(Mn. = Macedon, Man. = Macedonian). The country N. of Thessaly, from Thrace on the E. to Illyria on the W. Philip II (359–336 B.C.) established the supremacy of M. over the whole of Greece, and his son Alexander the Gt. (336–323 B.C.) marched into Asia, and in the victories of Granicus, Issus, and Gaugamela destroyed the Persian Empire and became the master of the Eastern World. He penetrated as far as India, where he defeated Porus in the Punjaub, and in Egypt he founded Alexandria at the mouth of the Nile. After his death his empire was divided amongst his generals, and after a long period of intestine war and confusion M. was conquered by the Romans and made into a province 168 B.C., AEmilius defeating the last K., Perseus, at Pydna. In the middle of the 15th cent. it passed into the hands of the Ottoman emperors.

Most of the Elizabethan allusions are to Alexander and his father Philip. In Val. Welsh. iv. 7, Cartamanda speaks of "Philip, k. of Mn., Whose boundless mind of sovereign majesty Was like a globe whose body circular Admits no end." Alexander is the hero of Lyly's Campaspe: in ii. 2, Hephaestion asks: "Is the son of Philip, k. of Mo., become the subject of Campaspe?'' In H5 iv. 7, 20, Gower says, "I think Alexander the gt. was born in Mn.; his father was called Philip of Mn., as I take it"; and Fluellen proceeds with his memorable comparison of Monmouth, the birthplace of K. Henry, with Mn., both beginning with "M.," and both possessing a river with salmon in it. In Chapman's Trag. Byron iv. 1, Byron speaks of Alexander as "the little, yet great Mn." He is said to have been short of stature. In Clyomon, v. 431, Clyomon says, "The conqueror of conquerors, who Alexander hight, is returning to Mn." In Massinger's Madam iv. 2, Luke says, "The valiant Mn. Having in his conceit subdued one world Lamented that there were no more to conquer." In Davenant's Platonic iii. 4, Fredeline says, "Aristotle . . . fooled the drunken Mnn. Out of a thousand talents to buy books."Aristotle was Alexander's tutor; and Alexander in a drunken fit killed his friend Clytus.

In Marlowe's Tamb. A. i. 1, Ceneus says to Cosroe, "We will invest your highness Emperor, Whereat your soldiers will conceive more joy Than did the Mnns. at the spoil Of great Darius and his wealthy host." Darius was the last K. of Persia, who was defeated by Alexander. In Suckling's Brennoralt ii. 1, there is a round: "The Mn, youth left behind him this truth That nothing is done with much thinking: He drank and he fought till he had what he sought; The world was his own by good drinking." In Nabbes' Hannibal ii. 4, Syphax says, "What's Rome or Scipio to Sophonisba? in whose richer beauty more's comprehended than the Mnn. could from his many conquests boast himself owner of." In Skelton's Magnificence, fol. xvii., Magnificence mentions, in his list of heroes, "Alexander of Macedony k, That all the orient had in subjection."

In Chapman's Caesar iii. 1, 122, Pompey says that the gods have not made the Roman genius "grow in conquests for some little time As did the genius of the Mns." In Fraunce's Victoria iv. 8, 2022, Narcissus says, "Persei Macedonum regis Filius Ex principe factus est faber ferrarius." Alexander, the son of Perseus, last k. of Mn., is said by Plutarch, Vit. Em. Pauli 37, to have been an expert goldsmith: this is probably what Fraunce was thinking of. In Milton, P. R. iii. 32, the Tempter says to our Lord, "The son Of Mnn. Philip had ere these (years) Won Asia." Alexander overthrew the Persian Empire when he was only 25. In P. R. iv. 271, it is related how the Greek Orators "fulmined over Greece To Mn. and Artaxerxes' throne." Milton is thinking of the speeches of Demosthenes against Philip of Mn. In Brandon's Octavia 1390, Plancus calls Alexandria "That fair city by that great Mnn. monarch budded." In Chettle's Hoffman ii., Mathias says, "Their caparisons exceed The Persian monarch's when he met destruction From Philip's son and his stout Mns."

In Hester ii. 286, the Scribe speaks of Haman as "Aman, a Mn. born." Haman is called an Agagite in the Hebrew text of Esther, but a Mnn. in the LXX version. In Per. ii. 2, 24, the 2nd knight in the tourney is "a Prince of Mn.": with a Spanish motto on his shield! In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, a lord says, "From vanquished M., Triumphing o'er k. Persius' overthrow, Conquering AEmilius in great glory came." The reference is to the triumph after the battle of Pydna 168 B.C. In Tiberius 1058, the Archflamen greets Germanicus as equalling in glory "Paulus Emilius of proud Mn." In Nero ii. 3, Scaevinus speaks of the Romans "whom neither The Median bow nor Mnn. Spear . . . could subdue." An entirely unhistorical K. of Mn. is one of the characters in Massinger's Virgin, and there is a Euarchus, k. of Mn., in Shirley's Arcadia, who is taken from Sidney's Arcadia. In Selimus 2030, Selimus says, "We mean to rouse false Acomat And cast him forth of M." In Kirke's Champions v., there is an imaginary K. of Mn. whose daughters have been turned into swans, but recover their human shape through the efforts of the Champions, and marry 3 of them. Mnn. is used humorously for a valiant soldier. In Shirley's Honoria iv. 3, Fullbank says, "I thought myself as brave a Mnn. as the best of them." In his Gent. Ven. iii. 1, when Thomazo says, "I'll return with Indian spoils like Alexander," Melipiero adds: "Spoken like a true Mnn."


A fortification 6 m. E. of the Dead Sea in the Moabitish territory, 12 m. from the N. end of the Sea. It was fortified by Herod the Gt., who made it one of his principal residences, and it was here that Herod Antipas imprisoned and beheaded John the Baptist. It is now a heap of ruins called Mukwar. In Milton, P. R. ii. 22, M. is mentioned as one of the places where the disciples went to seek our Lord on His disappearance from Galilee before His baptism.


The capital of Prester John's kingdom in Abyssinia. One is tempted to identify it with Magdala, which was made his principal stronghold by K. Theodore and was taken and destroyed by the English in 1868. But Magdala is not mentioned by the old geographers; and I am disposed to think that M. is derived from Maqueda, the Q. of Sheba who visited Solomon, and from whom the kings of Abyssinia claimed to be descended. Prester John is a vague and shadowy figure, and was originally located in Asia; but from the 13th cent. onward he was identified with the K. of Abyssinia. Heylyn says that all the kings of Guagere, as he calls Abyssinia, were called John, "with the praenomen of Presbiter," and that they were sprung from Solomon and Maqueda, the Queen of the South. Probably Marlowe confused the name of the Q. with that of her supposed capital. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 3, Techelles reports: "I have marched along the r. Nile to M., where the mighty Christian Priest, Called John the Gt., sits in a milk-white robe."


The largest island of the Madeiras, lying in the Atlantic Ocean, 360 m. W. of the coast of Morocco. The islands were colonized by Portugal in 1420, and are still a province of that country. The vine was introduced in the early part of the 16th cent., and M. wine, which resembles a full-bodied brown sherry, began to be made and exported. In H4 A. i. 2, 128, Poins says to Falstaff, "How agrees the devil and thou about thy soul that thou soldest him on Good-Friday last for a cup of M. and a cold capon's leg?"




(also spelt MADRILL). A city in the centre of Spain, in the province of New Castile, on the left bank of the Manzanares. It was made the capital of Spain by Philip II. in 1560. Heylyn (s.v. SPAINE) says, "M., the king's seat, whose residence, though the country be neither fruitful nor pleasant, hath made that place, of a vill., the most populous town of all Spain." In Middleton's Gipsy ii. 1, Alvarez says, "Now being entered Madrill, the enchanted circle of Spain, have a care to your new lessons." In B. & F. Cure ii. 1, Pachieco speaks of "a famous courtezan, lately come from M." In Jonson's New Inn iv. 2, Tipto says, "They are here, have been at Sevill in their days, And at M. too." In ii. 2, Tipto says, "Don Lewis of M. is the sole master now of the world," i.e. in fencing. In Dekker's Match me i., Gazetto says, "I'll mount my jennet and take the way to Madrill." In Kyd's Span. Trag iii. 14, the K. of Spain welcomes the Viceroy of Portugal to M.: "'Tis not unknown to us for why you come, Or have so kingly crossed the raging seas": an even more curious bit of geography than Shakespeare's ea. coast of Bohemia. In Jonson's New Inn ii. 2, Tipto peaks of "my gloves, the natives of M.," i.e. made of Spanish leather. In Davenport's New Trick iii. 1, Friar John says, "The best wheat's in Spain; what say you now to a couple of cheat-loaves baked in M.?" In Wilson's Inconstant i. 1, Tonsus says, "Nor can your ruff, though printed at M., But suffer censure." The ruff was a Spanish article of apparel: printed means pleated. The scenes of Middleton's Gipsy, Shirley's Brothers and Ct. Secret, Lust's Dominion, and The Noble Soldier are laid at M.




A lofty mtn. in Arcadia, specially sacred to the god Pan. In Milton's Arcades 102, the poet adjures the nymphs and shepherds of Arcadia: "From the stony M. Bring your flocks and live with us."


The Sea of Azov, a shallow lake, lying N. of the Black Sea, with which it is connected by the Straits of Yenikale, immediately E. of the Crimea. It is about 200 m. long, and abounds in fish. Milton P. L. ix. 78, says of Satan: "Sea he had searched and land From Eden over Pontus and the pool M., up beyond the river Ob."


A strongly fortified city in Holland, close to the Belgian frontier, on the Maas, 56 m. E. of Brussels. In the War of Liberation it was besieged by the Spaniards in 1579, by the Prince of Orange in 1580, and by Frederick Henry in 1632. In Larum A. 3, Danila says, "From Nastricht [an obvious misprint] first there comes a thousand horse," sc. to help the Spanish in the siege of Antwerp. In Lady Mother ii. 1, Crackby boasts: "My Capt.'s courage at M. did conclude Papenham's overthrow." The reference is to the siege of 1632, but unfortunately for Crackby's accuracy Pappenheim was killed at Lutzen a few months before the siege of M.


A town or castle on the W. shore of the Sea of Galilee, from which Mary the Magdalene derives her name. In the Legenda Aurea it is called Magdalo, and is said to be 2 M. from Nazareth. The name means a tower, and there were probably several such in Galilee. In Magdalen 59, Syrus, the father of Mary, says, "The castell of Maudleyn is at my wylddying"; and in 81 he bequeaths it to Mary.


(pronounced MAUDLIN). University of Oxford. It stands at the E. end of the High St., on the N. side, on the banks of the Cherwell, over which the M. Bdge. connects it with the Water Walk. The Tower of the C. is one of the most conspicuous features of Oxford. It was founded by William of Waynflete, bp. of Winchester, in 1457, on the site of a hospital founded by Henry III in 1232. The 1st stone of the new building was laid in 1473. The books of the C. show that scriptural plays were performed there from an early date. The 1st recorded performance of a play is Oxford is at M. in 1486, and there is record of a comedy in 1535 and of a tragedy in 1540. The comedy was called Piscator, or the Fisher Caught, and was written by John Hoker, one of the Fellows. Amongst its distinguished students were Wolsey and John Lyly.


Separating the Continent of S. America from Terra del Fuego. They were discovered by Fernando M. in 1520. In Underwit v. 3, Underwit says, "She is still like the bottom of the map, terra incognita. I have been a long time hovering about the M. streights, but have made no new discoveries." The coarse jest needs no explanation. Milton, P. L. 1. 687, explains that if the axis of the earth had not been inclined to the Ecliptic, it would have "forbid the snow From cold Estotiland, and south as far Beneath M." In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611),Vadianus says that Coryat's fame "finds no other bound Than from the M. strait to Gibraltar." See under Mayor's Lane.


A tavern in the Strand, London. In Shirley's Ball i. 1, Freshwater says, "I do lie at the sign of Donna Margeritta de Pia in the Strand"; which Gudgeon interprets: "At the M.-a-P. in the Strand."


More fully M. ad Sipylum, to distinguish it from M. ad Maeandrum. A city of Lydia, on the slopes of Mt. Sipylus, on the S. bank of the Hermus. Here the Scipios inflicted a crushing defeat on Antiochus the Gt. in 190 B.C. It continued to flourish during the Byzantine empire, and later was for a time the residence of the Sultan. It is now called Manissa. In Selimus 86, Baiazet says, "Carcut in fair M. leads his life."


Ch. in Lond., at the bottom of Fish St. Hill, just at the foot of old Lond. Bdge. It was one of the oldest churches in Lond. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt by Wren. In 1759 the footway under the steeple was made in order to widen the approach to the Bdge. In H6 B. iv. 8, 1, Cade cries: "Up Fish St.! down St. M. corner! kill and knock down! throw them into Thames!" In T. Heywood's Hogsdon ii. 2, when Sir Boniface addresses Sir Harry "Vale, vir magne," the latter, not knowing Latin, replies: "You shall not have me at St. Magnes, my house is here in Gracious st." Nash, in Lenten, p. 311, describes a clash of swords: "that from Salomon's Islands to St. M. corner might cry clang again," i.e. all round the world.


The country of the Great Mogul or Emperor of Delhi, which included the greater part of Hindustan. In Tomkis' Albumazar i. 5, Albumazar directs that his almanac should be given to the East India Company, that they may "know the success of the voyage of M." Heylyn (s.v. INDIA INTRA GANGEM) says that all the 47 Provinces of India, except Narsinga and Calacute, "are under the command of the great Magor, Mogul, or Mongul."


(i.e. the 2 hosts). A name given by Jacob to the place where he met the angels of God. It was clearly on the E. of the Jordan and N. of the Jabbok. The exact site is uncertain, but it may probably be identified with the Wady Suleikhat, near the Jordan, 14 m. N. of the point where the Jabbok flows into it. It afterwards became an important place, and on the death of Saul Ishbaal made it his capital. Milton, P. L. xi. 214, refers to the time "when the angels met Jacob in M., where he saw The field pavilioned with his guardians bright."


A st. in Southwark, now called Park St. It ran W. from Deadman's Pl., now Red Cross St., to Gravel L., parallel to the Bankside. In the original lease of the Globe Theatre site it is said to be "upon a L. there called M. L., towards the S." It has been long supposed that the Globe was on the S. of M. L., and a bronze memorial tablet let into the wall of Barclay's Brewery declares: "Here stood the Globe Playhouse of Shakespeare." But Prof. Wallace has lately brought evidence, which seems to be conclusive, that the actual site was on the N. of M. L., between Deadman's Pl. and Rose Alley. [ed. note: the actual archaeological site was discovered S. of Park Street in October 1989.]


A town in Berks., near the right bank of the Thames, 25 m. W. of Lond., and 6 m. N.W. of Windsor. In M.W.W. iv. 5, 78, Evans tells how the 3 cozen-germans "has cozened all the hosts of Readins, of M, of Colebrook, of horses and money." In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 4, Trimtram wishes that Meg may "be burnt at Colebrook for destroying of M.," where the double play on the names is obvious. In the same punning fashion, Chough, in v. 1, says he could have had a whore "at M. in Berks.; and did I come in by M. to go out by Staines?"


The sign of a tavern in Islington. Taylor, Works i. 140, says, "I stole back again to Islington to the sign of the Maydenhead; after supper we had a play of Guy of Warwick, played by the Earl of Darbie his men." There was a M. tavern at the Temple end of Ram Alley, the worst of all the dens of infamy in that notorious court.


The county town of Kent, on the Medway, 32 M. S.E. of Lond. Wat Tyler broke open the prison and released John Ball. Sir T. Wyatt raised the standard of rebellion here in 1554. M. is the assize-town for the county, and condemned criminals were executed on Penenden Heath, 1 m. N.E. of the town. In Middleton's Quinborough ii. 3, Simon, the tanner, says, "I have such a trick of stretching, too! I learned it of a tanner's man that was hanged Last sessions at M."


A province in France, lying S. of Normandy, and N. of Anjou and Touraine. Henry II was born at its capital, Le Mans; he was Count of Anjou and M., and on his accession to the Crown of England these provinces passed to England. Philip II of France claimed it in Arthur's name from John, and ultimately took possession of it. During the wars in the earlier part of the reign of Henry VI it was conquered by the English, but it was ceded to Réné, the father of Margaret of Anjou, on her marriage with Henry VI, and the English were finally driven out of it two years later by Dunois. In K. J. i. 1, 11, Chatillon demands for Arthur: "Ireland, Poictiers, Anjou, Touraine, M.", and the claim is repeated in ii. 1, 152. In ii. 1, 487, John offers it as a dowry to Blanche if she marries Lewis the Dauphin. In H6 A. iv. 3, 45, York announces: "M., Blois, Poictiers, and Tours are won away." In v. 3, 95, Suffolk speaks of Réné as "D. of Anjou and M"; and in 154 Réné (Reignier) consents to the marriage of Margaret, "upon condition I may quietly enjoy mine own, the country M. and Anjou." In H6 B i. 1, 51, the treaty is read making this grant; and in 209, Warwick cries: "O father, M. is lost: that M. which by main force Warwick did win." In iv. 1, 86, the Capt. charges Suffolk: "By thee Anjou and M. were sold to France." In iv. 2, 170, Dick says, "We'll have the Lord Say's head for selling the dukedom of M." In iv. 7, 70, Say protests: "I sold not M., I lost not Normandy." In Davenport's Matilda i. 3, John is upbraided by Fitz-water with the loss of "Anjou, Brittain, Main, Poictou, and Turwin." In Trag. Richd. II i. 1, 35, Lancaster recalls "the warlike battles won At Cressey field, Poyteeres, Artoyse, and Mayne," by Edward the Black Prince.


A river rising in N. Bavaria and flowing into the Rhine a little above Mayence. In Marlowe's Faustus, vii. 7, Faust says, "Coasting the realm of France, We saw the river M. fall into Rhine, Whose banks are set with groves of fruitful vines."




The largest of the Balearic Isles, abt. 150 m. E. of Spain, in the Mediterranean. The islands were annexed to the crown of Aragon towards the close of the 13th cent. In T. Heywood's I.K.M., A. 202, Philip and Mary are proclaimed "Count and Countess of Hasburge, M., Sardinia." In Partiall, i. 1, Feredo speaks of "the great D. of M., our near neighbouring isle." The scene is in Corsica.


A dist. on the W. coast of India, N. of Cochin and S. of Canara, between the Nilghiri Hills and the Arabian Sea. Milton, P. L. ix. 1103, says that the fig-tree from which Adam and Eve made themselves clothing was "not that kind for fruit renowned, But such as, to this day to Indians known, In M. or Decan spreads her arms," i.e. the banyan or "Ficus Indicus."


A spt. on the S. coast of Spain, 70 m. N.E. of Gibraltar, at the head of a bay in the Mediterranean. It had a large trade in wine, called M., and in raisins, oranges, and figs. In Middleton's Witch i. 1, Gaspero says of his servant: "He hath not pledged one cup but looked most wickedly Upon good Malego." In Dekker's Northward iii. 1, Doll says, "I have learnt to mingle water with thy M." Day, in Law Tricks i. 2, says, "I'll put all my love into one quart of Maligo." In Middleton's Gipsy iii. 1, Sancho sings: "Petersee-me shall wash thy noul, And m. glasses fox thee." In Ford's Queen iii., Pynto says, "I will swim through a whole Element of dainty, neat, brisk, rich claret, canary, or maligo." In Dekker's Satiromastix iv. 2, 112, Tucca calls his poetical associates "those maligo-tasters." Rowlands, in Knave of Hearts (1612) 20, says, "Bring in a quart of Maligo, right true, And look, you rogue, that it be Pee and Kew." Potatoes were also imported thither from America. In Ford's Sun ii. 1, the Spanish confecianador boasts that he has for sale, inter alia, "potatoes of M."


A town in Essex, on the Chelmer, 9 m. E. of Chelmsford. In Percy' Cuckqueanss, the stage direction runs: "Harwich. In middle of the stage Colchester, with image of Tarlton. The raunger's lodge, M., a ladder of ropes trussed up near Harwiche." Evidently all 3 places were represented at the same time by different sections of the stage.




A port on the E. shore of the Adriatic in Dalmatia, 7 m. N.W. of Ragusa. It is the scene of the earlier part of Webster's Malfi, the date of the play being supposed to be 1504, as is clear from ii. 3, where Bosola reads the nativity of the infant of the Duchess: "The Duchess was delivered of a son anno Dom. 1504—that's this year—taken according to the meridian of M."
[ed. note: with due respect to Sugden, this note is incorrect. Webster quite clearly places the action of his play in Italy. Ferdinand is Duke of Calabria, a region in the "toe" of Italy. In the many trips to Rome, Milan, and Ancona qq.v. no sea journeys are mentioned, and the pilgrimage to Loretto is thwarted in progress, which would be impossible from Dalmatia unless it occurred on the Adriatic Sea itself. Additionally, Webster's play is based upon a true story, first reported in 1554 as story #26 of Matteo Bandello's Novelle entitled "Il signor Antonio Bologna sposa la duchesa d'Amalfi, e tutti due sono ammazzati." The historical action took place in Amalfi. Bandello places himself in the story, calling himself Delio, and probably witnessed the actual murder of Antonio in Milan. The Malfi of the title is therefore clearly intended to be the Italian city, the description of which follows:

[MALFI, or AMALFI, corrected entry]

A town and archiepiscopal see in the Campania region, in the province of Salerno, Amalfi sits on the Gulf of Salerno (Golfo di Salerno), 38 m. S.E. of Naples. From the 9th to 11th centuries Amalfi rivaled Venice, Pisa, and Genoa as a maritime republic. Its Maritime Code, the Tavola Amalfitana (Table of Amalfi), was recognized throughout the Mediterranean until 1570. At the time Webster wrote his play, it was still widely believed that the maritime compass was invented by Gioia at Amalfi. The Italian word for compass, Bussola, might have inspired Webster to name his character Bosola. It is here, not Dalmatia, that the early scenes of Webster's Malfi are set.]


