A small parish in Cambridgesh. The vill. is abt 6 m. S.E. of Cambridge. In Field's Weathercock i. 2, Abraham soliloquizes, "Now to thy father's country house at B., Ride post; there pine and die, poor, poor Sir Abraham."


(Bl. = Babel). Ancient city on the Euphrates, abt. 250 m. from its mouth. It is said in Gen. x. 10 to have been the beginning of the kingdom of Nimrod; the scene of the confusion of tongues is placed there in Gen. xi., and the name Bl. is said to be derived therefrom; though this is a false etymology, the name meaning "The Gate of God." It was the dominant city in Mesopotamia for many cents., but it fell under the dominion of the Ks. of Assyria, whose capital was Nineveh, about 1000 B.C., and so remained until the destruction of Nineveh 606 B.C., when Nabopolassar founded the Neo-Bian. Empire. Nebuchadrezzar, his son, made it the greatest city in the world. It covered 100 square m., and was surrounded by 2 walls 300 ft. high and 85 ft. thick. During his reign the Jews were carried away captive to B., and remained there till Cyrus of Anshan took the city and set up the Medo-Persian Empire 586 B.C. .Hence, in Jewish literature B. stands for the oppressor of God's people; in later times, when Judaea became a Roman province, B. was used as a sort of cryptogram for Rome; and after the persecution of Nero the Christian writers concealed their references to Rome by the use of B. in its place. At the Reformation the Protestants used B. to mean Papal Rome, and applied to her all the epithets used of B. in the Apocalypse, especially delighting to brand Rome as "the whore of B." (Rev. xvii and xviii). The site of the cite at Hillah is now a complete desolation, marked only by huge mounds of rubbish resulting from the disintegration of the brick buildings.

1. References to the history of Babylon:
In Conf. Cons. i. 1, Satan boasts, "Nembroth [i.e. Nimrod] that tyrant by me was persuaded to build up high Bl." In Greene's Friar ii., Bacon speaks of "The work that Ninus reared at B. The brazen walls framed by Semiramis." In Locrine ii. 1, 73, Humber refers to an attack on the Scythians by "the mighty Babilonian queen Semiramis." Semiramis (Assyrian Shammuramat) was the legendary q. of Ninus, the equally legendary founder of Nineveh–not B. In Greene's Friar iv., Henry compares the surge of Oceanus to the "battlements That compassed high-built Bl. in with towers." In Tiberius 1822, Germanicus speaks of "proud B. Glued with asphaltes slime impenetrable" (See Gen. xi. 3). In Dekker's Wonder iii. 1, his brother says to Torrenti, "How high soe'er thou rearest thy Bll.-brows, To thy confusion I this language speak; I am thy father's son." In Trag. Richd. II iv. 1, 134, the K. says that England "erst was held as fair as Babilon." In Middleton's Quinborough iv. 3, Horsus says, "Some men delight in building, A trick of Bl. which will ne'er be left." Marlowe, in Tamb. B. v., calls it "this eternized city B.," and represents it as being besieged by Tamburlaine; though it was at that time a heap of ruins. The taking of B. by Cyrus is the subject of Cyrus, but the author confuses B. with Assyria throughout, and calls the k. of B. Antiochus. The taking of B. was exhibited as a "motion." In Brewer's Lingua iii. 6, Phantastes says, "Visas, I wonder that you presented us not with the sight of Nineveh, B., Lond., or some Sturbridge fair monsters." In Skelton's Magnificence, fol. xvii., Fancy speaks of "Syrus, that solemn char of B., that Israel released of their captivity." in Brome's Moor iii. 2, Buzzard describes his master as "that Bian. tyrant." An imaginary Faustus, k. of B., is one of the characters in Greene's Alphonsus.

Milton, P. L. i. 694, speaks of "those Who boast in mortal things, and wondering tell Of Bl., and the works of Memphian ks." In iii. 466, he speaks of "the builders next of Bl. on the plain Of Sennaar, and still with vain design New Bls., had they wherewithal, would build." In Trans. Ps. lxxxvii. 13, he says, "I mention Bl. to my friends, Philista full of scorn." In P. L. i. 717, he says of Pandemonium, "Not B. Nor great Alcairo such magnificence equalled." In P. L. xii. 343, Michael tells Adam of the captivity of the Jews, "a scorn and prey To that proud city whose high walls thou saw'st Left in confusion, B. thence called," and of their return "from B." In P. R. iii. 280, he describes it as "B., the wonder of all tongues." In iv. 336, our Lord speaks of "oar Hebrew songs and harps, in B. That pleased so well our victor's ear" (see Ps. cxxxvii. 3) In Fulke-Greville's Alaham, chorus iii., we have "Bl. walls by greatness built, for littleness a wonder." The captivity of the Jews, and incidents connected therewith, are often referred to. In Bale's Promises vii. p. 317, John says, "three score years and ten thy people unto B. were captive." In Trouble. Reign, ad fin., the poisoned K. complains that the poison "Rageth as the furnace sevenfold hot To burn the holy three in B." The story of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego is told in Dan. iii. In M.W.W. iii. 1, 24, Sir Hugh sings, "When as I sat in B." mixed up with snatches from Marlowe's "Come live with me and be my love." This is the 1st line of the old metrical version of Psalm 137. Sir Toby's ballad, "There dwelt a man in B.," in Tw. N. ii. 3, 84, was published in 1562 under the title of "The goodly and constant Wife Susanna." The story of Susannah is told is the book of that name in the Apocrypha, and happened in B.

The story of the confusion of tongues at the building of the tower of Bl. is often referred to; and a Bl. comes to mean a infused and unintelligible noise. In Shirley's Courtier iii. 1, Giotto, complimenting Volterre on his linguistic attainments, says, "Your Lordship might with great ease be interpreter to the builders of Bl." In B. & F. Rule a Wife iv. 1, Perez says, "Amongst these confusions of lewd tongues there's no distinguishing beyond a Bl." In their Prize v. 2, Jaques credits his mistress with "many stranger tongues Than ever Bl. had to tell his ruins." In their Coxcomb ii. 3, Antonio, who has disguised himself as an Irishman, finds the language difficult, and says, "Sure it was ne'er known at Bl., for they sold no apples, and this was made for certain at the first planting of orchards, 'tis so crabbed." And in their Woman Hater iii. 2, one of the intelligencers says, "though a' speak Bl., I shall crush him." In Marston's Malcontent i. 1, the vilest out-of-tune music being heard, Prepasso enters exclaiming: "Are ye building B. there?" Skelton, in El. Rummyng 387, speaks of "a clattering and a bll. of folys folly." Earle, Microcos. (1628), says of Paul's Walk, "were the steeple not sanctified [there is] nothing liker Bl." Fulke-Greville, in Alaham, chorus iii, asks, "Were not men's many tongues and minds their Bl. Destiny?" It became a place of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages. The Palmer, in Piers C. viii. 172, had been "in Bethteem, in Babilonie." Hycke had been in Babylonde. In Jonson's Case i. 1, Valentine, in his travels, has seen "the tower of B." In Day's Travails, Bullen p. 50, the Sultan Ahmed I claims to be "soldan and emperor of Babilon."

2. Babylon as a synonym for Papal Rome:
In H5 ii. 3. 41, Quickly tells how the dying Falstaff "talked of the whore of B." The first original of the Fat Knight . . . was Sir J. Oldcastle, the Puritan; and Falstaff himself tells that he lost his voice singing of anthems. It was natural that on his deathbed he should revert to the Puritan phrase which had been familiar to him in his youth. In the Trouble. Reign, ad fin., the dying K. predicts that a kingly branch shall arise out of his loins, "Whose arms shall reach unto the gates of Rome And with his feet tread down the Strumpet's pride That sits upon the chair of B." In Mayne's Match v. 6, the Puritan schoolmistress, Mrs. Scruple, boasts that she has a picture: "the finest fall of B., there is a fat monk spewing churches." Dekker has a piece entitled The Whore of B., and this is the common Puritan phrase for the Ch. of Rome. In Davenant's Wits ii. 1, young Pallatine compares Lady Ample to "the old slut of B. thou halt read of." Everything connected with the old religion was B.ish. In Jonson's Barthol. iii. 1, Rabbi Busy is "troubled, very much troubled, exceedingly troubled, with the opening of the merchandise of B. again, and the peeping of popery upon the stalls here." In B. & F. Women Pleased iv. 1, Bomby, who has been persuaded to appear in a Morris Dance as the hobby horse, vows, "This beast of B. I will never back again." In John Evangel, 149, we read of "the Lady of Confusion that B. is called." In Randolph's Muses iii. 1, Bird, the Puritan, calls organs "Bian. bagpipes." In Marston's Courtesan v. 1, Cocledemoy speaks of foreign wines as "the juice of the Whore of B." In Bale's Johan, Farmer p. 190, John speaks of "bloody B., the ground and mother of whoredom–the Romish ch. I mean." In Killigrew's Parson ii. 7, the Capt. says that his nurse made him believe "wine was an evil spirit and fornication like the whore of B." In Goosecap i. 2, Fowlewether says, "The punk of B, was never so subtle" as the English ladies. In Barnes' Charter, prol., we find, "Behold the strumpet of proud B., Her cup with fornication foaming full." In Chapman's Alphonsus ii. 2, 238, Alphonsus speaks of the Archbp. of Mentz as "this wicked whore of B." In Conf. Cons. iv. 1, Philologus says, "By the name of B., from whence Peter wrote, is understanded Rome" (I Pet. v. 13). In Brome's Ct. Beggar iii. 1, Ferdinand asks, "What do you think of Salisbury steeple for a fit hunting spear to encounter with the whore of Babilion?" In Dekker's Satiro, iv. 1, 188, Tucca says to Mrs. Miniver, "My old whore-a-Babilon, sit fast." Milton, in Sonn. on Massacre in Piedmont 14, prays that others, learning from the massacre, "Early may fly the Bian. woe." In Cowley's Cutter [a.k.a. Guardian] v. 6, Tabitha hopes that Abednego will not "open before Sion in the dressings of B."; i.e. a surplice. Then a Bian. came to mean an anti-Puritan, a jolly good fellow. In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii, 4, Eyre addresses his apprentices as "you Bian, knaves."


A N. extension of Memphis, in Egypt, the ruins of the castle of which now bear the name of Kasr-esh-Shema. Mandeville says, "You must understand that the B. of which I have spoken, where the Sultan dwells, is not that great B. where the diversity of languages was first made "; and later he speaks of it as being "at the entry of Egypt "and "situated on the r. Nile" (c.v.). In Greene's Orlando i. 1, 21, the Souldan says, "Egypt is mine and there I hold my state, Seated in Cairye and in B."


In Palestine; the site is quite uncertain. The name appears to mean the Valley of Weeping; though others take it to be the Valley of Balsam or Mulberry trees. Milton, in Trans. Ps. lxxxiv. 21, says, "They pass through B.'s thirsty vale, That dry and barren ground."


Town in Rhenish Prussia on the Lower Rhine, 29 m. S. of Coblentz. It produces a limited quantity of a wine which has long been celebrated, and was known as Backrag, or Backrack. In B. & F. Beggars v. 2, Vandunke says, "Ill go afore and have the bonfire made; my fireworks and flap-dragons, and good backrack . . . to drink down in healths to this day." In Mayne's Match i. 3, Plotwell says, "I'm for no tongues but dried ones, such as will give a fine relish to my backrag." Blount, Glossographia (1656), s.v., says, "Wines that are made there are therefore called backrag or b.; vulgarly, Rhenish wines." In Brome's Moor iv. 2, Quicksands says, "He saw her at the Still-yard With such a gallant, sousing their dried tongues In Rhenish, Deal, and Backrag." In Shirley's Pleasure v. 1, Bornwell says, "Shall we whirl in coaches to the Stillyard, where deal and backrag shall flow into our room?"


The capital of Bactria, now Balkh. It lies in S. Turkestan, 25 m. S. of the Oxus, and 700 E. of the S. extremity of the Caspian Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is still called "The Mother of Cities." Milton, in P. R. iii. 285, mentions "B." as one of the chief cities of the world shown to our Lord by the Tempter.


A dist. in Asia, N. of the Hindoo Koosh range, and S. of Sogdiana. It corresponds roughly to the modern Turkestan. After his defeat of Darius at Gaugamela, Alexander marched through B. to Sogdiana, and conquered them both. In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, Caesar, speaking of Alexander, says, "Bactrians and Zogdians, known but by their names, Were by his arms' resistless powers subdued." In Cyrus F. 3, Panthea says, "My husband from B., Where he lay lieger for the Assyrian k., Is come." The scene of Alabaster's Roxana, acted at Cambridge in 1592, is laid in B. Peacham, in Worth of a Penny (1647), speaks of "men who have gathered thousands like the griffins of B." Milton, P. L. x. 433, speaks of the "Bactrian Sophi [i.e. the Shah of Persia] retreating from the horns Of Turkish crescent "; B. being at this time a province of Persia. In Deloney's Reading xiii., D. Robert says to his mistress, "Be now as nimble in thy footing as the camels of B., that run an 100 miles a day."


The old capital of the Caliphs, on the Tigris, abt. 300 m. from its mouth. It was founded by Al Mansur A.D. 763, and taken by Timur in 1400. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 1, Sigismund compares his royal host to the desert of Arabia as seen by "those that stand on Bagdet's lofty tower." The Italian form of the name, Baldaco, was the origin of the word Baldachin, meaning first a rich brocade of silk and gold thread made at B.; and then a canopy hung with it. Baudekin and Bodkin are forms of Baldachin. In Massinger's Madam ii. 1, Luke enumerates "cloth of bodkin "amongst a draper's goods. In Shirley's Doubtful iii., Antonio says, "I may deserve to wear your thankfulness in tissue of cloth of bodkin."


A town in Surrey, on the road to Salisbury, abt. 30 m. from Lond. It was celebrated for its good inns. Shift, in Jonson Ev. Man O. iii. 1, undertakes to teach Sogliardo "to take 3 whiffes of tobacco, and then to take his horses, drink 3 cups of Canary, and expose one at Hounslow, a 2nd at Staines, and a 3rd at B." Laneham, in Letter 36, says, "Capt. Cox can talk as much without book as any Innholder betwixt Brainford [i.e. Brentford] and B."


(now BAJA). A fashionable watering-place in the days of the later Roman Republic and early Empire. It lay on the W. side of the bay between Cape Misenum and Puteoli, on the W. coast of Italy, abt. 12 m. W. Of Naples. Many nobles, like Lucullus, Marion, Pompeius, and Caesar, had villas here. Nero often visited it, and it was here that he plotted to kill his mother Agrippina. In May's Agrippina v. 237, Nero says to his mother, "Minerva's feast is celebrated now 5 days at B., thither you shall go." In line 455 seq., Anicetus recounts the attempt on the life of Agrippina which was made there. Herrick, Ode to John Wicken, says, "We are not poor, although we have No roofe of cedar, nor Our brave B."


In B. & F. Princess i. 1, the scene of which is laid in the Moluccas, one of the suitors for the hood of the sister of the K. of Tidore is "a haughty master, the K. of B." I suspect this to be a mistake for Bantam, q.v.


A town in Herts., near the intersection of the Gt. N. Rd. and Icknield St., 37 m. N. of Lond. It is famous for its barley and malt. In the nonsense verses recited as a charm for worms in Thersites i. 219, Mater invokes "the backster of B. with her baking peel." In J. Heywood's Weather, Farmer p. 99, Merry Report, in a long alliterative list of the places to which he has been, includes B.


A dist. in E. Africa. See under Anon.


Oxford University, in Broad St. In Peele's Ed. I , p. 28, John B., on being chosen K. of Scotland by Edward I in 1292, says, "We will erect a college of my name; In Oxford will I build, for memory of Baliol's bounty and his gratitude." This is not strictly in accordance with the facts. The College was founded in 1282 by the Lady Dervorgilla, the widow of Sir John de B., who died in 1269. The first building occupied was the Old B. Hall in Horsemonger St.; but in 1284 a part of the present site was obtained, then known as Mary Hall, and a charter was drawn up which was confirmed by John de B., afterwards K. of Scotland.


In Misogonus iv. 1, Midge says, "I gathered pe-pe-pe-pescods at Ba-ba-ba-Ball's B. then, I'm sure." I cannot find it; but there is an old vill. in Islington, near the New River, called B. Pond. There is also a B. Park 1 m. S.E. of Hertford. One of these may have suggested the name.


An ancient mansion in Hoxton, rebuilt with great magnificence in the early 17th cent. by Sir George Whitmore, Lord Mayor of Lond. It was subsequently bought by Richd. de Beauvoir. Later still it became a private lunatic asylum, and ultimately it was pulled down. Balmes Rd., Beauvoir Cres., and Whitmore St. preserve its memory. It lay E. of Kingsland Rd. In Ovatio Carolina (1641), it is recorded that on the entry of Charles I into Lond., Nov. 25, 1641, the Lord Mayor and his train "advanced through the fields till they came beyond B., a retiring house of Sir George Whitmore's, next adjoining to Kingsland."


The chief port at the head of the Persian Gulf, on the Euphrates. It used to be a great centre of trade. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. iii. 3, Theridamas says, "This is B., their chiefest hold Wherein is all the treasure of the land"; and he proceeds to invest and take it. In the vision of the kingdoms of this world shown to our Lord by the Tempter, in Milton P. R. iii. 321, are troops of many E. provinces, "From Atropatia . . . to B. 's haven."


In N. Europe, E. of Sweden, terminating northward in the Gulf of Bothnia. In Davenant's Albovine iii. 1, Hermegild says, "I vow to revenge or sink myself lower than a plummet in the B. S." In his Italian ii. 1, Altamont says, "'Tis Sciolto, A slave more salt than is the B. wave." Both the allusions are inappropriate; for the B. is comparatively shallow, and its waters are much less salt than those of the open ocean. In Chettle's Hoffman v. 1, Mathias says of Lucibella, "She has done violence to her bright fame And fallen upon the bosom of the Balt." In Scot. Presb. v. 1, Anarchy says the protestations of Directory are "as numerous as the sand hid in the B. S."


Mkt. town is Oxfordsh. The people appear to have been full of zeal for religion. In the old days they were devoted to the Catholic Faith; their town was adorned with 4 crosses, and there was a hospital of St. John in the neighbourhood. But after the Reformation they became energetically Puritan in their sympathies, and it is in this character that they appear in our plays. A thin, flat kind of cheese was known as a B. Cheese, and B. cakes were, as they still are, famous all over England. In Piers C. iii. III, the charter given by Guile to Falseness is witnessed by "Bette the budele of Banneburies sokne." Latimer, in a Letter to Henry VIII written in 1530, ii. 299, refers to Romsh interpretations of the Scriptures as "B. glosses."

In Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, Winwife, who is courting the widow Purecraft, tells Quarlous that he has been "put off by a brother of B."; Q. replies, "I knew divers of these Banburians when I was at Oxford." Later Winwife asks Littlewit, "What call you the reverend elder you told me of, your B. man?" and is answered, "Rabbi Busy, Sir; he is more than an elder, he is a prophet, Sir." His Christian name is Zeal-of-the-land; he was a baker, but has given up his trade because "those cakes [B. cakes, presumably] he made were served to bridales, maypoles, morrices, and such profane feasts and meetings." In iii. 1, when Busy and the Littlewits come to Dame Ursula's booth, Knockem says, "These are B. bloods, o' the sincere stud, come a pig-hunting." In i. 1, Busy comments in true Puritanical style on the eating of pig, which was one of the customs of the Fair: "Now pig, it is a meat, and a meat that is nourishing and may be longed for, and so consequently eaten; it may be eaten, very exceeding well eaten; but in the Fair, and as a Bartholomew pig, it cannot be eaten; for the very calling it a Bartholomew pig, and to eat it so, is a spice of idolatry." However, he gets over his scruples on the ground that by the public eating of swine's flesh he professes his "hate aid loathing of Judaism." "I will therefore eat," he says, "yea, I will eat exceedingly." In Davenant's Wits i. 1, Pallatine says that Lady Ample "is more devout than a weaver of B., that hopes to enter heaven by singing, to make him lord of 20 looms." In Cartwright's Ordinary ii. 3, Caster proposes, when he has made his fortune, to "build a Cathedral in B.; give organs to each parish in the kingdom, and so root out the unmusical elect." In the mock Litany in Jonson's Gipsies, the Patrico prays that the K. may be delivered "from the loud, pure wives of B." In K.K. Knave, Honesty says to Coneycatcher, "We are as near kin together as the cates of B. be to the bells, of Lincoln "; i.e. we are as little akin as the Puritans and the high-Churchmen. In Middleton's Quiet Life ii. 1, Knavesby, confessing his peccadilloes to his wife, says, "There was at B. a she-chamberlain that had a spice of purity, but at last I prevailed over her." In Lupton's All for Money, C. 4, Sin says, "The last stocks I was in was even at Bamburie"; which I suppose means B. In Nabbes' C. Garden iv. 1, when Jeffrey proposes a health "to the long standing of B. may-pole," Jerker says, "No Puritan will pledge that." An old Latin rhyme runs: "Veni Banbery, O profanum! Ubi vidi Puritanum Felem facientem furem Quia Sabbatho stravit murem" (anglice : "He hanged his cat o' Monday for killing a mouse on Sunday."). The B. Cross, to which we used to exhort one another to ride a cock-horse, was destroyed by the Puritans in 1601; a pageant was in progress when these fanatics attacked the performers and drove them out of the High St., and then "at once with axes and hammers" smashed to pieces the 4 crosses which adorned the town. The B. tinkers had a bad reputation; there is an old proverb, "Like B. tinkers, who in stopping 1 hole made 2." In Vox Borealis (1641), we read, "Next to these marched 4 footmen . . . like 4 B. tinkers, with their budgets at their backs." In Jack Drum iii. 178, Planet says, "Put off your clothes, and you are like a Banbery cheese, Nothing but paring." When, in M. W. W. i. 1, 139 Bardolph calls Slender, "You Banbery thane!" he is hitting at once at his Puritanical complaints abt. himself and his comrades and at his slim figure. Markham, in English Housewife (1615) ii. 2, gives a recipe "To make B. cakes." There was an old Roman amphitheatre at B. which in the ante-Puritan days was occasionally used for dramatic performances.


Episcopal city in Caernarvonsh., N. Wales. Spenser, F. Q. iii. 3, 35, tells how Ethelred passed the Dee and filled "B. with massacred martyrs." It was in a room in the house of the Archdeacon of B. that the conference between Hotspur, Mortimer, and Glendower was held, as related in H4 A. iii. 1. B. had already to its cost taken part in the wars between Owen Glendower and Henry IV, and in the course of them the cathedral had been burnt down in 1402, and was still lying in ruins. B. House, in Shoe Lane, was the Lond. residence of the Bps. of B.; it has now entirely disappeared.


The dist. in Southwark running along the Surrey side of the Thames from St. Saviour's Ch. and Winchester House to the point where Blackfriars Bdge. now stands. The row of houses on the river-side was a series of brothels, and was known as the Bordello, or Stews. Behind them lay the Globe, the Rose, the Hope, and the Swan theatres, the bull- and bear-baiting grounds, and the Paris Garden. Ferries plied across the river and gave employment to numbers of watermen. Both Shakespeare and Jonson are said to have lived for a time on B. The Bordello was suppressed in 1546, but the measure was as ineffectual as such ordinances usually are.

In Remed. Sedition (1536) 21, it is said that it is "As much shame for an honest man to come out of a tavern as it is here to come from the banke." Crowley, in Strype Eccl.Mem. (1548) ii. 1, 17,142, speaks of "Sisters of the Bank, the stumbling-blocks of all frail youth." These poor creatures were called "Winchester geese," from the fact that the Bordello was within the liberties of the Bp. of Winchester, whose palace was at the E. end of the B. Jonson, in Vulcan, speaks of "the Winchestrian goose Bred on the Bank in time of Popery." See under WINCHESTER HOUSE. In Greene's Friar vii., Ralph undertakes to "make a ship that shall hold all your Colleges and so carry away the Niniversity with a fair wind to the B. in Southwark." In Randolph's Muses ii, 4, Asotus says, "I will send for a whole coach or two of B. ladies, and we will be jovial." In News from Hell (1641), B. is mentioned as a haunt of "whores and thieves." The heroine of Leatherhead's Motion in Jonson's Barthol. v. 3 is "Hero, a wench of B., who, going over one morning to Old Fish st. Leander spies her land at Trig-Stairs and falls in love with her." In Underwit v. 1, the lady speaks of the porters going "afeasting with the Drums and footboys to the B." In Brome's Covent G. i. 1, Nicholas greets Damaris, "Art thou travelled cross the seas from the B. hither, old Countess of Codpiece Row?" In Cobler of Cbury (1608), we read, "When Southwarke Bankeside hath no pretty wenches, Then the Cobler of Rumney shall a cuckold be." In Davenport's New Trick I, 2, Slightall, wanting a good, lusty lass, bids Roger "search all the Allyes, Spittle or Picthatch, Turnball, the Banke side," and other unsavoury localities. In Marmion's Leaguer ii. 3, Agurtes asks for help that he may not have "to keep a rap-house o' th' B., and make a stench worse than a brewhouse 'mongst my neighbours." In Massinger's New Way iv. 2, a vintner accuses Wellborn of having ruined him "With trusting you with muskadine and eggs And five-pound suppers, with your after-drinkings, When you lodged upon the B." In T. Heywood's I. K. M. B. 302, Hobson says, "I crossed the water to see my rents and buildings of the B." When the tide was high the st. was often flooded. Jonson, in the Famous Voyage, says, "It was the day what time the powerful moon Makes the poor B. creature wet its shoon In its own hall."

In such a quarter fortune-tellers and quacks naturally flourished. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. v. 4, Macilente reports that Puntarvolo's dog is poisoned; "marry, or by whom, that's left for some cunning woman here o' the B. to resolve." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon ii. 1, that lady gives a free advertisement to "Mother Phillips of the B., for the weakness of the back"; and to "Mrs. Mary on the B., for 'recting of a figure"; i.e. making a horoscope. In Middleton's R. G. i., 1, Trapdoor, being asked to discover Moll Cutpurse, promises, "I will drink half-pots with all the watermen o' the B., but, if you will, Sir, I will find her out." Taylor speaks of the "B. Globe, that late was burned "; and Jonson, in Vulcan, laments the destruction of "the Globe, the glory of the Bank." The B. theatres came to be regarded as of a lower class than the more aristocratic Blackfriars and other houses on the Middlesex side of the river. In Doubtful, prol., Shirley says, "The Bancksides . . . are far more skilful at the ebbs and flows of water than of wit"; and he sarcastically apologizes for the absence in his play of shows and dances and" (what you most delight in) target-fighting upon the stage." In Middleton's Hubburd, p. 77, the gallant is advised, "After dinner he must venture to the B. where he must sit out the breaking up of a comedy or the first act of a tragedy." In Jonson's Epicoene iii. 1, Mrs. Otter threatens her husband, who is mad on bull-and bearbaiting, "I'll send you over to the B.; I'll commit you to the Master of the Garden, if I hear but a syllable more." In Middleton's Quarrel ii. 1, Trimtram, giving a history of. the origin of "roaring," says, "It was heard to the B. and the bears they began to roar." See also under BORDELLO, Bronx GARDEN, PARIS GARDEN, and the various theatres.


Vill. 3 m. S.E. of Stirling, in Scotland, where Robert Bruce defeated Edward II on June 24, 1314. In Marlowe's Ed. II ii. 2, Lancaster quotes a "fleering jig "which the Scots have made: "Maids of England, sore may you mourn, For your lemans you have lost at B." Drayton, in Heroical Epp. Mortimer to Isabel, speaks of "The English blood that stained B."


Designed by Inigo Jones in 1612 and erected by him at Whitehall, q.v. Here Jonson's Neptune was produced, and the Master Cook says, "This is my room and region, too, the B. h." It was from a window of this hall that Charles I came out to his execution. It is the only part of the Whitehall Palace still remaining.


In Mid Surrey, near Epsom. The Downs command a magnificent view from Windsor to Lond. The Lond. County Lunatic Asylum is built here. In Shirley's Pleasure i. 1, Bornwell wants to know, "When shall we have more booths and bagpipes upon B. D. V "


The province at the W. extremity of the island of Java. It was governed during the 16th cent. by a Mohammedan Sultan. Face, in Jonson's Alchemist ii. 1, promises Mammon that by the aid of the Philosopher's stone he shall make himself "K. of B." In Noble Soldier v. 2, Baltasar says, "You were better sail 500 times to Bantom in the W. Indies than once to Barathrum in the Low Countries"; i.e. Hell. B. is, however, in the E., not the W. Indies. In Cuckqueans i. 4, Claribel says, "From my wife by letter, on sudden news of my return from B., am cited home in haste to Maldon."


A town in Artois, in N. France, abt. go m. N. of Paris. It is claimed by Byron, in Chapman's Consp. Byron v. 1, as one of the places he has "peopled with the issue of victory": the reference is to the campaign against the League in 1594–95

BAR [1]

The chief town of the Duchy of B., distinguished from other towns of the same name as B.-le-Duc or B.-sur-Omain. It is 125 m. E. of Paris. The castle!vas built in the 10th cent. by Frederick I of Lorraine. "Edward, D. of B.," is amongst the lords summoned by Charles to fight at Agincourt (H5 iii. 5, 42.), and is in the list of the slain (iv. 8, 103).

BAR [2]

A barrier made with posts and a chain at the entrance of a city, especially at various points in the circuit of Lond. There were bs. at Smithfield, in Holborn, and at the W. end of Fleet St.: the latter was replaced by a gate, which was still called Temple B. All the gates of York are still called Bs. In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says, "The suburbs and those without the bs. have more privilege than those within the freedom."


A deep pit beyond the Acropolis at Athens, into which criminals were flung. Hence used of any deep or bottomless pit; and particularly of the pit of Hell. In Jonson's Poetaster iii. 1, Tucca says of the Player, "His belly is like B." In Man in the Moon (1609), a merciless moneylender is called "a bottomless B." In Massinger's New Way iii. 2, Overreach calls the glutton Greedy, "You B. of the shambles." Dekker, in Knight's Conjuring (1607), says, "He flung away in a fury and leapt into B." In Richards' Messalina iv. 1771, Narcissus says, "I could curse His soul to th' depth of B." W. Rowley, in Search 40, says there was "a noise so confused as if hell had been a-fire, and the bells of B. had been rung backwards." Ch. bells were rung backwards when a fire broke out.


Is used both in the sense of an inhabitant of Barbary, q.v., and also in the Greek sense of one of a foreign nation who speaks a language not understood in civilized lands, or in the country of which the speaker is a native. In Oth. i. 3, 363, Iago speaks of Othello as "an erring b.," i.e. a wandering stranger; though, of course, Othello was a B., or Moor, in the more limited sense. In Cor. iii. 1, 238, Coriolanus says, "I would they were bs. . . . not Romans." In Troil. ii. 1, 51, Thersites says to Ajax, "Thou art bought and sold like a b. slave": where the meaning may be "a Moorish slave." Spenser, in Ruines of Rome 416, speaks of Rome being spilled "by b. hands." Lyly, in Euphues England, P220, says, "The barbarous Goths . . . thought the roots in Alexandria sweeter than the raisins in Barbary": where Croll interprets "the parts of Europe occupied by the bs."


(Bn. = Barbarian). A general name for N. Africa along the Mediterranean, from Egypt to the Atlantic, and from the sea to the Sahara Desert. It thus includes Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, and Morocco. The name is derived from that of the Berbers, one of the principal tribes that inhabited these countries. Clavancourt, K. of B., is one of the fictitious personages in Greene's Alphonsus. In Fam. Vict., Haz., p. 362, a French Capt. mentions amongst the French army at Agincourt "the Bns. with their bard horses, And launching spears"–an unhistorical detail.

In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iii. 1, Bajazeth addresses the Ks. of Fez, Morocco, and Argier as "Great Ks. of B."; and in B. i. 3, after Tamburlaine has conquered N. Africa, Usumcasane, whom he has made K. of Morocco, tells him that he has brought so many men to help him that "B. is unpeopled for thy sake." During the 16th cent. N. Africa was under the control of Turkish chieftains, who inaugurated the system of piracy which made Algiers a by-word throughout Europe for the next 3 cents. The Battle of Alcazar between the Portuguese and the Moors in 7578 sent a thrill through the world. In B. & F. Wit S. W. i. 2, Sir Ruinous says, "The first that flushed me a soldier was that great battle at Alcazar in B." In Stucley 1442, Botella informs K. Philip, "Many woful days Th' afflicted B. hath suffered spoil And been a prey unto her natural subjects." Soon after the battle of Alcazar in 1585, Elizabeth sent an ambassador to B., who was well received. Some of the scenes in T. Heywood's Maid of West take place at the court of Morocco, and in iv. 3, Mullisheg, K. of Fez, and Morocco, is hailed as the "Pride of our age and glory of the Moors By whose victorious hand all B. Is conquered, awed and swayed." The title of the rulers of B., Muley, provoked a certain amount of mirth amongst our forefathers. In Middleton's Gipsy iv. 1, Sancho inquires of John, who has spoken of "the beast i. rode on hither," "Is't a mule? send him to Muly-Crag-a-whee in B."

Trade with B. was considerable, and in 1588 the Company of B. Merchants was formed in Lond. In Jack Drum iii. 391, Flawne brings news to Mammon, "Your ship the Hopewell hath hapt ill, returning from Barbarie." In Massinger's Madam iv. 1, Fortune relates, "I have 2 ships Above my hopes returned from B. And richly freighted." In Tomkins' Albumazar i. 5, Antonio, "having great sums of gold in B. desires of you he might go thither for 3 months"; and on his return (iv. 3) he tells how he had been shipwrecked in the Straits of Gibraltar, and was fettered and sold as a slave by the barbarous Moors. The Spanish gallies were equally dangerous to our merchants, and in Haughton's Englishmen ii., Pisaro gets word that his ship, the Fortune, has been attacked by 2 Spanish gallies on a voyage to B.: whereon he cries, "A plague upon these Spanish-galley pirates "who have made so perilous "the Straits 'twixt Spain and B." One of Antonio's ventures (Merch. iii. 2, 272) was to B. In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Valentine says that the Lond. wives by their extravagance break their husbands "beyond redemption from the Indies, the streights, or B." In Brome's Moor iv. 4, Quicksands says, "I have borrowed other Moors of merchants that trade in B." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 550, Staines professes, "I was so far gone, that desperation knocked at my elbow, and whispered news to me out of B.": i.e. bad news; news of loss. Dekker, in Hornbook v., advises the young gallant, when at the Ordinary, to talk of having "interpreted between the French k. and a great lord of B." In J. Heywood's Weather, Farmer p. 99, Merry Report claims to have been "at Baldock, at Barford, and in B." One principal article of trade was sugar. In Haughton's Englishmen ii.2, Pisaro's B. correspondent informs him, "we have sent unto your worship sack, Seville oils, pepper, B. sugar"; and in B. & F. Beggars iv. 3, Goswin says, "if he wants fine sugar, he can send to B." Breton, Fantastickes (1626), says, "B. sugar puts honey out of countenance." In Marston's What you Will, the schoolboy says, "Ah, sweet honey, B. sugar, sweet master!" In H4 A. ii. 4, 84, when Prince Hal says to Francis," In B., Sir, it cannot come to so much," he is probably referring to the pennyworth of sugar which Francis has given him, and for which he has promised him £1000. Sugar would, of course, be cheap in B. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 252, Gresham declares, "I am to have a patent for all the B. sugars." In Dekker's Northward ii. 1, Doll complains, "The wars in B. make sugar at such an excessive rate."

B. was famous for its breed of horses: "they are," says Heylyn, "of excellent beauty, strength, and service." In Ham. v. 2, 168, the K. wagers "6 B. horses "on Hamlet in his fencing-match with Laertes. In R2 v. 5, 78, the groom tells how Bolingbroke rode into Lond. on Richd.'s "roan B." In Oth. i. 1, 112, Iago warns Brabantio, "You'll have your daughter covered with a B. horse": i.e. the Moor Othello. In Sampson's Vow i. 1, 140, Ursula says, "We must be coupled in wedlock like vour b. horse for breed sake." In Tomkins' Albumazar iii. 5, Trincalo wagers "my grey B. 'gainst your dun cow." In Middleton's Gipsy iii. 2, the Jester, trying to ride Fernando's "mettled B.," got run away with. In Stucley 2400, Abdelmelek boasts that he mounts and controls Fortune "As we do use to serve Bn. horse." In B. & F. Cupid's Rev. ii. 6, the D. has his rough French horse brought round, "And the grey B.: they're fiery both." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 2, Callapine promises his keeper "A 100 bassoes, clothed in crimson silk, Shall ride before thee on Bn. steeds." In Webster's White Devil iv. 2, Lodovico tells of a "resty B. horse "which the D. wishes to have broken in. In B. & F. Wild Goose i. 2, Pinac describes the French women as "pin-buttocked, like your dainty Barbaries, and weak i' the pasterns; they'll endure no hardness." In B. & F. Cure ii. 2, Clara says, "You never saw my B. the Infanta bestowed upon me." In Selimus 556, Selim says, "Thinks he to stop my mouth With rusty [? resty] jades fet from Barbaria?" In Shirley's Courtier iii. 3E, Giotto says to Contarini, "You have enriched my stable with a B. roan." In Kyd's Solyman, the Moor comes to the tournament in Act I "upon his hot Bn. horse." In Peele's Alcazar v. 1, 239, Muly Mahamet sought to save his life "on a hot Bn. horse."

In As You Like It iv. 1, 151, Rosalind promises Orlando, "I will be more jealous of thee than a B. cock-pigeon over his hen." There is a special black, or dun, variety of pigeon called a Barb.As to the jealousy of the cock-pigeon, Pliny, Nat. Hist. x. 34, says, "Conjugii fides non violant, communemque servant domum. Et imperiosos mares, subinde etiam iniquos ferunt; quippe suspicio est adulterii, quamvis natura non sit. Tunc plenum querela guttur, saevique rostro ictus." The men of B., says Heylyn (704), are "implacable in hatred, constant in affection": indeed, the jealousy of the Moors was proverbial. Othello. was a Moor. So that a B. cockpigeon is a doubly effective symbol of Jealousy. In Davenant's Platonic i. 1, Jaspero speaks of "a letter tied round the neck of a B. pigeon." The B. hen is the Guinea Fowl, a particularly harmless and inoffensive bird. Hence, in Hg B. ii. 4, 108, Falstaff says, "Pistol will not swagger with a B. hen, if her feathers turn back with any show of resistance." In Marston's Malcontent ii. 4, one of the ingredients of a restorative medicine is "7 and 30 yolks of B. hens' eggs." In Shirley's Courtier iv. 1, Depazzi boasts, "All the lions in B. shall not contrary me in this way." In Devonshire iv. 1, Henrico thinks that "England breeds more apes than B." In Dekker's Match me ii. 1, Bilbo offers for sale "Tuscan hatbands, Venetian ventoves, or Bn. shoestrings."

