chapman's Alphonsus iii. 7, 277, Saxony threatens to attack Alphonsus "With Saxon lansknights and brunt-bearing Srs." Hall, in Sat. iv. 4, talks of a man coming into a quarrel "for a hungry Sr.'s pay." In Webster's White Devil ii. 1, Brachiano says to Francisco de Medicis, "All thy loud cannon and thy borrowed Srs. Durst not supplant her." In Davenant's Plymouth iii. 1, Cable says, "if this Switz had but a two-handed sword, he would depopulate the island." One of these Ss. mercenaries is the hero of Wilson's Swisser, the scene of which is laid in Lombardy.

The Ss. are represented as slovenly in dress and wearing beards. In Goosecap i. 7, Bullaker says that Rudesby is "as slovenly as a Sr.; and somewhat like one in face too; for he wears a bush beard." In Ford's Lover's Melan. ii. 2, Trollio says, "I could dip the old ruffian; there's hair enough to stuff all the great codpieces in S." The Srs.' codpiece was a part of the uniform of the Ss. body-guard of the French kings. Coryat, in Crudities (1611) 44, says that Lewis XI. in 1476 "ordained that they should ever after wear suits and cod-pieces of those variegated colours of red and yellow "in memory of their foolish behaviour at the battle of Granson. Coryat also says, p. 386, "You shall not find one man in all Zurich from a boy of 10 years old to an old man of the age of Too years, but he weareth a cod-piece." In Webster's Malfi ii. 2, a servant reports: "There was taken even now a Sr. in the Duchess' bedchamber with a pistol in his great codpiece." Dekker, in Wonderful Year, says, "Those goblins have bladder-cheeks puffed out like a Swizzer's breeches." In his Hornbook i. he mentions, among fashionable garments. "the Sr.'s blistered Cod-piece." Rabelais, Pantagruel iv. 52, mentions "your big, outstrouting Srs.' breeches." In Dekker's Catchpol, the Masquers had a drum that "sounded like a Sr.'s kettledrum." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. Ind., Asper mentions "the Sr.'s knot on his French garters "as part of a dandy's dress. One of the chief products of S. was dairy produce. In Davenant's Wits iv., Engine mentions among other table dainties, "Cream of i. and Genoa paste."




A small island in the Gillolo Passage between the N.W. of New Guinea and Celebes; more commonly called Syang. The Prince of Syana is one of the suitors for the hand of Quisara, the daughter of the K. of Tidore, in B. & F. Princess.


An ancient Greek colony on the W. coast of the Gulf of Tarentum in South Italy. It rose to a great height of opulence, and the luxury of its inhabitants in food and dress became proverbial. It was destroyed by the men of Crotona in 510 B.C., and has never been rebuilt. Nash, in Summers, p. 69, speaks of people like the Sybarites who "do nothing all one year but bid guests against the next year." In his Lenten, p. 312, he says, "Hydra Herring will have every thing Sybarite dainty," and adds in a note: "The Sybarites never would make any banquet under a twelvemonths' warning." Hall in Satires v. 2, speaks of a house "All dumb and silent like the dead of night, Or dwelling of same sleepy Sybarite." Gosson, in School of Abuse (Arber), says, "The Sicilians . . . found out such descant in S. instruments, that by dancing and skipping they fell into lewdness of life."


A river on the W. side of the Gulf of Tarentum in South Italy, now the Coscile. The city of Sybaris was near its mouth, and took its name from it. In Davenant's U. Lovers v. 4, Hildebrand says, "He I encountered in a battle on the banks of Sibaris."






The modern Assouan, on the E. bank of the Nile, just below the Great Cataract, on the frontiers of Egypt and Nubia. The ancient geographers believed it to be exactly on the Tropic of Cancer, though it is really a little N. of it in lat. 24° 5' 23". Milton, P. R. iv. 70, speaks of embassies coming to Rome "some from farthest South, Syene, and where the shadow both ways falls, Meroe, Nilotic isle."




