A lock-up for malefactors. There was one such in Cornhill (q.v.), by the Conduit, made of strong timbers with a pair of stocks and a pillory on the top of it. There was another in High St., St. Giles' (q.v.). In H6 B. iv. 2, 56, Dick says of Cade, "his father had never a house but the C." In B.&F.'s Wit Money iv. 4., Luce says, "Say, he had been in the c., was there no mercy To look abroad but yours?"



(Map B7)

A st. in Westminster running into Bridge St., E. of Parliament St. It led from the New Palace Yard to the Privy Garden, and took its name from being the residence of the Dean and Canons of St. Stephen's Chapel. The name was corrupted in the 18th cent. into Channel Row. In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, Gossip Tattle says she has "all the news of Tuttle St., and both the Alm'ries, the two Sanctuaries, long and round Wool-staple, with King's St., and Canon Row to boot."



(Map O–P5)

(originally CANDLEWRIGHT or CANDLEWICK ST.: then it became C. ST., then CANNING ST., and finally, as now, CANNON ST.). A st. in Lond. running from the S.E. corner of St. Paul's Churchyard to the corner of K. William St., parallel to Cheapside. In our period it only went as far as Walbrook: it was extended to St. Paul's Churchyard in 1854. It derived its name from the candlemakers who had their shops there, but as early as the 15th cent. it had passed from them to the cloth-dealers. Lond. Stone was originally on the S. side of the st., but was removed across the road in 1742. It is now [in 1925] built into the wall of St. Swithin's Ch. [ed. note, see "London Stone"], nearly opposite the railway station, 35 ft. N.E. of its original position.

In H6 B. iv. 6, the direction in F. 1 is: "Enter Jack Cade and the rest and strikes his staffe on Lond.-stone." Modern editions locate the scene as "Cannon St," but it would be more exact to say "C. St." In T. Heywood's Prentices, sc. 4, Eustace cries: "O that I had with me as many good lads, honest prentices, from Eastcheap, C. St., and London-stone, to end this battle." In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 2, Pisaro asks Frisco, "Why led you him through Cornhill? Your way had been to come through Canning-st." In Lickpenny 72, Lydgate relates, "Then went I forth by Lond.-stone Throughout all C.-st. Drapers much cloth me offered anon." In Nobody 378, Nobody says, "If my breeches had as much cloth in them as ever was drawn between Kendall and Canning-st., they were scarce great enough to hold all the wrongs that I must pocket." In Deloney's Newberie ix., Jack "took him a shop in Canweek st. and furnished [it] . . . with a thousand pounds worth of cloth." In his Reading vi., the clothiers' wives, coming up to Lond., saw "in Candleweeke ste. the weavers." A ballad follows, with the lines, "The day will come before the doom In Candleweeke st. shall stand no loom Nor any weaver dwelling there." Stow testifies, "There dwelled also of old divers weavers of woollen clothes brought in by Edward the third." In Middleton's Triumph Truth, one of the characters in the pageant is Sir John Poultney, who "founded a college in the parish of St. Laurence Poultney by Candlewick st." (see under LAURENCE POULTNEY, ST.).


A tavern on the Bankside, Southwark, between Emerson St. and Moss Alley. The site was long marked by C.-Cap Alley. The name may have been given in honour of Cardinal Beaufort, Bp. of Winchester, whose Lond. palace was on Bankside. Taylor, Works ii. 173, denies the charge that had been made against him that he had been bribed by the players and had had a supper with them "at the C. H. on the Bankside."

(Map K–L5)

A St. in Lond. running W. from the corner of Old Change and Cannon St. to Water Lane. The 1st quarto of Henry V (1600) was "Printed by Thomas Creede for Tho. Millington and John Busby. And are to be sold at his house in C. L., next the Powle Head." The Paul's Head was at the corner of Sermon L. and Carter L. One of Tarlton's Jests (1611) begins, "In C. L. dwelt a merry cobler." Richd. Quiney addressed a letter to Shakespeare "from the Bell in C. L., the 25 October, 1598."

(Map K–L5)
(area only; site unmarked)

A tavern on the N. side of Paternoster Row, Lond., near the site afterwards occupied by Dolly's Coffee House, close to Queen's Head Passage. Later still it became the Oxford Bible Warehouse. The C. I. was kept at one time by Tarlton; and one of his Jests relates how 2 of his friends "foxed Tarlton [i.e. made him drunk] at the C. in Pater Noster Row." There was a C. Tavern on the N. side of Cornhill, near the R. Exchange. Davenport's New Trick was "Printed for John Okes for Humphrey Blunden and are to be sold at his shop in Cornehill next to the C. Tavern. 1639."


The sign of a Lond. ordinary or eating-house, in Cheapside, near the Cross (q.v.). In Middleton's Witch i. 2, after the stage direction, "Hecate conjures; enter a Cat playing on a fiddle, and Spirits with meat," Almachildes remarks, "The C.&F. is an excellent ordinary." The nursery rhyme, "Hey diddle diddle, the cat and the fiddle," does not appear to be earlier than the 18th cent. Day, in prol. to Law Tricks , asks, "Must a musician of necessity dwell at the C. & the F.? "


The sign of T. Pavier's bookshop in Cornhill, near the Exchange (qq.v). The 1602 quarto of Henry V was "Printed by Thomas Creede for Thomas Pauier and are to be sold at his shop in Cornhill at the sign of the C. & P. near the Exchange." The 1602 edition of the Span. Trag. was published at the same place.



(Map N4)

Lond., running from the junction of Old Jury and Lothbury to Lad Lane. It is now called Gresham St. Stow calls it Catts St. The change of name was made in 1845. In W. Rowley's Match Mid. iv., Moll, being surprised by the watch at the corner of Bishopsgate St. and Cornhill, says to Randall, "Go you back through Cornhill, I'll run round about the Change, by the Ch. corner, down C. St., and meet you at Bartholomew Lane end." To which Randall replies, "Cat's St. was call hur?"


An ancient tavern in Southwark, between Union St. and Mint St., opposite St. George's Ch.: it survived until 1870. The name was corrupted into The Cat and Wheel. Taylor, in his Carriers' Cosmography, mentions the C. W. in Southwark as the lodging of the carriers from Tunbridge and other places in Kent. I suspect that it is the tavern meant by the Cat, or the Cats, in the following passages. In Brome's Northern i. 5, Pate asks, "Where's the supper? at the Bridgefoot or the Cat?" In his Moor iv. 2, Quicksands mentions "the Bridgefoot Bear, the Tunnes, the Cats, the Squirrels" as taverns frequented by his wife and her gallant.


The sign of Thomas Creed's bookshop in Thames St., Lond. The Tragedy of Selimus was "Printed by Thomas Creede, dwelling m Thames ste. at the signe of the Kathern Wheele neare the olde Swanne. 1594."

(Map R4)

A ch. in Lond. on N. side of Leadenhall St. It was built about 1300, but was pulled down, all but the tower, in 1628 and rebuilt. Holbein is said to have been buried here. The churchyard was used in the Middle Ages for the acting of morality plays. In 1565 there is a record of 27/8 being paid by the players for the right to act there.

(Map G4–5)

A st. in Lond., running N. from Fleet St., just E. of the New Law Courts, to Holborn. It was originally called New St.; then, during the 14th cent., Chancellors Lane, probably from Ralph Neville; then, in Elizabeth's time, it was abbreviated to C. L. In Wise Men iii. 3, Simplom tells Antonio, who has sent him to see his lawyer, "Sir, I met him in Chauncery L." In Dekker's Jests 326, one of the haunts of the foyst, or pickpocket, is "the dark entry going to the 6 clerks office in C. L." It is sometimes called The Lane par excellence. In Jonson's Devil iii. 5, Meercraft says that Lady Tailbush lives "here, hard by in the L.": the scene being in Fitzdotterel's house in Lincolns-Inn. In iv. 5, Fitzdotterel says that Mr. Justice Eitherside is "A knight here in the L." Merlin was "sold at the Princes Arms in C.L." Marlowe's Ed. II, ed. 1612, is to be sold "By Roger Barnes at his shop in Chauncerie L. over against the Rolles." Machin's Dumb Knight, ed. 1633, is to be sold by "William Sheares at his shop in C. L. near Seriants Inn." Middleton's Quiet Life was "Printed by Tho. Johnson for Francis Kirkman and Henry Marsh and are to be sold at the Princes Arms in C. L. 1662." Bacon's Essays were "Printed for Humfry Hooper and are to be sold at the Blacke Beare in Chauncery L. 1597." T. Heywood's Hogsdon was "Printed by M. P. for Henry Shephard and are to be sold at his shop in Chancerie-L. at the sign of the Bible, between Serjeants-Inne and Fleete St. 1638."



(Map B5)

A cross erected by Edward I in honour of his Queen, Elinor, at the vill. of C., between Lond. and Westminster. The Queen died at Herdelie, near Lincoln, in 1290, and her body was brought to Westminster for burial. Wherever the bier rested the K. set up a cross. There appear to have been 14 of these crosses, of which those at Geddington, Northampton, and Waltham alone remain, the last 2 being in Cheapside and at C. The 1st cr. at C. was of wood, but it was replaced by a fine one in Caen stone in 1294. This was destroyed by the Puritan Parliament in 1647. It stood at the W. end of the Strand, at its junction with Whitehall. The present cr. in front of the C. Cr. Station was erected in 1863 near to the original site, from a design by Barry based on drawings of the old cr. The only reference to it in Shakespeare is in H4 A. ii. 1, 27, where the Carrier at Rochester announces that he has "a gammon of bacon and 2 razes of ginger, to be delivered as far as C. cr." The origin of the Cr. is described in Peele's Ed. 1. v., where the K. says, "In remembrance of her [Q. Elinor's] royalty Erect a rich and stately carved cr., Whereon her statue shall with glory shine, And henceforth see you call it C. Cr." There was a curious legend about this same Q. Elinor and C. Cr., which is dramatically rendered in the same play. Elinor is accused of having made away with the Lady Mayoress of Lond. She exclaims (p. 69), "Gape, Earth, and swallow me . . . if I were author of That woman's tragedy": she is taken at her word and sinks into the ground. Her daughter Joan cries out, "Ah, C. Green, for ever change thy hue . . . But wither and return to stones, because That beauteous Elinor sunk on thee.'' The engulfed Q. rises up at Potter's Hive, to the consternation of the Potter's wife, who exclaims (p. 71), "It is the Q., who sunk this day on C. Cr., and now is risen up on Potter's Hive." Potter's Hive, or Hythe, was therefore rechristened Q. Hythe, as the title of the play records. In Cartwright's Ordinary v. 4., Hearsay suggests that the fellows for whom the Watch is searching are "Sunk, like the Queen; they'll rise at Queen-hive, sure." There is a ballad on the subject in Evans' Old Ballads i. 237. In Middleton's Witch i. 1, Almachildes says to Amoretta, who refuses to kiss him, "Amsterdam swallow thee for a Puritan and Geneva cast thee up again! like she that sunk at C. Cr. and rose again at Queenhithe.'' In Middleton's Quiet Life v. 3, Knavesby says, "I will sink at Q. Hive and rise again at C. Cr., contrary to the statute in Edwardo primo." In all the above passages C.Cr. is used proleptically, for the Cross was not erected until after Q. Elinor's death.