It is easy to see how the word came to be used in the sense of barbarous. In Webster's White Devil iv. 1, Flamineo exclaims, "Rome! it deserves to be called Barbarie for our villainous usage." In Tourneur's [ed. note: anonymous, probably Middleton's] Revenger iv. 2, Vendice says, "There are old men . . . so poisoned with the affectation of law-words that their common talk is nothing but B. Latin." Doubtless, the Greek use of for all peoples not Hellenic cooperated with the savagery of the Moors in the evolution of this meaning.


In Monkswell St., Lond., near Cripplegate, on the W. side. It was built in the reign of Edward IV. Dead bodies, especally those of executed criminals, were brought here to be dissected, and their skeletons, or "anatomies," were sometimes preserved. There is a curious provision, dated 1587, that if any such body come to life again, "as of late hath been seen," the persons who brought the body were to be held responsible. The Hall was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt by Inigo Jones. It is now displaced by warehouses. In Dekker's Edmonton i. 2, Carter says, "You might send me to B.-Sns.'-H. . . . to hang up for an anatomy." In Webster's Malfi v. 2, Ferdinand says, "I will flay off his skin to cover one of the anatomies this rogue [the Dr.] hath set i' the cold yonder in B.-Sns.'-H." In Shirley's Fair One v. 3, Brains says, "I will desire him, that bids me go hang myself, which is the way to Sns.' H. I will beg to have my skull cut, I have a suspicion my brains are filched and my head has been late stuffed with woodcock's feathers." In Rowley's All's Lost ii. 6, 153, Lazarello asks Antonio, "Were you never at Barbar-Sns.' H. to see a dissection?" Membership in the Hall gave the qualification for practice; so in Middleton's Quarrel v. 1, the Surgeon, being asked whether the Colonel has recovered, says, "May I be excluded quite out of Sns.' H. else!"

In Chapman's Widow's Tears v. 1, the Governor says he will give "old and withered widows to Sns.' H. to be stamped to salve for the French measles." In Nash's Wilton, K3, Jack says, "I supposed it was the Beadle of Sns.' H. come for me." In Killigrew's Parson i. 3, Constant says, "I thought he had married the company of Sns.' H.; for his directions to me for several things for his wife's use, were fitter for an apothecary's shop than a lady's closet." In Nabbes' Totenham i. 5, Slip, asked how he has disposed of some deer he has killed, says, "I sent a soare to B.-Sns.' H. A little soare makes them a great feast." The pun on the double meaning of soare, viz. a buck in his 4th year, and a wound, is obvious. Cf. Shakespeare, L.L.L. iv. 2, 59.


A st. in Lond., running E. from Aldersgate St. at the Charter House corner to the junction of Golden L. and Red Cross St. So called from the postern tower which stood a little N. of it, and was supposed to date from Roman times. Stow derives the name from the old English "Burh-kenning"; but the O.E.D. inclines to an Arabic or Persian origin for it. In Massinger's Madam ii. 1, Tradeswell, preparing, on his return from his travels, to have a good time in Lond., says, "A B. broker will furnish me with outside." Taylor, Works 122, says, "In B. there's as good beer and ale as ever twanged, And in that st. kind No-body is hanged." The reference is to the sign of John Trundle's bookshop. Nobody was "Printed for John Trundle, and are to be sold at his shop in B., at the signe of No-body." This is the man referred to by Jonson in Ev. Man I. i. 2, where young Knowell says, "If he read this with patience, I'll troll ballads for Master John Trundle yonder the rest of my mortality." T. Heywood's Woman Killed was "Printed by William Jaggard, dwelling in B. 1607." Milton lived in B. from 1645 to 1647. The house was on the S. side of the st.; it was recently [ed. note: recent circa 1923] destroyed to make way for a railway line.


An inland city of Cyrenaica, 70 m. S.W. Of Cyrene. It was founded by exiles from Cyrene 554 B.C., and besieged and destroyed by the Persians in 510 B.C Its remaining inhabitants were later transported to Ptolemais on the adjoining coast. In Milton, P. L. ii. 904, the hosts of warring atoms in Chaos are said to be "unnumbered as the sands Of B. or Cyrene's torrid soil."


A town in Portugal, on the Caved, 27 m. N. of Oporto. Said to have been founded by Hamilcar in 250 B.C. In Peele's Alcazar ii. 4, 67, Sebastian says, "D. of B., thy ancestors Have always loyal been to Portugal."


A spt. on W. coast of Spain, 312 m. N.E. of Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia. It was one of the chief commercial cities of the 16th cent., and the rival of Genoa and Venice. In B. & F. Pilgrimage the hero is the son of a Genoese merchant, and comes with his father to B. (i. 2), which Alphonso tells us (iii. 3) "is the quay for Italy, whence he first stole hither." In Act IV there is a characteristic st. row between the sailors and the townsfolk, in which the hero is wounded. "Oh," says a soldier (iv. 2), "the quiet hurley-burlies I have seen in this town, where we have fought 4 hours together, and not a man amongst us so impertinent or modest to ask why!" In Rowley's All's Lost i. 3, 33, Jaques speaks of Antonio as "Lord of B." The university was founded in 1430, and had 4 faculties and 31 chairs. In Webster's Law Case ii. 1, Romelio says, "Here's an old gentleman says he was chamber-fellow to your father, when they studied the law together at B."


In J. Heywood's Weather, p. 100, Merry Report includes B. in his alliterative list of places. He "has been at B." 'I cannot find any B., but there are half a dozen Barfords in Norfolk, Warwick, Oxford, Bedford (2), and Wilts.: one of them is probably intended.




A vill. in Kent, 6 m. S.E. of Canterbury, on the Dover Rd. The Canterbury races are held on B. Downs. In Oldcastle iv. 1, the rascally parson of Wrothem boasts that "There's ne'er a hill, heath, nor down in all Kent but 'tis in my parish; B. Down "and half a dozen other places "all pay me tithe."




Town in Essex, 8 m. E. of Lond. It possessed one of the oldest and richest abbeys for nuns in England, and its abbess was a baroness by virtue of her office. Only the gatehouse now remains. The Ch. of Allhallows B., in Gt. Tower St., was connected with the Abbey, and the parish is often spoken of as B. The Rose Inn, q.v., was near to the ch., and in Haughton's Englishmen iii. 2, and Oldcastle iv. 4, is called the Rose at B. Taylor, Works 117, speaks of the Thames fishermen as "comrades of B." In Middleton's Quiet Life iv. 1, George says of his termagant mistress, "She is run away, 7 m. off, into Essex; she vowed never to leave B. while she lived." The pun is obvious. Tarlton, in News out of Purgatory (1590), tells of the broom-men who were there "for robbing of the broom closes between B. and Lond." See BROOMFIELDS.




R2 iii. 2 opens: "B. Castle call you this at hand?" According to Holinshed, Richd. landed "neere the castell of Barclowlie is Wales." No such place exists; but a clue is given in the Life of Richard II by a monk of Evesham, the 2 MSS. of which call the place respectively Hertlowli and Hertlow. Hertlow seems to be the monk's way of transcribing Harddlech, the modern Harlech, the only considerable castle at that time between Caernarvon and Aberystwith. It is true that Fabian and Stow say that Richd. landed at Milford Haven, and the French chronicler at Pembroke; but he was aiming to get to Conway, and would therefore be more likely to land at a port in N. Wales. Harlech is in Merionethsh., near the shore of Cardigan Bay. The castle was built by Edward I abt. 1270, and the ruins are in a fair state of preservation.


(= Bermondsey St.). In Southwark, running S. from Tooley St. to Long Lane, in Bermondsey. In Harman's Caveat (1567) cap. 2, the author relates how, having had a copper cawdron stolen, he "gave warning in Southwark, Kent st., and B. st. to all the tinkers there dwelling." There was an abbey at Bermondsey for monks of the Cluniac Order, built in 1082. It had a famous cross, to which many pilgrimages were made. John Paston begs Margaret Paston "to visit the rood of Northedor and St. Savyour at Bermondsey while ye abide in Lond." (1465). In a map of Southwark (1542) the cross is shown at the junction of Tooley St. and Bermondsey St., and is marked "B. Cross."




An Inn of Chancery, on the S. side of Holborn, Lond., between Fetter Lane and Furnival St. It was originally called Mackworth's I. after a Dean of Lincoln of that name. When it was converted into an I. of Chancery it was in the occupation of one Barnard, whence its name. In Elizabeth's time it had 112 students. It was rebuilt in 1892 by the Mercers' Company for their school.

The rascally lawyer Dampit lived in this neighbourhood. In Middleton's Trick to Catch iii. 4, he smells a foul smell on coming into his rooms, and says, "Foh! I think they burn horns in B. I. If ever I smelt such an abominable stink, usury forsake me I "In Peele's jests (1627), we read of a certain gentleman who "thought to return to his I.; this not of the wisest, being of S. Bernard's."




Part of St. James's Park, Lond., in the S.W. corner, near Rosamond's Pond, at the W. end of Birdcage Walk. It was a favourite resort of lovers and duellists. In Middleton's Chaste Maid iv. 3, young Touchwood and Moll try to elope together, and, going down to the Thames, direct the watermen to take them to B. E.


Mkt. town in Herts., 11 m. N.N.W. of Lond., on the Gt. North Rd. On Gladsmore Heath, close by, was fought the decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, in which Edward IV defeated the Lancastrians under Warwick, and Warwick himself was slain. The exact place of the battle is marked by an obelisk, erected in 1740 by Sir Jeremy Sambrook. In H6 C. v. 1, 110, Warwick says, "I will away to B. presently"; and the next a scenes take place upon the battlefield. In T. Heywood's Traveller iii. 3, Delavil refers to B. as "a place of great resort." In Massinger's Madam ii. 1, Luke suggests to young Goldwire "the raptures of being hurried in a coach [with a lady] to Brentford, Staines, or B." Pinnacia, in Jonson's New Inn iv. 3, says, "A coach is hired and 4 horse; he runs in his velvet jacket thus, to Rumford, Croydon, Hounslow or B., the next bawdy rd." In Goosecap i. 3, Will says, "The ladies desire your worships would meet them at B. 1, th' morning with the Capt." In Middleton's Michaelmas ii. 1, Shortyard says, "I knew the time he ware not half a shirt." Easy asks, "How did he for the rest?" and Shortyard replies: "He compounded with a couple of napkins at B. and so trussed up the lower parts." The scenes of Jonson's New Inn and of T. Heywood's Traveller (in part) are laid at B.


A town in W. Riding, Yorks., 172 M. N.W. of Lond. In Downfall Huntington iii. 2, Robin Hood says, "At B. dwells a potter tough and strong That never brooked we brethren should have wrong."


The N. suburb of Cambridge, doubtless haunted by the less reputable members of the University. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 258, Hobson asks the Pedler, "What's the news at bawdy Barnswell and at Sturbridge Fair!"




(locally pronounced BARSON). Vill. in Warwicksh., on the Stour, 10 m. S. of Stratford. In H4 B. v. 3, 94, when Pistol addresses Falstaff, "Sweet knight, thou art now one of the greatest men in this realm," Silence concurs, "By'r lady, I think he be, but goodman Puff of B." He was no doubt some notorious fat man whom Shakespeare remembered from his Stratford days.


A noble ch. in Lond., and the finest example there of the Norman style of architecture. It stands on the N. side of B. Close, W. Smithfield, S. of Long Lane. It was built by Rahere, said to have been jester to Henry I, who renounced the world and became Prior of the monastery there. His fine canopy tomb can stiff be seen in the ch. The ch. fortunately escaped the Gt. Fire. Deloney, in Reading, says that "This Reior was the most skilfullest musician that lived at that time," And that "he builded at his own cost the Priory and Hospital of St. B. in Smithfield." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV B. 132, "old Friar Anselm of St. B.'s "is quoted as the author of the prophecy that G. should kill Edward's children and succeed him; see R3 i. 1, 55.

The great Fair held in Smithfield on August 24, St. B.'s Day, was the most famous in England. Originally established as a cloth-fair, it became in course of time a popular carnival, and after flourishing for 71/2 centuries was abolished in 1855. Its frequenters were called B. Birds; its slang B. terms. There was abundant eating and drinking, especially of roast pigs. Drums, gingerbread, and ugly dolls were to be bought for children. Puppet-plays were performed, and monsters of all kinds exhibited. Ballad singers plied their trade, and pickpockets and rogues of all kinds made the Fair a happy hunting ground. Wrestling matches and the chasing of live rabbits by boys formed part of the fun. Jonson's Barthol. is a vivid picture of contemporary Lond. life, and should be read in full. In Davenant's Wits iv., Thwack makes a number of suggestions for the depletion of Lond., "which," says Pert, "will more impoverish the Town than a subversion of their fair of B." In Jonson, Barthol. Ind., the stagekeeper ridicules the idea of the play: the author, he says, "has not hit the humours, he does not know them; he has not conversed with the B. birds, as they say." In Chaunticleers xiv., Bristle says of Nancy, "She has got a face like a B. Fair baby." In T. Heywood's Challenge ii., the Clown says that Hellena is "so fair that all B. Fair could not match her again." In Nabbes' Totenham iv. 4, Bellamie says of the supposed Mrs. Stitchwell, "I have packed her up in't, like a B. baby, in a box." In Brome's New Academy iv. 1, Nehemiah says he has burnt as many ballads "as might have furnished 3 B. Fairs." In the Penn. Parl. it is predicted, "Such a drought shall come amongst cans at B. Fair in Smithfield that they shall never continue long filled." In Jonson's Barthol. iii. 1, Waspe exhorts Cokes to "keep your fine B. terms to yourself." Presents, even though not bought at the fair, were called B. fairings: in Shirley's Fair One iv. 2, Tweedle instructs Violette, "Look you, lay out my gold at the Exchange in B. fairings." In Middleton's R.G. iii. 3, a usurer is described as one that would flay his father's skin off "and sell it to cover drums for children at B. Fair."

References to Dame Ursula's pigs are common. In Dekker's Edmonton v. 2, we learn that Gammer Washbowl's untimely farrow "were sent up to Lond. and sold for as good Westminster dog-pigs at B. Fair as ever great bellied ale-wife longed for." In Field's Amends iii. 4, Whorebang cries, "Let's have wine, or I will cut thy head off and have it roasted and eaten in Pie-Corner next B.-tide": Pie-corner being at the Giltspur St. end of Smithfield. The discussion of the piety of eating B. pig by Rabbi Busy, in Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, is very diverting: "pig . . . may be eaten; but in the Fair, and as a B. pig, it cannot be eaten; for the very calling it a B. pig, and to eat it so, is a spice of idolatry." Nevertheless, to profess his hate and loathing of Judaism, the worthy Rabbi relaxes his principles and "will eat, yea, will eat exceedingly." In H4 B. ii. 4, 250, Doll calls Falstaff, "Thou little tidy B. boar-pig." In Davenant's Playhouse i. 1, the housekeeper says, "All the dry old fools of B. Fair are come to hire our House." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. v. 4, Carlo advises Puntarvolo to stuff his dead dog with straw, "as you see these dead monsters at B. Fair." In Nabbes' Totenham ii. 2, Stitchwell says, "I have a Cornish lad that wrestles well and hath brought home rabbits every B.-tide these 5 years." Hentzer relates that after the wrestling was over "a parcel of live rabbits are turned loose among the crowd, which are pursued by a number of boys." The flies which came up with the drovers and their cattle were a great nuisance at the time of the Fair. In H5 v. 2, 336, Burgundy says, "Maids, well summered and well kept, are like flies at B.-tide, blind, though they have their eyes." In Middleton's Mad World v. 1, Sir Bounteous complains, "Acquaintances swarm in every corner, like flies at B-tide that come up with the drovers." In Devonshire iv. 1, Buzzano says, "What a buzzing you make, as if you were a fly at B.-tide at a butcher's stall." In Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, Winwife says, "The flies cannot, this hot season, but engender us excellent creeping sport."


One of the 5 Royal Hospitals of Lond. It stands in the angle between Long Lane and Aldersgate St., E. of Smithfield, with an entrance from Little Britain. It was founded by Rahere, said to have been Jester to Henry I. It was seized as a conventual institution by Henry VIII, but, at the request of Gresham, handed over to the City in 1546. The buildings had been repaired by the executors of Richd. Whittington in 1423, but it had to be taken down and rebuilt in 1730. The entrance from Smithfield was erected in 1702. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 277, Dean Nowell relates that Sir Richd. Whittington "repaired S. Bartholomewes in Smithfield." Dekker, in Wonderful Year (1603), says that on account of the ravages of the Plague "every house looked like S. Bartholomewes hospitall."


Ch. in Land., on the E. side of Smithfield. It was built by Rahere, the Prior of St. B. the Gt., as a chapel for the hospital. It has been rather ruthlessly restored, but the old tower still remains. Edward Allde, the publisher of the Book of mery Riddles (1600), dwelt "in Little St. Bs, neere Christ-Ch." Heywood's Londini Speculum was "Imprinted at Lond. by J. Okes, dwelling in little St. Bs. 1637."




A lane in Lond., running on the E. side of the Bank of England from Threadneedle St. to Lothbury. In Rowley's Match Mid. iv., Moll and Randall being surprised by night in Gracechurch St., by the watch coming along up the st., Moll advises Randall, "Go you back through Cornhill; I'll run round about the Exchange, by the ch. corner, down Cateaton st., and meet you at B. L. end." It was so called from the Ch. of St. B. Exchange, or the Less, at its S.E. corner. The ch. was taken down to make room for the Royal Exchange, but some portions of it are preserved in the Sun Fire Office, 63 Threadneedle St. Cateaton St. is the present Gresham St. In Jonson's Magnetic iv. 6, Compass says, "Stay with us at his ch., Behind the Old Exchange."




The dist. in Palestine E. of the Jordan and N. of Gilead, now known as the Hauran. It was a mountainous country famous for its sheep and cattle. Deut. 32, 14, "Rams of the breed of B."; and its bulls became, in the O.T, the type of cruel and blatant oppressors. PS. 22, 12: "Many bulls have compassed me; strong bulls of B. have beset me round." Hence Antony's exclamation (Antony iii. 313, 127), "O that I were Upon the hill of B., to outroar The horned herd! For I have savage cause." In Darius (Anon. Plays) iii. 78, Iniquity says, "She is such a pestilent woman as is not hence to our Lady of B." Spenser, in Shep. Cal. Sept. 124, says, "Big bulls of B. prance them about That with their horns butten the more stout." Milton, P. L. i. 398, says that Moloch was worshipped "In Argob and in B."


A mkt. town in Hants., 46 m. S.W. of Lond., on the Gt. Western Rd. In H4 B. ii. 1, 182, the Chief Justice asks, "Where lay the K. last night," and Gower answers: "At B., my lord." The quarto reads "Billingsgate," but it is evident that "B." is right I., is the K. was on his march from the W. of England to Lond.


In S.E. Staffsh., near Tamworth, 9 m. S.E. of Lichfield. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 43, the Tanner says to the K., "I fear thou art some outrider that lives by taking of purses here on B. H."


Properly a general name for any fortified building, but applied specifically to the fortress in Paris built by Charles V to defend the Gate of St. Antoine in 1369. It was used for the custody of State prisoners, and ultimately became the State prison of Paris. It was razed to the ground by the Parisians on July 14, 1789, at the outbreak of the French Revolution. Its site is marked by the bronze column in the Place de la B. at the E. end of the Rue de Rivoli. In Chapman's Rev. Bussy iv. 1, Aumale brings word that Clermont 'Admbois "to B. is now led prisoner." The execution of the D. de Biron, described in Chapman's Trag. Byron v. 1, took place in the court of the B.


Properly the dist. in the Netherlands between the Waal, the Rhine, and the Meuse: then used for the Netherlands generally. In Massinger's Believe iii. 1, "One urged Antiochus to fly for safety to the Parthian, a 2nd into Egypt, and a 3rd to the Batavian."


The chief town of Somersetsh., on the Avon, 108 m. W. of Lond. It was in the earliest times famous for its hot s, and there was a Roman town there called Aquae Solis. In the 9th cent. it was called Civitas aet Bathun, i.e. the city at the baths. In the 17th and especially in the 18th cent. it became the most fashionable resort for the upper classes in England. Boorde, in Intro. of Knowledge (1542) i., says, "There is at Baath certain waters, the which be ever hot or warm and never cold." A full account of the baths by Thomas Venner (1628) may be found in Harl. Misc. iv. 110. In 1562 Turner, in his Baths i., says, "The B. of England is in a city called in Latin Bathonia, and Baeth in English, of the baths that are in it." Jonson, in Epicoene ii. 1, describing the affectations of a fashionable lady, says she must "be a stateswoman, know all the news, what was done at Salisbury, what at the B., what at Court, what in progress." Spenser, F. Q. i. IT, 30, says that the Well of Life did excell "The English B. and eke the German Spau." In iv. 11, 31, he mentions 11 wondrous B." as one of the towns on the Avon. In Massinger's Parl. Love ii. 3, Clarindore says that one drop of the moisture on Bellisant's palm would purchase "The far-famed English B. or German Spa." In Brome's Crew ii. 1, Hillard asks Rachel, "What think you of a journey to the B. then?" and she replies: "Worse than t'other way; I love not to carry my health where others drop their diseases." Taylor, Works 83, says, "St. Winifred's well, the B., or the Spa are not to be compared to this ship [the Sleeper] for speedy ease and cure." In Killigrew's Parson v. 4, Careless says, "These are diseases which neither the Spaw or B. can cure." In Dekker's Westward i. 2, Monopoly says to Moll, "You shall feign some scurvy disease or other, and go to the B. next spring; I'll meet you there." In Marmion's Leaguer ii. 1, Agurtes, commending a lady to Trimalchio, says, "Neither takes she her journey once a year to the B., nor is so learned as to judge betwixt your poets." Herrick, in Epig. on Broomsted (1647), says, "Broomsted a lameness got by cold and beer And to the B. went to be cured there." One of Chaucer's Pilgrims was "A good wif . . . of biside Bathe," who was expert in the cloth-making which was the staple industry of the W. country. Nash, in Pierce D. 3, says, "Chaucer's Wife of B. shall be talked of whilst the B. is used." B. was the seat of a bishopric; the town-house of the Bps. of B. was in the Strand, a little W. of Temple Bar.


In Surrey, on the Thames, opposite to Chelsea; now included in Greater Lond. In the 16th cent. it was a country vill. Here was York House, built in 1475 as a town residence for the Archbps. of York: it stood near the r. on the site now occupied by Price's Candle Factory. The name in Domesday Book is Patricesey. The 10th Merry Jest in the Wido Edyth (1525) relates how this lady walked from Eltham to "a thorp called Batersay," whence she took a wherry and rowed over to Chelsea to visit Sir Thomas More.


Now King's Cross, the site of the terminus of the London & North Eastern Railway in Lond. It was originally a bdge. over the Fleet, where the famous battle occurred between Suetonius Paulinus and Boadicea A.D. 62, by which the Roman supremacy in Britain was established. It is the scene of B. & F. Bonduca iv. 4. In the neighbourhood were the huge dust-heaps amongst which the immortal Boffin, the golden dustman, lived and listened to Silas Wegg's rendering of "The Decline and Fall of the Rooshan Empire." The name is still retained by the bdge. running just N. of King's Cross Station from York Rd. to Pancras Rd. There was another B. B. across a little stream running into the Thames on the Southwark side, a little E. of Lond. Bdge.: so called from B. Abbey, which was the town residence of the abbots of B. Abbey in Sussex, near Hastings, and stood in what is still called the Maze, a little back from the r., opposite the Custom House. In Fair Women ii. 228, John Beane, on his way to Lond., is met by old John, who says to him, "I would thou hadst my Aqua vitae bottle, to fill at the Black Bull by B. B." The Black Bull was in Gray's Inn Lane, which shows that the former B. B. is the one intended.


An ancient duchy in the centre of Europe, stretching from the Upper Danube to the Alps. The capital is Munich, and amongst the more noteworthy towns are Baireuth, Nurnburg, and Augsburg. Goitre was known in the 17th cent. as the Bn. poke. Burton, A. M. 1. 2, 11, 1, says, "Aubanus Bohemus refers that Struma, or Poke, of the Bns. and Styrians to the nature of their waters." In Shirley's Hyde Park iii.2, Mrs. Carol, criticizing Fairfield's appearance, says, "For your chin, it does incline to the Bn. poke." Burton, A.M. iii. 2, 3, speaks of a woman "with a Bn. poke under her chin." In Cartwright's Ordinary i. 4, Slicer, in his extravagant praise of the political knowledge of the son of Credulous, says, "B. [would] lie close in some little gut," if he were to be dissected. In Laelia ii. 1, 14, Petrus says, "Quando ego hic fui Cum legato de Ancona consors a duce datus, Bavariae memini nos hospicio acceptos Apud domum Guitziardinam." This was Guicciardini, the famous Italian diplomatist, who from 1515 onward was Governor of Modena. In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, the clerk says of "the D. of Bavier": "He has taken a gray habit and is turned The Ch.'s miller, grinds the Catholic grist With every wind; and Tilly takes the toll." Maximilian I of B. took the Austrian side against the Bohemians, and made Tilly the commander-in-chief of his armies. After the defeat of the Bohemians he received a portion of the Palatinate as his reward.


A mkt. town in W. Riding, Yorks., on the border of Notts., 153 m. N. of Lond., and on the main N. Rd. In Downfall Huntington v. 1, the Friar reports, "The Priest and the proud prior are stripped and wounded in the way to B."


A vill. in Wilts., near the border of Berks., some 32 m. N.E. of Salisbury. Near to it is Wolf's Hall, where Henry VIII was married to Jane Seymour. An avenue in the grounds is still called K. Henry's Walk. In S. Rowley's When You D. 3, the K., on the eve of his midnight excursion through the sts. of Lond. á la Haroun al-Raschid, says to Cumpton, "The watchword is the great stag of B., so my name shall be."


An ancient castle on the N. bank of the Thames in Lond. It stood at what is now the W. end of Q. Victoria St., close to where Blackfriars Bdge. crosses the r. The r. came up to its walls, and it had a stairs at which boat could be taken. It was built by Ralph Barnard, who came over with the Conqueror. In 1111 it was forfeited to the Crown and bestowed on Robert Fitz-Walter, in whose family the office of Castellan and Standard-bearer to the City of Lond. became hereditary. The Robert Fitz-Walter of John's reign took part with the Barons against the K., and in revenge John ordered the Castle to be destroyed. Robert, however, became reconciled to the K. and was permitted to rebuild his Castle. One version of the story is told in Davenport's Matilda, according to which the K. made love to Fitz-Walter's daughter, Matilda; but the lady refusing to comply with his wishes, he destroyed B. C. and poisoned her at Dunmow. In i. 1, Fitzwater sends a message to the K.: "Tell John," quoth he, "That here at B. C. we intend A settled stay"; and the next scene takes place there. The same story is told in Chettle's Death Huntington. In ii. 1, the K. says, "If my hidden courtesy she [Matilda] grace, Old B. C., good Fitzwater's place, John will make rich." The Fitzwater who appears in R2 was the 5th Baron, and still held B. C. It was burnt down in 1428 and rebuilt by Humphrey of Gloucester. On his death it reverted to the Crown, and was granted by Henry VI to the D. of York. Here Edward IV assumed the royal title; and here he left his wife and children when he went to meet Warwick at Barnet. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV B. 134, Clarence says, "I'll keep within my house at Bainard's C. Until I hear how my dread sovereign takes it." Richd. of Gloucester was living here at the time of his usurpation. In R3 iii. 5, 98 he orders Buckingham, when he sends him to sound the Lord Mayor and citizens, "If you thrive well, bring them to B. C. Where you shall find me well accompanied With reverend fathers and well-learned Bps." Then, in 3105, he despatches Lovel to Dr. Shaw, and Catesby to Friar Penker. with the direction: "Bid them meet me here within this hour At B. C." The next scene, in which Richd., appearing between 2 clergymen, accepts the offer of the Crown from the citizens, is laid here. In True Trag., the Page relates," In the afternoon came down my Lord Mayor and the aldermen to B. C., and offered my Lord the whole estate upon him, and offered to make him k." Henry VIII converted it from a fortress into a palace, and it was here that he entertained the K. of Castile, when he was driven to England by a storm. In S. Rowley's When You D. 2, the K. (Henry VIII) orders Brandon to attend him "at B.-C." The C. next passed into the hands of the Pembrokes, and the Earl held great state in it during the reign of Edward VI; and here he proclaimed Mary Q. In Webster's Wyat, Haz., p.23, Ambrose announces," In B. C. was a council held And 'twas concluded to proclaim Q. Mary." Later, he entertained Elizabeth there with a banquet and fireworks. It was finally destroyed in the Gt. Fire of 1666. Shakespeare must have been very familiar with the old c., for the Blackfriars Theatre was just behind it in Printing House Sq., and it is on record that he possessed a house "abutting upon a st. leading down to Pudle Wharffe on the E. part, right against the Kinges Majesties Wardrobe." St. Andrew's Hill, the inn at the corner of which still retains the name of the old c., was then called Puddledock Hill; and the Wardrobe was just behind the present offices of the British and Foreign Bible Society. In Yarrington's Two Trag. iv. 1, Merry proposes to leave the head and legs of the murdered Beech "in some dark place near to Bainardes C." In Middleton's Triumph Truth, in the directions for the pageant, we read, "The first that attends to receive his Lordship off the water at B. C. is Truth's Angel on horseback."


A town on the W. coast of Spain, 70 m. S. Of Cape Finisterre. Milton, in Lyc. 162, describes the archangel Michael looking from St. Michael's Mt. "towards Namancos and B.'s hold." No land intervenes between the S. point of Cornwall and the N.W. coast of Spain.


A city in S. France, at the confluence of the Nive and Adour, 3 m. from the sea. It is a Bp.'s see, and the cathedral of Notre Dame is a fine Gothic building of the 12th cent. In H8 ii. 4, 172, Henry declares that the first scruples which he felt abt. his marriage were inspired "On certain speeches uttered By th' Bp. of Bayon, then French embassador, Who had been hither sent on the debating A marriage 'twixt the D. of Orleans and Our daughter Mary." This Bp. of B. was the famous Jean du Bellay, afterwards Archbp. of Paris and a cardinal. He was Ambassador to England in 1528, and in 1533 he came again to try to persuade Henry to withdraw his appeal from the Pope to a General Council. But the negotiations for Mary's marriage were not conducted by him, but by the Bp. of Tarbes in 1527. The mistake is due to Holinshed, whom Shakespeare follows almost verbally in this speech.




A very well-known tavern at the Southwark end of Lond. Bdge. It was pulled down in 1761. In Jonson's Epicoene ii. 3, Morose mockingly predicts that when Sir Dauphine has managed to borrow 10 shillings, "it knighthood shall go to the Cranes or to the B. at the Bridgefoot, and be drunk in fear." In the Puritan i. 4, Corporal Oath swears by "yon B. at Bridgefoot." In Field's Weathercock iii. 3, Pouts sends his man to "bespeak supper at the B. and provide oars; I'll see Gravesend to-night." In Shirley's Pleasure iv. 2, Kickshaw invites Lady Bornwell to be his guest at "the B. at the Bdge. foot"; and in v. 11 Frederick enters in a very much excited condition and explains it by saying that he has been "at the B. at the Bridgefoot." In Killigrew's Parson iii. 1, the Capt. says, "We have not met these 3 years till today, and at the B. we meant to have dined." In v. 1, he says that one of the watermen is gone "to Cook's at the B. for some bottles of his best wine." In Brome's Couple ii. 1, Alicia says, "At the B. at the Bridge-foot 6 a clock I find my lord's appointments." In his Moor iv. 2, Quicksands mentions, "Bridgfoot B., the Tunnes, the Cats, the Squirrels," as haunts of his faithless wife. In Middleton's No Wit v. 1, Weatherwise, the astrologer, speaks of "Ursa Major, that great hunks, the B. at the Bridgefoot in heaven." It is sometimes called simply the Bridgefoot. In Brome's Northern i. 5, Pate asks, "Where is the supper? At the Bridgefoot or the Cat?" Taylor, in Carrier's Cosmography, mentions a B. Tavern in Bassishaw, i.e. Basinghall St.


The sign of a bookseller's shop in Paul's Churchyard, Lond. Fisher's Fuimus was "Printed by I. L. for Robert Allott and are to be sold at the sign of the Beare in Pauls-church-yard. 1633." England's Helicon was "Printed by I. R. for John Flaskett and are to be sold in Paules churchyard at the sign of the Beare. 1600."


A narrow passage in Lond., running along the E. side of the old Stocks Mkt, which stood on the site of the present Mansion House, from St. Swithin's Lane into Lombard St.: now called George St. In Middleton's Quiet Life iv. 2, Knavesby says to Mrs. Water-Camlet, "I'll bring you [to Lombard St.] through B. L."; to which the lady replies, "B. L. cannot hold me; I'll the nearest way over St. Mildred's ch."


An enclosed place on the Bankside, Southwark, where the amusement of bear-baiting was carried on. The site is on the right of Southwark Bdge. Rd. as one goes from the r., and is indicated by B. G. Alley and the inn called the White B. Shakespeare does not mention the Gardens, but has many references to the sport. "Why do your dogs bark so?" asks Slender, "be there bears i' the town?" To which Anne Page replies, "I think there are, Sir; I heard them talked of." "I love the sport well," says Slender, "but I shall as soon quarrel at it as any man in England. You are afraid if you see the bear loose, are you not?" "Ay, indeed, Sir," says Anne. "That's meat and drink to me now," says the valorous simpleton; "I have seen Sackerson loose 20 times and have taken him by the chain" (M.W.W. i. 1, 298). Malvolio, being as a Puritan opposed to the sport, brought Fabian out o' favour with his lady about a bear-baiting (Tw. N. ii. 5, 11). Falstaff is as melancholy as "a lugged bear" (H4 A. i. 2, 83). Richd. of York "bore him in the thickest troop . . . as a bear, encompassed round with dogs, Who having pinched a few and made them cry, The rest stand all aloof and bark at him (H6 C. ii. 1, 15). "We'll bait thy bears to death," says Clifford, referring to the cognizance of the Nevilles, "And manacle their bear-ward in their chains, If thou darest bring them to the baiting place"; to which Richd. replies, "Oft have I seen a hot o'er-weening cur Run back and bite, because he was withheld; Who, being suffered with the bear's fell paw, Hath clapped his tail between his legs and cried" (H6 B. v. 1, 3[49). "I cannot fly," says Macbeth, "but, bearlike, I must fight the course" (Mac. v. 7, 2). "I would I had bestowed that time in the tongues," laments Sir Andrew "that I have in fencing, dancing, and bear-baiting" (Tw. N. i. 3, 96). Stow says, "As for the baiting of bulls and bears they are to this day much frequented, namely, in B. Gs., on the Bank's Side wherein be prepared scaffolds for beholders to stand upon." Camden says, "Among these buildings [on the Bank-side] there is a place in manner of a theatre for baiting of beares and Buls with Dogges." The Puritan Mrs. Flowerdew, in Randolph's Muses, i. 1, in denouncing the theatres, prays that "the Bull [i.e. the Red Bull Theatre) might cross the Thames to the B.-G. and there be soundly baited." In Middleton's Quarrel ii. 2, Tristram [ed. note: Trimtram?], giving an account of the origin of "roaring," says, "then it was heard to the Bankside and the bears they began to roar."

The sport was as popular as football is now. In Jonson's Epicoene we have a picture of a bear-baiting enthusiast in Tom Otter, "a great man at the b.-g. in his time," who named all his cups and flagons after bulls and bears (ii. 4), and proposes to have the story of Pasiphae "painted in the B.-G. ex Ovidii Metamorphosi." People even reckoned dates by the bear-baitings, as they do now by the winners of the Derby. In Lyly's Bombie iv. 2, Silena, being asked her age, answers, "I shall be 18 next bear-baiting." The names of the bears were well known. In the Puritan iii. 6, we hear of "George Stone, the bear"; in Jonson's Epicoene iii. 1, of "Ned Whiting and George Stone"; Sackerson we have already met in M.W.W. Sir John Davy reproaches the law students for leaving their work to see "old Harry Hunks and Sackerson." In Goosecap iii. 1, Sir Gyles tells of a mastiff he had which "fought with great Sekerson 4 hours to i." In Val. Welsh. i. 2, Morgan says, "I will fight for you with all the George Stones or the Ursa Majors under the sun." Peacham, in Verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), speaks of "Hunks of the B.-g." In 1591 the Privy Council issued an order forbidding plays to be acted on Thursdays, because they interfered with the bear-baiting; and the Lord Mayor followed it up with an injunction, in which he blames the players for "reciting their plays to the great hurt and destruction of the game of bear-baiting." Elizabeth took great delight in it: Laneham describes a bearbaiting given at Kenilworth for her delectation. "It was a sport very pleasant of these beasts," he says, "to see the bear . . . when he was loose, to shake his ears twice or thrice with the blood and the slaver about his fiznamy, was a matter of a goodly relief." Metaphors from this source passed into the popular language. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. v. 2, Orlando says, "You're a couple of wild bears; I'll have ye both baited at one stake." In B. & F. Mad Lover iv. 1, the Fool proposes a game of bear-baiting: "Let's have a bear-baiting; you shall see me play the rarest for a single dog. At head all!" Anyone who has visited a menagerie will understand the figure in B. & F. Scornful iv. 1, "She stinks worse than a bear-baiting." In Brome's Antipodes iv. i the Old Woman says, "I can tell which dog does best without my spectacles; and though I could not, yet I love the noise; the noise revives me and the B.-g. scent refresheth much my smelling." In Cowley's Riddle i., Alupis says, "If you can patiently endure a stink Or have frequented e'r the City-B.g.," then kiss this old woman. Such phrases as "a bear with a sore head," "to go with as good will as a bear to the stake," "to do a thing as handsomely as a bear picks muscles," "to bait a person," "a regular b.-g." are all derived from this ancient sport. In Glapthorne's Hollander i. 1, Urinal says, "He may be led by the nose as quietly as the tamest bear in the garden." There was no love lost between the actors and the B. G., which interfered with their audiences. In the Actors' Remonstrance (1643), they complain that whilst the theatres were closed "that nurse of barbarism and beastliness, the B.-g.," is permitted still to stand in statu quo prius. Jonson, in Masque of Gipsies, scoffs at "the diet and the knowledge Of the students in Bear-college"; and in the Famous Voyage he says, "The meat-boat of Bears-College, Paris Garden, Stunk not so ill." In the Epilogue to the Poetaster, he says of his rivals, "I can afford them leave to err so still; And like the barking students of Bears College, To swallow up the garbage of the time With greedy gullets." In Braithwaite's Barnaby's Journal the 7 sights of New-Troy (Lond.) are enumerated: "1. Tombes. 2. Guildhall Giants. 3. Stage Plays. 4. Bedlam-poor. 5. Ostrich. 6. B.-G. 7. Lyons in the Tower." Dekker, in Amourers, gives a vivid description of the scene. "No sooner was I entered but the very noise of the place put me in mind of Hell; the bear dragged to the stake showed like a black rugged soul that was damned; the dogs like so many devils inflicting torments upon t. At length a blind Bear was tied to the stake, and instead of baiting him with dogs a company of creatures that had the shapes of men and faces of Christians (being either Colliers, Carters or Watermen) took the office of beadles upon them and whipped monsieur Hunkes till the blood ran down his old shoulders." Sunday was a great day for bearbaiting. In Middleton's Hubburd, p. 98, the begging soldier Laments that "all the fares went by water a-Sundays to the bear-baiting."