A sweet wine, originally made in the neighbourhood of Monemvasia, or Napoli di Malvasia, a town on the E. coast of the E. promontory of the Morea, 42 m. S.E. of Sparta. In L. L. L. v. 2, 233, Biron names "metheglin, wort, and m." as 3 sweet drinks. In R3 i. 4, 1161, the murderer proposes to chop the body of Clarence "in the m.-butt in the next room," and in 277, says to him, "I'll drown you in the m.-butt within." In B. & F. Wit Money iii. 1, Roger tells how Tom the coachman is so drunk "that he lies lashing A butt of m. for his mares!" In H4 B. ii. 1, 42, the Hostess calls Bardolph "that arrant m.-nose knave." In Bale's Johan 2088, Dissimulation says, "It passeth malmesey, capric, tyre,. or hyppocras." In Wit Woman, F.4, Errinta describes an old man "with a palsy hand, a malmsie nose." In Barnes' Charter iii. 3, Frescobaldi says, "First did I wash my liver, lungs, and heart With headstrong Malvesie." In Chaucer C. T. B. 1260, Dan John brought with him "a jubbe of malvesye." In Magdalen 476, the Taverner says, "Here is wine of Mawt and Malmeseyn." In Chester M.P. of Noah's Flood 233, the gossip sings: "Here is a pottle full of Malmsine, good and strong."


A harbour on the N. coast of Brittany, 200 m. W. of Paris. It stands on the rocky islet of Aron, and communicates with the mainland by a causeway called Le Sillon. In Stucley 1877, the Capt. says of Vernon: "This gentleman . . . came from Brittain [i.e. Brittany] as a passenger; for at St. Mallows we had cause to touch, And there we found this honest gentleman." In Davenant's Rutland, p. 226, the Londoner says of the French: "Their larding is diversified from bacon of Mayence to porpoise of St. M."


An island in the Mediterranean, about 60 m. due S. of Sicily. St. Paul was shipwrecked in the Bay which still bears his name, and it is said that the island was Christianized by him. After the downfall of the Roman Empire the Saracens took M. and held it till 1127, when the Norman knights, under Roger II, captured it and held it for about a cent. In 1194 it passed to the Emperor Henry VI, and so became dependent on the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. In 1530 Charles V granted it to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, and 28 successive Grandmasters of the Order ruled the island until 1798. They were frequently attacked by the Turks, who in 1551 ravaged the neighbouring island of Gozo and in 1565 besieged M. for 2 months. They were repelled, however, and Valetta was built in 1566. Through the 16th and 17th cents. intermittent warfare took place between the Knights and the fleets of the Turks, and owing to the number of slaves captured in these fights Valetta became one of the largest slavemarkets in Europe. Napoleon seized M. in 1798, but it was soon reduced by the English, and by the Treaty of Paris in 18l4 it was handed over to Great Britain.

The scene of Marlowe's Jew is laid is the island; all Jews had been expelled in 1492, but they had returned since the coming of the Knights. In i. 1, Barabas says, "Long to the Turk did M. contribute; Which tribute . . . The Turks have let increase to such a sum As all the wealth of M. cannot pay." In i. 2, the Turks come to demand their tribute, and Ferneze, the Governor, obtains a month's respite. On their return the Turks are betrayed and M. freed. All this is romance; there was no such Governor as Ferneze, and M. never paid tribute to the Turks. Dekker, in News from Hell, calls one of his characters "my rich Jew of M." W. Rowley, in Search 19, describes a moneylender as having a vizard "like the artificial Jewe of Maltaes nose." Both references are doubtless to Marlowe's play. So, in Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] ii. 3, Puny says, "I'm the very Jew of M., if she did not use me . . . worse than a rotten apple." B. & F. Malta takes place during the grandmastership of La Valette (1557–1568), and is full of fights with the Turks. In ii. 1, there is a sea-fight in the harbour, and Norandine reports: "All their silver crescents then I saw Like falling meteors spent and set for ever Under the Cross of M." The Red Cross on a white ground is the well-known sign of the Knights of St. John. In Barnes' Charter iii. 3, Frescobaldi says, "I fought at M. when the town was girt With bull-beggars of Turkie." As the action of the play takes place before 1503, this is something of an anachronism. In Massinger's Renegado ii. 5, Asambeg, viceroy of Tunis, upbraids his followers: "You suffered Those thieves of M., almost in our harbour, To board a ship and bear her safely off." In B. & F. Fair Maid I. v. 3, Prospero says he was a prisoner for 12 years in the Turkish gallies; then "Some ships of M. met the Ottoman fleet, Charged them, and boarded them, and gave me freedom." In Webster's White Devil v. 1, two of the conspirators come disguised as "noblemen of Hungary that vowed their service against the enemies of Christ, went to M. [and] were there knighted." In Kyd's Soliman i., "a knight of M." is one of the visitors in honour of the nuptials of the Prince of Cyprus. In Davenant's Favourite iii. 1, Eumena asks: "Yond slaves, are they those of Maltha, whom I bought from the gallies of Algiers?" In Massinger's Maid Hon, Gonzaga and Bertoldo are both Knights of M. Camiola says to the latter, "You are, Sir, a Knight of M., by your order Bound to a single life," and in i. 1, Antonio says to him, "You are a Knight of M., and have served Against the Turk." In Partiall iv. 1, Fiducia wishes for her enemy: "May his aimed-at happiness be Some piece of flesh who hath served prenticeship In the M. galleys," i.e. a woman who has been the common property of the galley-slaves there. In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, Fortress says, "Our order, like the Knights of M., does admit no persons espoused." Harrison, in Desc. of England, speaks of a kind of lapdogs "called Melitei, of the island M., whence they were brought hither." This was a kind of spaniel, "Canis Brevipilis." They are mentioned in Fleming's English Dogs (1576) as "little, pretty, proper and fine." Lyly, in Euphues England, p. 415, says, "If I had brought, ladies, little dogs from M . . . . I am sure that you would have wooed me." In Nash's Summers, p. 70, Christmas says, "I must rig ship to Phrygia for woodcocks, to M. for cranes." In Magdalen 474, the Taverner says, "Here is wine of mawt and Malmeseyn," where mawt may perhaps mean M.


A range of hills running for abt. 10 m. N. and S. between Herefordsh. and Worcestersh. They will be ever memorable for the "ferly of fairy "that befell William Langland "on a May mornynge on Malverne hulles "(Piers C. i. 6). In Thersites 199, Mulciber, having armed Thersites, says, "If M. H. should on thy shoulders light, They shall not hurt them." In Brewer's Lovesick King iv. 2, he says that his colliers with their picks could "make a dale of Mauburn h." Drayton, in Polyolb. vii. 53, says, "Malverne, king of h., fair Severn overlooks." Bacchus is dedicated to "Sir Richard Swash, Lord and Master on Mt. Malvorn"; and later, the author says that to rehearse all the names of the company "were no less labour than to make . . . a louse to leap over the high tops of Me. h." The author of Old Meg, p. 11, says that the old men of Hereford danced a morris "as if Mawlborne H. in the depths of winter, when all their heads are covered . . . with snow, had shook and danced at some earth-quake."




Properly the military body, originally made up of Circassian slaves, who seized Egypt in 1254 and retained the government of it till the beginning of the 19th cent. The word was also used of cross-breeds between the whites and the natives of Brazil. In Jonson's Volpone ii. 1, Peregrine, drawing out Sir Politick, suggests: "Your baboons were spies And were A kind of subtle nation near to China." Sir Pol., not to be beaten, says, "Ay, ay, your Mamaluchi." In the old Timon v. 1, Pseudolus says to Gelasimus, who is about to take a flight on Pegasus, "Fly to Pindus hill; on right and left hand there thou shalt behold the Mamaluccian inhabitants," and then he reaches the Zodiac. In the written guide which he gives Gelasimus he sets down the distance from Pindus to the Mamaluces 59 m. This is, of course, all elaborate fooling. Heylyn (s.v. EGYPT) says, "These Mamaluckes were the offspring of Georgia and Colchis, vulgarly called the Circussi."


(now called MEHEDIA). A port on the N.W. coast of Morocco, at the mouth of the Wad Sebou, which is navigable from M. to Fez. In T. Heywood's Maid of West A. ii. 4, the surgeon says he is on a ship "now bound for M., A town in Barbary." In iv. 4, Chorus, we are told that Bess has "Put into M., in Barbary," and the news is brought to the K. of Fez. In v. 1, Mullisheg says he would not make Bess weep "for M.'s wealth." In part ii., act iii., Bess says, "I, without thee, came to M."


The elder son of Joseph, from whom the tribe of M., or Mh., descended. Half the tribe received lands on the E. of the Jordan, the other half along with Ephraim occupied the central part of W. Palestine, in what was afterwards Samaria. Milton, in Trans. Ps. lxxx. 10 says, "In Ephraim's view and Benjamin's, And in M.'s sight, Awake thy strength." In B. & F. Elder B. iii. 5, Miramont addresses Brisac." He shall, Jew; Thou of the tribe of many asses, coxcomb!"


A tavern in Cheapside, Lond. In Middleton's Quiet Life iii. 2, Sweetball says that Franklin is "at the Man-in-the-Moon, above stairs."


An island in the Irish Sea, almost equidistant from the coasts of England, Scotland, and Ireland. From the close of the 9th cent. until 1266 it was ruled by a succession of Norwegian and Icelandic kings, the last of whom, Magnus VI, sold it to Alexander III of Scotland. In 1344 the Earl of Salisbury, by marriage with the heiress to the throne, became K. of M., and thenceforward the island came under English control. In 1406 it was granted to Sir John Stanley, and it remained in his family-carrying the title K. in Alantill 1825, when it was bought by the British Parliament and its present constitution given to it. In H6 B ii. 3, 13, Henry sentences Eleanor, the wife of the D. of Gloucester, to be banished and to live "With Sir John Stanley in the I. of M." In the next scene Stanley informs her accordingly. He was the grandson of the original grantee. The Duchess is said to have been confined in the crypt of St. German's Cathedral on St. Patrick's Isle, off the coast near Peel. In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 1, Edward creates Gaveston "Earl of Cornwall, K. and lord of M." This was in 1307; but the lordship of M. was an empty title. In Nash's Summers, p. 70, Christmas says, "I must send to the I. M. for puffins." The Manx puffin (" Procellaria Anglorum ") used to be very common, and is still found on the Calf islet.

The name lends itself to an obvious pun. In Day's Parl. Bees iv., Armiger, satirising the courtiers, says: "These pied-winged butterflies Ne'er landed in the I. of M," i.e. they have never become true men at all. The word is also used in the sense of the microcosm of man. In Cooke's Green's Quoque, p. 560, Will Rash says, "Love runs through all countries, will travel through the I. of M. in a minute." In Dekker's Satiromastix iv. 1, 4 Horace says, "All our understanding faculties Sit there in their high court of parliament Enacting laws to sway this humorous world, This little I. of M." In Marston's Mountebanks, the Mountebank says, "If any woman be troubled with the falling sickness . . . . she must avoid the I. of M." Harrison says that the witches of the I. of M." oftentimes sell winds to the mariners, inclosed under certain knots of thread."


The elevated plateau in the centre of Spain, stretching from the Sierra Morena northwards to the Alcarria. It is a desolate and barren dist. It is chiefly memorable as the country in which Cervantes' "Don Quixote" lived, and from which he took his title. In May's Heir i., Clerimont speaks of "The witty knight, Don Quixote de la Mancha."


A city in Lancs., on the Irwell, 180 m. N.W. of Lond. There was a Roman station there, and the town suffered greatly at the hands of the Danes. But little is known of its early history, and it is only once mentioned in the plays of this period. In Fair Em, the heroine is the daughter of the Miller of M. in the reign of William I; and several of the scenes are laid in M. in or near the Miff. One of the clothiers in Deloney's Reading Intro. is "Martin Byram of M." Fynes Moryson, in Itinerary, iii. 3, 144, says, "M. is an old town . . . rich in the trade of making woollen cloth . . . and the cloths called M. Cottons are vulgarly known."


In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 3, Techelles, telling the story of his (fabulous) march through Africa, says: "I did march to Zanzibar . . . where I viewed The Ethiopian Sea, rivers, and lakes, But neither man nor child in all the land; Therefore I took my course to M.; And by the coast of Byather at last I came to Cubar, where the Negroes dwell." M. would therefore seem to lie between Zanzibar and the Bight of Biafra. There is a dist. called Manica, near the E. coast of S. Africa, just S. of the Zambesi, but this seems too far. S. Heylyn calls the whole district in S. Africa from Zanzibar across to Loanda and the Congo, Manicongo; and M. might well be a shortened form of this cumbrous word.


A town in Essex on the estuary of the Stour, 58 m. N.E. of Lond. It possessed the privilege of holding fairs on condition of the exhibition of a certain number of plays annually. The Essex oxen were famous for their size and quality, and the roasting of one whole would be a common accompaniment of the fair. In H4 A. ii. 4, 498, the Prince apostrophises Falstaff as "that roasted M. ox with the pudding in his belly, that reverend vice, that grey iniquity," the Vice being an invariable character in the Moralities. Dekker, in News from Hell, says, "You shall have a slave drink more ale in 2 days than all M. does at a Whitsun-ale." Nash, in Choosing of Valentines, speaks of "seeing a play of strange morality shewen by bachelrie of M." In Dekker's Seven Sins, he says, "It was acted, like the old Morals at Maningtree, by tradesmen."


The local name for Cadir Idris, q.v. In Peele's Ed. I, vii., Lluellen says, "Every man take his standing on M.-d. and wander like irregulars up and down the wilderness." In ii., Guenthian says to Lluellen, "You might as soon move Monk Davey into the sea as Guenthian from his side," where a probable conjecture for Monk Davey is Mounchdenny or M.-d. Drayton, in Polyolb. iv. 455, calls it Mounchdeny.


The legendary capital of Guiana, otherwise known as El Dorado, q.v. Burton, A. M. ii. 2, 3, says, "I would see those inner parts of America, whether there be any such great city of M. or Eldorado in that golden empire."


A town in Notts., 13 m. N. of Nottingham. It is in the heart of the Robin Hood country. In Downfall Huntington i. 3, Little John says to Robin, "I at M. will attend your coming." M. is the scene of the Ballad of The King and the Miller of M., in Percy Reliques iii. 2. In Jonson's Love's Welcome, the scene of which is in Notts., one of the characters is "Master A. B. C. Accidence, schoolmaster, of M."


A town in France on the Seine, 29 m. N.W. of Paris. In Chapman's Trag. Byron v. i. Byron says; "It would have stirred the image of a k. Into perpetual motion to have stood Near the conspiracy restrained at M." Apparently the reference is to the k.'s acceptance of the Catholic faith at M. in 1593; and the suggestion is that Byron saved him from the plottings of the disappointed Protestants.


One of the largest cities in Arcadia, on the borders of Argolis, abt. 16 m. W. of Argos. It was the scene Of 5 great battles in the time of the ancient Greeks, the most important being that in which Epaminondas defeated the Spartans, but lost his own life, in 362 B.C. In Shirley's Arcadia ii. i. Musidorus says to Miso, "Meet her this evening at M. at her father's." In Glapthorne's Argalus iii. i. Philarchus says, "Amphialus is in the grove 'twixt M. and his castle."


A city in N. Italy, 80 m. W. of Venice, go m. S.E. of Milan, and 25 m. S. of Verona. It was the birthplace of Vergil. From 1329 to 1708 it was ruled by the Dukes of the Gonzaga family. It gave its name to a sort of silk, and, through a confusion with the French manteau, to the word m.-maker. In Cockayne's Trapolin ii. 3, Horatio calls it: "Glorious M., Virgilius Maro's birth-place." Chaucer, in Leg. of Good Women 924, says, "Glorie and honour, Virgile Mantuan, Be to thy name!" Davies, in Orchestra (1594) 128, prays: "O that I had . . . the Man of M.'s charmed brain!" In B. & F. Valentinian ii. 2, Lycias claims to be a Roman and a Mn. In Cromwell iii. 2, Cromwell says, "The men of M. And these Bononians are at deadly strife"; and he gets a passport for Bedford to M. The reference may be to the war in 1511, which resulted in the restoration of the sons of Bentivoglio to Bologna. In Shirley's Ball v. i. Freshwater says, "I saw little in M beside dancing upon the ropes; only their strong beer was better than any I ever drank at the Trumpet." Freshwater is romancing wildly, and no credit can be attached to his travellers' tales. In Two Gent., the scene of iv. 2 and v. 3 and 4 is a forest on the frontiers of M One of the outlaws is a Mn. In Coryat's Crudities (1611) 117, it is said that the town of Mirandula, 12 m. from M., was almost depopulated, because "the Bandits . . . make their abode in it as it were their safe sanctuary and refuge." Valentine flees from Milan to M., whither hi is followed by Silvia. The D. pursues them and overtakes them in the forest, where all things are made even. In Shrew ii. 1, 60, Hortensio is introduced to Baptisto in Padua as "Licio, born in M." In iv. 2, 79, the pedant says he is "of M."; and Tranio tells him that "'Tis death for anyone in M. To come to Padua." In Rom. i. 3, 28, the Nurse reminds Lady Capulet that, when Juliet was weaned, "My Lord and you were then at M." In iii. 3, 148, Friar Laurence advises Romeo, banished from Verona, to "pass to M." and sojourn there. When Lady Capulet hears of it, in iii. 5, 88, she plans to "send to one in M." to poison him. In v. 1, 67, Romeo is in M. and buys poison from the apothecary there, though "M.'s law is death To any he that utters them." The letters sent to M. miscarry, and Romeo returns "in post from M." to Juliet's tomb. In Davenant's Cr. Brother i. 1, Foreste says, "The treatise lately written to confute The desperate sect in M., calls it you The author?" The reference is to the disputes about the succession in M. on the death of Vincenzo II in 1627. The scene of Day's Humour is laid partly at Venice and partly at M. There is war between Venice and M., and in ii. 1, Octavio says, "I cut some few of the Mns., throats." It is quite unhistorical. The scene of Massinger's Lover is laid in M. and the neighbourhood; the D. is called Gonzaga, but the story is entirely imaginary. Shirley lays the scenes of his Bird, Courtier, and Imposture (in part) at M. In T. Heywood's Maid of West B., after the shipwreck of Act III, Goodlack gets to M., and the D. of M., who is at war with Ferrara, is one of the characters in Act iv. In Cockayne's Trapolin i. 1, Mattemores says, "I will fight for Florence, Nor shall the Longobardy Mns. E'er win a flag while I am in the field." A play, now lost, was presented at Court in 1579 entitled "The Duke of Milan and the Duke of Mantua." The scene of Carlell's Deserv. Fav is probably intended to be M., though it is not so stated. It is taken from Solozarno's La Duquesa de M., and it is clear from line 2299 that it is within a day's journey of Florence. In L. L. L. iv. 2, 97, Holofernes cries: "Old Mn.! who understandest thee not, loves thee not." The reference is to the poet Baptista Spagnolus Mantuanus (Mantuan, 1448–1516), whose Eclogues were used as a schoolbook in the 16th cent.


One of the gates of Bologna, leading out to the road to Mantua. Probably the W. gate, called Porta San Felice, is intended. In Cromwell iii. 2, Cromwell, in Bologna, says to Bedford, "Could you but get out of the Mantua p., Then were you safe."


A place in Kent, some is m. N.W. of Maidstone, near Wrotham. In Brome's M. Beggars i., the next rendezvous of the Beggars is fixed "Neither in village nor in town, But 3 mile off, at Maple-down."


A plain on the coast of Attica, 18 m. N.E. of Athens in a direct line, as m. by the N. road, and 26 m. by the S., which is the easier one. It is famous for the victory won by Miltiades and the Athenians over the Persians in 490 B.C. The tomb of the 192 Athenians who fell is still to be seen, and is called the Soro. In Wilson's Cobler 186, the soldier says, "In the conflict of Arbaces, general of Persia, at M, I rescued the colours of Boeotia." In Brome's Ct. Beggar iv. 2, Frederick, who is mad, says of Diana: "Perhaps she hunts to-day I' th' woods of Merathon or Erymanthus."




The land on the boundaries of two adjacent countries, specially applied to the borderland between England and Scotland, often called the N. Mes., and to that between England and Wales. In H5 i. 2, 140, Canterbury says, when an invasion by the Scots is discussed, "They of those mes. Shall be a wall sufficient to defend Our inland from the pilfering borderers." In H6 C. ii. 1, 140, Warwick, arriving in Herefordsh., says, "We are come to join with you, For in the mes. here we heard you were." In Val. Welsh. i. 1, the father of Caradoc is styled "the great Earl of M.," where the Welsh m. is meant. In Death Huntington ii. 2, Brian speaks of "the Lord of the m. That lies on Wye, Lug, and the Severn streams." The younger Mortimer of Marlowe's Ed. II was created Earl of M., i.e. of the Welsh M., in 1328. His grandson, the 3rd Earl, married Philippa, daughter of Lionel, 3rd son of Edward III. He was succeeded in the earldom by his son Roger, and he again by his son Edmund, who died in 1424 without issue. Roger's daughter Anne married Richd. of Cambridge, and the title of Earl of M. descended to their son Richd., D. of York; and so to his son Edward, afterwards Ed. IV. The man referred to as the Earl of M., and husband of Glendower's daughter, in H4 A. i. 3, 84, iv. 3, 93, and v. 5, 40, was not the Earl of M. at all, but Edmund, the 2nd son of Edmund and Philippa, and uncle of the young Edmund, Earl of M. In H6 B ii. 2, 36, Richd. of York bases his claim to the crown on his descent through his mother from Lionel. In iv. 2, 144, Cade claims to be the grandson of a twin brother of Roger Mortimer. In H6 C. i. 1, 106, Henry admits that Richd.'s grandfather was Roger Mortimer, Earl of M., but asserts a superior claim as the son of Henry V. In ii. 1, 179, Warwick addresses Edward of York as "brave Earl of M.," and in 191 says, "No longer Earl of M., but D. of York; The next degree is England's royal throne." In Peele's Ed. I, the supposed potter claims, in xii., "No potter I, but Mortimer, the Earl of M." This is an anachronism. The 1st Earl of M. was created by Edward II.




An old name for the Black Sea, used by Marco Polo. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 3, Theridamas says, "I crossed the gulf called by the name Mare Majore of the inhabitants."


The Red Sea. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. iii. 5, Callipine makes Almeda "K. of Ariadan Bordering on M. R., near to Mecca."