By the beginning of the 17th cent. the cr. had fallen into a very ruinous condition, and early in the reign of James I it was proposed to take it down, and, indeed, the different parts of it were bespoken by various people. It was not, however, till 1643 that it was finally condemned, and the actual destruction was not carried out till 1647. The author of Old Meg (p. 11) speaks of "Charing Cr . . . . losing his rotten head, which (through age being windshaken) fell off, and was trod upon in contempt." In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Honeysuckle says, "They say C. Cr. is fallen down since I went to Rochelle; but that's no such wonder. 'twas old and stood awry." In Peacham's Dialogue between the Crosse in Cheap and C. Cr. (1641), C. Cr. says, "The greatest danger of all I was in was in the time of K. James." In Dekker's Satiro. iii. i. 235, Tucca calls Miniver "my mouldy decayed C. Cr." In Dekker's Dead Term (1608), Westminster laments the decay of "that ancient and oldest son of mine [C. Cr.] with his limbs broken to pieces, his reverend head cut off, the ribs of his body bruised, his arms lopped away, his back almost cleft in sunder." In Day's Law Tricks iv. 2, Joculo tells a cock-and-bull story about a dispute between Westminster and Winchester, and goes on: "In parting the fray C. cr. got such a box o' the ear that he will carry it to his death day." In Wise Men iv. 2, the Puritan wife of Hortano says of her hopeful son, "He never sees the relics of C. cr. but wisheth he were on horseback with a lance in his hand in full speed to bear it down." Taylor, Works ii. 1. has a poem on the "Dismal Downfall of Old C. Cr.," and there is a ballad on the subject in Percy's Reliques beginning, "Undone, undone the lawyers are; They wander about the town; Nor can find the way to Westminster Now C. Cr. is down." This last ballad refers to the final destruction of 1647. The equestrian statue of Charles I at the head of Whitehall is on the actual site of the old cr. It was set up just before the beginning of the Civil War, but taken down by the Parliament and sold to a brazier named Rivett to be broken up. He concealed it, however, in the vaults of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, and it was re-erected in 1674.

Donne, Satire iv. (1597), speaks of "Those Ascaparts, men big enough to throw C. Cr. or a bar." In Dekker's Northward i. 2, Doll, the courtesan, says, "I'll change my lodging, it stands out o' the way; I'll lie about C. Cr., for if there be any stirrings, there we shall have 'em." In Phillips' Grissil 50, Politick Persuasion tells how he fell from heaven, "but C. Cr. was my friend and caught my leg in his hand." In Chaunticleers v., Welcome says of Bung, "He has tricks enou' to furnish all the tapsters between C. Cr. and Fleet Bdge." In Killigrew's Parson ii. 7, the Capt. says, "Any porter at C. Cr. may take you like a letter at the carrier's." Taylor, in Carriers' Cosmography, mentions the Chequers near C. Cr. as a carriers inn.

In Day's B. Beggar iv., young Strowd says, when he is asked to go and see the motion of Norwich in the corner of a little chamber, "I had as lieve thou hadst told me C. Cr. stood in Cheapside," i.e. he does not believe it possible. In Brome's Northern ii. 5, Pate promises Humphrey, "thou shalt instantly start up as pretty a gentleman Usher as any between Temple Bar and C. Cr.; marry, further I cannot promise you." In his Antipodes i. 6, the Dr. says that foreign travel "is not near so difficult as for some man in debt and unprotected to walk from C. Cr. to th' Old Exchange." In T. Heywood's I.K.M.A. 225, a Spaniard kills an Englishman at C. Cr., and is sentenced by K. Philip to be hanged there. In Nobody 1145, No-body, being driven out of Fleet St. by 2 swaggerers, goes down to the Thames and "desired a waterman To row me thence away to C. Cr." In Nash's Penn. Parl. 38, it is enacted that "the images in the Temple ch., if they rise again, shall have a commission to dig down C. Cr. with their fauchions." In Shirley's Lady of Pleasure i. 2, Celestina, who lives in the Strand, intends to have her house so frequented that "the horses shall be taught, with frequent waiting upon my gates, to stop in their career toward C.-cr." In Randolph's Muses' ii. 2, Deilus has seen a comet which "reached from Paul's to C." He is probably referring to Halley's comet, which was visible in 1608. In Lupton's London Carbonadoed (1632), it is predicted that when "the women are all fair and honest, then Cheapside shall stand by C. Cr." In Shakespeare's time the King's Mews, then used as stables, stood to the N. of C. Cr.; and there were shops in the neighbourhood, for in Harman's Caveat (1567) ) C. 12, the author speaks of a seal which he bought "beside C.-crosse," and the bookseller Robert Wyer dwelt "in St. Martin's parish in the D. of Suffolk's rents, beside Ce. Cre." (Title page of The Booke of Fortune.) Milton lived for a few months in 1649 "at one Thomson's, next door to the Bull Head Tavern at C. Cr.; opening into the Spring Garden."

(Map L4)
(area only; site unmarked)

A little gate at the N.E. corner of St. Paul's Churchyard, Lond., leading into Cheapside. Sidney's Apology for Poetry was "Printed for Henry Olney and are to be sold at his shop in Paul's Churchyard, at the sign of the George, near to C.-g., anno 1595."

(Map L–N4)

(CHEAP, or WEST CHEAP); Cp. = Cheap. As its name implies, the old Market Place of Lond., extending from the N.E. corner of St. Paul's Churchyard to the Poultry. The names of the sts. running into it indicate the points where the various wares were exposed for sale, e.g. on the S. side, Friday St., where fish was sold, and Bread St.; on the N., Wood St., Milk St., Honey Lane, and Ironmongers Lane. At first the N. side was open ground, and when buildings were erected they were on the line of the old market stalls, and left the st. as it now became, the widest in old Lond. "'Tis thought," says Lupton, in London Carbonadoed (1632), "the way through this st. is not good, because so broad, and so many go in it; yet though it be broad, it's very straight, because without any turnings." There were 4 erections down the centre of the market or st.: at the W. end, near the ch. of St. Michael le Quern, was an old cross, sometimes called the Brokers' Cross, which was taken down in 1390; on its site was erected in 1442 a conduit, known as the little, or pissing, conduit; opposite the end of Wood St. was the Cross, one of those set up by Edward I at the place where the body of Q. Elinor rested on its way from Lincoln to Westminster. The others were at Lincoln, Grantham, Stamford, Geddington, Northampton, Stony Stratford, Woburn, Dunstable, St. Albans, Waltham, and Charing. Those at Geddington, Northampton, and Waltham still remain (as of 1925). It was re-edified in 1441, and often regilded and otherwise restored during the Tudor period. The Puritans, however, regarded it with detestation as a Romish symbol, and the images of the Virgin and Saints were constantly defaced by them; and in 1596 a naked figure of Diana with water trilling from its breasts was put in the place of the image of the Virgin: it must have been a poor piece of work, for Stow says it was decayed in 1603. Probably this is the Diana referred to by Rosalind in As You Likeiv. 1, 154, "I will weep for nothing, like Diana in the fountain." On May 2, 1643, the Cross was pulled down by order of Parliament to the sound of drums and trumpets, and amid the shoutings of the Puritan crowd. A little further to the E., opposite the end of Milk St., was the Standard, a square pillar with a conduit, statues round the sides, and an image of Fame on the top. At the E. end of Cheapside, at its junction with the Poultry, was the Gt. Conduit, to which water was brought in lead pipes from Paddington, set up in 1285 and new-built in 1479. Walking down the S. side of Cp. from the W. end, Shakespeare would first pass Old Change, where bullion was received for coining; then the Nag's Head Inn at the corner of Friday St and the Mermaid at the W. corner of Bread St., then Goldsmiths Row, consisting of "10 fair dwellings and 14 shops, all in one frame uniformly built 4 stories high"; then the Ch. of St. Mary de Arcubus, or Bow Ch., standing 40 ft. back from the st. with a stone pavilion in front of it, called Crown-sild, or Seldam, from which the kings and queens used to watch the tournaments and pageants which were held in the Cp, and which is now represented by a stone gallery on Sir Christopher Wren's steeple: beyond the ch. were shops, chiefly occupied by mercers and drapers. Crossing Sopar's Lane, now Queen St., he would reach the end of Bucklersbury, where the grocers and druggists had their headquarters. Crossing over by the Gt. Conduit and turning back towards the W., on the N. side of Cp., he would pass the Mercers' Chapel and Hall on the site of the old Hospital of St. Thomas of Acon, and cross in succession Ironmongers Lane, Lawrence Lane (New King St. was not cut through to the Guildhall till after the Gt. Fire), Milk St., Wood St., Gutter Lane, and Foster Lane, and so into St. Paul's Churchyard to the booksellers' shops.

In H6 B. iv. 2, 94, Cade boasts, "In C. shall my palfrey go to grass"; and in iv. 7, 194, Dick asks Cade "My lord, when shall we go to C and take up commodities upon our bills?" C. was the scene of all the City pageants. In Chaucer's C T. B. 4377, it is said of the prentice Perkyn, "Whan then any ridyng was in Chepe, Out of the shoppe thider wolde he lepe." It was also a promenade for people of fashion In Jonson's Devil iii. 1, Meercraft advises Gilthead to buy his son a Captain's place and "let him with his plumes and scarfs march through C. and draw down a wife there from a window." In Davenant's Wits i., Thwack "will match my Lord Mayor's horse, make jockeys of his hench-boys, and run them through C." In Barry's Ram iii., Throate promises himself: "My coach shall now go prancing through C." Hall, in Satires v. 4, 14, ridicules the farmer's son, who "hires a friezeland trotter . . . To drag his tumbrell through the staring Cp." Public proclamations were usually made at the Cross, and executions were often carried out at the Standard. In More iii. 1, the Sheriff gives orders that "a gibbet be erected in C., hard by the Standard, whither you must bring Lincoln . . . to suffer death." Taylor, ii. 311, says, "The rebels beheaded the Lord Say at the Standard in Cp." Harman, in his Caveat i. 1, tells of a "crafty Crank" who for his offence "stood upon the Pillory in C." In Mayne's Match ii. 1, Dorcas refers to Prynne's Histriomastix as "a book that suffered martyrdom by fire in C." It was burnt there by order of the Star-chamber. Drayton, in Barons' Wars iv. 43, tells how Stapleton "Beheaded was before the Cross in Cp."

References to the Cross are plentiful. In Elynour Ramming iv., drunken Alice comes in with tales "how there hath been great war between Temple-Bar and the Cross in Cp." Earle, in Microcosmus 1xviii., says of the Lond. citizen, "The gilding of the Cross he counts the glory of this age." This refers to the gilding of the Cross in 1600. In Marston's Mountebanks, the Mountebank says, "I could encounter thee . . . with Cheape Crosse, though it be new gilt." In Randolph's Muses' v. 1, Mrs. Flowerdew, the Puritan, says that Mediocrity "looketh like the Idol of C." Lupton, in London Carbonadoed (1632), says, "Puritans do hold it [C.] for a fine st. but something addicted to popery for adorning [? adoring] the cross too much." There was an abundant crop of pamphlets in regard to the destruction of the Cross, such as The dialogue between the Cross in Chepe and Charing Cross; Articles of High Treason Exhibited against C. Cross; The Downfall of Dagon, or The Taking down of C. Cross, and many more. The Cross was one of the best-known objects in old Lond. In T. Heywood's Hogsdon v. 1, Old Chartley, returning from his travels, says, "This 7 years I have not seen Paul's steeple or Cp. Cross." In Shirley's Riches iii., Gettings swears by "C. Cross and loud Bow-bell."