Formerly an important town in Anjou on the right bank of the Loire. The castle of B. came into the possession of the house of Lancaster by the marriage of Blanche, daughter of Robert I of Artois, to Edmund of Lancaster in 1276. John of Gaunt gave the name to his children by his 3rd wife, Catherine Swynford, because they were born there. These were
  1. John, Earl of Somerset, whose son John, afterwards D. of Somerset, is the Somerset of H6 A; he died in 1444 and was succeeded by his brother Edmund, who is the Somerset of H6 B., and was killed at the 1st battle of St. Albans 1455: his son Henry was beheaded by the Yorkists after the battle of Hexham 1464 (H6 C. v. 5, 3–" For Somerset, off with his guilty head "), and was succeeded by his brother Edmund, who appears (quite unhistorically) in H6 C. iv. i.
  2. Henry, who entered the Ch., was Bp. of Lincoln 1397; Bp. of Winchester 1404; Cardinal and Papal Legate 1417; died 1447. He is the B. of H6 A. and H6 B. In H6 A. i. 3, he is called by Gloucester, "Arrogant Winchester, that haughty prelate" (23); "Winchester goose" (53); "B. that regards nor God nor K." (60). The K. patches up the quarrel in iii. 1, "Fie, Uncle B." (127). He is the Uncle Winchester and Uncle B. of H6 B. i. i. Margaret i. 3, 72) counts "B., the imperious churchman," as amongst her enemies. York (ii. 2, 71) advises his friends to "wink at B.'s pride." The Duchess of Gloucester warns her husband (ii. 4, 53) against "impious B., that false priest." At Gloucester's arrest (iii. 1, 154), "B.'s red sparkling eyes blab his heart's malice." Warwick declares (iii. 1, 124) that Gloucester has been murdered "by Suffolk and the Cardinal B.'s means." Suffolk protests (180), "Myself and B. had him in protection." "Is B. termed a kite?" exclaims the indignant Q. (196); "Where are his talons?" Then comes Vaux with the news "that Cardinal B. is at point of death" (369). In the next scene the Cardinal "dies and makes no sign."
  3. Thomas, D. of Exeter, Chancellor under Henry IV, was made D. of Exeter by Henry V in 1416. In H5 he appears in i. 1 and ii. 3 under the title of Exeter, though he was at that time only Earl of Dorset. He is also represented as being present at Agincourt, though, as a matter of fact, he had been left behind at Harfleur, as is implied in Hg iii. 3, 51: "Come, uncle Exeter, Go you and enter Harfleur; there remain And fortify it strongly 'gainst the French." He died in 1426, and therefore was not present at the coronation of Henry V I in 1431, as he is represented to be in H6 A. iv. ii. The present Dukedom of B. was created 1682, and is in the Somerset family. There is a Lord B. in Jonson's New Inn; and in v. 1, the Nurse tells him that Laetitia "hath more and better blood . . . Than all the race of Bs. have in mass, Though they distil their drops from the left rib Of John o' Gaunt."


The Lord of B. (Holinshed "Beaumont") is mentioned as one of the lords who had gone over to Bolingbroke (R2 ii. 2, 54). He was Henry, the 5th Baron Beaumont. The 1st Baron came to England in the time of Edward I, and was created a Baron of England in 1309. He derived his title from the Castle of Beaumont, on the Rille, in Normandy, 80 m. W. of Paris. There is a French Lord Beaumont amongst those who were killed at Agincourt (H5 iii. 5, 44, and iv. 8, 105).


A city of France, in Burgundy, abt. 180 m. SM. of Paris. The D. of Guise endeavoured to secure B. in 1594, and threw a garrison into it; but the people invited Biron to their assistance and he drove out the garrison of the League. In Chapman's Consp. Byron ii. 1, Savoy recalls to the K. how Byron "did take in B. in view of that invincible army Led by the Lord Gt. Constable of Castile."


(= BOEBEIS; now LAKE KAMA). A large lake in E. Thessaly, at the foot of the Pelion Range. It was sacred to Athene. In T. Heywood's B. Age iii., Medea goes to gather herbs "where rushy Bebes and Anthedon flow."


(= BEBRYCIA, an ancient name for BITHYNIA). Bebritius, K. of Bebritia, is one of the characters in Chapman's Blind Beggar. He is entirely unhistorical.


A town in Suffolk, on the Waveney, 109 m. N.E. of Lond. In Greene's Friar iii. 38, Lacy pretends to Margaret, "Faith, lovely girl, I am of Beckles by, Your neighbour."


The county town of Beds, on the Gt. Ouse, 50 m. N.W. of Lond. It had a strong castle built by Paine de Beauchamp in the reign of William II. It was demolished in the reign of Henry III and hardly any traces of it are left. John, the 3rd son of Henry IV, was created D. of B. in 1414. He is the Prince John of Lancaster who appears in Hg A. iii. 2, 169: "My son, Lord John of Lancaster." In iii. 3,218, the Prince says, "Go bear this letter to Lord John of Lancaster, to my brother John." At the battle of Shrewsbury Prince Henry says, "By God, thou hast deceived me, Lancaster, I did not think thee lord of such a spirit" (v. 4, 17); and later, "Brother John of Lancaster, To you this honourable bounty shall belong. Go to the Douglas and deliver him Up to his pleasure ransomless and free" (v. 5, 25). In H4 B. i. 1, 134, we learn that a power has been sent against Northumberland "under the conduct of young Lancaster"; in i. 2, 228, that Falstaff is going with Lord John of Lancaster against the Archbp. and the Earl of Northumberland; in i. 3, 80 the news of his .coming is conveyed to Hotspur; in iv. 1, 162, Westminster declares that Prince John has full commission to deal with the rebels; and in iv. 2, he arrests them in violation of the pledge he has just given. In iv. 5, 226, he comes to the bedside of his dying father; in v. a and 4 he is in attendance on the young K., his brother. He appears as B. in H5 i. 2, ii. 2, iii. 1, iv. 1 (where the K. greets him "Good morrow, brother B."), iv. 3 and v. 2. This is not historically accurate, as he was not in France at this time, but was left in England as Lieut. of the Realm during the K.'s absence. He was godfather to Henry VI, and was appointed by Henry V, on his deathbed, Regent of France, which office he held till his death in 1435. He died at Rouen, and is buried in the Cathedral there. In H6 A. he is present at the funeral of Henry V (i. 1); he reaches Orleans (ii. 1); and in iii. 1, he is brought in sick in a chair before the walls of Rouen and dies there. "A braver soldier," says Talbot, "never couched lance; A gentler heart did never sway in Court" (134). In H6 B. i. 1, 83, Gloucester, protestmg against the cession of Anjou and Maine to France, exclaims, "Did my brother B. toil his wits To keep by policy what Henry got? . . . Shall Henry's conquest, B.'s vigilance, Your deeds of war and all our counsel die?" This B. appears in i. 1 of Day's B. Beggar. The present dukedom was created in 1694, and is in the Russell family.

The name of the county has naturally suggested its punning use for bed. Children are told "It's time to go to Bshire." In Middleton's Mad World ii, Sir Bounteous says to the supposed burglars, "You're no true Lincolnshire spirits; you come rather out of Bshire., we cannot be quiet in our beds for you." In Trag. Richd. II. iv. 3, 67, Nimble says, "Here's a note Of 700 whisperers, most of them sleepy knaves; we pulled them out of Bsheere."

The scene of Lawyer is laid in B. In i., Valentine, a travelling quack-doctor, says, "I had no sooner set up my bills in Bshere., but a gouty cure comes halting to me." In iv, Vaster says, "Now the water's up, that we cannot get over to the Abbey." Newnham Abbey is meant, which ties on the S. side of the Ouse, close to Elstow. There were terrible floods in B. on Oct. 5, 1570, which are celebrated in an old ballad printed by Collier in 1840, in which it is said, "The ch. was overflowed in B., named Poules."


(Bm. = Bethlem, Bem. = Bethlehem). A corruption of Bm., or Bem.; applied to the Priory of St. Mary of Bem., founded in 1247 by Simon Fitz-Mary, Sheriff of Lond. It was situated outside Bishopsgate, near St. Botolph's Ch., and had the duty of entertaining the Bp. and Canons of Bem. as often as they should come to Lond. It was soon used as a hospital, and in 1402 was specially appropriated to lunatics. In 1546 it was taken over by the City, and on the dissolution of the monasteries in 1547 was exempted, and granted by the K. to the citizens of Lond. The unhappy patients were sent out begging with a metal badge on their arms, and were known as Bs. The word was then applied to any demented person. The building was replaced by one near Lond. Wall in 1676; and in 18l2 the foundation-stone of a new hospital to take its place was laid in St. George's Fields, Lambeth. When York claims to be K., Clifford cries, "To B. with him! is the man grown mad!" To which K. Henry replies, "Ay, Clifford, a b. and ambitious humour makes him oppose himself against his K." (H6 B. v. 1, 131). In H6 B. iii. 1, 51, the Duchess of Gloucester is described as "the b. brainsick Duchess." "Ha! art thou b.?" says Pistol to Fluellen (H5 v. 1, 20). "B., have done," says John to Constance (K.J. ii. 1, 183). In Lear i. 2, 148, Edmund, disregarding the anachronism, says, "My cue is villainous melancholy, with a sigh like Tom o' B." In ii. 3, 14, Edgar, meditating on his iii, says, "The country gives me proof and precedent Of B. beggars, who, with roaring voices, Strike is their numbed and mortified bare arms Pins, wooden pricks, nails, sprigs of rosemary; And with this horrible object, from low farms . . . Sometime with lunatic bans, sometime with prayers, Enforce their charity"; and in iii. 6, 103, the servant of Gloucester says, "Let's follow the old Earl and get the B. to lead him where he would."

B. was a favourite resort of people of fashion, who amused themselves by watching the antics of the unfortunate patients. "Go with us," says Lady Haughty, "to B., to the China Houses, and to the Exchange" (Jonson, Epicoene iv. 2). Contributions for its support were welcomed: Face suggests that Mammon may be forgiven his "vice and lust," and secure the philosopher's stone "for some good penance: a £100 to the box at Bethlam for the restoring such as have their wits!" (Jonson, Alchemist iv. 3). Dekker transports it to Milan: "Bm. monastery! it is the school where those that lose their wits practise to find them" (Hon. Wh. A. iv. 4); and in v. 2, a vivid description is given of a visit to B., where the various types of madmen are exhibited for the benefit of the company. Legal warrant was necessary both to confine and to release the patients. "Take a mittimus," says Greedy, "and carry him [Overreach] to B." (Massinger, New Way v. i.) "They had warrant from your Grace," says Viola, "to carry him [Candido] to Bm. monastery, whence they will not free him without your Grace's hand that sent him in" (Dekker, Hon. Wh. A. v. 1). "Diccon, the Bi." is one of the characters in Gurton. In Jack Drum ii., 3, Flawne says of Mamon, "I'll even lay him up in B.; commit him to the mercy of the whip, the entertainment of bread and water"; and in v. 205, Drum says, "M. Mamon is in a city of Jurie called Bm., alias plain B. The price of whips is mightily risen, since his brain was pitifully overtumbled; they are so fast spent upon his shoulders." In Shirley's Fair One iii. 4, Aimwell exhorts Fowler, "Do not fool thyself beyond the cure of B." In Harman's Caveat ix., we read, "These Abraham men be those that feign themselves to have been mad, and have been kept either in Bem. or is some other prison a good time." In Dekker's Westward i. 1, Justiniano speaks of pent houses that make "the shop of a mercer or a linen draper as dark as a room in B." The dark room was used to cure madmen. Cf. Malvolio's treatment in Tw. N. iv. 2.

Female lunatics had the generic name of "Bess of B.," corresponding to the male "Tom of B." There is an old chapbook entitled, "Bess of B.'s Garland." They were also called "Joans of B." In Dekker's Satiro. iii. 1, 299, Tucca addresses Miniver as "Joane-a-B." In Braithwaite's Barnaby's journal, "B. poor "is mentioned as one of the 7 sights of Lond. In Brome's Cf. Beggar iii. 1, Strangelove, complaining of a disturbance, says, "The noise of B. is soft music to it." In Shirley's Bird ii., Rolliardo says, "All the world is but a B, a house of correction to whip us into our senses." In Dekker's Northward iv. 3, we have the following dialogue. Bellamont: "Yonder's the Dolphin without Bp.'s Gate. Come, cross over; and what place is this?" Mayberry: "B., is't not?" Bellamont: "Where the madmen are? I was never amongst them; as you love me, gentlemen, let's see what Greeks are within." In Brome's New Academy i. 1, Strigood speaks of "your locks and lady-ware that dangle in them like straws in the bush natural of a B." In Ford's Warbeck iii. 1, Huntley scornfully says that the revellers at the Court of James are "Like to so many quiristers of B. Trolling a catch." In W. Rowley's Shoemaker v. 1, 105, Maximinus says to the Nurse, "Speak, doting B., where's my daughter?" In Wit Woman 1463, Filenio calls Katharine in Shrew, "a B. quean who would never let her husband be at quiet." Dekker's Strange Horse Race was "Printed for Joseph Hunt and are to be sold at his shop in Bedlem near Moore-field Gate. 1613." See also BETHLEHEM.


In Rowley's Match Mid. ii., Jarvis says, "This dinner would have showed better in B.-L." I can find no B.-L. in Lond., and suspect we should read "Bedlam," q.v.




The continuation of Barbican, between Redcross St. and Whitecross St, in Lond. At the corner of Redcross St. was a watch house for street brawlers: hence the lane became associated with them. In The Spiritual Courts Epitomised (1641), Scrape-all, the Proctor, says, "All Bloomsbury, Covent Garden, Long-acre, and B. L. were as fearful of me as of a constable." These were all places of bad repute.


(now BIR–ES–SABA). A well, said to have been originally dug by Abraham. It lies S. of Palestine, 27 m. S.W. of Hebron. From Dan to B. is used for the whole extent of the Holy Land. In Peele's Bethsabe iii. 2, Cusay advises Absalom to "gather men from Dan to Bersabe." In York M. P. x. 378, Abraham says, after the sacrifice of Isaac, "Go we home again even unto Barsabe." See Gen. xxii. 19. In Milton, P. L. iii. 536, Satan beholds the Promised Land "From Paneas, the fount of Jordan's flood, To Beersaba, where the Holy Land Borders on Egypt and the Arabian shore."


A tavern in St. Giles', Lond., up a narrow lane nearly opposite to the ch. It was a notorious haunt of bad characters of all kinds. The name was changed to "The Have and Hounds "in the reign of Charles II, owing to a hare having been. caught there. It was destroyed in 1844, and its site is now in the middle of New Oxford St. It is mentioned in the list of taverns given by Valerius in T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, "the beggar to the Bush." Greene, in Quip, p. 218, speaks of "walking home by B. B. for a penance." It is stated by Brewer that there was a tree on the left hand of the Lond. Rd. from Huntingdon to Caxton called B. B., because it was a noted rendezvous for beggars. One of B. & F. plays is entitled The Beggar's Bush.


A cant name for the gallows. In Fulwell's Like, Dods. iii. 324, Newfangle says, "A piece of ground it is, that of B. M. doth hold, Called St. Thomas-a-Waterings or else Tyburn Hill": both places of execution.


A place in the parish of St. Gluvias, at Penryn, in S. Cornwall. In Cornish M. P. i. 2588, Solomon loves to the Carpenter, "Ol Gueel B. "i.e. "AD the field of B." In 2767 the bp. gives to the executioner who has killed Maximilla, "Behethlan ha Bosaneth," i.e. "B. and Bosaneth."


(or more fully GALLIA BELGICA. Bm. = Belgium). The most N. division of Gaul, according to Caesar. It lay between the Seine and Marne to the S., and the Rhine to the N. The Belgae appear to have been Celtic in origin, but with a large infusion of Germanic blood. Caesar subdued the Belgae in 54 B.C., and henceforward B. became a province of the Roman Empire. In the Middle Ages B. commonly stands for the Netherlands generally, though it is more properly confined to the Spanish Netherlands, i.e. the S. Provinces which remained faithful to Spain, or were reconquered by Spain in the great revolt. The Spanish Netherlands were handed over to Austria by the Treaty of Utrecht (1713); were conquered by the French Republic (1792–94); were tom from France and unwillingly united to Holland on the fall of Napoleon; and in 1830 were constituted an independent kingdom, whose neutrality was a few years later guaranteed by France, England, and Prussia. In Fisher's Fuimus i. 1, Nennius, appealing to the Gauls to fight against Caesar, cries: "Die, Belgics, die like men!" In Chapman's Caesar i. 1, 28, Cato charges Caesar with having recruited his army from the scum of "Britain, B., France, and Germany." In Locrine ii. 1, 7, Humber boasts that "the ruler of brave B." could not prevent him and his Scythians from coming over to Albion. The whole story of Humber is pure legend. Bm. is used for the S. province of the Low Countries; and also as a general name for the whole of the Netherlands, including Limburg, Luxemburg, Gelderland, Brabant, Flanders, Artois, Hainault, Namurs, Zutphen, Holland, Zealand, W. Friezeland, Utrecht, Over-Yssel, Machlyn, and Groyning. Heylyn says of the people (s.v. Bm.), "The men are for the most part well-proportioned, much given to our English beer, unmindful both of good turns and injuries. They did invent clocks, printing, and the compass. They restored music, and found out diverse musical instruments. To them also belong the invention of chariots, the laying of colours with oil, the working of pictures in glass; and the making of worsted, sayes, tapestry, etc. The women are of a good complexion, well-proportioned, especially in the leg and foot; honourers of virtue, active, and familiar. Both within doors and without they govern all"; (s.v. GERMANY) he says, "The Gaules fight for liberty, the Bns. for honours, the Germanes for gain." For illustration of the foregoing, see under NETHERLANDS, Low COUNTRIES, DUTCH, and HOLLAND.

In H6 C. iv. 8, 1, Warwick relates that "Edward from B. . . . Hath passed in safety through the narrow seas." Edward had married his sister Margaret to Charles the Bold of Burgundy, to whom Flanders at this time belonged. In 1470, Edward, driven from England by Warwick and Montagu, took refuge with his sister; but in March 1471 he returned and, marching on Lond., defeated the Lancastrians at Barnet. In Err. iii. 2, 142, Antipholus, pursuing his inquiries into the topography of Dromio's cook-maid, asks, "Where stood B., the Netherlands?" To which Dromio modestly replies: "Oh, Sir, I did not look so low." In Marlowe's Ed. II iv. 4, the Q. says, "Our kindest friends in B. have we left, To cope with foes at home." In 1327 the Q. went to Hainault, and, having secured assistance there, sailed for England, where she captured the unhappy K. In Greene's Friar ix., Vandermast comes over to try conclusions with Bacon; and Bungay assures him that there are scholars in Oxford who "may lecture it To all the Doctors of your Belgic schools." In Shirley's Pleasure ii. 1, Frederick finds Lady Bornwell being painted by "an outlandish ma" of art . . . a Belgic gentleman." The play was licensed is 16.35; and one cannot mistake the reference to Rubens and Vandyke, who were both working in England abt. this time. Jonson, in his Epigram on Sir John Roe, speaks of "selfdivided B.": referring to the union of the N. provinces as an independent State whilst the S. remained under Spanish rule. Hall, in Satires (1597) iv. 4, 45, describes Martius as "pointed on the shoulders. . . . As new come from the Bn. garrison." In Kyd's Solyman i. 3, Basilisco tells of "a sore drought "that happened "in some part of B.," i.e. the Low Countries. In Larum B. 2, d'Alva says, "I would not hear myself again so railed on, Not for half B."; and a few lines later, "I win fright these bouzing Begians" (misprint for Bns). Nash, in Pierce, C. 3, says of Philip of Spain, "He flies into the boosts of France and B., never withdrawing his forces till he hath devoured their welfare." Dekker, in News from Hell, says that Hell "lies lower than the 17 vallies of B." (Bm. was divided into 17 provinces at this time.) Donne, Elegy xi. 42 (1633), calls it "17-headed B." Peele, in Polyhymnia 197, says that Sir Thomas Knowles "wan his knightly spurs in B." Spenser, F. Q. iii. 3, 49, speaks prophetically through the mouth of Merlin of Elizabeth's help given "to the Belgicke shore"; and in v. 10, he gives an allegorical account of the help given by the English to the Q. "Belgae," the mother "Of 17 goodly sons," i.e. the 17 provinces.


(the NORTH SEA). In Chettle's Hoffman B. 4, Otho, crowned with a red-hot crown, says, "All these Belgique seas That now surround us cannot quench this flame."


The capital of Serbia, at the junction of the Save and Danube. It was held by the Hungarians from 1086 to 1522, when it was taken by the Turkish Sultan Solyman. In Selimus 507, Baiazet says to the messenger of Selim, "We give to him all great Samandria Bordering on B. of Hungaria." This was in 1512. Selim refused the offer. He says (543), "Here the Hungarian with his bloody cross Deals blows about to win B. again." This is a little premature, as B. was not in 1512 in the hands of the Turks, but was taken by Selim's successor in 1522.

In Middleton's R.G. v. 1, Trapdoor claims to have served "in Hungary against the Turk at the siege of B." As Moll Cutpurse, the heroine of the play, was born in 1584, Trapdoor must have been a centenarian to have been at the siege in 1522; but, of course, his talk is all empty rhodomontade.

BELL [1]

A very common tavern sign: there were at least a dozen B. Taverns in Lond. The B. on the W. side of Gracechurch St., between Lombard St. and Cornhill, at the point now marked by B.-yard, was one of the inns in which plays were performed. In Tarlton's Jests, (1611), we are told that when Banks was exhibiting his horse Marocco at the Cross Keys in Gracious St., Tarlton, "playing at the Bel by," came in to see the show. Tarlton got a licence in Nov. 1583 to play "at the Sign of the B. in Gracious St." In Underwit iii. 3, Underwit asks, "What think you of the dromedary that was to be seen at the back side, of the B.?" There was another B. Inn in Aldersgate St, 2 doors from Barbican. Taylor started on his Penniless Pilgrimage from Lond. to Scotland "at the B. that's extra Aldersgate." In Long Meg xvii, there is a story of a dinner "at the B. in Aldersgate St." Taylor, in Carriers Cosmog. (1637), says that it was the house of call for the carriers from St. Albans and from Hatfield. Another stood on the N. side of Holborn, next to Furnival's Inn. In Fleetwood's Report to Lord Burghley (1584) on. the disturbances in the neighbourhood of the Theatre and Curtain, mention is made of a certain Browne who started a row at the door of the theatre, and was subsequently arrested "at the B. in Holborn." According to Taylor it was the house of call for the carriers from Aylesbury. Dekker, in Rod for Runaways, tells of a man who in the plague-time "dropped down dead by All-gate [i.e. Aldgate] at the B.-tavern door." Richd. Quiney addressed a letter to Shakespeare "from the B. in Carter-Lane "in 1598. It was on the S. side of the lane. There was a B. on the N. side of the Strand, near the end of Little Drury Lane. Deloney, in Newberie xi., tells of a gentlewoman "who lodged at the B. in the Strand." Another was on the W. side of Friday St., about half way down the st. According to Taylor the carriers from Burford lodged there. It is mentioned in Cal. State Papers (1603–10) 455, as a place to which letters might be sent for Sir Thomas Estcourt.

There were other B. Taverns: on the E. side of Coleman St., in Fleet St. near Temple Bar, on the E. side of Warwick St., on the E. side of St. John's St., near Hicks's Hall, on the E. side of W. Smithfield, on the W. side of Old Fish St, on the W. side of Wood St., and on the W. side of Walbrook, near the Stocks Market. In Middleton's Chaste Maid i. 1, the porter, one of Hobson's men, says, "I have come from the B. sweating." Here B. is a misprint or mistake for BULL, q.v.

BELL [2]

A tavern at Stratford-at-Bow. In Day's B. Beggar iii., Canby says, "Go take my horse at the B. at Stratford and make haste."

BELL [3]

A tavern at Waltham. The scene of B. & F. Pestle ii. 6, and iii.2, is laid there. Tim says, "Why, we are at Waltham town's end, and that's the B. Inn!"

BELL [4]

An inn at Henley-on-Thames, whose hostess was magically brought thence to Oxford by Friar Bacon in Greene's Friar ii. 128. Possibly the B. Inn at Hurley, 3 m. E. of Henley, is meant. The Henley Inn is the Red Lion, as most Londoners know.


One of the fortresses in which, according to H. Shirley's Mart. Soldier iii. 4, Huneric, K. of the Vandals, had Christian slaves confined. It might be Belanig, near Cyrene; or Belo, on the Straits of Gibraltar.


A famous Lond. tavern on the N. side of Ludgate Hill: pulled down in 1873 and replaced by Cassell, Petter, and Galpin's printing works. It was first called the B.-on-the-Hoop, but in the middle of the 15th cent. it was named after its owner Savages' Inn; and the 2 names were subsequently combined. It was one of the inns used for the performance of plays before the theatres were built. Lambarde, writing in 1596, speaks of "such as go to Paris Garden, the B. S., or Theatre, to behold bear-baiting, interludes or fenceplay." Gosson, in School of Abuse (1579), p. 40, commends "the 2 prose books played at the Belsavage, where you shall find never a word without wit." When Wyatt marched on Lond. in 1554 "he marched to Temple Bar and so through Fleet St. till he came to B. S., an Inn nigh unto Ludgate." Here Banks used to exhibit his famous horse Marocco; and Maroccus Exstaticus, or Banks' Bay Horse in a Trance, was dedicated to "mine host of the Belsavage." It is to Banks's horse that Moth refers in L.L.L. i. 2, 57: "The dancing horse will tell you." In Gascoigne's Government, prol., he says, "Who seeks to feed his eye with vain delight B. S. fair were fittest for his purse," i.e. the shows at the B. S. I. In Downfall Huntington i. 3, Little John says, "Your horses at the B. shall ready be; I mean Belsavage." Taylor, in Carriers Cosmog. says, "The carriers of Doncaster in Yorkshire and many other parts in that country do lodge at the B., or Belle Sauvage, without Ludgate."


The home of Portia in Merch. The name is taken from The Adventures of Gianetto. He sails with his companions from Venice for Alexandria; and having sailed "for several days together "they came to "the port of the Lady of B." It is "in a gulph of the sea," and is on the mainland of Italy, for Giannetto rides back to Venice. There is a Ch. of St. John in the city, which is represented as being of considerable size, and there is a fine castle in which the lady lives. It is probably an imaginary town. Shakespeare follows his author in making B. on the coast of Italy, for Bassanio goes thither by sea (ii. 6, 64) and Portia comes thence to Venice by coach (iii. 4, 82). The following scenes of Merch. are laid at B.: i. 2; ii. 1, 7, 9; iii. 2, 4, 5; and v.


The old name for S. Hampstead, Lond. N.W. It originally belonged to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, and it was quite recently (1870) that they handed B. Avenue over to the parish of Hampstead. At the lower end of the Avenue stood B. House, which, after being occupied by Lord Wotton and by Lord Chesterfield, was opened as a sort of suburban Vauxhall by one Howall. It was pulled down in 1852. In Jonson's Tub i. 1, "Loud To-pan the tinker or metal-man of Belsise, the thirdborough," is one of "a knot of clowns, the council of Finsbury, so they are styled," who have met to find a husband for Mrs. Awdrey.


I conjecture this to be a misprint for Deltic. Ford is speaking throughout this passage of classical localities, and the Roman corn supply was mainly procured from Egypt, and exported from the Delta of the Nile. In Ford's Sun iv. 1, Autumn says, "A 100 grains, Both from the B. and Sicilian fields, Shall be congested for thy sacrifice."


(pronounced BEVER). The seat of the Ds. of Rutland, near Grantham, on the borders of Lincs. and Leicestersh. The second production of Jonson's Gipsies was at B. So in the Epilogue he says, "At Burleigh, Bever, and now Wt at Windsor, Which shows we are gipsies of no common kind, Sir." Burton, A. M. ii. 2, 3, commends the delightful prospect to be seen from "Bever c."




(now the LAGO Di GARDA). The largest of the Italian lakes, at the foot of the Alps. It runs almost N. and S., and is about 35 m. long: its S. extremity is abt. 15 m. W. of Verona. The Mincius issues from its S.E. corner. Pliny says that numberless eels were caught at the outlet of the Mincius in October. In Nabbes' Microcosmus iii., Sensuality mentions "eels of B." amongst other dainties for the table. Fynes Moryson, in Itinerary i. 2, 1177 (1595), says, "The lake B. is much commended for the store of good carps and other good fish." Coryat, in Crudities (1611) 333, says of Lake B., "It aboundeth with fish, especially carps, trouts, and eels."




A city in Italy, abt. 95 m. S.E. of Rome, near the junction of the Calore and Sabbato. In Ford's Sacrifice i. 2, d'Avolos informs the D. of Pavia that Roseilli has "departed towards B., determining to pass to Seville."


One of the great provinces of India, including the lower valleys of the Ganges and Brahmapootra. The capital is Calcutta. Marco Polo (1298) has the form Bangala; other variants are Bemgala (Vasco da Gama) and Bengala. In B. & F. Women Pleased i. 2, Lopez, counting up his wealth, says, "Here's rubies of Ba., rich, rich, glorious." Milton, P. L. ii. 638, describes a fleet "by equinoctial winds Close sailing from Ba."


The members of the tribe of Benjamin, who lived in the dist. of Palestine just N. of Judaea. From the incident recorded in Judges xix., the name came to be used for the perpetrators of unnatural offences. In Bale's Laws ii., Sodomy says, "I dwelt among the Sodomites, the B., and Midianites, and now the popish hypocrites embrace me everywhere." In Peele's Bethsabe ii. 3, David reproaches Hanon because he has "Suffered Rabbah with the Philistine To rail upon the tribe of Benjamin."


The sign of a bookseller's shop in Lond. Lust's Domin., attributed to Marlowe, was "Printed for F. K. and are to be sold by Robert Pollard at the sign of B. J. H. on the Backside of the Old Exchange. 1657." Day's B. Beggar was "Printed for R. Pollard and Tho. Dring and are to be sold at the B.J. H. behind the Exchange. 1659." T. Heywood's Fortune was published at the same place in 1655


There were 4 churches in Lond. dedicated to St. B., or Benedict, viz. This last was near to the Blackfriars Theatre and Shakespeare's house, and is probably the one intended in Tw. N. v. 1, 42: "The bells of St. B., Sir, may put you in mind: one, two, three." It was destroyed in the Gt. ]Fire and rebuilt in 1683. Here Inigo Jones was buried 1652; and Henry Fielding, the novelist, married in 1747. It is now devoted to Welsh services.


There are several Huissens in the Low Countries. Probably the one intended here is Huysse, a vill. in Belgium, 12 m. S.W. of Ghent. It is an ancient place, dating back to Roman times. In B. & F. Beggar's, one of the characters is Arnold of B.


The capital of the province of same name in N. Italy. It lies between the Brembo and the Serio 39 m. N.E. of Milan and 120 W. of Padua. "Thy father! O villain! he is a sail-maker in B," says Vincentio to Tranio (Shrew, v. 1, 81). The Bergamask dance (M.N.D. v. 1, 360) was a rustic dance of the people of this province, from which came also the Harlequin of the popular Italian comedy. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. A. i. 3, the D. says, "B. doth stand in a most wholesome air; sweet walks; there's deer. In, girl, and prepare this night to ride to B." Nash, in Almond for Parrat, ded., says, "Taking B. in my way homeward it was my hap to light in fellowship with that famous Francatipp's Harlicken." In Tarlton's News from Purgatory we have the story of the Vicar of B., who sits with a coal in his mouth for playing the same trick with his relics which is told in Boccaccio (Decam. vi. 10). In Cockayne's Trapolin ii. 3, Horatio calls it "subtle B., most highly honoured for near relation to Torquato Tasso." Tasso's father was born at B., and a statue of the poet stands in the great square.


Town in Holland, 15 m. N. of Antwerp, on the Zoom. It has an old castle which broadens from the base upwards. It was besieged by the D. of Parma in 1588, and again by Spinola in 1622: both generals being unsuccessful in taking the town. Jonson, in Underwoods 62, says that the Lond. train-bands acted "the B. siege and taking in Bredau "in such a lifelike way that it would have made Spinola blush. In Shirley's Bird iv. 1, Bonamico, showing his birds, says, "This was the pigeon was so shrewdly handled for carrying letters at the siege of B." In Beguiled, Cricket speaks of "an honest Dutch cobbler that will sing, I will not more to Burgaine go."–Barnavelt's son says, "My government of Barghen is disposed of" (Barnavelt iii. 1). He was removed by Prince Maurice. In T. Heywood's Challenge ii. 1, the Clown says, "If ever you come to B., see you make it wisely." Here "B." is a pun on "bargain."


Used for Tilbury in Dekker's Babylon. Titania (Elizabeth) says, "Over that camp at Beria we create you, Florimell, Lieut.-General."


(Ba. = Barkley). Mkt. town in Gloucestersh., 113 m. W. of Lond. The old castle is still in a fair state of preservation, and an underground dungeon is shown in which tradition reports that Edward II was murdered. The name is pronounced Ba, and it is so spelt in the old editions of Shakespeare. York arranges to meet the K.'s supporters there (R2 ii. 2, 119); "Gentlemen, go, muster up your men, And meet me presently at Ba. Castle." Bolingbroke marches thither from Ravenspur–"How far is it, my lord, to Barkly now?" asks he (R2 ii. 3, 1); and Northumberland repeats the question (ii. 3, 33). When we remember Edward IIs murder there, Bollingbroke's words have a sinister significance. In H4 A. i. 3, 249, he reminds Hotspur that it was at "Ba. Castle "that he first bowed his knee to Bolingbroke; though, in R2 ii. 3, the interview referred to takes place before Bolingbroke has reached Ba. "My lord of Ba." is with York at the castle, and comes as his envoy to Bolingbroke R2 ii. 3, 55, 68). This was Thomas, 5th Baron Ba., who died 1417. The title was raised to an earldom in 1679, and still continues in the B. family. The B. who appears in R3 as one of the attendants on Q. Anne was probably one of the sons of James' 6th Baron B. For the death of Edward II at B. see Marlowe's Ed. II v. 5.


Ancient Saxon town in Herts., 26 m. N.W. of Lond. It had an ancient castle, out of the ruins of which the present mansion house was partly erected. Chester says, "This Doncaster seized on a beauteous Nun at Berkhamstead" (Death Huntington i. 2).


A county of England W. of Oxfordshire. In Abington i. 2, Coomes promises, "There shall not be a servingman in Barkshire fight better for ye than I will do"; where the spelling indicates the usual pronunciation. In Middleton's Quarrel v. 1, Chough says he could have had a mistress "at Maidenhead in B.; and did I come in by Maidenhead to go out by Staines?" Maidenhead is N.E. B.: Staines is just over the border of Middlesex. The point of the poor jest needs no explanation. In Trag. Richd. II. iv. 1, 207, the K. allots "Barkeshire "and other counties to his favourite Bagot.




(Bu.=Bermudas). A group of about 300 islands, large and small, in the N. Atlantic, 530 m. E. of Cape Hatteras. Heylyn says (p. 807), "The Bu. are called also Summer Islands, because Sir Thomas Summers gave us a more exact relation of them than before had beene. They received their first name from one John Barmudaz, who first gave us notice of them."They are still a possession of the English Crown. The spelling varies: Heywood, Traveller ii. 2, has B.; Fletcher, Women Pleased i. 1, Burmoothes; Stow, in his Annals, says, "Sommers . . . judged it should be that dreadfull coast of the Bermodes, which Ilands were . . . supposed to bee enchanted and inhabited with witches and devills, which grew by reason of accustomed monstrous thunder, storme and tempest, neere unto those Ilands." The climate is very humid and the dews are heavy. In Temp. i. 2, 229, Ariel tells how he was sent by Prospero "to fetch dew From the still-vexed B."It seems certain that Shakespeare had read Silvester Jourdan's Discovery of the Barmudas, otherwise called the Ile of Divels (1610), in which there is an account of the wreck of Sir George Somers there. He got from it many of the details of the wreck of the K. of Naples; though the enchanted island of the Temp. is evidently in the Mediterranean, as far as it has any local habitation, for the K. is wrecked there on a voyage from Tunis to Naples; and Sycorax was brought thither from Argier. The reputation of the Bu. as witch- and devil-ridden islands died hard. In Field's Amends iii. 4, Fee-Simple, finding himself amongst a crowd of bullies and sharpers, says, "I had as lieve be at Bermuthoes"; and wishes that like other travellers he had insured his life. In Massinger's Dowry ii. 1, a creditor wishes that his defaulting debtors were at the Bu. In T. Heywood's Traveller ii. 2, Reignald, being asked "whence is your ship from the B.?" replies–"Worse; I think from hell." In B. & F. Women Pleased i. 2, Penurio talks of buying an egg-shell "to victual out a witch for the Bermoothees." In Alimony iii. 51 the Watchman says, "Be these the spirits that allure your children with spice and so convey them to th' Bu.?" In Dekker's If it be 341, Lurchal calls the Bu. "the island of hogs and devils." In Middleton's Quiet Life v., Camlet says, "The place I speak of has been kept with thunder, With frightful lightenings, amazing noises; But now, the enchantment broke, 'tis the land of peace, Where hogs and tobacco yield fair increase . . . Gentlemen, fare you well; I am for the Bu." They were felt to be a very long way from England. "I would sooner swim to the B.," says Bosola in Webster's Malfi iii. 2, "On two politicians' rotten bladders, than depend on so changeable a prince's favour." A debtor of Meercraft's, in Jonson's Devil iii. 1, has "run away to the Bu." In Brome's Northern i. 1, Tridewell advises Luckless, who is pro Posing to get married, "You were better venture yourself and fortune to the Bu." Dekker, in Bankroutes Banquet (1613), speaks of "the Iland of the Bu. haunted as all men know with hogs and hobgoblins." In Webster's Law Case iii. 2, Romelio says that a stiletto is "an engine that's only fit to put in execution Barmotho pigs.