The Red Sea. In W. Rowley's All's Lost i. 1, 37, Roderique says of the Moors: "They come to sacrifice their bloods to us. If that be red, a mare rubrum we'll make so high to quench their silver moons," i.e. the crescent standards of the Turks.


Spt. on E. coast of Kent, just N. of the S. Foreland and S. of Walmer. In T. Heywood's I.K.M., B. 343, Drake reports that the Admiral of the Spanish Armada and other noble prisoners "are by this time landed at St. Margrets from whence your Admiral brings them up by land."


A ch. in Lond., in Lothbury, opposite to the N. front of the Bank of England. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire, and rebuilt by Wren. Youth was "Imprinted in Lothbury over against St. Margaret's ch. by me, Wyllyam Copland." Jyl of Breyntford's Testament has the same imprint.


The open space in front of the Town Hall Chambers, Southwark. It got its name from the ch. of St. Margaret on the Hill, which was disused in 1539 and the site employed for the building of the Town Hall. It was the scene of the Southwark, or S. M.'s, Fair, which was .2nd only to St. Bartholomew's Fair and was established in 1550. Hogarth has immortalized it in his picture. An edition of The Merry Devil was "Printed by A. M. for Francis Falkner, and are to be sold at his shop near unto S. Margarite's-hill in Southwarke. 1626."


A town in the Isle of Thanet, Kent, go m. E. of Lond. Its fame as a watering place began only in the 18th cent.; till then it was merely an obscure fishing village. In Webster's Cuckold ii. 4, Woodroff says, "I should by promise see the sea to-morrow As low (i.e. as far S.] as Lee or M."


Dist. in the W. of Central Asia, lying between Hyrcania, Scythia, Bactriana, and Ariana. It corresponds to the modern Khorasan. It had a splendid climate and was very fertile. Milton, P. R. iii. 3z7, describes troops coming "From Arachosia, from Candaor east, And M., to the Hyrcanian cliffs Of Caucasus."


A ch. in Rome, in the Piazza del Popolo, near the gate of the same name. The ch. was founded in 1099, but its present form is due to Alexander VII, who restored it in the middle of the 17th cent. The gate was built in 1561 from the design of Michel Angelo, and is the principal entrance to the city from the N. In Barnes' Charter ii. 1, Alexander orders Castillian to "fortify upon the tower of St. Sebastian, affronting that port where proud Charles should enter, called S. M. di P."


Spt. on the S.W. coast of Spain, at the mouth of the Guadalete, just opposite to Cadiz, about 60 m. N.W. of Gibraltar. In Stucley 1562, Philip promises to send 50 gallies to help Sebastian, "Which, on the 4th of June, near to the straits Of Giberalter, iii a haven there Called El Porto de Sancta M, shaft wait His coming on toward Apheryca." In B. & F. Pilgrimage i. 1, Incubo takes his leave because he has to get to the gallies this night "for in the morning They put from Port Saint Mary's." The scene is at Osuna, so he would have 80 m. to go.


Used of the Forum Romanum in Coriolanus and Julius Caesar. It lay in the valley between the Palatine, Capitoline, and Quirinal hills, and was about 200 yds. long by 70 wide at the N. end. It was the centre of the political and social life of ancient Rome. In Cor. ii. 3, Coriolanus appears in the market-place to solicit the votes of the citizens. In iii. 3, he is banished by the people assembled there by the tribunes. The scene of the offering of the crown to Julius Caesar, described by Casca in J.C. i. 2, was the market-place, and there Caesar's body was brought in iii. 2 and his funeral oration pronounced by Antony.


A st. in Lond., running S. from Fenchurch St. to Gt. Tower St. At its N.E. corner was a manor called Blanch Appleton, where a market or mart was kept in old times, though it had long been discontinued, says Stow. Hence the lane was called Marte L.; this was corrupted into M. L., and even, as in the quotation, into St. M.'s L. On the E. side, between Crutched Friars and Gt. Tower St., stands the Corn Exchange–the Old Exchange opened in 1747, and the New in 1827. Hence M. L. in modem parlance means the Corn Market. In Dekker's King's Entertainment, on March 15th, 1603, the City Companies were seated on stands, "the first beginning at the upper end of St. Mark's L., and the last reaching above the Conduit in Fleetstreete." In Prodigal v. 1, Flowerdale says, "To-morrow I crave your companies in M. L."—where he evidently lived.


A ch. and convent in Florence, at the N. end of the Piazza San Marco. Savonarola's cell is still shown in the convent. In Middleton's Women beware (the scene of which is in Florence) i. 3, we have a representation of "a yearly custom and solemnity, Religiously observed by the D. and States, To St. M.'s temple, the 15th of April." If this was to celebrate St. M.'s Day (April 25th), Middleton is slightly out in his date.


A ch. in Milan, in the Strada Pontarcio, in the N. of the city. It was built in 1254. In Webster's Malfi v. 2, the Dr. tells of a man afflicted with lycanthropia who "met the D. 'bout midnight in a lane Behind St. M. ch." In B. & F. Woman Hater iii. 4, the Pander makes an appointment with the Mercer to meet a woman at his house—" the fair white house at the further corner of St. M. st." In both these cases I suspect that the authors are thinking of Venice, though the scenes of the plays are laid in Milan.


An ancient Basilica in Rome in the Piazza Venezia, N. of the Capitol. It was founded by Pope Mark in 337, and rebuilt in 833 by Gregory IV, and again by Paul II in 1468. In Barnes' Charter ii. 1, Charles VIII orders: "Cause 10 brass pieces with their shot and powder To be drawn out of S. M."


The famous ch. at the E. end of the Piazza San Marco at Venice. It was founded in 828 to receive the body of St. Mark (which had been brought from Alexandria), burnt down in 976, refounded in 977, completed and consecrated in 1111. The Treasury of St. Mark is off the S. transept, and was stored with a large number of relics and objects of art of the greatest value; it was used as a sort of reserve fund by the State, and in 1797 many of its treasures were turned into money. The Campanile, near its S.W. corner, was finished in 1155, and has recently been restored after its downfall a few years ago. In Jonson's Volpone iv. 1, Sir Politick notes in his diary a visit to St. M. and what he did there. In iv. 2, Mosca, complimenting the advocate Voltore, says, "They're bound to erect your statue in St. M." In Massinger's Renegado i. 1, Francesco tells of the scorn done to him by Grimaldi "in S. M., To me as I stood at the holy altar." In ii. 5, Asambeg says to Grimaldi, "Thou hast blasphemed the Othoman power, and safer At noonday might'st have given fire to St. M., Your proud Venetian temple." In Marston's Antonio's Rev. iii. 1, Antonio asks, "Is this St. M., Ch.?"; and there the whole scene takes place, in front of Andrugio's tomb. In Davenant's Wits i. 1, Pert, returning from his travels, says, "Meager and I have not"–and Palatine interrupts, "The treasure of St. M., I believe, Sir." The Palmer in J. Heywood's Four PP. i. has visited "Saynt Mark in Venis." In T. Heywood's I.K.M., B. 295, one of the Lords says, "I have been in Venice, In the Realto there called S. Marks; 'Tis but a bauble, if compared to this," i.e. Gresham's Exchange. The noble Lord is a little mixed in his recollections of Venice. In Day's Travails, p. 53, Sir Antony, being at Venice, asks, "What tidings at St. Marke?"


The Piazza di San Marco, in front of St. M. at Venice. In Jonson's Volpone, ii. 1, is laid in "St. M. P., a retired corner before Corvino's house." Later on in the scene Volpone appears as a mountebank Dr. and apologizes for retiring on this occasion "into an obscure nook of the Piazza." Probably the Piazza is meant by St. M. St. in the following passages. In Middleton's Blurt ii. 1, Hippolito asks: "Do you know the gentleman that dwells in the midst of St. M. St.?" and in Chapman's Usher v. 3, Cortezza tells of a maid who tried to commit suicide by throwing herself from a tower "in St. M. st.," presumably the Campanile. In Marston's What You iii. i. Simplicius says, "I know you dwell in St. Marke's Lane at the sign of the Muscat." This is in Venice, but probably Marston invented the Lane without any definite idea of it, except that it was near St. M.


An imaginary island, somewhere in the East. In Com. Cond. 238, Cardolus says, "Who dares alive presume to tread Within M. isle?"


See Marybone.


The Campus Martius at Rome, q.v. In Massinger's Roman Actor v. 1, the Tribune reports that the body of the astrologer Ascletario "Was with all scorn dragged to the Field of Mars And there" burnt.


Probably the Temple of Mars Ultor at Rome is intended. It was built by Augustus in his Forum, as a thank-offering for his victory at Philippi, 42 B.C.; three of its fine Corinthian columns may still be seen in the Via Bonella. In Richards' Messallina v. 1, 209 1, Pallas says, "From the high top o' the temple of god Mars Let a bright burning torch i' th' dead of night Waft our approach."


The ancient Massilia; a spt. on the N.E. shore of the Gulf of Lyons, 408 m. S.E. of Paris. It was colonized by Greeks from Phocaea about 600 B.C., and has been an important commercial port throughout its history. It is now the 3rd largest city in France The Massiliots aided Rome in the 2nd Punic War. In Nabbes' Hannibal ii. 1, Syphax says, "Hath not Scipio Joined unto him Massilia's k.?" Massilia, however, was a republic and had no k. The city took part with Pompeius in the Civil War between him and Caesar, and in 49 B.C. it was besieged and taken by the latter. In B. & F. False One ii. 3, Caesar says, "I razed Massilia in my wanton anger." In Magdalene the heroine visits "Marcylle "in order to convert the k. It was often chosen as a place of exile during the earlier days of the Roman Empire. In Jonson's Catiline iv. 3, Catiline says, "Let it be given out here in the city That I am gone, an innocent man, to exile Into Massilia." The laws of Massilia prohibited the production of Mimes in the city. William Alley, in Poor Man's Library (1565), commends its "great gravity "in this respect.

In Shrew ii. 1, 378, Gremio promises to give to his wife "an Argosy That now is lying in Marcellus road." In All's Well iv. 4, 9, Helena says, "I duly am informed His Grace is at Marcellae, to which place We have convenient convoy." In iv. 5, 85, Lafeu says, "His Highness comes post from Marcellus "to Rousillon, which lies on the opposite side of the Gulf of Lyons. In v. 1, Helena arrives there, and the scene is laid in a st. of the city. In Jonson's Ev. Man I. ii. 2, Brainworm pretends, "I have been at M . . . . a gentleman-slave in the gallies." in B. & F. French Law. i. 1, Cleremont says that Champernel is "as tall a seaman as any that ever put out from M." In T. Heywood's Captives i. 1, the Clown informs the audience: "They call this place Marcellis Roade, the chief haven town in France," and it is the scene of the play. It is also the scene of Massinger's Unnat. Com.; and in i. 1, Montreville says, "Here's brave young Beaufort, The meteor of Marsellis, one that holds The governor his father's will and power In more awe than his own." In his Parl. Love i. 4, Chamont says of Beaupré: "She was bestowed upon A pirate of Marsellis, with whose wife She lived 5 years." In Day's Law Tricks i. 1, Polymetis speaks of "the choicest gems Marcellis, Pisa, or Ligorne could yield."


A prison in Lond., connected with the Court of the King's Marshall. It was used as a prison for debtors, and for persons charged with contempt of the Courts of the Marshall, the King's Palace, and the Admiralty. It stood in the Borough High St., Southwark, on the E. side, opposite to the end of Union St. Towards the end of the 18th cent. it was removed to the site of the Old White Lion prison close to St. George's Ch. The Court was abolished and the prison pulled down in 1849. Skelton, in Colin Clout 1164, says of an unauthorized preacher: "The King's Bench or Marshalsy, Have him thither by and by." In Straw ii., Newton reports: "They [the rebels] have spoiled all Southwark, broke up the M. and the King's bench." This was in 1381. In Bale's Johan 287, Sedition says, "Get they false witnesses they force not of whence they be, Be they of Newgate or be they of the M." In Poverty 340, Envy says to Poverty, "Thou art come alate out of M." In H5 v. 490, the Chamberlain says, "Go, break among the press and find a way out To let the troop pass fairly, or I'll find A M. shall hold ye play these 2 months." In the Puritan, i. 4 and iii. 5 take place in the M. prison. In iii. 5, the prisoners are heard crying: "Good gentlemen over the way, send your I relief." Taylor, in Works i. 91, says, "The ocean that i. Suretyship sails in is the spacious M." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV B. 120, to Jane's inquiry, "What prison's this?" Jocky replies: "The M., forsooth." In his Royal King iii. i' the Clown says, "We have houses rent free, and goodly ones, to choose where we will: the Martialsie, the Counter, Newgate, Bridewell; and would a man desire to dwell in stronger buildings?" In his Fortune v. 1, the Purser says, "Set sail from the fatal Marshal seas." Deloney, in Newberie vi., tells how Wolsey sent the clothiers to prison: "4 days lay these men in the Marshalsey." The word is also used for a prison generally. In Stucley 1349, the Provost of Cadiz says of Stucley: "He's here within the palace yet ready to go unto the M." In Greene's Alphonsus iv. 3, 1379, Amurath orders the Provost: "Go, carry Fabius presently Unto the Marshalsie; there let him rest, Clapt sure and safe in fetters all of steel." This is in Constantinople.


The low-lying dist. in Lincs. and Cambridgesh. There were many projects for draining these Fens in the 17th cent. In Nabbes' C. Garden i. 4, Jerker says, "'Tis more improbable than the projection of draining M. with a windmill."


A town in France, on the Isle of Rhé, 11 m. N.W. of La Rochelle. It has a large trade in white and red wine. In B. & F. Pilgrimage i. 1, Diego, bringing in wine, says, "Here 'tis, and right St. M."


One of the gates of the ancient city of Paris, on the N.E. of the city, at the point where the Boul. St. Denis becomes the Boul. St. Martin. The main road from the N. entered by this gate. In Davenant's Rutland, p. 222, the Londoner says to the Parisian, "I entered your city at P. St. M." Fynes Moryson, in Itinerary i. 2, 188, says of Paris: "The streets are somewhat large, and among them the fairest is that of St. Dennis, the 2nd St. Honoré, the 3rd St. Antoine, and the 4th St. Martine."


A ch. in Lond., on the N. side of Ludgate Hill, E. of the Old Bailey. Its slender spire is to be seen in all views of St. Paul's taken from the W. It is said to have been founded by the British King Cadwallo; at all events, it was rebuilt in 1437, with a curious spire-steeple, destroyed in the Gt. Fire, and rebuilt by Wren. Davenport's Crowne for a Conqueror was "Printed by E. P. for Francis Constable, and are to be sold at his shop under St. Martin's Ch. at Ludgate. 1639."


A ch. is Lond, now on the E. side of Trafalgar Sq., but formerly, as the name implies, in the open country. It was built first in 1535, but the old ch., being too small for the growing parish was pulled down in 1721 and the present fine budding erected. Here Francis Bacon was christened; and it was a favourite place for burials, amongst many others who were interred here being George Heriot, well known to the readers of The Fortunes of Nigel; Sir John Davis, the poet; Mayerne, the physician; Dobson, the painter; and, later, Nell Gwynne. It gave its name to St. Martin's Lane, Charing Cross, which was laid out in 1613 and soon became a fashionable residential st.. In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 2, the Col. directs in his will "the disposure of my body in burial at St. Martin's i' the Field." In his Five Gallants i. 1, Arthur brings in a trunk of apparel "from St. Martin's-in-the-Fields." The Booke of Fortune, attributed to Sir T. More, was "Imprinted by me, Robert Wyer, dwelling in Saynt Martyns parish, in the Duke of Suffolk's rents, beside Charing Cross."


A collegiate Ch. in Lond., with the right of sanctuary, founded in 750, enlarged in 1056, and chartered by William I in 1068. It stood on the E. side of St. M. Lane, now St. M.-le-g., on the site of the present Post Office. The curfew was rung from its tower, and at its sound the gates of the city closed for the night. The ch. was destroyed at the dissolution of the Monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII, but the right of sanctuary remained till 1697, and as a result St. M. Lane became the resort of all manner of criminals and debtors. Many foreign artificers also settled within the sanctuary, and it became notorious for the sale of cheap clothes and boots, sham jewellery, copper lace, known as St. M. lace, and all sorts of second-rate finery. When the ch. was pulled down a tavern was built on its site, called St. M. in the Sentree, or Sanctuary. In News Barthol. Fair, in the list of taverns, we find: "Now of late, St. Martin's in the Sentree."

In Dekker's Shoemaker's i. 1, Eyre speaks of the shoemakers as "the flower of St. M." Deloney, 'm Craft ii. 10, says, "There dwelt in St. M. a jolly shoemaker, he was commonly called the Green King." In Reading vi., the visitors to Lond." viewed in St. M. shoemakers." Dekker, in Hornbook iii, advises the Gull to "fetch thee boots out of S. Martens." Lyly, in Pappe with an Hatchet (Eliz. Pamph.), p. 56, accuses Martin Marprelate of drawing "divinity from the Colleges of Oxford and Cambridge to Shoemakers' Hall in Sainct Martins." In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says to Judith, "You must to the Pawn to buy lawn; to St. M. for lace." So Milton, Areopagitica (Fletcher), p. 114, "our Lond. trading St. Thomas in his vestry, and add to that St. Martin and St. Hugh–that patron saint of shoemakers–have not more vendible ware, ready made." In Northward i. 2, when Jack Hornet is to be dressed up as Doll's father, with a chain about his neck and so forth, Doll says, "For that St. M. and we will talk." In Massinger's Madam iv. 2, young Goldwire, being assured that he is to inherit a fortune, says to Shave'em, his mistress, "Cheapside and the Exchange Shall court thy custom, and thou shalt forget There e'er was a St. M." In the Accounts of Revels at Court (1572), there is an entry of "Copper silver fringe "bought of "John Wever of St. M." St. M. rings were gilt copper rings, and St. M. stuff or ware meant counterfeit goods. Mynshull, in Essays of a Prison (1618) 23, says, "They are like the rings and chains bought at S. Martines, that wear fair for a little time, but shortly after will prove Alchimy, or rather pure copper." In Dekker's Northward ii. 1, Hornet, with a brass chain about his neck, says, "Your right whiffler hangs himself [fits himself with a chain] in St. M. and not in Cheapside." In Brome's Moor iii. 3, Banelass mentions amongst his conquests "the streight spiny shop-maid in St. M." In Braithwaite's Honest Ghost (1658), we have "By this he travels to St. M. Lane And to the shops he goes to buy a chain." Becon, in Jewel Of Joy (1560) ii. 19, says, "Certain light brains will rather Wear a Marten chain, the price of viiid. than they would be unchained." In Compter's Commonwealth (16l7), p. 28, St. M.'s rings are defined as "fair to the eye, but if a man break them asunder and looke into them, they are nothing but brasse and copper. In Greene's Quip, p. 246, we read of "a frenchman and a millainer in S. M, and sells shirts, bands, bracelets, jewells, and such pretty toys for gentlewomen." In More, ii. 2 is laid in St. M.-le-g., and Lincoln says, "This is St. M., and yonder dwells Mutas, a wealthy Picardye, De Bard, Peter Van Hollocke, Adrian Martine, With many more outlandish fugitives."


A variant of St. Mary Overies, q.v. Taylor, in Works ii. 163, says, "Now here I land thee at S. Mary Audries."


A st. in Lond., running N. from Leadenhall St. to Camomile St. There was a ch. dedicated to St. Mary in the street in old times, but it had been turned into a warehouse before Stow's day. A shop at the corner with the sign of The Axe gave it its specific name. Dekker, in jests, mentions "Milk St., Bread St., Lime St., and S. Mary Axe" as quarters inhabited by city merchants.




A ch. in Lond., in Old Fish St. at the junction of Old Change and Knightrider St., destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt by Wren. It was much damaged by a fire in 1886, and was consequently taken down. Thomas Lodge belonged to this parish. There was another ch. of St. M. M. in Milk St., which was not rebuilt after its destruction in the Gt. Fire. In Middleton's Five Gallants i. 1.. Frippery, the broker, speaks of having customers in the parishes of St. Bride's, St. Dunstan's, and St. M. Maudlin's. It is impossible to say which of the two is meant. T. Heywood's Traveller was "Printed by Robert Raworth, dwelling in Old Fish-st., near St. M. Maudlins Ch. 1633.


Now ST. SAVIOUR'S, SOUTHWARK. An ancient ch. on the W. side of the Borough High St., Southwark, just over Lond. Bdge. Its tall square tower is almost as prominent a feature in pictures of Old Lond. as the steeple of St. Paul's. It is mythically connected with a certain Mary Audrey, the wife of a Thames ferryman, who is said to have founded a sisterhood there; at any rate, there was a priory at this place in the 12th cent, which was burnt down in 121:Z. When it was rebuilt the ch. was dedicated to St. M. Magdalene, and was probably called St. M. Overy, or O., because it was over the river from Lond. The poet Gower gave generously to its enlargement and is buried in the ch. James I of Scotland was married there in 1424. At the dissolution of the Monasteries the ch. was bought by the inhabitants as their parish ch., and, being united with the priory ch. of St. Saviour's, took that name. The Lady Chapel is part of the old ch.; the tower dates from the 16th cent., and had a fine peal of 12 bells. Edmund Shakespeare (the brother of the dramatist), John Fletcher, and Philip Massinger are buried there. It shared with St. Antholin's (q.v.) the favour of the Puritans. In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 1, Hodge says his coins "jingle in my pocket like St. M. Overy's bells." In the Puritan, two of the serving-men of the Puritan widow are Nicholas St. Tantlings and Simon St.-M.-O.: they are described in 1, 3 as "Puritanical scrape-shoes, Flesh a good Fridays." Dekker, in jests I o, 14, tells how "A couple of servingmen, having drunk hard in Southwarke, came to take water about 10, or ii of the clock at night at S. M.-O. Stairs." In Deloney's Reading xi., Cole says, "Methinks these instruments sound like the ring of S. M. O. bells." In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Vadianus says that for joy at Coryat's return "St. Marie O. shot the Bdge." In Urquhart's Rabelais i. 27, the Friars appeal to "Our Lady on the other side of the water, St. M-Over."


