The famous Inn in Southwark, on the E. side of the Borough High St., opposite to St. Margaret's Ch. It was burnt down in 1676, but rebuilt, its sign being changed to The Talbot. It disappeared in 1876, but its site is marked by Talbot Inn Yard. The old Kent St. has also been re-christened T. St. in its memory. Speight, in his edition of Chaucer (1598), says, "A T. is a jacket or sleeveless coat, worn now only by heralds. It is the sign of an inn in Southwarke by Lond., within the which was the lodging of the Abbot of Hyde by Winchester. This was the hostelry where Chaucer and the other pilgrims met together, and with Henry Bailey their host accorded about the manner of their journey to Canterbury." Chaucer, C. T. A. 20, relates how he lay on the night before the pilgrimage "in Southwark at the T." Taylor, in Carrier's Cosmogr., mentions another T. "in Gracious St. near the Conduit."


More properly TAENARUM. The southernmost promontory in Europe, at the south extremity of the Peloponnesus; now Gape Matapan. It was sacred to Poseidon, and the ruins of his temple are still there. Close to the temple was a cave, which was supposed to be the entrance to the infernal regions through which Herakles dragged up the hell-hound Cerberus. In Selimus 1314, Baiazet speaks of "Avernus' jaws and loathsome T. From whence the damned ghosts do often creep." In T. Heywood's S. Age iv., Arethusa says, "My streams issue forth From Tartary by the Tenarian isles." The spring of Arethusa at Syracuse was supposed to have risen in the infernal regions and come to the upper world in the Peloponnesus, whence it flowed under the sea to Sicily. In his Mistress iv. 1, Cupid says, "Not far from T., whose barren top Is crowned with clouds of smoke, there lies a mead." In Locrine iv. 4, 43. the ghost of Albanact says, "Back will I post to hellmouth T." In Tiberius 2342, Sejanus says, "Had mounting T. with the snowy Alpes And high Olympus overwhelmed the cave, Yet would Sejanus, like Briarius, Have been embowelled in this earthy hell To save the life of great Tiberius." Donne, Elegy xiv. (1600), says of Julia: "Her breath like to the juice is T. That blasts the springs."


The longest river in the Iberian peninsula, rising in the centre of Spain, and falling, after a generally westerly course of abt. 550 m., into the bay of Lisbon. The ancients believed that its sands were rich in gold; but the amount now found in them is inconsiderable. In Fisher's Fuimus iv. 4, Caesar says, "In vain cloth T. yellow sand obey, If we recoil from hence": where it stands for the whole Iberian peninsula. Cockayne, in verses on Massinger's Emperor, says "Live long, To purify our slighted English tongue, That both the nymphs of T. and of Po May not henceforth despise our language so," i.e. the poets of Portugal and Italy. In Peele's Arraignment ii. 2, Juno promises Paris, "The mould whereon thou treadest shall be of T. sands." In Val. Welsh. ii. 4, Caradoc says, "Soldiers have mines of honourable thoughts Beyond the value of rich T. shore." In Cyrus B. 2, Araspes says of Penthea: "Her hair as radiant is as T. sand." In Greene's Orlando i. 1, 78, Brandemart speaks of "The sands of T., all of burnished gold." In T. Heywood's Maid of West B. 352, Mullisheg promises "Streams of rewards, richer than T. sands." Dekker, in London's Tempe, speaks of "T. whose golden hands clasp Lisbon walls." In Jonson's King's Entertainment, Tamesis talks of "sands more rich than T. wealthy ore." In his Poetaster i. 1, Ovid writes of "The banks o'er which gold-bearing T. flows." In his Cynthia v. 3, Crites sentences the actors to "pass, not as Midas did, To wash his gold off into T. stream; But to the well of knowledge, Helicon." This is a curious slip for a scholar like Jonson to make; it was in the Pactolus, not the T., that Midas washed off his gold. In B. & F. Philaster iv. 4, Philaster says, "'Tis not the wealth of T. can weigh down That virtue." In Tailor's Hog Hath Lost v. 1, Lightfoot says, "Take then this silver out of hand And bear it to the river T. . . . Whose golden sands upon it cast Transform it into gold at last." In Shirley's Honoria iv. 1, Squanderbag says, "Would I were in Pactolus' streams or T., That were a lasting element." In Mason's Mulleasses 2247, Mulleasses speaks of "A carpet richer than . . . T. yellow channel." In Cowley's Riddle iv., Alupis says, "Hell leave that [i.e. poesie] straight When he has got but money; he that swims In T. never will go back to Helicon."




A kind of hunting-hound, used as a bookseller's sign in Lond. It was the badge of the T. family. Three Ladies was "printed by Roger Wade dwelling near Holbourne Conduit at the sign of the T. 1584." T. Heywood's Witches was "printed by Thomas Harper for Benjamin Fisher and are to be sold at his shop at the sign of the T. without Aldersgate. 1634."


A town in Brecknocksh., 8 m. N.E. of Brecknock, close to which rises abruptly the range called the Black Mountains. In Jonson's Wales, when Jenkin asks Evan to "reckon his madestee some of the Welse hills, the mountains," Evan replies: "Why, there is Talgarth." It is possible that either Evan or Jonson confused it with Talsarn, one of the highest peaks is the Black Mountains, in the same county.


A river in S.W. England, forming for a large part of its course the boundary between Devonsh. and Cornwall, and flowing into Plymouth Sound. Spencer, F. Q. iv. 11, 31, calls it "the speedy T. which divides The Cornish and the Devonish confines." Drayton, Polyolb. i. 204, says, "Proud Tamer swoops along, with such a lusty train As fits so brave a flood two countries that divides." In some of the old chroniclers the T., or Tambre, is named as the scene of Arthur's last battle; but it is probable that we should read Cambre for Tambre, and understand the Camel. Hughes, in Misfort. Arth., follows this tradition; in v. 2, Arthur says, "T.'s flood with dropping pace cloth flow."


Or THAME. A tributary of the Thames, rising in Bucks., and flowing S.W. into the Thames at Dorchester. Spencer, F. Q. iv. 11, 34, makes "the ancient Thame" the father, and the Isis the mother, of the Thames. Drayton, in Idea (1594) xxxii. 9, says, "Cotswold commends her Isis to the T." It is possible, however, that by T. he means the upper Thames.




A town on the borders of Staffs. and Warwicksh., at the junction of the Tame and the Anker, 110 m. N.W. of Lond. and 25 W. of Leicester. Its ancient castle, now the property of the Marquess Townshend, was for a long time the residence of the Kings of Mercia. R3 v. 2 is laid in the camp of Richmond, near T., and, in line 13, Richmond says that Richd. "lies . . . Near to the town of Leicester; . . . From T. thither is but one day's march." There was an old ballad containing the story of K. Henry IV and the Tanner of T. The story is transferred to Edward IV in T. Heywood's play of that name; and the Tanner asks: "Didst never hear of John Hobs, the Tanner of T.?"


(now the DON). A large river, rising in a small lake, Ivanofskoe, S. of Moscow, and flowing in a circuitous course of abt. 880 m. to the N.E. corner of the Sea of Azov.The ancients thought that its current was so swift that it never froze; but it is actually a sluggish stream, and its waters are very muddy. It was regarded as the boundary between Europe and Asia. In Cyrus D. 4, Dinon says to Libanio, "Rather than thou shalt be touched by him, I'll bear thee hence as far as T." TA Greene's Orlando i. 1, Marsilius speaks of "T., whose swift-declining floods Invirons rich Europa to the N." In Caesar's Rev. i. 4, Cato speaks, very inappropriately, of "silver-streaming T." In Marston's Insatiate v. 1, Sago mentions T., Nilus, and Tioris [i.e. Tigris] as amongst the great rivers of the world. In Marlowe's Ed. II iv. 2, the Q. says to Sir John of Henault, "Even to the utmost verge Of Europe, or the shore of Tanaise, Will we with thee to Henault." In May's Agrippina ii. 57, Otho says that if Poppaea lay beyond "The Indian Ganges, Scythian T.," she would draw the Emperor thither. Drayton, Polyolb. xv. 249, says, "Europe and Asia keep on T. either side."


(i.e. TANGIER). The principal spt. of Morocco, on the Straits of Gibraltar, 14 m. E. of Cape Spartel. It is on the site of the Roman Tingis. In Stucley 2195, Antonia speaks of "Three thousand threescore special men of arms, The garrison of Taieer "–evidently a misprint for T. In 2568, Abdelmelek says, "Fetch me one drop of water, any man, And I will give him T.'s wealthy town."


Possibly the language of Tangier, the Moorish name of which is Tanja; or it may be the Taranji dialect of the Turkish language, spoken in part of central Asia; or the Tunguse dialect of central Siberia. In Ford's Sacrifice iii. 2, Mauruccio says of the disguised Roseilli: "Had you heard him deliver whole histories in the Tangay tongue, you would swear there were not such a liaguist breathed again."


(see TANEER). In Peele's Alcazar i. 2, 58, the Moor says, "Our Moors shall sail in ships and pinnaces From Tangier-shore unto the gates of Fess."




A group of islands off the W. coast of Greece, between Leucas and Acarnania. They were originally called the Teleboides, and were said to have been subdued by the Theban hero Amphitryon. In Hercules iv. 3, 2310, Amphitruo exclaims: "Did I conquer the Taphians?"


A manor-house in Kent, near Wooton, 7 m. N.W. of Dover. It has become famous through the Ingoldsby Legends; but it is doubtful whether Jonson had any particular place in his mind in this jingle from his Gipsies, where the Patrico describes the Gipsies as "Born first at Niglington, Bred up at Filchington, Boarded at Tappington, Bedded at Wappington."


The old Greek name for the island of Ceylon. In Greene's Orlando i. 1, 3, Marsilius speaks of the lands "From sevenfold Nilus to Taprobany." It is the scene of Greene's Alcida, where it is described as "an island situated far S. under the pole Antartick, where Canopius the fair star gladdeth the heart of the inhabitants." Harrison, in Descrip. of England (1587), says, "Many strange herbs, plants, and annual fruits are daily brought unto us from the Indies, Americans, T., Canary Isles, and all parts of the world." Drayton, in a note on Polyolb. x. 220, speaks of "the East-Indian Taproban, now called Sumatra." This is a mistake. Milton, P. R. iv. 75, calls it "utmost Indian isle T."


Now TARANTO. An important spt. in S. Italy, at the N.W. point of the Gulf of T., 260 m. S.E. of Rome. It was originally a Spartan colony, but eventually fell under the sway of Rome. After many vicissitudes it was taken by Robert Guiscard in 1063, and from that time onward formed part of the kingdom, of Naples. It formerly had a fine harbour, and was an important naval station in the time of the later Roman republic; but the harbour is largely silted up, and few remains are left of the ancient city. It is the see of an Archbp. The wool of T. was of the finest quality. In Antony iii. 7, 22, Antony asks: "Is it not strange That from T. and Brundusium He [Caesar] could so quickly cut the Ionian Sea And take in Toryne?" In Brandon's Octavia 218, Titius says, "The seas Delivered unto us the perfect view Of dreadful Tarent, where for us did wait Antonius' fleet." In Massinger's Very Woman, one of the characters is Don John Antonio, Prince of Tarent, and in i. 1, the Viceroy says to him, "Though you are Prince of Tarent, Yet, being a subject of the K. of Spain, No privilege of Sicily can free you From the municipal statutes of that kingdom." In B. & F. Double Mar. i. 1, Juliana says, "I have heard that he [Ferrand of Naples] sold the bishopric of Tarent to a Jew for 13,000 ducats." Hall, Sat. iv. 4, says, "Who had seen the lambs of Tarentine May guess what Gallio his manners been." Fynes Moryson, Itin. iii. 3, 14.2, says that the wool of Lemster is the best in Europe "excepting Apulia and T."


A fortified maritime town at the extreme S. point of Spain, 16 in. W. of Gibraltar. In Peele's Alcazar iv., the Moor says, "Say you do march upon Tarifa now, The foe . . . will let the passage of the river." The Qq, read Tarissa, which I suspect is a misprint for Tariffa, facilitated by the long s's which are so easily confused with f's. In Middleton's Gipsy ii. 1, John says, "I am a bull of Tarifa, wild, mad for thee."


The sign of an inn in Colchester, named after the famous clown, Richd. T. Here Cuckqueans was first performed. In the prologue, spoken by T.'s Ghost, he speaks of "My countryman Mr. Pigot his Inn, even the right well-known and kenned resemblance or statue of the right worshipful Mr. T., in Colchester."


A steep cliff of the Capitoline Hill at Rome; some place it at the W. edge of the Hill, where the Piazza Montanara now is; others more probably locate it on the S.E. of the Hill near Sta. Maria della Consolazione. It is often used as a synonym for the Capitol itself, on which stood the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. It was the custom in ancient Rome to hurl condemned criminals from the T.R. In T. Heywood's Dialogues iii., Earth asks: "Where's Pharos' isle? where's the T. mass, A structure none more famous?" In Fisher's Fuimus v. 6, Caesar says, "Now the T. r. o'erlooks the world." In B. & F. Friends ii. 1, Titus says, "On his high altar, to T. Jove, A milk-white bull with gilded horns we'll offer." Milton, P. R. iv. 49, says, "There the Capitol thou seest Above the rest lifting his stately head On the T. r., her citadel–Impregnable." In Cor. iii. 1, 213, Sicinius says of Coriolanus: "Bear him to the rock T. and from thence Into destruction cast him." In line 266, he says, "He shall be thrown down the T. r." In iii. 2, 3, Coriolanus says, "Let them . . . pile 10 hills on the T. r. . .. yet will I still Be thus to them"; and in iii. 3, 88, "Let them pronounce the steep T. death." In iii. 3, 103, Sicinius says, "We banish him our city In peril of precipitation From off the rock T., never more To enter our Rome gates." In Barnes' Charter iii. 1, Philippo says, "I'd rather choose from the Tarpayan Hill My vexed body to precipitate."


Now TARRAGONA. A spt. on the E. coast of Spain, abt. 45 m. S.W. of Barcelona. It was founded by the Carthaginians, but it was taken by Scipio in the 2nd Punic War. In Nabbes' Hannibal i. 5, a messenger brings word: "New Carthage, Sagunt, Locris, Tarracon, All these are re-oercome by Scipio."


An ancient city of Cilicia in S.E. Asia Minor, on the Cydnus. It was the residence of the Kings of Cilicia, and was reputed to be wealthy and luxurious. It was here that the meeting of Antony and Cleopatra took place described so vividly in Antony ii. 2. It is most celebrated as the birth-place of the apostle Paul. In Per. i. 2, 115, Pericles announces: "I to T. Intend my travel"; i. 4 and iv. 1 are laid at T. In 1, 4, 21, Cleon the Governor says, "This T., o'er which I have the government, A city on whom plenty held full hand, For riches strewed herself even in the streets, Whose towers bore heads so high they kissed the clouds." He goes on to tell of its present miseries, and warns other prosperous cities that "The misery of T. may be theirs." In ii. 1, prol. ii, Gower informs us that Pericles "is still at T." Milton, P. L. i. 200, speaks of "Typhon whom the den By ancient T. held." Pindar, Pythian Odes i. 16, places the home of Typhoeus in a cave in Cilicia. In S. A. 515, the chorus compares Dalila to "a stately ship of T." Milton is probably thinking of the ships of Tarshish, often mentioned in the Old Testament; Ramsay identifies Tarshish with T., but others prefer Tartessus in Spain, or Tiras, i.e. Tyrrhenian.


(Ty. = Tartary, Tr. = Tartar, Ta. = Tartaria, Tan. = Tartarian). The country of the Tartars, or, as it should be spelt, Tatarsthe extra "r" was probably inserted through the influence of the Greek-Lat. Tartarus. As a geographical term, Ty. was used somewhat vaguely by the Elizabethans for the part of Asia N. of the Caucasus and the Himalayas. Heylyn speaks of it as stretching from the Eastern Sea to Muscovy, and from the North Sea to the Caucasus. The Trs. were first known in Europe through the conquests of Jenghiz Khan in the 13th cent., and all his motley crowd of Mongols, Turks, and Trs. proper were included under the one common name. In Peele's Old Wives 885, Eumenides says, "I sailed up Danuby As far as Saba, whose enhancing streams Cut 'twixt the Trs. and the Russians." So in Greene's Orlando i. 1, 67, Mandrecarde says, "I crossed up Danuby As high as Saba, whose inhancing streams Cuts 'twixt the Tartares and the Russians." The Saba is the modem Save. In Dekker's If it be 277, Ruffman says, "A Shalcan Tr. being my grandfather Men call me Shalkan Bohor." Hycke, p. 88, claims to have travelled in "Caldey, Tartare, and Inde." Milton, P. L. iii. 432, speaks of "the roving Tr. whose home is bounded by the snowy ridge Of Mt. Imaus," i.e. the Bolor range running from the N.E. corner of Afghanistan to the Arctic Ocean. In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus iv. 2, 6, Alphonsus, who has been poisoned, cries: "Water, I say! Water from forth the cold Tan. Hills!"

Chaucer's Squire's Tale is located "At Sarray in the land of Tartarye," i.e. Tzarev, near Sarepta, where Batu Khan, one of the grandsons of Jenghiz Khan, held his court and ruled over S. Russia is the early part of the I 13th cent. But Chaucer confuses him with the other grandson of Jenghiz, Kublai Khan, whose capital was Cambaluc, now Pekin. Moreover, he calls him Cambinskan, "this Tartre ": which is a corruption of Jenghiz Khan. Milton, referring to Chaucer's story, in Il Pens. 115, speaks of the "wondrous horse of brass On which the Tr. k. did ride." In Dekker's Fortunatus ii. prol., the chorus informs us that Fortunatus "has feasted in the Tr.'s palace." As the date is the reign of Athelstan, this is a little anachronistic. In Selimus 53, Baiazet says, "Ramirchan The Tan. emperor, gathering to him A number numberless of big-boned Trs., Encountered me." There is a fictitious K. of Ty. in Kirke's Champions. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. i. 1, Cosroes says to his brother, the K. of Persia, "Now Turks and Trs. shake their swords at thee"; and in iii. 3, Zabina speaks of Tamburlaine 'me as "the great Tn. thief." He was the great-great-grandson of Karachar Nevian, the commander of the forces of Jenghiz Khan. He was born near Samarcand, and his victorious. career covered the 2nd half of the 14th cent. In B. & F. Subject ii. 3, a post brings word to the Russian Court: "The Tr.'s up, and with a mighty force Comes forward like a tempest." Milton, P. L. x. 431, describes the Tr. retiring "from his Russian foe By Astracan, over the snowy plains." The Russians and Trs. were constantly at war. The K. or emperor of Ty. was called the Cham or the Gt. Cham. The word is derived from the Turkish Khan or Chagan, meaning Lord. The title was first assumed by Jenghiz in the 13th cent., when he became chief of the Mongols and Trs. In Much Ado n. 1, 277, Benedick says that, rather than face Beatrice, "I will fetch you a hair off the great Cham's beard." In Tomkis' Albumazar i. 5, Albumazar pretends that he has been engaged in "casting the nativity o' th' Cham of Ty." In Shirley's Imposture v. 1, Pandolfo proposes "a health to the Grand Chain of Ta." In Beguiled 760, Sophos speaks of "The great Tan. emperor, Tamor Cham, "i.e. Timur, or Tamburlaine. Heylyn says of the Trs.: "The people are very warlike, strong in matters of action, fearless of the greatest dangers, and patient of labour and want." In Caesar's Rev. i. 3, Caesar says, "Thee [Rome) The stern Tan., born to manage arms, Doth fear." They were, like the Cossacks, famous riders. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iii. 3, Tamburlaine boasts of his "Brave horses bred o' the white Tan. hills."

They were reputed to be excellent archers. In M.N.D. iii. 2, 101, Puck says, "Look how I go Swifter than arrow from the Tr.'s bow." In Rom. i. 4, 5, Benvolio says, "We'll have no Cupid hoodwinked with a scarf Bearing a Tr.'s painted bow of lath." In B. & F. Hum. Lieut. i. 1, Antigonus says of his son: "He shall make their fortunes, all as sudden As arrows from a Tr.'s bow, and speeding." Spenser, F. Q. ii. 11, 26, says, "In his flight the villain turned his face, As wonts the Tr. by the Caspian lake When as the Russian him in flight does chace." Spenser was thinking of the Parthian bowmen, who shot backwards at their pursuing foes. The Trs. were nomadic in their habits. Heylyn says, "They count it great misery to stay longer in a place than the pastures afford meat for their cattle. They live together in troops which they call hordes." In Davenant's Wits i. 2, Thwack talks of having "a volatile ache that removes oftener than the Trs.' camp." In Davenant's Albovine iii. 1, Grimold says, "I travel like a Tr. with all my family about me." In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note: The Guardian] i. 5, Jolly says to Cutter and Worm, "If ye lived like Trs. in a cart . . . your home could not be more uncertain." The cruelty and savagery of the Trs. were proverbial. Heylyn says, "They are barbarous everywhere in behaviour." In Merch. iv. 1, 62, the D. speaks of "stubborn Turks and Trs., never trained To offices of tender courtesy." In All's Well iv. 4, 7, Helena says, "Gratitude Through flinty Tr.'s bosom would peep forth And answer, Thanks." In Ed. III i. 1, the K. speaks of "such sweet laments That it may raise drops in a Tr.'s eye." In Kirke's Champions iii. 1, Ormandine speaks of the "cruel Tr. and Arabian kings "–and the lord mentions the Trs.' cruelty and Tr. tyranny. In Webster's White Devil iii. 1, Vittoria says, "Let me appeal then from this Christian court To the uncivil Tr."

They were reported to be specially cruel and heartless in their treatment of their wives and daughters. In Davenant's Albovine ii. 1, Hermagils says, The dry Tr. yokes his female's neck With rusty iron." In Massinger's Lover i. 2, Gonzaga says of his daughter: "I should unnaturally forget I am a father If, like a Tr, or for fear or profit, I should consign her as a bondwoman To be disposed of at another's pleasure." The Trs. are described by Heylyn as "swarthy, not so much by the heat of the sun as their own sluttishness; ill-favoured, thick-lipped, slit-nosed, broad-shouldered, swift of foot, laborious, and vigilant." Hakluyt speaks of their "long black hair, broad faces, and flat noses." In M. 9. D. iii. 2, 263, Lysander cries to Hermia: "Out, tawny Tr.!" In Mac. iv. i. 29, amongst the ingredients of the witches' cauldron are "Nose of Turk and Tr.'s lips." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. A. ii. 1, Hippolito taunts Bellafront with enduring the love of any man: "Be he a Moor, a Tr., though his face Looked uglier than a dead man's skull." Tan. is used in the sense of a thief. In Merry Devil i. 2, the Host says to Sir Arthur, "there's not a Tan. nor a carrier shall breathe upon your geldings." In Wandering Jew i. 1, the Hangman says to the Jew, "If any thieving Tan. shall break in upon you, I will with both hands nimbly lend a cast of my office to him." This is perhaps the meaning in M.W.W. iv. 5, 21, where the Host calls to Falstaff, in reference to poor innocent Simple, "Here's a Bohemian-Tr. tarries the coming down of thy fat woman." In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] v. 2, Worm, disguised as an African merchant, pretends that he has been taken prisoner in Guinea by "the Tans." When Jolly objects "They live up in the N., "Puny replies: "These were another nation of Tans. that lived in the S.!" Cloth of Tars or Ty. was a silken stuff imported from China. In Chaucer's C. T. A. 2160, the "cote armure "of Emetrius, the K. of Inde, is "of clooth of Tars." Lydgate, in Min. Poems 30, says, "Thi Chekes hangen, thyn eyene was read as wyne, And wel belyned with good read tartyne."


(Ty. = Tartary, Tr. = Tartar). According to Homer, a prison as far below Hades as Hades is below the earth, where Zeus confined the Titans after their rebellion. Later writers use it as the name of the place of punishment for the wicked; and so it comes to be a synonym for Hell. In Tw. N. ii. 5, 225, when Maria says, "If you will see it, follow me," Sir Toby rejoins: "To the gates of Tr, thou most excellent devil of wit." In H5 ii. 2, 123, Henry says the devil "might return to vasty Tr. back And tell the legions ` I can never win A soul as easy as that Englishman's.'" In Barnes' Charter i. 4, Pope Alexander speaks of "counsels held with black Tartarian fends." In Ev. Wom. I. ii. 3, Acutus says, "She that loves true learning and pomp disdains Treads on T. and Olympus gains." In T. Heywood's Gold. Age ii. 1, Homer says, "Pluto the youngest . . . was sent to Ty., Where he in process a strange city built And called it Hell." In Brewer's Lovesick iv., Grim says of his colliers: "They are honest Tartarians," i.e. they I are honest, though they look black like devils. In Grim i. 1, Malbecco's Ghost addresses Pluto as "Infernal Jove, great prince of Ty." In T. Heywood's S. Age iv., Arethusa says, "My streams issue forth from Ty." (set ARETHUSA). In Locrine i. 1, 75, Thrasimachus says, "We will boldly enterprise the same Were it to enter to black T. Where triple Cerberus with his venomous throat Scareth the ghosts." In Trouble. Reign, Haz., p. 270, Arthur says to Hubert, who is about to burn out his eyes, "Let the black tormentors of deep Ty. Upbraid them with this damned enterprise." In Milton P. L. ii. 859, Sin says that God "hath hither thrust me down Into this gloom of T. profound." In vi. 54, the place into which the fallen angels were precipitated is "the gulf Of T." Milton uses the forms Tartarean and Tartareous to mean hellish; in P. L. ii. 69, Moloch proposes to make war on the Almighty, that he may see "His throne itself Mixed with Tartarean sulphur and strange fire"; and in vii. 238, the poet speaks of "The black, Tartareous, cold, infernal dregs "of Chaos. In Mason's Mulleasses 1756, Borgias bids Timocles "Like a Fury post to T." Spenser, F. Q. i. 7, 44, speaks of "An huge great dragon, horrible in sight, Bred in the loathly lakes of T." T. is used for any prison. In Err. iv. 1, 3.2, Dromio. says of his master, who has been arrested: "He's in Tr. limbo, worse than hell."




A town and dist. in ancient Spain, near the mouth of the Guadalquiver, a little N. of Cadiz. It has been by some identified with the Tarshish of the Old Testament. In Nabbes' Microcosmus iii, Sensuality promises Physander, amongst other delicacies, "Tartesian lampreys."


A fishing town on the E. coast of Sardinia, abt. 60 m. N.E. of Cagliari. In Nash's Summers, p. 70, Christmas, providing for his feasts, says "I must rig ship . . . to Tartole for lampreys."


A town in Somerset on the Tone, in the lovely valley of T.-Deane, 163 m. S.W. of Lond. Its castle was founded by Ine, K. of the W. Saxons; but the oldest part of the present buildings dates from the reign of Henry I. In Ford's Warbeck v. 1, Dalyell tells Katharine, the wife of Warbeck, "Your husband marched to T., and was there affronted by K. Henry's chamberlain." In J. Heywood's Weather 100, Merry Report says, "I have been at T., at Tiptree, and at Tottenham." In Brome's Sparagus ii. 3, Hoyden says, "I was counted a pretty spark at home. Did you never hear of little Tim of T.?" In v. 13, Tom says, "Who comes here? My brother Tim, drest like Master Mayor's wife of T.-Deane." Brome, in epilogue to Ct. Beggar, says of himself: "He has made the Antipodes; and (oh! I shall ne'er forget!) Tom Hoyden of T. Deane." Tom should be Tim, who is a comic personage in the Sparagus Garden. Drayton, Polyolb. iii. 418, asks: "What ear so empty is that hath not heard the sound Of T.'s fruitful Deane? not matched by any ground."


The Sea of Azov, the ancient Palus Maeotis, q.v. It lies E. of the Tauric Chersonese, now the Crimea. Milton, P. R. iv. 79, speaks of the "Sarmatians north Beyond Danubius to the Tauric Pool."


Now TABREEZ. A city in N.W. Persia, on the Aigi, 36 m. E. of Lake Urumiyeh. It was once a very important place, and had a population of over half a million. Milton, P. L. x. 436, speaks of the Bactrian Sophi, i.e. the Sultan of Persia, retreating from the Turks "To Tauris or Casbeen."


A range of lofty mountains in S.E. Asia Minor between Cappadocia and Cilicia. The highest peaks are snow-clad all the year round. In M.N.D. iii. 2, 141, Demetrius says, "That pure congealed white, high T. snow, Turns to a crow when thou hold'st up thy hand." In Fisher's Fuimus iv. 1, Caesar says, "Stern Mars, roar as thou didst at Troy, Which Pindus may re-beat and T. lough the same ": where lough means low, is the sense of bellow, doubtless with a reference to the meaning of T., a bull; though the name of the range is not derived from that, but from the Armenian Tur, a high mtn. In Tiberius 2154, Maximus relates that is his journey to Armenia Germanicus came to Lisimachium; "Thence to the mtn. T. marched by land."


The Tauric Chersonese; the old name of the peninsula on the N. shore of the Black Sea now called the Crimea. In Coventry M. P. of the Nativity, one of the 3 Kings who come to visit the infant Christ is "K. of T., Sir Jaspar." In Nero ii. 2, Cornutus says, "Oh! let me go And dwell in T., dwell in Ethiope, So that I do not dwell at Rome with thee."


A town in Devonsh., 15 m. N. of Plymouth. It grew up round the Abbey of SS. Mary and Rumon, founded in 961. The Abbey ch. was rebuilt in 1285, and the Abbey itself in 1457. Sir Francis Drake was a T. man, and so was William Browne, author of the masque Ulysses and Circe (16l5). In Thersites 219, Mater, in her charm for worms, invokes "The tapper of T. and the tapster's pot." In Devonshire i. 2, the Devonshire merchant says, "Would all the sacks we have bought were in Devonshire turned to small beer, so we were but in T. to see it drawn out." The hero of the play is Richard Pike of T.




i.e. the hill of Assur, a city in Mesopotamia, stated, in II Kings xix. 12, to have been the home of the "children of Eden." Beth-Eden, or Bit-Adini, was in W. Mesopotamia, S. of Edessa, between the Balikh and the Euphrates, E. of Aleppo. Milton, P.L. iv. 214, says that Eden extended from Auran to,where the sons of Eden long before Dwelt in Telassar."


The inhabitants of the islands called Teleboides, a small group off the W. coast of Greece, between Leucas and Acarnania. They were said to have been subdued by Amphitryon of Thebes, and are mentioned in Plautus' play Amphitruo, in which Jupiter impersonates Amphitryon. In T. Heywood's S. Age ii. 1, Jupiter says, "I, as great general to the Theban k., Marched 'gainst the Teleboans." In Hercules prol. 81, Mercury says, "This is Amphitruo his house, A great lord of this country, under K. Creon, And now at this instant his deputy-general Of his army against the Teleboians."




A valley in N.E. Thessaly between Mts. Olympus and Ossa. It is a narrow gorge abt. 5 m. long, and at its narrowest part not more than 100 yards wide. The river Peneius runs through it. Its natural beauty is a common theme with the classical poets, and the tradition has passed to the modems; though, as a matter of fact, it is rather rugged and grand than silvan and pastoral. In Caesar's Rev. i. 3, Caesar says, "The flying Pompey to Larissa hastes, And by Thessalian T. shapes his course Where fair Peneus tumbles up his waves." This was after the battle of Pharsalia. In Brome's Lovesick Ct. iii. 3, Philargus writes: 14 Meet me within 3 hours in the north vale of T." The scene of the play is laid in Thessaly. In Noble Ladies, Cyprian says, "We'll ride together to fruitful Thessalia where in fair T. we'll sport us under a pavilion of Tyrian scarlet." In T. Heywood's Dialogues 5240, Io says, "Here, Daphne, by your father Peneus' stream Which, falling from the top of Pindus, Waters Hemonian T., let us sit." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 4, Fastidius Brisk promises: "He shall behold all the delights of the Hesperides, the Insulae Fortunatae, Adonis' gardens, T., or what else." In Shirley's Master iii. 3, Octavio says to Domitilla, "All the delights that dwell in blessed T. Divinely bud and blossom in your cheek." In his Pleasure v. 1, Celestina talks of a valley "that shall shame All the delights of T." In Nabbes' Hannibal iv. 5, Scipio says, "Spring should always dwell within your gardens as if T. were translated thither." In Ford's Lover's Melan. i. 1, Menaphon says, "The tales Which poets of an elder time have feigned To glorify their T. bred in me Desire of visiting that paradise. To Thessaly I came." Sidney, in Astrophel lxxiv. 2, says, "I never did in shade of T. sit." Drayton' in Idea liii. 13, says, "Fair Arden, thou my T. art alone." Drayton was born in the Arden dist. of Warwicksh. In Mason's Mulleasses 2246, Mulleasses speaks of "A carpet richer than the breast of T."