Donne, in the Storm (1633), says, "Compared to these storms . . . the Bu. [are] calm." Still, the Bu. were beginning to be looked upon as possible places for successful trading. In Trade's Increase (1615), the author says, "I cannot find any other worthy place of foreign anchorage; for the Bu., we know not yet what they will do." In Davenant's Platonic v. 2, Fredeline says, "You shall to the Bu., fiend, and there plant cotton." In Wise Men i. 1, Proberio describes a traveller who gains credit by a tale "that a fisher-man sailing by the B. saw a fire at singeing of a hog." Tobacco was imported thence. In Clitus Whimz we have: "Being furnished with tinder, match, and a portion of decayed Bermoodas, they smoke it most terribly." In Underwit i. 1, the Sergeant requires "20 pipes of Barmudas a day." In iv. 2, Thomas says, "Will you take tobacco in the roll? here is a whole ship-loading of Bu." "In the roll "means in the shape of cigars.

The word was used as a slang term for the haunts of the Lond. bullies and loafers. These pirates here at land "have their Bu. and their Streights i' the Strand," says Jonson, in his Epistle to Sackville; and again, in Barthol. ii. 1, "Look into any angle of the town, the Streights or the Bu., where the quarrelling lesson is read, and how do they entertain the time but with bottle-ale and tobacco?" and in his Devil ii. 1, Meercraft asks, "When did you see my cousin Everhill? keeps he still your quarter in the Bu.?" The dist. meant is the lanes N. of the Strand, near Covent Garden.


The most populous of the cantons of Switzerland. It only attained its independence after long wars with the Hapsburgs, which ended is the glorious victory of Laupen in 1339. In Bale's Johan 182, Sedition says, "The Pope's ambassador am I continually in Pole, Spruse and B., in Denmark and Lombardy."


A valley in S. Yorks., 6 m. N. of Doncaster: the home of Robin Hood. In Wyntoun's Scottish Chronicler, "Lytel Jhon and Robyne Hude "are mentioned as residing in "Yngilwode and Barnysdale." In the 8th fytte of the Lytell Geste of Robyn Hode we are told that Robin, after being at court 15 months, journeyed home to "B." In the Ballad of Guy of Gisborne Robin says, "I am Robin Hood of Barnesdale." In Elements, Ignorance sings a ballad beginning: "Robin Hood in Barnsdale stood."


(i.e. BURY). An old town in Lancs., 9 m. N. of Manchester. The manor belonged to the De Lacies, and there was an old castle on what is still called Castle Croft. In B. & F. Pestle iv. 5, one of Merrythought's songs begins, "For Jillian of B., she dwells Dn a hill, And she hath good beer and ale to sell." The ballad has not been discovered: the reference may be to Bury St. Edmund's, or possibly the well-known Gilian of Brentford may be meant, though this is not likely.


A province in the centre of France, S. of the Loire. The capital, Bourges, is 115 m. S. of Paris. The D. of B. is mentioned as present at Agincourt (H5 ii. 4, 4; iii. 5, 41). He was the, brother of the late K. Charles V, and along with the Ds. of Anjou and Burgundy was appointed a guardian of Charles VI. In the subsequent struggle between the Orleanists and the Armagnacs he was one of the chief leaders of the latter party. It was he who persuaded the young K. not to risk his person by going to the battle of Agincourt.




A town at the mouth of the Tweed, on the boundary between England and Scotland, 300 m. N. of Lond. It constitutes a "county in itself," and used to be separately mentioned as a part of Gt. Britain, which includes England, Scotland, Wales, and B.-on-Tweed. It is one of the few remaining walled towns in the British Isles. Simpson, the hero of the miracle at St. Albans (H6 B. ii. 1), was born "at B. in the N."; and he and his wife are ordered by Gloucester to be whipped through every market town till they come to B., whence they came (ii. 1), 160). After the battle of Towton, Margaret urges Henry, "Mount you, my lord; towards B. post amain" (H6 C. ii. 5, 128). As a reward for the protection afforded him on this occasion, Henry ceded B. to the Scots, but it was finally recovered by England in 1482. In Peele's Ed. I xiii., news is brought to Edward of Balliol's rebellion: "Balliol, my k., in B. makes his court"; to which Edward answers, "False Balliol! Barwick is no hold of proof To shroud thee from the strength of Edward's arm." This was in 1295, and Edward took B. in 3 days. In Ed. III i. 1, Mountague brings word that the treacherous K. [of Scotland] has "made invasion on the bordering towns; Barwicke is won, Newcastle spoiled and lost." This was in 1333, when David Bruce was K. of Scotland: Balliol had been driven from Scotland and the Regent Archibald Douglas had seized B. Balliol, with the assistance of the English, besieged and took the town after defeating the Regent at Halidon Hill. In Ford's Warbeck iv. 1, the story is told how, in the border war of 1497, James of Scotland proposed a single combat to the Earl of Surrey on condition that, if James were victorious, Surrey should "deliver for his ransom the town of B. to him with the fishgarths." Surrey's answer to the challenge is "B. is none of mine to part with." In Sampson's Vow v. 1, 1411, Grey says, "Our soldiers instantly shall march to Barwicke." This was in 1560.

In Jonson's Volpone ii. 1, Sir Politick mentions, amongst other prodigies, "the fires at B.!" In Underwit i. 1, Thomas says, "Considering the league of Barwick, we may find some of these things in the N.," i.e. swords, books on tactics, etc. The reference is to the Pacification of B. June 1639. In Jonson's Voyage, he speaks of "him that backward went to B.; or which did dance the famous morris unto Norwich." W. Rowley, in Search intro., mentions "the fellow's going backward to Barwick." In Respublica v. 6, Avarice tells Respublica if she would have trusted him, "Then would I have stretched the county of Warwick upon tenter hooks and made it reach to B." Peacham, in Verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), mentions, in a list of objects of popular interest, "roaring Marget a Barwicke." She was evidently one of the notorious characters, like Moll Cutpurse ("The Roaring Girl ") and Long Meg of Westminster, who attracted much attention in Lond. at this time.


(the ancient VESONTIO). A city of France, 45 m. E. of Dijon, on the Doubs. It was the capital of Franche-Comté. It became a Free City of the German Empire in the 12th cent., and by the Treaty of Westphalia it was handed over to Spain. In 1660 it was taken by Louis XIV, and has since belonged to France. The Cathedral of St. jean dates from the 11th cent. In Wilson's Inconstant ii. 3, we are told that Cloris dwells "at B." In v. 3, the D. of Burgundy tells how he had a child who died "Going from Chalon Castle to B."


A misprint for BRESCIA, q.v.




A vill. on the r. Jordan, in Palestine, 13 m. S. of its exit from the Sea of Galilee. It is stated in the received text of John i. 28 to have been, the scene of the ministry of John the Baptist; but the correct reading is Bethany: not, of course, the well-known Bethany near Jerusalem, but an obscure village in Peraea. Milton, P.R. i. 184, says that the Son of God" yet some days Lodged in B. where John baptized." In ii. 20, he describes the disciples as searching for Jesus in each place "nigh to B.," viz. Jericho, AEnon, Salem, and Machaerus. He evidently accepted the tradition that B. was at the fords of the Jordan, near Jericho–which is impossible, as it is clear from John ii. 1 that it was only a day's journey from Cana of Galilee.


A town in Palestine, 10 m. due N. of Jerusalem, now Beitin. Its original name was Lux; but it was renamed B. (i.e. House of God) by Jacob after his vision there of the ladder reaching from earth to heaven. It became a great national sanctuary and the Ark was kept there for a long time. After the secession of the N. tribes Jeroboam made it the central sanctuary of his kingdom; and set up there a golden calf as a symbol of the God of Israel, a second one being placed at Dan, in the N. Milton, P. L. i. 485, says, "The rebel k. Doubled that sin in B. and in Dan, Likening his maker to the grazed ox." In P. R. iii. 431, our Lord speaks of the Israelites having recourse "to their gods perhaps Of B. and of Dan."


An intermittent spring near the sheepgate, or sheep market, at Jerusalem, mentioned in John v. 2 as having healing qualities. It has been most probably identified with the Virgin's Pool at the foot of Ophel, S.E. of the Temple Hill. Herrick, in his verses To the King, to Cure the Evil, says, "To find B., and an angel there, Stirring the waters, I am come." The statement in St. John's Gospel about the descent of the angel is not part of the original text; but it doubtless represents the popular idea about the cause of the bubbling of the spring.


(BETHLEM or BEDLAM; originally B.–EPHRATAH). A vill. in Palestine, where our Lord was born. It was also the family home of David. The Ch. of the Nativity, built over the cavern which is the traditional birthplace of our Lord, is the oldest Christian ch. still in use. In Calisto, Haz. i. 64, Calisto tells how God "guided the 3 Ks. into Bedlem from the E. by the star" (see Mat. ii.). B. is the scene of the mystery plays of the nativity of Christ. In Towneley M. P., Secunda Pastorum 654, the angel bids the shepherds, "At Bedlem go see, There lygys that fre In a crib fulle poorely Betwyx two bestys." In Candlemas, p. 14, the angel says, "K. Herod . . . Commanded hath through Bedlem city . . . To slay all the children that be in that country." In York M. P. xiii. 280, the Angel says to Joseph, "Wend forth to Marie thy wife always Bring her to Bedlem this ilke night, There shall a child born be." Milton, P. R. i. 243, says, "At thy nativity a glorious choir Of angels in the fields of B. sung." In ii. 78, he tells how Herod "filled With infant blood the streets of B." In iv. 505, Satan recalls "the angelic song in B. field." In Nativity Ode 223, it is said of Osiris, "The rays of B. blind his dusky eyn." See also BEDLAM.


(or BEDNALL GREEN). A dist. in the E. end of Lond., bounded roughly by Shoreditch, Hackney Rd., Victoria Park, and Whitechapel Rd. It was a poor dist. inhabited chiefly by silk-weavers. The G. itself was on the E. of Cambridge Rd., where the Museum now stands. The house of the Blind Beggar, famed in ballad, was called Kirby's Castle, and was actually built in the reign of Elizabeth by John Kirby, a rich Londoner. It ultimately became a lunatic asylum. Bp. Bonner had his house about 1/4 m. E. of the G. In Webster's Cuckold ii. 3, Compass's wife tells him that his boy "is nursed at Bednall G." In Chaunticleers iii., Ditty, the Ballad-man, says, "I have the Beggar of Bethnal G." Day's B. Beggar is a dramatic version of the story of the Ballad with considerable difference. In the ballad, which may be found in Percy's Reliques ii. 2, the beggar is Henry, son of Sir Simon de Montfort, who is rescued after the battle of Evesham by a maiden, whom he married; and he takes the disguise of a blind beggar to escape the k.'s vengeance. In the play the beggar is Momford, who is falsely charged with the surrender of Guynes in the French Wars of Henry VIs reign, and so assumes the disguise.


A town in Artois, on the Brette, 120 m. N. of Paris, and a fortress of considerable strength. In Chapman's Consp. Byron, v. 1, Byron claims to have peopled B. with the issue of his victories in the war with the League.




A town in E. Riding, Yorks., 27 m. S.E. of York. The Minster is one of the finest in England. Corpus Christi Plays were performed at B. as early as 1377, and plays were produced by the boys of the Grammar School during the 16th cent. In Old Meg, p. 1, we read: "Never could B. Fair give money to a more sound taborer "than Hall, of Hereford.


(i.e. BEAULIEU). A small vill. in Hants., 7 m. S.W. of Southampton. It grew up round a Cistercian monastery, founded by K. John in 1204, of which the gateway still remains. Here Perkin Warbeck took sanctuary after his failure to take Exeter in 1499. In Ford's Warbeck v. 2, Dawbeney tells the K. that he has taken Warbeck "From sanctuary At B., near Southampton."


The sign of Robert Bird's bookshop in Cheapside, where the 1631 edn. of the Booke of Merrie Riddles was published. There was also a B. in Giltspur St. Alimony was "Printed by Tho. Vere and William Gilbertson and are to be sold at the B. in Giltspur-st. 1659." There was yet another in Chancery Lane. T. Heywood's Hogsdon was "Printed by M. P. for Henry Shephard and are to be sold at his shop in Chancerie-lane at the sign of the B. 1638."


(Bo. = Bilbo). A town in Spain, the capital of the province of Biscaya, 10 m. from the mouth of the Ansa. It was famous for the manufacture of swords of the finest temper. The swords themselves were called Bilbos, and the name was transferred to their wearers, and came to mean a swaggering soldier. In M.W.W. iii. 5, 112, Falstaff describes his position in the buckbasket: "to be compassed like a good bo., in the circumference of a peck, hilt to point, heel to head." This was the test of a good blade. In the same play (i. 1, 165), Pistol challenges Slender as "this latten bo.," i.e. a sword made of base metal. Jonson, in Vulcan, wishes that Vulcan "had maintained the trade at Bilboa or elsewhere," instead of setting cities on fire. In B. & F. Prize ii. 2, Bianca speaks of her suitor as "such a Bilboa blade that bends, with every pass he makes, to the hilts." In Ford's Trial ii. 1, Guzman says to Futelli, "Speaks thy weapon Toledo Language, Bilboa, or dull Pisa?" In B. & F. Wild Goose iii. 1, Mirabel deplores that "this bilbolord "shall have his lady-love. In their King v. 3, Bacurius says to Bessus, "You are much bound to your Bo.-men," i.e. to the sword-men who have been teaching him the code of honour. Jonson, in his prol. to Brome's Northern, says, "An honest Bo.-smith would make good blades." In Look about, sc. 29, Gloster says, "Off, gown; hold, Buckler; slice it, Bo.-blade." In Davenant's Plymouth iii. 1, Seawit speaks of the dashing lady Carrack as "a brave amazon, one that loves Bb. men," i.e. fighting fellows. In Lady Mother iii. 2, Suckett says, "My blade is of the Bo. mettle; at its splendour my foes do vanish." In Ford's Queen iii., Mopas, drawing his sword, cries: "Bo., come forth and show thy foxes tail"; (fox means a sword). In T. Heywood's Witches v., the Soldier says, "Yet have I kept my face whole, thanks to my scimitar, my trusty Bo." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. ii. 1, Jarvis says, "Lay me out of the way like a rusty bilboe." In Hain. v. 2, "Methought I lay Worse than the mutinies in the bilboes," it means fetters. But it is doubtful whether in this sense the word has any connection with Bilbao. See O.E.D. s.v. BILBO (2).


(= BILEDULGERID, the land of dates). A dist. of N. Africa, on the S. of the Atlas Range, between Fez and Cape Bon. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 3, Techelles tells Tamburlaine, "From strong Tesella unto B. All Barbary is unpeopled for thy sake." Heylyn (s.v. NUMIDIA) says, "The country aboundeth with dates, whence it is called Dactylorum Regio, and in the Arabicke Biledulgerid, which signifieth also a Date region."


The principal of the old water-gates of Lond., on the N. side of the Thames, E. of Lond. Bdge., between it and the Custom House. Geoffrey of Monmouth derives the name from Belin, an ancient British k.; but Stow more probably connects it with one Biling, who formerly owned the wharf. Stow describes it as "a large watergate, port, or harborough for ships and boats, commonly arriving there with fish, both fresh and salt, shell-fishes, salt, oranges, onions, and other fruits and roots, wheat, rye, and grain of divers sorts, for service of the city and the parts of this realm adjoining." It gave its name to the B. Ward. George Sanders and his wife, the principal characters in Fair Women, lived here: "in all B. Ward not a kinder couple" (i. 1). It was a usual landing-place for travellers from abroad or from the lower reaches of the Thames. Sanders, in the same play, coming back from Greenwich, is expected to land at B. (ii. 2). In Feversham iii. 3, Arden, going back from Lond. to Feversham, directs his servant, "Sirra, get you back to Billensgate and learn what time the tide will serve our turn." In Davenant's Wits i. 1, Meager, just come from Holland, has to "unship his trunks at B."

In H4 B. ii. 1, 182, Qq. read, "Where lay the K. last night?"–"At B., my Lord." The Ff. have "Basingstoke," which is undoubtedly the right reading. In Fam. Vict., A3, Lawrence, the costermonger, says, "We will watch here at B. Ward," sc., for someone to rob. In Contention, Pt. I, Haz. p. 503, when Robin reports that Lond. Bdge. is on fire, Cade bids him run "to B. and fetch pitch and flax and squench it." In S. Rowley's When You B. 1, Summers says that certain news from Rome "was at B. by Saturday morning and it came up on a spring tide." In B. & F. Hon. Man v. 3, Montague, railing at Capt. la Poop, tells him, "I shall see you serve in a lousy lime-boat for mouldy cheese and butter B. would not endure." Dekker, in News from Hell, makes the devil's post ride down "to B., for he meant, when the tide served, to angle for souls": where there is a pun with "soles." Like all waterside places, it was well provided with taverns. In Penn. Parl. it is provided "that the salmon shall be better sold in Fish-St. than the beer shall be at B." In Jack Drum iv. 229, Old Brabant goes out with his boy to get some wine, and says, "Boy, go with me to B." Amongst the inns were the Salutation, mentioned in News Barthol. Fair, and the Blue Anchor, to which Sir Petronel Flash (Westward iii. 1) invites his friends; "Meet me at the Blue Anchor tavern by B. this evening." Sc. III is accordingly at this tavern and Seagul exhorts the drawer, "Let's have cheer not fit for your B. tavern but for our Virginian Colonel." This last is represented still by the Blue Anchor tavern 26 St. Marys-at-Hill. In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Iniquity promises Pug to bring him "to the bawds and the roysters at B. feasting with claret wine and oysters."

A barge plied daily between B. and Gravesend: the fare was twopence. In pref. to Cobler of Canterbury (1590), it is said to contain tales "told in the barge between B. and Gravesend." Deloney, in Craft (1597) ii. 14, tells how John's wife, "being newly come from the Barge at B., and at that time going toward St. Katherines," found her husband at the Abbey of Grace, E. of Tower Hill. In Dekker's Westward i. 1, Justiniano speaks of women "as stale as wenches that travel every second tide between Gravesend and B." B. was, and is, the great fishmarket for Lond., though other things were also sold there. Nash, in Prognostication, says, "There shall be much stinking fish this year at B." In Deloney's Craft ii. 9, a servant is sent to fetch "a bushel of oysters from B." In Three Lords (Dods. vi. 501), Simplicity says of Fraud, "the very oystermen [will miss him] to mingle their oysters at B." In Glapthorne's Wit v. 1, Mendwell tells a fishing yam: "an oyster-wife, a good old woman, heard it at B. and told my wife on't." In Penn. Parl., it is enacted that "St. Thomas's onions shall be sold by the rope at B." The noise of the market and the shrill scolding of the fishwives were proverbial. In Jonson's Epicoene iv. 2, Morose, in order to get rid of his wife, will do penance "at Lond. Bdge., Paris Garden, B., when the noises are at their height and loudest." In Davenant's Rutland, p. 217, the Parisian says sarcastically, "1 am loth to disturb the civil silence of B., which is so great as if the mariners were always landing to storm the harbour." In Alimony i. 1, Trillo says, "Divorces are now as common as scolding at B." In Leir, Haz. p. 503, the Messenger says, "I have as bad a tongue, if it be set on it, as any oysterwife at B. hath." In Brome's New Academy iv. 2, when Gabriella abuses her son, Lady Nestecock cries: "She come over my heir apparent with such B. compliment!" In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian.] iv. 6, Puny says, "She rails at me like a flounder-mouthed fish-woman with a face like B." The Boss of B. is the title of a play, based on an old ballad. The Boss, or drinking-fountain, was in BOSS ALLEY, q.v.


Mkt. town in Notts., 118 m. N.W. of Lond. In Downfall Huntington v. 1, Warman says of his son-in-law, "His house at B. I bestowed on him."


In Oldcastle iv. 1, Sir John mentions B. W. as one of the "hills, heaths, and woods "in Kent which pay him tithe. Probably Bircholt, which lies in E. Kent near Ashford, is the place intended.


St. in Lond., running N. from Lombard St. to Cornhill. According to Stow, it was originally Birchover L., so-called from its first builder and owner, but this is an error. It was occupied chiefly by drapers and second-hand clothes dealers. In Nobody 440, the Clown says, "Come into B. L., they'll give Nobody a suit." In Prodigal i. 1, young Flowerdale tells his disguised father, "Go into B.-L., put thyself into clothes." Dekker, in Hornbook 1, says, "Did man come wrangling into the world about no better matters than all his lifetime to make privy searches in B. L. for whalebone doublets?" In Overbury's Characters 17, he says that a fine gentleman buys his behaviour at Court, "as countrymen their clothes in B. L." In T. Heywood's Royal King i. Cock and Corporal enter ragged; and Cock says, "It had not been amiss if we had gone first to Burchen L. to have suited us." In Middleton's Quiet Life v. 1, young Franklin confesses that he owes for "fourscore pair of provant breeches to Punchbuttock, a hosier in B. L." In Middleton's Black Book, p. 29, we read, "Passing through B. L. amidst a camproyal of hose and doublets, away they ran like Irish lackeys." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 11, Chub says, "B. L. shall suit us, the costermongers fruit us." In his Royal King iii., the Clown says, "Though we have the law on our sides, we may walk through Burchin-l. and be non-suited." Dekker, in Wonderful Year, says that through fear of the Plague, "if one new suit of sackcloth had been but known to have come out of Burchin-l. (being the common wardrobe for all their clownships) it had been enough to make a market-town give up the ghost." In Deloney's Newberie ix., Jack relieves a poor man and "provided him out of Burchin-l. a fair suit of apparel." To send a boy to B. L. meant, according to Ascham, Schoolmaster 69, to order him to be whipped.


City in N. Warwicksh., 102 m. N.W. of Lond. The original form of the name seems to have been Beormingsham. Metathesis of the "r" soon occurred, and such forms as Bromicham are constantly found, and are represented by the modem vulgar pro pronunciation Brummagem. No fewer than 140 variant spellings are enumerated. It was an inconsiderable town till the middle of the 17th cent., when it began the rapid growth which has brought its population up to over a million. In Mater's charm for worms in Thersites (A. P. i. 219), she invokes "the butterfly of Bromwicham that was born blind." No explanation is necessary, for the whole charm is a farrago of nonsense, mostly alliterative.


A wood on a hill on the right bank of the Tay, opposite Dunkeld, in Perthsh., abt. 12 in. from Dunsinane. The 3rd apparition in Mac. iv. 1, 93 pro promises, "Macbeth shall never vanquished be until Great B. w. to high Dunsinane hill Shall come against him." In v. 2, Menteith and the rest march towards B. to meet Siward and Macduff; is v. 4, they meet in the country near B. W., and Malcolm orders every soldier to hew him." down a bough and bear 't before him. In v. 5, the watchman brings word, "I looked toward B., and anon, methought, The wood began to move." But Macbeth will not yield, "Though B. w. be come to Dunsinane" (v. 8, 30). The story is taken from Holinshed.


Town in the middle of Guienne, between the Lot and the Dordogne, some 300 m. S. of Paris. The name of Lord B., or Berowne, in L.L.L. was no doubt suggested by that of Armand de B. and his son, Charles de B., who were both closely connected with Henry of Navarre. The latter is the hero of Chapman's Consp. Byron and Trag. Byron.


The chief of the Basque provinces, in N. Spain, on the Bay of B. Hycke, p. 88, boasts to have travelled in "Brytayne, Byske, and also in Gascoyne." Antonio, in Massinger's Very Woman iv. 3, pretends to be a Biscan who has been captured by the Turkish pirates and reduced to slavery. Thwack, in Davenant's Wits iii. whilst dressing himself, exclaims, "O for the Bn. sleeve and Bulloign hose I wore when I was sheriff in '88." In Davenant's Plymouth i. 1, Cable says there are no women in Plymouth, "but a few matrons of B. that the Spaniards left here in '88," i.e. 1588, the year of the Spanish Armada. In Nash's Saffron Walden I. 1, Biscanism (i.e. the Basque language) is spoken of as "the most barbarous Spanish." The people were regarded as rough and quarrelsome. In Davenant's Distresses v. 1, Androlio speaks of Basilonte, who is really a gentleman of Cordova, as "this choleric Biscayner." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 335, Ricaldus enumerates "14 great ships of Biskey, of Castile," is the Gt. Armada. In W. Rowley's All's Lost v. 4, after the defeat of Rodorigue by the Moors near Seville, Piamentelli advises him to flee "to Biscany; there you may find new friends." In Antonie iv. 1777, the Chorus speaks of "The Biscaines martial might "amongst the ancient enemies of Rome.




One of the old gates in N.E. Lond., between Aldgate and Aldersgate. It was, rebuilt in 1479. The Bp. of Lond. had one stick from every cartload of wood brought in through this gate: hence its name. B. St. Within runs N. from the junction of Cornhill and Leadenhall St. to the point where the old gate stood; beyond that it becomes B. St. Without. It partially escaped the Gt. Fire., and several old buildings survived, notably Crosby Hall and St. Helen's Ch. The scene of Rowley's Match Mid. is in this neighbourhood; Mary Bloodhound lived in Houndsditch, near Aldgate and B. (iv. 1); and a little later on Moll and Randall, meeting in the dark at the point where Cornhill, Leadenhall St., and B. meet, are disturbed by the watch coming up Gracechurch St., and dodge away down Cornhill and round the Exchange. Then the ancient who "escaped the watch at B. with ease "meets Moll turning down the Ch. corner towards the Exchange. In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 2, Frisco says of Vandal, "He looks like the sign of the Mouth without B., gaping; and a great face and a great head, and no body." In Dekker's Satiro. iii. 1, 245, Tucca says, "I'll dam thee up, my wide mouth at B." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 270, John says, "Once in a year a man might find you quartered betwixt the Mouth at B. and the preachingplace in the Spittle" (see MOUTH).

In Dekker's Northward iv. 3, Bellamont says, "Stay, yonder's the Dolphin without Bishop's Gate, where our horses are at rack and manger." The Dolphin was just outside B., near the end of Houndsditch. In Day's B. Beggar iii., Canoy says, "There's an odd fellow snuffles i' the nose, that shows a motion [i.e. a puppetshow] about B., we'll get to his lodging." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 14, the Messenger reports that the rebels are coming from Essexward: "therefore 'tis his mind You guard both Aldgate well and B." On p. 57 the Lord Mayor says, "In memory of me, John Crosbie, in B. St. a poor house I built and as my name have called it Crosbie House" (see CROSBY HOUSE). Gresham lived in B. in a mansion built by him in 1563. It stood on the W. side of the st., and the gardens extended to Broad St. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 297, a Lord says, "It is our way to B. to Master Gresham's house." Dekker, in Seven. Sins, makes Sloth enter the city with "a most sleepy and stiff triumph at B." In Deloney's Craft ii. 5, the Dr. says, "He rode with me out of B. forth right as far as Ware."


Apparently Bp. Bonner's house, abt. 1 m. E. of Bethnall Green, is intended. In Webster's Cuckold iv. 1, Compass says to his wife, "Then will we meet again in the pease-field by B. H."


Stood at the N.W. corner of the precinct of St. Paul's. In True Tragedy the messenger informs the Q. that her son "remains at Lond. in the B. P." Milton, in Areopagitica (1644), p. 12 (Hales), pours scorn on "a lordly Imprimatur . . . from the W. end of Pauls."




Province in N.W. Asia Minor, on the Propontis and the Black Sea. After the defeat of Zama, Hannibal took refuge with Antiochus the Gt, and after his defeat at Magnesia went to the court of Prusias of B., where, suspecting treachery on the part of the K., he poisoned himself about 183 B.C. In Nabbes' Hannibal iv. 5, Lelius says of Hannibal, "He is fled unto Antiochus, or else to Prusias of Bythinia." Act V takes place in "Bythinia," and Hannibal's death forms its climax. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iii. 3, Tamburlaine expresses his intention of meeting the Turkish forces in B.; and in B. i. 1, Orcanes reckons the Bns. amongst the tribes who are under his command. Scenes 2 and 3, Act III, of Massinger's Believe are laid is the Court of Prusias, K. of B., about 190 B.C. The play was really intended to tell the story of the pseudo-Sebastian who personated the Sebastian of Portugal killed at the battle of Alcazar.




A spt. in Tunis, the most N. port in Africa. In Davenport's Nightcap ii. 3, Lorenzo refers to "the fight betwixt B. gallies and your Grace," i.e. the D. of Verona. The pirates of Tunis and Algiers infested the Mediterranean during the 16th cent., and there were many fights between them and the ships of the Italian states. Milton, P. L. i. 585, speaks of the troops "whom Biserta sent from Afric shore When Charlemain with all his peerage fell By Fontarabbia." The reference is to a passage in Orlando Innamorato ii., in which Agramant, K. of Africa, is said to have assembled his troops at B. for the invasion of Charlemagne's empire.


Used for any dark-skinned native of Africa, but mostly in the dramatists for a Moor of Barbary, i.e. N. Africa, though it is also employed for a negro. Boorde, in Intro. for Knowledge (1547) 212, makes a N. African say, "I am a black More born in Barbary." In Troil. i. 1, 80, Pandarus says, "I care not, an she were a black-a-moor; 'tis all bad to me." Sidney, in Arcadia (1580) 36, speaks of "a black-a-Moore boy." T. Heywood, m Maid of West, speaks of the K. of Fez as "the black a Morrian k." In B. & F. Malta i. 1, Mountferrat calls the Moor Zanthia "the b. that waits upon her," i.e. Oriana. In i. 2, a gentlewoman calls her, "My little labour in vain," alluding to the proverb that it is labour in vain to try to wash a B. white. There is a public-house in Melbourne called the Labour in Vain, which in the early days of the Colony had for its sign a B. in a tub of water. In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] iv. 6, Puny says that the Guinea merchant "is dead long since and gone to the blackamores below." See under MOOR.


A Lond. booksellers' sign. Bacon's Essays were "Printed for Hunfry Hooper and are to be sold at the blacke Beare in Chauncery Lane. 1597." Marlowe's Hero and Leander was "Printed by Felix Kingston for Paule Linley and are to be sold in Paules Churchyard at the sign of the Blacke-beare. 1598."


The sign of Henry Kirkham's bookshop at the little N. door of Paul's Ch. (Title page Bacchus Bountie, 1593). There was a B. B. tavern in Southwark, which left its name in B. B. Alley, off Blackman St.


A well-known old tavern in Gray's Inn Lane, Lond., with an old galleried yard. (see BATTLE BRIDGE). Taylor, in Carriers Cosmog., mentions another B. B. in Smithfield; and another in Bishopsgate St.


An inn at Cambridge. Hall, in Satires ii. 7, 32, says, "The neck the B.-B.'s guest became." Milton, in Apol. for Smectymnuus, blames Hall for whipping "the sign posts of Cambridge ale-houses "in this passage.




The Order of the Dominicans was founded by St. Dominic in 1215, and confirmed by Honorius III in the following year. They wore a white robe with a black cloak and hood: hence their name "Black Friars." They carne to England in 1221, and had their first home in Holborn, outside the City wall; but in 1276 they were granted "2 lanes or ways next the st. of Baynard's Castle, and the tower of Montfitchet to be destroyed" (Stow). They duly destroyed the tower, and with the stones of it they built a magnificent new monastery and ch. The site was the plot of land lying N. of the present Q. Victoria St. and E. of Water Lane. The ch. lay on the N. side near to Carter Lane: S. of it were the Gt. Cloister and the Inner Cloister; to the W. of the cloisters were the Buttery and the Frater: the latter occupying the site of the present Times printing office. The monastery was seized at the time of the dissolution of the monasteries in 1538, and the ch. was pulled down. The rest of the buildings were sold by Edward VI to Sir Francis Cawarden, and converted into residential tenements which were occupied by people of the highest rank. The right of sanctuary still remained to the precinct; and it was free from the jurisdiction of the City authorities.

Richard Farrant, Master of the Windsor Chapel, wanting a place for his children to perform plays, leased the old Buttery in 1576 and converted the upper rooms into a playhouse, with an entrance from Water Lane. Here the Children of the Chapel performed from 1577 to 1584: during the latter part of the period under Lyly's direction, his Campaspe and Sapho being played by them with great applause. In 1584, however, the lease was tern-iinated and the place converted into tenements. In 1596 James Burbage purchased what had been the Frater from the then owner, Sir William More, and converted it into a private theatre, 46 ft. wide and 66 ft. long. It was entirely roofed in, had 2 galleries, and was artificially lighted. Burbage died in 1597, and left the theatre to his son Richd., the great tragedian of Shakespeare's company. By him it was let to Henry Evans to be used by the Children of the Chapel for plays; and abt. 1600 their performances began. They were very successful, as Shakespeare, Ham. ii. 2, 352, testifies. Middleton, in Hubburd, p. 77, advises the Lond. gallant to "call in at the B. where he should see a nest of boys able to ravish a man." The D. of Stettin-Pomerania in 1602 waxes quite enthusiastic about their music. Evans got into trouble for kidnapping a boy, and the company was reorganized by Edward Kirkham and secured a Royal patent in 1604. But the management was most unfortunate in its choice of plays: Daniel's Philotus in 1604, Jonson, Chapman, and Marston's Eastward is 1605, Day's Gulls in 1606, and Chapman's Byron plays in 1608 got them into serious trouble with the Court, and in 1608 the theatre was leased to Richd. Burbage and a syndicate which included Shakespeare. Burbage now ran it as a winter house, retaining the Globe for the summer performances of his company. It became so popular that the crowd of coaches and horses was a great nuisance to the neighbourhood, but the efforts to get it closed were futile, and it continued to flourish until the closing of the theatres in 1642. It was ultimately pulled down on Aug. 6, 1655, and tenements built in its room. Shakespeare bought a house some 200 yards from the theatre on the W. side of St. Andrew's Hill in 16l3, which he leased to one John Robinson. It was near what is now known as Ireland Yard.

In the preface to the 1st Folio of Shakespeare the author says, "Though you be a magistrate of wit and sit on the stage at Black-friers or the Cockpit, to arraign plays daily, know, these plays have had their trial already." In Dekker's Satiro. iv. 3, 248, Tucca says, "Thou hast arraigned two poets against all law and conscience and, not content with that, hast turned them amongst a company of horrible black fryers." The reference is to Jonson's Poetaster, with its attack on Marston and Dekker, which was played at the B. in 160.2. In Shirley's address prefixed to the Folio of B. & F.'s Plays in 1647, he says that this volume contains "the authentic wit that made B. an academy where the 3 hours' spectacle, while Beaumont and Fletcher were presented, was usually of more advantage to the hopeful young heir than a costly dangerous foreign travel." In verses by R. C., prefixed to The Queen 16, we have a reference to B., "which in this age Fell when it was a ch., not when a stage, Or that the Puritans that once dwelt there Prayed and thrived though the playhouse were so near." In Killigrew's Parson iv. 1, Jolly says, "I have got the B. music. I was fain to stay till the last act." In Cockayne's Obstinate iii. 2, Lorece says, "I at any time will carry you to a play, either to the Black Friar's or Cockpit." In the Actors' Remonstrance (1643), they say, "It is not unknown to all the audience that have frequented the private houses of Black-friars, the Cock-pit, and Salisbury Court without austerity we have purged our stages from all obscene and scurrilous jests." In Doubtful (prol.), which was produced on the Bankside, Shirley begs his audience to behave "as you were now in the Blackfryars pit." Sir Aston Cockayne, in poem prefixed to Brome's Plays (1653), prays for the time when "Black, and White Friars too, shall flourish again" (see also PORTER'S HALL). In the hall of the monastery was held the trial of the divorce case between Henry VIII and Katherine of Arragon. In H8 ii. 2, 139, the K. says, "The most convenient place that I can think of For such receipt of learning is Black-friars," and there accordingly is fixed the trial scene (ii. 4).