(i.e. S. MARIAE MATRI ET FILIO). An ancient ch. in Whitechapel, dating from 1329 at least. It was originally a chapel of ease to Stepney, and was called the White Chapel, whence the name of the parish. It stands at the W. end of the Whitechapel Rd. on the S. side, just this side of Union St. Brandon, the supposed executioner of Charles I, was buried here; and it was a centre of Puritan teaching during the Commonwealth. In Cowley's Cutter iv. 5, Cutter speaks of "our brother Zephaniah Fats, an opener of revelations to the worthy in Mary Whitechappel."


At Angers, in which Lewis and Blanche were married. The cathedral of Angers is dedicated to St. Maurice; possibly St. M. may be meant for St. Maurice, but it is more probably the Lady C. of the Cathedral. In Trouble. Reign, Haz., p. 351, John says, "Prepare the marriage rites Which in S. Maries C. presently Shall be performed."


The chapel-of-ease to the parish ch. of C., the ch. itself being some distance from the town. In Peele's Ed. I p. 24, the Harper says to Lluellen, "Your father, by foul weather of war, was driven to take sanctuary in St. M. at Carnarvon, where he begat your worship and your brother David."


The principal ch. in Nottingham, said to have been built in the 7th cent., now enlarged and modernized. It stands on a hill, and its tall square tower is conspicuous in all views of the city. In Sampson's Vow i. 1, 53, Ursula says to the lovers, "To St. Maries presently! The Priest stays, the clerk whines to say Amen." In ii. 114, Bateman says, "Commend me to the bells of St. Maries and tell 'em my chops water to chime all in."


A Priory of St. M., founded by Walter Brune, or Brewen, and his wife, Rosia, in 1197. It stood at the point where Bishopsgate St. Without becomes Norton Folgate, on the E. side of the St., between Spital Sq. and White Lion St. In the corner house of the latter one of the jambs of the old gateway may still be seen, built into the wall. It had 180 beds for the sick at the time of the dissolution of the religious houses by Henry VIII, but it had to go all the same, and the site was used for private mansions. A part of the churchyard was, however, left, with an open-air pulpit, and from this annual sermons were preached on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of Easter Week, on the Resurrection. After the Gt. Fire the sermons were removed, first to St. Bridget's, Fleet St., and then to Christ Ch. in Newgate St. They were attended by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen in state. Rowley's New Wonder tells the story of the benefactions of Walter Brune: in iv., he says, "Near Norton Folgate have I bought ground, . . . to erect this house, Which I will call St. M. Hospital." In Skelton's Colin Clout i.177, the Prelates complain: "At Paul's Cross and elsewhere, Openly at Westminstere And M. Spittle they set not by us a whittle."


A ch. in Lond. at the corner of Aldermanbury and Love Lane. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt by Wren. John Hemminge and Henry Condell, the editors of the 1st Folio of Shakespeare, are buried here.


The University Ch. of Oxford, on the N. side of High St., at the corner of Catherine St. It was founded by Alfred the Great, but the present ch. was built during the reign of Henry VII, and the interior was restored in the early part of the 19th cent. Here the University sermons are preached. Earle, in Microcosmography ii., says of the young raw preacher: "His collections of study are the notes of sermons, which, taken up at St. Mary's, he utters in the country." The University Ch. of Cambridge is Gt. St. Mary's, but as Earle was an Oxford man it may be assumed that it is to the Oxford St. Mary's that he is referring. So, in xliii., Earle says of the bold, forward man: "He never defers St. Mary's beyond his regency, and his next sermon is at Paul's Cross," i.e. he takes the earliest opportunity of preaching before the University. So Burton, A. M. Intro., says, "Had I been as forward as some others, I might have haply printed a sermon at Paul's Cross, a sermon in St. Marie's, Oxon." Burton, like Earle, was an Oxford man.


See MARIA, PUERTO DI SANTA. MARY'S (SAINT), YORK. A Benedictine Abbey, founded by Alan, Earl of Richmond, on the N. bank of the Ouse at York, just beyond Lendal Bdge. The ruins are extensive and are very interesting; the grounds are used as a public park, under the name of the Museum Gardens. In Downfall Huntington ii. 2, Scarlett says of a certain priest: "He is of York and of St. M. cloister."


(or, more fully, MARYLEBONE). Lying between Oxford St. and Regent's Park. Was, in the 16th cent. a country vill. near Lond. It took its name from a little chapel dedicated to St. Mary-le-Bourne, i.e. on the Bourne or brook which gave its name also to Tyburn. Others think it is a corruption of St. Mary-la-Bonne. This chapel was replaced by a ch. on the W. side of High St., near its junction with Marylebone Rd., which is represented in Hogarth's picture of the Rake's Wedding. It was pulled down in 1741 and replaced by the present ch., now a chapel-of-ease to the new ch. on the S. side of Marylebone Rd., opposite to the York Gate of Regent's Park. M. Park and M. Park Fields corresponded to what is now Regent's Park. In Jonson's Tub iii. 5, Hugh, having been robbed between Hampstead Heath and Kentish Town, "went to the next Justice, One Master Bramble, here at M." In v. 2, Scriben says, "The clock dropped 12 at M." In Middleton's R.G. ii. 3, Laxton, entering in Grays–Inn–Fields with a coachman, says, "Prithee drive thy coach to the hither end of M. Park, a ft place for Moll to get in." In his Quarrel iv. 4, Trimtram gives as the reason why the pander, the bawd, and the whore were "buried near M. Park "that they were hanged at Tyburn. In Fragmenta Regalia (1641), we are told of a duel fought between Lord Essex and Sir Charles Blount "near M. Park." In Brome's Northern iii. i. Fitchow surmises that her sister has come "to invite me forth into the air of Hide–Park or M." In Nabbes' Totenham i. 6, Worthgood says, "This, sure, is Marrowbone-park and he the keeper."


In Boss Alley, on the S. side of Thames St., Lond., there was a boss, or drinking fountain, continually running, erected by Sir Richard Whittington. On the N. side of Thames St., opposite to Boss Alley, was St. Mary's Hill, with the church of St. Mary-at-Hill upon it. The boss was in the parish of St. Mary, and would naturally enough be called M. It is close to Billingsgate, and the ferry would therefore be that from Billingsgate, at the bottom of Boss Alley, across the Thames. In Wilson's Pedler i.1101, the Pedler says, "To pass through M. F. they have chosen, In the which sea unto death they shall be frozen."


A bookseller's sign in Lond. H. Shirley's Mart. Soldier was "Printed by I. Okes, and are to be sold by Francis Eglesfield at his house in Paul's churchyard at the sign of the M."




A town in N. Riding Yorks; 30 m. N.W. of York. In H5 ii. prol. 24, "Henry, Lord Scroop of M," is named as one of the conspirators; and in ii. 2, 94, he is condemned to death. He was the grandson of Henry le Scroop, the 1st Baron M.


A Scythian tribe living to the E. of the Caspian Sea, on the E. bank of the Araxes. Cyrus was killed in fight with them and their Q. Tomyris. Herodotus (i. 215) describes them as savage and warlike, having their wives in common, and killing and eating their old people. In Tiberius 1135, Germanicus, speaking of the Angrivarii in Germany, says, "Not Massagetes were so cruel called." In Antonie i. 191, the Chorus says, "To shun them go we should To Scythes and Massagetes Who near the Pole reside."


(now MONTE MASSICO). A range of hills in N. Campania in Italy. They still produce a wine which ranks second only to the famous Falernian. In Nabbes' Hannibal i. 1, Maharball says of the Carthaginians at Capua: "We drink no wine But of Cam—Campania's Mascicus."




A vill. in Norfolk abt. 28 m. N.W. of Norwich. In Mankind, p. 23, Nought says, "I should go to William Patrick of M.; I shall spare Master Allington of Bottisham, and Hammond of Swaffham."








The old name for the dist. in N.W. Africa including Morocco and part of Algiers. In Marlowe's Dido iv., Dido commands her guards "With Mn. darts to wait upon" Aeneas. In Jonson's Catiline i. 1, Catiline assures his followers that the armies near hand are "commanded by our friends: one army in Spain by Cnaeus Piso, the other in M. by Nucerinus." In his Blackness, "black M." is the first place ending in -tania, one of which is to be the abode of liberty (Britannia being naturally the one intended). In T. Heywood's Maid of West A. v. 1, Clem addresses the K. of Fez as "Great monarch of the Mns." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 555, Spendall speaks of "a Mn. Moor." In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iii. 3, the Basso announces that the Turks have "now in arms 10,000 Janissaries, Mounted on lusty Mn. steeds," i.e. Barbary horses. In May's Agrippina iv. 473, Petronius, inveighing against Roman extravagance, says, "The Mn. grounds To get wild beasts are searched "for the amphitheatre. See also BARBARY, MOROCCO, MOOR.


(or, more fully, THE GRAVE M., i.e. GRAF). A house of entertainment in Hyde Park. It was named after Prince M. of Nassau, the son of William the Silent, governor of the United Provinces (1584–1625). He was popular in England as the champion of Protestantism against Spain. It was called the Lodge in the latter part of the 17th cent., and, later still, the Cake House. It stood about the centre of the Park, and was puffed down in 1730 when the Serpentine was constructed. The Lond. Directory records still 2 taverns with the sign of the Grave M., one in Whitechapel Rd., the other in St. Leonard's Rd. In Shirley's Hyde Park iv. 1, Fairfield says, "I'll try what sack can do; I have sent my footman to the M. for a bottle." Later the inn is called "His Excellence' Head."


(a MOOR, q.v.). In Tit. iv. 2, 20, Demetrius reads from a scroll: "Integer vitae, scelerisque purus, non eget Mauri jaculis nec arcu," to which Chiron responds "0, 'tis a verse in Horace. I know it well; I read it in the Grammar long ago." This couplet is twice quoted in Lily's Grammar, first as an example of the use of the ablative after verbs of lack, and then in the section "De generibus carminum."


The tomb erected by Artemisia at Halicarnassus in the middle of the 4th cent. B.C. to the memory of her husband Mausolus, K. of Caria. It was accounted one of the 7 wonders of the world. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. ii. 4, Tamburlaine, on the death of Zenocrate, exclaims, "in as rich a tomb as Mausolus We both will rest." In Webster's [sic: "Shirley's"] Gamester iv, Beaumont predicts: "When I am dead, Thy tears shall raise a monument of pearl, To outdo the great Mausolus' sepulchre."










Apparently some st. in the neighbourhood of Bunhill Fields, Lond I suspect a pun is intended with Magalhaen; I cannot find a M. L., but the name may have been given jestingly to City Rd., or Worship St. On further consideration I am disposed to read Magel L., i.e. Magalhaen. In B. & F. Friends i. 2, Blacksnout says that he got a wound in the groin "at the siege of Bunnil, passing the straights 'twixt M. L. and Terra del Fuego, the fiery isle." The Straits of Magalhaen lie between S. America and Terra del Fuego.


There was a M. set up annually in Lond. in Leadenhall St., opposite St. Andrew Undershaft, so called from the M. which towered above the ch. steeple. In the intervals it was hung on a set of hods let into the wall of Undershaft Alley. It was last erected on the "Evil May-Day "of 1513. It was kept on its hooks till 1549, when it was destroyed by the Puritans as an Idol. Another M., 100 ft. high, stood on the site of the ch. of St. Mary-le-Strand. It was destroyed by the Puritans in 1644, but another, 134 ft. high, was set up at the Restoration of Charles II. It gradually decayed and was replaced by another, a little further W., in 1713. This was removed in the time of Sir Isaac Newton and the timber used as a support for Highness' telescope in Wanstead Park. M. Alley preserves its memory. In Rowley's Match Mid. iv, Alexander threatens to strip himself "as naked as Grantham steeple or the Strand M." In Pasquin's Palinodia (1619) B. 3, we have: "Our approach Within the spacious passage of the Strand Objected to our sight a summer-broach, Ycleped a M., which in all our land No city, st., nor town can parallel, Nor can the lofty spire of Clerkenwell." In Middleton's R.G. iii. 3, Trapdoor, exhorted to stand up, says, "Like your new M."


A town in S. France, on the Lers, 29 m. N.E. of Foix; but in the passage following the author appears to confuse it with Najarra, or Nagero, an old town in N. Spain, 140 m. N. of Madrid. It was formerly a favourite residence of the Kin of Navarre. In Smith's Hector i. 2, 73, the Bastard of Spain tells how the Black Prince "opposed me at M. and won the day." Scene 1 of Act III is laid at M.


An ancient division of Sicily, including the W. part of the island. Its chief town was Palermo. In Davenant's Platonic i. 1, Fredaline says that Phylamont rules "all that rich Mazara yields."


A river in Asia Minor, rising in Phrygia, and flowing W. by a proverbially circuitous course to the Aegean Sea, close to Miletus. It abounded in swans. In Glapthorne's Argalus ii. 2, Aminta says, "Winding M. first shall straightly run Ere Clitophon's false heart do serious prove." In Dekker's Westward ii. 3, Justiniano says, "Come, drink up Rhine, Thames, and M. dry." In Nash's Summers, p. 70, Christmas says, "I must rig ship to M. for swans." In Chapman's Usher iii. 2, Bassiolo swears he will keep his friendship "While there be bees in Hybla, or white swans In bright M." In Milton's Comus 230, a song begins: "Sweet Echo that liv'st unseen By slow M.'s margent green." Spenser, F. Q. iv. 11, 21, calls it "Maeander intricate." Davies, in Orchestra (1594) 53, says, "I love Maeander's path Which to the tunes of dying swans doth dance Such winding slights." In Preface to Zepheria (1594) 8, the author says, "Ye fetcht your pens from wing of singing swan, When . . . she floats Adown M. streams." Tofte, in Laura (1597) xiv. 1, says, "The swift M., turning, winds so fast And with his stream in circle-wise so runs, That wanton-like from whence he springs at last Back to his fountain-head again he comes." Hall, in Satires iv. 3, says that "M. [breeds] heath." In Antonie ii. 347, the Chorus says, "The bird in death That most Maeander loves So sweetly sighs his breath When death his fury proves." The word is used generally of any winding path or course. In Temp. iii. 3, 3, Gonzalo says, "Here's a maze trod indeed through forth-rights and ms." T. Heywood, in Witches iv. 2, 26, says, "The more I strive to unwind myself From this M., I the more therein Am intricated."




A town in Arabia, near the E. coast of the Red Sea, abt. 45 m. E. of the port of Jiddah. Here Mohammed was born about A.D. 570, and here he began to preach his doctrine of the unity of Allah. After 10 or 12 years he and his followers left M. in 622, and from this flight, or Hijira, all Mohammedan dates are reckoned. He returned and conquered M. in 630, and died there in 6p. His coffin, it was said, remained suspended in the air without any visible support. The Ka'aba, an ancient heathen shrine, became the centre of Mohammedan worship, the most revered object being the Black Stone, set in the S.E. corner of the Ka'aba, which is itself in the middle of the great Mosque. It is the ambition of every Mohammedan to make the Pilgrimage to M. at least once in his life, and scores of thousands of pilgrims travel thither every year. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. iii. 5, Callapine invests Almeda "K. of Ariadan Bordering on Mare Rosa, near to M." In Jonson's Augurs, Vangoose, by his Ars Catoptrica (a sort of magic lantern), promises to show the company "de pilgrim dat go now, two, dre tousand mile to de great Mahomet at de Mecha." In T. Heywood's Maid of West A. iv. 3, Mullisheg says, "Our God shall be our pleasure; For so our Mn. prophet warrants us." In Nash's Lenten, p. 303, one Mr. Harborne is credited with having so spread the fame of England that the pagans "talk of Lond. as frequently as of their prophet's tomb at M." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 1, Orcanes swears by "Sacred Mahomet whose glorious body Closed in a coffin mounted up the air And hung on stately M.'s temple-roof." In S. Rowley's When You B. i., Summers says, "Mahomet, that was buried i' th' top of's ch. at Meca, his tomb fell down." In Nash's Wilton E. 2, we have: "We being Moechi [i.e. adulterers] fetch our antiquity from the temple of Moecha where Mahomet is hung up ": where there is, of course, an allusion to Mohammed's permission of a plurality of wives. Constable, in Diana (1594) iv. 5, says of Mahomet: "In midst of M.'s temple roof, some say, He now hangs, without touch or stay at all." In Mason's Mulleasses 693, Mulleasses addresses Mahomet as "Thou God of Mecha, mighty Mahomet." In B. & F. Scornful iii. 2, the Capt. says to Loveless, "M. shall sweat and Mahomet shall fall, And thy dear name fill up his monument."


A city in Belgium, 14 m. S.E. of Antwerp, famous for its lace. In Middleton's Chess iv. 4, the Black Knight promises a Savoy dame that she should have a child "If she could stride over St. Rumbaut's breeches: A relique kept at M." This Rumbaut is Rumoldus, or Rumbold, said to have been Bp. of Dublin, and to have been murdered at M. A.D. 775. His body was miraculously discovered, and the cathedral was built in his honour, with a massive square tower, 300 ft. high, which is still the principal object of interest in the city. Here were preserved the miraculous nether garments of the Saint.


Dist. in N. Germany on the Baltic, E. of Holstein. It was divided into 2 duchies, M.-Schwerin and M.-Gustrow. In the 30 Years' War they were sold by the Emperor to Wallenstein, and the Dukes expelled. They were subsequently restored by Gustavus Adolphus. In Glapthorne's Wallenstein ii. 3, the K. of Hungary speaks of Wallenstein as "Your General of your forces Of Gloyawe, Mechlenburg, Saga, Fridland." Wallenstein was D. of Friedland, in W. Prussia, then part of Poland; Glogau and Sagan are in the N. of Silesia.




(Ms. = Medes, Mn. = Median). The country lying S. of the Caspian Sea, E. of Armenia and Assyria. Its capital was Ecbatana. The Ms. were probably of Indo-European stock, closely akin to the Persians. Cyrus of Anshan united the Ms. and Persians under his rule, and founded the Medo-Persian Empire 538 B.C. After the downfall of the Persian Empire the Ms. were subject to the Greeks and the Syrian kings. Then they came under the rule of the Parthian kings, on the E. frontier of the Roman Empire. Their subsequent history is bound up with that of Persia, of which they form a part. In old times the Ms. were famous for their courage and their skill in horsemanship and the use of the bow. Later they gained a reputation for luxury both in dress and living. M. is one of the characters in Darius. In Cyrus i. 1, Cyrus addresses his army as "Ye Persians, Ms., and Hyrcanians." In Respublica ii. 1, Respublica, meditating on the mutability of things, says, "Where is the great empire of the Ms. and Persians?" In Middleton's Changeling i. 1, when Alsemero kisses Beatrice, Jasperino exclaims, "How now? the laws of the Ms. are changed sure." The idea that the laws of the Ms. and Persians could not be changed got currency from the statements in Daniel vi. 9 and Esther i. 19, but it does not seem to have any authority from history. In Partiall i. 3, Lucina says, "Your commands, like to laws of Ms. and Persians, I have obeyed."

In Caesar's Rev. iii. 4, Caesar says, "Ill fill Armenians plains and Mns. hills With carcasses of bastard Scithian brood." This was to be in revenge for the defeat and death of Crassus in 53 B.C. In Octavia 504, Byllius says, "I was in M. when Phraates slew Great Tatianus fighting for my lord." The reference is to the defeat of Antony's generals in 36 B.C., by Phraates IV, K. of Parthia. In Antony iii. 1, 7, after the defeat of Pacorus of Parthia, in 38 B.C., Silius urges Ventidius "Spur through M., Mesopotamia, and the shelters whither The routed fly." In iii. 6, 14, Caesar complains that Antony has given "Great M., Parthia, and Armenia "to his son Alexander. This arrangement was to take effect after Antony had conquered these lands, which he never did. In iii. 6, 75, Caesar says that amongst Antony's allies are "Polemon and Amyntas, The kings of Mede and Lycaonia." This is a slip: Polemon was K. of Pontus; the K. of M. was Artavasdes, who allied himself with Antony after the disasters of 36 B.C., in which he had fought along with Phraates, but had later given shelter to Antony's fleeing troops. In Nero ii. 3, Scaevinus says, "Shall we, whom neither The Mn. bow nor Macedonian spear . . . could Subdue, lay down our necks to tyrant's axe?" In Marlowe's Tamb. A. i. 1, Cosroes announces: "The plot is laid by Persian noblemen And captains of the Mn. garrisons To crown me emperor of Asia." He is made Emperor, but;s conquered by Tamburlaine, who founded the Persian dynasty of the Timurides. In Kyd's Cornelia i., Cicero asks, "Were they [the Romans] the heirs To Persia or the Ms., first Monarchies Milton, P. R. iii. 320, introduces troops of soldiers "Of Adiabene, M., and the S. Of Susiana." In P. R. iii. 376, he recalls how the Ten Tribes of the N. kingdom of Israel "yet serve In Habor and among the Ms. dispersed." (See II Kings xvii. 6.) In P.L. iv. 171, he tells how the devil Asmodeus was "with a vengeance sent From M. post to Egypt." (See Tobit viii. 3.)

In Chapman's Trag. Byron iv. 1, Byron says that Alexander the Gt. did not spend his treasures "On Mn. luxury, banquets, and women." In Massinger's Maid Hon. iii. 1, Bertoldo says, "All delicates Prepared by Mn. cooks for epicures, When not our own, are bitter." In Taming of a Shrew, Haz., p. 513, Fernando promises Kate: "Thou shalt have garments wrought of Mn. silk." In Massinger's Bondman i. 3, Timoleon sarcastically advises the Syracusans to humour their conquerors: "Cover the floors on which they are to tread With costly Mn. silks." In Noble Ladies, Cyprian promises Justina "Fine Mn. linen and barbarian silks." In Marlowe's Tamb. A. i. 2, Tamburlaine promises Zenocrate "Thy garments shall be made of Mn. silk." In Jonson's Magnetic i. 5, Polish, in a couple of atrocious puns, says, "the Persians were our Puritans, Had the fine piercing wits," and the Ms. were "the middle-men, the lukewarm protestants."


A city in the extreme S. of Spain, on a hill 21 m. W. of Cadiz. It gave their title to the Dukes of the house of Guzman el Bueno. The fact that the D. of M. Sidonia commanded the Spanish Armada made the name familiar to Englishmen. In Webster's Weakest i. 2, we have mention of "Hernando the great D. of M." There is a D. of M. in B. & F. Rule a Wife. In Last's Domin. ii. 3, the Q. says, "Spread abroad in Madrid, Granada, and M. The hopes of Philip." In Dekker's Babylon 257, Como, speaking of the Spanish Armada, says: "This squadron stout Medyna does command." In B. & F. Pilgrim iv. 3, Julietta says, "I have a business from the D. of M."