(Tr. = Templar). A piece of land in Lond., lying S. of the W. end of Fleet St., between it and the Thames, and extending from Bouverie St. to Essex St. Formerly it included the Outer T., to the W. of Essex St. In 1118 the Knights Trs. obtained a settlement in Lond., in Holborn; this Old T. stood on the site now occupied by Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, and extended as far as Holborn. In 1184 they removed to the site S. of Fleet St. which was long called the New T., and included the Outer, Middle, and Inner T. There they built a Refectory, afterwards used as the Inner T. Hall, and the glorious ch. which, happily, still remains.. The Hall was rebuilt on the old foundations in 1870. The first portion of the Ch. to be erected was the W. end, known as the Round; it was designed in imitation of the Ch. of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, and dates from 1185. The Oblong, or Choir, was added in 1240. After suffering many things at the hands of restorers, the worst of which was the destruction in 1825 of the chapel of St. Anne S. of the Round, it was brought back, as nearly as possible, to its original condition in 1842, and many disfiguring accretions were removed. In the Round are the cross-legged effigies of many of the old Knights; and many other distinguished people are buried there, including William of Pembroke and his 2 sons, the learned Selden, and Richd. Martin, to whom Jonson dedicated his Poetaster. During our period the Round was used, like the middle aisle of St. Paul's, as a meeting-place for lawyers and their clients. When the Trs. were suppressed in 1313 Edward II granted their property to Thomas of Lancaster; when he was beheaded in 1322 it went to Aylmer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, and from him to Hugh le Despenser. In 1324, however, it was handed over by Act of Parliament to the Knights Hospitallers of St. John, though they did not actually get possession till 1338; and they leased the Inner and Middle T. to the lawyers, the Outer having been already given to the Bp. of Exeter for his town-house. It is not certain whether the 2 Inns of Court, as they were now called, Were originally separate, but they were early divided into the 2 Legal Colleges of the Inner and Middle T. Henceforward a Tr. means not a warrior-priest, but a gentleman of the Long Robe. The Inner T. used the Refectory of the old Knights as its Hall; but both this and most of the other buildings of the Inner T. perished in the Gt. Fire. The gate-house in Fleet St. erected in the 5th year of James I escaped–and still [ed. note in 1925]remains at 17 Fleet St. turned into a hairdresser's shop. The Ch. as used in common by the 2 Inns. The Middle T. Gate was erected in 1684 and replaced an older gate built by Wolsey. The Hall was built in 1572, and is one of the finest specimens of Elizabethan architecture surviving at the present day. In it Tw. N. was first performed on Feb. 2nd, 1601. The T. Gardens, lying between the buildings and the Thames, and including the famous Fountain Court, are still as delightful as ever. It was customary to hold "revels "in the Halls of tile T. from time to time; and the Trs. not infequently prepared Masques on a magnificent scale to present before the King and Court. Noteworthy amongst them are Chapman's Masque of the Middle T. and Lincoln's Inn and Beaumont's Masque of the Inner T. and Gray's Inn, both presented in 16l3 in honour of the wedding of the Princess Elizabeth; Browne's Ulysses and Circe, an Inner T. Masque of 1615; Marston's Inner–Middle T. Masque of Heroes of 1619; and Shirley's Triumph of Peace, given by all the Inns of Court in 1634. Amongst our dramatists, Francis Beaumont and William Browne were members of the Inner, John Marston and John Ford of the Middle T. Chaucer is said to have belonged to the Inner T., but the evidence is not conclusive. One of his Pilgrims (C. T. A. 567) was "A gentil Maunciple of a t. Of maistres hadde he mo than thries ten That weren of lawe expert and curious." Spenser, in Prothalamion 133, commemorates "those bricky towers The which on Thames broad, ancient back do ride Where now the studious lawyers have their bowers; There whilom wont the Templer Knights to bide, Till they decayed through pride."

The Temple in General. In H6 A. ii. 5, 19, the gaoler says to Mortimer, "Richd. Plantagenet, my lord, will come; We sent unto the T. unto his chamber." Jonson, in Underwoods xxx., satirizes the land-pirates who "man out their boats to the T.," i.e. go there to beg, borrow, or steal money. In Mayne's s Match i. 1, Seathrift says of his nephew: "I have not forgot his riots at the T." Students were students then as now, and had their raggings and riots from time to time. In Davenant's Wits v., Ms. Snore says, "I was fain to invite thy clerk to a fee-pie, sent me by a T.-cook, my sister's sweetheart." A T.-cook is a lawyer, a fee-pie a writ. In Stucley 149, Old Stucley says, "I'll to the T. to see my son." But Stucley was never a member of the T. In Brome's Damoiselle ii. 1, Oliver asks: "Where is Brookall's son? He had a hopeful one, and at 16 A student here i' the T."

Templar in the sense of a Knight Templar.–Fynes Moryson, Itin. i. 84, speaks of "the Priory of St. John, belonging of old to the Templary Knights, and now to the Knights of Rhodes or Malta." Blount, Glossogr. (s.v. TEMPLARIES) says, "These Trs. first founded and built the Temples or Tr's. Inne in Fleet-greet." In Rabelais i. 5, Gargantua says, "I drink no more than a sponge; I drink like a T. Knight."

Tr. in the Sense of a Lawyer.–In Puritan i. 2, Pyebord says, "Let's spend with judgment, like a sober and discreet Templer." In Ret. Pernass. ii. 4, Stercutio says, "You must pardon me–I did not know you were a gentleman of the T. before." In Middleton's R.G. iii. 1, Moll, who is dressed as a man, professes to be "one of the T." In his Michaelmas ii. 3, Quomodo says his son "was a Cambridge man; but now he's a Templer." In Cartwright's Ordinary ii. 1, Have-at-all, boasting of the valour he intends to display in a st. fight, says, "None shall hold back this fatal arm; the Templers shall not dare to attempt a rescue," In Cuckqueans i. 2, Shift says, "If so I see a Termer trudgeth toward the T., I take him by the sleeve."

The Temple Church.–In B. & F. Captain ii. 2, Clara says, "I would have him buried, even as he lies, Crosslegged, like one of the Trs." In Brome's Couple i. 1, Careless says, "I will rather walk down to the T. and lay myself down alive in the old synagogue cross-legged among the monumental knights." In Penn. Parl. 38, it is provided: "The images in the T. ch., if they rise again, shall have commission to dig down Charing Cross with their fauchions." In Jonson's Alchemist ii. 1, Face says, "Here's one desires You meet him in the T. ch. some half-hour hence And upon earnest business." Later he says, "The T. ch., there have I cast my angle." Surly, however, fails to appear, and in iii. 2, Face says, "I have walked the Round till now, and no such thing!" Middleton, in Hubburd, p. 67, says, "He had made choice of a lawyer, a mercer, and a merchant, who that morning were appointed to meet in the T. ch." W. Rowley, in Search 27, says, "Now we were entred the T. . . . there the pillars were hung with poor men's petitions; nay, the very T. it self stood without his cap and so had stood many years;, . . . somewhat had been gathered in his behalf, but not half enough to supply his necessity." The building had fallen into disrepair in the early part of the 17th cent.

The Temple Hall.–In H4 A. iii. 3, 223, Prince Hal says, "Jack, meet me tomorrow in the t. hall at 2 o'clock in the afternoon." In H6 A. ii. 4, 3, Suffolk says, "Within the T.-hall we were too loud; The garden here is more convenient." In both cases the Inner T. Hall is historically the one intended.

The Temple Gate.–In Killigrew's Parson i. 1, the Capt. says of a beggar: "He would dive at Westminster like a dab-chick, and rise again at T.-gate."

Temple Gardens.–The, scene of H6 A. ii. 4 is laid in the T. Garden, where the white and red roses are plucked that are to be the badges of the rival houses of York and Lancaster. In line 1.25, Warwick says, "This brawl today, Grown to this faction in the T. garden, Shall send, between the red rose and the white, A thousand souls to death." In Davenant's Wits iv., Thrift says that nothing is needed for the funeral but "a little rosemary, which thou may'st steal from the T. garden." In Middleton's Hubburd, p. 67, he says, "They appointed us near the T. Garden to attend their Counsellor." In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] i. 5, Jolly chaffs Cutter and Worm on taking "melancholy turns in the T. walks "and saying to the people they meet: "You wonder why your lawyer stays so long."

The Temples Distinguished by Name.–In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 2, Warwick asks: "Where shall this meeting be?" and the Archbp. replies: "At the New T." This was before the coming of the lawyers to the T.; it is called New in distinction from the Old T. in Holborn. In Ret. Pernass. iii. 1, Sir Raderick says, "I am going to speak with an unthrift I should meet at the Middle T. about a purchase." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 323, a Lord says of Dr. Parry: "He did intend the murder of a gentleman, one Mr. Hare here, of the Inner T."

Temple Masques and Revels.–In Dekker's Satiro. v. 2, 238, Sir Vaughan says to Horace (Jonson): "You shall swear not to bumbast out a new play with the old linings of jests stolen from the Ts.' revels." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i. 2, Sim suggests that Bloodhound should make the bones of a delinquent debtor into dice, "and then 'tis but letting Master Alexander carry them next Christmas to the T., he'll make 100 marks a night of them." Gambling became so rife in the T. that it was forbidden except during Christmas.

Booksellers Near the Temple.–Dekker's Wonder was "printed by Robert Haworth for Nicholas Vavasour and art to be sold at his shop in the T. near the Ch. door. 1636.11 Noble Soldier was "printed for Nicholas Vavasour and are to be sold 4t his shop in the T. near,the Ch. 1634." Davenant's Platonic was "printed for Richd. Meigen next to the Middle T. in Fleet St. 1636." See also INNER TEMPLE, INNS of COURT, MIDDLE TEMPLE.


A gate marking the limit of the jurisdiction of the city of Lond., at the W. end of Fleet St. It was probably at first merely a set of posts and a chain, and is first mentioned in Rolls of Parliament (1314–5) as "La barre du Novel T. de Lundres." But a building of some sort must soon have been erected, for in 1358 we find it used as a prison. In 1381 it was burned down by Wat Tyler and his crowd; and was replaced by what Stow describes as a house of timber erected across the st., with a narrow gateway, and an entry on the S. side under the house. This was the T. B. as Shakespeare knew it. In 1670 it was taken down and a new gate of Portland stone built from Wren's designs. Until 1753 it was closed every night. Traitors' heads were exhibited on the top of it until as late as 1772, when the last of these grisly trophies was blown down. The Gate was removed in 1878 because of its obstruction to traffic, and its place marked by the notorious Griffin. Happily it was re-erected at Theobalds in 1888, each stone having been marked so that it could be exactly replaced. For a long time the room over the Gate was occupied by Child's Bank and used as a store-room for old ledgers and account-books. Skelton, in Colin Clout 821, scoffs at Dr. Daupatus for not being able to tell "How far T. B. is From the seven starris." In his Elynor Rummin iv., drunken Alice tells "that there hath been great war between T. B. and the Cross in Cheape." The reference is to the fights between the law students of the T. and the prentices of Cheapside, like the Town and Gown fights at Oxford and Cambridge. In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says, "A number of better things between Westminster Bdge. and T. B. are fallen to decay since Charing fell." In Trag. Richd. II. v. 3, 75, Nimble says, "Nay, I have studied for my learning; I can tell you, my lord, there was not a stone between Westminster Hall and T. B. but I have told them every morning." The law-students spent their time between the Inns of Court in the T. and the Courts in Westminster Hall. In Marmion's Companion v. 2, Lackwit says of a newlymarried couple: "If I had not been they had been as far asunder as T.-B. and Aldgate," i.e. the whole width of the city. In Brome's Northern ii. 5, Pate promises: "Thou shalt start up as pretty a gentleman usher as any between T.-B. and Charing Cross." The Strand was then the fashionable quarter of Lond. In Shirley's Pleasure i. 2, Celestina, who is intent on becoming a lady of fashion with a house in the Strand, says, "My balcony Shall be the courtiers' idol, and more gazed at Than all the pageantry at T. B.," i.e. the traitors' heads exposed there, which people used to come to see–so much so that some ingenious persons used to hire out spy-glasses to them, so that they could get a better view.

The laundresses who waited on the Templars had not too good a reputation for chastity. In Dekker's Witch iv. 1, Cuddy says, "The Devil in St. Dunstan's will as soon drink with this poor cur as with any T.-B. laundress that washes and wrings lawyers." The Devil Tavern (q.v.) was next to T. B. In Killigrew's Parson iv. 7, the Parson talks of "the wainscot chamber-maids with brooms and bare-foot madam you see sold at T.-b. and the Exchange." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i. Bloodhound bids his son, "As you come by T.-b., make a step to the Devil." In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] i. 6, Worm says that Cutter was "Cromwell's agent for all the taverns between King's-st. and the Devil at T. B." In Prodigal ii. 4, Oliver proposes: "Let's meet at the Rose at T.-B.; that will be nearer your counsellor and mine "(see ROSE TAVERN). In Middleton's Inner Tem. 19, Fasting-Day says, "The butchers' boys at T. B. set their great dogs upon me." Butcher Row was just outside T. B. on the N. side of the Strand; it was cleared away in i 802.

In Glapthorne's Wit v. 1, a watchman tells of a monster "very like the mandrake was shown at T.-B." Fleet St. was the favourite place for the exhibition of curiosities like this. Lupton's All for Money was "printed by Roger Warde and Richard Mundee dwelling at T. Barre anno 1578."


The temple built by Solomon at Jerusalem on the Eastern Hill called Mt. Moriah. It occupied the site now covered by the Mosque of Omar and the Sacred Rock under its dome was the site of the great Altar. The T. was destroyed by Nebuchadrezzar when he took the city 586 B.C. On the Return from the Captivity in Babylon, the people, by the permission of Cyrus and under the leadership of Zerubabel, rebuilt the T.; and in 20 B.C. Herod the Gt. replaced this 2nd T. by his own magnificent structure. This was destroyed by the Romans at the siege of Jerusalem, A.D. 70.

Milton, P. L. i. 402, tells how Moloch led Solomon to build a t. for him "right against the t. of God, On that opprobrious hill." In xii. 334, it is predicted that Solomon shall "in a glorious t." enshrine the Ark of God; and how God would later expose to the scorn of Babylon "his t. and his holy ark"; and how later again, the dissensions amongst the priests, "pollution brings Upon the t. itself." In P.R. i. 211, our Lord tells how at 12 years of age "at our great feast I went into the T."; and in 256 it is said that Simeon and Anna "found thee in the T." In iv. 546 it is said, "The Holy City lifted high her towers And higher yet the glorious t. reared Her pile . . . like a mount of alabaster." Its destruction in A.D. 70 is described in Heming's Jewes Trag.;, in line 2981 Jehochanan cries: "Give fire to the Give fire to the T.!" In Dario, p. 89, Zorobabell says to Darius: "Thy mind was to build the T. again." Darius is confused with Cyrus. See Ezra i. 2.


The headquarters of the Knights Templars in Paris. It was situated on a piece of marshy land, E. of the city; the Boulevard de T. stiff preserves the name. Fynes Moryson, Itin. i. 190, speaking of Paris, says, "The 2nd gate towards the East is the gate of the T."






An island off the N.W. coast of Asia Minor, 15 m. S.W. of the Dardanelles, and abt. 3 miles from the nearest point of the coast of the Troad. It was sacred to Apollo Sminthius, who had a temple there. It was visited by the Argonauts on their return from the quest of the Golden Fleece. According to one form of the story, it was the naval base of the Greeks in the siege of Troy. In T. Heywood's Dialogues 6353, Apollo says, "Delphos is mine, Pharos, and T." In his B. Age iii., Anchises reports that the Argonauts are returned and are landed "at T." In Troil. prol. 11, it is said of the Greeks: "To T. they come; And the deep-drawing barks do there disgorge Their warlike fraughtage." In Locrine iii. 2, Segar says, "The Brittaines come With greater multitude than erst the Greeks Brought to the ports of the Phrigian Tenidos." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. ii. 4, Tamburlaine speaks of Helen, "whose beauty summoned Greece to arms And drew a thousand ships to T." In Shrew i. 1, Aurelius speaks of "Helena, For whose sweet sake so many princes died That came with thousand ships to T." In May's Heir iii. 1, Philocles says, "A face, not half so fair As thine . . . brought a thousand ships to T. To sack lamented Troy." In Jonson's Poetaster i. 1, Ovid says, "Homer will live while T. stands and Ide." In Marlowe's Dido ii, Aeneas tells how the Greeks became discouraged at Troy, "And so in troops all marched to T." Evidently Marlowe thought that T. was on the mainland of the Troad.


The largest island in the Canary group in the Atlantic Ocean, go m. N.W. of Cape Bojador. The Peak of T. reaches the height of 12 182 feet; it was pro verbial for its height and size. In T. Heywood's B. Age iii., Medea goes to gather simples on "high T." In Webster's Appius & Virginia iv. 1, Virginius prays: "O you gods, Extinguish it with your compassionate tears, Although you make a 2nd deluge spread And swell more high than T.'s high head." Nash, in Lenten, p. 309, says that Yarmouth has risen "from a mole-hill of sand to a cloud-crowned Mt. T." Donne, in Anat. of World (1611) 286, asks: "Doth not a T. or higher hill Rise so high like a rock, that one might think The floating moon would shipwreck there and sink "Burton, A. M. ii. 3, 5, says, "It concerns me not what is done with me when I am dead. Let them set mine head on the pike of T., and my 4 quarters in the 4 parts of the world." In ii. 2, 3, he asks: "The pike of T. how high it is? 70 m., or 50, as Patricius holds, or 9, as Snellius demonstrates?" Milton, P. L. iv. 287, says, "Satan . . . dilated stood, Like T. or Atlas, unremoved." Browne, Brit. Pastor ii. 5, speaks of 11 That sky-scaling pike of Teneriffe, Upon whose top the herneshew bred her young."


A quadrangular building for the playing of tennis. There were at least 14 tennis-courts in Lond. at the beginning of the 17th cent. They are given in a list from a MS. of 16l5 as follows: Whitehall (two), Somerset House, Essex House, Fetter Lane, Fleet St., Blackfriars, Southampton House, Charterhouse, Powles Chain, Abchurch Lane, Lawrence Pountney, Fenchurch St, and Crutched Friars. In Puritan ii. 1, Simon says that Edmund "is at vain exercise,dripping in the T.-c." In H4 B. ii. 2, 21, Prince Hal, talking about Poins' shirts; says, "That the T.-c. keeper knows better than I; for it is a low ebb of linen with thee when thou keepest not racket there."


An ancient city at the head of the Persian Gulf near the mouth of the Euphrates. In Milton, P. R. iii. 292, the Tempter points out to our Lord as cities "built by Emathian or by Parthian hands, Artaxata, Teredon, Ctesiphon."


A fortified tows in S. Holland on the Gowe, 11 m. N.E. of Rotterdam It was besieged by the Spanish in 1574, but made; gallant and successful resistance. Gascoigne, is Duke Bellum 97, says, "I was again in trench before Tergoes; this was in 1574.


A small island in the Moluccas, on the W. coast of Gillolo; it gives its name to the whole group. The Sultan of T. was once the most powerful prince in the Moluccas, and ruled over the whole group as wen as a large part of Celebes. The town of T. is on the E. coast of the island. Fuller, Holy State ii. 22, tells how in 1578 Drake "coasted China and the Moluccas, where, by the K. of Terrenate, a true gentleman-pagan, he was most honourably entertained." Montaigne (Florio's trans. 1603) i. 5, says, "In the kingdom of Ternates, among those nations which we so full-mouthed call barbarous, the custom beareth that they never undertake a war before the same be denounced." In B. & F. Princess, the Governor of T. plays a considerable part; and the scene of the greater part of Act ii. is laid is T. In Milton, P. L. ii. 639, Satan, in his flight, is compared to "a fleet . . . Close sailing from Bengala, or the isles Of Ternate and Tidore, whence merchants bring Their spicy drugs."


A town in Italy on the N. shore of the Gulf of Gaeta, 60 m. S.E. of Rome. It is on the site of the ancient Anxur. In Barnes' Charter ii. 1, Caesar Borgia advises the Pope to offer Charles VIII "The strength of T. for a pledge." In iii. 3, Frescobaldi says, "At T. I broke a glass upon the face of Capitaneo Boccansacchi."


"The land of fire "discovered by Magellan in 1520, and so called from the number of fires he saw along the coast. It is a group of islands at the S. extremity of S. America, separated from the mainland by the Straits of Magellan. It is used jocularly for some haunt of loose women in Lond., in the neighbourhood of Bunhill Fields; possibly Shoreditch. In B. & F. Friends i. 2, Blacksnout says that he got a wound in his groin "at the siege of Bunnil, passing the straights 'twixt Mayor's Lane and Terra del Fuego, the fiery isle." Probably we should read Magellan for Mayor's Lane.


(The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, q.v.). In Taming of Shrew, Haz. p. 513, Ferando speaks of "Italian merchants that with Russian stems Ploughs up huge furrows in the Terren Main." In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iii. 1, Bajazeth boasts that he has as many troops "As hath the Ocean or the T. Sea Small drops of water." In Tamb. B. i. 1, Orcanes talks 'of "The T. Main wherein Danubius falls"; a slight slip, as the Danube falls into the Black Sea. In i. 2, Callapine, who is at Alexandria, proposes to "put forth into the T. Sea."




The most N.E. island in the Azores, q.v. In Kyd's Span. Trag. i. 3, the Viceroy of Portugal says of Alexandro: "Perchance because thou art Teseraes lord, Thou hadst some hope to win this diadem." Terceira first became known is England about 1582, through its brave resistance against the Spanish attacks on it.


(i.e. TESEGDELT). A town in S. Morocco, 30 m. S. of Mogador, and 20 m. from the coast. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 3, Techelles reports: "From strong Tesella unto Biledull All Barbary is unpeopled for thy sake."


The name of a tribe who are first found in Jutland, and afterwards along with the Cimbri ravaged Gaul and attacked Italy at the end of the 2nd cent. B.C. About the middle of the 17th cent. the word is used as equivalent to German. The Teutonic Knights were a military order, founded in 1191 as the Teutonic Knights of St. Mary of Jerusalem. Their first headquarters were at Acre; they settled later at Marienburg on the Vistula, and carried on a crusade against the heathen Prussians and Livonians. After the 15th cent. they rapidly declined in power, until they were formally abolished in 1809. Their habit was a white mantle with a black cross. Fynes Moryson, Itin. i. 61, says, "Prussen of old was subject to the order of the Teutonicke Knights."


A town in Gloucestersh. at the junction of the Severn and the Avon, 126 m. W. of Lond. The glory of the town is the old Abbey Ch., consecrated in 1125, where Prince Edward, who was killed after the battle of T. on May 4th, 1471, and George, D. of Clarence, who was one of his murderers, are both buried. The mustard of T. had a high reputation. In Thersites 216, Thersites says, "Tom Tumbler of T. will wipe William Waterman." In H6 C. v. 3, 19, Edward says, "We are advertised That they do hold their course toward T.; . . . we . . . Will thither straight." Scenes 4 and 5 take place on the plains near T.; and Edward, Gloucester, and Clarence stab young Prince Edward in turn. In R3 i. 2, 242, Gloucester confesses: "Edward, her lord, I . . . Stabbed in my angry mood at T." In i. 3, 120, Margaret reproaches Gloucester: "Thou slewest Edward, my poor son, at T." In i. 4, 56, Clarence dreams that Edward appears to him and exclaims: "Clarence is come, That stabbed me in the field by T." In ii. 1, iii, Edward IV says of Clarence: "In the field by T., When Oxford had me down, he rescued me." In v. 3, 120, Young Edward's ghost appears to Richd. and says, "Think how thou stabbed'st me in my prime of youth At T." The battlefield is about I mile from the town. In H4 B. ii. 4, 262, Falstaff says of Poins: "His wit's as thick as T. mustard." In Brome's City Wit iii. 1, Crasy says, "I'll lay all my skill to a mess of T. mustard she sneezes thrice within these 3 hours." Fynes Moryson, Itin. iii. 3, 139, says that T. is famous "for excellent mustard."


The river on which Lond. stands. The name was originally Tamesis, and became in English Temes; the 'h' was inserted through the influence of French about the beginning of the 16th cent., but it has never been pronounced, and the river is still called, as it always has been, the Temz. It rises in Gloucestershire and, until it joins the Thame near Dorchester, is often called the Isis. Spenser, F. Q. iv. 11, 24, speaks of the Thame and Isis as being the father and mother of "the noble T.," but this is all nonsense–the river was called Tamesis, or T., from its source to its mouth. On its way to Lond. it passes It reaches Lond. Bdge. after a course of abt. 170 m., and is now [ed note: circa 1923 and before the Thames Barrier was erected] at high tide 800 ft. wide and 30 ft. deep. From the Bridge to Rotherhithe it is called the Upper Pool; thence to Cuckold's Point, the Lower Pool; thence to Deptford, Limehouse Reach; then come Greenwich Reach and Blackwall Reach. Then, passing Woolwich and Gravesend, it reaches the North Sea between Sheerness and Shoeburyness, the beginning of the estuary being marked by the Nore Light, 40 m. below Lond. In Lond. the chief objects of interest on the banks of the river were, on the N. side, starting from Westminster: On the S. side, Lambeth Palace stood opposite Westminster; then came the long stretch of Lambeth Marsh, the Bankside at Southwark and the Theatres, Winchester House, and the Ch. of St. Mary Overy. It was crossed by one bdge. only in Lond., the famous Lond. Bdge. (q.v.), and through its narrow arches the tide ran with great noise and violence, making the shooting of the Bdge. a perilous adventure. The other bdges. that are mentioned were merely gangways leading to the various landing stages. The river was navigable up to the Bdge. for the largest vessels of the time, and the Pool was filled with the shipping of all the world. Though all the sewage of the city fell into the river, most of it by the Fleet Ditch, it was nevertheless a clear stream, in which salmon and other fish could be caught, and on whose bosom a multitude of swans sailed to and fro. It was also constantly used for swimming and bathing; indeed, the citizens had no other means of getting a bath. It was the main thoroughfare of Lond., and watermen kept up an unintermitting cry of "Eastward Hoe!" or "Westward Hoe!" as the case might be. Stow estimates that there were 2000 wherries and 3000 watermen employed. It was not often frozen over; but this did sometimes happen, owing partly to the obstruction of the current by the piers of the Bdge. Such frosts are recorded in 1564, 1608, 1634, and some half a dozen later years.

Jonson, in the verses prefixed to the 1st Folio of Shakespeare, says, "Sweet swan of Avon, what a sight it were To see thee in our waters yet appear, And make those flights upon the banks of T. That so did take Eliza and our James." The reference is to the acting of plays at the palaces of Greenwich and Whitehall. In Middleton's R.G. iv. 1, Moll says she will sing to the viol "like a swan above bdge; For, look you, here's the bdge. (i.e. of the viol] and here am I." Drayton, in Idea xxxii. 1, says, "Our floods' queen, T., for ships and swans is crowned." In M.W.W. iii. 3, 16, Mrs. Ford gives her men directions to empty the clothesbasket in which Falstaff was hidden "in the muddy ditch close by the T. side." In iii. 5, 6, the fat knight exclaims: "Have I lived to be carried in a basket and to be thrown in the T."; and begs for some sack to pour "to the T. water." Later on, he tells Ford how he "was thrown into the T. and cooled, glowing hot, in that surge like a horse-shoe"; yet he vows: "I will be thrown into Etna, as I have been into T., ere I will leave her thus." In H5 iv. 1, 120, Bates says of the K.: "I believe he could wish himself in T. up to the neck." In H6 B. iv. 8, 3, Cade cries: "Up Fish st.! Down St. Magnus corner! Throw them into T.!" In T. Heywood's Fortune v. 1, the Purser greets the river: "Fair T., Queen of fresh water, famous through the world." In his Ed. IV A. i., the Mayor asks: "What if we stop the passage of the T. With such provision as we have of ships?" i.e. to stop the Kentish rebels from crossing. In Dekker's London's Tempe, Oceanus says, "The Grand Canale a poor landscip is To these full braveries of Thamesis." In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, Caesar says, "Isis wept to see her daughter T. Change her clear christal to vermilion sad." In Webster's Weakest i. 2, Bunch says, "I was as ale-draper, as T. and Tower Wharf can witness." In Nobody 754, Nobody boasts that he will fence Lond. with a wall of brass "and bring the Tems through the middle of it." In More iii. 3, More tells how Erasmus, on leaving for Rotterdam "with tears Troubled the silver channel of the T." In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage ii. 2, the Clown says, "Mine eyes are Severn; the T., nor the river Tweed, are nothing to them." Spenser, F. Q. iv. 11, describes the marriage between "the noble Thamis," the K. of all English rivers, and the Medway. Milton, in Vac. Exercise 100, calls it "Royal-towered T."

In St. Hilary's Tears (1642), we read: "The coaches now seem like western barges on the T. at a high tide, here and there one." The barges for the W. would have gone up with the tide, and few of them would be left. In Davenant's Rutland, p. 217, the Parisian says of the T.: "The pleasure of it will hardly be in the prospect or freedom of air, unless prospect, consisting of variety, be made up with here a palace, there a woodyard, here a garden, there a brew-house; here dwells a lord, there a dyer." On p. 228, the Chorus sings of Lond.: "She is cooled and cleansed by streams Of flowing and of ebbing T." In Dekker's Westward ii. 3, Justiniano says, "Come, drink up Rhine, T., and Meander dry." In Kirke's Champions v. 1, the Clown says, "I find whole oxen boiled in a pottage pot that will hold more water than the T." Nash, in Lenten, p. 291, says, "Every man can thrash corn out of the fun sheaves, and fetch water out of the T." In Shirley's Pleasure iv. 2, Frederick says, "We'll have music; I love noise. We will outroar the T. and shake the Bdge." See also under LONDON BDGE.

Jonson, in Epilogue to Ev. Man O., says, "Our city's torrent [i.e. the Fleet Ditch] bent to infect The hallowed bowels of the silver T. Is checked by strength and clearness of the river Till it hath spent itself e'en at the shore." In his Epicoene iv. 2, Daw asks: "Is the T. the less for the dyers' water?" In Brome's Damoiselle i. 2, Bumpsey says, "Let him throw money into the T., make ducks and drakes with pieces, I'll do the like." In Webster's Weakest i. 3, Bunch says, "Ye base butter-box, ye Smelt, your kinsfolk dwell in the T., and are sold like slaves in Cheapside." In Hg B. iv. 4, 125, Clarence says, "The river hath thrice flowed, no ebb between; And the old folk . . . Say it did so a little time before That our great-grandsire, Edward, sicked and died." Holinshed says that this took place on October 12th, 1412; but there is no authority for the statement that it happened before the death of Edward III. Dekker, in Raven's, says, "When the T. is covered over with ice, then mayst thou be bold to swear it is winter." In Mayne's s Match v. 2, Dorcas says to Warehouse, "They would just find you as hot as the sultry winter that froze o'er the T. They say the hard time did begin from you." In Hall's Characters, one of the topics of the Busybody's conversation is "the freezing of the T." Drayton, in Elegy of his Lady (1627) says, "The T. was not so frozen yet this year As is my bosom." W. Rowley, in Search Intro., says that his readers "in the hard season of the great frost . . . slid away the time upon the T."

The T. stands for England. In Fisher's Fuimus iii. 5, Nennius prays: "Grant T. and Tiber never join their channels"; and in ii. 1, he says, "Rhine and Rhône can serve And envy T. his never-captive stream." Daniel, is Epist. Prefatory to Cleopatra, says, "How far T. doth outgo declined Tibur," i.e. in poetry.


In Lond., running along the N. bank of the T., from Blackfriars to the Tower. It was divided into Upper T. St. above, and Lower T. St. below, Lond. Bdge. It was thronged with the carts bringing merchandise to the warehouses, or taking it away; and the combined smell of tar and fish made it specially unsavoury. Starting from the W. end it contained, in order, the churches of St. Benet, St. Peter, St. James, and All Hallows the Great; and below the Bdge. St. Magnus and St. Dunstan in the E. Other important buildings were, in the same order, Baynard's Castle, Vintners Hall, Cold-harbour, the Steelyard, Billingsgate Market, and the Custom House. The chief landing stages were Broken Wharf, Queen Hythe, and Old Swan Stairs. Chaucer was probably born at his father's tavern, which was at the spot where the Cannon St. Station now crosses the st. The whole st. from Pudding Lane westward was destroyed in the Gt. Fire. In Fair Women ii. 787, a lord reports ` that a merchant's slain, one Master Sanders, dwelling near Tames st." The title of one of Yarrington's Two Tragedies is "The Murder of Master Beech, a chandler in T.-st." Dekker, in Wonderful Year, tells a ghastly story of the death of "the church-warden in T. st." In J. Heywood's Johan and Tib, p. 70, Johan, the husband, boasts how he will beat his wife; but on her return says he has been talking of "beating stock-fish in Temmes st." The part of the st. near the Bdge. was sometimes called Stockfishmonger Row.

In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 1, Wellbred says, "Would we were e'en pressed to make porters of and serve out the remnant of our days in T. st. or at Custom House key, in a civil war against the carmen." In Feversham v. 1, Will says, "In Temes st. a brewer's cart was like to have run over me." In B. & F. Scornful ii. 3, Savil says, "Come home, poor man, like a type of T. st., stinking of pitch and poor-john." In their Prize v. 1, Livia says, "O what a stinking thief is this! T.-st. to him is a mere pomander." In their Nightwalker iv. 3, Toby says, "You think you are in T.-st. justling the carts." In Cavendish's Wolsey vii., Wolsey's route from York House to Greenwich is described: "He landed at the Three Cranes in Vine-tree, and from thence he rode upon his mule along T.-st., until he came to Billingsgate; there he took his barge, and so to Greenwich." There were some booksellers in the st. Selimus was "printed by Thomas Creede dwelling in T. st. at the sign of the Kathern wheel near the old Swan. 1594." The 1st edition of Howleglas about 1550 was "imprinted at Lond. in Tamestreete at the Vintre on the three-craned Wharf."