As has been already stated, the tenements into which the old monastery had been converted were occupied by fashionable folk. In Middleton's Michaelmas iv. 3, Thomasine says, "Inquire for one Master Easy at his old lodging 1, the B." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i., Ancient Young says, "There was a handsome widow whose husband died at sea; let me see, I am near B., I'll have one start at her." In Jonson's Alchemist i. 1, Subtle mocks Face as an "Honest, plain, livery-three-pound-thrum, that kept Your master's worship's house here in the Friers: and it is in this house, in the absence of his master Lovewit, that Subtle carries on his business as a professed alchemist. Vandyke lived here for 10 years, and the miniature painter, Isaac Oliver, was an other resident. In Jonson's Devil i. 3, FitzDottrel proposes to go "into Hyde Park and thence into B., visit the painters." In the poorer parts of the neighbourhood many Puritans lived, possibly because of the privilege of sanctuary still enjoyed by the precinct; and many of them were engaged in the business of feather-making. We read, in Jonson's Alchemist i. 1, of a Capt. "whom not a Puritan in B. will trust so much as for a feather." In Field's Amends iii. 3, the Widow inquires, "Precise and learned Princox, dost thou not go to B.?" "Most frequently, Madam," answers the disguised Bold, "unworthy vessel that I am to partake or retain any of the delicious dew that is there distilled." In Dekker's Westward v. 1, Moll says, "Let's be as fantastic and light-hearted to the eye as feather-makers, but as pure about the heart as if we dwelt amongst 'em in B." In Randolph's Muses' i. 1, Bird, the feather-man, and Mrs. Flowerdew, the wife of a haberdasher, come to the Playhouse, probably Salisbury Court, to sell their wares: they are described as "two of the sanctified fraternity of B." Bird says, "We live by B. College, and I wonder how that prophane nest of pernicious birds [sc. the actors] dare roost themselves there in the midst of us"; and Mrs. Flowerdew is surprised that the B. Theatre "'scaped demolishing i' the time of reformation." In the dispute between the Rabbi Busy and the proprietor of the puppet-show in Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, the latter argues, "What say you to your feather-makers in the Friers that are of your faction of faith? Is a bugle-maker a lawful calling? or the confect-makers, such as you have there? or your French fashioner?" In Jonson's Love Rest., Robin Goodfellow tries to get in under the disguise of "a feather-maker of B.; but they wondered how I could be a Puritan, being of so vain a vocation." In Marston's Malcontent, Ind., Sly hides his feathers in his pocket because feathers had been so satirized on the stage of the theatre that "B. hath almost spoiled B. for feathers." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i. 1, we learn that the Widow Wagge "dwells in Blackfryars, next to the sign of the fool laughing at a feather," mentioned again in iv. as "the sign of the Feathers and the Fool." There seems to be a reference to this sign in H8 i. 3, 24, where Lovell says, "They must . . . leave those remnants Of fool and feather that they got in France." In B. & F. Thomas ii. 3, Hylas thinks "not all the feathers in the Fryars "will satisfy a fashionable wife. In their Wit Money iii. 4, Valentine boasts that his breeches "are Christian breeches, founded in B." In Jonson's Epicoene iv. 1, Otter says that all his wife's teeth "were made in the B." In B. & F. Prize iv. 5, Petruchio mentions "a beggar-wench about B., Runs on her breech": doubtless some poor cripple who was a familiar figure there. There was a glass manufactory on the site in Temple St. where the Whitefriars Glass Works now stand. Dekker, in Knight's Conjuring, says of hell, "Like the glasshouse furnace in B., the bone-fires that are kept there never go out." In Killigrew's Parson iii. 1, Mrs. Pleasant says, "I'll go to a play with my servant, and so shall you; and we'll go to the glass-house afterwards." The Greyhound Inn was at the Fleet St. corner, near B. In Dekker's Westward ii. 3, Justiniano suggests, as a rendezvous for the party that is going to Brentford, "the Greyhound in B." See GREYHOUND.


A landing-stage on the N. bank of the Thames, where B. Bdge. now stands. In Marmion's Leaguer v. 3, Ardelio, being turned out of service, says, "I may go set up bills now for my living, or fish at B. S." In Middleton's R.G. v. 2, Sir Alexander, hearing that his son and Moll have gone across to Lambeth, says, "Delay no time, sweet gentlemen! to B.! We'll take a pair of oars and after them." In Middleton's Chaste Maid iv. 3, Touchwood tells how a gentleman escaped from a gang of bullies in B. by the help of an honest pair of oars.


An extensive open common between Eltham and Greenwich, 5 m. from the centre of Lond. It is intersected by the Dover Rd, and the traffic from Kent to Lond. naturally comes across it. It was on B. that the Kentish men assembled in Wat Tyler's rebellion. In Jack Straw i., Jack says to his men, "Upon B., beside Greenwich, there we'll lie." Here Richd. II and his bride were met by the citizens; and here Henry V was greeted by the lord mayor and aldermen on his return from Agincourt. (H5 v., prol. 16) "So swift a pace hath thought that even now You may imagine him upon B." Jack Cade and his followers camped here (H6 B. iv. 2 and 3); and here Henry VI met York and Warwick before the 1st battle of St. Albans (H6 B. v. 1). It was on B. in 1497 that Henry VII defeated the 15,000 Cornish rebels who had marched on Lond. under Audley. In Ford's Warbeck iii. 1, this battle is described. "B.," says the K., "must be reserved the fatal tomb to swallow Such stiff-necked abjects." Latimer, in Sermon 1 before Edward VI (1549), says that he re members buckling on his father's harness "when he went unto B. field." The Heath was a well-known haunt of footpads and highwaymen. In Oldcastle iv. 1, Sir John mentions B. as one of the places that pay him tithe; and later, in the same scene, Harpool complains that a thief "met me last day at Blacke heath near the park," and robbed him of £100. In Fair Women ii. 458, Browne, lying in wait to murder Saunders, bids his accomplice, "See if Black Heath be clear Lest by some passenger we be descried." In Brome's Moor v. 1, Meanwell says, "We did pretend a deadly quarrel at a great bowling-match upon B." B. is mentioned often in Look about as the abode of a hermit. John says, "I'll to B. and there with friends conspire" (xxiii.).


The sign of a bookseller's shop on Lond. Bdge. Com. Cond. was "Imprinted by William Howe for John Hunter on Lond. Bdge. at the Blacke L." The date is about 1576.


The part of the Atlantic Ocean off the N.W. coast of Africa. Milton, P. R. iv. 72, makes the Tempter show to our Lord "The realm of Bocchus to the B. S.," i.e. Gaetulia.


The sea between S. Russia and Asia Minor. The ancients called it the Euxine Sea, or Pontus. The modern name is due to the Turks, who found the navigation of this large expanse of water difficult after their experience in the AEgean with its numerous islands, and so called it Kara Deniz, or B. S. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iii. 1, Bajazeth speaks of himself as "Great K. and conqueror of Graecia, The Ocean Terrene, and the Coal-b. S."


The sign of Sir Simon Eyre's shop in Lond. Deloney, in Craft i. 13, says, "he set up the sign of the b. S. swimming upon the sea, in remembrance of that ship the first that did bring him wealth, and before that time the sign of the b. s. was never seen, or known, in any place in or about the city of Lond."


Suburb of Lond, in the parish of Poplar, on N. side of the r. at its junction with the Lea, 4 m. E. Of St. Paul's. It is one of the busiest spts. in the world. In Eastward iii. 3, the ship in which Sir Petronel is going to Virginia lies at B. In Mayne's s Match v. 9, Warehouse is informed that his 2 ships have come in and "lie at B." In Fair Women ii. 177, Beane says that "between B. and Woolwich is the worst" part of the journey by river from Greenwich to Lond. In Oldcastle iii. 2, Acton says that his army of rebels are "some nearer Thames, Ratcliffe, B., and Bow." In Middleton's Five Gallants i. 1, Frippery, the draper, says he has "ventured some small stock by water to B. among fishwives." In Launching, written in praise of the E. India Company 1632, the author says of the Company, "B. proclaims their bounty; Limehouse speaks of their liberality." In Dekker's Westward ii. 3, when an excursion is proposed, Sir Gosling says, "What say you to B. or Limehouse?" To which Judith replies: "Every room there smells too much of tar." In Webster's Cuckold i. 3, Compass, returning home after a voyage, cries, "B., sweet B., do I see thy white cheeks again? O beautiful B.!" Some of the scenes of the play are laid there. In Deloney's Craft ii. 9, there is a story of "an Egyptian [i.e. gipsy] woman at B."


(or, as it should more properly be called, BAKEWELL HALL) was on the W. side and almost at the S. end of Basinghall St., Lond. It was a very ancient building, and was for a long time the mansion of the Basing family, one of whom, Solomon, was Lord Mayor in the 4th year of Henry III. It passed into the Bakewell family in the reign of Edward III, and in the next reign was sold to the City for £50 and made into a cloth exchange. It was rebuilt in 1558, destroyed in the Gt. Fire, and re-erected in 1672. In 1820 the Bankruptcy Court was built upon its site. It was the Cloth Exchange of Lond., and no foreigner could sell cloth elsewhere. In Prodigal ii. 1, Oliver, the Devonshire clothier, boasts, "Cha have 3 score pack of karsey at Blackem-H., and chief credit beside." In Deloney's Newberie vi., the clothiers meet "at B. H. in Lond.," to present their petition to the K. In his Reading vi., he says, "Then came they to B. H. where the country clothiers did use to meet." The time is the reign of Henry I; so that the statement is 2 or 3 cents. previous.


An amusing hybrid translation by North of Plutarch's Leuke Kome (white village). It was on the coast of Syria, between Beyrout and Sidon. Here Antony met Cleopatra after his Parthian campaign. In Brandon's Octavia 523, Byllius says that Antony thought good "for a time at B. to remain; B. a city near to Sydon placed."


A vill. of great antiquity on the borders of Notts. and Yorks. In Downfall Huntington iii. 2, the Earl of Huntington, Robin Hood, says, "At B. and Tickhill were we welcome guests."


A fortification built to block access to a landing, bdge., or other strategical point. There was one such at Tilbury. The word was also used for a prison, as in Jonson's Staple v. 2, where Lickfinger tells how Pennyboy, the usurer, has committed 2 of his dogs to 2 closets as prisons; "the one of which he calls his Lollards Tower, t'other his B.-H."


An episcopal city on the Loire, 100 m. S. of Paris, which gave their title to the Counts of B. It has an immense old castle, dating in part from the 13th cent. In it were murdered the ]?. of Guise and his brother, the cardinal. York complains, "Maine, B., Poictiers, and Tours are won away 'Long all of Somerset and his delay" (H6 A. iv. 3, 45). There seems no historical foundation for York's charge, except that in 1450 Somerset had weakly surrendered Caen to the French. In Marlowe's Massacre, p. 240, K. Henri declares, "I'll secretly convey me unto B., now that Paris takes the Guises' part"; and the next scene, in which the Guises are murdered, takes place in the Castle of B. For "Sir Charles of Bloys" (Ed. III iv. 1) see under BRETAGNE.


Dist. in Lond., between Holborn, Gray's Inn Rd., Euston Rd., and Tottenham Court Rd. It was almost open country in the 16th and 17th cents., and was a well-known resort of bad characters. The fields behind the site of the British Museum, known as Southampton Fields, were "the resort of depraved wretches whose amusements consisted chiefly in fighting pitched battles and other disorderly sports" (Dr. Rimbault). In The Spiritual Courts Epitomized (1641), Scrape-all, the Proctor, says, "All B., Covent-Garden, Long-Acre, and Beech Lane were as fearful of me as of a constable." In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, Fortress, the president of a society of thieves called the Twiball Knights, is described as "D. of Turnbull, B., and Rotten Row." In Middleton's Chess ii. 1, the Black Knight, showing various letters from women of bad character, says, "These from 2 tender sisters of compassion in the bowels of B." In Brome's Covent G. iii. 1, Clotpoll informs the company that his lodging is "At B.": at which Justice Cockbrain pricks up his ears, and says, "B.? I note it." In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] ii. 3, Puny says, "I'll beat him as a B. whore beats hemp"; sc. in the prison for such women at Bridewell. B. was a favourite haunt of Jesuits. Gee, in Foot out of Snare (1624), p. 50, says, "A Jesuit of the prouder sort of priests may usually be met about B. or Holborn." In Foley's Records i. 605, it is stated that there were more Romanists than Protestants in B. (in 1634).


Tavern in Lond. which may still be found at the corner of St. Mary-at-hill and Lower Thames St., close by Billingsgate. In Eastward iii. 1, Sir Petronel invites Capt. Seagul to meet him "at the B. A. tavern by Billingsgate this evening "to drink to his happy voyage. In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] i. 4, Cutter reports that the Capt. met the Irish envoy "last night at the B.-A."


One of the printers of The Book of Riddels (edn. 1629) was "Michael Sparke dwelling in Greene Arbor at the signe of the b. B."


An inn in Spitalfields; also a tavern outside Aldgate. In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 1, Frisco says to his bewildered companions, "We are now at the farthest end of Shoreditch. . . . You brought me this way, because you would find a charm [for your spirit] at the B. B. in the Spital." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 38, Spicing bids Chub "Redeem my paund Hose; they lie at the B. B. for 11d." Taylor, in Carriers Cosmog., mentions "the B. B. without Aldgate "as the lodging of the Essex carriers. The rebels, of whom Spicing was one, came from Essex, so that the Aldgate B. B. is doubtless the one at which he had pawned his breeches.


A Scotchman, so called from the blue bonnet worn by the Scotch. H6 A. ii. 4, 392: "One Mordake, and 1000 bluecaps more."


An inn in Cambridge. Hall, in Satires ii. 71, says the heart lodges "in the way at the B. L. inn." Milton, in Apol. for Smectymnuus, refers to this passage and scoffs at Hall for whipping "the sign-posts of Cambridge ale-houses."


This famous hostelry, the scene of the frolics of Prince Hal and Falstaff (H4 A. ii. 4; iii. 2; H4 B. ii. 4) and of the death of the fat knight (H5 ii. 1, and 3), was on the N. side of Gt. Eastcheap (not to be confused with Cheapside or W. Cheap), which ran W. from Fish St. Hill. The tavern abutted at the back on St. Michael's, in Crooked Lane, and was just where the statue of William IV now stands. Stow says, speaking of the year 1410, "There was then no taverne in Eastcheap"; but he says that there were cook shops "wher men called for meat what them liked"; and, it may be presumed, for what liquor they required to wash it down. In any case, there was a tenement in E. Cheap called the B. H. in the time of Richd. II; for it was given by William Warder to a college of priests for the benefit of the adjoining Ch. of St. Michael, and it is possible that it may have been the scene of Glutton's famous debauch, described in Piers B. v. 306 ss. Lydgate, writing in the reign of Henry V, says, "Then I hyed me into Estchepe; one cryes rybbs of befe and many a pye; Pewter pots they clattered on a heape, there was harpe, pype, and mynstrelsye." Drinking therefore went on, as well as eating, in the cookshops. Shakespeare was not an archaeologist, however; and it is enough that there was a B. H. T. in E. Cheap in his time, for it is so specifically named in 1537. It was burned down in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt on the same site, and its sign carved in stone with the initials I. T. and the date 1668 is preserved in the Guildhall. A B. H. in boxwood is said to have been discovered amongst some rubbish after the Gt. Fire with the inscription on the back: "William Brooke, Landlord of the Bore's Heade, Estchepe, 1566," and was bought by Mr. Halliwell at Christie's in 1855. The tavern and the Ch. of St. Michael were both demolished in 1831. There was also a B. H. T. in Knightrider St., near the Blackfriars Theatre, but there is no need to go to it for the original of Shakespeare's inn. In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 1, Eyre despatches a boy to "bid the tapster of the B. H. fill me a dozen cans of beer for my journeymen." This was no doubt the E. Cheap Tavern. In News Barthol. Fair, in the list of Lond. Taverns, we find "The Bores H., near Lond. Stone"; which is the E. Cheap one; and also "The Bores H. in Old Fish St." The B. H., 157 Cannon St., preserves the name of the historic hostelry.

It is a curious coincidence that there was a B. H. in the High St. of Southwark which once belonged to Sir John Fastolfe: he gave it to the Bp. of Winchester, who bestowed it on Magdalen College, Oxford. There was another B. H. T. in Whitefriars, the site of which is indicated by B. H. Alley in Fleet St.; now a private passage.

There was a B. H. on the N. side of Whitechapel, E. of Aldgate, between Middlesex St. and Goulston St, where B. H. Yard still marks its site. It was one of the 5 inns mentioned by Howes in which plays were performed before the building of the theatres. There is record of "a lewd play called A Sackful of News "being played there on Sept. 5, 1557. In March 1602 the players of the Earls of Oxford and Worcester had the B. H. assigned to them by the Privy Council.


The prison in the N. Gate of Oxford, pulled down in 1771. The name was probably derived jocularly from the syllogism Bocardo, the 5th mood of the 3rd figure, which is incapable of being reduced to the 1st figure by the process of conversion, and is therefore difficult to get out of. Latimer and Cranmer were both confined here. In Greene's Friar vii. 112, Clement, annoyed by the ragging of the 3 disguised courtiers, says, "Call out the beadles and convey them hence straight to B." Miles replies: "Out with your blades . . . and teach these sacerdos that the Bs. are meet for themselves." In the Life Of John Story (1571), we read: "Dr. Story was apprehended by the officers and laid in B." In Middleton's Family i. 3, Club says of a lady of fashion," In the night-time she is filthier than the inside of B." The word is also used in a general sense for a prison, as when Latimer, in his Serm. before Ed. VI 232, says that Elias for his troublesome preaching was "worthy to be cast into B."; and in Serm. at Stamford (1550), that the Herodians were ready to lay hands upon our Lord "to have him to B."


The great library in the University of Oxford, founded by Sir Thomas Bodley, and formally opened in 1602, when it contained over 2000 volumes. The first catalogue was printed in 1605. The original library was in the quadrangle on the W. side of Catherine St., a little S. of Broad St., known as the schools. The books are now partly housed in the Camera Bodleiana, or Radcliffe Dome, a little S. of the Schools. The library contains upwards Of 500,000 volumes and MSS. In Randolph's Muses, iii. 1, Banausus proposes to found a library of drapers' books for young men of fashion; and Colax exclaims, "'Twill put down Bodly's and the Vatican." Brooke, in verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), says, "We ere long shall well perceive your wit, Grave learned B., by your placing it "in your library.


Town in Cornwall, 26 m. N.W. of Plymouth. In Ford's Warbeck iv. 5, Skelton, speaking of Warbeck, says, "The Cornish blades . . . have proclaimed through B. and the whole county my sweet prince Monarch of England."


The dist. in ancient Greece, N. of Attica, between the Euboean Sea and Gulf of Corinth. Its chief town was Thebes. The Athenians regarded the inhabitants as dull and stupid, and thence a Bn. comes to mean a dull-witted Philistine. Marston, in Pygmalion ii. 142, speaks of a "dull-sprighted fat Bn. Boor." Jonson's Pan is a contest between "certain bold boys of B." and a company of Arcadians. The Bns. are beaten and are bidden to "return with their sold heads and carry their stupidity into B., whence they brought it." The scene of Wilson's Cobler is laid in B. soon after the time of the Persian Wars; but it is merely England under another name. The fountain Hippocrene (q.v.) was in B. In Cockayne's Obstinate ii. 3, Phyginois asks, "Who will seek the river for to quench His thirst who at Bn. Hippocrene Hath pledged Mnemosyne in full-fraught cups!" In Tiberius 532, Germanicus, referring to the cessation of the Greek oracles, says, "Vocal Boeotia in deep miseries And Delphian glory in obscureness lies."


(BOHEM or BOEMIA; German BÖHMEN). A kingdom in the centre of Europe, once part of the Austrian Empire. It lies S. of Saxony, with Silesia and Moravia (with the latter of which it is now united) on the E., Bavaria on the W., and the former Duchy of Austria on the S. It was originally inhabited by the Boii from whom it took its name In the middle of the 6th 'cent. A.D. it was conquered by the Czechs, a Slavonian race; and the daughter of Krok, Libussa, married Premysl, and founded a native dynasty which lasted till 1306. John of Luxembourg then received the crown, which was held by his descendants till the success of the Hussite reformers led to the monarchy being made elective. After the famous battle of Mohacz, Ferdinand of Austria took possession of B. in 1547. In 1627, after the overthrow of the Protestant Elector Palatine, son-in-law of James I and elective K. of B., it was declared a permanent part of the Austrian Empire, and continued so until 1919. The K. of B. was one of the 7 Electors of the Holy Roman Empire: he claimed the right as the Emperor's hereditary cup-bearer, and it was finally confirmed by the Golden Bull Of 1356. The scene of Winter's Tale is partly in B., partly in Sicilia: Shakespeare in this following the Historie of Dorastus and Fawnia, though he transposes the places. In iii. 3, 1, Antigonus, who has been sent to expose the infant daughter of the K. of Sicily, inquires of the mariner who has been cast ashore with him, "Thou art perfect, then, our ship hath touched upon the deserts of B.?" In the original the child is set adrift in a boat and is driven on the coast of Sicily. But B. throughout Dorastus and Fawnia is represented as on the sea. Egistus and his men "without any suspition got to the Sea shoare; where with many a bitter curse taking their leave of B., they went aboord." "The Bn. Lords went to their ships and sailed toward B., whither in short time they safely arrived, and with great triumph issuing out of their ships went to the Kinges pallace." "Dorastus, hearing that they were arrived at some harbour. they tolde him that the port belonged unto the cheife Cittie of B." Shakespeare therefore had the authority of his author for giving B. a sea coast, and did not trouble to inquire further. The time of the play is quite indefinite: there is no K. of B. whose name even distantly resembles either Pandosto or Polixenes.

Barnardine (Meas. iv. 2, 134) is described as "a Bn. born"; and in Whetstone's Promos ii. 2, Corvinus is "K. of Hungaria and Boemia." The Host of the Garter (M.W.W. iv. 5, 21) describes poor inoffensive Simple as "a Bn.-Tartar." This is not an anticipation of the modern use of the word, in the sense of a man who leads a vagabond, irregular life, which is derived from the French use of Bohème as meaning a gipsy. It is a combination itnplying savagery: the Tartars had the reputation of being barbarous and cruel. Heylyn (p. 653) says, "they are barbarous everywhere in behaviour"; and the Bns. had a similar character: "a people given to drinke and gluttony," says the same author. Mine Host is, of curse, ironical in using such an epithet of Simple. In Dekker's Fortunatus i. 1, Fortune shows Fortunatus in a vision a series of examples of her power. Amongst them is "Primislaus, a Bn. K., last day a carter." This Primislaus, or Premysl, was the legendary founder of the Bn. royal line. He was a labourer, but married the daughter of Krok, the founder of Prague, and so became K. One of the characters in Jonson's Queens is "the bold Valasca of B." She was the wife of Premysl, and organized an insurrection of women to deliver B. from his tyranny. Each of them slew her husband, and Valasca became Q. In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus i. 1, 126, Lorenzo says, "That B. neither cares for one nor other "of the candidates for the Empire. In line 212, Alphonsus hopes to work "Upon the Bemish K.'s ambition," and so gain the election against Richd. of Cornwall. In i. 2, 11, this K. calls himself "Henry, K. of B.," but was actually Ottacar II, one of the most famous of his line. He appears as one of the electors in Hector.

In Ed. III i., the K. of B. comes to help the K. of France; and in iii. 5, Prince Edward enters, preceded by the body of the K. of B., whom he "Has dropt and cut down even at the gate of death." This was the blind X., Charles of Luxembourg, son of Henry of Luxembourg, who founded a new Bn. dynasty in 1306. According to the well-known story, he ordered his knights to tie his horse's bridle to theirs at the battle of Crecy and to take him into the fight: where both he and they were slain. The Prince of Wales assumed his badge, which was "a plume Of 3 ostrich feathers argent with the motto Ich Dien." Jonson, in Prince Henry's Barriers,. says, "The Black Prince Edward . . . at Cressy field . . . tears From the Bn. crown the plume he wears, Which after for his crest he did preserve To his father's use, with this fit word, I serve." This story, however, seems to be without historical confirmation. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 1, Orcanes of Natolia claims to have so battered Vienna with his cannon that "the K. of Boheme and the Austric D. Sent heralds out which . . . desired a truce." The reference appears to be to the defeat of the K. of Hungary and his allies at Nicopolis in 1396 by Bajazet I. The K. of B. then was John the Fearless; but there is no evidence that the Turks reached Vienna at this time. Massinger's Picture is stated by him to be "true Hungarian history." Its scene is laid partly in Hungary, partly in B., in the reign of Ladislas of Hungary, in the latter half of the 15th cent. Mathias, a knight of B., is the hero of the play; and is probably intended for the Matthias who became K. of Hungary on the death of Ladislas in 1457, and in 1469 was proclaimed K. of B. too. During the latter part of the 16th cent. there were many bitter religious conflicts in B. owing to the attempts of the emperors to enforce the Romish religion on the people. In Jonson's Ev. Man I. ii. 2, the disguised Brainworm claims to have served "in all the late wars of B., Hungaria, Dalmatia, Poland, where not?" The 1st wife of Richd. II was Anne of B., the sister of the Emperor Wenceslaus. In Trag. Richd. II. she is frequently spoken of as "Ann of Beame," and her death at Sheen is announced in iv. 3. In Ford's Warbeck ii. 1, K. James says, "K. Charles of France And Maximilian of B. both Have ratified his [Warbeck's] credit by their letters." This is Maximilian I, the famous Emperor and founder of the greatness of the House of Hapsburg; but he was not K. of B. Probably Ford confounds him with Maximilian II of B, 1564–1576.


A town in Lincs., 29 m. E. of Lincoln. The castle was built by William de Romara, Earl of Lincoln, but came into the possession of John of Gaunt. His son Henry, afterwards K. Henry IV, was born here and took from it his surname, Henry of B. He is always spoken of as B. until his return to claim his father's title, and even after that by those who disputed his claim (R2, H4 B. i. 1 and 3; iii. i; iv. 1. H6 A. ii. 5; H6 B. ii. 3). He himself declines to answer to any name but Lancaster. When Berkeley addresses him as "My Lord of Hereford," he replies, "My Lord, my answer is to Lancaster, And I am come to seek that name in England; And I must find that title in your tongue Before I make reply to aught you say" (R2 ii. 3, 70). Roger B., the conjurer, mentioned H6 B. i. 2, 76, was one of the D. of Gloucester's chaplains and a man of great learning in astronomy and the art of necromancy. He was accused of having made an image of the K. in wax in order to affect his health by gradually melting it away, and was drawn and quartered at Tyburn. The word is pronounced Bullingbrook.




A large city in Italy, N. of the Apennines, 150 m. N.W. of Rome. It is a thriving, industrious, and wealthy place. Its university, said to have been founded by Theodosius II, was the oldest and most famous in Italy, if not in the world. Its sausages, vulgarly known as polonies, have a world-wide reputation: it has also important manufactures of silk, paper, and pottery. The word is often spelt Bononia by the Elizabethans. The scene of B. & F. Chances is Laid in B., and Don John (i. 3) says, "The civil order of this town B. Makes it beloved and honoured of all travellers As a most safe retirement in all troubles; Besides the wholesome seat and noble temper Of those minds that inhabit it, safely wise, And to all strangers virtuous." In ii. 1, he says, "I am . . . a gentleman That lies here for my study," i.e. to attend the university. In Greene's Friar ix. iii, Vandermast boasts, "I have given non-plus to the Paduans, To them of Sien, Florence and B.," and half a dozen other universities. In Ford's 'Tis Pity i. 1, the Friar exclaims, "Art thou, my son, that miracle of wit Who once, within these 3 months, wert esteemed A wonder of thine age throughout Bononia?" There were still banditti in the neighbourhood, for in B. & F. Wild Goose v. 2, we are told that Mirabel saved a gentleman "from being murdered a little from B."

Cromwell iii. 2, is laid at B.; and his servant Hodge writes home: "I am, at this present writing, among the Polonyan Sasiges." In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Vadianus says of the author, "Tom's a B. sausage lovely fat." In Cockayne's Trapolin ii. 1, the banished Trapolin laments, "Farewell, my draughts of Montefiascone, and B. sausages!" In ii. 3, Horatio speaks of it as "fat B.": a translation of the Italian la Grassa B. In Florio's Montaigne i. 4, a story is told of a gentleman who relieved his gout by "cursing against Bolonie-sausage." Rabelais in Gargantua 113, says that Grangousier would not eat "sausages of Bolonia, for he feared the Lombard bit," i.e., poison. In Jonson, Cynthia v. 2, Mercury tries to cheapen some ribbons by declaring, "These are Bn. ribands, I warrant you," but is assured by the milliner that they are right Granado silk; which was evidently considered to be of superior quality. It was to B. that the Marquis of Saluces, the husband of patient Griselda, sent her children privily in Chaucer's Clerk of Oxford's Tale (C. T. E. 686). In Laelia i. 1, 66, Virginius says, "Occasio mihi in Boloniam fuit Ibi ut socii conferremus tabulas."




A vill. in N. Derbysh., 5 m. from Welbeck Here the Earl of Newcastle entertained K. James in 1634, when Jonson's Love's Welcome was produced.


An ancient tavern in Whitefriars, with an opening into Fleet St, opposite to Bolt Court, which preserves the name. It is now a railway receiving office, some small part only of the I.-yard being left. The sign was a rebus on the name of Prior Bolton, Abbot of St. Bartholomew the Gt. The property belonged to the Carmelite Friars. Jonson, in New Inn i. 1, justifies the name of the Light Heart I. by saying, "Old Abbot Islip could not invent better, or Prior Bolton with his bolt and ton."


In Feversham i. 174, Michael, proposing for Susan's hand, says, "I will rid mine elder brother away, and then the forts of Bolton is mine own." Probably we should read, with Jacob, Bocton. The place intended is Boughton-under-Blean, a vill. in Kent, a few miles W. of Canterbury on the Pilgrims Rd. It is mentioned in Chaucer, C. T. G. 556, as the place where the canon and his yeoman overtook the pilgrims. It was "ere we hadde riden fully 5 mile "from their last stopping place, which was no doubt Ospring. In a letter of Cranmer's to Cromwell, written in 1558, he speaks of a farm at Bowghton under the Blayne which his servant Nevell "had of the Abbot and Convent of Feversham."


Alternative spelling of Bologna, q.v.


A small town in Normandy, near Rouen, which gave their title to the Barons of B. The 1st Baron was created in 1449; and his greatgranddaughter Cicely, was married by Edward IV to Thomas Grey, Earl of Dorset, the son of his Queen, Elizabeth Woodville, by her former husband. To this marriage Clarence refers in H6 C. iv. 1, 56, "Or else you would not have bestowed the heir Of the Lord B. on your new wife's son." In George, one of the characters is Lord Charnel Bonfield, who speaks of himself as the Lord of Doncaster. In T. Heywood's Royal King i., Capt. Bonvile says, "My Grandsir was the first that raised the name of Bonvile to this height." If so, Edward IV is probably intended, if indeed any particular king, by the Royal King.


(Bu. = Burdeaux). The capital of Guienne, on the left bank of the Garonne, some 60 m. from its mouth and 370 m. S.W. of Paris. It belonged to England for abt. 300 years, and an extensive trade was carried on between the 2 countries. Chaucer says of his shipman (C. T. prol. 397), "Ful many a draughte of wyn hadde he y-drawe Fro Burdeuxward whil that the Chapman sleepe." Here Edward the Black Prince kept up a magnificent court, and here his son Richd. II was born. "Herein," says Exton, "all breathless lies The nighties of thy greatest enemies, Richd. of B." (R2 v. 6, 33). In Trag. Richd. II. ii. 1, 106, Bushey reads, "Upon the 3d of April 1365 was Lord Richd. born at Burdex." H6 A. iv. 2-7 are at, or in the neighbourhood of, B, and describe the attack on the city by Talbot, and his death, in 1453. In H4 A. ii. 4, 69, Doll Tearsheet says of Falstaff, "There's a whole merchant's venture of B. stuff in him "–wine being one of the chief exports of B. In H8 i. 1, 96, Norfolk announces that "France hath flawed the league and hath attached Our merchants' goods at B." The league is that made between Henry VIII and Francis of France at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520; but in 1521 Henry concluded a treaty with the Emperor Charles at Bruges, by which he bound himself to invade France the next year with 40,000 men. As the result of this, Francis commanded on March 6, 1522, that all Englishmen's goods should be "attached and put under a reste" (Hall's Chronicle).

In Hycke, p. 102, Frewyll describes how he got drunk and in his imagination "dyde lepe out of Burdeaux into Canterbury, almost 10 m. between." In Jack Drum i. 20, Sir Edward calls, "Fetch me some Burdeux wine." There is a curious parallel to the Hycke passage in Chaucer, C. T. C. 571, "The wyn of Spaigne crepeth subtilly . . . Of which ther ryseth swich fumosites That whan a man hath dronken draughtes thre And weneth that he be at hoom in Chepe, He is in Spaigne right at the toune of Lepe,–Nat at the Rochele, near Bu.-toun the point being that B. wine or claret is not so strong as the Spanish wines. In Marston's Antonio B. v. 4, Piero says, "I drink this Bu. wine Unto the health of dead Anbrugio." In Nash's Wilton K. 1, Jack says that the only profit of travel in France is that the traveller has "learnt to distinguish of tire true B. grape." In T. Heywood's Traveller i. 2, Reignald rinses his throat "with B. and Canary." In Chapman's May-Day iv. 1, Quintiliano sings, "Fill red-cheeked Bacchus, let the B. grape Skip like lavoltas in their swelling veins." In Trag. Richd. II. v. 2, 47, Lancaster says of Burdex, "The soil is fat for wines, not fit for men": in allusion to the birth of Richd. there. In Ret. Pernass. pt. ii., the hero visits B. and falls in love there with the heroine Rosabella.


A collection of some 20 houses on the Bankside, Southwark, belonging to the Bp. of Winchester and leased out as public brothels. Falstaff was probably thinking of them when he talked of getting him "a wife in the stews" (H4 B. i. 2, 60). When Old Knowell reads Wellbred's letter to his son dated "from the Windmill," he exclaims, "From the B. it might come as well, The Spittle, or Picthatch" (Jonson, Ev. Man I. i. 1). Chapman, in D'Olive ii., speaks of "changeable creatures that live in the Burdello, now in satin, tomorrow next in stammel." In Glapthorne's Privilege i. 1, Adorni says, "These gentlemen know better to board a punck in the Burdells than a pinace at sea." See also BANKSIDE, STEWS.


A kingdom of Central Africa, lying S. and W. of Lake Tchad. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 3, Techelles gives an account of his conquests in Africa, and says, "Having sacked B., the kingly seat, I took the king and led him bound in chains Unto Damasco." In v. 3, Tamburlaine claims to have conquered all from India "to Nubia near B. Lake"; i.e. Lake Tchad. Heylyn says that in Bornum "the people have neither children, wives, nor names, but are distinguished by some external accident." He omits to state how race-suicide was avoided. In Cockayne's Obstinate iii. 3, Carionil, disguised as a negro, professes to be ambassador of the emperor of a dozen kingdoms in Africa, including "Barne," which I suspect is meant for B.


(or, more fully, BOROUGH HIGH ST.). The main st. of Southwark, which was known to Londoners as The B. in contradistinction to Lond. itself, which was the City. It runs from the foot of Lond. Bdge. to the junction of Newington Causeway and Gt. Dover St. Dekker, in Bellman, mentions "Cheapside, East-cheap, the Shambles, both Fish sts., the Stockes, and the B. in Southwarke," as favourite haunts of foysts or pickpockets.


A farm in the parish Of Mawnan, 4 m. from Penryn, in S. Cornwall. In Cornish M. P. i. 2767, the bp. gives to the executioner for killing Maximilla "Behethlan, Behethlen ha B." (" ha "means "and ").


(a corruption of BLOSSOMS INN). A tavern on the W. side of Laurence Lane, off Cheapside, Lond., the sign of which was St. Laurence surrounded by a border of flowers or blossoms: the site is now occupied by the L. & N.E.R. Goods Office.

In Jonson's Christmas, "Now comes in Tom of B. I. and he presenteth misrule." 20 beds and stabling for 60 horses were provided at "the sign of St. Lawrence, otherwise called B. I.," for the train of the Emperor Charles V in t522. The tract called Maroccus Extaticus, about Banks and his horse Marocco, was stated on the title to be "written by John Dando, the wire-drawer of Hadley, and Harrie Runt, head ostler of Bosomes I." In Dekker's Northward ii. 2, Greenshield says of his fair companion, "I left her at B. L" In Deloney's Reading ii., the clothiers stay at B. I., which is said to be named after the host, "Old Bosome." This is not correct. The inn was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and not rebuilt. Blossom I. Yard, No. 23 Lawrence Lane, marks the site.


(or BOSPHORUS). The channel connecting the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmora. It is about 17 m. long, and varies in breadth from 600 to 1000 yards. Its name was connected by the Greeks with the passage across it of Io after she had been turned into a cow and was being driven through Europe and Asia by a gad-fly sent by Hera to torment her. The word may be literally translated "" In Marmion's Companion. on iii. 4, Capt. Whibble boasts, "I have ploughed up the sea, tiff B. has worshipped me." In Kyd's Solyman v., a witness testifies, "Will you consent, quoth he, to fire the fleet That lies hard I by us here in B.?" Milton, P. L. ii. 1018, says that Satan was "more endangered than when Argo passed Through B. betwixt the justling rocks." These rocks were the Symplegades at the E. entrance of the B.; they were said to clash together and crunch the ships that tried to them. The passage connecting the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea was also called the B., the 2 being distinguished as the Thracian and the Cimmerian respectively. From the latter the Crimea was called the Kingdom of B. It is this that is referred to in B. & F. Bonduca iv. 3, when Petillius, urging Penius to kill himself with his sword and not by poison, says, "Mithradates was an arrant ass To die by poison, if all B. Could lend him swords." In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, Caesar says, "I displayed the Eagle in the rough Cimmerian B." The reference is to his campaign against Pharnaces 47 B.C.


A lane on the S. side of Thames St., Lond, running down to the river, near Billingsgate: so called from a boss or projecting pipe of spring water, said to have been placed there by the executors of Sir Richd. Whittington. In Rowland's Good News and Bad News (1622), "The waterworks, huge Paul's, old Charing Cross, strong Lond. Bdge., at Billingsgate the Bosse," are enumerated amongst the glories of Lond. There is a play entitled The B. of Billingsgate.


Town in Lincs., 100 m. N. of Lond., on the Witham. Its parish ch. of St. Botolph with its noble tower, locally known as "B. Stump," is its chief title to fame. There was a Priory of St. Mary also, and the Palmer, in J. Heywood's Four PP., has not forgotten to visit "our Lady of B." In Bale's Laws iv., Infidelity declares, "I have a pardon here in my sleeve, of our Lady of B." In Sampson's Vow v. 3,13, mention is made of a petition from the men of Nottingham to have the Trent made "navigable to Gainsborough, So to B., Kingston, Humber, and Hull." But B. is not on the Trent; and I suspect a misprint for Burton, which lies just at the head of the estuary of the Trent where it enters the Humber. Hall, in Satires v. 2, speaks of Trebius slaking his thirst "With palish oat frothing in B. clay," i.e. small beer in a vessel of cheap crockery.


(i.e. BOSVANNAH). Farm in Cornwall, near Falmouth, in the parish of Gluvias. In Cornish M. P. i. 2399, Solomon says to the Messenger, "My a re thyugh [I will give you] B.,-Lostwithyel ha [and] Lanerchy."