A tribe of Central America, descendants of escaped negroes and Indian women. The English sailors called them Maroons. They helped Drake in his expeditions in the neighbourhood of Port Pheasant and Nombre de Dios. In Davenant's Playhouse, one scene is 44 a rocky country of the Symerons who were a Moorish people, brought formerly to Per by the Spaniards as their slaves."


The clashing rocks; a name given to the cliffs at the entrance of the Thracian Bosporus, which were supposed to clash together and destroy ships attempting to pass through the Straits. Lyly, in Euphues Anat. Wit, p. 16, speaks of his hero as "ready, if thou shun Syrtis, to sink into Symplegades."






A Greek colony on the coast of Paphlagonia, on the South shore of the Black Sea; it is now called Sinab. It was the birthplace of Diogenes the Cynic. In T. Heywood's Dialogues xiii. 4267, Mausolus addresses Diogenes: "O Synopesian."


A city in Sicily, about midway down the E. coast. It was a colony from Corinth, and was at first built on the island of Ortygia, on which the modem city stands, though in the time of its glory it spread to the adjacent mainland. In 485 B.C. it fell under the tyranny of Gelon of Gela, who transmitted his power to his brother Hiero (478–467). Hiero made S. one of the most brilliant and successful of the Greek cities; and his victories in the Games at Pythia and Olympia had the glory of being celebrated by Pindar. His successor, Thrasybulus, was driven out the year after his accession and a free government re-established. The failure of the great siege by the Athenians in 415–413 added to the fame and power of the city. But in 406 the tyranny was seized by the famous Dionysius, who held it till his death in 367. He raised the city to its highest point of glory, but the remembrance of his cruelties has overshadowed his fame. His son and successor, the younger Dionysius, was expelled by Timoleon in 343, and this great general and patriot also defeated the threatening power of Carthage and restored S. to her former splendour. Another Hiero, Hiero II, made himself K. in 270, and governed with wisdom and kindliness for 50 years. His grandson Hieronymus having allied himself with Carthage against Rome, Marcellus besieged the city in 214, and after 2 years took it and gave it up to sack. It was in this sack that the famous mathematician Archimedes perished, whilst he was pursuing his studies unconscious of the presence of the enemy. Henceforward S. was a city of the Roman empire, and had no separate history It was destroyed by the Saracens in A.D. 878, and since has been confined to its original island seat on Ortygia.

The scene of Lyly's Sapho is laid at S. in some indeterminate early period, Sapho being "princess of S." But S. is really a pseudonym for Lond. The prologue of Edwards' Damon says, "Lo, here in S., the ancient town which once the Romans won, Here Dionisius' palace within whose court this thing most strange was done." The servant of the 2 heroes says later, "We three this day arrived at Siracusae in Sicilia, that ancient town." In Marlowe's Jew v. 4, Calymath speaks of "Sicily, Where Syracusian Dionysius reigned." In Davenant's Siege iii. 2, Ariotto says, "The tyrant of S. was not so envious to men." The scene of Massinger's Bondman is S. and the adjacent country, and the play tells the story of Timoleon's deliverance of the city from the Carthaginians. In Err., Aegeon is a merchant of 5.; in this Shakespeare follows Plautus, whose Menaechmi is the original of his play. The supposed date of the Menaechmi is fixed by an alltision to Hiero II as stiff reigning. In Massinger's Believe v. 1, the scene is laid at S. shortly after its capture by Marcellus; the fugitive Antiochus comes thither and is imprisoned by Marcellus. In Jonson's Magnetic i. 1, Palate says, "Another '88 [i.e. a Spanish Armada] threatening country with ruin would no more work upon him than S.'s sack on Archimede." In Brome's City Wit i. 2, Sarpego speaks of Cornelius Tacitus as "an Areopagit of Sa."–a statement made on his own authority. In May's Heir, the scene of which is laid in Sicily in modern times, in act iv. Alphonso asks Francisco: "Tell me how thou hast lived in S. these 5 years here since that unlucky storm divided us at sea." Gosson, in School of Abuse (1579), p. 19 (Arber), says, "The Syracusans used such variety of dishes in their banquets that, when they Were set . . . they were many times in doubt which they should tooth first or taste last."