A maritime city in N. Africa, about 100 m. S. of Carthage, where Caesar defeated the Pompeians, 46 B.C. In Kyd's Cornelia v, the messenger says, "At Thapsus we began to intrench."


(i.e. TARSHISH). Some place or dist. in the W. of the Mediterranean, variously identified with the S. of Spain, and more recently with the Tyrsenian, or Tyrrhenian, lands on the W. coast of Italy. At all events it meant for the Jew some land in the far W. In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass iii. 1, Jonas says "To Joppa will I Ay And for a while to T. shape my course." See Jonah i. 3. Greene, in Never too Late, speaks of "minerals of Egypt, waters from T."


(see TARSUS). In J.C. v. 3, 104, Tharsus is an obvious error or misprint for Thasos, q.v.


An island in the N. of the Aegean Sea 3 or 4 m. from the coast of Thrace. The town of T. is on the N. coast of the island. In J.C. v. 3, 104, Brutus, after the death of Cassius at Philippi, gives order: "Come therefore, and to Tharsus send his body." But it is obvious from the parallel passage is Plutarch that the right reading is Thassos or T. In Caesar's Rev. v. 1, Cassius says, "Laodicea With Tursos vailed to us her vaunted pride. Fair Rhodes, I weep to think upon thy fall!" Tursos is a mistake for T., which was taken by Brutus and Cassius just before the battle of Philippi. In Rabelais, Pantagruel iii. 13, Pantagruel affirms that "those that inhabit the land of T. (one of the Cyclades) . . . never dreamed."


(Tr. = Theater). The first London play-house [ed. note: the first permanent London playhouse: the Red Lion of 1567 has prior claims to "first," but it was apparently a temporary structure], erected in 1576 by James Burbage and John Brayne. It stood somewhere on the piece of land between Curtain Rd., Holywell Lane, and Gt. Eastern St, close to the road leading from Bishopsgate to Shoreditch ch. It was an amphitheatre in design, with a movable stage of trestles. It was closed in July 1597, and the timber taken over in 1598 to the Bankside, and used in the erection of the Globe. The price of admission was 2d. John Stockwood, in a Sermon at Paul's Cross (1578), speaks bitterly of "the gorgeous playing-place erected in the fields" called "a Tr." . . . "a shew-place of all beastly and filthy matters." In a letter from William Fleetwood to Lord Burghley, June 18th, 1584, complaint is made of a disturbance "very near the Tr. or Curtain at the time of the plays" and it is related that 2 aldermen were sent to the court "for the suppressing and pulling down of the Tr. and Curtain." Lyly, in Pappe, p. 73, says of a certain play: "If it be shewed at Paules, it will cost you 4d.; at the Tr. 2d." In Tarlton's News, we have: "Upon Whison Monday last I would needs to the Tr. to a play." Nash, in Pierce E. 1, says, "Tarlton at the Tr. made jests of him," to wit, a certain astrologer. Lodge, in Wits Miseries (1596), says, "He looks as pale as the visard of the ghost which cries so miserably at the T., like an oyster-wife, 'Hamlet, revenge!'" This was probably not Shakespeare's play, but an earlier version of the Hamlet story. In Skialetheia (1598), the author says, "See, yonder one, like the unfrequented T., walks in dark silence and vast solitude." Middleton, in Black Book, says, "He had a head of hair like one of my devils in Dr. Faustus, when the old T. crackt and frightened the audience."


(Tn. = Theban). An ancient city in Boeotia, 44 m. N.W. of Athens. It lay between the 2 streams of Ismenus and Dirce, and was well supplied with water. It was surrounded by a wall with gates; hence it is often called "seven-gated T." In prehistoric times it seems to have been very powerful; and the legends associated with it are numerous. It was said to have been founded by Cadmus; another account made Amphion and Zethus its founders, and told how the stones of the wall moved into their places to the music of Amphion's lyre. In Lyly's Midas iv. 1, Apollo speaks of "Amphion that by music reared the walls of T." In his Campaspe i. 1, Timoclea says, "O T., thy walls were raised by the sweetness of the harp, but razed by the shrillness of the trumpet." In Marlowe's Faustus vi. 28, Faust says, "Hath not he, that built the walls of T. With ravishing sound of his melodious harp, Made music with my Mephistophilis?" In Shirley's Imposture v. 1, Volterino speaks of "the dolphin that was in love with a fiddler's boy of T. who carried him across the seas on her back." Shirley evidently confuses Amphion with Arion, who is the hero of the dolphin story but had nothing to do with T. In his Master iii. 3, Octavio says, "T., as to Amphion's lute, stoops to the magic of your voice." In his Bird iii. 3, Donella says, "They say music built the walls of T." Lodge, in Answer to Gosson, p. 16, has this jingle: "Amphion, he Was said of T. the founder, Who by his force of lute did cause The stones to part asonder." Sidney, in Eng. Helicon (1614), P147, says, "Stones good measure danced, the Tn. walls to build, To cadence of the tunes which Amphion's lyre did yield."

Amphion married Niobe, but their children were all killed by Apollo, and Amphion slew himself and was buried at T. In Marlowe's Dido ii. 1, Aeneas says, "Tn. Niobe, Who for her sons' death wept out life and breath, Had not such passions in her head as I." Heracles was born at T., Zeus having visited his mother Alcmena during the absence of her husband Amphitryon and begotten the hero. He took a leading part in the fight between the Centaurs and Lapithae at the marriage of Peirithous and Hippodameia. Tortured to madness by the shirt of Nessus, he flung himself into a funeral pyre on the top of Mt. Oeta and was taken up to heaven by Zeus. In T. Heywood's Dialogues 5395, Juno says, "T. afforded an Alcmena and a wanton Semele." In his S. Age ii. 1, Homer says, "Our scene is T.; here fair Alcmena dwells"; and the story of the birth of Heracles follows. The scene of Hercules, a translation of the Amphitruo of Plautus, is laid at T. In Lyly's Woman in Moon iii. 2, Stesias desires to "Mingle the wine with blood and end the feast With tragic outcries like the Tn. lord Where fair Hippodamia was espoused." In Nabbes' Hannibal v. 3, Hannibal cries: "Would this were Oeta, that, like the furious Tn., I might build mine own pile and the flame, as it ascends, transform itself into a constellation."

It was in the reign of Amphitryon that Cephalus was persuaded by him to lend the Tns. his famous dog, that they might capture the wolf, or fox, that was ravaging the land. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iv. 3, the Soldan says he is going against Tamburlaine as "Cephalus with lusty Tn. youths Against the wolf that angry Themis sent To waste and spoil the sweet Aonian fields." Dionysus (Bacchus) was born at T. as the result of the visit of Zeus to Semele, the daughter of Cadmus. His appearance to her in all his splendour of thunder and lightning brought about her death and the premature birth of her son, who was, however, saved from the fire and concealed in the thigh of Zeus. Many of the legends centre themselves around the family of Oedipus. He had been exposed, when an infant, on Mt. Cithaeron, but he was rescued by a shepherd, and afterwards returned to T., solved the riddle of the Sphinx, who flung herself in vexation over the cliffs, ignorantly killed his father Laius, married his mother Jocasta, and became K. When he discovered his parentage he put out his own eyes and abdicated in favour of his 2 sons, Eteocles and Polynices. They quarrelled, and Polynices organized the famous expedition of the Seven against T.: the 7 chieftains being Adrastus of Argos, Tydeus, Amphiarus, Capaneus, Hippomedon, Parthenopaeus, and Polynices himself. This was shortly before the Trojan war. The 2 brothers were killed in mutual conflict, and all the other leaders perished, except Adrastus: Capaneus, in particular, being struck by lightning as he was scaling the walls. During the siege, Menecius (the son of Creon, who had assumed the kingship on the death of Eteocles) flung himself from the walls in order to fulfil the oracle which had promised victory to T. if one of the descendants of Cadmus would devote himself to death. After the repulse of the Seven, Theseus of Athens attacked Thebes and compelled Creon to give burial to his dead foes.

In Tiberius 1697, Julia asks if a monster like "Thebane sphinx or Memphis crocodile "lurks in the orchard of Tiberius. Spenser, F. Q. v. 11, 25, speaks of "that monster whom the Tn. knight . . . Made kill herself for very heart's despite That he had red her riddle." Milton, P.R. iv. 572, speaks of "that Tn. monster that proposed Her riddle, and him who solved it not devoured." In P.L. i. 578, he speaks of "the heroic race . . . that fought at T. and Ilium"; and in 17. Pens. 99, he pictures Tragedy "presenting T., or Pelops' line, Or the tale of Troy divine." In Brewer's Lingua ii. 4, Memory says, "I remember about the wars of T. and the siege of Troy." In Tiberius 1877, Vonones says, "Renew as oft your wearied legions As Polynices or the Tn. Wall"–where we should probably read "on "for "or." In Caesar's Rev. i. chor. 2, Discord boasts: "'Twas I that caused the deadly Tn. war And made the brothers swell with endless hate." In Rawlins' Rebellion iii. 1, Machvile says that he will play "The Tn. Creon's part, and on Raymonde mean to plot what he did on the cavilling boys of Oedipus." In Jonson's Catiline iv. 5, Cethegus says, "If they were like Capaneus at T. They should hang dead upon the highest spires." In Gascoigne's Government ii. 1, Gnomaticus says, "Menecius the son of Creon refused not voluntary death when he understood that the same might redeem the city of T. from utter subversion." Chaucer's Knight's Tale, and Kinsmen, tell the story of two Tn. knights who were captured by Theseus when he attacked T.; and 2 of the scenes of the play are laid in T. and its neighbourhood. In M.N.D. v. 1, 51, Theseus says, "That is an old device; and it was played When I from T. came last a conqueror." In Marlowe's Dido iii., Aeneas says of his son: "Might I live to see him sack rich T. And load his spear with Grecian princes' heads." The scene of Gascoigne's Jocasta is laid at T., or Thebs, as he spells it. In Locrine v. prol. 4, Ate says, "Medea, seeing Jason leave her love And choose the daughter of the Thebane k., Went to her devilish charms." But it was the daughter of Creon, K. of Corinth, that Jason married-quite a different person from Creon, K. of T.

In historical times T. appears as the 3rd city in Hellas, Athens and Sparta alone being her superiors. In the Peloponnesian War she was opposed to Athens, but about the beginning of the 4th cent. B.C. she changed her policy and joined Athens in resisting Sparta; and in 394 she defeated Sparta in the battle of Coronea. In 371 the success was repeated at Leuctra, where the Spartan K. was killed. The Tn. leader was Epaminondas, and under his guidance T. enjoyed 10 years of undisputed supremacy. But in 364 Pelopidas, the colleague and friend of Epaminondas, was killed at Cynoscephalae; and 2 years later Epaminondas fell at Mantineia. In 338 Philip of Macedon appeared upon the scene and defeated the united Athenians and Tns. at Chaeronea. In 335, the Tns. having rebelled against Alexander of Macedon, he took and destroyed the city preserving only the house of the poet Pindar, who was born at T. about 522 B.C. In Chapman's Bussy i. 1, Monsieur says, "If Epaminondas, Who lived twice twenty years obscured at T., Had lived so still, he had been still unnamed; But, putting forth his strength, like burnished steel After long use he shined." In Massinger's Bondman, the hero is "the bold Tn., far-famed Pisander." The date is about the middle of the 4th cent. B.C., but Pisander is not an historical person. In Lyly's Campaspe i. 3, Alexander says that he has come "from T. to Athens, from a place of conquest to a palace of quiet." In Kyd's Soliman iv, Soliman says, "Alexander spared warlike T. for Pindarus." This is an exaggeration–he spared the poet's house, but nothing else. Spenser, F.Q. ii. 9, 45, speaks of "T., which Alexander did confound." The Boeotians, and the Tns. amongst the rest, were supposed to be particularly dense and stupid by the more brilliant Athenians. In Lear iii. 4, 162, Lear calls Edgar, the supposed madman, "this same learned Tn." In Jonson's Pan, the Fencer says, "There is a tinker of T. coming, called Epam, with his kettle will make all Arcadia ring of him." Epam is no doubt meant to be short for Epaminondas; and the Arcadians overwhelm the Boeotians and their leader, and send them home "with their solid heads." In Club Law i. 6, Ketlebasen says, "My gossip Thirtens went on Wednesday to T. to buy some fells at the leather fair." Probably Lond. is meant.


The greatest city of ancient Egypt, on the Nile, abt. 450 m. S. of Alexandria. Its fame early reached Greece, and Homer tells of its hundred gates. It was the capital during the splendid xviii. and xix. dynasties, and its ruined temples at Luxor and Karnak, and the mortuary chapels of its kings are amongst the wonders of the world. In T. Heywood's Dialogues iii, Earth asks: "Where's the hundred-gated town called T, Where's the Colosse of Rhodes?" Milton, P. L. v. 274, compares Raphael to "A phoenix . . . When to enshrine his relics in the sun's Bright temple, to Egyptian T. he flies."


An ancient town in Mysia, S. of Mt. Placius. It was taken in the Trojan war by Achilles. In T. Heywood's Iron Age A. v., Ulisses, claiming for himself the conquests of Achilles, says, "'Twas I sacked Thebes, Chriseis, and Scylla with Lernessus walls."


Used by Milton, P. R. ii. 313, as the name of the birthplace of Elijah, "that prophet bold, Native of T." According to I Kings xvii. 1, Elijah was a "Tishbite, who was of the sojourners of Gilead." The place has not been identified, but was evidently E. of the Jordan. There was a T., now Tubas, in Samaria, 9 m. N.E. of Shechem; but this cannot be the place intended. Possibly Milton made a slip in the name.


A vill. in Judah, 5 m. S. Of Bethlehem, now Khirbet-Tequa. In Peele's Bethsabe ii. 3, the widow of Thecoa tells David the story of her 2 sons, as recorded in II Samuel xiv.


A vill. near Cheshunt, in S.E. Herts., abt. 12 m. N. of Lond. Near it Lord Burghley built a magnificent palace, where his son Robert entertained King James I on his arrival in England. In 1605 James created Robert Earl of Salisbury, and in 1607 gave him Hatfield House in exchange for the palace at T., which thenceforth was his favourite summer residence. The word is pronounced Tibbald's. Temple Bar, taken down in 1878, was re-erected at the entrance to Sir H. B. Meux's grounds at T. Elixabeth visited T. in 1591, and was greeted in a series of short poems written by George Peele. Hentxner describes his visit to T. in 1597, when he rode out from Lond. in a coach. In Jonson's Gipsies, one of the Gipsies sings of "the finer walled places, As St. James's, Greenwich, Tibals, Where the acorns, plump as chibals, Soon shall change both kind and name." Jonson wrote a Masque for the entertainment of the 2 Kings of Great Britain and Denmark at T. in 1606; and another for the K. and Q. when the palace was delivered up to them in 1607.


A river of Pontus in Asia Minor, now the Thermeh, flowing into the Black Sea near Themiscyra. The Amazons were supposed to have lived in the neighbourhood of this river and their capital was Themiscyra. In Selimus 2398, Selimus speaks of "The Amazonian Menalip, Leaving the banks of swiftstreamed Thermodon To challenge combat with great Hercules."


town in Boeotia, at the foot of Mt. Helicon. Close by was the fountain of Aganippe, which was sacred to the Muses. There was a Temple of The Muses in the city, and the Latin writers consequently often call them Thespiades. Jonson, in Forest x., refers to them as "the ladies of the Thespian lake."


(Tn. = Thessalian). The dist. in ancient Greece lying between the Cambunian range and Mt. Othrys, and extending from the sea to the Pindus range. It was famous for its fertility and its luxuriant crops and flowers; and the vale of Tempe, proverbial for its beauty, lay within its bounds. Its horses and hounds were the best in Greece, and hunting was largely practised in its forests and plains. In many ways it resembled Arcadia; and the poets treated it as the home of rural simplicity and pastoral beauty. In spite of the wealth of its inhabitants it took little part in the history of Greece. It was from T. that the famous boar came which ravaged the plains of Calydon and was hunted to death by Meleager and his companions. In Antony iv. 13, 2, Cleopatra says that Antony is "more mad Than Telamon for his shield; the boar of T. Was never so embossed." The Muses were said to have been born at Pieria in N.E. Thessaly, but, when their worship was transferred to Mt. Helicon in Bceotia, the name Pierian was also bestowed on the sacred spring there. Its waters were supposed to communicate to the drinker the gifts of Art and Poetry. In Histrio iii. 198, Chrisogonus says, "O age, when every scrivener's boy shall dip Profaning quills into Thessaliaes spring." The scene of the death of Hercules was Mt. Oeta in T.; hence Milton, P. L. ii. 544, says that in his death-agony he "tore Through pain up by the roots Tn. pines." It was in T. that Daphne, fleeing from the embraces of Apollo, was turned into a laurel-tree. Spenser, in Amoretti xxviii. 10, says, "Proud Daphne, scorning Phoebus' lovely fire, On the Tn. shore from him did fly." In Wilson's Cobler 1369, it is reported that "The Argives and the men of T." are invading Boeotia. This is entirely unhistorical. In Marlowe's Dido iii. 1, Dido affirms that one of her suitors "was the wealthy K. of T."–Again a fictitious person. Pharsalia, the scene of Pompey's defeat by Caesar in 48 B.C., was in T. Chxucer, to Monk's Tale B. 2869, speaks of mighty Caesar's fight "in Thessalie agayn Pompeius." In Caesar's Rev. ii. 4, Cicero, who was a Pompeian, says, "Thessalia boasts that she hath seen our fall." In 1, 3, Caesar says, "The flying Pompey to Larissa hastes And by Tn. Tempe shapes his course." In Chapman's Caesar ii. 4, 124, the K. of T. comes to offer his services to Pompey–but there was no K. of T. at this time; it was a Roman Province. In v. 1, 69, Pompey and Demetrius take refuge at Lesbos disguised as "Tn. augurs ". . . "their heads all hid in hats Of parching T., broad-brimmed, high-crowned." This broad-brimmed hat, or Kausia, was characteristic of the Macedonians and Thessalians. Davies, in Orchestra (1594) xci. 5, says, "The wise Tns. ever gave The name of Leader of their Country's dance To him that had their country's governance." The technical name of the chiefs of T. was Tagus; but Davies is probably thinking of the Archi-theoros, who presided at the festival held at Tempe every 9th year.

In M.N.D. iv. 1, i 119, Theseus boasts that his hounds were "dew-lapped like Tn. bulls"; and adds, "A cry more tuneable Was never holla'd to . . . In Crete, in Sparm, nor in T." In T. Heywood's B. Age ii., Adonis speaks of "The fierce Tn. hounds with their shag ears Ready to sweep the dew from the moist earth." E.D., in trans. of Theocritus (1588) xviii., compares Helen of Sparta to "A steed of T." In the old Timon i. 4, Pseudocheus says, "Upon the mountains of Thessalia I do remember that I saw an oak That brought forth golden acorns of great price." In B. & F. Valentin. iv. 4, Maximus erects a funeral pyre "greater than T. [can feed] with flowers." Their Shepherdess has its scene in T.; and in i. 1, Clorin describes himself as "The truest man that ever fed his flocks By the fat plains of fruitful T." In Locrine ii. 1, 39, Estrild, praising Britain, says, "The birds resounding heavenly melody Are equal to the groves of T. Where Phoebus with the learned ladies nine Delight themselves with musick-harmony." In Noble Ladies, Cyprian says, "We'll ride together to fruitful Thessalia, where in fair Tempe we'll sport us under a pavilion of Tyrian scarlet." In Greene's Orlando i. 1, Mandrecarde compares his army to a swarm of grasshoppers in the "plains of watery T." T. was subject to plagues of locusts; Topsell says that jackdaws were kept at the public expense to devour them.

T. had a sinister reputation as the home of witchcraft and poisonous drugs and herbs. In Lyly's Endymion iii. 1, Cynthia promises, "If the enchanters of T. can find remedy, I will procure it." In Marlowe's Tamb. A. v. 1, Tamburlaine says that the sight of the corpses of his enemies is "as baneful to their souls As are Tn. drugs or mithridate." In Peele's Old Wives, p. 185, Sacrapant says, "In T. was I born and brought up; My mother Meroe hight, a famous witch." In Webster's White Devil i. 2, Cornelia says, "O that this fair garden Had with all poisoned herbs of T. At first been planted." In Marmion's Companion ii. 1, Spruce says, "Not all the drugs of T. Can ease my grief." In Nabbes' Hannibal iii. 4, Massanissa says that Sophonisba's tear "hath in't sufficient virtue to convert An the Tn., Pontick, Phasian aconites Into preservatives." In Rabelais' Pantagruel iii. 16, Epistemon says that Panzoiest abounds "more with sorceries and witches than ever did the plains of T." In Greene's Orlando i. 2, 365, Orlando says of Rodamant: "Here lies he, like the thief of T., Which scuds abroad and searcheth for his prey, And, being gotten, straight he gallops home." No one has succeeded in identifying this person; probably he existed only in Greene's imagination. T. is the scene of Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort; Brome's 's Lovesick Ct.; Barclay's Lost Lady; and B. & F. Shepherdess.


A town on the borders of Suffolk and Norfolk, on the Little Ouse, 30 m. S.W. of Norwich. It was an important town in the old Kingdom of E. Anglia, and a Synod was held therein 669. It was 3 times burned and sacked by the Danes. Edmund, Earl of T., is one of the characters in Brewer's Lovesick. In Day's B. Beggar ii., young Strowd says of his companions: "They can talk of nothing but what price pease and barley bears at T. market."




A short st. in Westminster, curving round from the W. side of King St. to Broken Cross. It was the way by which thieves were taken to the Gatehouse prison: hence the name Thieven L., corrupted into T. L. It was also called Bow St. from its semi-circular course. It corresponded to certain parts of the present Gt. George St. and Princes St. It was a poor st, chiefly occupied by dealers in 2nd-hand goods. In Dekker's Edmonton v. 1, Cuddy says to his dog, "If thou goest to Lond., I'll make thee go about by Tyburn, stealing in by T. L." In B. & F. Wit S. W. iv. 1, the servant says to Credulous, "I'm charged to see you placed in some new lodging about T.-l." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i., Bloodhound says, "Run to Master Earlack's the informer, in T.-l., and ask him what he has done in my business."


Apparently means an inhabitant of Tishbe, an unidentified vill. in the land of Gilead, E. of the Jordan. In Conf. Consc. i. 2, Philologus says, "Elias the T. for fear of Jezabel did fly to Horeb "(see 1 Kings xvii. 1). Milton, P.R. ii. 16, speaks of Elijah as "the great T., who on fiery wheels Rode up to heaven." See also THEBEZ.


A place or tribe mentioned in Gen. x. 3, and Ezekiel xxvii. 14. It is not certainly identified, but was probably in W. Armenia. In Jonson's Alchemist iv. 3, Doll, who is pretending to talk in a fit of inspiration, mentions amidst her farrago of nonsense "the K. of Thogarmah and his habergions brimstony, blue, and fiery.


One of the Virgin Islands in the W. Indies, discovered by Columbus in 1494. It lies 38 m. E. of Porto Rico, and is a possession of Denmark, by whom it was occupied in 1672; previously it had been held by Dutch buccaneers. In Shirley's Brothers ii. 1, Carlos says, "His hips may rise again, were sunk by the Hollander and's fleet from St. Thomas."


A ch. in Lond. In Knightrider St., built in 1371. It was destroyed in the ', Gt. Fire and not rebuilt, the parish being included in that of St. Mary Aldermary. In Middleton's R.G. iii. 1, Moll says to Trapdoor, "Follow me to St. T. A.; I'll put a livery cloak upon your back the first thing I do." The clothiers' shops were in this neighbourhood. In Peele's Jests, we are told: "They parted, she home, George into St. T. A., to a friend of his." There was another St. T. A. on the N. side of St. Thomas St., Southwark. The sculptor of the bust of Shakespeare in the church at Stratford was "Gerard Johnson, a Hollander, in St. T. Apostells."


A watering place for horses at the 2nd milestone out of Lond. on the Old Kent Rd., where it crossed a small stream. The name was given to it because the Pilgrims to the shrine of St. T.;k Becket at Canterbury passed this way. The exact point was the junction of the Old Kent Rd. and Albany Rd. It was the boundary of the borough liberties, and was the place of execution for the county of Surrey, as Tyburn was for Middlesex. Regular executions were discontinued about the middle of the 18th cent, but 2 men were hanged here for a murder in Chester in 1834. Chaucer, in C. T. A. 826, says, "Forth we riden, a litel more than paas, Unto the wateryng of Seint T."

In Peele's Ed. I xii., the Farmer says, "I am his [St. Francis's] receiver and am now going to him; a bids St. T. a w. to breakfast this morning to a calve's head and bacon." The reference is to, the hanging which the Farmer was about to earn by robbing the Friar of St. Francis. In Hester, Anon. Pl., p. 267, Adulation speaks of him "that from stealing goeth to St. T. Watering"; and, later, Handy-dandy says, "They gave you all their pride and flattering, And, after that, St. T. Watering, There to rest a tide." In Fulwell's Like, Dods. iii. 324, Newfangle proposes to Tosspot and Royster the acquisition of a piece of land called "St. T. a W. or else Tyburn Hill." In Hycke, 195, Frewyll says of highwaymen: "At St. T. of Watrynge an they strike a sail, Then must they ride in the haven of hemp without fail." In Jonson's New Inn i. 1, the Host says, "He may perhaps take a degree at Tyburn; come to read a lecture upon Aquinas at St. T. a W., and so go forth a laureat in hemp circle." Aquinas was St. T. Aquinas; and there is a pun on Aquinas, from Latin aqua (water), and Waterings. In Owl's Almanac 55, it is said, "A fair pair of gallows is kept at Tyburn; and the like fair (but not so much resort of chapmen and crackropes) is at St. T. a Watrings." Lyly, in Pappe, p. 73, says of Vetus Comedia: "If it be shewed at Paules it will cost you 4d.; at the Theatre 2d." at Sainct T. a Watrings nothing." The suggestion is that Penry (Martin Marprelate), against whom this pamphlet was written, will be hanged at St. T. a W.; which actually came to pass in 1593. Taylor, Works 1, 77, says, "I have seen many looking through a hempen window at St. T. W."; and in ii. 162, "He at St. T. W. may go swing." In Puritan i. 1, Moll, mocking at her mother's lamentations for her dead husband, says, "A small matter bucks a handkercher–and sometimes the spittle stands too nigh St. T. a Watrings." She means that a widow who weeps extravagantly often comes to be a prostitute, and has to be sent to the Spittle.


A fortress on the S.E. coast of Malta, on the promontory between Marsa Scala and St. Thomas's Bay. In B. & F. Malta ii. 5, Valetta says to Miranda, "St. T. F., a charge of no small value, I give you, too, in present, to keep waking Your noble spirits."


A ch. and hospital in Lond., on the N. side of Cheapside, near the corner of Ironmonger Lane, where now is the Mercers' Hall and Chapel. It was built by Agnes, sister of T. 'd Becket, on the site of the house in which he was born. The name was given to it because Becket's mother, of whom the well-known and pathetic story is told how she followed her lover to Lond, knowing only his name Gilbert, and found him by repeating it, was born at Acon, or Acre; another and less likely account is that it is said that St. T. assisted miraculously in the capture of Acre. On the dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII sold it to the Mercers' Company, who made it into their chapel. In Latimer's Sermon before Edward VI, April 12th, 1547, he tells a story of a lady who said "I am going to St. Tomas of A., to the sermon. I never failed of a good nap there." In Skelton's Colin Clout, the prelates complain, "At St. T. of Ackers They carp us like crackers." The 4th Merry Jest of the Widow Edyth (15.25) tells how she "deceived a Doctor of Divinity at St. T. of A. in Lond. Of 5 nobles he laid out for her." In Deloney's Reading xi., a report is brought to Colebrook "that Lond. was all on a fire, and that it had burned down T. Becket's house in W. Cheape." As the supposed date is in the reign of Henry I, this is a curious anachronism. Milton, in Areopagitica, p. 41 (Hales), refers to it as "our London trading St. T."–from its connection with the Mercers.


An ancient castle in Kent, near the estuary of the Swale, 2 m. E. of Sittingbourne. It is said to have derived its name from the bargain made by Hengist and Horsa with Vortigern, that he would give them as much land on which to build a castle as could be encompassed by a bull's hide. They then, like Dido, cut the hide into strips, or thongs, and so won a spacious site for their fortification. There are, however, 2 or 3 other T., or Tong, Castles about which the same story is told; and the whole legend is probably an adaptation of the Dido story in Vergil, Aen. i. 369. In Middleton's Queenborough iii. 3, Vortigern says, 11 That your building may to all ages carry The stamp and impress of your wit, it shall be called T. C."


An ancient name of the river Achelous, q.v. In T. Heywood's B. Age i. 1, Achelous speaks of "Thous our grand seat."


(Tn. = Thracian). A country N. of ancient Greece, extending from the Propontis and the Aegean to the Danube, and from the Black Sea to the Strymon. It thus corresponds roughly to the modern Bulgaria and Rumelia. The word was sometimes used in a wider sense to include Moesia and Dacia; but it is in the former sense that our dramatists employ it. It was governed by local chiefs, of whom the most powerful were the Kings of the Odrysae in the centre and N. of the country. The Greeks founded several colonies on the coast, notably Byzantium, Selymbria, Abdera, and Amphipolis. Darius of Persia conquered the country about 508 B.C., but after the defeat of Xerxes the Persians were expelled. Philip of Macedon made himself master of T. about 340 B.C., and it remained connected with Macedonia until the fall of the Macedonian kingdom at Pydna in 168 B.C., Henceforward it was governed by the Romans, who for a time allowed certain of the chiefs to assume the title of Kings, much as England has done in India; but in the reign of Vespasian it was formally reduced to a Roman Province. It fell to the Eastern Emperors on the division of the Empire. Finally, in A.D. 1353, it was conquered by the Turkish Sultan Amurath and annexed to his Empire. In Cyrus A. 1, Cyrus boasts, "We have trod down the Thrasian pride," but he was never nearer to T. than Lydia. In Antony iii. 6, 71, "the Tn. k., Adallias "is mentioned as one of Antony's allies. In Chapman's Caesar ii. 4, 126, the K. of T. comes to offer his services to Pompey. In Selimus 2491, Selimus says, "Mars Scatters the troops of warlike Tns. And warms cold Hebrus with hot streams of blood." In Com. Cond. 216, Conditions says, "Clarisia, having an uncle Montanio, k. of T., will no longer here abide." Montanio is an imaginary potentate.

Many of the Greek legends are connected with T. Orpheus, the inventor of the lyre, lived in T. at the time of the Argonautic expedition; according to one form of the story, he was K. of the Odrysae. He went down to Hades, and by his playing "half regained "his lost Eurydice, and he was finally torn to pieces by the Tn. Maenads. In M.N.D. v. 1, 49, one of the shows offered to Theseus was "The riot of the tipsy Bacchanals Tearing the Tn. singer in their rage." In Tit. ii. 4, 51, Marcus says, "He would have dropped his knife, and fell asleep, As Cerberus at the Tn. poet's feet." In Kirke's Champions iv. 1, Leopides says, "There the Tn. sits, Hard by the sullen waters of black Styx, Fing'ring his lute." In Locrine iii. 1, 5, Locrine cries: "O that I had the Tn. Orpheus' harp For to awake out of the infernal shade Those ugly devils of black Erebus." In Tiberius 2405, Sejanus says, "Not Menus with the frantic dames of T. That in their Dionisian sacrifice Mangled the body of poor Pentheus, Raved like Julia." The author confuses Pentheus with Orpheus. In Dist. Emp. i. 1, Charlimayne speaks of "the Tn. Orpheus whose skiff Had power o'er ravenous beasts." In Val. Welsh. i. 4, Caradoc says, "The Tn. Orpheus never entertained More joy in sight of his Eurydice." In Marmion's Leaguer iv. 3, Trimalchio apprehends: "They'll tear us as the Tns. did Orpheus." In Cockayne's Obstinate iv. 1, Phylander says, "The fatal raven's hoarse crying is Tn. music unto your reply." In Nero iii. 2, the Emperor boasts that, if Orpheus heard him play, "he then should see How much the Latin stains the Tn. lyre." In Davenant's Italian v. 3, Altamont exclaims "Hark, how the Roman organ seems to invoke The Tn. lyre." In Lady Mother iv. 2, Marlowe says that revenge is "sweet as the strains falls from the Thrasian lyre."

Tereus, who married first Procne, and then, after concealing her, her sister Philomela, and subsequently killed himself, was a K. of the Tns. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iv. 4, Zabina says, "May this banquet prove as ominous As Progne's to the adulterous Tn. K." Procne made him eat the flesh of his own child. W. Smith, in Chloris (1596) xxxiv. 1, calls Philomela "The bird of T., which doth bewail her rape And murdered Itis, eaten by his sire." Rhesus was a prince of T. who came with horses white as snow to the siege of Troy, where they were stolen by Ulysses and Diomed. In H6 C. iv. 2, 21, Warwick says, "Ulysses and stout Diomed With sleight and manhood stole to Rhesus' tents And brought from thence the Tn. fatal steeds." Polymnestor, K. of the Tn. Chersonese, at the siege of Troy killed Polydorus, the son of Priam, and was, in revenge, blinded in his tent by Hecuba. In Tit. i. 1, 138, Demetrius speaks of "the gods that armed the q. of Troy With opportunity of sharp revenge Upon the Tn. tyrant in his tent." The K. of the Bistones, who lived in S.W. Thrace, used to feed his horses on the flesh of his guests; Heracles killed him and threw his body to the horses. Spenser, F. Q. v. 8, 31, tells of "the Tn. tyrant, who, they say, Unto his horses gave his guests for meat Till he himself was made their greedy prey And torn in pieces by Alcides great."