(or, more fully, MARKET–B.). A town in Leicestersh., 13 m. W. of Leicester, and 106 m. N.E. of Lond. The battle between Richd. III and Henry of Richmond was fought on a plain 1 m. S. of the town, formerly called Redmore Plain, but subsequently B. Field. The spot where Stanley placed the crown on Richmond's head is still known as Crown Hill. A memorial tablet was erected by Dr. Parr in 18l2. "Here pitch our tents" says Richd., "even here in B. Field" (R3 v. 3, 1); and this and the next 2 scenes are laid there. In Ford's Warbeck i. 3, Henry cries, "Sir William Stanley! he, 'twas only he Who, having rescued me in B.-field From Richd.'s bloody sword, snatched from his head The kingly crown and placed it first on mine." "B. Field," says Warbeck (v. 2), "Where at an instant to the world's amazement A mom to Richmond and a night to Richd. Appeared at once." In True Tragedy, p. 116, Stanley says, "The K. is now come to Lester and means tomorrow to bid thee battle in B."


A vill. in Cambridgesh. In Mankind, Farmer, p. 28, Nought, proposing to go horse-stealing, says, "I shall spare Master Allington of B."


A town in S.E. Belgium, on the Senoy, close to the French frontier, abt. 80 m. S.E. of Brussels. The ancient castle, on a steep hill overlooking the town, has been repaired and is used as a military prison. The town, gave his title to the famous Crusader and 1st K. of Jerusalem, Godfrey of B. In Davenant's Plymouth ii. 1, Trifle is getting up a pageant of the 9 worthies, amongst whom he names "Alexander, Godfrey of Bulloigne, and good K. David."


A spt. of France on the English Channel, 157 m. from Paris. The town was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and when Louis II took it in 1477 he did homage to her as its sovereign. There was a famous image of the Virgin in the Ch. of Notre Dame, to which pilgrimages were made in the Middle Ages. Chaucer's Wife of Bath (A. 465) had been at B.; and in Gurton ii. 2, Diccon will not tell what he knows until he has made Dame Chat swear "by our dere lady of Bullaine "not to reveal his secret. The town was besieged and taken by Henry VIII in 1544. In Feversham ii. 31, Bradshaw says that he and Black Will "at Bulloine were fellowsoldiers." In the True Trag., it is related that Henry VIII in his decreasing age "conquered Bullen." In Jonson's Owls, we read, "This Capt. Cox, by St. Mary, Was at Bullen with King Harry." Hentzer saw in the Tower of Lond. 2 cannon "made of wood, which the English had at the siege of B." In Vox Borealis (1641), a dispute is reported between the musqueteers and the archers, in which the archers maintained that "bows and arrows won Bulloyne." In Penn. Parl. 31, we read, "Some shall maintain that a Turk can be hit at 12 score pricks in Finsbury Fields, ergo the bow and shafts won Bullen."

In Rowley's New Wonder iii. 1, Speedwell says, "My godfather was an old soldier, having served in the wars as far as B." In Chapman's D'Olive iv. 2, D'Olive says that everything in future will be dated from the year of his ambassage: "The siege of B. shall be no more a landmark for times." In Marmion's Leaguer ii. 1, Autolicus says that Holland is beleaguered "and will hold out as long as Busse or Boloigne." Lodge, in Wits Miserie (1596), says of Lying, "At Bullaine he thrust 3 Switzers through the belly at one time." In Sampson's Vow v. 3, 93, Q. Elizabeth says that Grey "fought for our father . . . at Bullen." Gascoigne, in Steel Glass, p. 65 (Arber), speaks of one who assumes to be a soldier, "Because he hath perchance at Bolleyn been." The town was restored to France by Edward VI. In Davenant's Wits iii., Thwack, dressing himself, cries, "O for the Bulloign hose I wore when I was sheriff in '88." In Webster's Weakest, prol., "The D. of Anjou, fatally inclined against the family of Bullen, leads a mighty army into Burgandy." This was in the early part of the reign of Louis IX, before he went to the Holy Land. Lodowick, D. of Bullen, takes an important part in the play. In the Elements, Haz. i. 28, Experience, in his lecture on geography, points out "the narrow sea to Calais and B. the next way." Act III, Sc. 3 of Hector is laid at "Bulleigne."


The capital of the ancient Barony of Bourbonnais, on the Bourges, abt. 150 m. S. of Paris. The founder of the line of B. was Adhemar, who lived during the 10th cent. Of the old castle 3 towers are still left. Antoine de B. married Jeanne d'Albret, Princess of Navarre, and became K. of Navarre in 1554. Their son was Henri of Navarre, afterwards Henri IV of France, and ancestor of the French B. kings The Spanish Bs. date from 1700, when Philip V, grandson of Louis XIV, came to the throne. (See Macaulay's Essay on The War of Succession in Spain.) A branch of the Spanish Bs. held the throne of Naples from 1735 to 1861; and the duchies of Lucca and Parma were in the hands of another from 1748 to 1860. The D. of B., appealed to by Charles to fight against Henry V (H5 iii. 5,41), who endeavoured to rally the French at Agincourt, crying: "Let us die in honour; once more back again; And he that will not follow B. now, Let him go hence" (H5 iv. 5,12)–and named in the list of the prisoners (H5 iv. 8, 82), was John, who was carried to England, and, after 18 years' confinement, died in 1433 and was buried in the Grey Friars Ch., Newgate, afterwards rebuilt by Henry VIII as Christ Ch. The Lord B., "our high admiral" (H6 C. iii. 3, 252), was the son of Charles D. of B., and grandson of the John of the last paragraph. In Barnes' Charter iv. 3, Lucretia Borgia recalls how "the D. of B. on his knees did beg one lock "of her hair. This was Pierre, who was D. of B. 1488–1503. There is a D. of B. in Chivalry, which appears to be meant to take place in the reign of St. Louis of France abt. 1260. Sir Burbon, in Spenser's F. Q. v. m and 12, is Henri of Navarre, afterwards Henri IV of France. A fashionable way for men of wearing the hair was called the B. lock. In Jack Drum i. 340, Brabant says of Puffe, "When his period comes not roundly off, he takes toll of the 10th hair of his B. lock."


The capital of the department of Ain, in France, 239 m. S.E. of Paris. It is distinguished from other towns of the same name as Bourg-en-Bresse. It was taken by the D. of Biron in 1, 1600. It was considered one of the strongest places in Europe. In Chapman's Consp. Byron v. 1, Byron asks the K. for "the keeping of the citadel of B."; which Henri refuses because it is "the chief key of my kingdom that opens towards Italy." In Trag. Byron v. 1, the 3rd charge laid against Byron is, "You held intelligence with the D., At taking in Of B. and other forts."


An ancient city in France and the seat of an archbp., at the junction of the Auzon and Vevre, 124 m. S. of Paris. The cathedral dates from the 13th cent., and is one of the finest specimens of Gothic architecture in France. In Fam. Vict., the Lord Archbp. of B. is one of the French ambassadors who brought the King a ton of tennis balls as a gift from the K. of France.


(possibly BAUTERSEIN is intended). A town in Belgium, in S. Brabant, abt. 6 m. S.E. of Louvain. In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, Cymbal says, "See but Maximilian His letters to the Baron of B. or Scheiter-Huissen." In Epigram cvii. To Capt. Hungry, he says, "Keep your names Of Hannow, Sheiter-huissen, Popenheim, Hansspiegle, Rottenburg, and Boutersheim For your next meal."


(more fully STRATFORD–AT–B., q.v.). A suburb of Lond., on the Lea, 41/2 m. N.E. of St. Paul's. It was called B. from the arched bdge. over the Lea. In Oldcastle iii. 2, Acton says that his army is dispersed in sundry villages, amongst which are "some nearer Thames, Ratcliff, Blackwall, and B." In B. & F. Thomas iii. 3, the Fiddler offers to sing a number of ballads, including "The landing of the Spaniards at B. with the bloody battle of Mile-End." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 16, the Mayor says to the rebels, "the poorest citizen Shall walk to B., a small wand in his hand, Although thou lie encamped at Mile-End-Green, And not the proudest rebel of you all Shall dare to touch him." An annual goose-fair was held there; in Middleton's Chaste Maid i. 1, the Porter says to Yellowhammer, "If I see your Worship at Goose-fair, I have a dish of birds for you."–" Why," says Yellowhammer, "dost dwell at B.?"–" All my lifetime, sir," answers the Porter, "I could ever say bo to a goose." Taylor, Works, says, "At B. the Thursday after Pentecost There is a fair of green geese, ready roast; And as herbs, flowers, and weeds together grow, So people are that day at Stratford B." (p. 110). In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Valentine says, "You can have your meetings at Islington and Green Goose Fair and sip a zealous glass of wine." In Jonson's Poetaster iii. 1, Tucca says, "Get a base violin at your back and march in a tawny coat with one sleeve to Goose-fair." In Beguiled 1426, the Nurse complains, "He made me believe he would go to Green-goose Fair." It was a convenient distance for an afternoon's outing for the Londoners. Jonson, in his Epigram 129 To Mime, says, "There's no journey set or thought upon To Brentford, Hackney, B., but thou mak'st one."

The Ch. of St. Mary in the middle of Mile End Rd. was the chapel of the Benedictine Nunnery founded by William the Conqueror. It was here that the Prioress of C. T. prol. 126 learned her French: "Frenssh she spak ful faire and fetisly After the schole of Stratford-atte-Bowe, For Frenssh of Parys was to hire unknowe." Jonson parodies the passage in New Inn ii. 2, where the Host says of Fly, "he speaks a little tainted, flyblown Latin After the school "–to which Beaufort adds: "of Stratford o' the B.; For Lillie's Latin is to him unknow." There were many bakers in B. who helped to furnish Lond. with bread. They brought it in carts and sold it in Cheapside, Cornhill, and Gracechurch St.; and the loaves being 2 oz. heavier than those made in Lond. they doubtless had a good market. Piers B. xiii. 267, tells how, as the result of the drought of 1370, "no carte come to toune with bake bred fro Stretforth." According to Stow this service of bread ceased about 1570.


The Ch. of St. Mary-le-B., or St. Mary de Arcubus, in Lond.: so called from the vaulted arches on which it was built, or from the arches in the lantern on the top of the tower. It is on the S. side of Cheapside, E. of Bread St., at the corner of B. Lane, and was built in the reign of William I. The steeple was repaired in 1512 and the lantern and stone arches, which may still be seen on the seal of the ch., were added. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire of 1666, and the present ch. was erected by Sir Christopher Wren. To be born within the sound of B. Bell is the mark of the genuine Cockney. In Jonson's Epicoene ii. 1, Truewit wonders that Morose does not commit suicide when there is "such a delicate steeple in the town as B. to vault from." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 275, Tim admits; "Sometimes, as soon as I have come from B. Ch., I have gone to a bawdy house." In Eastward i. 3, Girtred begs, "Take me out of this miserable city! tarry me out of the scent of Newcastle coal and the hearing of B.-bell." In v. 3, she confesses, "I would make a mouth at the city as I rid through it; and stop mine ears at B.-bell." In Randolph's Muses, iii. 1, Banausus proposes "To get a high-crowned hat with 5 low-bells To make a peal shall serve as well as B." In Penn. Parl. 23, it is provided that "B.-bell in Cheapside, if it break not, Shall be warranted by letters patent to ring well In the nursery rhyme used in the game of Oranges and Lemons one distich runs, "I'm sure I don't know, Says the Gt. Bell of B." In Shirley's Riches iii., Gettings swears, "By Cheapside-Cross and loud B.-bell." In Treasure, Haz. iii, 267, Inclination says, "The same year the weather-cock of Paul's caught the pip so that B.-bell was like much woe to sustain." In Middleton's Quiet Life i. 1, Water-Camlet says of his talkative wife, "B. Bell is a still organ to her." In W. Rowley's Shoemaker iv. 1, 205, the shoemaker says to his chattering wife, "Sfoot, will B: bell never leave ringing?" Greene, in Perimedes Blacksmith (1588), satirizes Marlowe's big words as "filling the mouth like the fa-burden of Bo-bell." The fa-burden, or Faux.bourdon, means the bass, or lowest bell, of a chime. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 19, Smoke bids his fellow-rebels, "Pluck out the clapper of B. Bell and hang up all the sextons in the city.

The curfew was rung on B. Bell every night at 9 this was the signal for the cessation of work. Hence the old rhyme in which the prentices complain, "Clarke of the B.-bell with the yellow locks, For thy late ringing thy head shall have knocks." To which the Clerk replies: "Children of Chepe, hold you all still; For you shall have B.-bell rung at your will." In Haughton's Englishmen iii. 3, Pisaro exclaims, "God's me! 'tis 9 o'clock; hark! B.-bell rings." B. Bell is used in the sense of a Cockney. In Eastward i. 2, Girtred contemptuously calls her sister "B-beu." In Prodigal ii. 1, Oliver says sarcastically to Sir Arthur, "Ay, and well said, cocknell and Bowbell too." The Ecclesiastical Court of Arches was so called because it sat in this ch. In Middleton's R.G. iv. 2, Greenwit, in the disguise of a Sumner, cites Gallipot "to appear in B. Ch. in answer to a libel of pre-contract."


St. in Lond., running S. along the E. side of B. Ch. in Cheapside to the corner of Cannon St. and Q. Victoria St. It was formerly called Cordwayners St., from the shoemakers who had their shops there. Amongst the guests invited to the banquet in Middleton's Quiet Life iv. 2, are "Master Body et Uxor of B. L." In Brome's City Wit i. 1, Josina sends to "Mrs. Piccadell in B.-L. to provide me an honest, hansome, secret young man." In his Moor iii. 1, Quicksands asks, "How knew'st thou I wanted a servant!" And Phillis replies: "At an old wives house in B. L. that places servants": doubtless the aforesaid Mrs. Piccadell's Armin, in Ninnies, tells of "a poor blind woman in B.-l. called blind Alice who had this fool of a child (one John) to lead her."


Bowling was a favourite game in Elizabethan England. Shakespeare has many references to it. Cor. v. 3, 20 : "Sometimes, Like to a bowl upon a subtle ground I have tumbled past the throw." Cym. ii. 1, 8, Cloten tells of his bad luck: "When I kissed the jack, upon an up-cast to be hit away"; and being taken up for swearing he broke his reprover's head with his bowl–not altogether inexcusably. In Shrew iv. 5, 24, "Thus," says Petruchio, "the bowl should run, And not unluckily against the bias." In R2 iii. 4, 3, her attendant suggests to the Q. a game at bowls, but the Q. refuses; "'Twill make me think the world is full of rubs, And that my fortune runs against the bias." In L.L.L. v. 2, 587, Custard bears witness that Sir Nathaniel, the village person, "is a marvellous good neighbour, faith, and a very good bowler." And in iv. 1, 140, he suggests to Boyet to challenge Margaret to bowl ; where, by the way, the word rhymes to "owl." By Act II, H7, ii. 5, apprentices are forbidden-to play at "tenys, closshe [a kind of skittles], dice, cardes, and bowies "; and the moralists coupled together dice, tables, cards, and bowls, as evil diversions. Earle, for example, Micro. 101, says, "A Bowl-A. is the place where there are three things thrown away beside Bowls, to wit, time, money, and curses, and the last ten for one."

Gosson, in School of Abuse, p. 45 (Arber), says, "Common B. Allyes are privy moths that eat up the credit of many idle citizens." James I, however, authorized licenses to issue for 24 b. alleys in Lond. and Westminster, four in Southwark, one in St. Katharine's, one in Shoreditch, and two is Lambeth. B. Green Lane, in Clerkenwell, still preserves the memory of one of them. In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, Gossip Mirth says, "My gossip Tattle knew what matches were made in the B. A., and what bets were won and lost." In B. & F. Wit S. W. iv. 1, Gregory says to Cunningham, "I have been seeking for you i' the b. green."


An alley in St. Giles's, Lond., on the S. side of High St. over against Dyott St., marking the site of the "B." Tavern, where the prisoners on their way to execution at Tyburn had a drink offered to them. The Angel (q.v.) was the rival of the B. in this melancholy office. The whole of the rookery, has now been swept away. Chamberlain, writing to Carleton an account of the execution of Raleigh, says, "There was a cup of excellent sack brought him, and being asked how he liked it, "As the fellow," said he, "that, drinking of St. Giles's B. as he went to Tyburn, said, "That were good drink if a man might tarry by it.'"


see BURSE.


The father of Orlando is called Sir Rowland de B. (As You Like Iti. 1, 60). In Lodge's Rosalind he is Sir John of Bordeaux. But Bordeaux is a long way from the forest of Arden; and in giving him a different title Shakespeare may have been thinking of Bois-le-Duc, a town in Brabant, near the mouth of the Meuse, which was at the time of the writing of the play much in men's mouths, for in 1579 it had separated itself from the States, and was besieged in 1601 and again in 1603 by the Prince of Nassau. It was a hunting seat of the Ds. of Brabant, and much nearer to Arden than was Bordeaux.


Ancient Duchy in the Netherlands, lying W. of the Meuse in the great bend it makes before falling into the sea; and to the E. of Flanders. Joan, the eldest daughter of John III, the List D., bequeathed the Duchy to Anthony, 2nd son of Philip the Bold, D. of Burgundy. In 1440 by the marriage of Mary of Burgundy to the Emperor Maximilian, it passed to the House of Austria, and through Charles V became part of the Spanish dominions. N. Brabant later became part of the United Provinces, whilst S. Brabant remained under the Spanish Crown until the Peace of Utrecht (1713). Now N. Brabant is in the kingdom of Holland, and S. in the kingdom of Belgium. In L. L. L. ii. 1, 114, Biron recalls how he danced with Rosalind in B. once. In H5 iv. 8, 101, "Anthony, D. of B., brother to the D. of Burgundy," is in the list of the slain at Agincourt. This Was the Anthony mentioned above. In Fam. Vict., Haz. p. 358, the K. of France, before the battle of Agincourt, urges, "Let the Normans, Bs., Pickardies, And Danes be sent for with all speed." Webster, in Weakest prol., says, "The little Frederick left upon the shore The tardy D. of B. . . . espies." This was Henri II, known as The Magnanimous. In S. Rowley's When you A. 2, Wolsey says, "The Emperor's forces are stayed in B. by the K. 's command." The reference is to the cessation of the operations of Charles V and Henry VIII against Burgundy in 1525. In Chapman's Rev. Bussy i. 1, Monsieur is introduced taking his leave for B. in order to enter upon his new upstarted state there: this was in 1582, when the D. of Anjou, brother of Henri III, went to B. and was crowned D, by the Prince of Orange at Antwerp In Barnavelt iv. 5, Sir John is charged with having planned to deliver certain Dutch towns to "Spain or B." In Ford's Sacrifice iii. 1, Ferentes tells how he lately saw a masque in Brussels, in which women acted when "the d. of B. welcomed the archbp. of Menu with rare conceit." The D. intended must be the Archduke Albert, the husband of Isabella, daughter of Philip of Spain, who held that dignity from 1598 to 1621. The plot of B. & F. Beggars', as related in i. 1, concerns a 7 years' war between Flanders and the D. of B. Flanders is being governed by a usurper, Wolfort, during the minority of the young Floret. There is nothing historical in the story.

In Larum E. 2, one of the Spanish soldiers addresses a woman of Antwerp as "You B. bitch!" and another (G. 1) speaks of 2 of the soldiers of Antwerp as "These two fierce Brabanters." In Gascoigne's Government iv. 3, Eccho says, "Extol him straight with praise And say that B. hath too few such blades As he." In Davenant's Plymouth i. 1, Seawit speaks of the "Maid of B. that lived by her smell, dined on a rose, and supped on a tulip." This was a certain Eve Fleigen of Meurs, who was said to have lived without food for 14 years, from 1597 to 1611. Her life was published in English in 1611. In Jonson's New Inn ii. 2, Tipto includes, in the fashionable attire of a soldier, "a Joke of Genoa, set with B. buttons." Buttons first appear as ornaments to dress in the 14th cent., but the introduction of button-holes caused a great increase in their use in the 16th. There is still a considerable industry in the making of buttons in Belgium. Nosh, in Lenten, tells of "Cornelius the Brabantine who was feloniously suspected for penning a discourse of tuft-mockados," i.e. imitation velvets. Gosson, in School of Abuse (1579), p. 29, says, "They that never went out of the champions in B. will hardly conceive what rocks are in Germany." B, is a flat country without hills.


A town in W. Riding, Yorks., 196 m. from Lond. It is an ancient borough, and is mentioned in "Domesday Book." A considerable part of the action of George takes place in B.: "We are now in B.," says K. Edward, "where all the merry shoemakers dwell "; and one of them enters on the word and explains, "Here hath been a custom kept of old That none may bear his staff upon his neck, But trail it all along throughout the town, Unless they mean to have a bout with me." Braithwaite, in his Strappado for the Devil (1615), mentions this same custom of the "jolly shoemaker of B. Town." In Downfall Huntington iii. 2, Robin of Huntington says, "Good George-a-Greene at B. was our friend." This is a slip, as George-a-Green was the well known Pinner of Wakefield.


Very common village-name all over England. Which of the many Bs. is meant in the quotation I have not yet been able to discover. In Jonson's Barthol. ii. 1, Mooncalf says, "Do you not know him, Mistress? 'tis mad Arthur of B. that makes the orations," sc., in the Fair.


The old spelling of Brentford, a town in Middlesex, at the junction of the Brent and the Thames, 8 m. W. of Lond. and 14 E. of Windsor. It was the scene of a battle between Edmund Ironside and the Danes in 1016; and of the defeat of Col. Hollis by Prince Rupert in 1642. It possessed a famous hostelry, the Three Pigeons, kept at one time by John Lowin, one of the first actors in Shakespeare's plays, which was a favourite resort of Londoners out for a day's excursion into the country. In the D. of Buckingham's Rehearsal, Bayes explains how he has supposed "two kings to be of the same place, as, for example, at Brentford "; whence the well-known phrase, "the two kings of Brentford." In M. W. W. iv. 2, 78, the Q. reads: "That's well remembered; my maid's aunt, Gillian of B., hath a gown above," and disguised in this Falstaff escapes. This Gillian, or Julian, or Joan, was a well-known person and had the reputation of being a witch. An old ballad by Robert Copeland (1562) is entitled Jyl of Breyntford's Testament. In Nash's Summers, the details of her bequests are given. A play was produced in 1598 called Fryer Fox and Gyllen of Branforde. In Dekker's Westward v. 1, Clare says, "I doubt that old hag, Gillian of Braineford, has bewitched me."

In Jonson's Alchemist v. 2, Subtle proposes to run away with Doll: "We will turn our course to B., westward . . . we'll tickle it at the Pigeons." In Massinger's Madam ii. 1, Luke pictures to Goldwire "the raptures of being hurried in a coach to Brentford, Staines, or Barnet," with a lady as his companion. In Middleton's R. G. ii. 1, Laxton proposes to Moll Cutpurse "to go out of town together . . . to B., Staines, or Ware": they agree to meet in Gray's Inn Fields at 3; "that," says Laxton, "will be time enough to sup at B." Moll keeps the appointment dressed like a man (iii. 1), and Laxton exclaims, "Thou'rt admirably suited for the Three Pigeons at B." In iv. 2, Mrs. Openwork tells her gossip how Goshawk has persuaded her that her husband "this very morning went in a boat with a tilt over it to the Three Pigeons at B. and his punk with him," in order to get her to go with him in pursuit of her delinquent spouse. Jonson, in his Epigram 129 To Mime, says, "There's no journey set or thought upon. To Brentford, Hackney, Bow, but thou mak'st one." Entertainments for the visitors were provided in the shape of horse-races, puppet shows, etc. In Middleton's Chaste Maid v. 4, Tim says, "I bought a jade at Cambridge; I'll let her out to.. B. horse-races." In Mayne's Match iii. 1, we are told of a lady "who follows strange sights out of town, and went to B. to a motion," i.e. a puppet-show. In Greene's Quip, p. 239, he addresses a waterman, "If a young gentleman and a pretty wench come to you and say, my friend and I mean to go by water and to be merry a night or two . . . then off goes your cap and away they go to B. or some other place." In Dekker's Westward ii. 3, when a jaunt is Proposed, Linstock suggests, "Let's to mine host Dogbolt's at B. then: there you are out of eyes, out of ears; private rooms, sweet linen, winking attendance, and what cheer you will." The suggestion is accepted by the ladies, and Act V takes place at B. In Laneham's Letter 36, the author says that "Capt. Cox can talk as much without a book as any innholder betwixt B. and Bagshot." In Deloney's Craft ii. 11, the green K. of St. Martin's says, "If you will walk with me to B., I will bestow your dinner upon you." In Killigrew's Parson i. 1, the Parson says, "He a Capt.! An apocryphal modern one that went convoy once to B. with those troops that conducted the contribution-puddings in the late holy war." The reference is to 1642, when the Lond. trainbands lay at B. before the attack by Prince Rupert. In Underwit i. 1, Thomas says he can hire his master "an old limping decayed Sergeant at B." to teach him his drill.


Town in Essex, 40 m. N.E. of Lond. Nicholas Udall was vicar of B. from 1533 to 1537, and probably wrote a play, Placidas or St. Estace, which was performed there in 1534.


The central and metropolitan province of Prussia. The town of B. lies on the Havel, 38 m. W. of Berlin. The Margraves of B. were the ancestors of the late K. of Prussia and German Emperor. They held the hereditary office of Chamberlain to the Emperor, and were electors of the Empire. Their ancestor was Conrad of Hohenzollern, 25th in line of ascent from the late German Emperor Wilhelm. In Glapthorne's Wallenstein i. 1, Wallenstein sends "advices to the Marquess B." to meet him at Dresden. The Marquis was an ally of Gustavus Adolphus in the campaigns of 1631–32. In Barnavelt iv. 3, Barnavelt, going through his correspondence before his trial, speaks of a letter "from the Elector Palatine of B. to do him fair offices." This was John Sigismund (1608-1619). His claim to the Duchy of Cleves brought him into conflict with Spain, in which he had the help of the United Provinces. In Chapman 's Alphonsus i. 1, 130, Lorenzo, calculating the chances of the election of Alphonsus as Emperor, says, "For Trier and B., I think of them As simple men that wish the common good." In i. 2,38, B. introduces himself as "Joachim Carolus, Marquess of B., overworn with age, Whose office is to be the Treasurer." This is an error: he was Archicamerarius, or High Chamberlain. The Margravate was at this time held jointly by the brothers Johan I and Otto III. The Elector of B. is one of the characters in Hector.


One of the 2 divisions of the town of Brandon in Suffolk, 33 m. N.W. of Ipswich, on the Little Ouse, or Brandon, where there is a ferry for communication with the Isle of Ely. The 3rd Merry Jest in the Wido Edyth (1525) shows "how this wydow Edyth deceived her host at Brandonfery."




University of Oxford, founded by the union of 4 Halls in 1509. One of these Halls was called B., which may possibly mean brewhouse; but the popular derivation is supported by the Latin name of the C., Collegium AEnei Nasi, and the big brass nose on the knocker of the gate. Roger Bacon was traditionally said to have been at B., but the tradition probably arose from the story of the brazen head with magical properties which he constructed. Greene, in Friar ii., upholds the tradition: "The C. called Brazen-nose is under him and he the Master there." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon iv. 1, Sir Boniface affirms, "I was student in B." To which Herringfield rejoins, "A man might guess so much by your pimples." In B. & F. Philaster v. 4, one of the citizens, with an obvious allusion to B, vows that he will have Pharamond's nose, "and at my own charge build a c. and clap it upon the gate." John Marston was a gentleman commoner at B. in 1594. Henry Porter, author of Abington, matriculated at B. in 1589.




Spoken of as a house-sign, with reference to the story of Friar Bacon and the head of brass which he made and caused to speak. In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 3, Cob says, "O an my house were the Brazen-Head now! Faith, it would e'en speak 'Moe fools yet!'"


A large country on the E. coast of S. America, extending from Guiana to Uruguay. It was discovered by the Portuguese in 1501, and about the middle of the 16th cent. they formally annexed it to their empire. It continued a Portuguese colony until 1822, when it declared its independence. It was at first called Terra de Brasil, from a tree discovered there (Caesalpina Echinata) akin to the Sappan tree of the E. Indies, from which a hard wood called Brasil-wood, and a red dye called Brasil, were obtained. Heylyn tells of the Sloth and the Sensitive plant being found there: "Here also," he says, "flying fishes are said to be; but I bind you not to believe it." He adds: "The men and women go stark naked." Stubbs, in Anat. of Abuses 44 B, says, "The Brasilian women esteem so little of apparel also, as they rather chose to go naked than they would be thought to be proud." Burton, A. M. iii. 2, 2, 3, quotes from John Lerius, "At our coming to B., we found both men and women naked as they were born, without any covering." Taylor, Works 86, says, "The barbarous Brasilians ... do adore the devil." In Devonshire i. 1, Bustamente brings word, "The Brasile fleet is putting into harbour; she is great with gold and longs to be delivered." The scene is at Cadiz. In Davenant's Plymouth i. 2, Carrack says, "My husband took a prize from the Hamburgers and Be. men", i.e. the sailors in the Plate Fleet from B. to Cadiz. In Cuckqueans iv. 8, Claribel says that he has travelled in "Guinie, Florida, and Brasilea." References are frequent to the wood and the red dye; but it is the Sampan-tree, not the country, from which they get their name. Chaucer C. T. B. 4649, says that the priest "nedeth nat his colour for to dyen with brasile." In Rabelais, Pantagruel ii. I 5, Panurge has a piece of wood "of incarnation B."; incarnation meaning red. In Greene's Quip, p. 23 1, we are introduced to "a long, lean, old, slavering slangrill with a Brasill staff." In his Thieves, "The Belman hath sworn in despite of the Brasil-staff to tell such a foul tale of him that it will cost him his dangerous joint." The author of Discourse on Leather (1627), says, "We can live without . . . the trees of B."


In Lond., running S. from Cheapside to Q. Victoria St. On the E. side was the Ch. of All-hallows at the corner of Watling St., where Milton was baptized; and St. Mildred's at the corner of Cannon St. On the W. side was a Counter, which was, however, transferred in 1555 to Wood St. Milton's father was a scrivener in B. St. at the sign of the Spread Eagle, the name of which was preserved in Black Spread Eagle Court, the 1st turning on the right from Cheapside. Here the poet was born in 1608. The street got its name from the selling of bread there. The Mermaid Tavern was at the corner of Bread St. and Cheapside, with side entrances from Bread St. and Friday St. Jonson, in Famous Voyage, speaks of having dined "at B.-st.'s Mermaid." There was also a Mitre Tavern there. In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage ii., Ilford says, "I, Frank Ilford, was inforced from the Mitre in B. st. to the Compter in the Poultry." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. ii, Capt. Carvegut says, "Come. e. to the Mitre in B. St.; we'll make a mad night on't."

The site of the Star Tavern is marked by Star Court on the E. side, between Watling St. and Cheapside. In More ii. 1, Robin says to his fellow-apprentice, "When wast at Garrets school, Harry?"To which Harry replies: "Not this great while, never since I brake his usher's head, when he plaid his scholar's prize at the Starre in B.-st." In Deloney's Craft ii. 6, Harry "smeared Tom-Drum's face with his blood that he made him look like the image of Bred-ste. corner; or rather like the Sarazines Head without Newgate." Some tavern sign is intended: there was a Saracen's Head in Friday St., near Cheapside, which may be the one Deloney means. The note in Mann's edition of Deloney is quite misleading, as a reference to the passage in Stow will at once show. In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Clare talks scornfully of "Nan, a grocer's daughter, born in B.-S." Dekker, in jests, speaks of "Milk st., B. St., Lime St., and S. Mary Axe "as places where city merchants had their residences. Gascoigne, in Steel Glas, p. 71 (Arber), refers to the Counters in "Wood-st, Bredstreat, and in Pultery."


(or BREAKNOCK). The county-town of Brecknocksh., Wales, 171 m. N.W. of Lond. The castle was built in 1094 by Barnard Newmarch, and was at the time of Richd. III in the possession of the Ds. of Buckingham. Morton, Bp. of Ely, was confined in B. by Richd., and the Ely Tower, which is still in a good state of preservation, got its name from his residence there. On resolving to break with Richd., Buckingham went to B., and after conferring with the Bp. raised the standard of revolt (see under BUCKINGHAM). In R3 iv. 2, 125, Buckingham says at the close of his interview with the K. "O let me think on Hastings, and be gone To B., while my fearful head is on." In True Tragedy, p. 92, Morton reports, "The D. of Buckingham is rid down to B.-Castle in Wales." In Peele's Ed. I, i. 1, the K., on his return to England, proposes to build a hospital for his wounded soldiers, afterwards known as St. Thomas of Acres, and appeals to Sir David of B. for a contribution: he responds with a promise of £400. This Sir David was the brother of the Welsh King Llewellyn, and in the wars which followed was taken prisoner and beheaded. The Welshwoman in Middleton's Chaste Maid i. 1, "lost her maidenhead in Bshire." In B. & F. Nightwalker iii. 6, Maria, disguised as a Welshwoman, says she was born in Abehundis, which the Nurse explains is the Welsh name for B. It is more exactly Aber Honddhu, i.e. the mouth of the Honddhu, the river on which B. stands.


A strongly fortified town in N. Brabant, 26 m. N. of Antwerp. At the beginning of the 17th cent. it was in the hands of Maurice of Nassau, but was besieged and taken by the Spanish under Spinola in 1625, after an obstinate resistance of a year. Jonson, poking fun at the Lond. trainbands, says, in Underwoods 62, that those who saw their manoeuvres "saw the Berghen siege, and taking 'm Bredau. So acted to the life, as Maurice might, And Spinola, have blushed at the sight." In Massinger's New Way i. 2, the cook, Furnace, boasts that he can "raise fortifications in the pastry such as might serve for models in the Low Countries; which, if they had been practised at B., Spinola might have thrown his cap at it, and ne'er took it." B. beer was famous. In Davenant's Plymouth iv. 1, Inland says to the Dutch Capt. Bumble, "I will kiss thy drivelled beard, though drowned in B. beer."




City in N. Italy, 40 m. N.W. of Verona. It is the ancient Brixia, and has many remarkable Roman remains. It suffered much in the wars between the Guelfs and Ghibellines. In 1512 it was stormed by Gaston de Foix, and 46,000 of the inhabitants were slain. In Cockayne's Trapolin ii. 3, Horatio speaks of it as "warlike Bessia ": an obvious misprint.


A dist. in Burgundy, the capital of which was Bourg. Speaking of the intrigues of the Count Fuentes in 1602, Henri IV, in Chapman's Trag. Byron v. 1, says, "He hath caused these cunning forces to advance . . . to countenance his false partisans in B. and friends in Burgundy."


A spt. and naval station in the extreme W. of France on the N. side of one of the finest and best-fortified roadsteads in the world. It lies on the river Penfeld, 370 m. W. of Paris. It was the Cardinal de Richelieu who saw its advantages as a naval station, and fortified it on the sea-side. The old castle suffered several sieges, one in particular in the Wars of the League in 1594; to which probably La-Poop, in B. & F. Hon. Man ii. 2, refers when he tells, "I served once at the siege of B.–'tis memorable to this day ": and how he was saved from starvation by the enemy "striking him full in the paunch with a penny loaf!" In Scoloker's Daiphantus (1604), the hero "Vows he will travel to the siege of B." in the excitement of his passion. In Middleton's Blurt iii. 1, Hippolito says, in reference to the conquest of a woman's virtue, "She yields, and the town of B. [quasi breast] is taken."


(Be. = Britaine), BRITTAINE, BRITAINE, BRITTANY, or LITTLE BRITAIN. The province occupying the N.W. peninsula of France. It was known in Roman times as Armorica, but is said to have gained its name of Brittany from the bringing over there of a number of settlers from Britain by Conan about A.D. 419. Drayton, Polyolb. ix. 203, says that Armorica was peopled by colonists from Wales, "which of our colony was Little Britain called." He often calls it by this name. The marriage of Geoffrey, son of Henry II of England, to Constance, daughter of one of the claimants to the duchy, brought it into the Plantagenet family, and on the death of Geoffrey in 1185 the title of D. of B. passed to his posthumous son Arthur, who was also, in virtue of his father, next heir to the throne of England on the death of Richd. I, Geoffrey being the 4th and John the 5th son of Henry II. K. Philp Augustus of France supported his claim, but in 1200 became reconciled to John and deserted Arthur. Arthur fell into John's hands at Mirabeau, and was irnprisoned by him, first at Falaise and then at Rouen, where he died in 1203, not without strong suspicion that his unde was the cause of his death. At aft events, it has been shown that John was at Rouen at the time. In K.J. ii. 1, Arthur is present with his mother Constance at Angiers, and is spoken of as "Arthur of Be."; in iv. 1, his artless pleading makes Hubert spare his eyes; and in iv. 3, he is represented as killing himself by leaping from the castle walls in an attempt to escape. The castle is evidently intended to be in England, as the conversation of the lords when they find the body shows; and the date of Arthur's death is placed in the same year as the offer by the English lords to Lewis of the Crown of England, viz. 1215. In these departures from fact Shakespeare follows Trouble. Reign. In that play, Haz. p. 350, John says, "Arthur . . . here I give thee Brittaine for thine own." In Davenport's Matilda i. 2, Fitxwater reproaches John with having delivered up to Philip of France "Anjou, Brittain, Main, etc." In Ed. III i. 1, the K., hearing the name of the Countess of Salisbury, says, "That is thy daughter, Warwick, is it not, Whose husband hath in Brittayne served so long About the planting of Lord Mouneford there?" John III of Brittany had 3 brothers, Guy, Peter, and John, Earl of Mountfort: Guy and Peter pre-deceased their elder brother, but Guy's daughter Jane, who had married Charles of Blois, resisted the claim of John of Mountfort to the dukedom. She was supported by the French K., and John enlisted Edward III on his side by doing homage to him for the dukedom. The result was the war which led up to Cressy and Poictiers. In iv. 1, the scene is the camp of the English in B., and Mountfort enters with a coronet in his hand, saying, "Mine enemy, Sir Charles of Blois, is slain And I again am quietly possessed In Brittaines Dukedom." As a matter of fact, Charles was killed in the battle of Auray, sometime after the battle of Poictiers, which in the play comes at the end of this act. In iv. 4, the French Herald before Poictiers threatens Edward, "This day shall drink more English blood Than ere was buried in our Bryttish earth ": where "Bryttish "means "of Brittany."