The Conduits were utilised in the pageants for decorative purposes and speeches were delivered from them. In the Ovatio Carolina, describing the entry of Charles into Lond. in 1641, it is recorded that "the great conduit in C. ran with claret wine." When Anne Boleyn went from the Tower to Westminster just before her coronation "at the Little Conduit of C. was a rich pageant"; and when Elizabeth entered the City on her accession there was a grand Allegory of Time and Truth at the Little Conduit (see also s.v. CONDUIT). The Lord Mayor's show went along C. on St. Simon and Jude's Day, Oct. 28th. In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says, "Men and women are born and come running into the world faster than coaches do into C. upon Simon and Jude's day." In Shirley's Riches, Clod says, "The next day after Simon and Jude you go a feasting to Westminster; you land in shoals and make the understanders in C. wonder to see ships swim upon men's shoulders." Originally the Lord Mayor went to Westminster by land; but Sir John Norman in 1485 went in a barge rowed by silver oars, and this practice continued for 4 centuries. On the return journey he landed at Paul's Wharf and went by C. to the Guildhall, the oarsmen carrying their boats on their shoulders. In Phillips' Grissil 54, Politick Persuasion tells how, when he was saved from destruction as he fell from the sky, "The Cross in Cp. for joy did play on a bagpipe and the Standard did dance." In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Thorowgood says, "The cross and standard in C. I will convert into Hercules' pillars; and the little conduit that weeps in lamentation for the Ch. removed that it did lean on, it shall be still filled with wine and always running. The great Conduit shall be a magazine of sack." In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Iniquity promises Pug, "I will fetch thee a leap From the top of Paul's steeple to the Standard in Cp." In Nature (Lost Plays, 98), Lust says he knocked so hard at Margery's door that "a man might have heard the noise from Poules to the farthest end of Cp. "

In the neighbourhood of C. were the 2 City counters, or lock-ups, in Wood St. and the Poultry. In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage iii. 1, Ilford talks of being arrested by a couple of sergeants and falling "into one of the unlucky cranks about C., called Counters." In Lyly's Bombie v. 3, the Sergeant threatens the Hackneyman "with such a noverim as C. can show none such." "Noverim" is a mistake, or misprint, for "Noverint," the first word in a writ. The shops of C. furnished a large number of prentices, who formed a compact body capable on occasion of causing no little trouble. In More ii. 1, the scene is laid in C. and is opened by the entrance of "3 or 4 Prentises of trades with a pair of cudgells." The cry of "Clubs!" brought these young fellows out in a swarm ready for any kind of mischief. The Black May-Day riot directed against the Lombards started with the prentices of C., and forms the subject of Acts II and III of More. In T. Heywood's Prentices, sc. iv., p. 82, Charles cries: "Oh for some C. boys for Charles to lead!" Their work ceased when Bow-bell rang the curfew: hence the old rhyme in which the apprentices address the clerk of the ch., "Clerk of the Bow bell with thy yellow locks, For thy late ringing thy head shall have knocks." To which he replies: "Children of Chepe, hold you all still; For you shall have Bow bell rung at your will." The mercers' shops were mostly in the E. end of Cheap. In Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, Littlewit challenges "all C. to show such another" habit as his wife is wearing. In Massinger's Madam iv. 2. Goldwire promises Shav'em, "The tailor and embroiderer shall kneel to thee; C. and the Exchange shall court thy custom." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon iii. 2, Chartley tells Luce, "There are brave things to be bought in the city; C. and the Exchange afford variety and rarity." In Jonson's Underwoods ix., "Another answers, 'las, those silks are none . . . as he would deride Any comparison had with his C." In Lydgate's Lickpenny, the author says: "Then to the Chepe I began me drawn, Where much people I saw for to stand; One offered me velvet, silk and lawn, Another he taketh me by the hand, 'Here is Paris thread, the fin'st in the land.'" In Mayne's Match i. 4, we are told of a mercer who "lives in C." In Brome's City Wit iii. 3, Crack says, "All the sattin in C. were not enough to make you a wedding-gown.'' In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 10, Spicing says, "You know C.; there are the mercers' shops Where we will measure velvet by the pikes And silks and satins by the st.'s whole breadth" Donne, Satire iv. (1597), says of the courtiers, "Whoe'er looks . . . o'er C. books, Shall find their wardrobe's inventory." In Deloney's Reading vi., Simon's wife would swear it was quite spoiled "If she thought a tailor of C. made not her gown."

Between Bread St. and Bow Ch. was Goldsmiths' Row. In Richard the Redeless iii. 139, the poet complains that the young lords "Kepeth no coyne that cometh to here hondis But chaunchyth it ffor cheynes that in Chepe hangith." In Nobody 441, the Clown tells Nobody, "Go into C. and Nobody may take up as much plate as he can carry." In Field's Amends ii. 1, Proudly says to the Page, "What said the goldsmith for the money?" And having heard the answer: "How got that wit into C., trow?" In the prologue to Marston's Malcontent, Sly says, "Ill lay a hundred pound, Ill walk but once down by the Goldsmiths' Row in Cp., take notice of the signs, and tell you them with a breath instantly. They begin, as the world did, with Adam and Eve; there's in all just five-and-fifty." In Eastward v. 4, Quicksilver sings, "In C., famous for gold and plate, Quicksilver I did dwell of late." In T. Heywood's Prentices, sc. vii., p. 90, Guy speaks of the time "When once I was a goldsmith in C." In More iii. 2, Faukner says, "If the locks were on again, all the goldsmiths in C. should not pick them open.'' In Dekker's Northward ii. 1, Hornet, who is wearing a copper chain round his neck, explains: "Your right whiffler hangs himself in St. Martin's, not in C." St. Martin's (q.v.) was a sort of Alsatian market for finery of the second class, like this copper chain: C. sold the genuine article. In Marston's Courtesan ii. 1, Mulligrub "will to C. to buy a fair piece of plate." In Eastward v. 4, Quicksilver sings, "Farewell, C.! farewell, sweet trade Of goldsmiths all, that ne'er shall fade." In Glapthorne's Wit v. 1, Husie promises Mendwell, "Thou shaft be a constable, carry thy staff with the red cross and dagger, in as much state as the best goldsmith that ere bore office in C." In Brome's Couple ii. 1, Bellamie says, as he gives Alicia a ring, "I would not that he should know for all the rubies in C. where I bought this but now.'' In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 10, Falconbridge says, "We'll shod our coursers with no worse than the purest silver that is sold in C." In Nabbes' C. Garden iv. 4, Ralph says, "'Tis a fine chamber, it shines like a goldsmith's shop in C." In Deloney's Craft ii. ii, Anthony says that his ballad "hath made me as well acquainted in C. as the cat in the cream-pan; for as soon as the goldsmiths' wives spy me, and as I pass along by the merchants' daughters, the apes will laugh at me.'' In his Reading vi., the clothiers' wives "when they were brought into C., there with great wonder they beheld the shops of the Goldsmiths; and on the other side, the wealthy Mercers, whose shops shined with all sorts of coloured silks." Herrick, in Tears of Thamesis (1647), relates that he was born in "the golden C."

There were, of course, other things sold in the market. In More i. 1, Caveller enters with a pair of doves and says, "I bought them in C." Dove Court, running from Old Jewry to Grocers' Hall Court, still preserves the name of the place where doves were sold. In Cartwright's Ordinary v. 3, Shape, relating Bitefig the miser's confession, says, "I've often bought a C. custard, and so refreshed my soul under my cloak." In Jonson's Epicoene iv. 1, Truewit advises: "Give cherries at time of year or apricots; and say they were sent you out of the country, though you bought them in C." In Webster's Weakest i. 3, Bunch says to Smelt, "Ye Smelt, your kinsfolks dwell in the Thames and are sold like slaves in C. by the hundreth, two pence a quartern." In Jonson's New Inn i. 1, the Host guesses that "C. debt-books" are weighing on Lovel's spirits. In Jonson's Eastward iv. 4, Touchstone speaks of himself as "a poor C. groom." "A rakyer [scavenger] of Chepe" is one of the merry party in Piers B. v. 322. In Lupton's London Carbonadoed (1632), he says, "If all the men be rich and true, and the women all fair and honest, then C. shall stand by Charing Cross for a wonder." In Day's B. Beggar iv., young Strowd, hearing of what he regards as an impossibility, says, "I had as lieve thou hadst told me Charing Cross stood in C." C. is used for the shopkeeping class, as when in Glapthorne's Wit i. 1, Clare says that young Holdfast, fresh from Cambridge, "is learned enough to make C. a college"; and in iii. 1, Knowell speaks of "Illustrious names, the glory of C., Stars of the City."

The Dagger Inn, famous for its pies, was at the corner of Foster Lane. In T. Heywood's I.K.M.B. 257, a prentice says, "I must need step to the Dagger in Cheape, to send a letter into the country unto my father." C. is mentioned by Dekker, in Bellman 158, as a favourite haunt of foysts, or pickpockets.


A sign in Holborn, Lond. (q.v.) C.-bread was bread of the 2nd quality, somewhat coarser than manchet. In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 1, an advertisement is read setting forth that those who wish to be instructed in the art of "roaring" should "repair into Holborn to the sign of the C.-l." Chough comments, "Now your bill speaks of that I was wondering a good while at, your sign; the 1. looks very like bread, i' faith, but why is it called the C.-1.?" To which the first speaker replies: "The house was sometimes a baker's, Sir, that served the Court, where the bread is called c." "Ay, ay," says Trimtram, "'twas a baker that cheated the court with bread."

(Map J3)

(also CHICKEN LANE per Stowe). A st. in Lond., otherwise known as West St., running from Field L. to the Sheep Pens in Smithfield. It was near a timber bdge. crossing the Turnmill Brook, as the upper part of Fleet Ditch was called, N. of the Holbourn Bdge. No. 3 was the infamous Red Lion Inn, which abutted on the Fleet Ditch at the back, and was a notorious haunt of thieves and ruffians. It was at the corner of Brewhouse Yard, a few steps from Saffron Hill. The whole dist. had a most evil reputation. The Red Lion was pulled down in 1844, and the improvements made in 1857 swept away C. L. altogether. In Middleton's R. G. iii. 1, Moll, dressed as a man, tells Trapdoor she is one of the Temple; but, she adds, "Sometime I lie about C. L."

[ed. note: another Chick Lane existed on Tower Hill. It ran from Barking to Woodroffe Lane and skirted just south of the scaffold and gallows. This Chick Lane can be seen at (Map S5)]


The name given to shops in Lond. where Chinese silks and porcelain were sold. They were a favourite resort of women of fashion, and were often used as places of assignation: hence the word came to mean in the later 17th cent. a brothel. In Jonson's Epicoene i. 1, Sir La-foole "has a lodging in the Strand to watch when ladies are gone to the c: h. or the Exchange, that he may meet them." In the same scene La-foole says that Otter's wife "was the rich c. woman, that the courtiers visited so often"; and in iii. 1, Lady Haughty comes to Mrs. Otter's "to see some C. stuffs." In iv. 2, she invites the heroine to "go with us to Bedlam, to the c: h., and to the Exchange." In his Alchemist iv. 2, Subtle promises Dame Pliant "6 mares to hurry her through Lond., to the Exchange, Bethlem, the c.-h." In Brome's Sparagus ii. 2, Moneylack says, "Though now you keep a c.-shop, and deal in brittle commodities, pots, glasses, pusslane dishes, and trinkets, you must not forget your old trade."

(Map K4)

At the dissolution of the monasteries Henry VIII gave the monastery of the Grey Friars on the N. side of Newgate St. to the City of Lond., and made the old ch. the head of a new parish to be called C. Ch., the monastery itself being at the same time dedicated to the purpose of the education of poor children (see CHRIST'S HOSPITAL). The graveyard of the old Ch. was invested with a peculiar sanctity in the popular imagination, and a large number of distinguished people had been buried there, including Margaret, wife of Edward 1, Isabella, wife of Edward II, Roger Mortimer, John, D. of Bourbon, who was taken prisoner at Agincourt, and Sir T. Malory. The ch. was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt by Wren. In Eastward i. 1, Quicksilver says of Touchstone, "His mother sold gingerbread in C. Ch."; and in Taylor's Works ii. 234, he says, "The world runs on wheels like the great gridiron in C: ch." In both cases the reference is to the school. The old lady doubtless came to sell gingerbread to the boys; and the great gridiron would be used for cooking their meals. In Heywood's Captives iv. 1, a document is produced stating that Mirable was "born in C: ch., Lond., anno 1600." In T. Heywood's I.K.M.B. 320, Lady Ramsie says, "I have known old Hobson sit in Christs Ch. morn by morn to watch poor couples that come there to be married and give them some few angels for a dower." Armin, in Ninnies, mentions "a cobler, next to C.'s Ch. gate in Newgate Market." Burton, A.M. Intro., says, "Had I been as forward as some others I might have haply printed . . . a sermon at C: ch."