The Tns. were devoted to the worship of Ares (Mars) and Dionysus (Bacchus), which means that they were great warriors and great drinkers. They had the reputation of being utterly barbarous and cruel, and of giving way to the utmost licence in their Bacchanalian revels. Chaucer, Knight's Tale A. 1970, describes the "grete temple of Mars in Trace." In Massinger's Picture ii. 1, Eubulus says, "Famine, blood, and death, Bellona's pages, [are] Whipt from the quiet continent to T." So in Actor i. 4, Caesar says, "Now the god of war And famine, blood, and death, Bellona's pages, Care] Banished from Rome to T." In Kyd's Cornelia i., the Chorus speaks of "the mtn. tops of warlike T." In Davenant's U. Lovers i. 2, Amaranta has heard "news so sad Would make a fierce young Tn. soldier weep." In Locrine v. 4, 135, Sabren asks: "What Tn. dog, what barbarous Mirmidon, Would not relent at such a ruthful case?" In Jonson's New Inn iv. 3, Lord Latimer asks: "What more than Tn. barbarism was this?" In Marlowe's Jew ii. 3, Ithamore, the barbarous Moor, says ire was born "in T." In Pembroke's Antonie i. 50, Antony defies Caesar to do his worst: "make me My burial take in sides of Tn. wolf." The wolf was sacred to Mars. Milton, P. L. vii. 34, speaks of "the race Of that wild rout that tore the Tn. bard In Rhodope." In Wilson's Inconstant iii. 4, Romilia says, "The waters shall, like so many Bacchanalian nymphs, Dame thee a Thrasian round."

T. was a mountainous country, but was rich in oxen and sheep; and its breed of horses was specially esteemed. In Chapman's Widow's Tears iii. 1, Lysander wagers with Tharsalia "a chariot With 4 brave horses of the Tn. breed." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Puntarvolo is to prove that he has been at Constantinople by his cat's bringing back "the train or tail of a Tn. rat." Pliny mentions a gem that was found in T., apparently a kind of bloodstone, rich made the wearer immune from disaster and grief. In Greene's James IV iv. 5, Anew says, "The fairies gave him the property of the Tn. stone; for who toucheth it is exempted from grief." Lyly, in Euphues Anat. Wit. ii. 90, says, "There is a stone in the flood of Thracia that, whosoever findeth it, is never after grieved." According to the pseudo Plutarch Of Rivers and Mountains, it was called Pausilypus, i.e. Stayer of Grief. Democritus, the laughing philosopher, was born at Abdera, in T., 460 B.C. In Davenant's Platonic iii. 4, Fredolen speaks of "The merry fop of T. that always laughed, Pretending 'twas at vanity." The scene of Thracian is laid in T. In Day's Gulls, Demetrius and Lysander are represented as Tns.


The Lacus Trasimenus, the largest lake in Etruria, lying W. of Perusia, abt. go m. N. of Rome; now called Lago di Perugia. Here Hannibal defeated Flaminius, the Roman consul, in 217 B.C., in what Livy characterizes as one of the most noted routs of the Roman people. In Marlowe's Faustus prol., the Chorus begins, "Not marching now in fields of T., Where Mars did mate the Carthaginians"; where 44 mate "evidently means "matched in fight." The reference is almost certainly to some lost play. In Kyd's Cornelia v., Cornelia speaks of "the proudest Hannibal Who made the fair T. so desert." Kyd apparently did not know that it was a lake. In Nabbes' Hannibal i. 4, the Lady professes, "Had I at Cannae been, or T., I would have kept the side of Hannibal."


Lond. It ran from the Stocks Market, where the Mansion House now stands, to Bishopsgate. The W. end has been absorbed by the approach to the Royal Exchange. The name appears to have been originally Three Needle St., from the arms of the Needlemakers' Company, viz., "Three needles in a fesse argent." On the S. side were the Royal Exchange and the Merchant-Taylors' Hall; on the N. the hospital of St. Anthony, where the Bank of England is now, and St. Bartholomew's Ch. The street was famous for its taverns, which were 20 or more in number, and included the Cock, the Crown, and the King's Arms. Hence the allusion in Jonson's Christmas, where Christmas, introducing the Masquers, says, "This, I tell you, is our jolly Wassel, And for Twelfth Night more meet too. She works by the ell, and her name is Nell, And she dwells in T. St. too." In his Magnetic v. 5, Sir Moth says, "We met at Merchant-tailors-hall at dinner in T.-st."


A tavern sign in Lond. From the quotation it appears that there was a Three Bears in the neighbourhood of St. Katharine's, q.v. In Jonson's Augurs, Notch says, "His project is that we should all come from the three dancing bears in St. Katharine's hard by where the priest fell in, which ale-house is kept by a distressed lady whose name will not be known."


A tavern at Mile-end Green, Lond. There was another on the S. side of Bevis Marks. In Day's B. Beggar iv., Strowd says, "Go thy ways to Mile-end-green to my father's lodgings at the Three Colts."


A famous Lond. tavern, in Upper Thames St., just below the present Southwark Bdge, at the top of T. C. Lane. It was named after the three cranes of timber on the adjacent Vintry Wharf, which may be seen in Vischer's View of London (1616). There was only one crane on the wharf until some time between 1550 and 1560, for Foxe, in Acts and Monuments (155.2) vi. 293, calls the Wharf "the Crane in the Vintry." The 2 others were added soon after 1550. The sign of the tavern was punningly blazoned as 3 birds of the crane species. It seems to have been a resort both of wits and a# thieves. There were several printing establishments in the neighbourhood. An undated black-letter edition of Bevis of Hampton was "imprinted at Lond. in the Vinetre upon the thre Crane Wharfe by William Coplande"; and the 1st edition of Howleglas was "imprinted at Lond. in Tamestrete at the Vintre on the three-Craned Wharfe." The date is soon after 1550. In Yarrington's Two Trag. i. 3, Williams says, "i. will seek some rest at the T. C." Dekker, in Bellman, says, "You shall find whole congregations of thieves at St. Quintens, the T. C. in the Vintry." In Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, Littlewit says, "A pox o' these pretenders to wit, your T. C., Mitre, and Mermaid men!" in his Augurs, Urson, the master of the bears, sings: "Nor the Vintry-C., Nor St. Clement's Danes, Nor the Devil can put us down." There was a constant feud between the dramatists and the promoters of bear-baiting, which interfered with the attendance at the plays. The Vintry C. and the Devil are taverns frequented by the wits, and St. Clement's Danes stands for the lawyers of Clement's Inn, who would be on the side of the playwrights. In his Devil i. 1, Iniquity says to Pug, "From thence [Billingsgate] shoot the bridge, child, to the C. in the Vintry And see there the gimlets, how they make their entry." In Abington iv. 3, Nicholas says, "Patience in adversity brings a man to the T. C. in the Vintry." In Jonson's Epicoene ii. 3, Morose says of his nephew: "It knighthood shall go to the C. or the Bear at the Bridge-foot, and be drunk in fear." Harman, in Caveat 24, speaks of it as a haunt of morts and doxies. See also VINTRY.


A common tavern sign in Lond. There was one in St. Giles's, another in Holborn, where 16 to 21 Featherstone Buildings now stand; others in St. John St., Broad St., and Goswell St. In B. & F. Wit S. W. ii. 4, Witty-pate says, "You know our meeting at the T. C. in St. Giles's." In Merry Jests of the Widow Edyth the 12th Jest shows "how this widow Edyth deceived the good man of the T. C. in Holburne."


An imaginary sign of an apothecary's shop in ancient Rome. In Jonson's Poetaster iii. 1, Crispinus says that his apothecary "dwells at the Three Furies by Janus' Temple." Janus' Temple was in the Forum opposite the Curia.


The sign of a tavern at Stony-Stratford. In Oldcastle v. 3, the Hostler says: 1` Tom is gone from hence; he's at the T. H.-l. at Stony-Stratford." H.-l. were made of beans, and were sold at two a penny.


A famous tavern at Brentford, or Brainford as it used to be called, which was at one time kept by John Lowin, one of the first actors in Shakespeare's plays. It was a favourite resort of Londoners intent on a day's outing in the country. In Jonson's Alchemist v. 2, Subtle says to Doll, "We will turn our course to Brainford westward: we'll tickle it at the P." In Middleton's R.G. iii. 1, Laxton says to Moll, who appears in man's dress, "thou'rt admirably suited for the T. P. at Brainford." In iv. 2, Mrs. Goshawk tells how she has heard that her husband "went in a boat with a tilt over it to the T. P. at Brainford, and his punk with him." In Peele's Jests, "My honest George" is said to be "now merry at the T. P. in Brainford."


A bookseller's sign in Lond. Davenant's Love and Honour was "printed for Hum. Robinson at the Three Pigeons. 1649."


A tavern in Southwark the exact position of which is uncertain. In Glapthorne's Hollander i. 1, Urinal says of the brothel: "The T. S. in the town I warrant a very sanctuary to it." In iii. 1, Sconce calls the same tavern "the Three skipping Conies in the town." In both cases the town means Southwark, as distinguished from the city of Lond. In Brome's Moor iv. 2, Quicksands says he knows his wife's haunts "at Bridgfoot Bear, the Tunnes, the Cats, the Squirels."


The arms of the Vintners' Company, and therefore a favourite Tavern sign in Lond. The most famous T. T. was in Guildhall Yard, but there were many others, including one in Southwark. In . Cuckold iv. 1, Compass says, "T. T. do you call this tavern? It has a good neighbour of Guildhall." This is the tavern celebrated in Herrick's lines "Ah Ben! Say how or when Shall we thy guests Meet at those lyric feasts Made at the Sun, the Dog, the triple Tunne?" In Deloney's Craft ii. 3, Margaret "got Robin to go before to the t.-Tunnes." In the list of Taverns in News Barthol. Fair, we have "T. T., Newgate Market." In Brome's Moor iv. 2, Quicksands says that he knows his wife's haunts "at Bridgfoot Bear, the Tunnes, the Cats, the Squirels." This refers to the T. T. in the Borough High St., Southwark, near St. George's Ch.


A vill. in Norfolk, near Norwich. In Brome's Moor iii. 1, Phillis was born at T.


Possibly Thurton or Thurlton is intended. A vill. in Norfolk, 11 miles S.E. of Norwich. In Thersites 220, Mater mentions, amongst other witches, "Maud of Thrutton."


An island in the farthest North, discovered by Pytheas, 6 days N. of the Orcades. Most geographers think that Iceland is meant. At all events it stood to the ancients for the N. limit of the world. Chaucer, in Boece B. M. 5, 5, speaks of "the last ile in the see, that highte Tyle." In Wilson's Pedler 1179, the Pedler asks: "Did you never hear of an island called Thewle. near to the Orcades?" In Fisher's Fuimus i. 3, Rollano prays: "Some god transport me Beyond cold T." In Tiberius 2837, Agrippina says, "Sail unto T. or the frozen main." Milton, in Reform in England (1641), p. 21, recalls how "the northern ocean, even to the frozen T., was scattered with the proud shipwrecks of the Spanish Armada."




A river of central Italy, rising in the Apennines near Tifernum, and flowing S. along the boundary of Etruria until its junction with the Anio, when it turns S.W. and reaches the sea 27 m. after passing Rome. Its total length is abt. 200 m. At Rome it is 300 ft. wide, and from 12 to f8 ft. deep. It is a turbid stream, and deserves the epithet flavus (yellow) which the Roman poets give it. Its one glory is that it is the river of Rome. The old city lay entirely on its left bank, but the modem Rome has extended across it, especially on the N.W. It was crossed by 8 or 9 bridges, the oldest being the Pons Sublicius outside the Porta Trigemina.

In the list of rivers in Spenser, F. Q. iv. i 1, 21, it appears as "Tybris, renouned for the Romans' fame." In Cor. iii. 1, 262, Menenius says of the plebeians: "I would they were in T." In J.C. i. 1, 50, Marullus speaks of the shouts which greeted Pompey so loudly "That T. trembled underneath her banks." In line 62, Flavius exhorts the people to assemble their friends "to T. banks and weep your tears Into his channel." In i. 2, 1101, Cassius tells how Caesar challenged him to swim across the river "upon a raw and gusty day, The troubled T. chafing with her shores"; and how he had to bear the tired Caesar "from the waves of T." In iii. 2, 254, Antony announces that Caesar has left to the people "His private arbours and new-planted orchards On this side T." They were really on the other side of the T. from the Form; but Shakespeare was misled by North's Plutarch, where the same mistake is made. In Antony i. 1, 33, Antony cries: "Let Rome in T. melt And the wide arch of the ranged empire fall!" In Kyd's Cornelia iv., Caesar addresses the river: "O beauteous T., with thine easy streams That glide as smoothly as a Parthian shaft." In Ev. Wom. I. ii. 3, Graccus says, "As I cross T., my waterman shall attach it [his story]; he'll send it away with the tide; then let it come to an oyster-wenche's ear, and she'll cry it up and down the streets." The writer is obviously thinking of Lond. and the Thames; there were no watermen or oyster-wenches in Rome. In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, Caesar boasts: "Proud T. and Lygurian Poe Bear my name's glory to the Ocean main." In Barnes' Charter iii. 1, Philippo says, "I'd rather choose within the river T. To drown myself.". In Brandon's Octavia 656, Octavia says that Antony has sworn that "T. should his flowing streams recall "before he would prove faithless. In Jonson's Poetaster v. 1, Caesar predicts that into the stream of Roman poetry "Shall T. and our famous rivers fall With such attraction that the ambitious line Of the round world shall to her centre shrink To hear such music." In Killigrew's Parson i. 3, Constant, chaffing the Capt. about his alleged travels, says, "Yes, yes, and have seen And drank, perhaps, of T.'s famous stream." In Nero i. 4, Lucan prophesies, "my verse shall live When Nero's body shall be thrown in T." In Webster's White Devil ii. 1, Francisco says, "We fear, When T. to each prowling passenger Discovers flocks of wild ducks." In Marlowe's Faustus vii., Mephistophelis says of Rome: "Just through the midst runs flowing T.'s stream With winding banks that cut it in 2 parts." In his Ed. II i. 3, Edward prays: "Proud Rome! With slaughtered priests may T.'s channel swell!" In Tiberius 2664, Tiberius commands: "Hie to the altars, the Aegerian wood, The bdge. of T. and Prometheus lake."

T. is used by metonymy for Rome herself. In Fisher's Fuimus iii. 5, Nennius prays: "Grant Thames and T. never join their channels I "Daniel, in Cleopatra Prol. 66, exclaims: "How far Thames doth outgo declined Tybur!" sc. in poetry. In Kyd's Cornelia iv., Caesar says, "Henceforth T. shall salute the seas, More famed than Tiger or swift Euphrates." Jonson, in Poetaster iii. 1, uses T. for Thames: when Histrio says that the play-houses of Rome "are on the other side of T." he is thinking of the Lond. theatres, which were almost all on the Bankside in Southwark across the Thames. T. is used in the sense of water. In Cor. ii. 1, 53, Menenius says he is one "that loves a cup of hot wine with not a drop of allaying T. in't."


Now TABARIEH. The chief town of Galilee, on the W. cast of the Sea of Galilee; it was built by Herod Antipas in honour of the Emperor Tiberius, after whom it was named. It was famous for its beauty and fruitfulness. In Greene's Orlando i. 1, 54, Mandrecarde says, "I . . . am Mandrecarde of Mexico, Whose climate fairer than Tyberius." In his Friar ix. 272, Bacon promises for Frederick's banquet "Conserves and suckets from Tiberias."




The modem Tivoli, an ancient city of central Italy on the Anio, 20 m. E. of Rome. It was famous for its cascades and its fine natural scenery, and many of the Romans of the early empire had villas there. Its appleorchards were celebrated, and the epithet pomosus (rich in apples) was more than once applied to it. It gave its name to Tiburtine, or Travertine, a kind of limestone that was quarried there. In Ford's Sun iv. 1, Autumn says, "Tibur shall pay thee apples and Sicyon olives."


A town in Hants. on the Aire, 8 m. S.E. of Southampton. The mansion house was built of the materials of an ancient abbey there. Shakespeare dedicates his Venus and Adonis to "The right Honourable Henry Wriothesly Earl of Southampton and Baron of Tichfield." It now gives its name to a Marquessate which forms one of the titles of the D. of Portland.


A river rising in S. Switzerland and flowing through Lake Maggiore to the Po, which it joins just below Pavia. It is abt. 120 m. long. In Chapman's Consp. Byron i. 1, Picote tells a story of the meeting of the Spanish Legate and the D. of Savoy "Where the flood Ticin enters into Po."


A town in W. Riding Yorks., on the borders of Notts., 37 m. S. of York, near the Tom. On the S.E. of the town are the ruins of a castle in which John of Gaunt at one time resided. In Downfall Huntington iii. 2, Robin Hood says, "At Blithe and Tickhill were we welcome guests."


An island in the Ternate group in the Moluccas, lying off the W. coast of Gillolo, S. of Ternate. Its sultan was once a powerful ruler and controlled the whole group and a part of the adjacent island of Celebes. T. is the scene of the greater part of B. & F. Princess, and the heroine is the sister of the K. of T. Burton, A. M. iii. 2, 2, 3, says, "If he be rich, he is the man; she will go to Jacaktres or T. with him," i.e. to any place, however remote. Milton, P. L. ii. 639, speaks of "a fleet . . . Close sailing from Bengala, or the isles Of Ternate and T., whence merchants bring Their spicy drugs."


A city in Armenia on the Nicephorus, built by Tigranes as his capital. It lay abt. 250 m. due S. of the extreme E. end of the Black Sea. It was taken by Lucullus 72 B.C., and later by Germanicus in his Armenian expedition A.D. 18. In Tiberius 1822, Germanicus says, "Tigramenta, were it proud Babylon . . . Germanicus would never leave assault." In line 1857, Vonones says, "Tigranocerta by the die of war Should never make my realm unfortunate."


A famous river in Asia, rising in the mtns. of Armenia, and flowing in a S.E. direction past the site of Nineveh and Bagdad to join the Euphrates abt. 70 m. above their common mouth at the head of the Persian Gulf. Its current is very rapid, especially in the lower part of its course; whence its name, which is derived from the Zend tighri, an arrow. It is the biblical Hiddekel. Its total length is abt. 1150 m. Spenser, in the river-list in F. Q. iv. 11, 20, calls it "T. fierce whose streams of none may be withstood." In Greene's Orlando iv. 2, 1143, Orlando says, "Else would I set my mouth to Tygres streams And drink up overflowing Euphrates." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. v. 2, Callapine says, "Now our mighty host Marcheth in Asia Major, where the streams Of Euphrates and T. swiftly run." In Kyd's Cornelia iv., Caesar says, "Henceforth Tiber shall salute the seas More famed than Tiger or swift Euphrates." The name has nothing to do with "Tiger, "except that perhaps the word "tiger "may also be connected with the Zend tighri. In Fisher's Fuimus iv. 4, Caesar describes "nimble T., running for wager with the wind that skims his top." In Marston's Insatiate v. 1, Isabella says that "Tioris swift" could not wash the blood from her hands; where Tioris is a manifest misprint for T. In B. & F. Lover's Prog. iv. 4, Lisander asks: "Can all the winds of mischief from all quarters, Euphrates, Ganges, T., Volga, Po, Make it swell higher?" In Tiberius 2162, Maximus, describing the victory of Germanicus over Vonones near Tigranocerta, says, "Between our armies T. swiftly ran." Milton, P. L. ix. 71, says, "There was a place . . . Where T., at the foot of Paradise, Into a gulf shot underground." The Hiddekel, or T., was one of the rivers of Paradise (see Gen. ii. 14).


A town on the N. bank of the estuary of the Thames, just opposite to Gravesend. It was here that in 1588 Elizabeth reviewed the troops assembled to repel the attack of the Spanish Armada. It was subsequently strongly fortified by Charles II. In Cuckqueans ii. 7, Rafe, talking of the coming of the Spaniards, says, "Her Majesty herself is in person at T., gathering there together the horns of her power to suppress them." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 337, Q. Elizabeth says, "Be this then styled our camp at Tilbery." In Dekker's Babylon 268, Titania (Elizabeth) says, "Over that camp at Beria we create you, Florimell, lieutenant-general." A note explains that Beria means T. In Killigrew's Parson ii. 7, Jolly says, "Q. Bess, of famous memory, in '88 rode to T. on that bonny beast, the mayor."


(TIRLEMONT is intended). An ancient city in Belgium, 27 m. E. of Brussels. It is a walled town, and suffered many assaults and sieges in the Thirty Years War. There are several monasteries and nunneries there. In Glapthorne's Hollander iv. 1, Sconce says, "If there had been any mercy in a Dutchman, the nuns at Tilmont had not been used so horribly last summer."


A piece of ground close to Whitehall Palace, used for tournaments in the first instance, but also employed in the reigns of Elizabeth and James for Masques; and even for bull- and bear-baitings. It occupied the part of the parade in St. James's Park just S. of the Horse-guards, over against the Banqueting House. It was the scene of a great Tournament held by Henry VIII in 1540; and during Elizabeth's reign an annual festival was held there on her birthday. In H4 B. iii. 2, 347, Falstaff says of Shallow: "He talks as familiarly of John a Gaunt as if he had been sworn brother to him; and I'll be sworn 'a ne'er saw him but once in the T.-y.; and then he burst his head for crowding among the Marshall's men." In H6 B. i. 3, 62, the Q. says sarcastically of Henry VI: "His study is his t.-y." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 1, Shift promises his pupil in the art of drinking tobacco: "I will undertake in one fortnight to bring you that you shall take it plausibly in any Ordinary, Theatre, or the T.-y." In B. & F. Scornful i. 1, Loveless says of Abigail: "She heard a tale how Cupid struck her in love with a great lord in the t.-y., but he never saw her." In Marston's Malcontent Ind, Sinklow explains the pride he has in the feather he is wearing, "because I got it in the t.y., there was a herald broke my pate for taking it up." In the Triumph of Charles (1641), mention is made of" the T.-y. over against His Majesty's palace of Whitehall." In Shirley's Servant ii. 1, Lodovick asks: "When shall we dance and triumph in the T.-y. In honour of the nuptials?" In Dekker's Satiro 1, 2, 479, Asinius says of Horace (Jonson): "He was dashed once worse, going in a rainy day with a speech to the T.-y." In Middleton's Five Gallants ii. 1, Pursnet says that Fitzgrave is at "some pageant-plot or some device for the T.-y." In Partiall 1, 5, a woman asks: "Which is the way to the T.-y.?" The scene is in Corsica.


The second of the 6 gates of Troy. Shakespeare took his list from Caxton's Recuyel of the Historyes of Troy. In Troil. Prol. 16, the list runs. "Dardan and Timbria, Helias, Chetas, Troien, and Antenorides."


A bookseller's sign in Lond. The figure no doubt was the familiar one of an old man with a scythe and hour-glass. Lyly's Love's Meta. was "Printed by William Wood dwelling at the W. end of Paules, at the sign of Time. 1601."


Now TIBNEH. A town in the Philistine dist. on the border of the tribe of Judah, abt. 18 m. W. of Jerusalem. It was here, according to judges xiv. 1, that Samson found his first wife. In Milton's S. A. 219, Samson, speaking of his wives, says, "The first I saw at Timna, and she pleased Me, not my parents." Later, in to18, the Chorus calls her "the Timnian bride."




A province on the N. coast of Africa, of which the capital was Tingis, now Tangiers. It corresponds roughly to Morocco. In the old Timon iii. 3, Pseudocheus promises "If anything can help thee that doth grow Upon the mtns. of Armenia, In Dacia, or Tingintania, It shall be had forthwith." In iii. 1, he says, "So speak the Tingitans that inhabits The mtns. of Squilmagia"; this last being an altogether imaginary place.




A misprint for TIGRIS, q.v.


A farm in Essex in the parish of Tollesbury, N. of the estuary of the Blackwater. In J. Heywood's Weather, p. 100, Merry Report says he has been "at Tiptree."


A town in Devonsh. at the confluence of the Exe and the Lowman, 14 m. N. of Exeter. Part of the ancient castle built in i i o6 still remains, and the ch. of St. Peter has a fine Norman doorway. It was formerly a great centre of the woollen trade. It was partially burnt down in 1598. Nash, Lenten (Preface), speaks of a pamphlet entitled The Lamentable Burning of Tiverton.


An independent State, enclosed in the Aztec Empire (Mexico), on the Papagallo, 70 m. E. of Mexico. After some hesitation, the Tlaxcalans joined Cortez against Mexico. In Cockayne's Obstinate ii. 1, Lorece, in his absurd account of his imaginary travels, says, "I was in Asia, at Tlaxcallan; there we took ship and in a pair of oars sailed to Madrid." This is, of course, intentional nonsense.


A mtn. range in W. Asia Minor, S. of Sardis. It was famous for its vines; and was the source of the Pactolus. It was the scene of the contest between Apollo and Pan, where Midas, having decided in favour of Pan, was endowed by Apollo with a pair of asses' ears. Plutarch, De Fluviis vii., says that a stone was found there which secured the chastity of its possessor. In Ford's Sun iv. 1, Autumn says, "Thou shalt command The Lydian T. and Campanian mts. To nod their grape-crowned heads into thy bowls." In Greene's Alphonsus v. 1, 1618, Alphonsus says, "Rich Pactolus, that river of account, Which doth descend from top of T. mt., Shall be thy own." In Lyly's Midas v. 3, Midas relates: "Coming at last to the hill T., I perceived Apollo and Pan contending for excellence in music among nymphs." In his Euphues Anat. Wit 63, Lucilla boasts: "Yet have I the stone that groweth in the mt. T., the upholder of chastity."


A town in Spain, 60 m. S.E. of Toledo. It has been immortalized by Cervantes, who calls the mistress of Don Quixote, Dulcinea del T. In Shirley's Honoria (a.k.a. Honor and Riches) v. 1, the Serjeant speaks of "a pipe shining more than the forehead of Dulcinea del T." In Glapthorne's Wit i. 1, Thorowgood asks: "Who's that? Some fair Dulcinea de T.?"


A city in Spain, the chief town of the province of the same name, and at one time the capital of an Spain. It stands on the Tagus, 37 m. S.W. of Madrid. The river surrounds it on 3 sides, and on the 4th, to the N., it is defended by 2 ancient walls. It is the see of the Primate of Spain, and its cathedral, commenced in 1227 and completed in 1492, stands second to that of Seville only. The Alcazar, or royal palace, is a prominent feature of the city It was the seat of a University. It was specially famous for the manufacture of the finest swords, known as Ts., and the industry is still carried on in the Fabrica de Armas, a mile or so N.W. of the Cambron gate. In H8 ii. 1, 164, a gentleman states that Wolsey is proposing the divorce of Catharine of Aragon in order to revenge himself on the K. of Spain "For not bestowing on him . . . The Archbishopric of T." In Ford's Sacrifice i. 2, D'Avolos reports that Roseilli has gone "to visit his cousin, Don Pedro de T., in the Spanish court." In Middleton's Gipsy ii. 1, Alvarez says, "Is Seville close-fisted? Valladoly is open; so Cordova, so T." In B. & F. Cure ii. 1, Pachieco asks Alguazier: "Are you not he that was whipt out of T. for perjury?" In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus, the Emperor's secretary is called Lorenzo de T.; there was no such person, but it is true that Alphonsus frequently resided at T.

In B. & F. Cure iii. 5, Bobadilla says, "Send him to T., there to study, For he will never fadge with these Ts.," i.e. swords. In Span. Trag. v. 1, Hieronimo says, "When in T. there I studied, It was, my chance to write a tragedy." In Ford's Sun ii. 1, Folly says that the Spaniard is "a confitmaker of T., and sells berengenas T."; i.e. the fruit of the egg-plant. Greene, in Quip, p. 239, suggests to the cutler to "sell a sword or rapier new overglassed, and swear the blade came either from Turkie or T." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. ii. 2, Brainworm offers Stephen a sword to buy, which he vows "is a most pure T.," though it is really a Fleming only worth a guilder. In Stucley 574, Sharp declares "William Sharp for bilboes, foxes, and T. blades." In Dekker's Fortunatus iii. 1, Agrypine says, "The Spanish prisoner hath sworn to me by the cross of his pure T. to be my servant." In Webster's White Devil v. 6, Flamineo asks: "0, what blade is't? a t. or an English fox?" In Massinger's Maid Hon. ii. 2, Sylli says, "I'll give him 3 years and a day to match my T., and then we'll fight like dragons." In Devonshire iii. 1, we are told of the buying of "a hundred of the best Ts." In Middleton's Blurt iii. 3, Lazarillo boasts–"If any spirits rise, I will conjure them in their own circles with T." In B. & F. Cure i. 2, Bobadilla says, "He shall to the wars, and, when he is provoked, draw his T. desperately." In Davenant's Siege ii. 1, Mervole says, "When I have fleshed thee with this metal of T., thou may'st justle the General." In his Italian iv. 1, Stoccata says, "Steel of T. is all we manage." In Webster's Law Case v. 4, Romelio asks: "Can you tell me whether your T. or your Milan blade be best tempered?" In B. & F. Elder B. v. 1, Cowsy says, "I have . . . paid for several weapons, Turkish and T., 2000 crowns." Milton, in Colast, says, "What do these keen doctors here but cut him over the sinews with their Ts. The scene of B. & F. Maid in Mill is laid at T.


A vill. in Essex, just N. of the estuary of the Blackwater, near the coast. Robert Greene, the dramatist, is said to have been the vicar of Tollesbury for a year.


A place in the valley of Hinnom, probably at the point S.E. of Jerusalem where the Tyropoeon Valley debouches into ft. It seems to mean "the place of burning," and wag very likely the spot where Moloch was worshipped; though both the exact site and the derivation of the word are uncertain. See 11 Kings xxiii. 10. Milton, P. L. 1, 404, says that Moloch "made his grove The pleasant valley of Hinnom, Tophet thence And black Gehenna called, the type of Hell."


i.e. Torjok. A town in the province o€ Tver in Russia, 250 m. S.E. of Petrograd. In Suckling's Brennoralt iii., we are told that "the Palatines of Tork and Mensek are in rebellion against the K. o€ Poland, Sigismund."




One of the many variations on the name of Turnbull or Turnmill St., q.v. In Dekker's News from Hell, his Ghost speaks of "a pot of that liquor that I was wont to drink with my hostess at the Red Lattise in Tormoyle St."


A city in Spain on the left bank of the Ebro, 25 m. from its mouth. It was strongly fortified. From the 10th cent. onward it was held by the Moors and was a rendezvous for privateers and a peril to Italian commerce. Pope Eugenius III proclaimed a Crusade against it, and it was taken in 1148 after a famous siege, in which the Genoese took a decisive part. In the 1st (quarto) edition of Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 1, Bobadil says that the siege of Ghibelletto "was the best leaguer that ever I beheld, except the taking of T. last year by the Genoways." ways." In the edition of 16 16, Bobadil forgets its name and says "the taking of–what do you call it–last year." The quarto was published in 1598, but I can find no siege of T. in 1597, and suspect that Bobadil was simply playing on the ignorance of his hearers by referring to the famous siege Of 1148 as if it had just happened. Mr. Percy Simpson thinks that T. means Orthosia, a tn. in Syria 12 m. N. of Tripoli, now Ortosa, which was taken by Saladin in 1188.


A town on the coast of Epeirus, opposite to Corcyra; it was abt. 50 m. N.W. of Actium, and Octavian gathered his fleet there before the battle of Actium. In Antony iii. 7, 24, Antony expresses his surprise that Octavian "could so quickly cut the Ionian Sea And take in T." In line 56 a Messenger announces "Caesar has taken T."






An ancient town in Devonsh., on the Dart, 23 m. S. of Exeter. It was a very loyal place; hence the proverb "T. is turned French "for something quite unexpected and unlikely. Puttenham, Art of Poesie 111. 18, instances as a proverbial speech "Totnesse is turned French "for an unexpected change. But J. Heywood, in Prov. 14, quotes it as "Totnam was turned French"; and it is found in this form in A. Hall's Iliad (1581) iv. 60, and in Fuller's Worthies, Middlesex ii. 178.


(Tm. = Totnam). A village abt. 5 m. N. of Lond. on the North Road, between Stamford Hill and Edmonton. The full name of the place is T. High Cross, from the ancient Cross at the N.E. end of the Green. This Cross is mentioned as early as 1456; it was first made of wood, but early in the 16th cent. was rebuilt in brick, which in 1809 was covered with stucco. The river Lea flows past T. and used to be a favourite resort of the followers of Isaac Walton, who himself describes its beauties with enthusiasm. Bruce Castle, now a school, is on the site of an ancient castle once iii the possession of Robert Bruce. The Ch. of All Hallows dates from the 14th cent.