In R2 ii. 1, 285, Northumberland announces that Harry, D. of Hereford, is on his way to England "well furnished by the D. of Be. With 8 tall ships, 3000 men of war." This D., Jean V, was descended from Pierre de Dreux, who became D. of Brittany by his marriage with Arthur's sister Alice. Henry had already made a private treaty with him for the marriage of his son Henry to the D.'s sister: he now went to Brittany, ostensibly to visit him, and then sailed to England–Holinshed says from Port le Blanc, but Marshall has shown in N. & Q. 223, p. 267, that he probably started from Vannes, on the Bay of Morbihan. In H5 ii. 4,4, the D. of Brittany, Jean VI, is one of those ordered by the French K. to take the field against Henry V; and in H6 B. i. 1, 7, he is mentioned as being present at Tours at the betrothal of Margaret of Anjou to Henry VI. Henry Earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII, took refuge on the death of Henry VI, along with his uncle Jasper Tudor, at the Court of Francis II, D. of Brittany, where he lived for 14 years; and from Brittany he set out to wrest the crown from Richd. III. Whilst there he had made an attempt to secure his claim to the throne by a marriage with Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward IV. In R3 iv. 3, 40, Richd. says, "I know the Be. Richmond aims At young Elizabeth, my brother's daughter." At his first attempt his fleet was dispersed by a storm. In iv. 4, 523, we are told, "The Breton navy is dispersed by tempest," and Richmond "Hoised sail and made away for Brittany." His second essay was more successful, and he met and defeated Richd. at Bosworth. Richd., in his address to his soldiers, says that Richmond's troops area 'scum o Bretons"; he that leads them "a paltry fellow Long kept in Be. at our mother's cost." This was a puzzling statement until it was discovered that in making it Shakespeare was following a misprint in the 2nd edition of Holinshed–in the 1st the passage runs, "He was brought up by my brother's means and mine like a captive in a close cage in the court of Fraunces D. of Be "; the 2nd edition has "mother's "for "brother's." In Ford's Warbeck v. 2, Warbeck refers to the time when "Richmond retired, and gladly, For comfort to the D. of Bretaine's court." In Chapman's Trag. Byron i. 3c, Byron says, "B. is reduced and breathless war Hath sheathed his sword." This was after the victories he had won there in the Wars of the League. Hycke had visited Brytayne in the course of his travels.


In Sampson's Vow iv. 1, 19, Clifton says, "Argulle with shot marches for the hill B." I suppose the Red Breyes is meant (q.v.).


A name given to some old brickfields in Spitalfields, near the ch. In 1576 some Roman remains were discovered there, as Stow relates. Possibly the name is a corruption of brick-kilns. They afforded a warm sleeping-place for beggars. In Armin's Moreclacke D. 1, Tutch says, "The winter nights be short And b. beds does hide our heads As Spittell fields report." Dekker, in Bellman, says, "These wild rogues (like wild geese) keep in flocks, and all the day loiter in the fields, if the weather be warm, and at Bricke-kils." In Nabbes' Totenham i. 4, Cicely, meeting Bellamie early in the morning, says, "She looks not like one that hath kept herself warm all night at the Brick-kils."

In Oldcastle v. 3, the scene of which is at St. Albans, the carrier asks the ostler after Dick Dun; and is informed, "Old Dun has been moyr'd in a slough in Brick-hill-lane": apparently a lane in, or near, St. Albans. If not that, it may mean a lane near B., which was a vill. on the North-West Road, close to Fenny Stratford, and abt. 25 m. N.W. of St. Albans.


(more properly ST. BRIDGET'S). Ch. on S. side of Fleet St, Lond, next door to the publishing office of Punch. In the old ch. were buried Wynkyn de Worde the printer, Lord Sackville and Lovelace, the poets, and the notorious Moll Cutpurse, the heroine of Middleton's R.G. Destroyed in the Gt. Fire and replaced by Wren. The present St. B. Avenue was opened up in 1824, the ch. having been previously shut in on all sides by houses. In Middleton's Five Gallants iv. 3, Goldstone says, "Do you ask what's o'clock?Why, the chimes are spent at St. B." In i. 1, we learn that Frippery, the broker, has customers "in the parishes of St. Clement's, St. B., St. Dunstan's, and St. Mary Maudlin's." Nash, Prognostication, speaks of "the, worshipful College of Physicians in the parish of St. B." John Milton lodged for a time in 1639 "in St. B. churchyard, Fleet St., at the house of one Russel a tailor." B. Lane and B. Court take their name from the ch.


(used humorously for BRIDEWELL, q.v..). In Brome's City Wit iii. 1, Crack says of Jeff, the Bluecoat boy, "He never sung to the wheel in St. B.'s N. yonder." Bridewell was used as a hospital for decayed tradesmen, who were allowed to take apprentices to the number of i 40. These boys wore a blue dress and white hat; but naturally the Christ's Hospital boys, the real Bluecoats, looked down upon them.


(originally ST. BRIDGET'S WELL). A palace in Lond., on W. side of the Fleet Ditch abutting on the Thames, at the point now occupied by the City of Lond. School, the Sion College Library, and the School of Music. It was built on the site of the ancient Tower of Montfitchet, but was allowed to fall into disrepair, until Wolsey occupied it in 15312 and spent some £20,000 on the building and furnishing of it. Henry VIII refitted and enlarged it in 1522 for the reception of the Emperor Charles V; and subsequently he often held his Court there. It was to B. that he summoned the members of his Council and other dignitaries to declare to them his scruples as to his marriage with Katharine of Aragon; and he and the Q. were lodged there during the trial of the case in the adjacent Hall of Blackfriars. Edward VI gave the palace to the City of Lond." to be a workhouse for the poor and idle persons of the City," and endowed it with the revenues of the Savoy. It gradually degenerated into a prison for women of bad character, and it was also used as a place of detention for men who were pressed for the army and navy. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire of 1666, and rebuilt in the form of 2 quadrangles. It was used as a prison until 1863, when the greater part of it was pulled down. Many of the scenes in H5 are vaguely described in modern editions as "an antechamber in the palace" (i. 1); "The Council Chamber" (i. 2); "an antechamber in the Q.'s apartments" (ii. 3), etc. Some of these at least took place in the B. Palace.

Dekker gives a vivid picture of B. in Hon. Wh. B. v. 2, though he transfers it to Milan. In v. 1, Lodovico asks, "Do you know the brick-house of castigation by the river-side that runs by Milan–the school where they pronounce no letter well but O?" and in the next scene the D. inquires, "Your B.? That the name? For beauty, strength, Capacity and form of ancient building, Besides the river's neighbourhood, few houses Wherein we keep our court can better it." One of the masters informs him, "Hither from foreign courts have princes come And with our D. did acts of state commence. Here that great Cardinal had first audience, The grave Campayne; that D. dead, his son, That famous prince, gave free possession Of this his palace to the citizens To be the poor man's warehouse; and endowed it With lands to the value Of 700 marks With all the bedding and the furniture, once proper, As the lands then were, to an hospital Belonging to a D. of Savoy. Thus Fortune can toss the world: a prince's court Is thus a prison now." The rest of the scene describes the "rogues, bawds, and whores "who are confined there; the beating of hemp, which was the work of the unhappy women; the blue gowns worn by them, their floggings, and so on; and they are called by their usual name, B.-birds. In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 3, Cob says, "I am a vagabond and fitter for B. than your Worship's company." In his Barthol. iv. 3, Ursula reminds Alice, "You know where you were tawed lately; both lashed and slashed you were in B." Amongst the offenders brought before the Justices in Randolph's Muses, iv. 3, is "one that has suffered B. often. In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i., Bloodhound threatens Tim with "the College of extravagants, eclipt B." In Locrine iii. 3, Strumbo thinks Margerie was "brought up in the University of B." In Middleton's Five Gallants iii. 5, Bungler says, "As for B., that will but make him worse; he will learn more knavery there in one week than will provide him and his heirs for 100 years." In Marston's Courtesan i. 2, Cocledemoy says of bawds, "They must needs both live well and die well, since most commonly they live in Clerkenwell and die in B." In Brome's City Wit ii. 1, Crack says of Mrs. Tryman, "She was born in Clearkenwell; and was never half a day's journey from B. in her life." In his Northern iii. 3, Luckless says, "If she be not mistress of her Art, let there be no bankrupt out of Ludgate nor whore out of B." In his Antipodes iii. 2, the poet produces in that land of topsey-turveydom "3 religious madrigals to be sung by the holy Vestals in B. for the conversion of our City wives and daughters." In T. Heywood's Royal King ii. 2, one of the gentlemen says of the Capt., "Send him to B. ordinary; whipping cheer is best for him." In Tarlton's News, he tells us that when you come to Purgatory "you have 40 lashes with a whip, as ill as ever were given in B." In Sharpham's Fleire iii. 321, Sparke says, "You ladies live like the beadles of B. . . . by the sins of the people." In Wilson's Inconstant iii. 4, Pantarbo says, "'Tis strange One that looks like the Master of B. Should love the game [i.e. profligacy] so." In Chaunticleers xii., Curds says, "I'll beat thee worse than the B. crew does hemp." In Killigrew's Parson iv. 1, Wanton says, "The fear of telling keeps more women honest than B. hemp." In Eastward iv. 4, when the constable brings in "2 masterless men I pressed for the Low Countries" Golding asks, "Why don't you carry them to B., according to your order, that they may be shipped away?" In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, Fortress says, "Our orders are such as the most envious justice, nor their goose-quill clerks that smell at new B. and Finsbury shall not exclaim on." B. was enlarged in 1608, and again in 1620. In Deloney's Craft ii. 9, his mistress says to Will, "It were a good deed to make you a bird of B. for your sauciness."

The prison had many nicknames. In Penn. Parl. 28, we have, "Those that depend on destiny and not on God may chance look through a narrow lattice at Footmen's Inn." In Dekker's Northward iv. 1, the Capt. says to Doll, "I will sell my coach for a cart to have you to Punks Hall, Pridewell." The children of prostitutes were called B. orphans. In Killigrew's Parson i. 3, Jolly speaks of "found children, sons of bachelors, B. orphans."


A stairs on the Thames, close by the mouth of the Fleet Ditch, just at what is now the N. end of Blackfriars Bdge. Jonson's Voyage describes the voyage of Shelton and Heyden from the dock "that called is Avernus; of some, B.," up the Fleet Ditch to Holborn. In Dekker's Westward ii. 3, Justiniano proposes a meeting at the Greyhound in Blackfriars, "and then you may whip forth . . . and take boat at B.-d. most privately."


The Bear at the B., a famous Lond. tavern. See under LOND. BDGE. and BEAR. In Brome's Northern i. 5, Pate says, "Where's the supper? At the B. or the Cat?"


In Tooley St., just E. of the foot of Lond. Bdge.: originally used as a storehouse for stone and timber required for repairing the Bdge.; afterwards as a depository for wheat and other grains. A brew-house was added to it by Sir John Munday. In B. & F. Nightwalker v. 2, Heartlove having disappeared, Maria's mother suspects that he may be imprisoned for treason, perhaps executed: to which the Nurse replies, "Nay, they did look among the quarters too, And mustered all the B.-h. for his nightcap." I suppose this means if he had been executed for treason his quarters would be exposed on the Bdge, and his nightcap would be put in the stores at the B.-h.


A mkt. town in Shrops., on the Severn, 20 m. from Shrewsbury and 138 m. N.W. of Lond. In Hg A. iii. 2, 178, Henry says, before the battle of Shrewsbury, "Our general forces at B. shall meet."




In Cambridge, running from the corner of Jesus Lane to Magdalen Bdge. Hall, in Satires (1597) ii. 7, 36, transfers the signs of the Zodiac to Cambridge, and says that Aquarius "is the B.-st. of the heaven." Milton, in Apol. for Smectymnuus, ridicules this passage, and says of Hall, "He falls down to that wretched poorness and frigidity as to talk of B. st. in heaven."


A dist., also a town, in France. The town is some 10 m. S. of Paris. B. was famous for the manufacture of a kind of cheese called "Angelots of B.," from its being stamped with the impression of the coin known as an Angelot, from the figure of the archangel Michael on its reverse. In Davenant's Wits iv. 1, "Angelots of B." are mentioned as luxuries for the table. In Rabelais, Gargantua i. 17, when the hero gets to Paris, he sends back his mare to his father "loaded with B. cheese and fresh herring."


A tribe of ancient Britons, living between the Humber and the Tyne. In Fisher's Fuimus ii. 5, Belinus, in a list of the British forces, says, "The Brigants come Decked with blue-painted shields, 12,000 strong." Spenser, F. Q. vi. 10, 39, describes Calidore's attack on "A lawless people, Brigants hight of yore "; but he is evidently confusing the name with that of the Brigands, or Brigants, of Italy.


(= BRIELLE). A town near the mouth of the Meuse, in Holland. The first place captured by the Confederates in the War of Independence in 1572. In 1585 Leicester sailed to Flushing with 50 ships and was made Governor of the United Provinces, to the great annoyance of Q. Elizabeth; but she was compelled to let him retain his office till his return in 1587. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 1, Shift professes, "I have seen Flushing, B., and the Hague, with this rapier, Sir, in my Lord of Leicester's time." Jonson, in Underwoods 62, says, speaking of the Lond. trainbands, "He that but saw thy Capt.'s curious drill Would think no more of Flushing or the B." The dramatist, Cyril Tourneur, was the son, or close relative, of Capt. Richd. Turner, water-bailiff of B., and spent some part of his life in the Low Countries.




(Bw. = Bristow, Bwe. = Bristowe), more usually spelt BRISTOW. The cathedral city at the junction of the Avon and the Frome, 108 m. W. of Lond. It is abt. 8 m. from the mouth of the Avon, and was at this time the second most important seaport in the British Isles, Lond. only taking precedence of it. The castle was rebuilt by Robert, Earl of Gloucester, the natural son of Henry I, and was made one of the strongest fortresses in England. It was demolished by Parliament in 1656, and nothing is now left of it. It became an appanage of the Crown in the reign of John. In Peele's Ed. I, sc. ii. p. 26, Guenther informs Lluellen that his lady, Elinor, has been "taken in a pinnace on the narrow seas By 4 tall ships of Bw." This was in 1276: the lady, who was a daughter of De Montfort, was restored to her lover, and they were married in England in great state. In Marlowe's Ed. II iv. 5, "The Mayor and citizens of Bw." hand over the elder Spencer to Q. Isabel: the Queen having taken the city without a siege and compelled the K. to flee to Ireland in 1327. In R2 ii. 2, 135, Greene, on the return of Bolingbroke, says, "I will for refuge straight to Bw. castle; the Earl of Wiltshire is already there." In ii. 3, 164, Bolingbroke compels York to go with him "To Bw. castle, which they say is held By Bushy, Bagot, and their complices." In Trag. Richd II v. 3, 52, Cheney reports that Bagot has fled "to Bwe., to make strong the castle." R2 iii. 1, is laid before the castle, and describes the death of Bushy and Greene, who, along with the Earl of Wiltshire, were beheaded in the centre of the city at the High Cross. In iii. 2, 142, Aumerle asks, "Is Bushy, Greene, and the Earl of Wiltshire dead?" And is answered by Scroop, "Ay, all of them at Bw. lost their heads." The Earl of Wiltshire was Lord Scroop of Masham, brother of the Archbp. of York; and in H4 A. i. 3, 271, Worcester says that the Archbp." bears hard His brother's death at Bw. the Lord Scroop." In H6 B. iii. 1, 328, York, about to set out for Ireland to quell the rebellion in 1449, says, "At Bw. I expect my soldiers; From there I'll ship them all for Ireland."

Spenser, F. Q. iv. 11, 31, mentions "Bw. fair "as the glory of the Avon. In Three Ladies ii., Lucre speaks of B. as one of several places where the influx of foreign traders makes men "great rents upon little room bestow." Hycke tells how he met in his travels a great navy full of people that would into Ireland; and amongst the ships were "the Nycolas and the Mary Bellouse of B." In Mayne's s Match v. 4, Cypher, disguised as a sailor, pretends to have been shipwrecked, and to have saved his life by swimming "till a ship of B. took me up and brought me home." Fairs were held at B. in Much and September; and also on St. James' Day, July 25. Fair became famous very early. In Chrétien de Troyes' Guillaume d'Angleterre, written in the latter half of the 12th cent., we find "Car a B. l'autre semainne Devoit estre la foire plainne." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 283, we are told that Hobson has ordered goods from Dieppe, "for he must use them at Bw. Fair." In Tarlton's Jests 29, we are told that the Q.'s Players "travelled down to St. James his Fair at Bwe." In Deloney's Craft ii. 11, the Green K. of St. Martin's "told them flat he meant to go to St. James his Fair at Bw." Richard the Redeless (1399) opens with a description of the author going to prayer "In a blessid borugh that Bw. is named, In a temple of the Trinite the toune even amiddes That Cristis chirche is cleped." This is the Ch. of the Holy Trinity in the centre of the City, at the junction of High, Broad, Corn, and Wine Sts.

B. stones were rock-crystals found in the Clifton limestone and used as gems, and often passed off on the unwary as diamonds. In Jonson's Devil iii. i. Meercraft charges Gilthead with trying to sell him "some Bw. stone or Cornish counterfeit." Spenser, F. Q. iv. 11, 31, says that the Avon is "Proud of his adamants with which he shines And glisters wide." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon iii. 2, Chartley apologizes for giving Luce "this jewel, a plain Bwe. stone, a counterfeit." In Field's Amends i. 1, Sir John says, "To the unskilful owner's eye, alike The Bw. sparkles as the diamond; But by a lapidary the truth is found." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. ii. 3, when Bloodhound is announced, the Capt. exclaims, "The expected thing, that bought the B. stone." Lodge, in Wit's Miserie (1596) 33 A., speaks of "A counterfeit chain . . . Bw. diamonds." Hall, in Satires (1597) iii. 4, 26, satirizes Myson for cutting his glove to show "A signet-ring of B. diamond." Bw. Red was a dye of that colour. Skelton tells us that Elynour Rumming had "her kirtle Bwe. red." In a Will Of 1551, quoted by Peacock in N. W. Linc. Glossary, a bequest includes "One kirtle of Bwe. red which were her mother's." B. milk was a slang name for Sack. Prynne and Walker, in Fiennes Trial (1644) 78, mention "Good store of B. milk."

The scene of Bristowe is laid in that city during the reign of Richd. I. Joseph Swetnam, the hero of Swetnam, "took the habit of a fencer, and set up school at Bw." Day and Rowley produced in 1602 a play (now lost) entitled The Bristol Tragedy: probably a dramatization of some local murder. There is also a lost play by Ford and Dekker, licensed in 1624, and entitled The Bristol Merchant. George Salterne, the author of the University play Tonumbeius, was a native of B.; and the father of the dramatist John Fletcher was at one time Bp. of B., afterwards of Lond.


(B. = Britain, Bh. = British, Bn. = Briton, Bia. = Britannia). The island in N.W. Europe containing England, Scotland, and Wales. The popular derivation from Brut, the legendary leader of the Trojans who came to B. after the siege of Troy, is quite without foundation. The chief variants are Bretayne, Briteigne, Brytayn, and Brittany: each of them with half a dozen different spellings. The people are called British, Britons, Britains, and Brits: again with many variations. The same names are used for the French province of Bretagne, q.v.. Throughout the Middle English period the name is always used of the island before the coming of the Angles and Saxons, and this is Shakespeare's uniform usage; the. only apparent exception being in H8 i. 1, 231, where Norfolk, describing the field of the Cloth of Gold, says that the Englishmen there "made B. India; every man that stood Showed like a mine "; but this scene is generally ascribed to Fletcher. In L.L.L. iv. 1, 126, Boyet quotes a saying, "that was a woman when Q. Guinover of B. was a little wench." All the other examples occur in Lear and Cym., in which plays the scene is laid in B. in the times before the coming of the English. But in many passages it is clear that Shakespeare intended an appeal to the patriotic feelings of his audience, and identified them with their predecessors in the island. Thus, in Cym. ii. 4, 19, Posthumus speaks of "our not-fearing B," and adds: "Our countrymen Are men more ordered than when Julius Caesar Smiled at their lack of skill, but found their courage Worthy his frowning at. Their discipline, Now wing-led with their courages, will make known To their approvers, they are people, such That mend upon the world." Even Cloten is inspired by such a theme: in iii. 1, 12, he says, "B.'s a world By itself, and we will nothing pay For wearing our own noses." In v. 3, 24, Belarius rallies the Bh. with the cry, "Our B's. harts die flying, not our men." In i. 4, 77, Iachimo says that Posthumus' praises are "too good for any lady in Britanie." In Lear the "Bh. powers," though fighting against Lear and Cordelia, are made to beat the French. It is curious that in the snatch of the old ballad quoted by Edgar in Lear iii. 4, 189, Shakespeare preserves the local colour by changing "I smell the blood of a Christian [or English) man "into "I smell the blood of a Brittish man."

In B. & F. Bonduca i. 1, Caratach says, "Shut up your temples, Bns."; and throughout the play the word is correctly used. In Fisher's Fuimus i. 2, Cominius says, "It is the B. shore which, 10 leagues hence, Displays her shining cliffs unto your sight." In Massinger's Virgin iv. 1, Sapritius says, "Of all nations Our Roman swords e'er conquered none comes near The Bn." In his Roman Actor ii. 1, Aretinus refers to the service done by Agricola "In the reducing B. to obedience." In Nero ii. 3, Scaevola boasts that the "painted Bn." could not subdue the Romans. In Nobody i. 1, 13, Cornwell says, "1 gave release to B's. miseries." The scene of Val. Welsh is laid in B." In the reign of Claudian when the Bryttish Ile Was tributary to that conquering see" (" Claudian "should be "Claudius "). In Kyd's Cornelia iv., Caesar boasts, "The Bs., locked within a watery realm And walled by Neptune, stooped to me at last." In Chapman's Caesar i. 1, 29, Cato charges Caesar with having recruited his army from the scum of "B., Belgie, France, and Germany." In Greene's Orlando ii. 1, 718, Orlando exclaim in his madness, "Arthur with a crew of Bns. comes To seek for Medor." In May's Agrippina i. 1, 597, Caesar speaks of the "B. prisoners "amongst whom is "that bold Caractacus." In B. & F. Prophetess i. 1, Charinus says that Aper "has under him The flower of all the Empire, and the strength, The B. and the German cohorts." In ii. 2, Diocles (afterwards Diocletian) speaks of his exploits "in the late B. wars." The date is A.D. 284. In W. Rowley's Shoemaker ii. 2, 101, the Nuntius, coming from Gaul from Dioclesian to B., says, "He craves thy aid from Brittany." Milton, P. L. i. 581, describes K. Arthur, "Begirt with Bh. and Armoric knights." In P. R. iv. 77, he speaks of ambassadors coming to Rome "From Gallia, Gades, and the Bh. West."

Towards the end of the 16th cent. B. began to be used for the whole island, owing to the prospect of the Union of the Crowns of England and Scotland, and the need of a common name for the two kingdoms. In Fair Em. I. 1, William I is addressed as "B's. mighty conqueror." In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iii. 3, Tamburlaine proposes to get together a fleet to keep in awe "all the ocean by the Bh. shore." In Greene's Friar xiii. 78, Lambert and Serlsby are referred to as "These brave lusty Brutes." in Middleton's Mad World i., we find "the Bh. men "in contrast with the Italians and the French. In the Puritan v. 1, "fine Bns." is used in the sense of "fine Englishmen "; and in Field's Weathercock i. 2, "bold Bns." is similarly employed. In Webster's Wyat i. 3, Northumberland joys in the ancient victories against the French and Spaniards, "whose high pride We levelled with the waves of Bh. shore, Dyeing the haven of Brit with guilty blood." In Marlowe's Ed. II ii. 2, By. is used for England: "AEque tandem shall that canker cry Unto the proudest peer of By." So, in Marston's Antonio A. i., Antonio says, "I shipped my hopeful thoughts for Brittany, Longing to view great Nature's miracle The glory of her sex ": Elizabeth to wit. In Mason's Mulleasses, prol., the poet proposes to .. transfer Pernassus into Brittany." The Latin form Bia. occurs occasionally. In Kirke's Champions ii. 1, Andrew speaks of "The name Bia., which includes within it Fair England, Wales, and Scotland." Jonson, in Blackness, says, "With that great name Bia. this blest isle Hath won her ancient dignity and style." After the accession of James I the united kingdoms were called B., md often, by way of distinction, Great B. James was officially proclaimed in 1604 2s "King of Great B., France, and Ireland"; but it was not till the Act of Union in 1707 that Parliament declared, "That the 2 kingdoms of England and Scotland shall be . . . united into 1 kingdom by the name of Great B." The phrase had already been used, but in cam anterior to 1604 the adjective "great" has its ordinary sense of "famous." Thus, is Sackville's Ferrex v. Dumb Show, we are told, "Herein was signified tumults . . . as fell in the realm of gt. Brittayne"; and in v. 1, Ferrex says, "Ours is the sceptre then of gt. Brittayne." In Massinger's Virgin v. 1, Theophilus reads a dispatch headed "Gt. B.": a curious proleptic use of the phrase. Shakespeare never uses it; but it is found in Jonson's Alchemist iv. 3, "The people of Gt. B:'; in Randolph's Muses, iii. 3, in the form "Gt. Brittany ".–. and in Jonson's Magnetic v. 5, "The safety of Gt. B." Drayton, in Polyolb. (1622) x. 220, apostrophizes, "Thou, the Q. of Isles, Gt. B." In Barnavelt iv. 3, Elizabeth is called Elizabeth of England, and James I the K. of B. In T. Heywood's Captives v. 1, Raphael says, "English, sayest thou?" and the Clown adds: "or Brittishe, which you please." The date is 1624. In Sharpham's Fleire 259, Ruffel says, "I did pray oftener when I was an Englishman, but I have not prayed often, I must confess, since I was a Brittaine . . . . Canst tell, if an Englishman were in debt, whether a Brittaine must pay it or no?" To which Fleire answers: "No, questionless no." Milton, in Sonn. xi. 2, speaks of "the royal bench Of Bh. Themis." In Spenser, F. Q. iii. 2, 7, Britomart calls England "the greater Brytayne," as distinguished from the lesser B., i.e. Brittany or Armorica.

Bh. oysters were much esteemed at Rome. In May's Agrippina iii. 334, Montanus asks, "Will it be lawful [after Nero's accession] to eat . . . Bh. oysters without being cited before the censor?"

Bn. is often used in the sense of a Welshman, the Welsh being descended from the ancient Bns. Sometimes the more specific form Camber-Bn. is used in this sense. In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 3, Valerius sings, "The Bn., he metheglin quaffs." In Kirke's Champions i. 1, the list includes "George for brave England . . . And David will the B.'s name defend." In B. & F. Nightwalker iii. 6, Maria, disguised as a Welshwoman, "can sing very fine Prittish tunes." In Middleton's Chaste Maid iv. 1, Tim is assured that his Welsh wife can sing "the sweetest Bh. songs." In Dekker's Westward ii. 2, Birdlime says, "Welshmen love to be called Bns." In Glapthorne's Hollander ii. 1, a Welsh doctor strains his potions "through a piece of Bh. frieze." In King and Queen's Entertainment at Richmond (1636) 451, the Post makes a speech in Welsh, and says, "Here's nobody understands me, never a true Bn. amongst you." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. iii. 1, Randall, the Welshman, when told that the widow "will have her nest feathered with no Bh. breed," answers: "Zounds, was not Bh. so good as English?" In B.&F.'s Chances v. 3, a song speaks of "B. metheglin and Peeter." In Peele's Ed. I, p. 15, Edward says to David, "Thou couldst not be a Camber-Bn. If thou didst not love a soldier "; and later in the play Llewellyn appeals to his countrymen, "Why, Camber-Bns, are ye so incensed?"

North Bn. is used for a Scot. In B. & F. Wit S. W. iv. 1, Oldcraft exclaims, "Out! a North B. constable? That tongue will publish all, it speaks so broad."


The name given by James I to the New Exchange built on the S. side of the Strand by Earl Salisbury in 1609. For details, see under EXCHANGE and BURSE. In Glapthorne's Wit i. 1, Formal says that Clare "has been at B. b. a buying pins and needles." In iii. 1, Alderman Covet avers, "I never liked a song unless the Ballad of the famous Lond. Prentice, or the Building of B. B." Donne, in Elegy xv. (1609), discusses, "Whether the B. B. did fill apace And likely were to give the Exchange disgrace." Webster's White Devil was published by "Hugh Perry at his shop at the sign of the Harrow in B. B. 1631." Marston's Tragedies was "Printed by A. M. for William Sheares at the Harrow in B.B. 1633."




A college in Oxford for students of Law, dating back to the 12th cent. It was originally called Segrim, or Segreve, H.; but received the name of B. from its wide entrance, in the beginning of the reign of Henry VI. It was included in the foundation of Pembroke College in 1624. The H. on the right of the gateway of Pembroke is part of the old B. H. In Greene's Friar xiii. 50, Serlsby says, "I have a son that lives in Oxford in the B. H." In Cuckqueans iv. 8, Floradin accosts Claribel as "my quondam chamberfellow in Brodegates," and goes on to ask him, "How hast thou done since our departures from Oxford "John Heywood, the famous epigrammatist, and author of many Interludes written between 1520 and 1540, is supposed on good grounds to have been a member of this college.


Lond., now Old B. St., running from Threadneedle St. to Liverpool St. It was one of the most fashionable sts. in the City. In it was a famous glass-house, e, run by Venetian workmen. In Mayne's s Match ii. 4, we are introduced to an ancient widow who "hath no eyes but such as she first bought in B.-st.": to wit, her spectacles. In Killigrew's Parson ii. 5, Jolly tells of an old lady "dwelling at the sign of the Buck in B.-st."


Lond., on S. side of Upper Thames St, opposite to Old Fish St. Hill. So called because of its ruinous condition. Close by was the town-house of the Ds. of Norfolk. Here, too, was a water-house, constructed by Bulmer in 1594 to pump up water from the Thames for the supply of the City.




On the Thames on the S. side of Thames St., about halfway between Southwark Bdge. and St. Paul's Pier. In Westward for Smelts we have, "At this time of the year the pudding-house at B. W. is watched by the Hollanders' eel-ships, lest the inhabitants, contrary to the law, should spill the blood of innocents."


A common SM. of Bethnall Green, where the brooms grew which were used for sweeping purposes in Lond. B. Rd., which runs just S. of the Limehouse Canal, between North St. and Chrisp St., retains the name; and Bromley is evidently Broom-Lea. In Day's B. Beggar iv., Strowd says, "I'll but cross o'er the Summer lay by the Broom field, and be with you presently." Tarlton, in News from Purgatory, tells of the broom-men who were there "for robbing of the broom closes between Barking and Lond."


The capital of W. Flanders in Belgium, 7.5 M. N.W. of Brussels. It was one of the chief commercial cities of the Middle Ages. The Halles, built in 1364, has a magnificent bell-tower, the famous Belfry of B., the carillons of which are the finest in the world. Langland, in Piers C. 7, 279, makes Covetyse send his servant "to B. my profit to awaite." In Chaucer's C. T. B. 1245, the merchant fares "toward the toun of Brugges To byen there a porcioun of ware." The scene of B. & F. Beggars, with the exception of i. 1, and 2, is laid at B. and in the neighbourhood. In iii. 1, Hempskirke lays a plot to kidnap Goswin, and "make him pay ransom ere he see B. towers again." In Larum G. 1, Danila says, "I'll meet his Grace [D'Alva] at Bridges." The author's spelling of the names of Dutch towns is amusingly eccentric. In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] i. 5, Jolly says, "Ye #hall no more make monstrous tales from B. to revive your sinking credits in loyal ale-houses." The supposed date of the play is 1658, at which time Charles II was living at B. In the Pleadings in Rastell v. Walton (1530), one of the theatrical dresses claimed for is "of blue satin of B."


(now BRINDISI). A Roman colonia and the chief port and naval station on the Adriatic. It had a spacious double harbour, and was the ordinary port of embarkation from Italy for Greece and the East. Here the poet Virgil died. At the outbreak of the Civil War in 49 B.C. Pompey went over to Epirus, and Caesar followed him, leaving a part of his forces behind at B. In Chapman's Caesar ii. 3, 85, Caesar says that his hopes are now "resting at B., In that part of my army with Sabinus." Antony, in Antony iii. 7, 22, commenting on the activity of Octavian just before the battle of Actium, says, "Is it not strange, Canidius, That from Tarentum and B. He could so quickly cut the Ionian Sea And take in Toryne?" This is taken from Plutarch: "Caesar had all in readiness in the havens of Tarentum and B. . . . Now whilst Antonius rode at anchor . . . at Actium, Caesar had quickly passed the sea Ionium, and taken a place called Toryne, before Antonius understood that he had taken ship." In Tiberius 2150, Maximus says of Germanicus, on his way to Armenia, "My Lord first sailed to Brandusium." Evidently the author did not know either the name or the position of the place, or he would not have made Germanicus "sail" thither from Rome. In Bacchus, one of the company of topers is "One Peers Spendall from B., an Italian friar."


(= BRAUNSCHWEIG). A duchy in N.W. Germany. The capital, B., lies abt. 130 m. W. of Berlin. The Royal line of England is descended from the younger branch of the family of B. In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus i. 1, 137, Alphonsus says, "When Churfurst Mentz was taken prisoner By young victorious Otho, D. of Braunschweig, That Richd., Earl of Cornwall, did disburse The ransom of a king, a million, To save his life." This story seems to be pure invention. In Dodypol i. 2, Alberdure says that his father, the D. of Saxony, "Hath to the B. duchess vowed himself"; but the whole story is imaginary. In Barnavelt iv. 3, Sir john mentions amongst his correspondence a letter from "the D. of B." B. was famous for a kind of beer, made from malted wheat, and called Mum, first brewed, it is said, by Christian Mumme about the end of the 15th cent. In Glapthorne's Wallenstein iii. 3, Newman says, "I think you're drunk with Lubecke beer or B. Mum." Clocks were also made there. Dekker, in News from Hell, says that the drunkard's wits, "like wheels in B. clocks, were all going, but not one going truly."


A variant in Chettle's Hoffman B. 3 for PRUSSIA, q.v.. The Latin form is Borussia.


The capital of Belgium and of the old province Of S. Brabant, on the Senne, 36 m. S. of Antwerp. It was founded by St. Gery of Cambrai in the 7th cent., and was walled in the 11th. In 1507 it was made the seat of government in the Low Countries, and after the separation of the United Provinces it remained the capital of Brabant and of the Spanish Netherlands In Chapman's Trag. Byron iv. 1, certain portents are enumerated which have befallen the hero; in particular "your goodly horse which the Arch-duke gave you at B. . . . fell mad and killed himself." Byron went as French plenipotentiary to B. in 1558 to witness the signature of the Archduke to the treaty between the Spanish and the French; no doubt the present of the horse was made on this occasion. In Ford's Sacrifice iii 2, Fernando relates, "I saw in B. the D. of Brabant Welcome the Archbp. of Mentz with rare conceit . . . Performed by knights and ladies of his court, In nature of an antic; which methought–For that I ne'er before saw women-antics–Was for the newness strange and much commended." This play was published in 1633 and there is probably an allusion to the appearance of the Q. of England and her ladies in a Masque at Whitehall in 1632; for his supposed attack upon which innovation Prynne lost his ears. In Cartwright's Ordinary iv. 1, Credulous inquires, "What news from Bruxels, or the, Hague? Dye hear aught of the Turk's designs?" In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, Thomas reports that Gundomar "lives condemned to his share at Bruxels, And there sits fling certain politic hinges To hang the States on." Gundomar, the Spanish ambassador to England, had retired to B. in 1624 after his failure to secure the marriage of Prince Charles to the Spanish Infanta. B. was a strong centre of Roman Catholicism. In Middleton's Chess v. 2, the Black Queen's Pawn, who stands for a secular Jesuitess, speaks of the time "when I was a probationer at B." And in iii. 1, the Fat Bp. (Antonio di Dominis of Spalato) says, "Expect my books against you, printed at Douay, B., or Spalato." Hall, in Epp. 1, 4, says: "At Bruxelles I saw some Englishwomen profess themselves vestals. Poor souls! they could not be fools enough at home!"

B. had the reputation of being a gay city. In Gascoigne's Government v. 9, Fidus tells us that "Ambidexter had gotten a fair minion, forsooth, and stayed with her at Brusselles." In Tuke's Five Hours ii., Ernesto says that Porcia is "handsomer far than all those B. beauties which you call the finished pieces." The name is the subject of an atrocious pun in T. Heywood's Challenge ii. 1, where the Clown says to Bonavide, "At Bristles, if you remember, you were used but roughly." In Davenant's Favourite iv. 1, a lady says, "For essences to Rome, for tweeses to B., and for fans to Paris." In Cockayne's Obstinate iii. 3, Carionil, who is disguised as a negro, says, "I learned your language [i.e. English] at Bruxels."


(i.e. BRIGHTLINGSEA). A fishing vill. on the estuary of the Colne, in Essex. One of the ships seen by Hycke, p. 88, going to Ireland was the "Myghell of B."


The county town of Bucks., on the Gt. Ouse, 58 m. N.W. of Lond. It is described in "Domesday Book "as an ancient borough, and it sessed an old castle, the site of which is now occupied by the Ch. of SS. Peter and Paul. It is a territorial title in the English peerage. In Trag. Richd. II. iv. 2, 174, Thomas of Gloucester is addressed as "Earl of Cambridge and of B." His grandson, Humphrey Stafford, was created D. of B. in 1444, in honour of the betrothal of Henry VI to Margaret of Anjou. In H6 B. i. 1, Stafford is present at the welcome to the new Q., but leaves the presence along with Somerset, muttering: "Thou or I, Somerset, will be protector, Despite D. Humphrey or the Cardinal." Salisbury, Warwick, and York resolve to join together "to bridle and suppress . . . Somerset's and B.'s ambition" (i. 1, 202). In 1, 3, 72, Margaret complains that Beaufort, Somerset, and B., and grumbling York "can do more in England than the K." In the latter part of this scene he joins Somerset in an attack on Gloucester." In i. 4, he is associated with York and Stafford in the arrest of the Duchess of Gloucester, and is deputed to take the news to her husband, which he does in ii. 1. In ii. 2, 72, York, being hailed as K. by Salisbury and Warwick, enjoins them to "wink . . . At B. and all the crew of them . . . Till they have snared the good D. Humphrey." He is present at the arrest of Gloucester at Bury St.Edmund's (iii. 1). He is with the K. in iv. 4, when the news comes of Cade's rebellion, and advises the K. to retire to Killingworth, whilst along with old Clifford he goes to meet and disperse the rebels in Southwark. He brings word of this to the K. to Killingworth (iv. 9), and is sent to make terms with York, who is in arms to second Cade. He meets him between Deptford and Blackheath, and by the false story of Somerset's imprisonment induces him to lay down his arms (v. 1); but the cheat is discovered and the war begins, B. taking the side of the Lancastrians. In H6 C. i. 1, 10, when the Yorkists meet after their victory at St. Albans, Edward declares, "Lord Stafford's father, D. of B., Is either slain or wounded dangerous; I cleft his beaver with a downright blow." This is a mistake: Lord Stafford was killed at St. Albans as is stated just before: "Lord Clifford and Lord Stafford . . . Were by the swords of common soldiers slain"; but B. was killed at the battle of Northampton 5 years later, in 1460.