The 1609 edition of Shakespeare's Sonnets "Are to be sold by John Wright, dwelling at C. Ch. Gate." The Booke of Mery Riddles, to which Slender refers in M.W.W. i. 1, 209, was "Printed by Edward Allde, dwelling in Little Saint Bartholomewes, neere C: ch. 1600." Chapman's Caesar was "Imprinted by G. E. for John Wright, and are to be sold at his shop at C: ch. Gate."

(Map K4)
(site of Christ's Church)

Lond., on the N. side of Newgate St., a little to the E. of the Old Bailey. It is on the site of Christ Ch., q.v. In 1552 Edward VI, at the instigation of Ridley, founded and endowed it as a school for poor children. Two or three arches on the S. side of the quadrangle are all that remains of the original building, which was destroyed in the Gt. Fire. The scholars were dressed in blue, hence the popular name "The Bluecoat School." In 1902 the school was removed to W. Horsham, and one of the most interesting buildings in Lond. was swept away. The new buildings of the G.P.O. occupy the site.

In Awdeley's Fraternity of Vagabonds (1575), he describes the Cheatour, or Fingerer, as walking "in such places whereas gentlemen and other worshipful citizens do resort, as at Poules, or Christen H., and sometime at the Royal Exchange." In Middleton's Widow ii. 1, Valeria's suitor congratulates himself that his 2 bastard children "are well provided for, they're i' the H." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. ii. 1, Kitely explains that he picked up Cash as a child at his door, and "bred him at the H." In Ford's Queen i. 1, 99, Muretto says, "A H. boy in a blue coat shall transcribe as much in 6 hours." Armin, in Ninnies 50, says, "Write the sermon, boy, as the H. boys do." Machin, in his Diary 33, speaks of "all the children, both men and women children, all in blue coats, and wenches in blue frocks." Armin's Moreclacke has for a 2nd title, "The Life and Simple Maner of John in the H." The direction on the 1st entry of John is, "Enter John, Nurse, Boy, all in blue coats"; and later, "Enter John o' th' H. and a blue-coat boy with him." In Brome's City Wit iii. 1, Tryman says of his brother, "He has been one of the true Blue boys of the H." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 57, Sir John Crosbie soliloquizes: "I do not shame to say the H. of Lond. was my chiefest fostring place. The Maisters of the H. bound me apprentice to the Grocer's trade, and to the H. an hundred pound a year I give for ever." The poet is guilty of a slight anachronism here, for the H. was not in existence as such in the reign of Edward IV. In T. Heywood's I.K.M.B. 319, Lady Ramsie tells of one Master Rowland, "now an able citizen, late chosen a master of the H." Armin, in Ninnies, says, "On Easter Sunday the ancient custom is that all the children of the h. go before my Lord Mayor to the Spittle" (see SPITTLE). The Anatomy of a Woman's Tongue was "Printed for Richd. Harper and are to be sold at his shop at the H: Gate. 1638." The Gate was opposite Warwick Lane. In Wise Men i. 1, Proberio says of Antonio's writings, "We'll put them in print and set them up to be sold at the H. porch near St. Nicholas Shambles."


An eating-house in Lond.: possibly that which afterwards became Jonson's Hotel in Clare Court, on the E. side of Drury Lane next to Blackmoor St. In Barry's Ram iii. 1, Ruff, describing what he would do if he could get a rich wife, says, "I would eat at C. o. and dice at Antony's."

(Map F5)

A ch. in Lond. at the E. end of the Strand, in the middle of the rd. and slightly athwart the direction of it owing to its exact orientation E. and W. The origin of the suffix D. is variously explained as due to the burial there of Harold Harefoot, the illegitimate son of Canute; or to a defeat of the D. by the Londoners in the reign of Ethelred; or to a small settlement of D. who were allowed to remain after the expulsion of the rest from England. The 1st ch. was built somewhere about A.D. 1000. It was repaired at various times during the 17th cent., and was finally pulled down in 1680 and rebuilt by Wren, the steeple being added in 1719. It was repaired and restored in 1839. It has a fine peal of 10 bells, cast in 1693, to replace those whose chimes Falstaff and Shallow "heard at midnight" when they were students in C.'s Inn (H4 B. iii. 2, 228). They figure in the nursery rhyme, "Oranges and lemons, Say the bells of St. Clemens." Dr. Johnson occupied a pew in the N. gaffery, indicated by a brass plate affixed in 1851. Stow tells of the disturbances caused in the neighbourhood of the church by the "unthrifts of the Inns of Chancery." In Jonson's Augurs, the bearward sings, to the dancing of his bears, "Nor the Vintry-Cranes, nor St. C. D., Nor the Devil can put us down." The point would seem to lie in the opposition to bear-baiting by the players, who found that that sport diminished their houses: doubtless the young lawyers supported them in their protest. In Middleton's Five Gallants, the 1st Gallant is "of St. C. 's parish"; and in v. 1, we learn that young Franklin's tailor is "Master Weatherwise by St. C.'s ch." In Dekker's Northward v. 1, Bellamont advises Kate to setup as periwig maker in the Strand, and promises, "You shall have as good a coming in by hair and by other foolish tiring as any between St. C.'s and Charing." Swetnam was "Printed for Richd. Meighen and are to be sold at his shops at St. Cs. Ch., over-against Essex House, and at Westminster Hall. 1620."

(Map G4)

One of the Inns of Court in Lond., lying immediately W. of the New Law Courts, and near the Ch. of St. C. Danes on the N. of the Strand. Near by was C Well, which in Shakespeare's time was paved and curbed and always full of water. It was connected with the Inner Temple, and was an I. of Chancery before the reign of Edward IV. These Inns were places of residence for students of the Law, and resembled in many ways the colleges of the universities. Shallow, in H4 B. iii. 2, indulges in some pleasant reminiscences of the time when "I was once of C. I., where I think they will talk of mad Shallow yet." It was "55 year ago," and Jane Nightwork "had Robin Nightwork by old Nightwork before I came to C. I." He remembers being Sir Dagonet in Arthur's show, "when I lay at C. I." Falstaff was his fellow student there: "I do remember him," says the Fat Knight, "at C. I. like a man made after supper of a cheeseparing: when he was naked, he was for all the world like a forked radish with a head fantastically carved upon it with a knife." Harman, in his Caveat ii., tells of a counterfeit crank who begged about the Temple the most part of the day, "unless it were about xii of the clock he went on the backside of C. I. without Temple Bar; there is a lane that goeth into the Fields; there he renewed his face again with fresh blood which he carried about him in a bladder."

(Map P5)

(now C. LANE). A st. in Lond. running from 28 Lombard St. to K. William St., just above its junction with East Cheap. In Deloney's Craft i. 10, Mrs. Eyre says, "We'll dine at my cousin John Barber's in St. C. L., which is not far from the George in Lumbard-st. "

(Map J2)

A dist. in Lond., N. of C. Rd., between Gray's Inn Rd. and Goswell Rd. So named from a well at the S.E. end of Ray St., which was used by the Brothers of St. John and the Benedictine nuns. The dist. shared with Hockley-in-the-hole and Turnmill St. a particularly bad reputation as a haunt of thieves and loose women. In Middleton's Mad World iii. 2, the Courtesan, supposed to be on her deathbed, sends her commendations "to all my good cousins in C. and St. John's." In Randolph's Muses' iv. 3, justice Nimis reckons, "The yearly value of my fair manor of C. is pounds so many," and adds Turnbal, Pickthatch, and Shoreditch as other contributors to his income. In T. Heywood's Hogsdon ii. 1, the Wise Woman, in a list of female quacks and fortune-tellers, says, "There's a very reverend matron on C. Green, good at many things." In Dekker's News from Hell, we are told of the "whores and thieves that live in C." Taylor, Works ii. 102, speaks of a certain lady as "the honestest woman that dwells between Smithfield Bars and C." In Marston's Courtesan i. 2, Cocledemoy says, "They [bawds] must needs both live well and die well, since most commonly they live in Clerkenwell and die in Bridewell." In Middleton's No Wit i. 1, Weatherwise says, "Some lousy fiddler run away with your daughter; may C. have the first cut of her and Houndsditch pick her bones!" In Brome's City Wit ii. 2, Crack says of Mrs. Tryman: "She was born in Clearkenwell and was never half a day's journey from Bridewell in her life." There was an annual wrestling match at C. which was attended by competitors from all parts of the country. Hentzner tells how he saw the Lord Mayor present at it in all the glory of his state robes.

(Map H5)

Originally the town house of the Cliffords, leased to the students of Law by Isabel, widow of Robert de Clifford, in 1344. It lies on the N. side of Fleet St., between Chancery Lane and Fetter Lane, behind St. Dunstan's Ch. It was the oldest of the Inns of Chancery. The Honourable Society of C. I. was dissolved in 1902, and the hall and some of the buildings have been recently acquired by the Society of Knights Bachelors. In Middleton's R. G. iv. 1, Moll, disguised as a man, pretends to be a teacher of music "right against C. I." Andromana was "Printed for John Bellinger and are to be sold at his shop in C. I. Lane in Fleet St. 1660." C. I. Lane was the entrance to the I. from Fleet St., by St. Dunstan's Ch.

(Map O8)

A prison on the Bankside, Southwark, W. of Winchester House, at the corner of Maid Lane. C. St. still preserves the name. It was removed to Deadman's Place in 1745 and was burnt down by the Gordon rioters in 1780. Bp. Hooper was committed "from the Counter in Southwark to the C." (Works ii. 18 1). After Bradford's excommunication in St. Mary Overies, he was "delivered to the sheriffs of Lond., and so had to the C." (Works i. 492). In T. Heywood's Fortune iii. 4, the Clown, who is making a proclamation at the dictation of the Pursevant, changes "Purser and Clinton" into "Lost their purses at the C." In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Vadianus says, "I have . . . left my wits fast fettered in the Ce." C. is used to-day as a slang term for prison.

(Map K–L3)
(area only; site unmarked–see area of Bartholomew Fair)

A st. in Lond. running from the E. side of W. Smithfield, parallel to and just S. of Long Lane it formerly went right through to Aldersgate St., but now stops at Kinghorn St. It is one of the last surviving bits of mediaeval Lond. It was, as the name implies, the resort of drapers and clothiers. In Jonson's Barthol. Ind., the Stage-keeper regrets that Tarleton had not lived to have played in Bartholomew Fair: "You should have seen him come in, and have been cozened in the c.-quarter so finely!"


A well-known tavern in Fleet St., Lond., near the corner of Chancery Lane (q.v.). It was originally called the C. and Bottle. It escaped the Gt. Fire and can be traced back to the time of Elizabeth, when John Garlak wrote to Mr. Latimer "at the sign of the C. near St. Dunstan's Ch." It was pulled down to make room for a branch of the Bank of England in 1887, but was reopened under the old name on the opposite side of the rd. in 1888. The old sign, said to have been carved by Griming Gibbons, is preserved in the house: the sign outside is modern. Everyone knows Tennyson's lyrical monologue to Will Waterproof, "the plump headwaiter at the C." There were other C. Taverns in Tothill St., Westminster, pulled down in 1873 to make room for the Aquarium; in Bow St.; and on the S. side of Old St. Harman, in Caveat, speaks of another in Kent St., in Southwark. It was also a bookseller's sign Arthur of Litil Bretaygne was "Imprinted at Lond. in Powles Ch. yard at the sign of the Ce. by Roberte Redborne."


A tavern in Highgate. Highgate, being the last stage on the way to Lond., had a great many taverns. Hone, in Every-Day Bk. (1826), enumerates 19 in the High St. In Jonson's Tub i. 2, we are told of Sim Valentine, who "kept brave house at the C.-and-Hen in Highgate."