In Merry Devil i., Fabel says, "I'll make my spirits dance such nightly jigs Along the way 'twixt this [Edmonton] and Tm. Cross, The carriers' jades shall cast their heavy packs." In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Satan taunts Pug for priding himself on such paltry feats as "crossing of a market-woman's mare 'Twixt this and T." In Tomkis' Albumazar, Trincalo has a farm at Tm., for which he pays a rent of £10; and the Epilogue invites the audience "to come to Tm. and ask for Trincalo at the sign of the Hogshead." In J. Heywood's Weather, p. 100, Merry Report claims to have been "at T." In Oldcastle iii. 2, Acton reports that the rebels are quartered "some with us in Hygate, some at Finchley, Tm.," etc. In Marston's Mountebanks, the Mountebank says, "I could encounter thee with Tottnam Hie Cross or Cheape Cross." J. Heywood, in Proverbs 14, says, "Their faces told toys that Tm. was turned French." A. Hall, in Iliad iv. 60 (1581), says, "Do what thou canst, the time will come that Tm. French shall turn," i.e. the unexpected will happen. See, however, under TOTNESS. The burlesque Turnament of Totenham is the subject of a 15th cent. ballad preserved in the Percy Reliques ii. i. In Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, Quarlous says, "She may ask your blessing hereafter, when she courts it to Totenham to eat cream." In Brome's New Academy ii. 1, Valentine says to Hannah, "When shall we walk to Tm., or cross o'er the water, or take a coach to Kensington or Paddington or to some one or other o' th' city outleaps for an afternoon?" In both these passages it is possible that T. Court is meant; but I think it more likely that the reference is to T. See under TOTTENHAM COURT.


An ancient manor-house which stood at the junction of T. C. Rd. and Hampstead Rd., on the site now occupied by the Adam and Eve Tavern. It is mentioned in Domesday Book as the property of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's; and is called, up to the time of Elizabeth, Totten, Totnam, or Totting Hall, but never T. It was leased to Elizabeth, and was thereafter called Totten Court; and ultimately, through confusion with T., T. Court. During the 17th cent. it became a favourite resort of Londoners who went out along the country lane, now T. C. Rd., to eat cakes and cream. George Wither, in Britain's Remembrancer (1628), speaks of the cakes and cream at "Totnam C." In the books of St. Giles's Parish (1645), Mrs. Stacey's maid is fined a shilling "for drinking at Tottenhall C. on the Sabbath day." In Nabbes' Bride ii. 4, Squirrel says, "This is some hide-bound student that wencheth at T. C. for stewed prunes and cheese cakes." The passages quoted above under T. from Jonson and Brome probably refer to T. In Jonson's Tub, Squire Tub, of Totten-court, is one of the leading characters; the scenes of i. 1 and v. 3 are laid before his house at Totten-court. Nabbes wrote a play entitled Totenham C., the scene of which is for the most part laid there.


A province of France on the middle course of the Loire, round the city of Tours, between Maine, Anjou, Aquitaine, and Blois. It came to Henry II of England through his father, Geoffrey of Anjou, and remained a possession of the English Crown until 1204, when it was taken from John by Philip of France. It was recaptured by Henry V, but lost again in the reign of his successor. In K.J. i. 1, 11, the French ambassador claims for Arthur "Poictiers, Anjou, T.," and the claim is repeated by Lewis in ii. 1, 152. In ii. 1, 487, John offers "Anjou and fair T., Maine, Poictiers "as the dowry of the Lady Blanche, if Lewis and she are married. In Davenport's Matilda i. 2, Fitzwater taunts John with the loss of "Anjou, Brittain, Main, Poictou, and Turwin." In H6 A. i. 2, 100, La Pucelle says, "Here is my keen-edged sword The which at T., in St. Katharine's churchyard, Out of a great deal of old iron I chose forth." According to Holinshed, she got this sword "from St. Katharine ch. of Fierbois in Tourain." Rabelais, in Pantagruel ii. 9, calls T. "the garden of France."


A city in Belgium on the Scheidt, 55 m. S.W. of Brussels. The Flemish name is Doornik, from which is derived Dornick, meaning a kind of tapestry manufactured there. It was the birthplace of Perkin Warbeck. It has a fine cathedral dating from the 12th cent. It was besieged and taken by Henry VIII in 1513, and became one of Wolsey's many Bishoprics. In True Trag., in a prophetic epilogue, a messenger says of Henry VIII (Haz., p. 127): "He entered France, and to the Frenchman's costs He won Turwin and Turney." Hall, in Sat. iv. 3, 17, says, "Cite old Ocland's verse, how they did wield The wars in Turwin, or in Turney field." Ocland published a Latin poem, Anglorum Praelia, in 1582, in which Henry's victories in 1513 were celebrated. In Ford's Warbeck i. 3, Henry describes Warbeck as "This airy apparition first discradled From T. into Portugal."


The ancient Caesarodunum; a town of France on the S. bank of the Loire, 120 m. S.W. of Paris. It was the capital of the province of Touraine. It was the seat of an Archbp., and was frequently visited by the Kings of France during the 15th cent. Its cathedral is one of the finest in France and the 2 towers of St. Martin and of Charlemagne are part of the ancient basilica of St. Martin of T., erected in the 5th cent. It was at T. that Margaret of Anjou was married by proxy to Henry VI. T. was the seat of the manufacture of a kind of taffeta, which was highly esteemed. It was also authorized to mint money, which was one-fifth less in value than that coined at Paris. In H6 A. iv. 3, 45, York blames the delay of Somerset for the loss of T. In H6 B. i. 115, Suffolk reports: "As I had in charge To marry Princess Margaret for your Grace, So, in the famous ancient city T., I have performed my task." In i. 3, 53, Margaret says to Suffolk, "When in the city T. Thou ran'st a tilt in honour of my love, I thought K. Henry had resembled thee." One thinks of Guinevere and Lancelot. In S. Rowley's When You D. 2, Brandon reports that the K.'s sister Mary has landed in France and been" bravely brought to the K. at Towers." In Chapman's Trag. Byron i. 1, Henri says, "He was received High Admiral of France In that our parliament we held at T." Spenser, F. Q. iii. 1, 34, describes the walls of Castle Joyeous as "round about apparelled With costly cloths of Arras and of Toure." Blount, Glossgr. (1656), s.v., defines Tournois as "a French penny, the tenth part of a penny sterling. In France they say so much money Tournois, as we say sterling."


The ancient fortress in Lond., on the N. bank of the Thames, at the S.E. corner of the old city walls, something less than 1/2 mile below Lond. Bdge. A common legend attributed its foundation to Julius Caesar; this is impossible, but it is likely that there was a fortress here in the Roman times. The present building, however, dates from William the Conqueror, who erected the central keep, called the White T., and some part at least of the inner wall, or Ballium. His architect was Gundulf, Bp. of Rochester. Henry III made considerable additions to it, including the embankment and the wharf. Edward I rebuilt the ch. of St. Peter; and by the time of Elizabeth the T. presented much the same appearance as at present, except that the Royal Palace, then lying S. of the White T., was pulled down by Oliver Cromwell. The whole fortress was surrounded by a moat, which was filled from the river. The entrance was at the S.W. corner through the Middle and Byward Ts. The Ts. in the Inner Wall, starting from the Byward T., were, on the W. side, the Bell, Beauchamp or Cobham, and Devereux or Devilin Ts.; on the N., the Flint, Bowyer's, Brick, and Martin or Jewel Ts.; on the E., the Constable, Broad Arrow, and Salt Ts. and on the S., the Lanthorn, Record or Hall, and Bloody T. In the outer wall along the river front were, from E. to W, St. Thomas's T., under which was the Traitors Gate, which gave admission to boats from the river; the Cradle T., the Well T., and two Ts. Protecting the at the S.W. corner. At the S.W. corner of the White Tower was the building called Coldharbour; on the E., the Wardrobe T. S. of the White T. were the buildings of the Royal Palace, of which only the Hall T. is left. Between the outer gate and the Middle T. on the S.W., was the famous menagerie, started by Henry III with 3 leopards, to which lions and other animals were added from time to time; in 1834 they were transferred to Regent's Park, and the refreshment room and ticket office now occupy the site. In the White T., on the 1st and 2nd floors, Ls the chapel of St. John, one of the finest examples extant of Norman architecture. Above it was the Council Chamber. Near the N.W. corner of the White T. is the Chapel of St. Peter ad Vincula, opposite the door of which is the spot on T. Green where the block used to be placed for the execution of prisoners; amongst those who suffered there were Lady Jane Grey, Anne Boleyn, and the Earl of Essex. The T. was without and independent of the jurisdiction of the city. It was at once a fortress; a royal palace; a State prison; a mint; an armoury; the treasury of the Crown jewels, which were at this time kept in a small building S. of the White T., but were removed by Charles I to the Martin T.; and the storehouse for the records of the Courts.

The Origin of the Tower.–In R2 v. 1, 2, the Q. says, "This is the way To Julius Caesar's ill-erected T. To whose flint bosom my condemned lord Is doomed a prisoner"; though, as we learn from line 52, Richard was sent "to Pomfret, not unto the T." In R3 iii. 1, 69, Prince Edward says, "I do not like the T. of any place. Did Julius Caesar build that place, my lord?" to which Buckingham replies: "He did, my gracious lord, begin that place, Which, since, succeeding ages have reedified." In Peele's Ed. I v., Lluellen says, "Lluellen May chance to shew thee such a tumbling cast As erst our father, when he sought to scape, And broke his neck from Julius Caesar's T." Griffin, Prince of Wales, tried to escape from the White T., but fell and was killed. In More iv. 5, More says, "I will subscribe to go unto the T. . . . and thereto add My bones to strengthen the foundation Of Julius Caesar's palace." In Deloney's Reading vi., the clothiers' wives "went to the T. of Lond., which was builded by Julius Caesar, who was Emperor of Rome."

The Tower as a Royal Palace.H6 C. iv. 4 should be laid in the T., which was a favourite residence of Edward IV; and Stowe says that in 1470 the Q. "stole secretly out of the Towre by water to Westminster"; iv. 6 is also in the T. In R3 iii. 1, 65, Gloucester counsels the young K., Edward V, to repose himself "at the T.," and sends word to the Q.-mother to come to him there. In line 172, Gloucester sends a summons to Lord Hastings "tomorrow to the T," and in the next scene Hastings and Stanley go thither together. In iii. 4, the Council is held in the chamber in the White T., at which Hastings is condemned to death and led away to the block on T. Green. In iii. 5, Gloucester and Buckingham appear on the T. walls to meet the Mayor and Catesby. Act iv. sc. 1 is laid before the T. In iv. 2, 75, Richard commissions Tyrrel to kill "those bastards in the T.," and in the next scene their death is described and Tyrrel reports: "The Chaplain of the T. hath buried them." The traditional place of their death is a room in the Bloody T.; they were first buried near the gateway wall, then re-interred by Richd. under a staircase in the White T.; there Charles II found their bones and had them removed to Henry VII's chapel at Westminster. In v. 5, 151, their Ghosts appear to Richd. and bid him "Dream on thy cousins smothered in the T." The scene of Ford's Warbeck ii. 2 is the Council Chamber in the T.

The Tower as a State Prison.–In Nobody 1431, Vigenius anachronistically condemns Elidure to live "within the T." In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 1, Edward says of the Bp. of Coventry: "He shall to the T., the Fleet, or where thou wilt." In Oldcastle iv. 3, the Bp. orders: "To the T. with him," i.e. Oldcastle. H6 A. ii. 5 is laid in the T. where Mortimer is confined. But Edmund Mortimer was not a prisoner in the T. at any time, nor did he die there. He was made LordLieutenant of Ireland in 1422, and died in 1424 at Trim Castle. In H6 B. iv. 9, 38, the K. promises York that he will send "D. Edmund to the T," i.e. the D. of Somerset; and he was so sent in 1453. In H6 C. iii. 2, 120, Edward commands that Henry should be "conveyed unto the T." Henry was released by Warwick in 1471; but in iv. 8, 57, Edward once more says of Henry: "Hence with him to the T.; let him not speak." In v. 5, 50, Gloucester leaves the field of Tewkesbury exclaiming, "The T.! the T.!" and in line 85 Clarence says he has gone to Lond. "To make a bloody supper in the T." In v. 6, the scene is in the T.; and Gloucester murders Henry there. This was on May 21st, 1471; though it is doubtful whether the K. was murdered or died a natural death. In R3 i. 1, 45, Clarence comes in under arrest and, as he is going to the T., Gloucester suggests that he is to be re-christened there; and in line 68 recalls how Hastings had been sent to the T. Clarence's arrest took place in 1478; it is not certain that Hastings was sent to the T. at all. In i. 3, 116, Gloucester says, "I dare adventure to be sent to the T."; in line 119 Margaret accuses him: "Thou slewest my husband Henry in the T." In i. 4, Clarence is introduced in his cell in the T., and his murder there by drowning in a butt of Malmsey is related. The traditional scene of the murder is a room in the Bowyer's T. In H8 i. 1, 207, Brandon informs Buckingham: "'Tis his Highness' pleasure You shall to the T." In i. 2, 192, the Surveyor gives evidence of what Buckingham had said he would do if he were committed to the T. In v. 1, 107, the K. bids Cranmer for the present "make your house our T." In v. 3, 54, Gardiner proposes to commit Cranmer to the T., and this is agreed to. In S. Rowley's When You, the K. gives order about Brandon: "Bid the Capt. of our guard Convey him to the T." The scene of More iv. 4 is the T. on the occasion of the arrest of Fisher, Bp. of Rochester; he was confined in the vaults of the White T. In iv. 3, Lady More tells of her dream in which she shot the bdge. in a boat, and then "our boat stood still Just opposite the T, and there it turned, Till that we sank." v. 1 takes place at the T.-gate when More is brought there in custody. In v. 4, More says. "Here's a fair day toward; It were fair walking on the T.-leads." Skelton, in Colin Clout 1160, says, "I say, Lieut. of the T., Make this lurdain for to lower; Lodge him in Little Ease; Feed him with beans and pease." Little Ease was a cell in the vaults of the White T., so small that the prisoner could neither stand, lie, nor sit with comfort. In Roister i. 2, Merrygreek says, "The toure could not you so hold But to break out at all times ye would be bold." In Webster's Law Case iii. 2, the Surgeon says, "This is like one I have heard in England was cured of the gout by being racked in the T."[ed. note: There are several references to the Tower as a place of confinement in Looke About You, and several characters including Gloster and Skinke are said to be held there, but the playwright conflates the Tower and the Fleet prison q.v. throughout, and it is ultimately clear that it is the Fleet that is intended.]

The Tower as outside the jurisdiction of the City.–In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iv. 6, Wellbred sends to his sister Bridget to meet him "at the T. instantly"; for, he says, "we must get our fortunes Committed to some larger prison, say; And, than the T., I know no better air; Nor where the liberty of the house may do us More present service," i.e. he and his lady could be married there. Deloney, in Newberie xi, tells of a couple whose marriage "was solemnized at the T. of Lond."

The Tower as a Fortress.–In Straw i., the K. says to Morton, "You shall in our T. of Lond. stay." In Oldcastle iii. 4, the K. says, "Command the postern by the T. be kept." In Trag. Richd. II. v. 2, 212, Bushy, after the defeat of the K. by Lancaster, says, "Let's fly to Lond. and make strong the T." H6 A. i. 3 is laid before the T, where Gloucester demands that the gates should be opened to him and is resisted by Winchester. In H6 B. iv. 5, the scene is the T.; the Lord Mayor sends to Lord Scales to get "aid from the T. to defend the city from the rebels"; and he replies, "The rebels have assayed to win the T." In iv. 6, 17, Cade exhorts the rebels: "Burn down the T. too." It was defended by guns mounted on the walls. Middleton, in Hubbard, says, "His pen lay mounted behind his ear like a T. gun." In his R.G. v. 2, the messenger, who brings word that the runaway lovers have gone to the T.-stairs, does it "With a full-charged mouth like a culverin's voice." In Davenport's New Trick ii. 1, Changeable says to his wife, "I never hear thy tongue but I think of the T. ordnance." Jonson, in Underwoods xc. 1, says, "This is K. Charles his day. Speak it, thou T. Unto the ships and they from tier to ter."

The Tower as an Armoury.–In H6 A. i. 3, 67, Winchester says that Gloucester "would have armour here out of the T." In Verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Peacham mentions, among the sights of Lond., "The lance of John a Gaunt, and Brandon's still i' the Towere."

The Tower as the Mint.–Chaucer, C. T. A. 3256, says of the Carpenter's wife: "Ful brighter was the shyning of hir hewe Than in the Tour the noble yforged newe." In Jonson's Alchemist iv. 4, Subtle fears that he and his accomplices may all be "locked up in the T. for ever To make gold there for the state." Barnfield, in Pecunia (1598), says, "New coin is coined each year within the T." Fuller, Holy State ii. 19, 120, says, "He knows, if he sets his mark (the T.-stamp of his credit) on any bad wares, he sets a deeper brand on his own conscience."

The Tower Lions.–In Braithwaite's Barnabie's journal, "The lyons in the T." are mentioned as one of the 7 sights of Lond. In Webster's White Devil v. 6, Flamineo says, "Let all that belong to great men remember the old wives' tradition, to be like the lions in the T. on Candlemas Day; to mourn if the sun shine, for fear of the pitiful remainder of winter to come." Candlemas day is February 2nd, when the winter is by no means over [ed. note: the lions seeing the sun on this day is an early manifestation of what Americans now celebrate as "Groundhog Day"]. Peacham, in Worth of a Penny (1641), says of a discontented man: "He cannot stand still, but, like one of the T. wild beasts, is still walking from one end of his room to the other." In Jonson's Volpone ii. 1, Peregrine says it is true "of your lion's whelping in the T.," which Sir Politick considers quite a prodigy. The lioness in the T. whelped on August 5th, 1604; and again on February 26th, 1606. In Dekker's Hornbook vii. he speaks of "a country gentleman that brings his wife up to learn the fashion, see the tombs at Westminster, the Lyons in the T." In Two Gent. ii. 1, 28, Speed says, "You were wont, when you walked, to walk like one of the lions." In Verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities 1611), Holland says, "He hath seen Paris Garden and the Lions."


The moat round the T. of Lond, made by the Bp. of Ely in the reign of Richd. I. The City moat, or Town D., which was practically a common sewer, sometimes overflowed into the T. D. and filled it with filth. In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 4, Chough prays for Priss that she "may die sweetly in T.-d." Jonson, in Epigram to Inigo Marquis Would-be (i.e. Inigo Jones), says, "When . . . Thou canst of truth the least entrenchment pitch We'll have thee styled the Marquis of T.-d." W. Rowley, in Search 16, says, "Return if ye be wise, you fall into the d. else." The searchers were in Rosemary Lane, hard by the T.


The hill on the W. and N. of the T. of Lond. At the top of it, N.W. of the T., a scaffold was kept in perpetuity for the execution of state prisoners, on which much of the noblest blood of England has been shed. The last execution was that of Simon Lord Lovat, on April 9th, 1747. In Ford's Warbeck iii. 1, the K. commands: "Let false Audley be drawn upon an hurdle from the Newgate to T.-h.; there let him lose his head." This was in 1497. The scene Of v. 3 is the T.-h., where Warbeck is put into the stocks. The execution of Sir T. More on T. H. is the subject of v. 4 of the play of that name. In Webster's Wyat i., Lady Jane Grey says to Guildford, "Out of this firm grate you may perceive The T.-h. thronged with store of people." This was at the execution of Northumberland. In xii., Winchester sentences Guildford and Lady Jane: "You shall lose your heads Upon the T.-h." Guildford was beheaded there, but the Lady Jane suffered on T.-Green. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. A. i., p. 221, Elizabeth asks: "Is yet the scaffold standing on T. H. Whereon young Guildford and the Lady Jane Did suffer death?" In Skelton's Magnificence, fol. xxv, Liberty says of those who oppose him: "Some fall preaching at the Toure H." In Overbury's Vision (1616) 84, it is spoken of as "that T.'s fatal h. Whereon That scaffold stands, which e'er since it hath stood Hath often licked up treason's tainted blood."

In Dekker's Shoemaker's i. 1, Dodger says to Lacy, "My lord, your uncle on the T.-h. stays With the Lord Mayor and the aldermen, And doth request you to hasten thither." In Haughton's Englishmen i. 2, Heigham says, "This walk oer T. H, Of all the places Lond. can afford, Hath sweetest air, and fitting our desires"; and Harvey rejoins: "Good reason so, it leads to Crutched Friars Where old Pisaro and his daughters dwell." In Middleton's No Wit ii. 1, Weatherwise says, "She was brought a-bed at the Red Lion about T.-h." In Sharpham's Fleire iii. 347, Fleire mentions among his customers "Master Match the gunner of T.-H." In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] v. 2, Worm, pretending to have just returned from Africa, says, "Little thought I to see my old house upon T.-H. again." In H8 v. 4, 65, the Porter says, "These are the youths that thunder at a playhouse and fight for bitten apples; that no audience, but the tribulation of T.-h., or the limbs of Limehouse, their dear brothers, are able to endure." Apparently the Tribulation of T. H. was a nickname for the crowd of hooligans who attended the executions there; what would be called here in Melbourne "the T. H. push." Nash, in Lenten, p. 296, speaks of "T.H. water at Lond., so much praised and sought after." This came from a spring near the T. Postern. Deloney, in Craft i. 14, mentions "the Abbey of Grace on T. H." See GRACE, ABBEY OF.


A gate between George Yard and the T. Ditch, at the S. end of Lond. Wall, N. of the T. It was originally built of Kent and Caen stone, when the T. was erected; and was finally taken down in 1720. Deloney, in Craft i. 14, tells how John "got him presently to the Constable of the Postern Gate, and told him that Nick had laid a man for dead in T. st."


Now GREAT TOWER ST. Lond., running W. from T. Hill to Eastcheap. In Dekker's Shoemaker's i. 1, the hero says, "I am Simon Eyre, the mad shoemaker of T. St."; and later he exhorts Ralph, "Fight for the mad knaves of Bedlam, Fleet-st., T.-st., and Whitechapel." From iv. 3, we learn that Eyre lived "at the sign of the Last in T.-st." In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 1, Heigham says to Frisco, "How, loggerhead, is Crutched-Friars here? I thought you were some such drunken ass, that come to seek Crutched-friars in T.-st." For reference in Deloney's Craft, see above.


A wharf along the river-front of the T. of Lond., 1,200 ft. long, with 3 stairs: the T. stairs at the W. end, the Queen's stairs beneath the Byward T., and the Galleyman stairs under the Cradle T. It was erected by Henry III. In Webster's Weakest i. 1, Bunch says, "I was an ale-draper, as Thames and T.-w. can witness." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Puntarvolo says, "Upon my return [from Constantinople] and landing on the T.-w., I am to receive 5 for 1." In Davenant's Wits iv., Thwack speaks of "midnight lectures preached by wives of comb-makers and midwives of T.-w." In St. Hilary's Tears (1642), in the title, "from the T.-stairs to Westminster Ferry "is used for the whole extent of Lond. The T. ordnance, from which salutes were fired on occasions, were mounted on the walls overlooking the w. In Jonson's Epicoene i. 1, Truewit advises Dauphine to have Morose "drawn out on a coronation day to the T.-w., and kill him with the noise of the ordnance." In iv. 2, Morose is willing, if he can get rid of his wife, "to do penance in a belfry, at Westminster Hall, in the Cockpit, the T.-w., when the noises are at their height and loudest." In Overbury's Vision (1616), it is said of the T.: "On the w. fast by Those thundering cannons ever ready lie."




Sometimes used of the Borough of Southwark, as distinguished from the City of Lond. In Glapthorne's Hollander i. 1, Urinal speaks of "the Three Squirrels in the town." See SQUIRRELS, THREE.


A variant for Turnbull St., q.v.


The moat surrounding the City of Lond. See HOUNDSDITCH, SHOREDITCH.


More usually TRALLES. A city in Caria, a little N. of the Scamander, abt. 30 m. W. of Ephesus. Its inhabitants were very wealthy, and the Asiarchs were generally chosen from them. The ruins at Ghiusel Hissar are all that is left of the place. In Chapman's Caesar iii. 2, 59, Crassinius says to Caesar," In Tralleis, Within a temple built to Victory There stands a statue with your form and name, Near whose firm base, even from the marble pavement, There sprang a palm-tree up in this last night." The story is taken from Plutarch, Vit. Caesaris 47.


On the other side of the Alps. It was at first used from the point of view of Rome and Italy to mean on the N. of the Alps. In Greene's Orlando i. 3, 402, a soldier speaks of the wealth of Charlemagne drawn from his mines "Found in the mountains of T. France." Fynes Moryson, Itin. (16l7) iii. 47, says, "The divine law came from Italy to the Ts." Later it came to be used, from the English point of view, for the Italians. Blount, Glossogr, defines T. as "over or beyond the Alps, foreign, Italian, on the further side of the mtns." In B. & F. Coxcomb i. 2, Antonio speaks of himself and his companion as "Travellers that know T. garbs," i.e. Italian fashions. Nash, in Lenten, p. 306, speaks of "the Transalpiners with their lordly Parmasin, "i.e. cheese of Parma, as contrasted with the Hollanders with their Dutch cheese.


The E. portion of Austro-Hungary, lying between Hungary proper, Moldavia, and Wallachia. It became subject to Hungary in A.D. 1004, but gained its independence under John Zapolya in 1538, and was supported by the Turks against the Hungarians during the 16th cent. The population is extremely mixed, including Magyars, Saxons (i.e. Germans), Wallachians, and a large number of Gipsies. It was finally incorporated with Hungary in 1868. In Per. iv. 2, 22, the Pander announces: "The poor Tn. is dead that lay with the little baggage." In Middleton's R.G. v. 1, Trapdoor says that there served with him against the Turk at the siege of Belgrade "many Hungarians, Moldavians, Vallachians, and Tns." In Shirley's Imposture v. 1, Hortensio says to Pandolfo, "You are the very same to whom his Holiness gave a pension for killing 6 great Turks in T." In the 17th cent. there were many, Protestants in T. the leading magnate of the country, Bethlem Gabor, taking some part against Austria in the early years of the Thirty Years War. Milton, Areopagitica, says, "Nor is it for nothing that the grave and frugal Tn. sends out yearly . . . not their youth, but their staid men, to learn our language and our theologic arts."


The Greek Trapezus; a city near the S.E. corner of the Black Sea. It was the point where Xenophon and his 10,000 reached the sea after their famous retreat from Mesopotamia. In A.D. 1204 Alexius Comnenus established an empire with T. as its capital, which Lasted till the city was taken by Mohammed II in 1461. It was famous for its gorgeous palace, its lovely gardens, and its fine library. It is often mentioned in the old romances as the scene of tournaments between the Christian knights and Ihe Saracens. In Selimus 163 a messenger announces: "Selim, the soldan of great Trebisond, Sends me." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 1, Orcanes speaks of "Danubius stream that runs to Trebizon "–not a very exact statement, as the Danube enters the Black Sea at its N.W. corner, diametrically opposite to T. In Kirke's Champions ii., Anthony and Andrew defeat "the Emperor of Trebizon." In Tomkis, Albumazar i. 4, Pandolfo speaks of Albumazar as "an Indian, far beyond Trebesond and Tripoli, close by the world's end." Milton, P. L. i. 584, speaks of "all who since, baptized or infidel, Jousted in Aspramont or Montalban, Damasco or Marocco, or Trebisond."


A vill. S. of Dundalk in Co. Louth, Ireland. In Stucley 937, Herbart orders: "Bid Capt. Gainsford guard the southern port Toward Tredagh."


A farm in the parish of Falmouth in S. Cornwall. In Cornish M. P. i. 2593, Solomon gives to the Carpenter "T. ha Kegyllek," i.e. T. and Kegyllek.


Probably the same as Tenbrise, a part of the property of the Carnsew family, in S. Cornwall, near Falmouth. In Cornish M. P. i. 1311, David says to the messenger, "Cam suyow ha T., Chatur annethe thy's gura," i.e. Carnsew and T., Make of them a charter for thyself.


Now TLEMECEN. A town on the N. coast of Africa, in the extreme W. of Algiers, near the bay of the same name. It was formerly a place of some importance, and has an ancient citadel of great strength. The Knight in Chaucer, C. T. Prol. 62, had "foughten for oure feith at Tramyssene In lystes thries." Milton, P. L. xi. 404, names "Marocco and Algiers and Tremisen "amongst the kingdoms of N. Africa.


A river in England, rising near Burslem in Staffs. It flows S.E. through Staffs., then suddenly turns E.N.E., and finally N., falling into the Humber after a course of 144 m. It was absurdly supposed to derive its name from its having 30 tributaries, or from the 30 kinds of fish which were found in it. It forms the natural division between the N. and S. of England. Spenser, F. Q. iv. 11, 35, calls it "bounteous T. that in himself enseams Both 30 sorts of fish and 30 sundry streams." Drayton, in Idea xxxii. 3, speaks of "The crystal T., for folds and fish renowned." In Polyolb. 28, he mentions the "30 floods of name that flow into it. Milton, Vac. Exercise 93, speaks of "T., who like some earth-born giant spreads His 30 arms along the indented mead." In Sampson's Vow iv. 2, 107, Ann dreams: "Methought I walked along the verdant banks Of fertile T." Drayton, in Dowsabel 30, says that the lady's skin was white as "swan that swims in T."

In H4 A. iii. 1, 74, Mortimer announces that the part of England N. of T. and Severn is to be assigned to Hotspur; but Hotspur objects to the behaviour of the river N. of Burton, which cuts "me A huge halfmoon, a monstrous cantle out," and proposes to dam it up and cut a new channel in which "the smug and silver T. shall run fair and evenly"; and at last Glendower consents: "Come, you shall have T. turned." In Sampson's Vow v. 3, 11, Elizabeth refers to the petition of the men of Nottingham to make the T. navigable from Nottingham to Gainsborough; and the Mayor supports it by saying that "Harry the fift And Pearcy fell at odds; in which division, Dividing of the land, Glendower began To stop the water-courses of flowing T." This refers to the repeated windings of the river just S. of Gainsborough; and it is possible that Shakespeare also had this in mind. In Nobody 254, Vigenius proposes to divide Britain between himself and Peridure in a similar way; "AU beyond T. and Humber shall suffice One moiety." In Trag. Richd. II. iv. 1, 216, the K. says to Scroope, "From T. to Tweed thy lot is parted thus." In Brome's Damoiselle iv. 1, Phillis gays, "Nell Ls as bonny a beggar's name as ever came from beyond T." In Skelton's Magnificence, fol. xii., Fancy says, "Her eyen glent From Tyne to T."; i.e. all through the N. of England. In Kinsmen prol. it is said of Chaucer: "a poet never went More famous yet 'twixt Po and silver T." T. stands for England, and has the advantage of rhyming with "went."


The ancient Tridentum. A city in the Austrian Tyrol, on the Adige, abt. 80 m. N.W. of Venice. The famous Council of T., which rejected the doctrines of the Reformation and further defined those of the Catholic Ch., was held here in the ch. of Sta. Maria Maggiore 1545–1563. Donne, in Preface to Progress of Soul (1601), says, "I forbid no reprehender, but him that like the T. Council forbids not books but authors." Milton, in Son. on New Forcers of Conscience 14, says that the plots and packings of the Westminster Assembly were "worse than those of T."


A vill. on the Trent in Staffs., near to Stoke. In John Evangel. 357, Eugenio says, "Farewell! Yonder cometh Sir William of Trentram." Probably he was the priest of the parish in which the Interlude was acted.


The old Augusta Trevirorum, now Treves. The most ancient city in Germany, lying on the right bank of the Moselle, 60 m. S.W. of Coblentz. The Roman remains include the gateway called Porta Nigra, dating from the 1st cent.; the baths of the palace; the great amphitheatre; and the piers of the Bdge. The mediaeval age is well represented by the Cathedral, the oldest part of which belongs to the 4th cent. Here is preserved the famous holy coat, said to have been worn by our Lord at His crucifixion. The Archbp. was one of the Seven Electors of the Empire. The University was founded in 1473 and flourished until 1798. In Marlowe's Faustus vii., Faust relates how he has "Passed with delight the stately town of T., Environed round with airy mtn. tops, With walls of flint and deep-entrenched lakes, Not to be won by any conquering prince." In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus i. 1, 130, Lorenzo says, "For T. and Brandenburg, I think of them As simple men that wish the common good." In i. 2, 36, the Archbp. introduces himself as "Frederick, Archbp. of T., D. of Lorraine, Chancellor of Italy." As a matter of fact, his name was Arnold von Isenberg, and he was not D. of Lorraine. The archbp. appears as one of the Electors in W. Smith's Hector.


A landing place on the N. bank of the Thames, at the bottom of T. lane, which runs S. from 34 Upper Thames St. to the river. It was named after one John Trigge, who owned it in the reign of Edward III. In Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, Littlewit explains how, in his puppet play, "Leander spies her [Hero] land at T.-s. and falls in love with her." In Middleton's Chaste Maid iv. 2, Tim says, "My sister's gone; let's look at T.-s. for her."


An old name given to Sicily from its triangular shape (see SICILY). Hall, in Sat. v. 2, speaks of Pluto "when in Trinacry I ween He stole the daughter of the harvest q." Milton, P. L. ii. 661, speaks of "Vexed Scylla bathing in the sea that parts Calabria from the hoarse Trinacrian shore."


The most southerly of the W. Indies, lying just off the E. coast of Venezuela, from which it is separated at its N. and S. extremities by channels abt. 15 m. wide. It was discovered by Columbus in 1496 and remained a Spanish possession until 1797, when it was taken by the British and confirmed in their possession by the Treaty of Amiens. It was famous for its tobacco during the 16th cent, which, Heylyn says, was of the best fashion; but it does not export any tobacco now.