Lord Stafford had married the daughter of Somerset, and their son Henry succeeded to the title on his grandfather's death in 1460, and is the B. of R3. In R3 i. 3, he is present and has come from the bedside of K. Edward to make peace between the D. of Gloucester and the Q.'s brothers. In the course of the scene Q. Margaret offers him her hand: "O princely B., I'll kiss thy hand . . . Thy garments are not spotted with our blood "; and warns him against Gloucester: "O B., beware of yonder dog!Look I when he fawns, he bites." In Act II, in the presence of the K., he pledges his faith to the Q., and prays, "God punish me With hate in those where I expect most love . . . When I am cold in zeal to you or yours." In ii. 2, he advises that the young Prince should be brought to Lond. to be crowned; and is greeted by Gloucester as "my other self, my counsel's consistory, My oracle, my prophet." He is associated with Gloucester in the arrest of Rivers, Grey, and Vaughan (ii. 3, 44). In iii. 1, he brings the young princes to the Tower, and then plans with Catesby to secure the adhesion of Hastings and Stanley to the usurpation of Richd. In iii. 2, he meets Hastings on his way to the Tower, and by his sinister aside (123) indicates his complicity in the plan for the execution of that nobleman. He is with Gloucester in the next scene, where Hastings is sent to the block.. It in he who persuades the citizens to accept Gloucester as K. (iii. 5 and 7), and at his coronation (iv. 2, 1) Richd. declares, "Cousin of B. . . . thus high, by thy advice And thy assistance is K. Richd. seated." But finding him not quick to accept his hints as to the murder of the princes, he says, "High-reaching B. grows circumspect . . . The deep-revolving B. No more shall be the neighbour to my counsel." In the latter part of the scene he puts off with studied inattention B.'s claim to the Earldom of Hereford; and B., alarmed, hurries off to his castle at Brecknock. In iv. 4, we find that, as the result of his conference with the Bp. of Ely, B. has invited Henry of Richmond to come over, and has raised an army in Wales to help him; but by a later messenger comes word that the army has been dispersed by flood and storm, and, later still, that B. has been captured. In v. 1, we see him led to the block at Salsbury without being allowed to see Richd. The often-quoted," Off with his head I So much for B. I "is not Shakespeare's, but is in Colley Cibber's adaptation of the play for Garrick. The ghost of B. appears to Richd. on the eve of the battle of Bosworth (v. 3, 167): "O in the battle think on B., And die in terror of thy guiltiness."

B.'s wife was Catharine Woodville, sister of Edward's Queen, Elizabeth, and their son Edward is the B. of H8. In Ford's Warbeck v. 2, the King says of him, "Young B. is a fair-natured prince, Lovely in hopes and worthy of his father." His name was Stafford, but as heir of the Hereford family he preferred their name, Bohun. In H8 ii. 1, 103, he says, "When I came hither I was Lord High Constable And D. of B.; now, poor Edward Bohun." He gives a brief account of his father's career: "My noble father, Henry of B., Who first raised head against usurping Richd., Flying for succour to his servant Banister, Being distressed, was by that wretch betrayed, And without trial fell." "Henry VII succeeding," he continues, "Restored me to my honours "; which happened in 1486. He appears in H8 i. 1, and informs the lords that "an! untimely ague Stayed me a prisoner in my chamber "at the time of the Field of the Cloth of Gold. Holinshed, however, says that he was there. He shows at once his hatred for Wolsey: "The Devil speed him!" and, when he enters, fixes his eyes on him full of disdain. To which Wolsey responds, "B. shall lessen this big look "; and whilst B. is planning to go to the King and "Cry down this Ipswich fellow's insolence "he is arrested and sent to the Tower. In i. 2, his surveyor is examined and, in spite of Q. Katharine's pleading, he is sent for trial by the King. In ii. 1, his trial and condemnation are described by a citizen who was present; and he himself passes over the stage to execution: "Now . . . Henry the eighth life, honour, name, and all That made me happy, at one stroke has taken For ever from the world (116). In iii. 2, 256, Survey upbraids the fallen Wolsey: "Thy ambition . . . robbed this bewailing land Of noble B., my father-in-law." In iv. 1, 5, the two gentlemen, waiting to see the coronation procession of Anne Boleyn, remember that the last time they were there "The D. of B. came from his trial." It is probable that he was a sacrifice rather to Henry's jealousy of him as a possible claimant to the throne than to the spite of Wolsey. In the nonsensical verses against worms in Thersites (Anon. Plays i. 219), Mater invokes "the buttock of the bitter [i.e. bittern] bought at B."–where the name is introduced purely for the sane of the alliteration. In Darius, p. 45, Iniquity says to Charity, "Truly thou art a holy man As is between this and B."


An inland county of England. It had a bad reputation as a haunt of thieves, and in the great tavern scene in Langland's Piers B. 2, 108. one of the company is "Bette the bedel of Bokynghamshire ": altered in the C. text to "Bette the bedele of Banneburies sokne." In H6 C. iv. 8, 14, Warwick commissions his brother Montague to raise forces against Edward IV in B.


A narrow st. in Lond., running S. from the corner of Cheapside and the Poultry to Walbrook. It was called after one Buckle, who had a manor and tenements there. Stow says, "It is possessed of grocers and apothecaries towards the W. end thereof." They sold not only herbs and drugs, but also tobacco and sweetmeats of various kinds. In M.W.W. iii. 3,79, Falstaff says to Mrs. Ford, "I cannot cog and say thou art this and that, like a many of these lisping hawthornbuds, that come like women in men's apparel, and smell like B. in simple time." Mouffet says that the smell of the spices in B. saved the inhabitants from the Plague. In Westward i. 2, Alm. Tenterhook says, "Go into B. and fetch me a ounces of preserved melons; look there be no tobacco taken [i.e. smoked] in the shop when he weighs it." Dekker, in Seven Sins, says that candlelight is more deadly to rats "than all the ratsbane in B." In his Wonderful Year (1603), he says that on account of the Plague "every st. looked like B. for poor Methridatum and Dragon Water were bought in every corner." In his Westward iii. 3, 140, Wafer bids her boy "Run into B. for a ounces of Dragon Water, some spermaceti, and treacle ": her child having been taken ill. Jonson, in Barthol. i. 1, speaks of "the black boy in B. that takes the scurvy, roguy tobacco there." In Middleton's Chaste Maid iii. 2, Allwit, complaining of the extravagant love of women for sweetmeats, says that all his estate "is buried in B." Jonson, in Epigrams iii., advises his publisher, if his book will not sell without puffing, to "send it to B., there 'twill well," i.e. it will serve to wrap tobacco and sweetmeats in. In Alexander Gill's Lines upon Ben Jonson's Magnetic Lady, he says of the play, "From B. let it not be barred, But think not of Duck Lane or Paul's Churchyard," i.e. it is good enough to wrap drugs in, but not worthy of a respectable publisher. In Haughton's Englishmen iii. 2, Vandal the Dutchman has his lodging in B. In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] ii. 8, Widow Barebottle relates that her late husband sought for incomes" in B., and 3 days after a friend of his, that he owed £500 to, was hanged for a malignant." Sir Thomas More lived for a time in this street.


A very curious equivalent for Bructeri, a tribe of Gauls living between the Ems and the Lippe, who were defeated by Germanicus A.D. 16. In Tiberius 1154, Germanicus says, "Twice did we meet the B. in the field."


A city in Hungary, on the right bank of the Danube, 130 m. S.E. of Vienna. On the left bank of the river is Pesth, and the two are united by a chain bdge. Buda-Pesth is the capital of Hungary and the seat of Government. The town dates from A.D. 1240, when the fortress on the Schlossberg was built. It was taken in 1526 by Solyman the Magnificent, retaken by Ferdinand of Bohemia in 1527, and again by Solyman in 1529. From that time till 1686 it remained in the hands of the Turks. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. ii. 1, Ferdinand, the Lord of B., is one of the counsellors of Sigismund of Hungary, and it is he who advises the breach of the treaty made between Bajazeth and Sigismund after the battle of Nicopolis. In Florio's Montaigne i. 2, mention is made of the wars "which K. Ferdinando made against the widow of John, K. of Hungaria, about B." In B. & F.'s Captain ii. 1, the father of Laelia says, "At B. siege Full many a cold night have I watched in armour." This was doubtless the siege Of 1529.


A st. in Lond., running N. from Cannon St. to Watling St. It was so called from the furriers who occupied it: b. meaning lambskin dressed with the fur outwards, as in some university hoods. An Act of 1365 directs that all pelterers (i.e. furriers) "shall dwell in Walebrooke, Cornehulle, and Bogerow." In Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, Littlewit compliments his wife on her cap, which is not, as the good Puritan lady would have had it but for her husband, "a rough country beaver with a copper band, like the coney-skin woman of B.-i."


The dist. S. of the Danube between Servia and the Black Sea. The Bulgarians were a Tartar people from the banks of the Volga, and subdued the original Slav population about the middle of the 7th cent. A.D. They had constant wars with Hungary, and were finally conquered by Stephen IV towards the end of the 15th cent. In 1392 they were defeated by the Turks and became a part of the Ottoman Empire. They were regarded as a barbarous and savage people, and the word "Buggar "is a corruption of Bulgar. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. ii. 1, Frederic reminds Sigismund of the recent slaughter of the Christians by the Turks: "Now, through the midst of Varna and B., And almost to the very walls of Rome They have not long since massacred our camps." The reference is to the invasion of by the Turks under Bajazeth in 1396, and the great defeat of the Christians at Nicopolis.

BULL [1]


BULL [2]

The sign of a tavern in Lond., on the W. side of Bishopsgate St. Within, a little N. of Threadneedle St. It was one of 5 inns in which plays were performed before the building of theatres; and both Burbage and Tarlton were players there. In Tarlton's jests (1611), it is said: "At the B. in Bishops-gate-st., where the Queen's players oftentimes played, Tarlton coming on the stage, one from the gallery threw a pippin at him." Tarlton got a licence in Nov. 1583 to play "at the sign of the B. in Bishopsgate St." Gosson, in School of Abuse (1579), p. 40, speaks of "The Jew and Ptolome shown at the B."; the former of which he describes as "representing the greediness of worldly chusers and bloody minds of usurers." It was probably an earlier treatment of the subject of Merch. The inn has another literary interest from its connection with Hobson, the Cambridge carrier, whose epitaph Milton wrote, and whose name lives in the phrase "Hobson's choice," and in Hobson St. and Hobson's Conduit in Cambridge. The B. was his Lond. house. of call; as Milton says in the Epitaph, "He had any time this 10 years full Dodged with him [i.e. Death] betwixt Cambridge and the B." According to the Spectator, No. 509, "This memorable man stands drawn in fresco at an inn which he used in Bishopsgate St., with an hundred pound bag under his arm, with this inscription upon the said bag: The fruitful mother of a hundred more." In Middleton's Chaste Maid i. 1, a message is brought from Cambridge by "one of Hobson's porters," who says, as he enters, "I have took a great deal of pains and come from the B. sweating." The Mermaid Edn. reads "Bell "–an obvious misprint or mistake. In Yarrington's Two Trag. i. 3, Beech, the chandler of Thames St., says to his boy, as he goes out, "If any ask, come for me to the B." Taylor, in Carriers Cosmographie (1637), mentions "the B. in Bishopsgate St." as the lodging of the carrier of Hadham, in Herts.

BULL [3]

Sign of a tavern at St. Albans, which Baskerville, towards the end of the 17th cent., mentions as the largest inn in England. In Porter's Abington i. 2, the boy says to Coomes, "Thou stand'st like the B. at St. Albans."






An inn in Cheapside, Lond., now the Bull's Head, 3 Bread St., off Cheapside. General Monk stayed here when he came to Load. in 1660; and it was the first meeting-place of the Royal Society. In the list of Lond. Taverns in News Barthol. Fair, we have "The Miter in Cheape, and then the B. H, And many like places that make noses red." There was another B. H. in Smithfield, near the Bars; which is mentioned in Long Meg xvii.


The sign of John Haviland's bookshop in Paul's churchyard (1625).


Another name for BOLOGNA (la grassa), q.v.. In Phillip's Grissill 1026, Gautier commands his servant to convey Grissill's daughter "to B. L, to the Countess of Pango."


A town of Suffolk, on the right bank of the Waveney, 109 m. N.E. of Lond. B. Castle, of which some remains are still to be seen, was built by the Bigods, Earls of Norfolk, in the time of Stephen. There is an old story that when Henry II tried to bring Hugh Bigod to justice he exclaimed, "Were I in my castle of B. Upon the river Waveney, I would not care for the King of Cockney." This is paraphrased, and put into the mouth of Gloster in Look about iv.: "O that I were within my fort of B. Whose walls are washed with the clear stream of Waveney, Then would not Gloster pass a halfpenny For all those rebels and their poor king too." There was a Benedictine nunnery there, of which some ruins are still visible. In Trouble. Reign i., Philip the Bastard is represented plundering the monastery of B., wrongly described as Franciscan, and jeering at the monks in ribald rhymes: "Now, bald and barefoot Bungie birds, When up the gallows climbing." In Bale's Laws iv., Pseudo-doctrine claims "Wharton of B." as one of the supporters of the claims of Rome against the Protestants. This gentleman is mentioned in Bale's Image of Both Churches xiii., "Certain Popish priests of Master Wharton's retinue, not far from B. in Suffolk, did calk for Cromwell and for other else, if the world had not changed to their minds." Friar B., one of the rival heroes of Greene's Friar, took his name from this place.


(or BUNHILL ROW). A st. in Lond, on the W. side of the Artillery Ground, near Moorfields. It had houses on the W. side only, the E. being occupied by B. Fields, now a cemetery, and the Artillery Ground. The name, originally Bone-hill, was derived from the depositing there of more than 1000 cartloads of bones brought from the charnel house of St. Paul's in 154.9. The fields were used for archery practice, and were a common resort of the young Londoners. The neighbourhood had a somewhat unsavoury reputation. In Middleton's R.G. iv. 2, Mrs. Openwork asks, "Didst never see an archer as thou'st walked by B. look asquint when he drew his bow?" In More ii. 1, Harry says to his fellow-prentice, "Hoh, Robin, you met us well at B., to have you with us a Maying this morning." In Underwit iv. 3, Courtwell, scornfully speaking of a lady's breasts, says, "B. is worth a hundred on 'em, and but Higate, compared with 'em, is Paradice." Dekker, in preface to Satiro., says, "All Mt. Helicon to B., it would be found on the Poetaster's side, Se defendendo." In B. & F. Friends i. 2, Blacksnout says he got a wound in his groin "at the siege of Bunnil, passing the straights between Mayor's Lane and Terra del Fuego, the fiery isle." He doubtless refers to some adventure in one of the houses of ill-fame in, or near, B. See also under MAYOR'S LANE.




(i.e. BOURBONNE–LES–BAINS). In the department of Upper Marne, in France, 150 m. S.E. of Paris. It is celebrated for its medicinal springs and is a resort of invalids. In Killigrew's Parson v. 4, Sad speaks of women going to "the Epsoms, B., and the Spaws "to get rid of their diseases. .










(i.e. BURGUNDIAN, BOURGIGNON). In Chapman's Trag. Byron v. 1, Byron asks, "What countryman's the common Headsnian here?" To which Sossons answers: "He's a B." "The great devil, he is!" says Byron; "the bitter wizard told me a B. should be my headsman." The scene in which Byron consults the astrologer La Brosse in iii. I of Chapman's Consp. Byron; but this detail is not there given. Dekker, in preface to Satiro., says, "Horace questionless made himself believe that his B. wit might desperately challenge all comers, and that none durst take up the foils against him." The reference is probably to John Barrose, "a B. by nation and a fencer by profession," who in 1598 issued in Lond. a challenge to all and sundry to fence with him. He was executed in July of that year for killing an offer of the City. A B. is used for a ship of war, built iii the Netherlands, which at one time was under the dominion of Burgundy. In Drayton's Agincourt x. 110, he speaks Of "4 Bs. excellently manned."


(a BURGUNDIAN). In the following passages it doubtless refers to the Burgundian fencer mentioned in the last article. The suggestion in O.E.D. that the reference is to the overthrow of the Bastard of Burgundy by Anthony Woodville in Smithfield in 1467 is quite improbable. In Jack Drum ii. 181, Mons. John says, "You see Me kill a man, you see me hang like de B." Bobadill, in Jonson Ev. Man I. iv. 4, is called "that rogue, that foist, that fencing B."


(Bn. = Burgundian), or BURGONDIE; Fr. BOURGOGNE. The 1st Bu. kingdom was founded in the 5th cent. between the Aar and the Rhône by Gundicari the leader of a German tribe, the Bns. It ultimately included all the dist. on the E. of the Rhône from Lotharingia to the Gulf of Lyons. It was united to the German Empire in 1033 by Conrad II; but the part of it around Dijon (the modern B.) remained faithful to Charles of France, who made his brother Richd. D. of B. After try vicissitudes K. John made his son Philip the Bold D, do 1363, and he founded the famous line of Dukes which continued till the death of Charles the Bold in 1477, when B. reverted to the Crown. Philip, by his marriage with Margaret of Flanders added to his duchy the rich districts of Flanders and Artois. His successors were John the Fearless (1404). Philip the Good (1419), and Charles the Bold (1467–1477). The duchy lay S. of Champaigne, between the Upper Loire and the Saône. Its capital was Dijon, and it was renowned for its fertility, and especially for its wines. A D. of B. is one of the suitors for the hand of Cordelia in Lear. Holinshed fixes the date of Lear as anno mundi 3105 (i.e. 841 B.C.), and as the first mention of the Kingdom of B. is in the 5th cent. A.D. the anachronism is more than usually startling. The contrast, in i. 1, 85, between the "vines of France and milk of B." is not specially happy, for B. was a great wine-growing country; but the reference in i. 1, 261 to "waterish B." is better justified, for the province is full of rivers and streams. Heylyn says, "That which Q. Katharine was wont to say, that France had more rivers than all Europe beside, may in like manner be said of this province in respect of France, having in it the rivers of (i) Armacan, (2) Serum, (3) Cure, (4) Torney, (5) Valence, (6) Daue, (7) Soane, (8) Brune, (9) Senie, (10) Louche." In W. Rowley's Shoemaker i. 1, 295, Dioclesian says, "The Goths and Vandals have out-past the bounds And o'er the Rhine past into B." In ii. 1, 96, it is said: "Alleric K. of Goaths hath entered France"; but the date of the action is A.D. 297, a century before Alaric's invasion of France, and a cents. before there was any B. In Webster's Weakest, the prologue tells how Philip, D. of B., has been slain in battle against the D. of Anjou, leaving as his heir his nephew Frederick. The whole play is fictitious: if it belongs to any historical period the reign of Lewis IX of France seem to be indicated; but all the characters are imaginary.

The D. of B. summoned by the French K. to fight against the English in H5 iii. 5, 42, and whose eldest brother Anthony, D. of Brabant, was killed at Agincourt (iv. 8. 102), was John the Fearless, who was assassinated at the bdge. of Montereau in 1419. This murder threw his son and the whole powerful party of which he was the head upon the side of the English; and in the conference in the Ch. of S. Peter at Troyes, held in 1420, and described in H5 v. 2, the new D, Philip the Good, urges the necessity of making peace with England, and is one of the signatories to the Treaty. In Fam. Vict., Haz. p. 362, "the lance-knights of Burgondie "are mentioned as part of the French army at Agincourt. In H6 A. ii. 1 and 2, Philip is represented as fighting on the English side at Orleans. He is still with Bedford and Talbot at Rouen (iii. 1); but the appeal of La Pucelle, in iii. 3, 41, to "Brave B., undoubted hope of France," makes him "suddenly relent," and he goes over to the French. This was in 1425. A letter from him announcing his defection is brought to K. Henry at Paris (iv. 1, 12), in which he says, "I have forsaken your pernicious faction And joined with Charles, the rightful k. of France." In iv. 4 and 6, we find him fighting against Talbot. He died in 1467, after having acquired large possessions in the Low Countries, as well as in France. In H6 C. ii. 1, 143, Warwick tells Edward that George of Clarence "was lately sent From your kind Aunt, Duchess of B., With aid of soldiers to this needful war." This was in 1461, but the statement is not altogether accurate. Isabella, the wife of Philip the Good, was the grand-daughter of John of Gaunt, and therefore not aunt, but 3rd cousin to Edward; and George of Clarence was only 12 years old at this time. He and his brother Richd. had been sent the previous year to the care of Philip of B., and remained there till Edward was established upon the throne. In his dream in the Tower, in R3 i. 4, 10, Clarence remembered his old experiences: "Methought that I was broken from the Tower And was embarked to cross to B." On the death of Philip he was succeeded by Charles the Bold, who shortly after his accession married Margaret, the sister of Edward IV. In 1470 the return of Warwick forced Edward to flee from England, and he took refuge in Flanders with his brother-in-law. 'Edward is escaped from your brother And fled ... to B." (H6 C. iv. 6, 79). Charles was not too glad to see him, but in the next year gave him some assistance, and he returned to England and won the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, which finally secured him the Crown."Well have we passed and now repassed the seas And brought desired help from B." (H6 C. iv. 1, 6). Later Margaret gave her support to Perkin Warbeck, and acknowledged him as her nephew Richd., D. of York. In Ford's Warbeck she is referred to (i. 1) as "the dam that nursed This eager whelp, Margaret of B."; and in i. 3, she is called "sorceress Of B." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV B, Charles of B. betrays Edward in his French war in 1475. He carried on a lifelong warfare against Louis XI, but he was defeated at Granson (1476), Morat (1476), and Nancy (1477), and fell in this last battle. In Massinger's Dowry i. 2, the scene of which is laid at Dijon in B., the hero tells the Court how his father "did as much as man In those 3 memorable overthrows At Granson, Morat, Nancy, where his master, The warlike Charalois (with whose misfortunes I bear his name), lost treasure, men, and life." In B. & F. French Law. i. 3, Cleremont and Dinant are to have a duel "where the D. of B. met Lewis 11th." "In the next scene this is defined as "a field before the E. port of the city" (i.e. Paris), but it is not clear what meeting is intended.

In S. Rowley's When You A. 2, Wolsey says, "The Emperor's forces that were levied To invade the frontiers of Low B. Are stayed in Brabant by the King." The reference is to the break-down of the arrangement in 1525 by which the Emperor was to attack the Bn. provinces in the Low Countries. In Chapman's Chabot ii. 3, 71, the K. (Francis I) says to Chabot, "Have I not made you . . . Lord and Lieutenant of all My country and command of B.?" In his Consp. Byron ii. 1, Savoy relates how Byron took "Autun and Nuis in B." This was in 1594 in the war between Henri IV and the League. In v. 1, the King reminds Byron, "You are my governor in B." In B. & F. Gentleman iii. 3, Longueville informs the company, "The K. . . . Hath pleased to style him [Marine] d. of B." This was the climax of the plot to befool the ambitious and credulous old gentleman; and is, of course, entirely imaginary. In Gascoigne's Government i. 5, Eccho swears, "By the faith of a true Burgondyan you had wrong." Herrick, in Ode to Wickes (1647), says, "Then the next health to friends of mine Loving the brave Bn. wine." The scene of Wilson's Inconstant is laid in "Burgundie."


A mansion in Lond., on the N. side of the Strand, between Wellington St. and Southampton St, built by Lord B. in the reign of Elizabeth. His son, the Earl of Exeter, changed the name to Exeter House. After the Gt. Fire it was occupied by various courts; and then it was turned into shops, the upper part being used as a menagerie. Later still Exeter Hall was built on the site. One of Tarlton's,Jests was this: "Tarlton called Burley-H. Gate in the Strand towards the Savoy the Lord-Treasurer's Almes-Gate, because it was seldom or never opened."


A village in Rutlandsh. B. House, originally the seat of the Harrington family, was purchased by the D. of Buckingham in the reign of James I. On one of the K.'s visits there he was entertained by a performance of Jonson's Gipsies, in the course of which the actors sing, "For though we be here at B., We'd be loth to make a hurley "; and again, "I can, for I will, Here at B. o' the Hill Give you all your fill." It is now the seat of the elder branch of the Cecil family, the Marquis of Exeter, descended from the elder son of Elizabeth's great minister.


In Hycke, p. 85, Imginacion, being asked what life the prisoners in Newgate have, replies; "Bp God, sir, once a year some tow halts of B.," i.e. ropes of tow to be hanged with. Halts may be a shortened form of halters, or possibly a misprint for hards: tow hards being a common phrase for coarse hemp. See O.E.D. (s.v. HARDS). I can find no place called B.: Bur, or Burr, means a coarse cloth, and B. may be humorously formed from it; but I rather incline to think it is short for Tyburn-port: Tyburn being the place of execution.


The original name given to the Royal Exchange, Lond., built by Sir T. Gresham in 1567. The name was borrowed from the continental Burses, the one at Antwerp being Sir Thomas's model. When Q. Elizabeth visited it in 1570 she caused a Herald to proclaim it "The Royal Exchange," so to be called from henceforth and not otherwise. The old name continued, however, in popular use. In Fair Women i. 519, Sanders says, "I'll be upon the B."; and in ii. 280, Roger deposes that Sanders went first to Cornhill, and "Thence he went directly to the B." In Haughton's Englishmen ii. 1, Pisaro invites the merchants home with him, "our business done here at the B." In Middleton's R.G. iv. 2, Moll sings, "She says she went to the B. for patterns." In his Microcynicon iii., the maid "flies to the B. for a match or two," i.e. for a pattern to match another. In his Black Book (1604), p. 28, the Devil says, "Being upon Exchange time, I crowded myself among merchants, poisoned all the B. in a minute." In Brome's Northern iv. 1, Squelch says to Humphrey, "Now wait your lady to the B.; she has some trifles to buy there." Dekker, in jests, says that the citizens' wives are accustomed "to eat their breakfasts in their beds, and not to be ready till half an hour after noon, about which time their husbands are to return from the B." Hall, in Satires vi. 1, 53, speaks of "the new-come traveller . . . Trampling the bourse's marble twice a day "in order to tell his traveller's tales. After the building of the New Exchange in the Strand by the Earl of Salisbury in 1609 the Old Exchange was distinguished as "Gresham's B.," the New being called by the K.'s order, "Britain's B." In Middleton's Chaste Maid i. 2, Allwit complains that his wife lies in "as if she lay in with all the gaudy-shops in Gresham's B. about her." In Glapthorne's Wit i. we read, "She has been in Britain's b. a buying pins and needles." The story of the building of Gresham's B. is told in T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. See also EXCHANGE.


The B. at Antwerp, built in 1531, is one of the finest buildings of its kind in Europe. It stands E. of the cathedral, between the Longue Rue Neuve and the Place de Meir. In Larum D. 2, Alva says, "The B., the State-house, and the Market-place Belongs to me." In E. 1, the Capt. says of 2 slain citizens, "They were my neighbours, near unto the B." The scene is at Antwerp during the siege of 1578. In Gascoigne's Government i. 2, in which the scene is laid at Antwerp, Fidus says, "Master Gnomaticus was going towards the Bowrce to hearken of entertainment." In Dekker's If it be i. 1, Pluto bids Lurchal, "Be thou a city-devil and on the B. see thou thy flag display of politick bankruptism." The scene is at Naples, where also there is a B.


I suspect a misprint for Bornholm, an island in the Baltic Sea, go m. E. of Zeeland. In Chettle's Hoffman C. 2, Lorrique says that he has thrown Hoffman's body into the sea "and sent it a swimming toward B., his old habitation."


A town on the Trent, in Staffs., 126 m. from Lond. The brewing trade for which it is now famous did not begin till about 1708. At B. the Trent, which has been flowing E., suddenly turns N., and falls ultimately into the Humber, and not into the Wash, so that Lincolnshire lies S. of the river. In the division of England suggested in H4 A. iii. 1, Hotspur is to have "The remnant N., lying off from Trent ": and he objects, "Methinks my moiety, N. from B. here, In quantity equals not one of yours; See how this river comes me cranking in And cuts me from the best of all my land A huge half-moon." At B. was the shrine of Saynt Modwin, mentioned by the Palmer in J. Heywood's Four P P. i. In Jonson's Devil v. 3, Meercraft asks, "Did you never read, Sir, little Darrel's tricks with the boy of B.? "This was a boy (Thomas Darling) who was supposed to have been bewitched by one Alice Goodridge, and dispossessed of the devil by a Puritan parson, John Darrel, in 1598.


In Shrew Ind., ii. 19, Sly says, "Am not I Christopher Sly, old Sly's son of B.-H.?" And he refers to "the fat ale-wife of Wincot "in confirmation of his statement. There is a Barton-on-H. some 6 m. from Stratford-on-Avon; and Wincot, or Wilnecot, the home of Shakespeare's mother, lies abt. 5 m. NIL of Barton. This is probably the place intended, though it has possible rivals in B.-Dorset and B.-Hastings, both in Warwicksh.


(more fully B.–ST.–EDMUNDS or ST. EDMONDSBURY). Town on the Lark in Suffolk, 71 m. from Lond. It derives its name from St. Edmund, the martyr-king, who was put to death there by the Danes in 870. A great monastery was founded in his honour by Canute in 1020. The tower and W. gate still remain. The shrine was a favourite place for pilgrimages. In Bale's Laws iii., Infidelity says, "It was a good day when we went to B. and to our Lady of Grace." In J. Heywood's Four PP. i. 1, the Palmer mentions St. Edmunds B. as one of the sacred places he had visited. In Mankind, p. 13, Nought says, "My name is Nought; I love to make merry: I have be sithen with the common tapster of B." In Bale's Johan 272, Verity says of the King, "Great monuments are in Ipswich, Dunwich, and B., Which noteth him to be a man of notable mercy." The reference seems to be to the Hospital of St. Saviour, which was founded by Abbot Sampson in the reign of K. John. In K.J. iv. 3, 11, Salisbury says, "Lords, I will meet him [the Dauphin] at St. Edmundsbury "and later, "Away toward B., to the Dauphin there!" In v. 4, 18, Melun reveals to the English Lords: "He means to recompense the pains you take By cutting off your heads; this hath he sworn Upon the altar at St. Edmondsbury." The scene of v. 2 is laid in the Dauphin's camp at St. Edmondsbury. There is no evidence that the Dauphin ever had a camp there: the error was probably due to a confusion between the Dauphin's oath and the oath sworn by the Barons at B. in 1214 to enforce the Charter on John. Melun confessed the treachery of the Dauphin on his deathbed in London, and not at B. In fact, both the chronology and the localities in Acts IV and V are in the greatest disorder. See also the account of these transactions in Trouble. Reign.

In H6 B. ii. 4, 71, a herald summons Gloucester "to His Majesty's parliament, holden at B. the fist of this next month "; and iii. 1, 2 and 3 are laid at the Abbey at B. In iii. 2, 240, Suffolk comes to the Parliament with drawn sword, declaring, "The traitorous Warwick with the men of B. Set all upon us." This Parliament was summoned in 1447 through the influence of Cardinal Beaufort, in order to secure the destruction of the D. of Gloucester; and it was summoned at B. because Lond. was supposed to be favourable to the D. Jonson refers to this in Devil ii. 1, "Thomas of Woodstock was made away at Calice, as D. Humphrey was at B."


A generic name for a tavern, because of the b. which was hung out over the door. I cannot find any particular tavern in Lond. called the B.; but there was a B.-Lane close by the Stillyard, which may be the place intended. In B. & F. Prize iii. 4, Jaques says of the parson, "20 to 1 you find him at the B."


Lond., running from Upper Thames St. to Cannon St., near the Stillyard. Lenton in Characterismi (1631) 9, says, "Now they may go look this B-l. needle in a bottle of hay."


A vill. in Herts., on the high road from Edgware to Watford, 15 m. N.W. of Lond. The Causy may be the raised stretch of road crossing the valley of the Colne, just S.W. of Watford. In Dekker's Westward iii. 4, Mrs. Wafer says, "Your two husbands and he have made a match to go find a hare about B. Causy."


(i.e. HERTOGENBOSCH). Town in S.E. Brabant, 159 m. S.E. of Amsterdam. Taken in 1629 by Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. In Lady Mother i. 1, Crackby says, "'Twas my Capt.'s advice took in the B." In Marmion's Leaguer ii. 1, Autolicus says that Holland is beleaguered, "and will hold out as long as B. or Boloign."


Vill. in Essex. In a very obscure passage in J. Heywood's Weather 100, at the end of a long list of places visited by Merry Report, we have the line: "Ynge Gyngiang Jayberd the parish of B." It is obviously either corrupt or intentionally nonsensical.


A slang epithet for a Dutchman: butterbag and butter-mouth are used in the same way. In Massinger's Renegado ii. 5, he speaks of "a Low-Country b.-b." In Westward for Smelts it is said, "The pudding-house at Brooke's Wharf is watched by the Hollander's eel-ships, lest the inhabitants should spill the blood of innocents, which would be greatly to the hinderance of these b.-bes." In Dekker's Westward ii. 3, Judith calls the Dutch drawer at the Steel-yard "an honest b.-b." In Webster's Weakest i. 3, Bunch addresses Jacob van Smelt as "Ye base bb." In Larum F. 3, the soldier says, "I have bethought me of a pretty trick To sift this b.-b. a better way." In Boorde's Intro. Knowledge (1547) 147, the Fleming says, "B.-mouth Flemyng men doth me call."


St. Botolf's or Botolph's. He was the 7th cent. saint of Boston, and its parish ch. is dedicated to him. 4 churches in Lond. bore his name, namely, St. B.'s Aldgate, on N. side of Aldgate High St.; St. B.'s Without, in Aldersgate St., at the corner of Little Britain (it escaped the Gt. Fire and was rebuilt in 1790); St. B.'s Billingsgate, in B. Lane, off Lower Thames St.; and St. B.'s Without, at the corner of Bishopsgate St. Without and Alderman's Walk, on the banks of the City Ditch. Here are buried Sir Peter Pindar and Stephen Gosson; and here Edward Alleyn, the actor, was baptized. This is the ch. referred to in T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 19, where Spicing bids Smoke, "Get thee up on the top of S. B.'s steeple, and make a proclamation." The rebels were encamped close by Bishopsgate.


Town in Derbysh., 160 m. N.W. of Lond. Celebrated since the time of the Romans for its mineral springs. In the Middle Ages their virtue was ascribed to St. Anne, who had a chapel there: the spring is still called St. Anne's Well. Lambarde, Dictionarium 48, says, "Within the parish of Bakewell in Derbysh. is a chapel (sometime dedicated to St. Ann) in a place called Bucston, where is a hot bath. Hither they are wont to run on pilgrimages." The Palmer, in J. Heywood's Four PP. i., had been "at Saynt Anne of B." Jonson, in Love's Welcome, speaks of St. Anne of B.'s boiling well as one of the wonders of the Peak district. In the Optick Glass of Humours (1639), a man suffering from tympany bathes "in St. B.'s well." Drayton, in Polyolb. xxvi. 455, speaks of "B., that most delicious fount, Which men the second bath of England do account." In his Odes (No. 7, On the Peak), he commends "B.'s delicious baths, Strong ale, and noble cheer."


Probably Biafra is meant, the bight on the W. coast of Africa, just S. of the mouth of the Niger, in which is the island of Fernando Po. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 3, Techelles gives an account of his conquests in Africa. He goes from Manico, in Mozambique, "by the coast of B. to Cubar, where the negroes dwell [i.e. the Gold Coast], and then to Borno [near Lake Tschad], and so back to Damascus." So that, according to his veracious account, he went down the E. coast of Africa to Mozambique, then across to Biafra, and then right across the centre to Egypt: a pretty tall traveller's tale!


The Bibroci, tribe of ancient Britons living in the basin of the Thames, possibly in Berks. In Fisher's Fuimus iv. 4, Mandubratius says to Cam, "By me the Trinobants submit and the Ancalites, B., and Cassians." See Caesar D.B.G. v. 21.


Gazellus, viceroy of B. is one of the officers of Orcanes of Natolia in Marlowe's Tamb. B., and in iv. 4, Tamburlaine says to the Kings who are drawing his chariot, "Can ye draw but 20 m. a day? . . . But from Asphaltis, where I conquered you, To B. here?" The victory was won, according to iii. 5, 3, at Aleppo; certainly not at Asphaltis, which is the great artificial lake near Babylon. Possibly Beyrout is the place intended.






Town in France, on the right bank of the Indre, 130 m. S.W. of Paris. In Chapman's Chabot ii. 3, 69, the King says to Chabot, "Have I not made you . . . Count B.?"


An ancient Greek city on the Bosphorus, on the most E. of the hills on which Constantinople now stands. In 440 B.C. it revolted from Athens and joined the Lacedaemonians; but Alcibiades besieged it in 408, and after a difficult blockade took it through the treachery of the Athenian party within the walls. It is apparently to this siege that Alcibiades refers in Tim. iii. 5, 60, when he says, pleading for a friend before the Senate, "His service done At Lacedaemon and B. Were a sufficient briber for his life." Taken by the Turks in 1453, it was the capital of the Ottoman Empire under the name of Constantinople until 1919. In Selimus 519, Mustapha urges Baiazet, when his son Selim rebels against him, "Let us fly To fair Bizantium." Milton, P. L. xi. 395, names, among the great rulers of the world, "the Sultan in Bizance, Turcheston-born." The scene of Cartwright's Siege is laid at B.