(Map J4)

A st. in Lond. running E. from Snow Hill to Giltspur St., in W. Smithfield. Pie Corner is at the corner of Giltspur St. and Cock L. It is mentioned in 1383 as the only allowed place of abode for courtesans on that side of the city; and Clarice of Cokkeslane is one of the merry company of Glutton's fellowship in Piers B. v. 319. In Whetstone's Promos iv. 1, Gresco orders the beadles to "search Ducke Alley, Cockelane, and Scouldes corner" for lewd persons. There was another C. L. in Shoreditch, now called Boundary St., running N. from Church St. to Austin St. This is the one referred to by Davenant in Wits v. 3, "O, Sir, 'twill make 'em sing like the silk-knitters of C.-l."


In the sense of a born Londoner only occurs after 1600. The original meaning is a cock's egg (cocken-ey) which was supposed to be small and misshapen; then a milksop, a foolish, affected person. It is in this sense only that Shakespeare uses the word-Tw. N. iv. 1, 15: "This great lubber, the world, will prove a c."; and Lear ii. 4, 123, "Cry to it, nuncle, as the c. did to the eels when she put 'em i' the paste alive." The 1st example of the localized sense quoted in O.E.D. is in Rowlands' Lett. Hum. Blood iv. 65 (1600), "I scorn to let a Bow-bell C. put me down." Minsheu, Ductor (1617), says, "A C., or Cockny, applied only to one born within the sound of Bow-bell"; and goes on to give an absurd derivation of it from a young Londoner going into the country and talking about a cock neighing. In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 5, the Lord Mayor of Lond. says of his daughter, "My fine c. would have none of him." In Prodigal ii. 1, Oliver, the Devonshire clothier, in response to Flowerdale's chaff about his provincial pronunciation, says, "Ay, and well said, cocknell, and Bow-bell too." In Dekker's Westward ii. 2, Birdlime says, "As Frenchmen love to be bold . . . so cs., especially she-cs., love not aqua vitae when 'tis good for them." In Day's B. Beggar v., Strowd says, "I think you be sib to one of the London-cs. that asked whether haycocks were better meat boiled or roasted." In Brome's Northern ii. 1, Widgin says, "I am a C. and was never further than Hammersmith." In his Ct. Beggar iii. 1, Swaynwit says to Citywit, who has just been boasting that he was born in the City, "Darst thou tell me of clowns, thou c. chicken-hearted whelp thou?"


Properly an enclosed circle for the sport of cock-fighting: then applied to a theatre, especially to the pit. So Shakespeare, H5 prol. 11, says, "Can this C. hold The vasty fields of France?" L. Digges, in Steaks. Suppl. i. 71, says, "Let but Beatrice and Benedict be seen; lo! in a trice The C., galleries, boxes, all are full." The name was then appropriated to one particular theatre, erected on the site of a c. in Drury L. about 1615 (Map E3). It was sacked by the prentices in 1617 and reopened under the name of the "Phoenix.'' [ed. note: here Sugden is mistaken. The apprentices' vandalism probably had nothing to do with the name. The theatre was more likely built on the site of a former cockpit that had burned and was therefore named The Phoenix but continued, albeit atavistically, to be referred to as The Cockpit. The apprentices did not burn the building in 1617.] In Dekker's Owl's Almanac (1618), we read: "Shrove Tuesday falls on that day which the prentices pulled down the C."; and in Middleton's Inner Temp. 174, Dr. Almanac says, "Stand forth, Shrove Tuesday! 'tis in your charge to pull down bawdy-houses; ruin the C.! the poor players never thrived in it." [ed. note: the players never thrived in the Cockpit probably because it had just been erected in 1617 when the apprentices pulled it down.] It may fairly be regarded as the progenitor of the famous Drury Lane. In Jonson's Epicoene iv. 2, Centaure talks of the lovers who "invite us to the C. and kiss our hands all the play-time." L. Digges, in Steaks. Suppl. i. 71, says, "May the Bull or C. have Your lame blank verse to keep you from the grave." The actors, in their Remonstrance (1643), say, "It is not unknown to all the audience that have frequented the private houses of Blackfriars, the C., and Salisbury Court, without austerity we have purged our stages from all obscene and scurrilous jests." Brome, in a note at the end of the Antipodes, says, "It was at first intended for the C. stage." In Dekker's Babylon 214, Plain Dealing says, "This one little C. is able to shew all the follies of your kingdom, in a few apes of the kingdom." In Nabbes' C. Garden i. 1, Ralph is delighted that his master is coming to live in Covent Garden: "we shall then be near the C., and see a play now and then." In Cockayne's Obstinate iii. 2, Lorece says, "I at any time will carry you to a play either to the Black Friar's or C." In the 1st Folio (preface) of Shakespeare, the authors address the critics as you that "Sit on the stage at Blackfriars or the C. to arraign plays daily." Glapthorne's Hollander was "acted at the C. in Drury Lane"; and his Argalus "at the private house in Drury-Lane," which is obviously the C.

(Map A6)

See under WHITEHALL.


A court in Westminster on the S. side of Petty France (q.v.), now York St. It was notorious as a haunt of women of bad character, from which it doubtless gained its name. In Middleton's Inner Temp. 173, Dr. Almanac says, "Stand forth, Shrove Tuesday! 'Tis in your charge to pull down bawdy-houses: deface Turnbull and tickle C. R." The reference is to the annual attack made by the prentices on houses of ill-fame on Shrove Tuesday. In Brome's Covent G. i. 1, Nicholas addresses the prostitute Damaris as "old Countess of C. R."

(Map P6)

or COLDHARBOROUGH: often spelt COLE HARBOUR (Ce. H. = Cole Harbour). Originally a fine mansion in Upper Thames St., Lond., next door to Allhallows Ch., on the site where the City of Lond. Brewery now stands. It is first mentioned in the reign of Edward II. It became a little later the property of Sir John Poultney, and was called Poultney's Inn. After passing through many hands it was pulled down about 1570 by the Earl of Shrewsbury, and a number of small tenements was built on the site. In some obscure way it had acquired the right of sanctuary. In Middleton's Trick to Catch iii. 1, a plot is laid to abduct the Courtesan "by boat to Ce.-H., have a priest ready, and there clap it up instantly." In iii. 3, Lucre, being told that "they have took Ce.-H.," exclaims: "The devil's Sanctuary!" In his R. G. iv. 2, Goswell, punning on the word, says, "I sweat; would I lay in C. H.!" In his Black Book 1, 14, we find, "Is not our house our own Ce. H.?" ie. sanctuary. In Jonson's Epicoene ii. 3, Morose, cursing his nephew, says, "It knighthood shall take sanctuary in Ce.-h. and fast." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon ii. 1, the Wise Woman, in a list of female quacks and fortune-tellers, says, "There's another in Ce.h., that's skilled in the planets." T. Heywood and Rowley, in Fortune iii. 1, say, "C. H., where, of 20 chimnies standing, you shall scarce, in a whole winter, see 2 smoking." In Dekker's Westward iv. 2, Justiniano says, "You swore you would build me a lodging by the Thames side with a water gate to it, or else take me a lodging in Ce. H." In Middleton's Quiet Life ii. 3, young Franklin says, "Go, take water at Ce. H." In his Hubburd, p. 96, he says, "Shoreditch was the only Ce. H. (i.e. sanctuary) for wenches and soldiers." Hall, in Satires v. 1, 99, satirizes the man who let his "starved brother live and die Within the cold Coal-h. sanctuary." Healy, in Disc. of New World, p. 182, says, "Here is that ancient model of Coal H., bearing the name of the Prodigal's Promontory, and being as a sanctuary for banque-rupt debtors."


See under TOWER.


(or COLEMANHAWE). A garden on the S. side of Fenchurch St., Lond, near the Ch. of St. Katharine Coleman (q.v.). In Barnes' Charter iii. 5, Frescobaldi calls the leader of a gang of prostitutes "the grand Capt. of Coleman-hedge."

(Map N3–O4)

A st. in Lond., running N. from the E. end of Gresham St. to Fore St. It probably got its name from the charcoal dealers who lived there. It was a haunt of Puritans, and the Star Inn in C. St. was a meeting-place for Oliver Cromwell and his friends. It was there that the 5 members (Pym, Hampden, etc.) took refuge when Charles I came to demand them from the H. of Commons (Jan. 1642).

In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 2, Brainworm speaks of "Justice Clement's house here in C. St." Cash later (iii. 2) specifies that it was "in the middle of C. St."; iii. 3, and v take place there. In Prodigal ii. 4, Lancelot is led to believe that Flowerdale has left him "2 housen furnished well in Cole-man St" The Bell in C. St. was the inn used by the Cambridge carriers (Taylor's Cosmographie 1637). In Middleton's Five Gallants iii. 5, Pursenet tells of a wound he had received "in a paltry fray in C. St." Cowley transformed his play, The Guardian , into The Cutter of C. St., the scene of which is in Lond. in the year 1658. In iv. 5, Tabitha says, "Brother Abednego, will you not pronounce this evening-tide before the congregation of the Spotless in C.-st.?" Dekker, in Seven Sins, tells how Lying "musters together all the hackney-men and horse-coursers in and about Colman-st." Abington was "Imprinted at Lond. for Joseph Hunt and William Ferebrand, and are to be sold at the corner of Colman St., near Laathburie. 1599."




A legendary Temple of C. in Lond., at which Locrine intended to marry Estrild. In Locrine v. 4, 81, Locrine says to Estrild after their defeat, "Ne'er shall we view the fair C. Unless as captives we be thither brought.''


(pronounced Condit). The water-supply of Lond. was at first obtained from the Thames and the streams which ran into it from the N., and from the wells which were sunk successfully, as Stow tells us, "in every st. and lane of the city." The largest of the tributaries of the Thames was that which ran into the r. between Bridewell and the Blackfriars, and which was known first as the Wells river, then as Turnmill Brook, and finally as Fleet Ditch. It was bridged at the bottom of Fleet St. and at Holborn, and was navigable up to the Holborn Bdge. Above that point it was called the Old Bourne, the Hole Bourne, or the Hil-Bourne. It had become in Shakespeare's time a noisome open sewer, as described by Jonson in the Famous Voyage. It is now conveyed underground into the main sewer of the Embankment. Further W. was the Tye-bourne; and to the E. Walbrook and the Langbourne, both of which had been undergrounded by the beginning of the 17th cent. The principal wells were Holy Well, Clement's Well, Clerken-well, Skinner's Well, Fagges Well, near Smithfield, Tod Well, Loder's Well, Radwell, Dame Annis le Clere, the Horse Pool in Smithfield, and the Pool by St. Giles' Ch. The water from these various sources was conveyed to the houses by water-carriers, one of whom is sketched by Jonson in Ev. Man I. in the person of Oliver Cob. During the 14th cent. the practice became common of erecting conduits, or fountains, in the principal sts. to which the waters from the sources to the N. of the City were conveyed in leaden pipes, and so made available for the use of the citizens. The 1st and most famous of these was the Great C. at the E. end of Cheapside (1285), to which the water was brought from the Tye Bourne, in Paddington. The convenience was appreciated and, partly by private benefactions, partly by the city authorities, many similar cs. were set up. Amongst them were There were also bosses, or fountains, projecting from the wall, in These cs. were often adorned with sculptured figures, and formed striking architectural features in the sts.; and when pageants traversed the City they were utilized for the exhibition of masques, and on great occasions were made to flow with claret instead of water. The water was mostly brought from reservoirs constructed at Highbury, Pentonville, Bayswater (i.e. Baynard's Watering), and other N. suburbs, and these c.-heads became favourite summer evening resorts. An important development took place in 1582, when Peter Moris, a Dutchman, set up a force-pump, worked by horse-power, near Lond. Bdge., to pump Thames water into the houses of the City: other forciers, as they were called, were soon erected, and with the extension of this system of private supply the cs. became less necessary; so that when they were destroyed in the Gt. Fire they were not re-erected, and a very characteristic feature of Elizabethan Lond. disappeared. But in those days the sound of running water must have formed as delightful an accompaniment to the open-air life of the City as it does in Rome to-day. In the dramatists the cs. are often specifically mentioned; and figures drawn from the pipes that brought water to them, and the statues that adorned them, are of frequent occurrence.