In Brewer's Lingua iv. 4, Olfactus introduces tobacco: "This is the mighty emperor Tobacco, K. of T., that, in being conquered, conquered all Europe." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 2, Bobadil says, "For your green wound, your Balsamum and your St. John's wort are all mere galleries and trash to it [i.e. tobacco], especially your T." Dekker, in Hornbook Proem, says, "The phantastick Englishmen [are] more cunning in the distinction of thy Rowle T., Leaf, and Pudding than the whitest Blackamoor in all Asia." In B. & F. Malta iii. 1, the soldier's song has the lines "To thee a full pot, my little lance-prisado, And when thou hast done, a pipe of T." Taylor, in Works ii. 229, says, "AU their talk is smoking T."; and again, "Thine heir will feast, carousing Indian T. smoke." In Sharpham's Fleire iii. 270, Petoune swears "by this T."–which he is then smoking.


The largest college in the University of Cambridge, on the W. side of T. St., between St. John's and Caius. It was founded in 1546 by Henry VIII. By a statute Of 1560 a comedy or tragedy was directed to be performed in the College every Christmas. In 1546 the Pax of Aristophanes and Christopherson's Jephthes were played. In 1581 Wingfield's Pedantius was given; and Nash, in Saffron Walden, says of Harvey: "I'll fetch him aloft in Pedantius, that exquisite comedy in T. C." Cowley's Naufragium Joculare was produced in 1638. Amongst the dramatists who were members of this C. were John Tomkis, Tomkiss, or Tomkins, and Thomas Randolph.


University of Oxfford, standing a little back from the E. side of St. Giles St., between Balliol and St. John's. It was founded by Sir Thomas Pope in 1554 on the site of the old Benedictine Durham College. Gascoigne's Supposes was acted at Trinity in 1582. Thomas Lodge and George Chapman were Trinity men.




An ancient British tribe, inhabiting what is now Essex and the S. part of Suffolk. In Fisher's Fuimus i. 4, Hirildas speaks of "Landora the Trinobantic lady." In iv. 4, Mandubratius says to Caesar, "By me the Trinobants submit and Segontiacs."


A state in N. Africa, lying along the coast from Egypt to Tunis and Algeria. The capital, Tripoli, is on the coast, due S. of Sicily. T. was taken by the Arabs in the 12th cent., captured from them in 1510 by Spain, and in 1523 given to the Knights of St. John; they were expelled by the Turks in 1553, and thenceforward the port became a nest of pirates who were the terror of the Mediterranean commerce. It must not be confounded with Tripolis in Syria; usually, but not invariably, it is spelt by our authors T., whilst the Syrian town has a final s. It now belongs to Italy. In Shrew iv. 2, 76, the Pedant says he is going from Padua to Rome, "And so to T., if God lend me life." In B. & F. Malta i. 1, Zanthia produces a letter "sent from T. by the great Bashaw, which importunes her love unto him and treachery to the island "(sc. Malta). In Haughton's Englishmen ii. 2, Pisaro, hearing that his ships have been taken by Spanish gallies as they were coasting along Italy, says, "What made the dolts near Italy? Could they not keep the coast of Barbary, Or, having past it, gone for T., Being on the other side of Sicily As near as where they were unto the Straits? For by the globe both T. and it Lie from the Straits some 25 degrees." Twenty degrees would be more exact, but obviously the African T. is meant. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iii. 3, the Basso announces that the Sultan has "10,000 Janisaries Brought to the war by men of T." In Green's Orlando i. 1, 5, Mandrecarde speaks of his country Mexico as having a climate "fairer than Tyberius [i.e. Tiberias] Seated beyond the sea of T." The Mediterranean is meant; and is probably so called from its being infested by the pirates of T.; but it is possible that the Syrian Tripolis is intended. The phrase "to come from T." means to cut capers and leap high. Nares thinks it is connected with the apes which came from N. Africa, and means to play monkey-tricks; but I suspect it is nothing but a pun on T. and trip. Jonson, in Epigram cxv., characterizes the Town's Honest Man as one who "Can come from T., leap stools, and wink." In B. & F. Thomas iv. 2, Sebastian exhorts Thomas: "Get up to that window there, and presently, like a most complete gentleman, come from T." In Jonson's Epicoene v. 1, La-Foole says, "I protest, Sir John, you come as high from T. as I do; and lift as many joined stools and leap over them, if you would use it."


An ancient city on the coast of Syria, abt. 50 m. N. of Beirut. It was founded by the Phoenicians on the coast, but in 1289 it was destroyed by the Sultan of Egypt, and the present city was commenced 2 m. inland. Its harbour is Al-Mina. It carried on an extensive trade in the Elizabethan times with the ports of the Mediterranean and with England. In Merche 1, 3, 18, Shylock tells us that Antonio "hath an argosy bound to T." In iii. 1, 106, Tubal reports that he "hath an argosy cast away, coming from T." In iii. 2, 271, Bassanio exclaims: "What, not one hit? From T, from Mexico and England, And not one vessel scape?" The "eager Turk of T." is one of the competitors in the tournament in Kyd's Soliman i. i. See also TRIPOLI.


i.e. TREVISO. A town in N.E. Italy, abt. 15 m. N. of Venice. It has a considerable trade in cattle, corn, and fruits. In Cockayne's Trapolin v. 1, Trapolin sings: "Vience wine and Padua bread, Trivigi tripes, and a Venice wench in bed."


A tribe who lived in caves on the S. shores of the Red Sea. They are represented by the Greek writers as barbarous in their manners, and occupied chiefly in incessant raids on one another and on travellers. The Barnagas on the frontiers of Abyssinia are their modem representatives. The name is used for a degenerate and degraded person. In Locrin. iv. 1, 30, Corineus says, "If the brave nation of the T. . . . Should dare to enter this our little world, Soon should they rue their overbold attempts." Fynes Moryson, Itiner. iii. 3, 124, says, "The T. live in caves of the earth and their kingdom is at this day called Adel." Raleigh, in Hist. of World i. 52, speaks of the region of "Prester John and the T." Lyly, in Euphues England, p. 263, speaks of "the Troglodytae which digged in the filthy ground for roots and found the inestimable stone Topason." See Pliny, Hist. Nat. xxxvii. 32. In Dekker's Satiro iv. 2, 107, Tucca calls Horace (Jonson) "My long-heeled Troglodite."


One of the 6 gates of Troy. In Troil. prol. 16, they are enumerated as" Dardan and Tymbria, Helias, Chetas, Troien, and Antenorides." The list is taken from Caxton's Recuyel.




(Tn. = Trojan, Tyn. = Troyan). The capital of the Troad, a dist. in the N.W. corner of the coast of Asia Minor, W. of the Ida range. The city of T. has been identified with Hissarlik, where Schliemann excavated 6 successive cities, of which he considered the 2nd from the bottom to be the Homeric Ilium, the city besieged and burnt by the Greeks in the famous Tn. war. In many respects, however, the hill called Bali Dagh, a little further S., complies better with the Homeric description of T. as "windy," "lofty," "beetling," etc. According to the legends, T. was founded by Teucer, but the walls were built by Apollo and Poseidon for K. Laomedon. Laomedon refusing to pay the stipulated price, Poseidon sent a sea-monster to ravage the land; but Herakles, arriving opportunely, rescued Hesione, the K.'s daughter, and slew the monster. Laomedon had promised him his horses as a reward, but again tried to evade his obligation; whereupon Herakles slew him and all his sons, except Priam, who consequently became K. In his reign took place the famous Tn. War. It originated in the golden apple "for the fairest "thrown by Ate into the midst of the marriage feast of Peleus and Thetis. Paris, the husband of Oenone, awarded it to Aphrodite, who had bribed him with the promise of the fairest woman in Hellas. Consequently he was enabled by the goddess to carry off Helen, the wife of Menelaus of Sparta. Hereupon the Greeks, under the leadership of Agamemnon, the brother of the injured husband, besieged T., and after 10 years took it by means of the stratagem of the wooden horse. During the siege occurred the incident immortalized in Chaucer's Troilus and Cressida, and in Shakespeare's play of the same name. The chief heroes on the Greek side were Achilles, Agamemnon, Menelaus, the two Ajaxes, and Ulysses; on the Tn., Hector, Paris, Troilus, Aeneas, and Antenor. After the destruction of T, legend told that Aeneas went to Carthage, where he met Dido, but basely deserted her to go to Italy; and the Romans claimed to be descended from him and his companions. A mythical Brut, or Brutus, the greatgrandson of Aeneas, was alleged to have come to Britain and given his name to the island. Some legends made the French also descendants of this Brutus. The people of T. were called Troians, or Troyans; the spelling and pronunciation Trojan does not occur until the middle of the 17th cent. though it is substituted for the older spelling in most reprints of our plays, and is used in the following references.

The Earlier Mythological Stories of Troy.–In Greene's Alphonsus iii. 2, 801, Belinus says, "Poor Saturn, forced by mighty Jove To fly his country, banished and forlorn, Did crave the aid of Troos, K. of T." It was said that Saturn came to Rome after his expulsion by Jupiter; but I can find no authority for Greene's story. In Merch. iii. 2, 56, Portia compares Bassanio to "young Alcides when he did redeem The virgin tribute paid by howling T. To the sea-monster." In Shirley's Imposture ii. 2, Volterino talks of "Don Hercules that killed the K. of T.s great coach-horse with a box o' the ear" (see Iliad v. 640). Spenser, F. Q. iii. 11, 34, tells how Jove snatched from Ida hill "the Tn. boy so fair," i.e. Ganymede.

Stories of the Siege of Troy.–In Shakespeare's Lucrece 1431, the tapestry shows how "From the walls of strong-besieged T. When their brave hope, bold Hector, marched to field, Stood many Tn. mothers," and pourtrays the whole siege; whilst Lucrece "feelingly weeps T.'s painted woes." In Merch. v. 1, 4, Lorenzo describes how Troilus "mounted the Tyn. walls And sighed his soul towards the Grecian tents." In Per. i. 4, 93, Pericles speaks of the "Tn. horse . . . stuffed within With bloody veins." In M.W.W. i. 3, 83, Pistol asks: "Shall I Sir Pandarus of T. become?" when he is sent with a letter from Falstaff to Mistresses Page and Ford. In the Masque in L.L.L. v., Armado presents "Hector of T." as one of the Seven Worthies. In All's Well i. 3, 75, the Clown sings of Helen: "Was this fair face the cause, quoth she, Why the Grecians sacked T.?" In R2 v. 1, 11, the Q. compares the fallen K. to "the model where old T. did stand," i.e. the mere groundplan of the ruined city. In H4 B. i. 1, 73, Northumberland says to the messenger who tells him of Percy's death, "Even such a man Drew Priam's curtain in the dead of night And would have told him half his T. was burnt." In ii. 4, 237, Doll says to Falstaff, "Thou art as valorous as Hector of T." In H6 B. i. 4, 20, Bolingbroke says it was deep night "when T. was set on fire." In iii. 2, 118, the Q. says that Suffolk has bewitched her as Ascanius bewitched Dido when he unfolded to her "His father's acts commenced in burning T." In H6 C. ii. 1, 51, the messenger tells how the D. of York fell, but stood against his foes "as the hope of T. [i.e. Hector] Against the Greeks that would have entered T." In iii. 2, 190, Gloucester says, "I'll, like a Sinon, take another T." In iv. 8, 25, K. Henry calls Warwick "my Hector and my T.'s true hope." In Tit. i. 1, 136, Demetrius appeals to the gods "that armed the Q. of T. With opportunity of sharp revenge Upon the Thracian tyrant in his tent." Polymnestor, K. of Thrace, killed Polydorus, son of Priam, and was slain in revenge by Hecuba. In iii. 1, 69, Titus asks: "What fool . . . hath brought a faggot to bright-burning T.?" In iii. 2, 28, Titus refers to Aeneas telling the tale "How T. was burnt and he made miserable "(see Vergil, Aen. ii.). In iv. 1, 20, young Lucius says, "I have read That Hecuba of T. ran mad for sorrow." In v. 3, 84, Marcus refers to "that baleful burning night When subtle Greeks surprised K. Priam's T."; and to Sinon's "fatal engine," the wooden horse. In J.C. i. 2, iii, Cassius compares himself saving Caesar from the Tiber to "Aeneas, our great ancestor," bearing old Anchises from the flames of T. The prol. of Troil. opens: "In T. there lies the scene"; and the subject is the story of Troilus and Cressida, which is not in the Homeric cycle of stories, but is first found in Bénoit de SaintMore's Roman de Troyes, circ. 1180. 80. Chaucer based his poem mainly on Boccaccio's Filostrato, and Shakespeare followed him, with references also to Caxton, and possibly to Lydgate, and to Chapman's translation of Homer, though both the latter are very doubtful.

In Field's Amends v. 1, Subtle reports Lady Loveall as saying to him: "My fort That, like T. town, 10 years hath stood besieged And shot at, did remain unwon; but now 'Tis conquered." In Day's Parl. Bees iii., Polypragmus says, "O that my mother had been Paris, whore, And I might live to burn down T. once more." In Span. Trag. iv., Hieronimo orders: "Draw me like old Priam of T. crying, The house is a-fire!" In Jonson's Cynthia iv. 1, Anaides says, "I never saw him till this morning, and he salutes me as familiarly as if we had known together since the Deluge, or the first year of T. action." In his Volpone ii. 1, Volpone professes to have a powder for giving beauty, which was given to Helen by Venus, "and at the sack of T. unfortunately lost." In B. & F. Wit S. W. i. 2, Gregory, on hearing Priscian's pretended Greek speech, says, "I do wonder how the Tyns. could hold out 10 years' siege against the Greeks; if Achilles spake but this tongue, I do not think but he might have shaken down the walls in a sennight, and never troubled the wooden horse." In Lyly's Sapho ii. 4, Sybilla says, "The wooden horse entered T. when the soldiers were quaffing." In Chapman's May Day ii. 1, Angelo says, "I looked for a siege of T. at least to surprise the turrets of her continence." In Shirley's Love's Cruelty iii. 1, Bovaldo says, "Then drink your drink; now T. burns blue"; i.e. things are getting lively. In Respublica ii. 1, Respublica, musing on the mutability of things, says, "Now [is] a champion field where noble T. was." In Fisher's Fuimus iv. 3, Rollano speaks of the wooden horse which "did T. dis-troy." In Brewer's Lingua ii. 4, Memory says, "I remember about the wars of Thebes and the siege of T." In T. Heywood's Witches iii. 1, Bantam says to the fiddlers, "Enter the gate with joy, And, as you enter, play The sack of T."; evidently some popular tune. In Marmion's Leaguer iv. 3, Agurtes says, "They drop away, as if they leapt out from the Tn. horse." In Coventry M. P. of Mary Magdalene 368, Satan says, "The snares that 1, shall set were never set at Troye." Milton II Peru. 100, refers to the tragedies which "told the tale of T. divine." In Marston's Insatiate ii. 1, Herod says, "His study door will grow more hard to be entered than old T."

In Massinger's Guardian iii. 1, Durazzo says, "I will do something for thee, though it savour Of the old squire of Ti"; i.e. Pandarus. In Middleton's Blurt ii. 1, Hippolito says to Truepenny, "Is't you, Sir Pandarus, the broking knight of T.?"

In Caesar's Rev. i. chor. 2, Discord boasts: "'Twas I that did the fatal apple ding Betwixt the 3 Idaean goddesses, That so much blood of Greeks and Tns. spilt." In Greece and Lodge's Looking Glass ii. 1, 423, Alvida says, "The beauties that proud Paris saw from T. Mustring in Ida for the golden ball Were not so gorgeous as Remilia." In Selimus 2480, Selim says, "When the coward Greeks fled to their ships . . . the noble Hector Returned in triumph to the walls of T." (see Iliad xv. 415). In Kyd's Soliman v., Basilisco asks: "Where is the eldest son of Priam, that abraham-coloured Tn.? Dead!" Hector is represented as having auburn hair. In Lady Mother ii. 1, Lovell says, "Hector drew Achilles 'bout the walls of T. at his horse tail "–an inversion of the facts. Milton, P. L. ix. 116, speaks of his subject as "more heroic than the wrath Of stun Achilles on his foe pursued Thrice fugitive about T. wall." In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] i. 6, Worm says of Cutter: "He was soundly beaten one day, and dragged about the room, like old Hector o' T. about the town." In Phillips' Grissil 1824, Diligence avers that Grissil's daughter is "as beautiful as ever the Greekish Hellin was Whom Paris the Troyean hath won in fight." In May's Heir iii., Philocles says, "A face not half so fair As thine . . . brought a thousand ships to Tenedos To sack lamented T." In Tailor's Hog hath lost v., Hog says, "O to recount, Sir, will breed more ruth Than did the tale of that high Troyan D. To the sad-fated Carthaginian q." The tale told by Aeneas to Dido is recited in Vergil, Aen. ii. In Gascoigne's Government ii. 1, Gnomaticus says, "The truth of the Tn. history accuseth Aeneas, Antenor, and certain others as most unthankful traitors to their country." By later writers both these Tns. were accused of having made terms with the Greeks and betrayed their city. In Brome's Covent G. iii. 2, Katharine says, "He promised her marriage, and so, like the slippery Tn. [i.e. Aeneas], left h"." In Killigrew's Parson i. 3, Sad says that Jolly, having been to Italy, "can tell us how large a seat The goddess fixed her flying Ts. in."

In Val. Welsh. ii. 2, the Bardh says, "Cassandra did at T. Foretell the danger of the Grecian horse." In Richards' Messalina ii. 436, Syllana calls Paris "T.'s firebrand, falsely that forsook Unpitied Oenon." In Greene's Orlando iv. 2, 1172, Orlando speaks of fearful shapes "More dreadful than appeared to Hecuba When fall of T. was figured in her sleep." Before the birth of Paris Hecuba dreamed that she had brought forth a firebrand, which would burn up T. In B. & F. Cure iii. 3, Vitelli calls Sinon "the weeping Greek That flattered T. a-fire." In Ingelend's Disobedient 51, the Father asks: "Wilt thou follow warfare and a soldier be 'pointed And so among Tyns. and Romans be numbered?" In Chapman's Rev. Bussy ii. 1, 105, Guise says, "Great T.'s Euphorbus was After Pythagoras." Euphorbus was the Tn. who first wounded Patroclus (Iliad xvi. 805, xvii. 9). Pythagoras claimed that the soul of Euphorbus transmigrated into himself, and that he could remember the siege of T. The scenes. of Troil., and of Shirley's Ajax and Ulysses, are laid in T. at the time of the Tn. war. In M.N.D. i. 1, 174,. Hermia swears "by that fire which burned the Carthage q. When the false Tyn. under sail was seen." In H6 A. v. 5, 106, Suffolk, going to woo Margaret for K. Henry, compares himself to Paris, and hopes to "prosper better than the Tyn. did." In H4 B. ii. 4, 181, Pistol absurdly talks of "Tyn. Greeks." A tale of T. is used for an improbable story. In Davenant's Wits ii. 1, Palatine says, "I have laid 2 instruments . . . that shall encounter his long ears With tales less true than those of T."

According to the old legend, the Britains were descended from Brut (see above), hence Tn. is used for a Briton. In Locrine i. 1, Corineus says, "Where e'er the light illuminates the world The Tyns., glory-flies with lea wings." in Chapman's D'Olive ii. 2, D'Olive speaks of' "all true Tns., from whom we claim our descent." The French had also a tradition of Tn. descent, but Chapman was probably thinking of his English audience. In Hughes' Misfort. Arth. ii. 1, Nuntius describes Britain as "the stately type of T." The title of Fisher's Fuimus Troes–we were Tns.–depends on this legend; and in ii. 4, Caesar says, "I grieve to draw my sword Against the stock of thrice-renowned T."

The Romans also claimed descent from Aeneas and his Tns. In Ev. Wom. I. iv. 2, the Host says, "Show thyself a brave man of the true breed of T., a gallant Agamemnon." The scene is in Rome. In Nero iii. 4, Nero says, when he has set Rome on fire, "Ay, now my T. looks beauteous in her flames."

Tn. is used as a slang name in a jocular sort of way, but without any very definite meaning; it is sometimes taken in a disparaging sense, but very often means a jolly good fellow. It is often preceded by such epithets as true, honest, etc. In L.L.L. v. 2, 640, the K. says, "Hector was nothing but a Tyn. in respect of this," i.e. in comparison with Armado, who is impersonating the hero. In line 681, Costard says to Armado, "Unless you play the honest Tyn., the poor wench is cast away." In H4 A. ii. 1, 77, Gadshill says, "There are other Tyns. that thou dream'st not of, the which for sport sake are content to do the profession some grace." in H5 v. 1, 20, Pistol addresses Fluellen: "Dost thou thirst, base Tn., To have me fold up Parca's fatal web?" and in 32, "Base Tn., thou shalt die." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon i. 1, Chartley addresses Boyster: "No, my true Tyn., no." in Dekker's Shoemaker's ii. 3, Eyre addresses his men: "Drink, you mad Greeks, and work like true Tyns." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iv. 2, Cob cries: "O the Justice! the honestest old brave Tn. in Lond.!" In Marmion's Companion iii. 4, Capt. Whibble calls to Fido: "Hear me, honest Tyn.!" In Ford's Lover's Melan. iv. 2, Cuculus says, "I come to speak with a young lady, as they say, the old Tyn.'s daughter of the house." In Dekker's Fortunatus iii. 2, Shadow says, "These English occupiers are mad Tyns.; let a man pay them never so much, they'll give him nothing but the bag." In Davenant's Distresses v., Androlio says, "This old Tn.'s mode, as I conceive it, is one to both." In his Siege v. 1, Piracco says, "Thou art a Tn.; I hug thee." Kemp, in his Nine Days Wonder, says of one who met him on his dance to Norwich: "He was a kind, good fellow, a true Tyn." In B. & F. Nightwalker iii. 1, Toby says, "Sam the butler's true, the cook a reverend Tyn."


A city in France on the left bank of the Seine, 112 m. S.E. of Paris. It was at T. that the treaty between Henry V and Charles VI was concluded in 1420, and the scene of H5 v. a is Laid there. It was subsequently recaptured by Charles VII in 1429. It had 5 annual fairs, and it seems most probable that the so called Troy weight was the standard employed at them. The Pound Troy contains 5760 grains, and is thus lighter than the Pound Avoirdupois, which is 7000 grains. In Massinger's [ed. note: Middleton's] Old Law iv. 1, Gnotho says, "Cressid was Troy weight, and Nell [i.e. Helen] was avoirdupois; she held more by 4 oz. than Cressida." The avoirdupois pound is 16 oz.; the Troy 12.


A name for Lond., much used in our older authors, and derived from the legend, popularized by Geoffrey of Monmouth, that after the Trojan war a company of Trojans led by Aeneas came to Britain and became the ancestors of the British, who took their name from Brut, the great-grandson of Aeneas. This Brut was supposed to have founded Lond., and called it Troja Nova, or Troy-novant. An alternative form of the word is Trinobant, which suggests that it was the chief town of the Trinobantes, who lived in Essex. Spenser, F. Q., uses the word frequently; in iii. 9, 45, he says, "It T. is hight, that with the waves Of wealthy Thamis washed is along"; and adds that it was founded by "the Trojan Brute." In Fisher's Fuimus i. 3, Cassibelaunus says, "Androgeus, hold unto your use Our lady-city, T." in Locrine i. 1, Corineius says, "March to T. There to provide our chieftain's funeral." In Greene's Friar xvi. Bacon predicts the glories of Elizabeth "here, where Brute did build his T." In Trouble. Reign, Haz., p. 299, Lewis calls Lond. "T., your fair metropolis." In Nobody 1104, Elidure says, "Then to T. we'll speed away." In T. Heywood's Iron Age B. ii., Hector predicts: "These shall nor honours nor just rectors want, Lumbardies Rome, great Britain's T." Nash, in Pierce, calls Lond. "this great-grandmother of corporations, Madame T." In Dekker's Dead Term, Lond. says, "Brute called me T. or Trinovant, and sometimes Trinobant." In King Leir (Haz., p. 319), the servant says, "Ere we get to T., I see, He quite will tire himself, his horse, and me."


A Lond. tavern, half way up Shire Lane on the W. side. It was afterwards made famous by Steele, who introduced it into the Tatler. In Shirley's Ball v. 1, Freshwater says of Mantua: "Their strong beer [is] better than any I ever drank at the T."


A vill. on the Cam, 2 m. S. of Cambridge. It has been immortalized by Chaucer, who makes it the scene of the Reeve's Tale. In Mankind 23, New Guise says, "I shall go to William Thurlay of Hunston, and so forth to Pilchard of T." In Youth ii. 119, Youth asks Humility: 'Wert thou born at T. and brought up at Hogs Norton?"


(i.e. TREGEAR). The dist. in Cornwall known as the shire of Trigge, lying round Bodmin. In Cornish M.P. ii. 2274, the servant says he could not find a worse master "Alemma bys yn T." (i.e. from this place to T.).




A German tribe, settled at first between the Rhine and the Yssel, but found later in the country S. of the Lippe, where Germanicus conquered them in A.D. 16. In Tiberius i i 16, Germanicus says, "Next to the Usipetes were encamped The Tubantes hovering on the mtn. side."


(i.e. DEUTSCHLAND, or GERMANY). In Jonson's Irish, Patrick tells K. James that the Irish will fight for him "and te frow, ty daughter, tat is in Tuchland." The Princess Elizabeth married Frederick the Count Palatine in 16z3.


A town is Staffs. on the Dove, 18 m. E. of Stafford, near the borders of Derbysh. It has a fine ruined castle, built in the reign of William the Conqueror, and long the residence of the Dukes of Lancaster. In the reign of Richd. II John of Gaunt incorporated a company of minstrels, who were granted, amongst other things, the privilege of taking a bull once a year from the lands of the Prior of T., if they could catch him. The ceremony took place on August 16th, the bull being irritated to madness and then let loose; then he was pursued by the Minstrels, who tried to catch him, or at least cut off a bit of his hair; if they succeeded he was taken and baited in the Bull Ring, and his body handed over to the Minstrels. In T. Heywood's Witches iii., Whetstone says, "O brave fiddlers! There was never better scuffling for the T. bull." In Sampson's Vow v. 2, 39, Miles says, "He'll keep more stir with the hobby-horse than he did with the pipers at Tedbury bull-running." (See also STAFFORDSHIRE).


A palace in Paris, on the right bank of the Seine, W. of the Louvre. There was a pleasure,house here as early as 1342; it was bought by Francis I, and Catharine de Medici began building a palace on the site in 1566. It was enlarged by successive kings, but was burned down by the Communists in 1871. The name was derived from the fact that it was originally a brickfield. Jonson, in Epigram cvii., satirises Capt. Hungry for his talk about "your Villeroys and Silleries, Ianins, your Nuncios, and your T." In Davenant's Rutland p. 221, the Parisian boasts of "Luxembourg and the T., no ill accommodations for the citizens of Paris."


The most ancient building in Rome. It was originally the well-house of the Capitol, but was in later times used as a prison. Here St. Peter was said to have been confined. In Laelia iv. 1, 32, Petrus says, "Est locus in carcere quod Tullianum appelatur." This is a quotation from Sallust, Catilina 55. It is quoted again in Fraunce's Victoria iv. 9, 2065.


A prison in Cornhill, Lond., opposite the end of Change Alley; it was so called from its round shape. In 1405 it was made into a Conduit or water-cistem, and a prison of timber, called the Cage, was erected,over it, with a pillory for fraudulent bakers on the top. Stow, p. 189, says, "The Tunne upon Cornhill, because the same was builded somewhat in fashion of a Tunne standing on the one end."


(now generally spelt TONBRIDGE). A town in Kent, 30 m. S.E. of Lond., on the Medway. It had a strong castle, built in the reign of Henry VIII, of which some ruins still remain. It had a reputation for the manufacture of knives. In 1606 Lord North discovered medicinal springs abt. 5 m. S.W. of the town on the borders of Sussex, and they soon acquired popularity through the patronage of the Q. of Charles I. The town of T. Wells grew up near the Springs, and became in the 17th and 18th cent. a much frequented resort of Londoners. In Lyly's Bombie ii. 1, Lucio says, "Pop 3 knaves in a sheath; I'll make it a right T. case, and be the bodkin." The 3 knaves (there is an obvious pun on knives) are Dromio, Riscio, and Halfpenny; Lucio will be the bodkin or small dagger, fitted into the same case or sheath. In Bullein's Dialogue against the Pestilence (1573), Mendax says, "I was born near unto T., where fine knives are made." Probably the same pun is intended, for Mendax is a champion liar. In Cuckqueans v. 3, Pigot says, "3 knives do make up the sheath of a T. dagger." In Jonson's New World, the Herald says of the waters in the Moon: "Your T., or the Spaw itself, are mere puddle to them."


A country on the N. coast of Africa, between Algiers and Tripoli. Originally colonized by the Phoenicians, it passed successively under the rule of the Romans, Vandals, and Arabs. After the invasion of the latter, the native Berber tribes adopted Mohammedanism, and established a native dynasty, called the Zirite. Roger of Sicily dispossessed it in 1148, but the Normans were expelled in 1160 by the Almohade Caliph. On the decay of the Almohades, the, native dynasty of the Hafsites was established in 1336, and under their rule T. grew rapidly in wealth and splendour. Chaucer, in Blaunche the Duchess 310, says he would not have missed hearing the birds singing "for the toune of Tewnes." From 1525 to 1575 the possession of the country was disputed between the Spaniards and the Turks; but it was finally annexed to the Ottoman Empire by Selim II at the last-named date. During the Turkish rule it became notorious for the daring and cruelty of its pirates, and its chief source of revenue was the sale of Christian slaves. Blake raided the port in 1655, but this only partially checked its marauding activities. In 1881 the French conquered the country and took over the administration. The capital is T., a city on the N. coast, 10 m. from the site of ancient Carthage.

From Temp. ii. 1, 71, it appears that the K. of Naples is on his way back from Africa, where he has been "at the marriage of his fair daughter Claribel to the K. of T.," and, says Adrian, "T. was never graced before with such a paragon to their Q." Gonzalo adds, "Not since widow Dido's time," and explains: "This T., Sir, was Carthage"; whereupon Sebastian says, "His word is more than the miraculous harp; he hath raised the wall and houses too." The point is that T. is really some 10 m. from the site of Carthage. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 3, Usumcasane reports to Tamburlaine that he has brought from Africa "100,000 expert soldiers; From Azamor to T. near the sea Is Barbary unpeopled for thy sake." In Lust's Domin. v. 1, the Q. says, "Your deceased K. won T." The reference is apparently to Charles V of Spain, who conquered T. in 1535In Massinger's Guardian v. 4, Alphonso relates how his sons have been captured "by the pirates of T. and Argiers." In Alimony ii. 3, there is a sailors' song with the refrain "To T. and to Argiers, boys! Great is our want, small be our joys 1," In Vox Borealis (1641), Willie calls the Royalist troops "Hellish pirates, worse than Tunnees and Algeir." Cowley, in Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] Prol., says, "The Midland Sea is no where clear From dreadful fleets of T. and Argier." In Thersites 216, alliteration and a pun are responsible for the allusion by the hero to "The trifling tabourer, troubler of T. [quasi Tunes!] Tom Tumbler of Tewkesbury." A pun again makes Valeria, in Taming of a Shrew 532, promise "I'll yearly send you 10 tun of T. wine." Wine is made in T., but it never had any great reputation. The scene of Massinger's Renegado is laid in T., and one of the characters is Asambeg, i.e. Hassan Bey, viceroy of T.




A dist. in central Asia, lying E. of the Caspian Sea, between Persia and China, N. of Afghanistan. It was the original home of the Turks, whence they came to the conquest of Asia Minor. Milton, P. L. xi. 396, mentions, amongst the rulers of the world, "the Sultan in Bizance, Turchestan-born."


(i.e. TYRIAN). See TYRE.


The old name of the Guadalaviar, a river in Spain, flowing into the Mediterranean on the E. coast, close to Valencia. In Nabbes' Microcosmus iv., Sensuality says, "Translate my bower to Turia's rosy banks."


(the old AUGUSTA TAURINORUM, properly TORINO). A city in N. Italy, at the confluence of the Po and the Dora Riparia, 70 m. N.W. of Genoa. It was made the capital of Savoy by Amadeo V in 1418, and continued so till it was occupied by the French from 1536 to 1562. It then returned to the Dukes of Savoy. It remained the capital successively of Savoy, of Sardinia, of Piedmont, until 1865, when the seat of Government was transferred to Florence, and in 1870 to Rome. In Chapman's Trag. Byron i. 1, Byron instructs La Fin to give out that "in passing Milan and T." he was charged to negotiate the marriage of Byron with a daughter of the D. of Savoy. In Cockayne's Trapolin i. 2, Horatio, the son of the D. of Savoy, says to Prudentia, the sister of an imaginary Grand D. of Tuscany, Lavinio, "If you deny me, I never will return to T." The scene of Davenant's Love Hon. is laid in part at T., whither Evandra, the heir of Milan, has been taken by her lover, Prospero of Padua. In his Wits iv., Young Palatine mentions amongst other table dainties "your T. and your Tuscan veal."