(Sn. = Syrian). The country at the E. end of the Mediterranean between the sea and the Arabian desert. The name has been supposed to be a shorter form of Assyria; but it is far more likely that it is connected with Sor, the Phoenician name of Tyre, and that it meant in the first instance the dist. round that city. The ancient kingdom of S., which, under the Hazaels and Benhadads, was a powerful rival of the Israelitish kingdoms, had its capital at Damascus; but it was destroyed by the Assyrians in the 8th cent. B.C., and the dist. annexed to the Assyrian empire. In succession it passed to the Persians and then to Alexander, after his defeat of Darius of Persia in 330 B.C. On his death it fen to the share of the Seleucid family; and they built Antioch as its capital. Pompeius annexed it to the Roman empire in 64 B.C. It was over-run by the Parthians in 41 B.C., but re-conquered by Ventidius, the lieutenant of Antonius, in 39. Antonius governed it by successive officers (Sossius, Plancus, and Bibulus) until his defeat at Actium in 31. In A.D. 639 it was conquered by the Saracens; and during the 10th cent. it formed part of the Fatimite Khalifate, the capital being at Cairo. After many vicissitudes, amongst which were the establishment of the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th cent. and the invasion by Timur in 1400, it was finally added to the Ottoman Empire by Selim I in 1516. Since the break-up of the Turkish Empire in 1919 it is under the Protectorate of France. During our period there was considerable trade with the West through Beyrout and Alexandretta, Aleppo being its centre.

Milton, P. L. i. 421, speaks of "the brook that parts Egypt from Sn. Ground," i.e. the Wady-el-Arish. In Epitaph on March. of Winchester 63, he compares her to Rachel, "That fair Sn. shepherdess Who after years of barrenness The highly favoured Joseph bore To him that served for her before." In P. L. i. 448, he refers to" the Sn. damsels "lamenting the death of Adonis in Antioch. In xi. 218, he relates the story of the heavenly hosts that appeared to defend Elisha in Dothan "against the Sn. king "(see II Kings vi. 8–17). In P. L. i. 474, he refers to the altar which Ahaz saw in Damascus (II Kings xvi. ii) as "one of Sn. mode." In Per. i. prol. 18, Gower says, "This Antioch then; Antiochus the Gt. Built up this city for his chiefest seat, The fairest in all S." In Ant. i. 2, 103, a messenger announces "Labienus . . . hath with his Parthian force Extended Asia from Euphrates; His conquering banner shook from S. To Lydia and Ionia." In iii. 1, 18, Ventidius, returning from the conquest of the Parthians, says, "Sossius, One of my place in S., his [Antony's] lieutenant, For quick accumulation of renown . . . lost his favour." This is not true; Sosius was made governor of S. by Antony in 38 B.C., and continued in his favour until the end. In iii. 6, 10, Caesar says that Antony has made Cleopatra "of lower S., Cyprus, Lydia, Absolute q." And in line 16, he says, "To Ptolemy he assigned S., Cilicia, and Phoenicia." In v. 2, 200, Dolabella announces to Cleopatra, "Caesar through S. Intends his journey." In Brandon's Octavia 489, Octavia asks Antony: "What caused my lord in S. make such stay, Since he 'gainst Parthia did his forces bend!"