In Shakespeare's Err. v. 1, 313, old AEgeus speaks of the "cs. of his blood" being frozen up by age. In Cor. ii. 3, 250, Brutus recalls the names of Publius and Quintus Marcius, "That our best water brought by cs. hither." Brutus speaks prophetically, for the Aqua Marcia at Rome only dates from 144 B.C., but the allusion would be congenial to the Londoners, who would think of men like William Lambe, who magnificently repaired the c. in Holborn, which bore his name, and Barnard Randulph, who had quite recently (1583) made the munificent gift of 900 for the City cs. In Lucr. 1234, Lucretia's weeping maidens are compared to "Ivory cs. coral cisterns filling." In W.T. v. 2, 60, the old shepherd stands by, weeping for joy "like a weather-bitten c. of many kings' reigns." In Tit. ii. 4, 30, Marcus compares the wounded body of Lavinia to "a c. with 3 issuing spouts." In Rom. iii. 5, 129, Capulet, finding Juliet weeping, exclaims, "How now? a c., girl? What, still in tears?" In A.Y.L. iv. 1, 155, when Rosalind says "I will weep for nothing, like Diana in the fountain," there is probably an allusion to the figure of Diana, with water trilling from its breasts, which was set up on the Cheapside Cross in the place of the image of the Virgin Mary in 1596, but was decayed in 1603: if so, it is decisive as to the date of the production of the play, which on other grounds appears to be about 1600. In More ii. 1, Robin says to his fellow prentice, "The head drawer at the Miter by the great C. called me up and we went to breakfast into St. Anne's Lane." This is the Mitre Tavern, at the corner of Bread St. and Cheapside (see MITRE). In Mayne's Match ii. 6, Timothy professes to have made some speeches "which have been spoke by a green Robin Goodfellow from Cheapside C." The allusion is to the practice of having complimentary orations, or verses, spoken at the Great C. on the occasion of pageants and processions. The name "Pissing C." seems to have been applied to more than one of the smaller cs. Stow definitely states that the c. by the Stocks mkt., which was at the N. end of Walbrook, near the present Mansion House, was so called. The name seems to have been suggested by the slenderness of the stream of water. But when, in H6 B. iv. 6, 3, Cade commands that "the pissing c. run no thing but claret wine this 1st year of our reign," it is more likely that he is thinking of the Little C. at the W. end of Cheapside. Similarly, in Middleton's Chaste Maid, Allwit, whose house is in Cheapside, says to the gossips, "Come along presently by the Pissing-C." (iii. 2): where the Cheapside c. seems the one intended. The word, however, is generic rather than specific in some passages. Thus, in Haughton's Englishmen iv. 1, Frisco, wandering about Fenchurch St. in the night with Delion and Alvaro, says, "Now for a dirty puddle, the pissing c., or a great post, that might turn these 2 from asses to oxen by knocking their horns to their foreheads." In B.&F. Mad Lover ii. 1, Memnon is giving directions to Chilar for a pageant. "Make me," he says, "a heaven, for here shall run a constellation." "And there," interjects Chilar, "a pissing c . . . . with wine, Sir." In Nash's Wilton A. 4, the hero says, "I have wept so immoderately that I thought my palate had been turned to Pissing C. in Lond." In Nice Wanton iii. 1, Thirsty says, "Your miserable churl dribbles like the Pissing C." In Dekker's Shoemaker's iv. 5, Firk says, "[I am as sure of it as I am sure] that the Pissing C. leaks nothing but pure Mother Bunch." Mother Bunch was a tavern-keeper whose ale was of the weakest: hence pure Mother Bunch means "nothing but water." In B. & F. Women Pleased i. 2, Penurio, when his miserly master gives him for his dinner the water he has boiled an egg in, says, "I shall turn pissing-c. shortly."

In Nabbes' Totenham iii. 5, George having hidden in a tub, one of the maids pours a bucket of water over him, and cries: "Mischief on you, Sir; you have spoiled me a pail of c.water, cost me many a weary step the fetching." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon v. 1, Charley says he can be found "at Grace Ch. by the C." Stow says there was a c. in Grasstreet erected in 1491. In Ovatio Carolina (1641), we are told that on the entry of the K. into Lond. "the c. in Cornhill and the great c. in Cheapside ran with claret wine"; and in the afternoon "the little c. in Cheapside and the c. in Fleet St. ran with wine as the other 2 cs. had done in the morning." In Massinger's Madam iv. 1, Hoist predicts that on Luke's return "all the cs. [will be] spouting canary sack." The names of benefactors to the City appear to have been inscribed on the cs. In Eastward iv. 4, Touchstone predicts that Gresham and Whittington shall be forgotten, and Golding's name "shall be written upon cs." The cs. were great gathering places for the prentices who came to get water for then masters' households, and all the gossip of the town was retailed there. In Dekker's Shoemaker's v. 1, Eyre says, "I promised the mad Cappadocians [his fellow rentices] when we all served at the C. together, that if ever I came to be Mayor of Lond. I would feast them all." In Massinger's Parl. Love iv. 5, Chamont says to Perigot, "Live to be the talk of the c. and the bakehouse." In Trouble. Reign ii., we have c. as a verb: "My eyes should c. forth a sea of tears." In Nash's Summers', Haz. viii. 83, Christmas complains of the extortionate rates of the water-carriers "These water-bearers will empty the c. and a man's coffers at once." In Glapthorne s Hollander iv. 1, Sconce says, "This cup was as deep as Fleet-st. C." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 2, Knowell says to Stephen, "A gentleman of your sort to talk o' your turn i' this company, and to me alone, like a tankard-bearer at a c.! Fie!" Of course, the tankard-bearer had to take his turn at the c., but Stephen is such a wit that he can speak when he likes. In Nabbes' Bride i. 2, Theophilus says that the cook's taunts "Will be the sts.' discourse, the cs.' lecture." Woodes' Conf. Cons. was "Printed by Richard Bradocke dwelling in Aldermanbury, a little above the Conduict. 1581." Three Ladies was "Printed by Roger Warde dwelling near Holburne C. at the signe of the Talbot." In Marston's Courtezan ii. 1, Cocledemoy mentions "the C. at Greenwich, and the under-holes that spouts up water." This c. was in Greenwich Park, and was still in existence in 1835. Phillip's Grissil was "Imprinted at Lond. in Fleetestreat beneath the C. by Thomas Colwell."


There was no company of Coppersmiths in Lond., nor was there any such Hall. The phrase is coined from the analogy of Goldsmiths' H.; and is used humorously for a tavern, where the topers' noses became copper-coloured through their drinking. In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass i. 3, 202, the Clown says, "His nose . . . was so set with rubies that after his death it should have been nailed up in C. H. for a monument." In Greene's Friar ii. 2, 537 Edward asks, "Where is Brasen-nose College?" And Miles answers: "Not far from Coppersmithes H." Nash, in Prognostication ii. 165, speaks of drunkards as "knights of Coppersmith"; and Middleton, in Black Book prol., calls them "copper captains."


Two blocks of houses in Lond.: (1) on the W. side of Dowgate Hill, (q.v.) now the Hall of the Skinners' Company; (2) in an alley running N out of Throckmorton St. (q.v.), close to Drapers' Hall. In Brome's Sparagus iii. 10 a gentleman, who is being dunned for his bill by the keeper of the Garden, says to the servant, "Tell your mistress that the Countess of Copt Hall is coming to be her neighbour again and she may decline her trade very dangerously."

(Map Q4)

A st. in Lond., running E. from the end of the Poultry past the Royal Exchange to Leadenhall St. It was originally the Corn Market for Lond., and in 1310 had the privilege granted of holding a market after noon, all the other markets being closed at noon. Later it came to be mainly occupied by drapers. In C. were a stocks and pillory, a prison called the Tun, a conduit, and a standard erected in 1582 to supply water pumped up from the Thames. In Piers C. vi. 1, the author says, "Ich wonede on Cornehulle, Kytte and Ich in a cote, clothed as a lollere." Lydgate, in Lickpenny, says, "Then into Corn-hyl anon I yode, Where was much stolen gere amonge; I saw where honge myne owen hoode, That I had lost amonge the thronge." In Fair Women ii. 278, Roger tells how he followed Sanders from his own door to C., where he stayed an hour and then went directly to the Burse. In More ii. 3, the Lord Mayor commands, "Gather some forces to C. and Cheapside" to quell the riot of the prentices. In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 2, Frisco explains, "when we came from Bucklersbury into C. you should have turned down on your left hand." And Pisaro exclaims, "You ass! You dolt! why led you him through C.? Your way had been to come through Canning St." In Jonson's Devil iii. 1, Meercraft exhorts Gilthead to buy his son a capt.'s place, "and let him with his plume and scarfs march through Cheapside or along C." In Dekker's Shoemaker's ii. 1, we learn that Sybil, the maid of the Lord Mayor's daughter, watched Lacy pass in his scarf and feathers "at our door in C.": where evidently the Lord Mayor lived. In the same play (v. 5), the K. says to Simon Eyre, "that new building Which at thy cost in C. is erected Shall take a name from us; we'll have it called The Leadenhall, because in digging it You found the lead that covereth the same." The Leadenhall, which was built by Eyre on the site of an old mansion belonging to Sir Hugh Neville and presented by him to the City as a storehouse and market for grain, was not actually in Cornhill, but on the E. side of Gracechurch St., near the corner of Fenchurch St. (see LEADENHALL; for reference to C. in W. Rowley's Match Mid., see under CATEATON ST.). In the list of taverns in News Barthol. Fair, we find "the Mermaid in C." This is not the famous Mermaid Tavern, which was at the corner of Bread St., in Cheapside. In Three Lords (Dods., vi. 397), Simplicity says of Tarlton, the actor, that in his youth he was a water-bearer, "and hath tossed a tankard in C. ere now." In W. Rowley's Wonder iii. 1, Mrs. Foster says, "It is my gossip, the rich widow of C." Ford's Heart was "Printed by J. E. for Hugh Beeston and are to be sold at his shop near the Castle in Corn-hill. 1633." Gresham's Royal Exchange was built in C. In T. Heywood's I.K.M.B. 289, Ramsie says to Gresham, "We have determined of a place for you In C., the delightful of this city, Where you shall raise your frame." In his F.M. Exch. 38, Anthony says, "In C. by the Exchange Dwells an old merchant, Flower they call his name." Sidney, in Remedy for Love, speaks of "C.'s square Exchange."

(Map links in text below)

(or COMPTER). The latter is the official spelling since the 17th cent. A prison for debtors connected with the City court in Lond. There were 2 cs. in Lond. in the 16th cent.: the Poultry C. (Map O5), taken down in 1817, and the Bread St. C., transferred in 1555 to Wood St. (Map M4). This last was transferred to Giltspur St. in 1791, and the Giltspur St. C. was closed in 1854. The Poultry C. was on the N. side of the st., 4 doors W. of the Ch. of St. Mildred, which stood at the corner of the Poultry, opposite to Walbrook. The Bread St. C. was on the W. side of the st.: it was transferred to Wood St. because of the cruelty of the keeper, one Richd. Husband, to the prisoners; and also because he had allowed thieves and strumpets to lodge there at 4-pence a night, in order to escape arrest. The Wood St. C. was on the E. side of the st., N. of Lad, or Ladle Lane, now Gresham St. There was also a C. in Southwark on the site of the old Church of St. Margaret, q.v.

The only references to the cs. in Shakespeare are the punning one in Err. iv. 2, 39, where Dromio describes a sheriff's officer as "a fellow all in buff, A backfriend, shoulder-clapper . . . A hound that runs c. and yet draws dry-foot well" (a hound is said to hunt c. when he goes back on the scent and so pursues the game in the opposite direction to that which it is taking: to draw dry-foot is to follow the game by the scent alone); and Falstaff's remark in M.W.W. iii. 3, 85, "Thou mightst as well say I love to walk by the C.-Gate, which is as hateful to me as the reek of a lime-kiln."