(T. = Turk, Th. = Turkish, Ty. = Turkey). Applied to the countries under the dominion of the Osmanli Ts. as a political rather than a geographical term. In the broader sense it included in the 16th cent. Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, N. Africa, Greece and the Balkan Provinces–and even a part of Hungary. In a narrow sense it is used for Asia Minor only. The Osmanli Ts., a clan of the Th. tribe of Oghuz, driven from their home in Central Asia by the Mongols, first appeared in the West about the middle of the 14th cent. Under Orchan they established themselves in parts of Asia Minor; and in 1358 won Gallipoli, and so secured their first footing in Europe. Servia was annexed in 1389, as the result of the battle of Kosovo, in which, however, Murad I was killed. Bayezid I, the Thunderbolt, bolt, made an attempt on Constantinople, but Timur, known to the Elizabethans as Tamburlaine, came upon the scene and defeated Bayezid, who died in captivity in 1403. Murad II recovered the Asiatic lands which Timur had conquered, but was completely routed by Hunyadi of Hungary and compelled to surrender his European possessions. In 1444, however, he won the battle of Varna, where Ladislaus of Poland and Cardinal Julian were slain. The decisive event in Th. history was the taking of Constantinople by Mohammed II in 3455, which was followed–in part, preceded–by the conquest of the Balkan Peninsula and Greece. Mohammed also attacked Rhodes, but was repelled by the Knights of St. John; and his death at the siege of Otranto put an end to his schemes for the subjugation of the West. During the reign of Bayexid II the naval power of the Ts. was greatly increased, and the reign of terror which they established over the Mediterranean began. Selim I, called the Grim, left Europe alone, but added to his empire Egypt and Syria. Under his successor, Suleyman the Magnificent, the power of the Ottoman Empire reached its highest point. He took Belgrade, captured Rhodes, won the battle of Mohacx against the Hungarians in 1529, and besieged Vienna itself, though unsuccessfully. Then he added Algiers and Tripoli to his dominions. Last, in 1565, he made an attack on Malta, but failed. Selim II took Cyprus from the Venetians in 1570, but was badly beaten in the sea-fight off Lepanto in 1571. Mohammed III won the battle of Keresztes in Transylvania in 1596. His successor, Ahmed I, had trouble with Persia, and Murad IV in 1638 carried the war into their country and won Bagdad from them. The later history does not concern us. The following list of the Osmanli Sultans may be useful: Osman 1, 1301; Orkhan, 1326; Murad (or Amurath) 1, 1359; Bayezid 1, 1389; Mohammed I, 1413; Murad II, 1421; Mohammed II, 1451; Bayezid II, 1481; SelimLl512; Suleyman I, 1520; Selim 11, 1566; Murad 111, 1574; Mohammed 111, 1595; Ahmed 1, 1603; Mustafa 1, 16l7; Osman 11, 1618; Mustafa (restored), 1622; Murad IV, 1623; Ibrahim, 1640; Mohammed IV, 1648. During the latter part of the reign of Elizabeth a considerable trade, especially in carpets, rugs, silks, and other textile fabrics, developed between England and the Ts.; and the Levant Company was formed in 1581 to carry it on, and had an office in Smyrna.

General References.–In Marlowe's Jew iv. 1, Barabas calls Ithamore, who was born in Thrace, "the T." In Coventry M.P. of Mary Magdalene 1435, the sailor says, "Yond there is the land of Torke"; 2 lines later it is called the land of Satyllye, i.e. Attalia, on the S. coast of Asia Minor.

Historical Allusions.–Bayezid, or Bajazet, is prominent in Marlowe's Tamb.; he reigned from 1389 to 1402, when he was taken prisoner by Tamburlaine. In A. iii. 3, Zenocrate addresses Zabina, the wife of Bajaxet, as "Disdainful Turkess and unreverend boss." The story of his being placed in a cage by Tamburlaine is, however, without foundation. In Dekker's Fortunatus i. 1, Fortune exhibits "Poor Bajazet, old Th. emperor, "and describes his death in Tamburlaine's cage. In Cooke's Greene's Quoque i. 1, Sir Lionel says his knighthood will "strike as great a terror to my enemies as ever Tamerlane to the Ts." In Greene's Alphonsus iii. prol., Belinus flies "unto the Th. soil To crave the aid of Amuracke their K." This was Murad II (1421–1451). In Span. Trag. v. 1, Hieronimo relates the story of Solyman and Perseda, and proposes to act it; the part of "great Solyman the Th. Emperor "being assigned to Balthazar. This was Suleyman I (1520–1566). In Barnes' Charter iii. 3, Frescobaldi boasts: "At Vienna I did unhorse 3 Th. Janizaries." This would be at the siege by Suleyman man in 1529. The Siege of Rhodes by Suleyman is the subject of Davenant's play with that title. In Dekker's Wonder iii. 1, we are told of "A Beet of youthful Florentines, all vowed To rescue Rhodes from Th. slavery." Malta, whither the Knights of St. John had gone after the taking of Rhodes, was attacked by Suleyman in 1551 and 1565, but without success. In Marlowe's Jew i. 1, Barabas says, "Long to the T. did Malta contribute; Which tribute . . . The Ts. have let increase to such a sum As all the wealth of Malta cannot pay." This is quite unhistorical. In Act V, the Ts., led by Selim Calymath–apparently intended for Selim, the son of Suleyman, who succeeded him as Selim II–attack Malta, but fail, and Selim is captured: a wholly imaginary incident. In Massinger's Maid Hon. i. 1, Antonio says to Bertolda, "You are a knight of Malta and, as I have heard, Have served against the T." In Barnes' Charter iii. 3, Frescobaldi says, "I fought at Malta, when the town was girt With bul-beggers of Turkie"; probably in 1551. In Oth. i. 3, 8, we learn that "A Th. fleet is bearing up to Cyprus"; and in spite of a counter-report that "The Th. preparation makes for Rhodes," it is held that "The importancy of Cyprus to the T." makes the first report the more probable; and this view is confirmed by a 2nd messenger. Consequently Othello is sent to Cyprus to meet them. In ii. 1, 10, we find that there has been "A segregation of the Th. fleet," and that "The desperate tempest hath so banged the Ts. That their designment halts"; and so "Our wars are done, the Ts. are drowned." Cyprus was attacked and taken from Venice by the Ts. in 1570, so that the action of Oth. must be supposed to be somewhat earlier than that. In Shirley's Imposture v. 1, Hortensio says to Pandolfo, "You are the very same to whom his Holiness gave a pension for killing 6 great Ts. in Transylvania." Probably he is thinking of the battle of Keresxtes in Transylvania, where the Ts. defeated Sigismund in 1596. In Marlowe's Massacre p. 234, Anjou speaks of "our wars against the Muscovites, And on the other side against the T." The reference is to the wars between the Ts. and the combined forces of Europe after the capture of Cyprus by the Ts. in 1570. In Day's Travails, the adventures of Sir Thomas and Sir Robert Shirley in the E. are related, and they include the defeat of the Ts. by the Persians in the early years of the 17th cent. The following plays are based upon events in the 7b. Empire: Marlowe's Tamb. (Bajazet I); Kyd's Solyman (Suleyman I); Fulke Greville's Mustapha (Stuleyman I); Selim, sometime Emperor of the Turks (Selim I). Carlell's Osmond the Great Turk professes to deal with the reign of the Sultan Osman, but is quite unhistorical. Goffe's Raging Turk or Bajazet II and his Courageous Turk or Amurath 1 have to do with the reigns of those monarchs. Peele's Turkish Mahomet and Hiren the Fair Greek was very popular, but is, unfortunately, lost. Ts. appear in many of the plays, chiefly as pirates who carry off one of the characters into slavery or as fighting against Malta, Rhodes, Venice, and other Italian cities.

The Th. standard was the crescent moon, first used as such by Selim I. Puttenham, in Art of Poesie ii., says, "Selim, emperor of Turkie, gave for his device a croissant or new moon." Sidney, in Astrophel xxx. 1, asks: "Whether the Turkich new moon minded be To fill his horns this year on Christian coast." Dekker, in Dream (1620), says, "The Th. half-moon on her silver horns Tosses the Christian diadem." In B. & F. Span. Cur. i. 1, Leandro pictures the tavern politicians discussing the T., "And whether his moony standards are designed For Persia or Polonia." In their Malta i. 3, Valetta says, "Much blood this warlike Dane hath spent To advance our flag above their homed moons." Milton, P. L. x. 434, describes the Bactrian Sophi (i.e. the Shah of Persia) retreating "from the horns of Th. crescent."

The Th. navy began to be formidable about the beginning of the 16th cent. in the reign of Bayezid II, and consisted of large galleys of upwards of 1,000 tons, with smaller galleys and barks or fly-boats. In Webster's White Devil ii. 1, Brachiano says, "The great D., because he has galleys, and now and then ransacks a Th. fly-boat, first made this match." In Ford's Trial i. 1, Futelli says, "Auria is hasting To cuff the Th. pirates in the service Of the Great D. of Florence." In Massinger's Great Duke ii. 1, Fiorinda says of Sanazarro: "Like lightning hath he fallen Upon the Th. galleys." In B. & F. Beggars, iv. 3, a sailor tells of a fight between a fly-boat and "6 Th. galleys," 3 of which are sunk by a Dutch vessel that came up. In Glapthorne's Privilege i. 1, Lactantio says, "The rumour has filled all Italy with wonder how so small a number should defeat the Th. navy." In Davenant's Plymouth iii. 1, Seawit says, "Imagine we meet a Persian junk or Th. carrack, board her, take her, and force a Bashaw prisoner."

References to Christians captured by the Ts. and sold into slavery or forced to serve in their galleys are numerous. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. A. ii. 1, Hippolito says to Bellafront, "You are crueller than Ts., for they sell Christians only, you sell yourselves away." In v. 2, one of the madmen cries: "See, the Ts.' gallies are fighting with my ships; alas, I am undone; you are the damned pirates have undone me." In Shirley's Hyde Park iv. 3, Bonavent's letter says, "I was taken by a Th. pirate and detained many years a prisoner is an island." In Massinger's Guardian v. 4, Alphonso says, "They had one design and that was In charity to redeem the Christian slaves Chained in the Th. servitude." In B. & F. Fair Maid I. v. 1, Alberto says, "The noble favour I received from thee In freeing me from the Ts. I now account Worse than my death; for I shall never live To make requital." In v. 3, Prospero says, "My cruel fate Made me a prisoner to the Th. gallies Where for 12 years these hands tugged at the oar." He was then released by a ship of Malta. In Massinger's Very Woman v. 5, Antonio tells the story of his capture by "8 well-manned gallies . . . Of which the arch Th. pirate, cruel Dragut, Was admiral," and of his being twice sold for a slave by them. In Davenant's Favourite iii. 1, Oramont says, "A crowd of slaves Whom she redeemed from Th. chains, salute her." In Dekker's Wonder iv. 1, Torrenti says, "Your pity on a wretch 3 years a Th. galley-slave." In Day's Law Tricks i. 1, Polymetis relates how "3 armed galleys of the faithless Ts." set their men on shore on the coast of Italy near Pisa and took his sister prisoner. In v. 1, the D. of Genoa says, "He hath redeemed my daughter From the Th. servitude." In Randolph's Muses iii. 1, Colax says, rather than be a parasite, 'Let me tug at the T.'s galleys."

The T. is the natural enemy of Christendom, and as such is classed with Jews and pagans. In As You Like It iv. 3, 33, Rosalind says, "Why, she defies me like T. to Christian." In R2 iv. 1, 95, Carlisle tells how Norfolk has been "Streaming the ensign of the Christian cross Against black Pagans, Ts., and Saracens." In Oth. v. 2, 953, Othello tells how in Aleppo he slew "a malignant and turbaned T." who had "beaten a Venetian and traduced the state." In Fulwell's Like (Haz. iii. 336), Virtuous Living prays: "O gracious God, how highly art thou of all men to be praised, Of Christians, Saracens, Jews, and also Ts." In Ingelend's Disobedient 82, the Devil says, "All the Jews and all the Ts. In the end they fly hither "( hell). In Lupton's All for Money prol., Astrology is said to be an art "not hid from the Sarisons, Pagans, and Ts." In the Collect for Good Friday (1549), we are, bid to pray: "Have mercy upon all Jews, Ts., Infidels, and Heretics." In Jonson's Volpone iv. 1, Sir Politick says, "I could show you reasons how I could sell this state now to the T., spite of their galleys"; and in v. 2, Peregrine tells him that his plot "To sell the State of Venice to the T." has been revealed to the Senate. In Webster's White Devil v. 1, Flamineo says, "I have known men that have come from serving against the Turk, for 3 or 4 months they have had pension to buy them new wooden legs and fresh plasters; but, after, 'twas not to be had." In B. & F. Span. Cur. i. 11, Leandro satirizes the tavern politicians who can tell "what course the Emperor takes Against the encroaching T." In Ital. Gent. ii. 2, Pedant parodies Medusa's list of devils with "Ottomans, Sophys, Ts., and the Great Cham." In S. Rowley's When You D. 2, Henry VIII promises the Papal Legate, "The Turke will we expel from Christendom."

The Sultan is often spoken of as The T., The Great T., or The Grand T. In All's Well ii. 3, 94, Lafeu says of the young fellows who refuse Helena's hand: "I would send them to the T. to make eunuchs of." In H4 B. iii. 2, 331, Falstaff says of Shallow's talk: "every 3rd word a lie, duer paid to the hearer than the T.'s tribute." The tribute exacted by the Ottomans was very strictly enforced. In H5 v. 2, 222, Henry promises to get a boy "that shall go to Constantinople and take the T. by the beard." In H6 A. iv. 7, 73, La Pucelle says of Talbot's letter: "The T., that two and fifty kingdoms hath, Writes not so tedious a style as this." In Dekkers Satiro. i. 2 79, Tucca says to Horace (Jonson), "You must be called Asper, and Criticus, and Horace; thy title's longer a reading than the style a the Big Turkes–Asper Criticus Quintus Horatius Flaccus." In a letter from the Commissary-General of Ty.. dated July 1612, the Sultan is described as "The K. of all lands and seas, dominator from the E, unto the W., commander over Meccha and Jerusalem, the most noble prince of the whole commonwealth of the inhabiters of the world," and so on for a dozen lines more. In Lear iii. 4, 94, Edgar says, "In woman I out-paramoured the T." So throughout Oth. In J. Heywood's Four PP. (A.B.D., p. 14), one of the Pardoner's relics is "an eyetooth of the G. T," which he affirms will preserve the eye-sight. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. iv. 2, Orlando says of his daughter: "She's more honest than one of the T.'s wenches, watched by a hundred eunuchs." In Barry's Ram iv, Smallshanks says to Capt. Face, who is being forced to pretend that he is a baboon, "Now, Sir, what can you do for the Gt. T.? Hark, he stirreth not l" Baboons were trained to lift up their hands or make other gestures when Protestants were mentioned, but to give no sign at the name of the T. or the Pope. In Middleton's Gipsy ii. 1, John offers to do anything for Pretiosa: "kill the Gt. T, pluck out the Mogul's eye-teeth." In Massinger's Great Duke i. 2, Sanazarro announces the capture of the galleys "Appointed to transport the Asian tribute Of the Gt. Turk." In Chapman's D'Olive ii. 2, the D. says, "I will trust you now, if 'twere to send you forth to the Gt. T. with an embassage." In Beguiled ix. 285, the Nurse says, "He does strut before her as if he were a gentleman-usher to the gt. T." In Davenant's Siege v. 1, Mervole says, "The Gt. T. with all his janisaries would not be permitted to make this noise." In Shirley's Gent. Ven. iii. 1, Malipiero says, "Venice is a jewel, a rich pendant, would hang rarely at the Gt. T.'s ear." In Val. Welsh. ii. 5, Juggler predicts, "He shall subdue the T. And pluck gt. Otoman from off his throne," In Brome's Antipodes i. 4, Martha says that her husband professed to have had 3 sons, one of whom "had shook the Gt. T. by the beard." In Dekker's Babylon 242, Plain Dealing says, "The Gt. T. is a very little fellow." The reference is to Mohammed III, of whom Fynes Moryson says: 11 He was very corpulent and fat and seemed on horseback to be of somewhat a low stature." In line 259, Paridel says of Elizabeth: "She walks not like the T. with a Janisarie-guard." Hall, in Sat. iv. 2, 12, says, "Let giddy Cosmius change his choice array, Like as the T. his tents, thrice in a day." In Cartwright's Ordinary iv. 31, Hearsay says, "The Gt. T. loves no music." Fynes Moryson, Itin. i., says of Selim II: "He loved music, but had not the patience to attend the tuning of instruments," and tells how he left a concert provided for him by the Venetians because the musicians had to tune. In B. & F. Span. Cur. ii. 1, when Diego pretends to remember the imaginary De Castro, Leandro says, "De-Castro is the T. to thee," i.e. You know him no more than you do the Grand T. Gt. T. is sometimes used to mean the supreme authority on any subject. In Davenant's Plymouth ii. 1, Seawit says, "We will hear you as you were the Gt. T. of eloquence."

It was the practice of the Th. Sultans to kill all their brothers on their accession. In H4 B. v. 2, 47, Henry V says to his brothers, "Brothers, you mix your sadness with some fear; This is the English, not the Th. court; Not Amurath an Amurath succeeds, But Harry Harry." In Wilson's Inconstant ii. 11 Aramant says, "The Gt. T. Is now confined into 500 whores . . . and 'a must not murder More brothers than 'a has!" Burton, A. M. iii. 3, 1, 1, says, "Amongst the Ts . . . . 'tis an ordinary thing to make away their brothers, or any competitors, at the first coming to the crown." "Bear, like the T., no brother near the throne," says Pope of Addison.

The Sultans kept their numerous wives in a Seraglio, guarded by mutes and eunuchs. In H5 i. 2, 232, Henry says, "Either our history shall with full mouth Speak freely of our acts, or else our grave, Like Th. mute, shall have a tongueless mouth." In Jonson's Epicoene ii. 1, Morose says, "The T. in this divine discipline is admirable; still waited on by mutes, and all his commands so executed." In B. & F. Sea Voyage iii. 1, Tibalt says, "Like the Grand Signior, Thus I walk in my seraglio." In Tw. N. i. 2, 69, the Capt. says to Viola, "Be you his eunuch, and your mute I'll be." In Glapthorne's Wit i. 1, Thorowgood says that Formal "deserves to be grand porter to the Gt. T.'s seraglio." In Davenant's Platonic iv. 2, Gridonell says, "Would I were the Gt. T. but for one month!" In his Love Hon. i. 1, Vasco says, "If the Gt. T. knew me, honest Achmet, he would trust me in his seraglio"; in ii. 1, Altesta says, "I stand like one of the T.'s chidden mutes." In Dekker's Northward iv. 1, Mayberry says "The knave has more wives than the T., he has a wife almost in every shire in England." In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iii. 3, Bajazeth says of Tamburlaine: "He shall be made a chaste and lustless eunuch And in my sarell tend my concubines." Montaigne (Florio's trans.) i. 42, says, "What longing lust would not be allayed, to see 300 women at his dispose and pleasure, as hath the Gt. T. in his Seraille?" National Character of the Turks.–Heylyn (s.v. TURCOMANIA) says, "The Ts. are generally well-complexioned, of good stature, proportionately compacted, no idle talkers, no doers of things superfluous, hot and venerious, servile to their Emperor, and zealous is religion. They nourish no hair on their head . . . . Shooting is their chief recreation. As they shave their heads, so they wear their beards long, as a figure of freedom. The women are small of stature, for the most part ruddy, clear, and smooth as the polished ivory, of a very good complexion, seldom going abroad, and then masked; lascivious within doors, pleasing in matters of incontinency." Montaigne (Florio's trans.) i. 24, says, "The mightiest, yea, the best settled estate that is now in the world is that of the Ts., a nation equally instructed to the esteem of arms and disesteem of letters."

Their Warlike Character.–In R2 iv. 1, 139, Carlisle predicts: "Peace shall go sleep with Ts. and infidels And in this seat of peace tumultous wars Shall kin with kin confound." In Davenant's Love Hon. i. 1, Vasco says, "This Prospero's a T. when his whinyard's drawn." Their swords and bows were highly esteemed. Fynes Moryson says that the Ts. were furnished "with excellent short swords whereof they have great store." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 1, Orcanes says, "Our Ty. blades shall glide through all their throats." In Greene's QUIP, p. 239, Cloth-breeches accuses the cutler of selling a sword or rapier new over-glased "and swearing "the blade came either from Turkie or Toledo In B. & F. Elder B. v. 1, Cowsy says, "I have . . . paid For several weapons, Th. and Toledos, 2,000 crowns." Whiting, in Albino and Bellama (1638) 108, says, "He forthwith unsheathed his trusty turke, Called forth that blood which in his veins did lurk." Chaucer, Rom. Rose 923, says, "In his hand holding Turke bowes two, fulle well devysed had he." In Sir Bevis 767, we read of "Bowes turkes and arweblast." Bacon, in Sylva viii. 704, says, "The Th. bow giveth a very forcible shoot."

Inhumanity and Treachery of the Turks.–In Merch. iv. 1, 32, the D. says that Antonio's losses might "pluck commiseration of his state From stubborn Ts. and Tartars, never trained To offices of tender courtesy." In Oldcastle iv. 2, the K. asks, "Else what's the difference 'twixt a Christian And the uncivil manners of the T.?" In Chivalry F. 4, Katharine says, "No bloody Scythian or inhuman T. But would ha' trembled to ha' touched his skin." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 562, Joice says that Rash's behaviour "is barbarous, and a T. would blush to offer it to a Christian." In Philotus 53, Emily says, "Sic creweltie has not bene knawin Amang the Turkes sa rude." Dekker, in Wonderful Year, says, "They seem by their Th. and barbarous actions to believe that there is no felicity after this life." Lyly, in Euphues Anat. Wit 42, says, "Was never any imp so wicked and barbarous, any T. so vile and brutish." Hence to T. means to treat barbarously. In B. & F. Malta ii. 1, Norandine says, "Your timely succour . . . came in the nick . . . My T. had turked me else." But on the other hand, in their Cure v. 1, Lucio says, "The barbarous T. is satisfied with spoil," i.e. without torture or murder. In Massinger's Renegado iii. 5, Vitelli says, when he is betrayed by Asambeg, "The better; I expected A Th. faith."

Hence the T. was frequently brought on the Elizabethan stage as the villain of the piece. His black face, heavy moustache, white or gaily-coloured turban, and curved falchion made him a conspicuous figure. Ts. (or Moors, for the terms are often synonymous) are found in the following plays, for the list of which I am indebted to Mr. J. Q. Adams, the editor of Mulleasses the Turk: Tamburlaine A. and B., Spanish Tragedy, Jew of Malta, Selimus, Solyman and Perseda, Alphonsus of Arragon, Lust's Dominion, Battle of Alcazar, Orlando, Mustapha, White Devil, Knight of Malta, Mulleasses the Turk, All's Lost by Lust, Two Noble Ladies, City Nightcap, Renegado, Revenge for Honour, Emperor of the East, Royal Slave, Aglaura, Osmond the Great Turk, Rebellion, Thracian Wonder, and many others whose names only have survived.

The Ts. were credited with taciturnity and gravity of demeanour. In Davenant's Rutland p. 225, the Londoner says to the Parisian, "Your nation affects not that majestical silence which is used by the Ts." In B. & F. Double Mar. iii. 1, the Boatswain says, "This senseless silent courtesy, methinks, Shows like 2 Ts. saluting one another."

Turk is constantly used as a term of abuse, an infidel. In M. W.W. i. 3, 97, Pistol apostrophises Falstaff as "base Phrygian T.!" meaning that, like the Phrygian Paris, he is hunting after another man's wife, and, like the T., he is not satisfied with one. In H4 A. v. 3, 46, Falstaff says, "T. Gregory never did such deeds in arms as I have done this day." Gregory is possibly Pope Gregory VII, or Hildebrand, who was particularly odious to Protestants; hence he is called T., i.e. renegade. In R3 iii. 5, 41, Gloucester says, "What, think you we are Ts. or infidels?" In Mac. iv. 1, 29, 11 Nose of T. and Tartar's lips "are ingredients in the witches' cauldron, along with "liver of blaspheming Jew." In Oth. ii. 1, 115, Iago says, "Nay, it is true, or else I am a T." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. iv.:; Orlando says, "He's a T., that makes any woman a whore; he's no true Christian, I'm sure." In Juventus 157, Good Councell says, "No more ungodliness doth reign In any wicked heathen, T., or infidel." In Ford's 'Tis Pity iv. 3, Putana says, "Believe me! Why, dost think I am a T. or a Jew?" In Dekker's Satiro iv. 2, 45, Tucca says, "Wilt fight, T.-a-ten-pence?" Taylor, in Works, says, "If he had a T. of ten pence been, Thou told'st him plain the errors he was in." In Marlowe's Jew iv. 4, Ithamore says, "Gentleman! he flouts me. What gentry can be in a poor T. of ten pence?" It is clear from the last three passages that "T. of tenpence" had become a proverb of contempt.

Hence to turn T. means to become an apostate, a renegade, and so to make a complete change in one's views and beliefs; to round upon one's old friends. In Much Ado iii. 4, 57, Margaret says to Beatrice, "Well, an you be not turned T., there's no more sailing by the star." In Oth. ii. 3, 160, Othello asks: "Are we turned Ts. and to ourselves do that Which heaven hath forbid the Ottomite?" In Ham. iii. 2, 287, Hamlet thinks he might turn actor "if the rest of my fortunes turn T. with me." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. A. iv. i. Hippolito says to Bellafront, "'Tis damnation If you turn T.," i.e. relapse again into an immoral life. In Massinger's Maid Hon. ii. 2, Sylli, being insulted by a page, cries, "Tamburlaine in little! Am I turned T.?" The reference to is Tamburlaine's treatment of Bajazet, whom he used as a mounting block when he got on his horse. In W. Rowley's All's Lost ii. 6, 44, Antonio says, "Persuade me to turn T. or Moore Mahometan." In Massinger's Renegado v. 4, Pauline says to Asambeg, "There shall be no odds betwixt us; I will turn T." In Kyd's Soliman iii. 5, Soliman asks: "What say these prisoners? Will they turn T. or no?" Burton, A. M. i. 2, 4, 6, says of a poor man: "He will betray his father, prince, and country, turn T., forsake religion, abjure God and all."

Figures like Ts. were set up for the archers in Finsbury and elsewhere to shoot at. In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 1, Hodge says, "If I stay, I pray God I may be turned to a T. and set in Finsbury for boys to shoot at." In preface to Camden's Hist. Eliz. (1569) he speaks of various sorts of archery, and amongst them "the shooting at the Turke." In Manifestation of the Archbishop of Spalato's Motives, Appendix iii. 7, it is said, "All the rest were but painted posts, and Turkes of ten pence, to fill and adorn the shooting field." (See quotations at end of preceding paragraph.)

Personal Appearance and Dress.–In Field's Weathercock v. 1, Nevill says he has got for Sir Abraham a vizard with a huge moustachio, "a very T.'s." Gascoigne, in Hearbes (1572), p. 346, expects to see his friend coming back from his travel with "Your brave mustachyos turned the Turky way." In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius sings, "Some like breechless women he Russ, T., Jew, and Grecian"; and later, "The T. in linen wraps his head." In Span. Trag. v. 1, Hieronimo says to Balthazar, who is to act the part of Soleyman in a Masque, "You must provide a Th. cap, A black mu mustachio, and a fauchion." Fynes Moryson, Itin. 1, describes the Th. soldiers as wearing "a cap of mingled colours in the form of a sugar-loaf." Again he says, "All Ts. in general wear white heads, called by some Tsalma, by others Tolopa, and vulgarly Tulbent. This Tulbent is made Of 20 or more ells of fine linen and very white." In Middleton's Changeling iv. 3, Isabella says, "About thy head I saw a heap of clouds, Wrapt like a Th. turban." In Strode's Float. Isl., Dame Fancy cannot decide whether to accept a Th. turbant or a Persian cydaris as her head-dress. In Cartwright's Slave, Masistes says of the women: "I hope They have not changed their sex; they are not leaped Into rough chins and tulipants." Herrick, in Temple, says that the Fairy "Dons the silkworm's shed Like a T.'s turban on his head." In Histrio iii. 1, Pride says, "Ladies, trick your trains with Th. pride." In Chapman's Hum. Day vii., Dowsecer speaks of "Ignorant Th. pride, Being pompous in apparel and in mind." In Kyd's Soliman v., Lucina asks: "How chanceth your Th. bonnet is not on your head?"

The Ts. were Mohammedans in religion, and the Koran or Al-Koran was their sacred book. In Chapman's Consp. Byron v. 1, Henry says of Savoy: "He hath talked a volume greater than the T.'s Alcaron." In Lady Mother i. 3, Bonville says, "Labour to induce Ts. to contemn their Alcoron." Milton, in Areopagitica, p. 42, says, "The T. upholds his Alcoran by the prohibition of printing." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. v. 4, Carlo says, "I'll honour thee more than the T. does Mahomet." The Koran allows Polygamy, and denies that women have souls. In T. Heywood's Traveller i. 1, Geraldine says, "The Greek wantons, Compelled beneath the Th. slavery, Vassal themselves to all men." In Massinger's Renegado i. 2, Donusa says, "Our jealous Ts. Never permit their fair wives to be seen But at the public bagnios or the mosques And even then veiled and guarded." In Swetnam iii. 1, lago says that Swetnam "is of the T.'s opinion "that women have no souls. The Koran forbids the use of intoxicating drink. In H. Shirley's Mart. Soldier iv. 3, the Cameldriver says, "I fare hard and drink water; so do the Indians; so do the Ts." Bacon, in Sylva viii. 705, says that in Ty. they drink a confection called shervet, dissolved in water, "because they are forbidden wine by their law." In Davenant's Wits iii. 4, the elder Palatine speaks of "cool sherbet, The Turk's own julep." In Rabelais' Pantagruel ii. 14, Panurge says, "These horrible Ts. are very unhappy, in that they never drink one drop of wine."

The national drink was coffee or kahveh, which was introduced into England about the middle of the 17th cent. Evelyn, in Memoirs (1636), says of a Greek, Nathanael Conopios: "He was the first I ever saw drink coffee, which custom came not into England till 30 years after." Burton, A.M. i. 2, 2, 2, says, "Their chief comfort, to be merry together in an alehouse or tavern, as . . . Ts. in their coffee-houses, which much resemble our taverns." In ii. 5, 1, 5, he says, "The Ts. have a drink called coffee (for they use no wine) so named of a berry as black as soot and as bitter which they sip still of, and sup as warm as they can suffer; they spend much time in those coffee-houses, which are somewhat like our ale-houses or taverns." They were much addicted to the use of opium. Sandys, in Travels (1615) 66, says, "The Turkes are also incredible takers of opium." In B. & F. Thierry v. 2, Bawdber says that a Spanish doctor has given Thierry "More cooling opium than would kill a T."

Turkish Trade with England in Tapestries, Carpets, Cushions, etc.–In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 1, Wellbred says in his letter, "I have such a present for thee; our Ty. company never sent the like to the Grand Signior." When the Turkey Company was rechartered in 1605, James I. gave them £5,000 to be sent as a present to the Grand Signior. In Tomkis's Albumazar i. 5, Albumazar directs that a clock he has invented should be delivered "To a Ty. factor, bid him with care present it From me to the house of Ottoman." In Mayne's s Match i. 4, Newcut describes young Plotwell, who has been compelled by his uncle to enter into business, as dressed in "A velvet jacket which hath seen Aleppo twice, is known to the Gt. T." In Shrew ii. 1, 355, Gremio boasts that he has in his house "Ty. cushions bossed with pearl." In Err. iv. 1, 104, Antipholus speaks of his desk "That's covered o'er with Th. tapestry." In Jonson's Volpone v. t, "Ty. carpets nine "figure in the inventory of Volpone's property. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 2, Callapine says, "The pavements underneath thy chariot wheels With Ty. carpets shall be covered." In B. & F. Coxcomb iv. 3, Mother says, "Take care my house be handsome, and the new stools set out, and the Ty. carpet." In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass iii., one of the merchants in Jonah's ship says, "On his [Jehovah's] altar's fume These Ty. cloths, this gassampine and gold I'll sacrifice," an amusing anachronism. Dekker, in Hornbook iv., advises the gallant after dinner to change his English-cloth coat "into a light Turky-grogram," grogram being a coarse silk, or silk and wool, fabric. Nash, in Wilton 146, says, "His cloak is faced with Ty. grogeran ravelled." Euphues, in Lyly's Euphues England, p. 415, says to the ladies of Italy, "If I had brought . . . fine carpets from Ty . . . . you woujd have wooed me."

The Moors are sometimes called Ts., probably because both were Mohammedans. In W. Rowley's All's Lost, which is concerned with the wars between the Moors and Spaniards in A.D. 711–714, the Moors are often called Ts.; thus, in i. 2, 44, Julianus says to the K., "So long have you held A champion resolution 'gainst the Turke That Spain is wasted in her noble strength."

Turkey was first given as the name of the Guineafowl, which was originally brought into England from the Th. empire, but when the American bird, Meleagris Gallopavo, was introduced the name was transferred to it. In H4 A. ii. 1, 29, the carrier complains, "Ile tys. in my pannier are quite starved." In Tw. N. ii. 5, 36 Fabian says of Malvolio: "Contemplation makes a rare ty.-cock of him; how he jets under his advanced plumes!" In H5 v. 1, 16, Gower says of Pistol: "Here he comes, swelling like a ty.-cock." In Dekker's Satiro ii. 1, 55, Sir Vaughan says, "And he were a cock come out as far as in Ty.'s country, 'tis possible to cut his comb off." R.C., in Time's Whistle (1616) iii., speaks of one swelling "in big looks like some turkie cock."