In Greene's Alphonsus iii. 2, Amurack says, "You, Bajazet, go post away apace To S, Scythia, and Albania . . . and all other lands Which owe their homage to high Amurack." The dale is the latter part, of the 14th cent. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. i. 2, Tamburlaine says to the Egyptian princess, "You shall be in better state Than if you were arrived in S, Even in the circle of your father's arms, The mighty Soldan of Aegyptia." In Ford's Lover's Melan. ii. 1, Aretus announces to the Prince of Cyprus, "Those near parts of S. that adjoin muster their friends And by intelligence we learn for certain The Sn. will pretend an ancient interest of tribute intermitted." It is impossible to find any historical foundation for this romantic play. In Haughton's Englishmen ii. 1, Moore says, "The Spanish galleys have beset our ships That lately were bound out for S." In T. Heywood's B. Age i., Deianeira says she does not fear "The Hyrcan tigers or the Sn. wolves." The wolf was common in S., as the parable of the Good Shepherd shows. In Dekker's Babylon 277, the Empress says, "O Sn. Panthers! you spend breath most sweet But you are spotted o'er from head to feet." The idea that the panther's breath was fragrant is often met with. In Lyly's Sapho ii. 1, Sybilla speaks of "the Sn. mud which, being made white chalk by the sun, never ceaseth rolling till it lie in the shadow "–a typical bit of Euphuistic natural history. The author of Thracian i. 2 speaks of "that Sn. flower That buds and spreads and withers in an hour." This is a borrowing from Greene's Menaphon.

In Chapman's Trag. Byron iii. 1, Byron says, "In my rising, not the Sn. star That in the Lion's mouth undaunted shines And makes his brave ascension with the sun Was of the Aegyptians with more zeal beheld And made a rule to know the circuit And compass of the year, than I was held When I appeared from battle." The Sn. star is Sirius, the Dog-star, known to the Egyptians as Sothis. In ancient Egypt the length of each year was computed from one heliacal rising of this star to another. But Chapman is mistaken in supposing that it has anything to do with S.; it was called Sirius from its Greek name Seiros, i.e. the hot or scorching star. The constellation of the Dog is not far from that of the Lion, and so the Dog-star may be said to shine undaunted in the Lion's mouth. Spenser, Mother Hubberd 5, calls the Dog-star "the hot Sn. dog": falling into the same error. In Tiberius 152, Asinius speaks of "Sithian baths"; but a comparison with line 167 shows that Sithian is a misprint for Sn., the reference being to such medicinal baths as the Pool of Bethesda at Jerusalem. S., like the rest of the East, was rich in spices. Herrick, in Ode to John Wickes (1647), says, "Crown we our heads with roses then And 'noint with Sn. balm." Lyly, in Euphues Anat. Wit 47, speaks of an imaginary "oil of S. that bereaveth hearing." On p. 101 he says, following Pliny, "Balsamum [will grow] only in S." The Syriac language is akin to the Hebrew, and boasts a very considerable body of literature, especially connected with the early Christian ch. In B. & F. Elder B. i. 2, Andrew explains that Charles's notebooks are "The Sn. character or the Arabic." Very few scholars then knew Syriac.


The old name for 2 bays on the N. coast of Africa, the Syrtis Major being the present Gulf of Sidra and the Minor the Gulf of Cabes. They were supposed to be very dangerous to ships on account of their sandbanks and shallows. The danger was exaggerated; but the coasts are certainly inhospitable. In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, Caesar says of Alexander: "The Lybick sands and Afric Sirts he passed." In Selimus 462, Baiazet says, "Sooner will the Syrteis' boiling sands Become a quiet road for fleeting ships Than Selimus' heart agree with Selim's lips." In Marmion's Companion iii. 4, Fido says that the Capt. is "as glad he has escaped from me As from the Syrtes." Lyly, in Euphues Anat. Wit, p. 16, speaks of Euphues as "ready, if thou shun Syrtis, to sink into Symplegades." The word is used generically for a quicksand, or bog. Milton, P. L. ii. 939, speaks of Satan on his flight through Chaos being "Quenched in a boggy Syrtis, neither sea Nor good dry land."