In Nobody i. 307, an unnamed person says, "I am, Sir, a Keeper of the C., and there are in our wards above 100 poor prisoners that are like ne'er to come forth without satisfaction." In Ret. Pernass. iv. 2, Ingenioso tells how "the silly Poet goes muffled in his cloak, to escape the C." In More ii. 3, More reports that the "captains of this insurrection . . . came but now To both the Cs. where they have released Sundry indebted prisoners." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. ii. 1, Downright declares, "an he [Wellbred] think to be relieved by me, when he is got into one of your city-pounds, the Cs., he has the wrong sow by the ear." In Ev. Man O. Ind., Asper speaks of the Puritan (or Non-Conformist) conscience: "[It] is vaster than the ocean and devours more wretches than the Cs." In v. 4, Brisk is arrested and taken to the c.; and in v. 7, Fallace visits him there and opens the scene by exclaiming, "O Mr. Fastidius, what pity 'tis to see so sweet a man as you are in so sour a place!" [kisses him]. Cordatus, who is watching the play along with Mitis, says to him, "As upon her lips, does she mean?" To which Mitis, "O, this is to be imagined the C., belike." The passage is interesting, for it shows that no scenic devices were used to indicate that the actors were in the c.: it had to be inferred from the dialogue. In Eastward ii. 2, Quicksilver exhorts Sir Petronel, "Put 'em in sufficient sureties; let 'em take their choice; either the King's Bench, or the Fleet, or which of the 2 Cs. they like best." In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage iii. 1, Ilford says, "So sure will I be arrested by a couple of serjeants, and fall into one of the unlucky cranks about Cheapside, called Cs." In Barry's Ram iii. 3, Mrs. Taffeta cries: "Run to the C., fetch me a red-bearded serjeant.'" In Middleton's R. G. iii. 3, Wengrave makes an elaborate comparison between the c. and the university: "A C.! Why, 'tis an University, who not sees? As scholars there, so here men take degrees. Scholars learn first Logic and Rhetoric; So does a prisoner; with fine honeyed speech At 's first coming in, he doth persuade, beseech, He may be lodged with one that is not itchy, To lie in a clean chamber, in sheets not lousy: But when he has no money, then does he try, By subtle Logic and quaint sophistry, To make the keepers trust him. Say they do, Then he's a Graduate. Say they trust him not, Then is he held a freshman and a sot, And never shall commence; but, being still barred, Be expulsed from the Master's side to the Twopenny ward, Or else in the Hole beg place. When he can get out clear, he's then a Master of Arts. Sir Davy, send your son to Wood St. College: A gentleman can nowhere get more knowledge." The accommodation afforded to the prisoners depended on what they could pay. There seem to have been 4 grades: In Cooke's Greene's Tu Quoque, p. 563, Holdfast, the servant of the Master of the C. in which Spendall is lying, asks him for money, and says, "If you have no money, You'd best remove into some cheaper Ward."-"What ward should I remove in?" asks the debtor. "Why," replies Holdfast, "to the two-penny ward; or, if you will, you may go into the Hole, and there you may feed for nothing."-"Aye," says Spendall, "out of the alms basket." The poor wretches in the Hole used to hold a basket out to the passers-by through a grating and beg for food. We have an interesting picture in Eastward v. 2, where Wolf, the officer of the c., explains to Golding, "The knight will be in the knights' ward, do what we can, Sir: and Mr. Quicksilver would lie i' the Hole, if we would let him. I never knew or saw prisoners more penitent or more devout. They will sit you up all nights singing of Psalms and edifying the whole prison. Only Sincerity sings a note too high sometimes; because he lies i' the two-penny ward far off, and cannot take his tune. And he has converted one Fangs, a serjeant: he was called the Bandog o' the Counter, and he has brought him already to pare his nails and say his prayers." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. v. 4, Carlo says, "He walks as melancholy as one o' the Master's side in the C." In Dekker's Westward iii. 2, Monopoly asks, "Which is the dearest Ward in prison, serjeant the Knight's Ward?"-" No, Sir," is the answer, "the Master's side." In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage iii. 1, Ilford declares, "I, Frank Ilford, was in forced from the Mitre in Bread St. to the Compter in the Poultry. If you shall think it meet to submit myself from the feather-bed in the Master's side, or the flock bed in the knights' ward to the straw-bed in the Hole, I shall do 't." In the Puritan iii. 4, Puttock says, "These maps are pretty painted things: they say all the world's in one of them, but I could ne'er find the C. in the Poultry." Nash, in his Prognostication, predicts that the stones in Cheapside will grow so hot "that divers persons should fear to go from Paul's to the C. in the Poultry." The lawyers who touted for clients at the Cs. were naturally of an inferior class. In Barry's Ram iv., justice Tutchin says to Throate, "You, some common bail, or C.-lawyer, marry my niece!" In Dekker's Westward iii. 1, Tenterhook says to his wife, "Buy a link and meet me at the C. in Wood St." In 1598 Henslowe provided 40/- to secure Dekker's release from "the C. in the Poultrey." In W. Rowley's Wonder v., the Sheriff orders, "See your prisoners presently conveyed From Ludgate unto Newgate and the Cs." In Middleton's Inner Temp., Fasting Day says that Plumporridge "moves like one of the great porridge tubs going to the C.": presumably for the feeding of the prisoners. In Wapull's Tarrieth F. 2, the Sergeant says to the Debtor, "10 groats thou shalt pay, or else to the C. we must out of hand." In Dekker's Northward i. 3, Philip says that he has come "from the house of prayer and fasting, the C." In Fam. Vict., p. 330, the boy says that as the result of a street fray, "the young Prince was carried to the C." by the mayor and sheriffs. In B. & F. Mad Lover i. 1, the Fool says to Chilax, "I'll have a shilling for a can of wine, When you shall have 2 sergeants for a c.": where a pun is intended between counter and shilling.

(Map C–E4)

(or more properly CONVENT G.) was so called from the fact that it belonged originally to the Abbey of Westminster. It lay N. of the Strand at the back of Burghley House, now Exeter Hall. In the 16th cent. it was a large enclosed g., with no buildings on it except a cottage or two. At the dissolution of the monasteries it came to the Crown and was given to the D. of Somerset: at his execution it reverted to the Crown, and in 1552 was granted to the Earl of Bedford. The square, with piazzas on the N. and E. sides and the Ch. of St. Paul on the W., was built about 1631 from designs by Inigo Jones. The flower and fruit market began about the middle of the 17th cent. in a small way, but its real foundation was in 1678. It soon became a resort of women of loose character, and is frequently mentioned by the restoration dramatists. In Davenant's Wits iv. 2, Thwack says, "A new plantation [i.e. colony] is made i' the C. G. from the sutlery o' the German camps and the suburbs of Paris." In News from Hell C. G. is mentioned in a list of places where whores and thieves live. St. Hilary's Tears (1642) are "shed upon all professions from the C.-G. Lady of Iniquity to the Turnbull-st. Trull." In the London Prentice Declaration (1642), it is stated that they met "at the piazza's in C. G." In Shirley's Ball (licensed 1632) v. 1, Freshwater invents a story that when he was in Venice "2 or 3 English spies told us they had lain lieger for 3 months to steal away the Piazza and ship it to C. G." In Killigrew's Parson iv. 3, the Widow says, "We'll go to my nephew's at C. G." For reference to C. G. in Underwit, see s.v. COCKPIT. Brome's Covent G. tells of the efforts of justice Cockbrain to purify the G. from the loose women and profligate men who were already beginning to haunt it. He exclaims (i. 1), "Here's Architecture expressed indeed! It is a most sightly situation and fit for gentry and nobility. Yond magnificent piece, the Piazzo, will excell that at Venice." The New Ch. (St. Paul's) is spoken of, and the "belconies," which were the first examples of that feature of domestic architecture in England. The scene of Nabbes' C. Garden is laid here in i. 3, Mrs. Tongall speaks with enthusiasm of the "balconees"; "they set off a lady's person well when she presents herself to the view of gazing passengers." The word was accented on the 2nd syllable up to the beginning of the 19th cent.

(Map J3)
(site only; cross unmarked)

An old cross in Lond. near Smithfield, in C. C. St., which runs from St. John St., past the S. end of Turnmill St., to Farringdon Rd. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 57, Crosby tells how he was picked up as an infant by an honest citizen "near unto a cross, commonly called C. C., near Islington," and taken to the Foundling Hospital. Hence he was named John Crosby.

(Map J3–J4)

A st. in Lond., now called King St., running from the N.W. corner of W. Smithfield to Snow Hill. In Jonson's Barthol. i, 1, Mrs. Littlewit tells, "My mother has had her nativity-water cast lately by the cunning men in C. L., and they have told her her fortune." The 1599 edition of Span. Trag. was printed by William White in C. L.; he also published The Fraternitie of Vagabondes in 1663.


The sign of a bookseller's shop in St. Paul's Churchyard, Lond. (q.v.). Middleton's Mad World was "Printed by H. B. for Walter Burre; and are to be sold in Paule's Church-yard at the sign of the C. 1608." The 4th Folio of Shakespeare's works was "Printed for H. Herringham, E. Brewster, and R. Bentley at the Anchor in the New Exchange, the C. in St. Paul's Church-yard, and in Russel-St., Covent Garden. 1685." Massinger's Dowry was "Printed by John Norton for Francis Constable and are to be sold at his shop at the C. in Paul's Churchyard. 1632." W. Rowley's New Wonder was "Imprinted by G. L. for Francis Constable and are to be sold at his shop at the sign of the C. in St. Pauls Churchyard. 1632."

(Map K5)

St. in Lond., running from near the top of Ludgate Hill to Carter L. It was originally called Spurriers Row, but the name was changed in the reign of Elizabeth to C. L., from the scriveners who lived there and wrote copies of the Pater Noster, Ave, Creed, Graces, etc. Spenser's Shepherd's Calendar, 1st edn., was "Printed and sold by Hugh Singleton, dwelling at the sign of the Golden Tun, in C. L., near unto Ludgate." An undated edition of Elinor Ramming was "Imprinted at Lond., in Credo L., by John Kyage and Thomas Marches '

(Map M3)

One of the N, gates of Lond., between Moorgate and Aldersgate. Stow says it was so called from the cripples who begged there, but this looks like an afterthought. It was new-built in 1244, and again in 1491. It was sold and pulled down in 1760. The name is preserved in C. Buildings, 11 Fore St. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. Ind., Asper speaks of one "as lame as Vulcan or the founder of C.": another unlikely suggestion as to the derivation of the name. In T. Heywood's Woman killed iv. 5, Nicolas says of the gate, "It must ope with far less noise than C. or your plot's dashed ": from which it may be inferred that the gate had some reputation for creaking when it was opened. Taylor, Works i. 87, puns on the name: "Footmen are brought to anchor 'in the harbour of C." Dekker, in Seven Sins, makes Apishness "come prancing in at C." because of the lame imitations he gives of those whom he copies. In his Shoemaker's iv. 3, Firk chaffingly says to Ralph, "Thou lie with a woman-to build nothing but Cs.!" In Middleton's Hubburd, p. 96, the soldier says, "I came hopping out of my lodging like old lame Giles of C." Deloney, in Reading vi., tells a cock-and-bull story of a cripple who stole the silver weathercock of St. Paul's, and with the proceeds of the theft "budded a gate on the N. side of the city which to this day is called Criple-gate."