Used humorously for Paul's Walk, the middle aisle of St. Paul's, Lond., q.v. Dekker, in Hornbook iv., says, after speaking of Paul's Walk: "Your Mediterranean Ile is then the only gallery wherein the pictures of all your true fashionate and complemental Guls are, and ought to be, hung up." (See under PAUL'S (SAINT). See also below.)


Between the S. of Europe and the N. of Africa, from the Straits of Gibraltar to Syria. In Temp. i. 2, 234, Ariel announces: "For the rest of the fleet Which I dispersed, they all have met again And are upon the M. flote Bound sadly home for Naples." In L. L. L. v. 1, 61, Armado swears: "Now, by the salt wave of the Mediterraneum, a sweet touch, a quick venue of wit." The M. is much salter than the open ocean, and salt is an emblem of wit. In the old Timon iii. 3, Pseudocheus says to Gelasimus, "If anything thing can help thee that doth grow . . . in the M. S, It shall be had forthwith." In Thracian iii. 3, the Alcalde of Africa says, "Our sable ensigns never yet before Displayed beyond the M. S." In B. & F. Span. Cur. v. 2, Diego, asked what dish he prefers, says, "For me some 40 pound of lovely beef, Placed in a M. S. of brewis." Dekker, in Dead Term, says in the name of St. Paul's: "Thus doth my middle Ile!hew like the M. S. in which as well the merchant hoists up sails to purchase wealth honestly as the rover to light upon prize unjustly." (See previous article.) In Shirley's Gamester iii., Wilding says that the vessel he has been chasing has struck sail, and cries: "Aboard, my new lord of the M." In B. & F. Pilgrim iv. 2, Alinda, pretending to be mad, says, "I must sup with the moon to-night in the M."


Probably = MADELEY. A town in Shropsh, 13 m, S.E. of Shrewsbury. In Swetnam iv. 2, Swash says of Misogonus (Swetnam): "He came to M. to eat cakes and cream at my old mother's house."


A river in England, rising in Sussex and flowing in a N.E. direction across Kent to Chatham and Sheerness where it enters the estuary of the Thames. It is navigable up to Penshurst, 20 m. from Chatham. In Jonson's Ode to Penshurst, he says, "If the highswollen M. fail thy dish, Thou hast thy ponds that pay thee tribute fish." In Webster's Monuments, it is directed that in the scene shall appear "Thamesis and M., the 2 rivers on whom the Lord Mayor extends his power, as far as from Staines to Rochester." Spenser, F. Q. iv. 11, describes at length the marriage of the Thames and the M., which he christens "the lovely Medua." In his Shep. Cal., July 81, Morrell speaks of "The salt M., that trickling streams Adown the dales of Kent, Till with his elder brother Themis His brackish waves be meynt." Drayton, in Polyolb. xviii. 109, says, "This M. still has nursed those navies in her road Our armies that had oft to conquest borne abroad." Milton, in Vacation Exercise 100, calls it "M. smooth." Drayton, in Idea (1594) xxxii. 8, says, "Kent will say her M. doth excell." Bryskett, in Astrophel (on the death of Sir Philip Sidney), says, "The M.'s silver streams that wont so still to slide Were troubled now and wroth." Penshurst was Sidney's home.


The March of Meissen lay along the N. frontier of Bohemia from the Saale to the border of Silesia, crossing the Elbe where the city of Meissen stands. In H5 i. 2, 54, the Archbp. of Canterbury says that the Salique land "'twixt Elbe and Sala Is at this day in Germany called Meisen." This identification probably arose from the name of the river Saale, but it is more than doubtful. The Salian Franks lived in Holland, and extended their territory later as far S. as the Somme. In Milkmaids iii. 2, the Indictment runs: "Dorigen Ebroistene, daughter to Guido Ebroistene, in the province of Mysen, gentleman, etc."


A vill. in Suffolk, 18 m. W. of Ipswich, generally called Long M. In H6 B i. 3, 25, a petition is presented "against the D. of Suffolk for enclosing the commons of M." In the Contention the petition calls it "long M."


An ancient town on the coast of Thessaly, at the base of Mt. Ossa, now Aghia. The purple dye of M. was almost as famous as that of Tyre in ancient times, and the shellfish from which it was obtained is still found off the Thessalian coast. Milton, P. L. xi. 242, represents Michael as wearing a "vest of military purple.. Livelier than Meliobean, or the grain Of Sarra," i.e. Tyre.


A port in Morocco on the W. side of the G. of M., abt. 170 m. E. of the Straits of Gibraltar. In Stucley 2461, M. is mentioned as one of the towns in Morocco held by the Portuguese at the time (1578).


A spt. on the E. coast of Africa, abt. 100 m. N. of Mombasa. It was visited by Vasco di Gama on his 1st voyage to India, and was taken by the Portuguese in 1605. It is now in British East Africa. Milton, P. L. xi. 399, mentions "Mombaza, and Quiloa, and M., And Sofala "amongst the S. African kingdoms shown in vision to Adam. Rabelais, is Gargantua i. 8, quotes the opinion of "the K. of Melinda's jeweller "on the value of an emerald.


A name applied to Susa (q.v.) by Herodotus (v. 54), because of a tradition which ascribed its foundation to Memnon, the son of Tithonus. Milton, P. L. x. 308, describes Xerxes as coming to invade Greece "From Susa, his Memnonian palace high."


(Mn. = Memphian). The ancient capital of Lower Egypt, on the Nile, 120 m. from its mouth, a little S. of the modem Cairo. Here the first 6 dynasties ruled, and in the immediate neighbourhood the 3 great pyramids were built by Chufu, Chephren, and Menkaura, of the 3rd dynasty, some 3800 years B.C. It was the abode of Ptah, and the seat of the worship of the Apis bulls, whose mummies were interred in the so called Serapeum at Sakkarah close by. The site is now quite deserted and desolate. In H6 A. i. 6, 22, Charles says of Joan of Arc: "A statelier pyramis to her I'll rear Than Rhodope's or M. ever was." So the Ff.; but the emendation "Rhodope's of M." is inevitable. Pliny (Hist. Nat. xxxvi. 12) says that the 3rd pyramid was built by Rhodope of Naucratis, a friend of Aesop's, and contemporary of Sappho's. This is, of course, a mistake. The 3rd pyramid was built by Menkaura, of the 3rd dynasty. In Jonson's Barriers the Lady of the Lake laments the destruction of K. Arthur's palace, which "did the barbarous Mn. heaps outclimb." In Caesar's Rev. ii. 3, Cleopatra says to Caesar, "I will show thee all the cost and curious art Which either Cheops [i.e. Chufu] or our M. boast." In T. Heywood's Dialogues iii. 1656, Earth says, "Where be those high Pyramides so famed By which the barbarous M. first was named?" Milton, P. L. i. 694, speaks of "Babel and the works of Mn. Kings "as examples of the most enduring of human buildings.

In Marlowe's Tamb. A. i. 2, Zenocrate, the daughter of the Soldan of Egypt, is seized by Tamburlaine on her way "To M. from my uncle's country of Media"; iv. 1, is laid at M., and the Soldan cries: "Awake, ye men of M., hear the clang Of Scythian trumpets!" in B. & F. Bonduca ii. 4, this line is burlesqued, Judas exclaiming: "Awake, ye men of M. I Be sober and discreet." In Chapman's Blind Beggar i. 1, 112, Irus says, "I am but a shepherd's son, at M. born." Milton, P. L. i. 307, speaks of the overthrow of "Busiris and his Mn. chivalry "in the Red Sea. (See Exodus xiv.) Milton took the name of the K. from Raleigh, but it is unhistorical. The priests of Egypt, and especially of M., were credited with occult powers. In Davenant's Wits ii. 4, the elder Palatine speaks of his books, "which, though not penned By dull Platonic Greeks or Mn. priests, Yet have the blessed mark of separation Of authors silenced for wearing short hair." In Davenant's Italian iv. 3, Altamont says, "I look . . . like to a Mn. priest That had direction made of hecatombs." In Daniel's Cleopatra iv. 3, Cesario says, "Who can that deny Which sacred priests of M. do foresay?" In Chapman's [Glapthorne's?] Rev. Hon. i. 1, 263, Selinthus says, "I can speak this, Though from no Mn. priest or sage Chaldaean." In K. K. Hon. Man C. 3, Sempronio says, "An ox in M. with his poaring tongue Licking in doctious weeds did so foretell My following death." The reference is to the Apis bull. Poaring = poring, i.e. meditating, musing. See N.E. D., s.v. PORE. Milton, Nat. Ode 214, says, "Nor is Osiris seen In Mn. grove or green, Trampling the unshowered grass with lowings loud." He confuses Osiris with A is. In Rutter's Shepherd. Hol. v. 2, Alcon says, "is. rare mirror is Made of a Mn. stone that has a power To bring a deadly sleep on all the senses." Egyptian magic has always been famous. In Nabbes' Bride iv. 1, Horten complains that though we have plenty of aromatic herbs in England, "yet we must from M. and Judaea Fetch balsam though sophisticate." In Cockayne's Obstinate ii. 2, Carionil talks of "swimming violently up those rocks From which the Mn. Nilus tumbles down." In Tiberius 1698, Julia speaks of monsters like "Theban sphinx or M. crocodile." In Scot. Presb. iii. 1, Liturgy says, "You are more cruel than the crocodile That mangles Mns. on the banks of Nile."


(= MINSK). A province of W. Russia, E. of Poland, to which it formerly belonged. In Suckling's Brennoralt, the Palatine of Mensek is the chief of a rebellious confederacy against the K. of Poland, Sigismond: presumably Sigismond III, who came to the throne 1587.


Dist. in S. Perthsh., Scotland. In H4 A. i. 1, 73, the Earl of M. is one of the prisoners taken by Hotspur at Holmedon. He was the same person as the Earl of Fife, mentioned just above as another of the prisoners. In Sampson's Vow i. 3, 16, "George Gram, 2nd son to the Earl of Menteich," is one of the Scots hostages.


A city in HesseDarmstadt on the Rhine, nearly opposite its confluence with the Main. It was the seat of an archbp. who was one of the 7 Electors. It was at the height of its glory in the 13th cent., and was called "Goldene Maintz." The cathedral, with its 6 towers, is one of the finest in Germany. Here Gutenburg invented printing in 1440. Hatto, archbp. in 914, was said to have been devoured by mice (or rats) in the Mouse-tower, on an island in the Rhine opposite Bingen, some few miles down the river from M. He is one of the characters in Costly Wh., and exclaims in his agony, "The Lord Archbp. of Meath and die by rats I ": where Meath is a curious mistake for Mentz. In Ford's Sacrifice iii. 2, Fernando tells how he saw in Brussels "The D. of Brabant welcome the Archbp. Of M. with rare conceit . . . . In nature of an antic"; the ladies of the court took part in it–a thing which he had never seen before, and which was much commended. This is an allusion to the performance of the Q. and her ladies in a masque at Whitehall, which had just taken place and aroused the indignation of Prynne. The Archbp. of M. appears as one of the Electors of the Empire in Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus In i. 2, 14, he says, "Next seat belongs to Julius Florius, Archbp. of M., Chancellor of Germany, By birth the D. of fruitful Pomerland." His real name, however, was Gerhard, and he had nothing to do with Pomerania. He also appears in Smith's Hector. In Bacchus, one of the worshippers of Bacchus is "a German, born in M., his name was Gotfrey Grouthead," who "came wallowing in." In Davenant's Rutland, p. 226, the Londoner says, "Their [the Parisians'] larding is diversified from bacon of M. to porpoise of St. Malo." Rabelais, Gargantua i. 3, tells how Grangousier was "furnished with gammons of bacon of Mayence." In Deloney's Newberie ii., Jack tells of "the wicked spirit of Mogunce who flung stones at men and could not be seen." Mogunce is Moguntia, the Latin name for M. The story is told in the Nuremburg Chronicle i. 357.


(= MARATHON, q.v.).


The part of Venice where all the best shops are. It is entered by an archway under the Torre del Orologio, in the Piazza di San Marco, just to the right as one comes out of the cathedral. In Brome's Novella i. 2, Nanulo says, "He means to send anon A Mercadente from the M., The famous pedler woman of this city With her most precious wares."


The M. T. of Lond. received their 1st Charter in 1327. Their 1st Hall was behind the Red Lion in Basing Lane, Cheapside; but in 1331 one Edmund Crepin sold his house in Threadneedle St., between Fish Lane and Bishopsgate St., to John of Yakley, on behalf of the Company. There they built a Hall with a ground floor and 3 upper stories, and attached to it were 7 almshouses. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt in 1671. In Dekker's Hornbook i., he says of the Golden Age: "T. then were none of the 12 Companies; their H., that now is larger than some dorpes among the Netherlands, was then no bigger than a Dutch botcher's shop." James I and Prince Henry dined in the H. on June 7, 1607, and Ben Jonson wrote the entertainment. In the Song of Four Famous Feasts (1606), we have: "The M. T. Company, the fellowship of fame, To Lond.'s lasting dignity, lives, honoured with the same." In Jonson's Magnetic v. 5, Sir Moth says, "We met at M.-T.-H. at dinner in Thread-needle-st." John Webster, the dramatist, was a ember of the Company, and wrote his Monuments in its praise. In it he says that "Worthy John Yeacksley purchased first their Hall." In Skelton's Magnificence, fol. xvi., Magnificence says to Liberty, "What, will ye waste wind and prate thus in vain? Ye have eaten sauce, I trow, at t. h."


Lond., in Suffolk Lane, in the parish of St. Lawrence Poultney. It was founded by the Company in 1561, and part of the old Manor of the Rose (q.v.) was bought for its accommodation. The 1st headmaster was Richard Mulcaster, under whom the boys appeared at Court in 1573 in a Latin play, and frequently afterwards. When the Charterhouse School was removed to Godalming in 1873 the Company bought the site and transferred their school thither. Amongst the pupils at the School were Nathanael Field, James Shirley, Thomas Lodge, and Edmund Spenser.


One of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, founded in A.D. 626. It included all the country between the Thames, the Severn, and the Humber. In Brewer's Lovesick King i. 1, Edel announces to Etheldred that "The traitorous Osbert D. of Mertia "is in alliance with the Danes. In Locrine v. prol. 16, Ate says, "Stout Thrasimachus . . . Gives battle to her [Gwendoline's] husband and his host Nigh to the river of great Mertia." Apparently the Severn is meant, for after the battle, described in scene 4, Sabren drowns herself in that river. Drayton, in Polyolb. ix, tells of the wars between the Mns. and the Welsh in the old days.


(i.e. strife). A name given to the place where the Israelites "strove "with Moses, because they had no water, and where he brought water out of the rock for them. It is also called M.-Kadesh, and must be located somewhere near Kadesh, abt. 50 m. S. of Beersheba. Milton, in Trans. Ps. lxxxi. 32, says, "I tried thee at the water steep Of Meriba renowned."


A famous Lond. tavern, in Bread St., with passage entrances from Cheapside and Friday St.. Its tokens are inscribed "Ye M. tavern, Cheapside." Jonson [ed. note: in his work, "On the Famous Voyage"] calls it Bread St.'s M.; and Aubrey says it was in Friday St. A certain Haberdasher, W. R., whose shop was between Wood St. and Milk St., describes it as "over against the M. tavern, in Cheapside." It was a favourite inn of Ben Jonson; and though the story of Sir Walter Raleigh's M. Club is probably mythical, Beaumont, in his verses to Ben Jonson." What things have we seen done at the M.!"–is a sufficient witness to those convivial meetings of the poets, which inspired Keats' Lines on the M. Tavern. The host in 1603 was one Johnson, as appears from the will of Albian Butler, of Clifford's Inn, who owed him 17/-. The inn was destroyed in the Gt. Fire.

In Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, Littlewit says, "A pox on these pretenders to wit! your Three Cranes, Mitre, and M.-men: not a corn of true salt, not a grain of right mustard amongst them all. They may pay 2d. in a quart more for their Canary than other men. But give me the man can start up a Justice of wit out of 6/- beer and give the law to all the poets and poetsuckers in town." In Devil iii. 1, Meercraft taunts Everill for "haunting the Globes and Ms., wedging in with lords stiff at the table." In Epigrams xi., he says, "That which most doth take my Muse and me Is a pure cup of rich Canary wine Which is the M.'s now, but shall be mine." In Epigrams cxxxiii. (The Famous Voyage), he says that the 2 Knights "At Bread-st.'s M. having dined, and merry, Proposed to go to Holborn in a wherry." In Middleton's Five Gallants ii. 1, Pursenet suggests that the company should sup "at the M.," but Goldstone says, "The Mitre for neat attendance, diligent boys, and–push!– excells far." In B. & F. Wit Money ii. 4, Valentine says, "Draw me a map from the M.; I mean a midnight map to 'scape the watches." Later he says, "Meet at the M." In Mayne's s Match iii. 3, Timothy rejoices that he has escaped shipwreck, for then he might have been "converted into some pike and made an ordinary, perchance, at the M." Dekker, in Armourers, says, "Neither the M. nor the Dolphin, nor he at Mile-end-green, can when he list be in good temper when he lacks his mistress, that is to say, Money." Tom Coryat sent a letter from the Mogul's Court in 1615 to "The worshipful Fraternity of Sireniacal [i.e. Cyrenaical, from the Cyrenaics, an offshoot of the Epicureans] gentlemen that meet the i 1st Friday of every month at the sign of the M. in Bread St. in London," and mentions among them Ben Jonson and John Donne. In the quarto of Jonson's Ev. Man I., the M. is the inn which in the later edition of 1616 is called the Windmill. In Middleton's Hubburd, p. 77, the young gallant is advised that "his eating must be in some famous tavern, as the Horn, the Mitre, or the M." In Dekker's Satiromastix iv. 2, 76, Tucca says to Horace (Jonson), "A gentleman shall not . . . sneak into a tavern with his m. but he shall be satyred and epigram'd upon." M. here means a mistress, but the reference to Jonson's connection with the M. tavern is obvious. There was another M. in Cornhill mentioned in the list of taverns in News Barthol. Fair, another at the S. side of Charing Cross, and yet another on the S. side of Gt. Carter St., near Addle Hill. Suckling, in Sad One iv. 4, has a M. Inn in Sicily. Miss Wotton has recently called attention to another M. Tavern at the corner of Aldersgate and Gresham St. It is now the Lord Raglan, and there is evidence that it was there in early Plantagenet times. The landlord in Shakespeare's time was William Goodyeare, who was connected with the Warwickshire family of the Gooderes, one of whom adopted Michael Drayton. Miss Wotton argues that Drayton must have visited this tavern, and that probably Shakespeare often spent an evening with him there.


A common house-sign in Lond. In Beguiled, Dods, ix. 304, Cricket says, "He looks like a tankard-bearer that dwells in Petticoat Lane at the sign of the M." The Hundred Merry Tales was printed by Johannes Rastell, the brother-in-law of Sir T. More, "at the sign of the M. at Powlys Gate, next to Chepe syde. 1526."




The ancient name for the dist. in Nubia lying E. of Khartoum, between the Nile, the Atbara, and the Rahad. It was very fertile and well watered by irrigation from its enclosing rivers, and was often spoken of as an island. It was a great centre of caravan trade, and was consequently wealthy and prosperous. In B. & F. Valentinian iv. 4, Maximus says of the dead Aecius: "Let's burn this noble body; sweets as many As sunburnt M. breeds I'll make a flame of, Shall reach his soul in heaven." In Greene's Orlando iv. 2, 1086, Orlando says, "Tell him I'll up to M., I know he knows that watery, lakish isle." In Caesar's Rev. i. 3, Caesar speaks of Pompey as "guarded with Numidian horse And aided with the unresisted power That M. or the seven-mouthed Nile can yield." Nash, in Wilton:148, says, on what authority I know not, "The Ethiopians inhabiting over against M. feed on nothing but scorpions." In Locrine ii. 5, Albanact says, "I'll pass the Alps to watery M., Where fiery Phoebus in his chariot Casts such a heat, yea, such a scorching heat, And spoileth Flora of her chequered grass." Milton, P. R. iv. 71, speaks of it as "where the shadow both ways falls, M., Nilotic isle." It was within the Tropics, and therefore the shadow falls sometimes to the N., sometimes to the S.


(= MARSA GHAMART). A port in Tunis, close to the site of Carthage. In H. Shirley's Mart. Soldier iii. 4, Eugenius demands from Huneric, K. of the Vandals, "Free all those Christians which are now Thy slaves in M.": the Vandals having at one time (A.D. 428–533) a kingdom in N. Africa.


R. rising near Huddersfeld in Yorksh. and flowing W. to the magnificent estuary at the entrance of which Liverpool stands. Drayton, in Polyolb. xi, says, "Proud M. is so great in entering of the main, As he would make a shew for empery to stand."


A manor in the parish of Constantine, in S.E. of Cornwall, on the N. shore of Helford Creek, abt. 5 m. S. of Falmouth. In Cornish M. P. iii. 94, it is one of the places given by Pilate to the Gaoler for his good services.




University of Oxford, founded in 1264 by Walter de Merton, Chancellor of England and afterwards Bp. of Rochester. It stands on the S. side of King St., next to Corpus Christi. In its registers is contained the account of the election in 1285 of the Rex Fabarum, or King of Beans, who was a sort of Master of the Revels, and the office is there stated to be of ancient custom. The author of the True and Faithful Relation of the Rising and Fall of Thomas Tucker, etc., which contains an invaluable account of the performances of plays and pageants in the University during parts of 1607 and 1608, was written by Griffin Higgs, a Fellow of M. Nicholas Grimald, the author of Christus Redivivus (1543) and Archipropheta (1548), was a Fellow and Lecturer of M. from 1540 to 1547


Dist. between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, the seat of the Babylonian and Assyrian Empires. In Bale's Promises v., David says, "Thou threwest them [the Israelites] under the K. of M "(see judges iii. 8, where the Hebrew has Aram; a probable conjectural emendation is Edom). In Antony iii. 1, 8, after the victory of Ventidius over the Parthians, Silius exhorts him: "Spur through Media, M., and the shelters whither The routed fly." In Greene's Alphonsus iii. 2, 838, Amurack says, "You, Bajazet, go post away apace to . . . M., Asia, Armenia, and all other lands Which owe their homage to high Amurack." In Marlowe's Tamb. A. i. 1, Ortygius crowns Cosroes "D. of M. and Parthia." In Jonson's Case v. 2, Valentine begins a traveller's tale: "Gentlemen, having in my peregrination through M." In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 1, Eyre cries to his journeymen, "Here, you mad Mns., wash your livers with this liquor." He is fond of names like this: he uses Cappadocians and Assyrians in the same way. In Day's B. Beggar iv., Canby, describing a motion, or puppet-play, says, "You shall see the stabbing of Julius Caesar in the French Capitol by a sort of Dutch Alm."