Ty. or Ty. Stone is used for the Turquoise. Fynes Moryson, in Itin. iv. 4, 1, tells of a man who had "3 rings on his fingers, a diamond, a Turky, and a ruby."

In Skelton's Magnificence fol. xvii., Fancy mentions "Porcenya the proud provost of Turky land that rated the Romans and made them ill rest." Lars Porsenna of Clusium is intended, and Turky seems to be a misprint or error for Tuscany, i.e. Etruria.


A humorous name for TURNBULL STREET, q.v.


Lond., running S. from Clerkenwell Green to Cowcross St., just E. of Farringdon Station. The Metropolitan railway has occupied the W. side of it, and it has recovered its original name, Turnmill St., derived, according to Stow, from the Fleet River, which ran down at the back of its W. side and was called Turnmill, or Tremill, Brook, from the mills which were supplied by it with water-power. In our dramatists the commonest spelling is T., but we also find Turnball, Townbull, and Tunbold as variants. It was the most disreputable street in Lond., a haunt of thieves and loose women.

In H4 B. iii. 2, 329, Falstaff says of Shallow: "This same starved justice hath done nothing but prate to me of the wildness of his youth, and the feats he hath done about T. St." In Jonson's Ev. Man I., iv. 5, Bobadil says, 11 They have assualted me as I have walked alone in divers skirts i' the town, as T., Whitechapel, Shoreditch, which were then my quarters." In Barthol. ii. 1, Ursula says to Knockem, who is described as "Master Daniel Knockem Jordan, the ranger of T., a horsecourser," "You are one of those horse-leeches that gave out I was dead in T. St. of a surfeit of bottle-ale and tripes." In iv. 3, Ursula calls Alice "your punk of T." and "Thou tripe of T." In B. & F. Pestle iii. 4, one of the men who is being treated for syphilis says, "I fell in love with this _ my lady dear And stole her from her friends in T.-st." In their Scornful iii. 2, Savil says, "Here has been such dismal drinking, swearing, and whoring, we've lived in a continual Turnball St." In Greene's Thieves, Kate says, "We poor wenches are your sure props and stay. If you will not believe me, ask poor A. B. in Turnemill St." In Middleton's Chaste Maid ii. 2, one of the promoters says, "I promised faithfully to send this morning a fat quarter of lamb to a kind gentlewoman in T. St. that longs." In Field's Amends i. 1, Lady Honour says, "You talk like one of those same rambling boys That reign in T. St." In ii. 2, Subtle says, "Your whore doth live in Pickt-hatch, T. St." In iii. 4, the scene is a tavern in the st., and the Drawer pleads, "Gentlemen, I beseech you consider where you are–T. St.–a civil place; do not disturb a number of poor gentlewomen!" In Webster's Cuckold iv. 1, Pettifog says, "This informer comes into T. St. to a victualing house and there falls in league with a wench." In Middleton's Inner Tem. 174, Dr. Almanac says, "Stand forth, Shrove Tuesday I in your charge to pull down bawdy houses, cause spoil in Shoreditch, deface T., and tickle Codpiece Row." The Apprentices had licence on Shrove Tuesday each year to make a raid on houses of ill-fame. In his No Wit ii. 1, Weatherwise speaks of "one Taurus, a gentleman in Townbull st." In Barry's Ram iii. 3, Mrs. Taffata calls Puff "Your swaggering, cheating, T.-st. rogue." In Randolph's Muses iv. 3, Justice Nimis mentions among the sources of his income "the lordship of T." In his Hey Hon. he talks of "The whores of Pickt-hatch, T., the unmerciful bawds of Bloomsbury." In Barnes' Charter iii. 5, Bagnioli mentions "Marga Marichalus That in Turnulibull doth keep an ale-house," where Turnulibull is a transparent alias for T. Nash, in Pierce G. 1, says, "I commend our unclean sisters in T. st. to the protection of your [the devil's) portership." In Davenport's New Trick i. 2, Slightall, wanting a woman, bids Roger "go search Turnball," amongst other places of ill-repute. In iii. 1, the Constable brings along "a bottle of the best wine in Turnball, which they say all Lond. cannot better." In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, the President of the Twiball knights, a company of blackguards, takes the title of "Duke of T., Bloomsbury, and Rotten Row." In Brome's Antipodes v. 7, Lefoy says to Barbara, "Go with thy flesh to T. shambles." In his Damoiselle ii. 1, Amphilus keeps his water-dog with a cobler in T. st.; and in his New Academy ii. 1, Valentine says, "Your husband kennels his water-dog in T. st." In the title of St. Hilary's Tears (1642), "the T.-st. trull" is specified. In Marston's Mountebanks, the Mountebank says, "If any be troubled with the Tentigo, let him travel to Japan, or, because the forest of Turnbolia is . . . at hand, let him hunt there for his recreation."






There were 2 Turnstiles on the S. side of Holborn, Lond.: They were passages leading to Lincoln's Inn Fields, and were closed at their S. ends by revolving barriers to keep out horses and cattle. Glapthorne's Hollander was "Imprinted at Lond. by Tho. Paine for George Hutton, and are to be sold at his shop within T. in Holborne. 1640." The sign of Hutton's shop was the Sun.






i.e. TERVUEREN, or THEROUANNE. A town in Artois abt. 8 m. S. of St. Omer, on the Lys. It was besieged and captured by Henry VIII in 1513, being then in the Spanish Netherlands. In True Trag. (Haz., p. 127), it is said of Henry VIII: "He won T. and Turney." Hall, in Sat. iv. 3,17, speaks of "old Ocland's verse, how did they wield The wars in T. or in Turney field." Ocland wrote a Latin Poem, Anglorum Praelia, in 1582. Puttenham, Art of Poesie iii. 22, blames "one that would say . . . that K. Henry the eight made spoils in T., when as in deed he . . . caused it to be defaced and razed flat to the earth."




(affectedly used for TUSCAN. See TUSCANY). In Dekker's Hon. Wh. A. iv. 2, Fustigo describes the man who has cudgelled him as "a pretty, tall, prating fellow with a T. beard," at which Poh exclaims: "T.! Very good!"


(Tn. = Tuscan). A dist. in N.W. Italy, between the sea and the Apennines, corresponding roughly to the ancient Etruria. After passing successively under the sway of the Romans, Ostrogoths, Greeks, and Lombards, it became a Frankish Marquesate in A.D. 828. Matilda, the last of this line, bequeathed it to the Ch., and there were long disputes between the Popes and the Emperors, which gave the opportunity to the chief cities to gain independence. They were gradually absorbed by Florence, and the title of Grand Duke of T. was conferred on Cosmo de Medici by Pius V in 1567. The last of the Medici died in 1737, and the country passed to the Dukes of Lorraine (Francis, husband of Maria Theresa), and through them to the Hapsburgs. It is now part of the United Kingdom of Italy. Tuscan is sometimes used in the sense of Etrurian. In Milton's Comus 48, the Spirit tells how "Bacchus, After the Tn. mariners transformed, On Circe's island fell." The story was that certain Etrurian sailors kidnapped Bacchus, but he drove them all mad, and they jumped into the sea, where they were changed into dolphins.

Tuscany in the modern sense. In Barnes' Charter i. 4, Alexander allots to Caesar Borgia "In T. within the river Narre And fruitful Arno those sweet provinces." In Middleton's R.G. v. 1, Trapdoor claims to have ambled through "Tuscana with all her cities, as Pistoia, Valteria, Montepulchena, Arezzo." Spenser, F. Q. iv. 3, 45, calls Ariosto of Ferrara "that famous Tuscane pen." Milton, P. L. i. 288, calls Galileo "the Tn. artist." In Son. to Lawrence, he speaks of "artful voice Warbling immortal notes and Tn. air."

Tn. often means Florentine. In All's Well i. 2, 14, the K. says, "For our gentlemen that mean to see The Tn. service, freely have they leave." In ii. 3, 290, Bertram declares: "I'll to the Tn. wars and straightway proceeds to Florence. In Davenant's Favourite i.1, Oramont says, "Our attempt upon the Tn. Camp Was bloodily repulsed."

The Great D. of T. is the usual translation of the title of the Medici; the contemporary Great Dukes were Cosmo 1, 1569; Francis 1, 1574; Ferdinand 1, 1587; Cosmo II, 1608; Ferdinand II, 1621. The hero of Massinger's Great Duke, who is also called in v.!" T.'s Grand D., "is Cosmo I; but there is nothing historical about the play. In B. & F. Fair Maid I. iii. 1, Mariana addresses the unnamed D. of Florence as "Great D. of T." In Jonson's Volpone ii. 1, Volpone, disguised as a mountebank, boasts of the fees that have been given him by "the Great D. of T." In Day's Travails, Bullen, p. 40, we are told "Sir Thomas is come to Ligorne, then to the D. of Tn." Probably Ferdinand I is intended. An imaginary Lavinio, Great D. of T., is one of the characters in Cockayne's Trapolin. In Shirley's Traitor iii. 3, Alexander, who became D. of Florence in 1530, speaks of himself as "D. of T." In Massinger's Lover i. 2, mention is made of Lorenzo the Tn. D., who reigned from 1469 to 1492.

The Tn. men are spoken of as grave and dignified, though they have the hot blood of the Italians; the women are attractive, but of easy virtue. In Brewer's Lingua i. 1, Lingua speaks of "The Roman eloquent. and Tn. grave." In Jonson's Volpone iii. 6, Corvino says, "Should I offer this [his wife's virtue] To some young Frenchman or hot Tn. blood, This were a sin." In the same scene Volpone will have Celia attired like "a brave Tn. lady or proud Spanish beauty." In Massinger's Guardian ii. 5, Calipso mentions in her list of foreign beauties "the sprightful Tn." In Davenant's Wits iv., young Palatine enumerates amongst other dainties "Your Turin and your Tn. veal." In Dekker's Match me ii., Bilbo cries: "See here rich Tn.. hatbands, Venetian ventoyes." In Marlowe's Ed. II. i. 4, Mortimer describes Gaveston with "A jewel of more value than the crown In his Tn. cap." In Jonson's Poetaster iii. i. Crispus, talking of the styles of hair-dressing in vogue amongst ladies, says, "I affect not these high gable-ends, these Tn. tops." In Davenant's Italian v. 3, Altamont says, "German viols wake the Tn. lute." In May's Agrippina iv. 330, Petronius scoffs at "Dull satires, such as water or the lees Of Tn. wine beget." The Tn. wines were of inferior quality. See also FLORENCE, ITALY.


A large piece of open land in Westminster on the left bank of the Thames, S. of Tothill St. Its exact boundaries are vague, but it extended as far as Vauxhall Bridge Rd., and the actual Tot, or Toot, Hill seems to have been at the point where Horseferry Rd. forms an angle at its junction with Carey St., and it included what is now Vincent Square. Tournaments were held there, and wagers of battle decided; and till the end of the i 7th cent. it was a common place for duels. It was also a training ground for troops, and a practising place for archers. A fair was held annually from 1542 till the beginning of the 19th cent. There was an artificial maze which was frequented by pleasure-seekers. In Kirke's Champions iii, the Clown, talking of a monstrous giant whom he claims to have killed, says, "He was just about that stature that T.-f. would fitly make a grave for; 'Tis near to Lond. in England, where men go a-training to get them good stomachs." In Oldcastle iii. 4, the K. gives order: "Let our forces Make speedy rendezvous in T. F." In Dekker's Shoemaker's i. 1, Lacy reports: "Suffolk and Essex train in Tothill-f." In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, Gossip Mirth says, "My gossip Tattle knew who conjured in T.-f., and how many, when they never came there." In Deloney's Craft ii. 3, Gillian goes "into T. f." to gather herbs. In Randolph's Hey Hon., one says, "I have done him no injury, but once I stroke his shins at foot-ball in T."

In T. Heywood's Hogsdon iv. 2, Luce's father, insisting on fighting a duel, says, "When I was young, I knew the way into St. George's F. twice in a morning. T., Finsbury, I knew them all." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 553, Spendall, arranging for a duel with Staines, fixes the place "beyond the Maze in T." In Shirley's Wedding iv. 3, Lodam says, "I have expected you these 2 hours, which is more than I have done to all the men I have fought withal since I slew the High German in T."


Westminster, running W. from Broad Sanctuary to Broadway. It is a very old st. and was formerly occupied by mansions with gardens stretching back to St. James's Park. At No. 72 was the old Cock Tavern, one of the oldest inns in Lond. It was puffed down in 1873 to make room for the Aquarium, which has now given place to the Wesleyan Methodist Hall. Much of the S. side of the st. had to go when Victoria St. and the Westminster Palace Hotel were construct. In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, Gossip Tattle claims to have all the news "of T.-st., and both the Alm'ries." In Webster's Cuckold iii. 2, Compass says, "All the law betwixt Blackwall and Tothill st., and there's a pretty deal, shall not keep it from me."


A river rising in Peebles-sh. in the S. of Scotland, and flowing into the North Sea at Berwick. During the latter part of its course it is the boundary between England and Scotland. Spenser, F.Q. iv. 11, 36, speaks of "Twede, the limit between Logris land And Albany "i.e. England and Scotland. Milton, Vac. Ex. 92, calls it "utmost T." Drayton, in Idea xxxii. to, says, "Our northern borders boast of T.'s fair flood." In Fisher's Fuimus iii. 2, Nennius says, "Before he [Caesar] T. can drink, a life is spent"; in other words, it will take Caesar a lifetime to reach Scotland. In Brewer's Lovesick iv., Alured tells that the K. of Scots "has passed the T. through Northumberland "In v., Alured grants to the K. of Scots "all those our northern borders Bounding on Cumberland from Tine to T." In Greene's James IV v. 3, 213.2, Nano says, "The English K. . . . hath slain 7000 Scottish lads not far from T." The reference is to the battle of Flodden, which was fought a few miles S. of the T. in 1513. In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage ii. 2, the Clown says, "Mine eyes are plain Severn; the Thames, nor the river of T, are nothing to them." In Trag. Rich. II iv. 1, 216, the K. assigns the N. counties of England to Scroope, and says, "From Trent to T. thy lot is parted thus." In Ford's Warbeck iii. 4, K. James says to the Bp. of Durham, "Surrender up this castle [Norham] . . . else T. Shall overflow his banks with English blood."


A town in Middlesex on the left bank of the Thames, opposite to Richmond, with which it is connected by a ferry and a handsome stone bridge. It is abt. 12 m. in a direct line from St. Paul's. In Armin's Moreclacke C. 4, the Lady asks: "Is this the tinker?" and is answered. "Ay, madam, of Twitnam." Twickenham Park was once the home of Francis Bacon, but in 1608 was acquired by Lady Bedford, to whom Donne writes in one of his Verseletters: "The store of beauty in Twickenham is and you."


In the Counters and the Fleet Prison in Lond. there were various degrees of accommodation, according to the amount which the prisoners were prepared to pay. The most expensive was the Master's Side, then came the Knights' Ward, the T. W., and, worst of all, the Hole for those who could not pay anything. In Eastward v. 2, Wolf says of his prisoners in the Counter: "The knight will be in the knights' w., and Mr. Quicksilver would lie in the Hole, if we would let him; only Security lies in the t. w., far off." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. v. I 1, Macilente says to Brisk, who is in the Counter, "Remove yourself to the T. w. quickly, to save charges." See also under COUNTER, KNIGHTS' WARD, HOLE.






(To. = Tyborne). Properly the name of a brook which rose in Hampstead, and flowed across Oxford St. near Stratford Place into the Green Park, and so into the Thames in 2 main streams; hence, perhaps, the name of the Twy-burn. From this brook the place of execution for Middlesex criminals took its name. There are records of executions as early as the reign of Edward III at the Elms at. These trees grew along the side of the brook, and Elm Lane, Bayswater, long preserved their memory. Some time in the later half of the 14th cent. the place of execution was removed to a point near the junction of Oxford St. and Edgware Rd.; the exact spot where the gallows stood is said to have been No. 49 Connaught Sq., in the angle between Edgware Rd. and Bayswater Rd. Condemned criminals were taken in a cart, or, in the case of traitors, dragged on a hurdle, from Newgate to Holborn Hill and along Oxford St., often called T. Rd., to the place of execution. The gallows seems to have been a permanent structure, and consisted of a horizontal triangle of beams, supported by 3 legs. The prisoner was strangled by a rope hanging from one of the beams, the cart being driven from under him. Hogarth's picture of the Execution of the Idle Apprentice shows the gallows and a sort of grandstand or the accommodation on of spectators.

The Hangmen of Tyburn:

In the C. text of Piers, but not in the earlier versions, we find "the hangeman of To." among the company of Glutton at the Boar's Head; and in xv. 130, Imaginatif says, "Dominus pars hereditatis mee is a murye verset; Hit hath y-take fro To. 20 stronge theeves." The allusion is to the neck-verse by reading which a criminal could claim benefit of clergy and so escape hanging. In Hycke, 104, Frewyll says, "That rock Of to. is so perillous a place, Young gallants dare not venture into Kent"; i.e. to commit highway robbery on Gad's Hill and elsewhere. Later, Imagination swears "by saynt tyburne of Kent"; possibly he means St. Thomas a Waterings, which was the place of execution for Surrey and places S. of the Thames. Again, Imagination says, "At tyburne there standeth the great frame And some take a fall that maketh their neck lame." In Poverty, 329, Envy says to Conscience "They will hang you up at the Tyborn if they find you in this place." In Youth ii. 100, Riot says, "The Mayor of Lond. sent for me forth of Newgate for to come for to preach at T." In Skelton's Magnificence fol. xi., Courtly Abusion says of his dupe: "A to. check Shall break his neck." In John Evangel., Courage says to Cut Cutpurse, "At To. I may chance clap thee on the breast." In Three Lords, Dods., vi. 499, Simplicity,says of Fraud: "My Lords, I beseech ye, that at T. he may totter." In Fulwell's Like, Dods., iii. 324, Newfangle promises to Tosspot and Roister a piece of land called "St. Thomas a Waterings or else T. Hill." Gascoigne, in Steel Glass 203, says, "Soldiers sterve or preach at To. Cross." In Middleton's No Wit Epilogue, Weatherwise says, "T. cracks the pipe and spoils the music," sc. of a whistling thief. In Dekker's Westward iii. 2, Monopoly says, "I would make them scud so fast from me, that they should think it a shorter way between this [i.e. Shoreditch] and Ludgate than a condemned cut-purse thinks it between Newgate and T." Cf. As You Like It iii. 2, 347, where Rosalind says that Time gallops "with a thief to the gallows." In Shirley's Pleasure iii. 2, Celestina says, "They cannot satisfy for wrongs enough Though they should steal out of the world at T." In Eastward iv. Touchstone predicts to Quicksilver, "They'll look out at a window as thou rid'st in triumph to T." In v., Quicksilver gives advice to his friends how they may escape "T., Compters, and the Spittle." In Randolph's Muses iii. 2, Colax expresses the hope that Banausus will "repair old T. and make it cedar." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque i. 2, Bubble says, "If we be taken, we'll be hanged together at T.; that's the warmer gallows of the two"; the other being at Wapping, where the criminal was hung in chains at low-water mark, and left to be drowned by the rising tide. In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Satan informs Pug: "This morning there is a handsome cutpurse hanged at T." In v. 4, Iniquity speaks of "Damn me! Renounce me! and all the fine phrases That bring unto T. the plentiful gazes." In his New Inn i. 1, the Host predicts that if Frank apples himself to Lovel's course of life "he may perhaps take a degree at T."

In Shirley's Wedding iv. 3, Rawbone describes the whole course of a thief's trial and execution: "i. do imagine myself apprehended already; now the constable is carrying me to Newgate; now I'm at the Sessions House in the dock; now I'm called–'Not guilty, my Lord., The jury has found the indictment billa vera. Now, now comes my sentence. Now I'm in acart riding up Holborn in a two-wheeled chariot with a guard of halberdiers. ` There goes a proper fellow,' says one; 'Good people, pray for me!' Now I'm at the three wooden stilts. Hey! Now I feel my toes hang in the cart; now 'tis drawn away-now, now, now, I am gone!" More briefly, in B. & F. Wit S. W. iv. 1, Wittypate says, "Sessions a Thursday, jury culled out a Friday, judgment a Saturday, dungeon a Sunday, T. a Monday." Taylor, in Praise of a jail (1623), says, "But if a man note T., 'twill appear That that's a tree that bears 12 times a year." In Killigrew's Parson i. 1, the Capt. asks, "His fortune? the advowson of T. deanery I "In Oldcastle ii. 2, Murley mutters, "Newgate, up Holborne, S. Giles in the field, and to To.; an old saw." In Selimus 2082, Bullithrumble says, "Marry, that had been the way to preferment; down Holburne, up Tiburne." In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, Fortress prescribes the keeping of the rules of the Twiball knights "under penalty of being carried up Holborn in a cart, and at Tiburne executed." In Dekker's Edmonton v. 1, Cuddy says to his dog, "If thou goest to Lond. I'll make thee go about by T., stealing in by Thieving Lane."

In L.L.L. iv. 3, 54, Biron says, "Thou makest the triumviry, the corner-cap of society, The shape of Love's T. that hangs up simplicity." Lyly, in Pappe p. 58, says, "There's one with a lame wit, which will not wear a four-cornered cap. Then let him put on T. that hath but 3 corners." In one of Tarlton's Jests, we read: "It was made like the shape of To., three-square." Gilpin, in Skialethia (1598), speaks of "the three-square To. of impieties." Dekker, in Bellman, says, "He rides his circuit with the devil and Derrick must be his host and Tiburne the land at which he will light." In Puritan iv. 1, Pennydub says, "Pox o' the fortuneteller! Would Derecke had been his fortune 7 year ago!" In Wise Men v. 4, Proberio says, "Sir, this Tiburnist or hangman is the devil." In Ret. Pernass. i. 2, Judicio says, "Here is a book, why, to condemn it to clear the usual Tiburne of all misliving papers were too fair a death for so foul an offender." In Dekker's Satiro. iii. 1, 150, Tucca says of Mrs. Miniver: "She looks like the sign of Capricorne, or like To. when it is covered with snow." Latimer, in one of his Sermons, says, "The Bp. of Rome sent him a Cardinal's hat. He should have had a Tiburne tippet, a half-penny halter." In Jonson's Devil v. ii, Ambler says, "I got the gentlewoman to carry her bedding to a conduit-head, hard by the place toward T., which they call my Lord Mayor's Banqueting House," q.v.


The sign of a bookseller's shop in Lond. Dekker's Fortunatus was "Printed by S. S. for William Apsley dwelling in Paules church-yard at the sign of the T. H. 1600." Dekker's Match me was "Printed by B. Alsop and T. Fawcet for H. Seile at the T.-h. in St. Pauls Churchyard. 1631." Massinger's New Way was "Printed by E. P. for Henry Seyle dwelling in S. Pauls Churchyard at the sign of the T. h. M.DC.XXXIII."




An island in the Persian Gulf off the coast of Arabia, now Bahrein. It has been from ancient times the centre of the pearl fisheries of the Gulf. In Lyly's Gallathea iii. 2, Gallathea says, "There is a tree in Tylos whose nuts have shells like fire, and being cracked the kernel is but water."


The second of the 6 gates of Troy, as given in Caxton's Recayel. In Troil. prol. 16, we have "Priam's six-gated city, Dardan, and Tymbria, Helias, Chetas, Troien, and Antenorides."


Now the Godavery, a river in India, flowing into the Bay of Bengal abt. 250 m. N. of Madras. Others identify it with the Mahanuddy, the mouth of which is some 350 m. further N. In Bacchus, the 17th guest was "born in India at a fair city called Tyndis." There was no city of this name, but it was suggested by the name of the river.


A river in the N.E. of England, formed of 2 branches, one rising in Scotland in the Cheviots, and the other in the S. of Cumberland. They unite at Haydon Bridge, and after 30 m. reach the North Sea at Tynemouth. From T. to Thames or Trent is used to mean all England. In Gurton iii. 4, Hodge says, "There's not within this land a murrainer cat than Gyb is, between the tems and T." In Brewer's Lovesick King ii. 1, Thornton, the Mayor of Newcastle-on-T., says, "I will write a note on it to keep it in mind as long as the river of T. runs under it." In Skelton's Magnificence fol. xii., Fancy says, "Her eyen glent From T. to Trent, From Stroude to Kent." Spenser, F. Q. iv. i 1, 36, says, "Next these came T. along whose stony banks That Roman monarch built a brasen wall." The reference is to Hadrian's Wall between the T. and Solway Firth; but it was not brasen.


A town in Northumberland on the N. shore of the mouth of the Tyne, 8 m. from Newcastle. It was an ancient Saxon fortress. In 1312 Edward II fled from the Barons to T., where he was joined by Gaveston. In Marlowe's Ed. II ii. 2, Edward addresses Gaveston: "My Gaveston, Welcome to Tinmouth!" In Brewer's Lovesick King ii. 1, Goodgift, at Newcastle, says, "At the next ebb I and the ship fall down to Tinmouth." This spelling represents the usual pronunciation of the word.


The Dniester, a river in S.E. Europe, rising in Galicia to the N. of the Carpathians, and flowing in a S.E. direction into the Black Sea, a few m. S.W. of Odessa. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 3, Theridamas reports: "I made a voyage into Europe, Where by the river Tyras I subdued Stoka, Podolia, and Codemia."


(Tn. = Tyrian). The greatest of the Phoenician cities, lying on an island on the coast of Syria, about half-way between Acre and Sidon. It was originally a colony from Sidon, but speedily rose to be the chief of the Phoenician centres of trade, and it imposed its name, Tzor, on the whole country of Soria, or Syria. It carried on active commerce with the countries of the Mediterranean, and its mariners reached the Canaries and the Scilly Isles. It never aimed at the founding of an Empire, but was content to control the commerce and gather the wealth of the world. Its colonies, amongst which was Carthage, were found on all the coasts of the Mediterranean. Its insular position enabled it to defy the long sieges to which it was subjected by the Assyrian Sennacherib and the Babylonian Nebuchadrexzar; but it was taken by Alexander the Gt., 332 B.C., after he had made a mole connecting it with the mainland, which has now silted up to a width of half a mile. During the 3rd cent. B.C., it was under Egyptian control, but in 198 it came into the hands of the Syrian kings, and so remained until the coming of the Romans. With the rest of Syria it was conquered from the Romans by the Arabs (in the reign of Omar) 633–639; and eventually passed into the hands of the Turks (until 1919); it is now an unimportant fishing vill. It was famous in old times for the scarlet or purple dye which was extracted from the shell-fish Murex Trunculus and Murex Brandaris, though it was not really as brilliant as the modern aniline dyes.

In Marlowe's Dido i., Venus appears to Aeneas in the guise of a maiden of Carthage and says, "It is the use for Turen maids to wear Their bow and quiver in this modest sort And suit themselves in purple." Pericles is based on an old Greek story and is supposed to take place in the early part of the 2nd cent. B.C., in the reign of Antiochus the Gt. of Syria. The scene of i. 2 and 3, and ii. 4, is laid at T., which is frequently mentioned in the play both as T. and as Tyrus. There is little or nothing historical in the story. In Shirley's Arcadia i. 2, Dametas says, "Keep your tires to yourself; nor am I Pericles, Prince of T." In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, Antony says of his Genius: "He comes to warn me leave The charming pleasures of the Tn. court." Antony was in Syria in 57–55 B.C. In Mariam iii. 2, Pheroras says, "What's the condition .f Let me quickly know That I as quickly your command may act, Were it that lofty Tyrus might be sacked." In Wilson's Pedler 785, the Pedler, referring to the sack of T. by Alexander, says, "That shaft fall upon you that did upon T." Milton, Nat. Ode 204, says, "In vain the Tn. maids their wounded Thammuz mourn." Thammux was the object of annual worship by the Phoenicians. In Trans. Psalm lxxxiii. 27, "The Philistines and they of T. Whose bounds the sea doth check "are among the enemies of Israel. In lxxxvii. 15, he says, "1 mention Babel to my friends . . . And T. with Ethiop's utmost ends; Lo! this man there was born." The luxury and wealth of T. became proverbial from the description of them in Ezekiel xxvi.–xxviii. Greene, in Quip, p. 246, says that the milliners have "almost made England as full of proud fopperies as T. and Sidon were."

In Milton's Comus 342, the Elder Brother says, "Thou shalt be our star of Arcady Or Tn. Cynosure." The Tn. sailors steered by the constellation of the Little Bear, or Cynosura, in which the Pole Star lies. Arcas, the son of Callisto of Arcadia, was said to have been turned into this constellation. In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass i. 1, 102, Rasni boasts: "I'll strip the Indies of their diamonds And T. shall yield me tribute of her gold." In Nabbes' Hannibal i. 1, Maharball speaks of being "clothed in silks of Tn. dye." In T. Heywood's Dialogues iv. 3461, Timon says, "This threadbare cloak by me is prized more high Than the best robe dipped in the Tn. dye." In Noble Ladies, Cyprian says, "We'll sport us under a pavilion of Tn. scarlet." In Glapthorne's Argalus i. 1, Philarchus says, "Mars wrapt his battered limbs In Persian silks or costly Tn. purples To win her tempting beauty." In Massinger's Roman Actor ii. 1, Parthenius reproaches his father with his miserliness, and says, "Your superfluous means could clothe you every day in fresh change of Tn. purple." In his Believe i. 2, Berecinthus says of the Asian merchants: "The Tn. fish, Whose blood dyes your proud purple, their nets catch." In B. & F. Friends iii. 1, Rufinus says, "The god of wrath sits on my bended brow Triumphantly attired in Tn. scarlet." In their Malta iii. 2, Gomera gives Oriana "a piece of purple vet Of the right Tn. dye." In Massinger's Madam iv. 4, Luke reproaches Lady Frugal it furnishing one of her rooms with "scarlet of the rich Tn. dye." In Shrew ii. 1, Gremio boasts that his hangings "are all of Tn. tapestry." In Jonson's 's Catiline i. 1, Catiline inveighs against the Roman nobles for buying "rare Attic statues, Tn. hangings." In Cockayne's Obstinate iii. 2, Lorece says, "Both thy roseal cheeks let us espy Beatified with a natural Tn. dye." In Chapman's [Glapthorne's?] Rev. Hon. i. 1, 8, Gaselles talks of "Persian silks or costly Tn. purples." In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass ii. 1, 429, Remilia talks of "Costly paintings fetched from curious T." In Bale's Johan 2088, Dissimulation says that his wine "passeth malmsey, capric, t., or hippocras." I cannot find that T. was famous for wine; indeed, Ezekiel (xxvii. 18) says that she imported it from Damascus.


Probably a misprint for ARZILL, q.v. In Stucley 2300, the chorus informs us that "in Tyrill A town in Barbary, they [i.e. Sebastian and his forces] all are landed."


An inland county of the old province of Ulster in the N. of Ireland. The O'Neills were the chiefs of the clans in T., and Henry VIII made Con Bacagh O'Neill Earl of T. His son Shan, however, drove him into the English Pale, and maintained a rebellion against the English till his defeat in 1567. The Earl of T. headed another rebellion towards the close of the reign of Elizabeth, and the Earl of Essex was sent to suppress it in 1599 and lost his life in consequence of his failure. Tyrone ultimately surrendered in 1602; but he still remained an object of suspicion to the government. In B. & F. Prize i. 3, Moroso says, "These are the most authentic rebels, next T., I ever read of." In Penn. Parl. 25, it is enacted "that wine shall make some so venturous as they will destroy T."


The most W. province of the Austrian Empire, lying S. of Bavaria on the upper course of the Inn. Its chief town is Innsbruck. It was governed by its own Dukes till 1363, when it was handed over by Margaret Maultasche (muckle-mouthed Meg!) to the house of Hapsburg, and it remained part of the Austrian Empire, except for a few years in the beginning of the 19th cent., when Napoleon transferred it to Bavaria, until 1919. It is now part of the Austrian Republic. In S. Rowley's When You, Charles V is hailed as "Duke of Tyrrell and Flaunders."


The Greek name for the part of the Mediterranean lying between the W. coast of Italy and the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily. It was derived from the Greek name for Etruria. The Romans called it Mare Inferum. In Richards', Messalina iii. 1643, Mela says, "Make for the isle of Corce; there on the Tyrhen shore well practise Allan's sole perfection to be heavenly wise." In Marlowe's Dido iv. 2, Dido, on hearing of the intended departure of Aeneas from Carthage to Italy, cries "O that the T. sea were is my arms That he might suffer shipwreck on my breast!" In Jonson's Catiline i. 1, Catiline vows that he "Will lave the T. waters into clouds "rather than forego his vengeance on Rome. In Nero iii. 4, Nero, when Rome is in flames, says, "The T. seas are bright with Roman fires." In May's Heir iv., Alphonso speaks of "The T. shore whose sea divides this isle [Sicily] from Italy." In Milton's Comus 49, the Spirit tells how "Bacchus, Coasting the T. shore:. . On Circe's island fell." In Greene's Orlando iv. 1, 993, Ogier and the Peers of France "have furrowed through those wandring tides Of T. seas." In Tiberius 775, Tiberius talks of Hector chasing the Greeks "from the Terrhene shore." Either the author included the Aegean in the T. sea or we must read Terrhene in the sense of Mediterranean.