(Map P–Q6)

A st, in Lond., which formerly ran from New Fish St. to St. Michael's L. Part of it was taken down to make the approach to the new Lond. Bdge.: what is left of it runs from near the corner of Cannon and K. William Sts., S. to Miles L. Just above the end of it, in Fish St. Hill, was an old inn called the Black Bell, formerly the house of Edward the Black Prince. In Jonson's Christmas, Christmas puns on the name: "Last is child Rowlan, and a straight young man, Though he come out of C. L." In Dekker's Edmonton ii. 1, the Clown says, in response to Cuddy's request for bells, "Double bells-C. L.-ye shall have 'em straight in C. L." The reference is probably to the Black Bell Inn at the corner of the Lane. In Middleton's No Wit ii. 1, Weatherwise says, "Her crabbed Uncle, dwelling in C. L., crossed the marriage." In Davenant's Rutland, p. 221, the Parisian, in his account of Lond., says, "Football is not very conveniently civil in the sts., especially in such irregular and narrow roads as C. L." In Brome's City Wit v. 1, the boy sings a song "made by a couple that were lately married in C.-L." In Urquhart's Rabelais i. 28, Friar John says, "They go into Paradise as straight as a sickle or as the way is to Faye (like C. L. at Eastcheap)."

(Map Q4)

A mansion in Lond. on the E, side of Bishopsgate St. Within, which covered the greater part of what is now Crosby Sq. It was built by Sir John Crosby about 1470, and was then the highest house in Land. He occupied it till his death in 1475, when it was let by his widow to Richd., D. of Gloucester. Sir T. More lived in it from 1516 to 1523, and after him his friend Antonio Bonvici, an Italian merchant. Later still it was occupied by the Countess of Pembroke, "Sydney's sister, Pembroke's mother." In 1672 the great hall became a Presbyterian chapel; and 2 years later the house was partly destroyed by fire, though luckily the Hall was spared. About 1769 it was converted into a warehouse. It was partially restored by public subscription in 1836, and from 1840 to 1860 was the home of a Literary and Scientific Institute. Then it was turned into a restaurant, and-"last stage of this eventful history"-was pulled down in 1910 and re-erected at Chelsea, near the ch. In R3 i. 2, 213, Gloucester invites Anne to "Presently repair to C. H."; but as this was in 1471 C. was still living, and it was not till after his death that Gloucester went to reside there. In i. 3, 345, he bids the murderers of the young princes, "When you have done, repair to C. Place "; and in iii. 1, 190, he tells Catesby, "At C. H, there shall you find us both ": himself, that is, and Buckingham. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 57, Sir John C. says, "In memory of me, J. Crosbie, In Bishopsgate St. a poor house have I built And in my name have called it C. H."


A tavern in Cranford, mentioned in Harman's Caveat 24 as a haunt of Morts and their Dories. There was also a C. K. Tavern on the W. side of Gracechurch St., Lond., between Lombard St. and Cornhill (Map Q5), where Henslowe relates that Lord Strange's company played about 1590. Here Banks used to exhibit the wonderful feats of his horse Marocco. In Tarlton's Jests, we read: "There was one Banks who had a horse of strange qualities, and being at the Crosse Keyes in Gracious St., Tarlton came into the Crosse Keyes among many people." It was one of the 5 taverns in which plays were acted before the building of the theatres.

(Map S4)
(area only; site unmarked)

The sign of an inn in Aldgate. I suspect that it is the same as the Pye Inn in Aldgate High St., over against Houndsditch. One of the tokens of the Pye Inn is extant, dated 1648; and The Presbyterian Lash (1661) was "acted in the great room at the Pye Tavern in Aldgate." In Middleton's Quarrel i. 1, Russell says that Chough has his lodgings "at the C. in Aldgate."

(Map N4)
(area only; site unmarked)

A bookseller's sign in Lond. Look about was "Printed for William Ferbrand and are to be sold at his shop at the sign of the C. near Guildhall Gate. 1600." Kinsmen was "Printed at Lond. by Tho. Cotes for John Waterson; and are to be sold at the sign of the C. in Paul's Churchyard. 1634." Webster's Malfi has the same imprint, 1623.


A Lond. tavern sign. A C. Tavern is in the list in T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5: "The gentry to the King's Head, the nobles to the C." There were C. Inns on the N. side of Holborn, near Furnival's Inn(Map H4); on the E. side of Warwick L., near Newgate St.(Map K4); on the W. side of Coleman St., about halfway up the st.(Map N3–O4); and on the N. side of Aldgate, near the gate(Map S4). In Bale's Later Exam. of Anne Askewe (1547), Anne says, "I was sent from Newgate to the sign of the C.... where the Bp. of Lond. went about to persuade me from God." This was probably the C. in Warwick Lane. In Glapthome's Hollander v. 1, Sconce says, "Ere I went to the ch. I had gotten a touch in the C."

(Map S5)

A st. in Lond., running E. from Mark Lane to Fenchurch Station and then N. to Aldgate. It was so called from a Convent of C., or Crossed, F. which stood at its S.E. corner. The C. F. were a minor order distinguished by their wearing a red cross on the breast of their habit. The convent was founded in 1298, and after the dissolution of the monasteries was converted into a glass-house, where the first window-glass was made that was produced in England. In Haughton's Englishmen i 2, as the company are walking over Tower Hill; Harvey accounts for Heigham's liking for it because it "leads to C. F. Where old Pisaro and his daughters dwell." Much fun is gained in iv. 1 from the wanderings about Lond. of the various, foreigners who are looking for Pisaro's home. In Dekker's Westward i. 1, Birdlime says, "I keep a hot-house in Gunpowder L., near C. F;" In Davenport's New Trick, Bernard and Friar John belong to the C. F. In iii. 1, Friar John says, "We are now at Islington; what hope have we to get to C. F, before the gates be shut?"


On the Surrey side of the Thames at the entrance of Limehouse Reach, below Rotherhithe Ch., and opposite the W. India Docks. The legend goes that the Miller of Chariton, having discovered K. John kissing his wife, demanded compensation, and was granted all the land he could see from his door. He therefore claimed all as far as this point, which was thereafter called C. P. The K., however, added this condition, that he should walk every 18th of October (St. Luke's Day) to the point with a pair of buck's horns on his head; and he also gave him the right to hold a fair at Charlton on that day, which was called Horn Fair; it was kept up till 1872. A post was erected at the point with a pair of horns upon it. In the Diary of a Resident of London 283, we read that "the same day [May 25, 1562] was set up at the Cuckold H. a great May-pole by botchers and fisher-men, full of horns;" Hentzner, in his Travels, describes "the long pole with rams' horns upon it" on the opposite shore to Radcliffe. In Eastward iv., "Enter Slitgut with a pair of ox-horns, discovering C. H. above." He proceeds, "All hail, fair h. of married men only! For there are none but married men cuckolds. For my part, I presume not to arrive here, but in my master's behalf, a poor butcher of Eastcheap, who sends me to set up, in honour of St. Luke, these necessary ensigns of his honour." He then rescues Security, Winifred, and Quicksilver, whose boat has been overturned on their way to Drake's ship, where they had proposed to sup before seeing Sir Petronel off to Virginia. "What!" cries Security, "landed at C. H.? Hell and damnation! I will run back and drown myself." In Prodigal iii. 1, Civet says, "My estate is 4o a year ; besides 20 mark a year at C. H., and that comes to us all by inheritance." In Dekker's Edmonton ii, 2, Warbeck says, "That confidence is a wind that has blown many a married man ashore at C. H." In Day's Gulls ii. 1, Manassas says, "Now doth my master long more to finger that gold than a young girl, married to an old man, doth to run her husband ashore at C. H." In Northward iii. 2, Squirrel says, "I will tell thee the most politic trick of a woman that e'er made a man's face look withered and pale, like the tree in C. H. in a great snow." In Westward iv. 1, Birdlime says, "You went to a butcher's feast at C. H. the next day after St. Luke's day." St. Luke is usually represented as an ox in ancient symbolism. Taylor, Works ii. 21, laments the decay of the H.; "Passing further I at first observed That C. H. was but badly served; For there old Time bath such confusion wrought That of that ancient place remaineth nought, No monumental memorable horn Or tree or post which hath these trophies borne Was left" In Wit Woman 1461, Veronte tells Rinaldo that his wife "will make thy head like C. H.," i.e. put horns on it. In Dekker's Match me i. 1, Bilbo says, "If she should drive you by foul weather into C. H. before St. Luke's day comes, Signor Luco, how then?"In Nabbes' C. Garden v. 6, Ralph predicts that Worthy will marry a wife in the city; "you shall then be shipped at C. H. and so transported into Cornwall," i.e. the land of horns. In Dekker's News from Hell, he says that though hell stands farther off than the Indies, "yet you may sail sooner thither than a married man can upon S. Luke's day to C. H. from St. Katherines." Dekker, in Raven's Almanac (1609), predicts, "Upon St. Luke's day bitter storms of wind and hail are likely to happen about C H." In Day's Travails, Bullen, p. 59, Kemp says, "You are in the right way to C. -h. ; St. Luke be your speed!" In Day's Gulls iii. 1, Basilius says, "An a duchess long to give her husband the horning let it never grieve butchers to do homage at c. h."


See KEW.




See THREE Cups.

(Map M3)
(area only; site unmarked))

Stood in Lond. Wall near Philip Lane. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt in 1670. It was again re-erected in 1874. For a long time it was used as a meeting-place for a dissenting congregation, and even in the time of James I seems to have been connected with Puritanism. In Jonson's Christmas, Christmas, declaring that he is a good Protestant, says, "The Masque . . . was intended, I confess, for C. H."


(Map P1)

The second Playhouse built in Lond, the Theatre being the first. It was erected in 1577 at the point where Hewett St. debouches into Curtain Rd. Shoreditch, on the opposite side to St. James' Ch., a little to the N. of it. It took its name from C. Close, a meadow belonging to the Holywell Priory, the C. being some part of the outworks of the old Lond. walls. Here Shakespeare's Henry V was probably produced, in which reference is made to its shape and construction: Prol. 12, "May we cram Within this wooden O the very casques That did affright the air at Agincourt?" An unsuccessful attempt was made to close it, as the result of a riot that broke out in the neighbourhood. The riot is described in a letter from William Fleetwood, the City Recorder, to Lord Burleigh, 1584. Indeed, as the letter says, "Upon Sunday my lord sent 2 aldermen to the court for the suppressing and pulling down of the Theatre and C." It was still standing in 1627. John Stockwood, in a sermon at St. Paul's Cross in 1578, complains, "If you resort to the Theatre, the C., and other places of plays in the city, you shall on the Lord's day have those places so full as possible they can throng." In Northbrooke's Treatise against Dicing (1577), he speaks of "Places builded for such days and interludes as the Theater and C. is." Wither, in Abuses Stript and Whipt, says, "Base fellow, whom mere time bath made sufficient to bring forth a rhyme, a C. jig, a libel, or a ballad." Middleton, in Hubburd, p. 90, adds to its bad reputation: "The camp," he says, "was supplied with harlots as well as the C." In Tarlton's Jests a story is told of how someone in the audience interrupted Tarlton, "he then playing at the C." Marston, in Scourge of Villainie (1598), says that Romeo and Juliet "won C. plaudites."

(Map S7)

On the S. side of Lower Thames St., Lond., E. of Billingsgate. During Chaucer's tenure of the Comptrollership of Customs, the C. H. was rebuilt, a little to the E. of its present site, in 1385. In the reign of Elizabeth it was replaced by a larger building, which was destroyed in the Gt. Fire. It was rebuilt by Wren, and again burnt down in 1718. The next building was also destroyed by fire in 1814. The present building was then erected, but so badly that extensive repairs had to be made in 1828. In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii., Wellbred, after being taken in by Brainworm, says, "Would we were e'en pressed to make porters of, and serve out the remnant of our days in Thames St. or at C. H. Key, in a civil war against the carmen!" In his Devil i. i. Iniquity says to Pug, "From thence we will put in at C.-H. Key there, And see how the factors and prentices play there False with their masters and geld many a full pack." In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Honeysuckle says to his wife, "[I am going] to the C. H., to the 'Change, to my warehouse, to divers places." In W. Rowley's New Wonder iv., George informs Brewen that his wares have been conveyed "in carts to the C. H., there to be shipped."