In Tw. N. ii. 1, 18, Sebastian says, "My father was that Sebastian of M. whom I know you have heard of." In v. 1, 239, Viola says, "[I am] of M., Sebastian was my father," where it is a trisyllable. No such place is known. The suggestion that Mytilene is meant has little to support it. In the story of Apolonius and Silla, from which Shakespeare derived the plot of the play, the brother and sister who correspond to Sebastian and Viola are the children of Pontus, D. and Governor of Cyprus, and are shipwrecked on a voyage from their father's court. Now, according to Heylyn, Famagusta, the capital of Cyprus, well known at this time through its famous siege by the Turks in 1571, was also called Salamine, and I conjecture that M. is a mistake for Salamine. Fynes Moryson, in Itinerary i. 3, 213 (1596), calls the port of Cyprus "Le Saline," which may possibly be what Shakespeare wrote. Fuller, Holy State (1642) i. 11, calls Epiphanius "Bp. of Salamine in Cyprus."


The capital of Messenia, the country in Greece in the S.W. of the Peloponnesus. Messenia was conquered by her neighbour Sparta in 2 wars which ended 724 and 668 B.C. respectively. From this latter date Messenia was a part of the Spartan kingdom. Ford's Heart is supposed to take place at the end of the 2nd Messenian war; and in i. 2, Amyclas announces: "Laconia Hath in this latter war trod under foot M.'s pride; M. bows her neck To Lacedaemon's royalty."


A city in N.E. Sicily, on the Straits of M., 130 m. E. of Palermo. Pedro of Arragon took it from the French, and it remained a possession of the Spanish royal house from 1282 to 1713. The scene of Much Ado is laid at M., probably at the time of the visit of Pedro of Arragon after his victory over the French in 1282. In Massinger's Very Woman, the scene of which is laid at Palermo, one of the characters is a D. of M. In Phineas Fletcher's Sicelides (1615), Cosma, a light nymph of M., figures. In Davenant's Platonic i. 1, Fredaline says, "There lives within M., 3 leagues hence, One Buonateste." Act II. 1, of Antony takes place in Pompey's house at M. M. and its neighbourhood is the scene of B. & F. Philaster.


A river rising in the Ardennes in N. France, and flowing past Sedan and Namur through Belgium into the North Sea, after a course Of 580 m. Bryskett, in Astrophel (1591), says that at the news of Sidney's death "The Thames was heard to roar, the Rhine, and eke the M." Haft, in Ep. i. 5, says he had "a delightful passage up the sweet river Mosa."


Used for N. America by Heylyn, who divides America into 2 parts, M. and Peruana, the former including what we call the United States, Canada, and British N. America. In Middleton's No Wit ii. 3, Weatherwise says, "There should be an eclipse, but not visible in our horizon, but about the western inhabitants of M. and California." Fuller, Holy State (1642), uses M. for N. America; in iv. 13, he says, "There is a tree in M. which is so exceedingly tender that a man cannot touch any of its branches but it withers presently."


A country in N. America, stretching from the S. of the United States to the isthmus of Panama. In the 16th cent. it included California and Texas. It was discovered and conquered by the Spaniards early in the 16th cent., and remained a part of the Spanish empire until it declared itself independent in 1821. Indeed, it was commonly called Nova Hispania. In Greene's Orlando i. 1, 53, Mandricarde declares: "I am Mandricarde of M., Whose climate fairer then Tyberius [i.e. Tiberias) Seated beyond the sea of Trypoly, And richer than the plot Hesperides." In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iii. 3, Tamburlaine, in the spirit of prophecy, dreams of a Persian fleet circumnavigating India "Even from Persepolis to M., And thence unto the straits of Jubalter." In Merch. i. 3, 20, Shylock mentions, am amongst Antonio's ventures, "He hath [an argosy] at M.," which, in iii. 2, 271, we learn has been lost. This shows that Antonio was not a very cautious merchant, for only Spanish ships were permitted to trade to M. In Mayne's s Match i. 4, Newcut, the Templar, speaks contemptuously of a merchant's velvet jacket which "knows the way to M. as well as the map." In B. & F. Cure i. 2, Lucio tells of "an Indian maid the governor sent my mother from M." Lucio is the son of Don Alverez of Seville. In Cockayne's Obstinate ii. 3, Phyginois declares his readiness to "Post afoot to M." Milton, in P. L. xi. 406, says of Adam: "in spirit perhaps he also saw Rich M., the seat of Montezume." Montezume was the last emperor of M., conquered by Cortes 1519–20. In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Hoskins says, "Fame is but wind, thence wind may blow it . . . From M. and from Peru To China and to Cambalu." The chief city of the country was at first known as Teuschtitlan, but since 1530 it has been called M. It is beautifully situated, and is one of the finest cities in the world. Montaigne (Florio's Trans., 1603), iii. 6, speaks of "amazement-breeding magnificence of the never-like-seen cities of Cuzco and M."


A river in Morocco, close to Alcazar. There is a plain of Meshara, just S. of Alcazar, from which the river, evidently the Alkhas, may have got a second name. There is also a town Mazaga, near the mouth of the Oum-er-beg, further S., but this seems too far away to be the one intended. In Stucley 2488, Sebastian asks, "Advise us, Lords, if we this present night Shall pass the river of M. here Or stay the morning." Stucley advises him to await the enemy where he is; but Sebastian decides to cross at sunrise, so that he may be at Alcazar by 10 o'clock. In Peele's Alcazar iii., Sebastian says, "See this young prince conveyed safe to Messegon."


A college in Cambridge, founded by Hervey de Stanton in 1324; it was merged in Trinity College in 1546. In the accounts of M. H. in 1386 certain theatrical properties are mentioned which proves that at that date dramatic performances in the University had begun to be given by the students.


A conical mass of granite abt. 250 ft. high, forming a small island in Mount's Bay, opposite Marazion, in S. Cornwall. It is connected with the mainland by a causeway at low water. It got its name from a legend that St. Michael once appeared sitting on the seaward-facing crag, still called St. M. Chair. Another legend stated that it was brought from Greece by the great wrestler Corineus, who overthrew the giant Goemagot and flung him into the sea, for which he received the whole W. country of England and called it after himself, Corineia—afterwards Cornwall. Corineus is one of the characters in Locrine. In Middleton's Quarrel ii. 2, Chough, the Cornishman, says, "I am as high as the Mt. in love with her already," and later in the scene he appeals to Corineus: "O Corineus, when Hercules and thou wert on the Olympic Mt. together, then was wrestling in request." Trimtram adds, "Ay, and that Mt. is now the Mt. in Cornwall—Corineus brought it thither under one of his arms, they say." Milton, in Lycidas 160, speaks of "the fable of Bellerus [in 1st edition, Corineus] old Where the great vision of the guarded Mt. Looks towards Namancos and Bayona's hold." Act v. sc. 1, of Ford's Warbeck takes place at St. M. Mt., where Katharine Gordon had taken refuge after Warbeck's failure at Exeter. In Spenser's Shep. Cal. July, 41, Morrell asks: "St. Michel's Mt. who does not know That wards the W. coast?" Donne, Satire ii. (1593), speaks of "all the land From Scots to Wight, from Mt. to Dover strand."


A port in Malta, at the head of Sabina Bay in the N.E. of the island. In B. & F. Malta i. 3, Oriana writes to the Turks: "Put in at St. M., the ascent at that port is easiest."


A ch. in Famagosta, in Cyprus. It is likely, however, that Dekker was thinking of the bell of St. M., Cornhill. In Dekker's Fortunatus i. 1, Fortunatus says, "Women are like the great bell of St. M. in Cyprus, that keeps most rumbling when men would most sleep." Was this the "dreadful bell" which Othello ordered to be silenced?


There were several churches in Lond. dedicated to St. Michael: i. A fine ch. with a noble tower on the S. side of Cornhill, E. of St. M. Alley. It was destroyed, all but the Tower, in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt by Wren. The tower, which is an imitation of the Magdalen Tower at Oxford, has been since restored; and the whole ch. was elaborately repaired and enlarged by Sir Gilbert Scott in 1858. It had a fine peal of bells. In Three Ladies ii., Simplicity says, "The parsonage of St. M.! by'r Lady, if you have nothing else, You shall be sure of a living besides a good ring of bells." In Pride and Lowliness (1570), we have the couplet: "Higher, as they suppose, than any steeple In all this town, St. M. or the Bow." 2. A ch. in Wood St. at the corner of Huggin Lane, destroyed in the Fire and rebuilt by Wren. Liberality was "Printed by Simon Stafford for George Vincent, and are to be sold at the sign of the Hand-in-Hand in Wood st., over against St. M. Ch." 3. A ch. in Crooked Lane, which abutted on the Boar's Head Tavern. It was taken down in 1831 in making the approach to Lond. Bdge. 4. Other churches destroyed in the Fire and rebuilt by Wren were St. M. Bassishaw, on the W. side of Basinghall st.; St. M. Paternoster Royal, in Tower Royal, where Whittington was buried; St. M. Queenhythe, in Upper Thames St., pulled down in 1876. 5. St. M. le Querne, or ad Bladum, at the corner of Cheapside and Paternoster Row, was destroyed in the Fire and not rebuilt. It is not clear which is intended in the following: In World Child, p. 182, Folly says, "I swear by the church of St. Michael I would we were at stews." In B. & F. Thomas v. 9, Hylas says, "Did not I marry you last night in St. M. chapel?"


The ancient capital of Zealand, on the island of Walcheren, nearly opposite to Harwich. It was formerly the centre of an extensive trade with England, France, and the Indies, but its importance has declined since the 17th cent. Between 1384 and 1388 the wool-staple for England was removed from Calais to Middleburgh; hence the anxiety of the Merchant, in Chaucer's C. T. A. 277, that "the see were kept for any thing Betwixe M. and Orewelle." In Middleton's Michaelmas ii. 3, Quomodo says, "They'll despatch [the cloth] over to M. presently and raise double commodity by exchange." In Barnavelt iv. 5, Barnavelt says, "When the Sluice was lost and all in mutiny at Middleborough, who durst step in before me to do these countries service!" The reference is to events in the wars of Prince Maurice, 1600–1604. In T. Heywood's Challenge ii. 1, the Clown says, "At Middleborough, night or day, you could scarce find the Exchange empty."


A town in N. Riding Yorks. on the Ure, abt. 40 m. N.W. of York. It had a fine castle, the ruins of which are still very considerable. In George-a-Greene v., Old Musgrove gives K. Edward a sword of which he says, "K. James at Meddellom Castle gave me this," and the K. rejoins, "To mend thy living take thou Meddellom Castle." There is nothing historical in this story. Scene v. of Act v. in H6 C. took place in the Archbp. of York's park near M. Castle.


The smallest county but one in England in area, and the largest but one in population owing to the fact that Lond., N. of the Thames, is within its boundaries. In Liberality v. 5, the clerk of the court says to Prodigality, "Thou art indicted that thou at Highgate in the county of M. didst take from one Tenacity, of the parish of Pancridge, £1000." In T. Heywood's Traveller iii. 4, the Clown says to Geraldine, "Oh, Sir, you are the needle, and if the whole county of M. had been turned to a mere bottle of hay, I had been enjoined to have found you out." In Brome, Ct. Beggar ii. 1, Citywit says, "I am M. indeed, born 1, th' City." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 1, Stephen affirms that his uncle, old Knowell, "is a man of a thousand a year, M. land," which was reckoned uncommonly fertile. Lond. was strongly Puritan, and the Players had constant conflicts with the M. justices and juries, who were opposed to the drama; indeed, it was through their dismantling the Theatre and Curtain that the Burbages went over to the Bankside, which, being in Surrey, was out of their jurisdiction. The juries were disposed to be severe in their verdicts, especially in cases of alleged witchcraft. In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Satan accuses Pug of souring the citizen's cream that some old woman "may be accused of it and condemned by a M. jury, to the satisfaction of the Londoners' wives." Habington, in Epilogue to Arragon, says, "Though a M. jury on this play should go, They cannot find the murder wilful." In Middleton's Trick to Catch iv. 5, Dampit says to Gulf, "Thou inconscionable rascal! thou that goest upon M. juries and wilt make haste to give up thy verdict, because thou wilt not lose thy dinner." In Brome's Northern iv. 1, Squelch, the Justice, says, "As I am in my right mind and M., I will shew my justice on thee." The sub-title of Brome's Covent G. is The M. Justice of Peace. In Nabbes' Totenham i. 4, Cicely says, "Let but an honest jury (which is a kind of wonder in M.) find you not guilty." In Middleton's Chaste Maid ii. 2, Allwit inveighs against "ravenous creditors that will not suffer The bodies of their poor departed debtors To go to the grave, but e'en in death do vex And stay the corps with bills of M.," i.e. bills issued from the M. courts. In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 560, Rash says, "Love. runs through the Isle of Man in a minute, but never is quiet till he comes into M." The play on the words is odvious. According to Old Meg, p. 1, M. men were famous "for tricks above ground," i.e. for rope-dancing.


One of the q, Inns of Court is Lond. It lay on the S. side of Fleet St. between the Outer and the Inner Temples (see under Inns of Court and Temple). The Hall (an =rivalled example of Elizabethan architecture) still remains, in which Shakespeare's Twelfth Night was acted in February 1602. John Marston and John Ford were members of the M. T. Chapman wrote a Masque for the M. T. and Lincoln's Inn on the occasion of the marriage of the Princess Elizabeth and the Elector Palatine in 16l3.


The name of more than a dozen villages in various parts of England. I cannot determine which of them is the origin of the following jingle. In Lyly's Maid's Meta. iii., Joculo says, "I am so weary that I cannot go, with following a master that follows his mistress that follows her shadow that follows the sun that follows his course." And Frisco chimes in: "that follows the colt that followed the mare the man rode on to M."




A tribe of predatory Bedawin who occupied the country E. and SM. of Palestine, N. of Arabia, and E. of the Gulf of Akabah. They oppressed the Israelites for 7 years, and were finally driven out by Gideon (Judges VI). The word was afterwards used for any enemies of God's people. In Bale's Promises v, David says, "Oppressed were they 7 years of the M." In his Laws ii., Idolatry says, "I dwelt among the Sodomites, The Benjamites and M., And now the popish hypocrites Embrace me everywhere." In Milton's S. A. 281, the Chorus tells how Gideon went "in pursuit Of Madian and her vanquished kings." In Trans. Ps. lxxxiii. 33, he says, "Do to them as to Midian bold That wasted all the coast."


(the MEDITERRANEAN SEA, q.v.). Cowley, in Prol. to Cutter, says, "The M. S. is no where clear From dreadful fleets of Tunis and Argier."


A city in the centre of the plain of Lombardy in N. Italy, 150 m. W. of Venice and 300 m. N.W. of Rome. It is said to have been founded by Bellovesus, K. of the Celts, in the 6th cent. B.C. It was the 2nd city in Italy in the days of the Roman Empire, and under the bishopric of St. Ambrose became the resolute champion of orthodoxy against the Arians. It was attacked by the Huns and the Goths, and utterly destroyed by Uraia the Goth in A.D. 539. During the Lombard rule M. was the centre of the native Italian party, and when Charles the Great conquered the Lombards in 774 M. received special privileges. In 1162 it was again razed to the ground by Frederic I, but in 1167 the Milanese returned and rebuilt their city The democratic party, under the Torriani, ruled the city from 1237 to 1277, when they were expelled by the Visconti, who held supreme power till 1450. The successive lords were Otho (1277), Matteo (1310), Galeazzo (1322), Azzo (1328), Lucchino (1339), Giovanni (1349), Bernabo (1354), Gian Galeazzo, the 1st D., and founder of the Duomo (1385), Giovanni (1402), and Filippo (1412–1447). The Sforza family succeeded and held the dukedom till 1535. Francesco, the Tst Sforza D., was succeeded by Galeazzo Maria (1466), and he by his young son, Gian Galeazzo. Lodovico, "the Moor," son of Francesco, seized the supreme power in 1480, but in 1501 he was taken prisoner by the French and died in captivity. From that time to 174 M. was under the Spanish crown, then it passed to Austria. In the revolutionary wars it was capital of the Cisalpic Republic, and eventually of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. In 1814 it passed back to Austria, but, with Lombardy, became part of the kingdom of Sardinia, soon to be the kingdom of Italy, at the Peace of Villefranca (1859). M. lies in a circle round the great Duomo, its walls being 7 m. in circumference. The Castello on the S.E. side of the Piazza d'Armi on the W. of the city was built in 1358, destroyed in 1477, and rebuilt by Francesco Sform M. was famous in our period for its ribbons, hats, and other articles of haberdashery, the dealers in which came to be known as Millainers. It also made swords and armour of the finest quality.

Prospero, in the Tempest i. 2, tells how he was D. of M., and how his brother expelled him and made "poor M." tributary to Naples. This is all unhistorical. It would appear from Prospero's story in i. 2, 140 that Shakespeare imagined M. to be on the sea-coast. In Two Gent., Valentine goes to M. from Verona, whither he is followed by Proteus. Silvia is the daughter of the D. of M., and most of the scenes of Acts II.–V. are laid there. In K. J. iii. 1, 138, Pandulph announces himself as "of fair M. Cardinal." Lingard, however, denies that he was ever a Cardinal. In Much Ado iii. 4, 16, Margaret quotes "the Duchess of M.'s gown that they praise so." In Costly Wh., the Prince of Millein and the Palatine of the Rheine are suitors for the hand of Euphrata. Forsa (i.e. Sforza), D. of Myllan, is one of the characters in K. K. Hon. Man. Chaucer, in C. T. B. 3589, tells the story of "Grete Barnabo, Viscounte of Melan," who was imprisoned by his nephew and son-in-law, Gian Galeazxo, in 1385; Chaucer was sent to Italy to treat with this very Bamabo in 1378. In Marlowe's Faustus vii. 66, the Pope slyly "Here is a dainty dish was sent me from the Bp. of M." The scene of Jonson's Case is Laid in M. There is a war going with the French, who 41 mean to have a fling at a "(i. 2); the date is 19 years after "The great Chamont, the general for France, Surprised Vicenza "(i. 2). The son of Count Ferneze was then between 3 and 4 years of age, and was the godson of the Emperor Sigismund, who died is 7437 (v. 4). The action of the play is thus fixed to 1460; but there were no French wars at that date, and I suspect that Jonson intended the taking of Vicenza to be in 1494, when Charles VIII invaded Italy; and the attack on M. to be that of Francis I, in 1515, when Massimiliano Sforza was D., who is spoken of in the play as the leader of the forces of M., whilst the imaginary Ferenze is Count of M. In Ford's 'Tis Pity i. 2, Grimaldi is spoken of as having done "good service in the wars Against the Milanese"—probably these same wars between 1494 and 1525. In Sacrifice i. 1, Bianca, the Duchess of Pavia, is said to have been "daughter Unto a gentleman of M., no better, Preferred to serve i' the D. of M.'s court." In Davenant's Siege i. 1, Ariotto speaks of "a skirmish at M. against the Grisons." This was also in the wars of the early 16th century, when the Swiss were employed by the French. In B. & F. Women Praised ii. 5, the D. of M. is mentioned as a suitor for the hand of Belvidere, the daughter of the D. of Florence. In Massinger's Lover v. 3, news is brought that "the great John Galeas "is dead, and his brother Galeazzo thus "the absolute lord of M." This fixes the supposed date to 1402, but there is nothing else historical in the play. In Chapman's Consp. Byron v. 1, the D. of Savoy proposes to Henri IV to bring an army into Savoy, but Henri replies, "Where you have proposed . . . my design for M., I will have no war with the K. of Spain." In Trag. Byron i. 1, Byron asks his friends "in passing M. and Turin "to pretend that they have come to treat of his marriage with the daughter of the D. of Savoy. In Webster's Malfi iii. 5, the Duchess advises Antonio "to take your eldest son And fly towards M."; he does so, and the last Act takes place there. Massinger's Milan takes place at the time of the Battle of Pavia (1525), according to Act III. The D. is called Ludovico, though he was really Francesco. The scene of the play is M., except parts of Act III. The scene of Dekker's Hon. Wh. is M., in the reign of an imaginary duke, Gasparo Trebazzi. In Davenant's Love Hon. i. 1, Prospero says, "Close by the valley Lies conquered by my sword a Millain knight." The scene of T. Heywood's Maidenhead is laid in part at M., and the D. of Millenie is one of the principal characters. In Cockayne's Trapolin i. 2, the Grand D. of Florence says, "Sforza, the D. of Milain, Hath promised me the matchless Isabella, His sister, for my wife." An imaginary D. of Millaine is one of the characters in Greene's Alphonsus. A play, now lost, was presented at Court in 1579 entitled The Duke of M. and the Duke of Mantua. The scene of Middleton's Dissemblers is laid in M. The heroine of Shirley's Servant is Leonora, who is called the Princess of M. and is the daughter of Gonzaga, D. of M.

In Marston's Antonio's Rev., A. Ind., Alberto says, "M. being half Spanish, half High Dutch, And half Italian, the blood of chiefest houses is corrupt and mongrelled." In Greene's Alphonsus iv. 2, Carinus testifies: "When my feet in Millaine land I set, Such sumptuous triumphs daily there I saw As never in my life I found the like." In Cockayne's Trapolin ii. 3, Horatio calls it "great Milain." In its. T. iv. 4, 292, the servant says of Autolycus: "No milliner can so fit his customers with gloves." In H4 A. i. 3, 36, Hotspur tells how the lord that brought him the King's message "was perfumed like a milliner." In Davenant's Italian i. 1, Altamont says, "A Millanoise showed me to-day for sale bright and spacious jewels." In Alimony ii. 2, the Boy says, "She was a tire-woman at first in the suburbs of M." In Shirley's Ball v. 1, Freshwater says he found M." a rich state of haberdashers." In Davenant's Favourite iv. 1, the Lady complains: "I fear you have not sent to M. yet For the carkanet of pearl." In Greene's Quip, p. 246, we are told of "a Frenchman and a millainer in St. Martin's, and sells shirts, bands, bracelets, jewels, and such pretty toys for gentlewomen." In Brief Conceipt of English Policy (1581), it is stated that men will not be contented with "ouche, brooch, or aglet but of Venice making, or Millen, nor as much as a spur but that is fetched at a Millener. There were not of these Haberdashers that sells French or Millen caps, glasses, knives, daggers, swords, girdels, and such things, not a dozen in all London; and now from the Tower to Westminster along, every st. is full of them." In B. & F. Valentinian ii. 2, Claudia satirizes "the gilded doublets and M. skins "(i.e. gloves) of the courtiers. In their Maid's Trag. iv. 1, Melantius scoffs at "your gilded things, that dance In visitation with their M. skins." In their Elder B. v. 1, Cowsy boasts of his good sword, "A M. hilt and a Damasco blade." Jonson, in his Execration upon Vulcan, says, "Would you had Maintained the trade at Bilboa or elsewhere, Struck in at M. with the cutters there." In his New Inn ii. 2, Tipto recommends to Lord Beaufort "the M. sword, the cloke of Genoa." The passage is copied verbatim in B. & F. Pilgrimage i. i. In Webster's Law Case .4, Romelio asks, "Can you tell me whether your Toledo or your M. blade be best tempered?" In Brewer's Lovesick King ii., Thornton says, "All this have I got of a cunning man for two poor Millan needles." Lauson, in Secrets of Angling (1653), recommends hooks made "of the best Spanish and M. needles."


A ch. in Lond., on the N. side of the Poultry, at the corner of St. M. Court. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire, rebuilt by Wren, and finally taken down in 1872. In Middleton's Quiet Life iv. 2, Knavesby says, "I'll bring you [to Lombard St.] through Bearbinder Lane." Mrs. Water-Camlet replies, "Bearbinder Lane cannot hold me; I'll the nearest way over St. M. ch." An early edition of Colin Clout was "Imprinted by me Rycharde Kele dwelling in the powltry at the long shop under saynt Myldredes chyrche." Like was "Imprinted at the long shop adjoining unto St. M. Ch. in the Pultrie by John Allde. 1568." Middleton's Blurt was "Printed for Henry Rockytt, and are to be sold at the long shop under St. M. ch. in the Poultry. 1602." There was another St. M. ch. in Bread St., on the E. side at the corner of Cannon St., destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt by Wren.


A hamlet in Lond., E. of Whitechapel, beginning exactly a mile from Aldgate along the Whitechapel Rd. M. E. Green was S. of the M. E. Rd., where Stepney Green now is. It was used as the training ground for the citizen forces of Lond., as well as for fairs and shows of various kinds. The vill. was still in the country, and citizens used to go out there of an afternoon to eat cakes and drink cream. Criminals were also hung in chains at M. E. Green. Kemp, in Nine Days' Wonder (i (1600), tells how, when he had started on his famous dance to Norwich, "Multitudes of Londoners left not me, either to keep a custom which many hold, that M. E. is no walk without a recreation at Stratford Bow with cream and cakes, or else for love they bear towards me." In Contention, Haz., p. 502, Cade orders the rebels: "Go to Milende-greene to Sir James Cromer, and cut off his head too." In Look About v., Slink, trying to escape from arrest, complains, "M. E.'s covered with 'Who goes there?" In S. Rowley's When You, D. 4, Black Will complains that "for a venture of 5 pound he must commit such petty robberies at M. E." In Dekker's Shoemaker's i. 2, Lacy reports that in preparation for the French expedition "The men of Hertfordshire lie at M.-e."

In All's Well iv. 3, 302, Parolles says that Capt. Dumain, when in England, "had the honour to be the officer at a place there called M: E., to instruct for the doubling of files." In B. & F. Pestle v. t, the citizen's Wife exhorts Ralph: "I would have thee call all the youths together in battle-ray and march to M. E. in pompous fashion." In Three Lords, Dods., vi. 451, Policy says, "Myself will muster upon M.-E,Green That John the Spaniard will in rage run mad." In Shirley's Riches ii, the Soldier says, "Some fellows have beaten you into belief that they have seen the wars, that perhaps mustered at M.-E. or Finsbury." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. ii. 3, Brainworm, having deceived Knowell in the disguise of an old soldier, says, "He will hate the musters at M.-e. for it to his dying day." In iv. 4, Formal says of Brainworm's stories of his wars: "They be very strange, and not like those a man reads in the Roman histories or sees at M.-e." In Middleton's R.G. i. 2, Laxton says of Moll: "Methinks a brave captain might get all his soldiers upon her, and ne'er be beholding to a company of M.-e. milk sops." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. i. the Lord Mayor says to the rebels that the way to Bow shall be safe, "Although thou le encamped at M.-E.-Green," and that they will not dare to molest the travellers. Indeed, M.-E. Green had some reputation for highway robberies. In T. Heywood's F. M. Exch., Act I opens with an attempted robbery there, which is frustrated by the opportune arrival of the Cripple of Fenchurch. Milton, in Sonn. on the Detraction 7, says of the title of his Tetrachordon: "Cries the stall-reader, 'Bless us! what a word on A title-page is this!' and some in file Stand spelling false, while one might walk to M.-E. Green," i.e. about a mile.

In B. & F. Thomas iii. 3, amongst the Fiddler's ballads is one entitled "The Landing of the Spaniards at Bow, with the Bloody Battle at M.-e." The same incident seems to be referred to in the 3 following passages. In their Pestle ii. 2, Michael asks his mother, "Is not all the world M.-e., mother t". to which Mrs. Merrythought replies, "No, Michael, not all the world, boy; but I can assure thee, Michael, M.-e. is a goodly matter; there has been a pitch-feld, my child, between the naughty Spaniels and the Englishmen, and the Spaniels ran away, Michael, and the Englishmen followed." In T. Heywood's F. M. Exch., vol. ii., p. 45, Frank says, "Cripple, thou once didst promise me thy love When I did rescue thee on M.-e. Green." In B. & F. Wife Epi., "the action at M.-e." is mentioned. In Shirley's Pleasure i. 2, Celestina, dissatisfied with her new coach, says, "To market with't; 'Twill hackney out to M.-e." In H4 B. iii. 2, 298, Shallow says, "I remember at M.-e. Green, I was then Sir Dagonet in Arthur's show." This was an exhibition of shooting given by a society called "The Fellowship of Prince Arthur's Knights." There were 58 of them. In Yarington's Two Trag. v. 2, the Officer directs: "Let his body be conveyed hence to M.-e.-green And there be hanged in chains." In Middleton's Black Book, p. 2,5, we read of "two men in chains between M.-e. and Hackney." M.-E. was apparently a fashionable quarter for residence. was B. & F. Wit Money iii. 2, Valentine says, "Why should madam at M.-e. be daily visited, and your poorer neighbours neglected "In Day's B. Beggar ii., Old Strowd says, "Come along with me to M.-e. to my lodging." Dekker, in Armourers, says, "Neither the Mermaid nor the Dolphin nor he at M.-e.-green can when he list be in a good temper when he lacks his mistress, that is to say, Money." The reference is to some well-known tavern.


One of the chief cities of Ionia, on the W. coast of Asia Minor at the mouth of the Maeander. In T. Heywood's Dialogues xiii. 4272, Mausolus boasts: "The great'st part of Ionia I laid waste And my great army to Miletum passed." This was 362 B.C. In Gascoigne's Government ii. 1, Gnomaticus says, "History accuseth Cillicon for betraying of M." I think he must mean by Cillicon, Syloson, who, along with his brothers, seized by treachery the island of Samos about 530 B.C.; his brother, Polycrates, shortly afterwards conquered M., but he had previously banished Syloson. The Persians, however, sent a fleet and reinstated him. Sir John Beaumont, in verses on Francis Beaumont's Salmacis, says, "With fair Mylesian threads the verse he sings." "Milesian tales "were the Greek and Roman name for wanton tales, after the fashion of the Milesiaca of Aristides, the earliest prose romances known.


A long indentation of the sea in the W. coast of Pembrokesh., S. Wales. It runs 10 m. inland, and is abt. 2 m. across. It is one of the best and safest harbours in the United Kingdom. The town of M. is on the N. side of the H. In Cym. iii. 2, 45, Leonatus writes to Imogen to meet him "in Cambria, at M.H." She accordingly journeys thither, and Scene IV. is laid "in the country near M. H." In iv. 2, 335, the Capt. announces to Lucius, "The legions garrisoned in Gallia . . . have crossed the sea, attending You here at M. H." In R.3 iv. 4, 535, Catesby brings word: "The Earl of Richmond Is with a mighty power landed at M." In Ford's Warbeck v. 2, Warbeck speaks of the day that dawned for Richmond and his supporters, "When first they ventured on a frightful shore At M. H." In Peele's Ed. I ii. 13, Lluellen brings his friends "disguised to M. H." to stay the landing of the Lady Elinor from France. Drayton, in Polyolb. v. 275, commends "M., which this isle her greatest port doth call."


A lane in Lond., running S. from the Strand, opposite St. Clement Danes, between Essex St. and Arundel St. It was a narrow st., inhabited by poor people for the most part, and having a bad reputation. It is now mostly occupied by printing offices. In Brome's Couple ii. 1, Careless, having got hold of some money, exclaims, "I need no more insconsing now in Ram Alley, nor the sanctuary of White-fryers, the forts of Fullers-rents, and M.-l., whose walls are daily battered with the curses of bawling creditors." In Brome's Damoiselle i. 2, Bumpsey taunts the impecunious knight, Sir Humfrey Dryground, with the wretched pittance "which now maintains you where you live confined in M. L. or Fuller's Rents, or who knows where."


Lond., running N. from Cheapside to Gresham St., between Wood St. and Lawrence Lane. It was originally the part of the market where milk and butter were sold., The Ch. of St. Mary Magdalene, destroyed in the Gt. Fire and not rebuilt, was in this street. Here Sir T. More was born. Taylor, in Merrycome-twang, tells of a friend who invited him "to go dine at the Half-Moone in M. St." In Jonson's Christmas' Carol asks, "Shall John Butter of M. St. come in?" and Gambol replies, "Yes, he may slip in for a torch-bearer, so he melt not too fast." In B. & F. Pestle iii. 4, Ralph says, "O faint not, heart I Susan, my lady dear, The cobbler's maid in M. St. for whose sake I take these arms, O let the thought of thee Carry thy knight through all adventurous deeds." Dekker, in jests, mentions "M. st., Bread St., Lime St., and S. Mary Axe "as places where the respectable citizens used to have their dwellings. Mayberry, in Dekker's Northward, lived there, for in v. 2 he says, "Let's once stand to it for the credit of M.-st."




A dist. running along the N., or rather the W., bank of the Thames from Old Palace Yd. to Peterborough House, between the positions now occupied by the Westminster and Vauxhall Bdges. Towards its S. end, the M. Penitentiary was built in 1821; it has since been pulled down, and its site is occupied by the Tate Art Gallery. M. St. preserves the name. In Cowley's Cutter i. 5, jolly says that Cutter and Worm are always changing their residence: "To-day at Wapping, and to-morrow you appear again at M., like a duck that dives at this end of the pond and rises unexpectedly at the other," Wapping is in the extreme E., M. in the extreme W. of Lond.


A vill. in Berks., 21 M. S. of Abingdon. In Abingdon ii. 1, Philip says he has been "over the meads, half way to M."


(PONS MILVIUS, now PONTE MOLLE). The bdge. by which the Via Flaminia crossed the Tiber, 2 m. N. of Rome. It was here that Cicero arrested the ambassadors of the Allobroges on their way to the city at the time of the Catilinarian conspiracy. In Jonson's Catiline iv. 6, Sanga brings word to Cicero, "You must instantly dispose your guards Upon the M. B., for by that way They mean to come." The next scene is at the M. B., and describes the arrest of the Allobroges.


A small vill. in N. Middlesex, on the borders of Herts., and on the Great North Road from Lond. In B. & F. Wit Money iii. 1, the servant who, much against his will, is ordered to drive his mistress out of Lond., prays that the horses may tire at Highgate, that all the innkeepers at St. Alban's may be too drunk to entertain the lady, that there may be neither music nor food nor a bed for her; and then goes on: "Let M. be angry at their St. Bel swagger, And we pass in the heat of it, and be beaten, Beaten abominably." St. Bel means Sanctus Bell, or Saunce Bell, the little bell rung by the priest during the celebration of Mass;, it is very insignificant as compared with the bells in the ch. tower, and so is used for anything trifling. See N.E. D. s.v. SANCTUS BELL. Hence St. Bel swagger means the silly, trifling roystering of the drunken innkeepers of St. Alban's. The next lines "[May] all my lady's linen [be] sprinkled With suds and dishwater!" (i.e. ditch-water) may be a sarcastic allusion to Mims Wash, a shallow ford on the road about 1 m. S. of M. The smallness of the vill. and the absurdity of its name give such point as there is to the jest. [I am indebted for this article to the late Prof. C. E. Vaughan, as well as for very many other valuable suggestions.]


(now MINCIO). A river in N. Italy, rising in tire Rhaetian Alps, and flowing into the Lago di Garda, from which it issues at Peschiera and runs S. into the Po past Mantua, the birth-place of Vergil. Milton, Lyc. 86, invokes it as "thou honoured flood, Smoothsliding M., crowned with vocal reeds." Milton invokes it as representing Latin Pastoral Poetry, because Vero wrote the Eclogues; and the description is taken from EC. Vii. 12: "Mc virides tenera praetexit arundine ripas M."


Vill. in Cornwall, a little N. of the river Camel, near its mouth, 24 m. S.W. of Launceston. In Brome's City Wit iii. 1, Jane Tryman leaves in her will "to my nephew, Sir Marmaduke Trevaughan, of St. M., £1000 in gold."


An abbey of the Nuns of the order of St. Clare, founded in 1293 by Edmund of Lancaster. It was surrendered to Henry VIII in 1539. Its site is indicated by the st. called the M., running from Aldgate High St. to Tower Hill. It was formerly almost entirely occupied by gunsmiths. In Bale's Laws iii., Infidelity says to Mosei Lex, "I would ye had been at the M., Sir, late yester-night, at Compline." Lex replies, "At the M.1 Why? What was there ado?" Infidelity answers, "For such another would I to Southampton go." I suppose the reference is to the papistical character of the service, which pleases Infidelity. In Davenport's New Trick i. 2, Slightall, who is looking out for an impudent lass, sends Roger to seek for one "in Turnball, the Banke side, or the M." Evidently the st. had gained an evil reputation.


The M. in Lond. was in the Tower until 1811, when the present building on Tower Hill was erected for the purpose. A M. was also established by Henry VIII in Suffolk House opposite St. George's Ch., Southwark, which gave the name to the dist. round. The inhabitants claimed for it the privilege of sanctuary, and it became a refuge for all sorts of swindlers and vagabonds, until the privilege was definitely abrogated by Act of Parliament in the reign of George I. In B. & F. Wit Money ii. 4, when Francisco asks him for £100, Valentine replies: "There's no such sum in nature; forty shillings There may be now in the M., and that's a treasure." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 26, Falconbridge, encouraging his rebels, says, "The M. is ours, Cheape, Lombard St., our own." In Jonson's Devil iii. 5, Fitz-Dottrel says, "There's not so much gold in all the Row, he says, Till it come from the M."


(= MINCIO). A river in N. Italy, rising in Lake Guarda, and flowing S. into the Po, 9 m. below Mantua. Daniel, in Epist. Ded. to Cleopatra 65, prays that "the music of our well-tuned Isle Might hence be heard to M., Arn, and Po." See MINCIUS.


(probably should be MYRAPONT, i.e. the Lycian Sea, which lies round the coast of Lycia, of which Myra is the chief seaport). Brutus had conquered Lycia, shortly before the battle of Philippi. In Caesar's Rev. iv. 1, Cassius says that Brutus commands "all the coasters on the M."




The promontory at the N. end of the Bay of Naples, so called from the trumpeter of Aeneas who was buried there. Behind it is a land-locked harbour which was made the naval station for the Roman fleet by Augustus. In Antony ii. 2, 263, Caesar says that Pompey lies "about the mt. M."; ii. 6 takes place near M., and ii. 7 on board Pompey's galley off M.


Defined as being in the confines of Persia. In Bacchus, the 14t]2 guest is "Hodge Heaviebreech: he came from M, a city in the confines of Persia."


A Lond. tavern sign. There were 2 famous M. Taverns: one in Bread St, Cheapside, the other is Fleet St.
  1. The M. in Bread St. was either at the corner of Bread St. and Cheapside or had an entrance from the latter thoroughfare, as it is sometimes called the M. in Cheap. It is mentioned in the vestry books of St. Michael's before 1475. It was burnt down in the Gt. Fire, and not rebuilt. In More ii. 1, Robin says, "The head-drawer at the Miter by the Great Conduit called me up, and we went to breakfast into St. Anne's Lane." In News Barthol. Fair, "The Miter is Cheape" is in the list of Lond. taverns. In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage iii. 1, Ilford says, "I, Frank Ilford, was inforced from the M. in Bread-st. to the Compter in the Poultry." In. iii. 3, Scarborow says, "We'll meet at the M., where we'll sup down sorrow." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. ii. 2, Capt. Carvegut proposes: "Come, we'll pay at bar, and to the M. in Bread-st., we'll make a mad night on't." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iv. 1 (1st edition), the M. takes the place of the Star of the later editions. In The pleadings of RastelI v. Walton (1530), Nicholas Sayer deposed that "he and William Knight were desired by the said Rastell and Walton, being at the M. in Cheap, to view such costs, etc." In Dekker's Westward iv. 1, Lucy, guessing who has put his hands over her eyes, says, "O, you are George, the drawer at the M."
  2. The M. in Fleet St. was on the S. side of the st. at No. 39, now occupied by Hoare's Bank. It had a passage into M. Court, and a back way into Ram Alley. It was certainly is existence in i 603; it was kept by the widow Sutton in 1629 and by one Alsop 10 years later. The wooden balcony was set alight in the Gt. Fire, but the tavern itself escaped. It was Dr. Johnson's favourite inn, and was the dining-place of the Royal Society and the Society of Antiquaries. It was closed in 1788, and the present M. Tavern in M. Court took over the name, together with the Johnson tradition, which does not, however, really belong to it, in spite of the cast of Nollekens' bust which it displays. The old Tavern was reincarnated as Saunders' Auction Room, and was finally demolished in 1829 to make more room for Hoare's Bank. In Barry's Ram ii. 4, Throate says, "Know what news and meet me straight at the M. door in Fleet-st." A little before, Smallshanks says to Frances, "We will be married to-night, we'll sup at the M., and from thence will to the Savoy." In T. Heywood's Witches ii., Generous says, "It comes short of that pure liquor we drunk last term in Lond. at the Myter in Fleet-st.," and later, Robert says of Generous, "Since he was last in Lond. and tasted the divinity of the Miter, scarce any liquor in Lancashire will go down with him; sure he will never be a Puritan, he holds so well with the Miter"; and again, in Act III, Generous says, "I durst swear that this was Myter wine." In Middleton's Hubburd, p. 77, the young gallant is advised that "his eating must be in some famous tavern, as the Horn, the M., or the Mermaid."

In the following passages it is not certain which of the Ms. is intended, though in most of them I think the Bread St. tavern is meant. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 1, when Sogliardo asks which is the best house to dine at, Puntarvolo says, "Your M. is your best house." In iv. 4, Puntarvolo commissions Carlo to "bespeak supper at the M. against we come back." In v. 9, Macilente says, "Our supper at the M. must of necessity hold to-night, 'and the next scene is laid there. In Barthol. i. 2, Littlewit says, "A pox o' these pretenders to wit! your Three Cranes, M, and Mermaidmen!" In Middleton's Five Gallants ii. 1, there is a discussion as to the relative merits of the Mermaid and the M., and Goldstone says, "The M. for neat attendance, diligent boys, and–push!–excells far"; ii. 3 is "in a room at the M." In his Mad World v. 2, Sir Bounteous says, "This will be a right M. supper, a play and all." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon ii. 2, Sencer says, "Being somewhat late at supper at the M ., the doors were shut at my lodging." In his Lucrece ii. 5, in the list of Roman (London) taverns, Valerius says, "The churchman to the M."


The country E. of the Dead Sea and the lower Jordan in Palestine. According to judges iii. 12, Eglon K. of M. took Jericho and oppressed Israel for 18 years. In Bale's Promises v., David says of Israel: "Thou subduedst them 18 years to Eglon the K. of M." Milton, in Trans. Ps. lxxxiii. 23, speaks of "M., with them of Hagar's blood That in the desert dwell "among the enemies of Israel. The god of the Moabites was Chemosh. Milton, P. L. i. 406, speaks of "Chemos, the obscene dread of M.'s sons."


(the ancient MUTINA). A city of N. Italy, S. of the Po, some 200 m. N. of Rome. Here Mark Antony was defeated by the forces of Hirtius and Pansa 43 B.C. was under the government of Dukes of the D'Este family until 1859, when it became part of the kingdom of Italy. In Antony i. 4, 57, Caesar reminds Antony, "When thou once Wast beaten from M., where thou slewest Hirtius and Pansa, consuls, at thy heel Did famine follow." In Middleton's R.G. v. 1, Trapdoor claims to have visited over a dozen Italian cities, one of which is M. In Cockayne's Trapolin ii. 3, Horatio concludes a long list of the chief cities of Italy with "M., happiest of them all." In iv. 2, the Grand D. of Tuscany says that his sister had "refused The youthful Dukes of M. and Parma.". The scene of Laelia is laid at M., in the 1st half of the 16th cent. In iii. 1, 2 proverbs are quoted: "Taurus Modinensis habet durum cornu sed molle corium," and "Semel in anno taurus non reperietur Modenae."


(now EL–MEDYEH). A town in Palestine, 17 m. N.W. of Jerusalem. It was the home of the Maccabaean family, and a fine tomb was erected there in their honour by Simon, the last of the 5 great brothers. Milton, P. R. iii. 170, tells how Machabeus "David's throne usurped, With M. and her suburbs once content."


(a form of MONGOL, applied specially to the followers of Jenghis Khan in the 13th, and of Berber in the i 6th cents.). The M., or the Great, or Grand, M. is used of the Emperors of Delhi. In Middleton's Gipsy ii. 1, John says, "I will do anything; kill the Great Turk, pluck out the M.'s eye-teeth," as Huon of Bordeaux plucked out "four of the Admiral's greatest teeth "and brought them to Charlemagne. In Jonson's Augurs, Vangoose undertakes, by his "Ars catoptrica "to show the company "de Tartar Cham mit de groat K. of Mogull." M.'s breeches seem to mean a kind of long drawers or loose trousers. In B. & F. Fair Maid I. iv. 2, the Host says, "Oh, let him have his shirt on and his m.'s breeches; here are women i' th' house." The Spanish and Portuguese form was Mogor. In Tomkins' Albumazar i. 5, Albumazar has prepared an almanac by which merchants may "know the success of the voyage of Magores," i.e. the voyage to the country of the great M.




One of the Danubian provinces lying N. of Wallachia and E. of Transylvania. It was governed by princes called Voivodes, and during the 16th cent. was under the control of the Turks, who exacted tribute and claimed the right of veto on the appointment of the Voivodes. England was interested in the Danubian provinces at this time, and in 1593 sent Edward Barton as ambassador to Constantinople to support the claim of Michael the Brave of Wallachia to independence. Judging by the reference in Jonson's Epicoene, some Moldavian prince had visited England shortly before 1609. In v. 1, La-Foole says that Daw drew maps (i.e. portraits) "of Nomentack when he was here, and of the Prince of M." In B. & F. Pestle, Ralph visits the court of the K. of M. in iv. 2, and wins the love of his daughter, but rejects her advances. In Cuckqueans iv. 8, Claribel says that since leaving Oxford he has "visited M. and Livonia, Pamphlagonia and Silesia."


A river rising in N. Sussex, and flowing through Surrey into the Thames opposite Hampton Court. Its length is 42 m.; near Mickleham it disappears underground for a time-hence its name. Spenser, F. Q. iv. i. i. 32, mentions: "M., that like a mousling mole doth make His way still underground, till Thamis he overtake." Milton, Vac. Ex. 95, calls it "sullen Mole that runneth underneath."


Often known as the Spice Islands, a group of islands in the E. Indies between Celebes and New Guinea. The Portuguese made the first settlements there in 1510, but the Spaniards arrived later, and there was much dispute as to the possession of the islands until the Dutch took them in the early part of the 17th cent. In Peele's Alcazar iii. 1, 26, the Legate says in the name of Philip of Spain: "His Majesty doth promise to resign [sc. to Sebastian of Portugal] The titles of the islands of M., That by his royalty in India he commands." Spenser, F. Q., v. 10, 3, says that the fame of Mercilla (Elizabeth) "it self enlarged hath From th' utmost brink of the Armericke [Armoric] shore Unto the margent of the Molucas." Wilbye, in First Set of Madrigals (1598), speaks of "Coral and ambergris sweeter and dearer Than which the South Seas or Moluccas lend us." Heylyn quotes from Du Bartas: "From the Moluccoes [come] spices "(p. 12). In B. & F. Subject iii. 4, Theodore, introducing his sisters to certain gentlemen, says, "Nay, keep off yet, gentlemen! What would ye give now to turn the glove up and find the rich M.?" The coarse jest need not be explained.


A tribe in Epirus, originally dwelling to the S. of the Ambraciot Gulf, but afterwards obtaining the mastery of the whole of Epirus from the Ambraciot Gulf to the Aous. There are many references in the classical writers to Molossian hounds. In Greene's Mamillia ii., we read of "Sarcas, the K. of the Mollosians." In Locrine i. 1, 47, Corineus boasts how he had conquered "The Grecian monarch, warlike Pandrassus, And all the crew of the Molossians." This is quite unhistorical. In Lyly's Maid's Meta. ii. 2, Belizarius tells how "the blind Molossians worshipped a toad and one of them, drinking a health with his god, was poisoned." Fleming, in English Dogs (1576), says, "A country in Epirus called Molossia harboureth many stout, strong, and sturdy dogs; for the dogs of that country are good indeed."




(= MAMORAH, q.v.).


A town on the E. coast of Africa, just N. of Zanzibar, 1400 m. S. of Cape Guardafui. It has one of the finest harbours in the world. It was visited by Vasco di Gama in 1498, and was taken by the Portuguese in 1528, in whose possession it remained till 1631, when it was retaken by the natives. The castle, which still remains, was built by the Portuguese in 1635 on a hill S. of the town. M. is now under British control. Milton, P. L. xi. 399, mentions "M, and Quiloa, and Melind, And Sofala "amongst the S. African kingdoms shown in vision to Adam.


The old name of the Isle of Anglesey, off the N.W. coast of Wales. It was the principal seat of Druidical worship, and was invaded by Suetonius A.D. 611. He was recalled, however, by the revolt of Boadicea (Bonduca), and the island was not conquered by the Romans till A.D. 78. In B. & F. Bonduca ii. 2, Suetonius says, "My will to conquer M. and long stay To execute that will, let in these losses." Spenser, F. Q. iii. 3, 48, tells of a prediction that the fire of the old British blood shall "be freshly kindled in the fruitful Ile Of M." The reference is to the accession of Henry VII, who was popularly supposed to have been born in Anglesey, though he was really born at Pembroke Castle. Milton, Lyc. 54, speaks of "the shaggy top of M. high."


The smallest sovereign principality in Europe, covering less than 8 sq. m. It lies most picturesquely on the shore of the Gulf of Genoa, 9 m. E. of Nice. The principality has been in the Grimaldi family since the 12th cent.; it is now under French protection. In Ford's Sacrifice i. 1, Petruchio tells us that the Duchess of Pavia was a lady in the court of Milan: "And passing late from thence to M., To visit there her uncle, Paul Baglione the Abbot, Fortune . . . presents her to the D.'s eye." In ii. 2, D'Avolos says, "I have here 2 pictures to be sent for a present to the Abbot of M., the Duchess' uncle."


The county town of Monmouthsh., at the confluence of the Wye and Monnow, 128 m. W. of Lond. The castle, now in ruins, came into the possession of John of Gaunt, and here Henry V was born in 1388. Mshire. is now an English county, but was formerly regarded as part of Wales. M. was noted for the manufacture of flat round caps, much worn by soldiers and seamen. In H4 A. v. 2, 50, and v. 4,59, Prince Henry is called Harry M. by Hotspur. The Induction of H4 B. 29, speaks of him in the same way. In i. 1, 19, Lord Bardolph calls Falstaff "Harry M.'s brawn, the hulk Sir John." In H5 iv. 7, 11, Fluelen, after pointing out that the K. was born at M., and Alexander the Gt. at Macedon, draws a comparison between the 2 places: "There is a river in Macedon; and there is also moreover a river at M.–it is called Wye at M.;. and there is salmons in both." In H6 A. ii. 5, 23, Mortimer calls the late K. "Henry M." In H4 B. ii. 3, 45, Lady Percy calls him simply M. In H6 A. iii. 1, 198, Exeter quotes a prophecy "that Henry born at M. should win all and Henry born at Windsor lose all." The same prophecy is quoted in The Puritan ii. i. In Val. Welsh. i. 1, the Bardh says, "Twice The base usurper Munmouth got the day "(against Octavian). In Dekker's Northward iv. 1, the Capt. maintains that Styanax (i.e. Astyanax) was "a M. man," and proves it by affirming "Hector was grannam to Cadwallader; when she was great with child, there was one young Styanan of Mshire. was a madder Greek as any is in all England."

Monmouth Caps. In H5 iv. 7, 104, Blur says, "The Welshmen did good service in a garden where leeks did grow, wearing leeks in their M. caps." In Eastward iv. 4, Touchstone says, "You may drink drunk, crack cans, hurl away a brown dozen of M. taps or so, in sea-ceremony to your bon voyage." In Jonson's Wales, Howel sings that the Welshman may "Get him as much green velvet perhap, Shall give it a face to his M. cap." In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Austin says that the author "Slept in his clothes . . . Sans M. cap or gown of rug." In W. Rowley's Search 31, the felt-makers complain of the popularity of "M.-caps."


The capital of Hainault in Belgium, 31 m. S.W. of Brussels. It was a strongly fortified city, and reached its greatest prosperity during the reign of the Emperor Charles V. In Tuke's Five Hours ii. 2, Octavio says of the Marquis d'Olivera: "They say he did wonders at the siege of M." The reference is to the by Alva in 1572, when the town had been occupied by Count Lodowicke, who tried in vain to hold it against Spain.


A st. in Southwark, running round St. Saviour's Cathedral on the N. and W. sides, on the site of the old cloisters. It took its name from a mansion built there by Viscount Montague after the dissolution of the monasteries. It was here that Monteagle was living when he received the mysterious letter which gave the clue to the Gunpowder Plot of 1605; and in consequence of this persons residing in M. C. were exempted from actions for debt or trespass, so that it became a sanctuary, with the usual result that it grew to be the resort of bad characters and had to be suppressed. In Brome's Couple v. 1, Saleware gets a letter: "Come with this bearer over into M. c., where you shall find your wife with a private friend at a private lodging."


A town in S. of France, on the Garonne, 342 m. S. Of Paris. It was the castle of the knight Renaud, or Rinaldo, in the old romances. Milton, P. L. i. 583, speaks of the knights who "jousted in Aspramont or M." Deloney, is Reading ix., says that Dove, when Jarrat had taken him to his inn, "thought himself as safe as K. Charlemaine in mt. Albon."


An ancient town of France, on the Loing, 60 m. S. of Paris. In Peele's Ed. I ii. 336, Guenther announces to Lluellen that his love, Elinor, and her brother have been captured by ships of Bristow "As from M. hitherward they sailed."




A town in central Italy, on the E. shore of Lake Bolsena, 50 m. N.W. of Rome. It is famous for its muscatel wine. In Cockayne's Trapolin ii. 1, Trapolin, being banished, laments: "Farewell, my draughts of M. and Bologna sausages." Fynes Moryson, i. 2, 143, says that its white and red Muskedine is "one of the most famous wines in Italy."


A small dist. on the E. coast of the Adriatic, just S. of Herzegovina. In Marmion's Antiquary iii. 4, the Antiquary claims that his greatgrandfather was "Jovanno Veterano, de M."


(= MONTEPULCIANO). An ancient Etruscan town in Tuscany, abt. go m. N. of Rome. Cardinal Bellarmine was born there. In Middleton's R.G. v. 1, Trapdoor mentions "M." as one of the many cities in Italy which he has ambled through.


A hill on the N.W. of Paris, N. of the Parc Monceaux, where the Lutheran ch. now stands. It was used as a place of execution for criminals. In Marlowe's Massacre (Dyer's edition), p. 231, after the murder of the Admiral, Anjou says, "Unto Mount Fauçon will we drag his corse; And he that living hated so the cross, Shall being dead be hanged thereon in chains." In Coryat's Crudities 20, we read: "A little on this side Paris, even at the town's end, there is the fairest gallows that ever I saw, built upon a little hillock called Mt. Falcon, which consisteth Of 14 fair pillars of freestone; this gallows was made in the time of the Guisian massacre, to hang the Admiral of France, Chatillion, who was a Protestant, anno dom. 1572." Fynes Moryson, in Itinerary i. 2, 190 (1595), says, "The dead bodies [of criminals] are carried out of the gate of St. Martin to be buried upon Mont-falcon."


An ancient duchy in Italy, in the S. of Piedmont, just N. of Genoa. In Merch. i. 2, 126, Nerissa reminds Portia of Bassanio's visit "In company of the Marquis of M."


A town in France, 9 m. N. of Paris. It possesses an old chateau and ch. Anne de M. (1492–1567) is one of the characters in Chapman's Chabot. His portrait in the play is much more attractive than history warrants.


A spt. in Forfarsh., Scotland, at the mouth of the S. Esk, 60 m. N.E. of Edinburgh in a direct line. It gave their title to the Earls of M. In Dekker's Fortunatus, M., a fictitious Lord of Scotland, is one of the characters. The time is the reign of Athelstan in England.


A town in France at the junction of the Loire and the Vienne, 255 m. S.W. of Paris. The Earl and Countess of M, or Montsurry, are important characters in Chapman's Bussy.


(Mh. = Moorish). Originally meant an inhabitant of Mauretania, in N.W. Africa; then extended to the people of mixed Berber and Arab stock, who lived in the same dist. and crossed over into Spain and founded the Mh. kingdoms there in the 8th cent. Up to the 17th cent. the Ms. were spoken of as black, and the word was often used as equivalent to negro: sometimes in the form Black-a-M. Heylyn describes them as "of a duskish colour, comely of body, stately of gait, implacable in hatred, constant in affection, laborious and treacherous." In Tit., the villain of the piece is "Aaron that damned M." (v. 3, 201). He has a "fleece of woolly hair "(ii. 3, 34); he is "a coal-black M." (iii. 2, 78); his child by Tamora is "a blackamoor. as loathsome as a toad Amongst the fairest breeders of our clime "(iv. 2, 67); "a black slave "(iv. 2, 120); "a thick-lipped slave "(iv. 2, 174). Aaron speaks of himself as "a black dog "(v. 2, 222). He is "barbarous "and "misbelieving." Clearly Aaron is regarded as a negro. Othello is "the M. of Venice." In i. 1, 66, Rode Roderigo calls him "the thick-lips." In i. 1, 88, Iago speaks of him as "a black ram," and in i. 110, as "a Barbary horse." In i. 2, 70, Brabantio speaks of his "sooty bosom." In i. 3, 291, the D. says to Brabantio, "Your son in law is far more fair than black." In iii. 3, 263, Othello himself says, "Haply for I am black . . . she's gone"; and in iii. 3, 387, he says of Desdemona: "Her name . . . is now begrimed and black As mine own face." In spite of his "free and open nature" and his approved valour, it can hardly be doubted that Shakespeare thought of him as a negro. In Merch. iii. 5, 42, Lorenzo says to Launcelot, "I shall answer that better than you can the getting up of the negro's belly; the M. is with child by you ": where negro and M. are synonymous.

In T. Heywood's Traveller i. 1, Geraldine says, "Even the M., He thinks the blackest the most beautiful." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. ii. 1, Bellafront says, "Blackness in Ms. is no deformity"; in A. ii. 1, Hippolito upbraids Bellafront because she is ready to entertain anyone, "Be he a M., a Tartar, though his face Look uglier than a dead man's skull." In Jeronimo i. 3, Lazarotto says, "I have no hope of everlasting height, My soul's a M., you know, salvation's white." In B. & F. Span. Cur. v. 1, Jamie says to Violante, "You are so far from fair, I doubt your mother Was too familiar with the M. that served her." In Webster's White Devil, Zanche, who is described as a M., is evidently black. Flamineo calls her "my precious gipsey "(v. 1); she thinks that the 100,000 crowns she gives to Francisco "Should make that sun-burnt proverb false, and wash The Ethiope white." She boasts, "Death cannot alter my complexion, For I shall ne'er look pale." She says to Francisco, "I ne'er loved my complexion till now, 'Cause I may boldly say without a blush, I love you." In v. 1, Francisco comes to Brachiano's court, disguised as a M.; he calls himself Mulinassar, and "hath by report served the Venetian in Candy These twice 7 years;" he has become a Christian and has done "honourable service 'gainst the Turk "(v. 1); in short, he is a replica of Othello. Zanche, who is black, says of him: "That is my countryman, a goodly person." In B. & F. Subject iii. 4, Theodore, introducing some ladies to his friends, says, "Do ye like their complexions? They be no Ms." In Maid in Mill ii. 1, Bustopha says, "There's as deadly feud between a M. and a miller as between black and white." In Massinger's Very Woman iii. 1, the Merchant says of the 2 M. he has just sold: "You never had such blackbirds." Davies, in Nosce, says that the sun "Makes the M. black." In Chapman's May Day iii. 1, Angelo says, "As of M., so of chimney-sweepers, the blackest is most beautiful." In Greene's James IV v. 4, the Lawyer says, "Sooner may the M. be washed white Than these corruptions banished from this realm." In Caesar's Rev. i. 1, Caesar speaks of "The proud Parthian and the coal-black M." In Wilson's Cobler 100, Sateros boasts, "The coalblack M. that revels in the Straights Have I repelled." In Middleton's Triumph Truth, the Moor says, "I being a M., then, in opinion's lightness, As far from sanctity as my face from whiteness." In Massinger's Unnat. Com. iv. 1, Malefort speaks of a man as "M.-lipped, flat-nosed, dim-eyed." In Brome's M. Beggars i. 1, Oldrents says, "I will no longer strive to wash the M." In his Moor iii. 1, Millicent speaks of "the M., the blackamore you spake of; would you make me a negro?" In contrast, we find a European, who had been kidnapped and brought up amongst the Ms., described in Thracian v. 2 as "this White M."

Used definitely of the Inhabitants of Barbary without any Implication as to Colour. In Tomkis' Albumazar iii. 8, Trincalo says, "I remember, while I lived in Barbary, a pretty song the Ms. sing"; the first words are "Alcoch dolash," which are Arabic. In Jonson's Catiline iii. 3, Catiline boasts that he will do "what the Gaul or M. could not effect," i.e. destroy Rome. In Caesar's Rev. ii. 5, Cato says, "No Parthian, Gaul, M., no, not Caesar's self, Would with such cruelty thy worth repay." In Kyd's Soliman i., "The M. upon his hot Barbarian horse "comes to grace the nuptials of the Prince of Cyprus. In Jonson's Poetaster iii. 1, the 2nd Pyrgus promises, "You shall see me do the M.," and proceeds to recite a speech of the Mh. King in Peele's Alcazar ii. 3. Throughout this latter play an Stucleyd, M. is used for an inhabitant of Barbary. In Dekker's Satiromastix ii. 2, 53, Horace (Jonson) says that Crispinus (Marston) and Fannius (Dekker) "cut an innocent M. 1, the middle, to serve him in twice, and, when he had done, made Poules work of it." Apparently the reference is to the patching up of Stucley out of Peele's Alcazar and other plays, for performance by the Paul's boys. Barnes, in Parthenophil lxxv. 5, bids Cupid, because of his cruelty, "Seek out thy kin Amongst the Ms." In B. & F. Valentinian i. 3, Aecius asks, "Were our fathers The sons of lazy ms.?"

The Moors as Conquerors of Spain. In Davenant's Distresses ii., Androlio says, "Such scratching for females was ne'er heard of since first the hot M.S. did overcome Spain." In Noble Soldier ii. 1, Baltasar is "a brave soldier employed against the M." in Spain. In Lady Mother i. 2, Sir Geffrey says, "The Spanish Basolas manos sounds as harsh as a Morisco kettledrum." In T. Heywood's Challenge ii. 1, the Clown says, "Spain! there are so many Mores in't that I know you would hope of nothing less "(than to find beauties there). In W. Rowley's All's Lost i. 1, 47, which is concerned with the defeat of Roderique, the Gothic K. of Spain 711–714 A.D., Julianus says to the K., "Spain is wasted in her noble strength, On which presuming, 'tis to be supposed, The Moore is thus encouraged." In Ford's Warbeck iii. 3, K. Henry says that Ferdinand of Spain "Comes near a miracle in his success Against the M., who had devoured his country." In Thracian iii. 3, the Alcalde says, "In Africa the Ms. are only known And never yet searched part of Christendom." The supposed date is long before the Mh. invasion of Spain. In B. & F. Cure ii. 1, Lazarillo says to the Alguazier, "Are you not a Portuguese born, descended o' the M.?"

The Moors were Mahometans in religion. In W. Rowley's All's Lost ii. 6, 44, Antonio says, "Persuade me to turn Turk, or Moore Mahometan, For by the lustful laws of Mahomet I may have 3 wives more." In Marlowe's Jew ii. 3, a M. is offered for sale in the market,but at 200 plates" (i.e. about £5), a plate being the 8th part of a piastre, or Spanish dollar. In Massinger's Very Woman iii. 1, two NU. are sold for 25 chequins (about £12) for the two. The Morris-pike was supposed to be of Mh. origin; hence the name. In the Ballad of Agencourt quoted in T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 52, we have: "0, the French were beaten down, Morrispikes and bowmen."

M. is used vaguely of an Eastern, with reference to sun-worship, pearl-diving, etc., as in Marlowe's Jew i. 1, where Barabas envies "The wealthy M. that in the E. rocks Without control can pick his riches up And in his house heap pearls like pebble-stones." In Tamb. B. iii. 4, Olympia calls the soldiers of Tamburlaine "These barbarous Scythians, full of cruelty, And Ms., in whom was never pity found." In Jonson's Sejanus v. 10, Lepidus compares Sejanus to the sun "as gazed at and admired as he, When superstitious AL. adore his light." In Nero i. 4, Scaevinus speaks of "The M. that in the boiling desert seeks With blood of strangers to imbrue his jaws." In Massinger's Lover i. 1, Hortensio exclaims: "As Ms. salute The rising sun with joyful superstition, I could fall down and worship." In Chapman's Blind Beggar i. 61, Aegiale says, "I will, M.-like, learn to swim and dive Into the bottom of the sea for him." In Lady Mother iii. 1, Bonville says, "There's virtue enough here to excite belief in Ms. that only women have heavenly souls." The Mahometans were said to deny that women had souls.

The word lends itself to puns. In Merch. iii. 5, 42t Launcelot says, "It is much that the M. should be more than reason." In Tit. iv. 2, 52, when the Nurse asks: "Did you see Aaron the M.?" Aaron answers: "Well, more or less, or ne'er a whit at all, Here Aaron is." A pun may be intended in Ham. iii. 4, 67, where Hamlet asks his Mother: "Could you on this fair mountain leave to feed And batten on this m.?"

M. is also used to mean an aboriginal American, or a dark man of any nation. In Davenant's Playhouse iii., Pedro is described as "a slave employed by by the Mh. king to conduct Drake to Panamah." Spenser, F. Q. vi. 7, 43, says of the giant Disdain: "On his head a roll of linen plight, Like to the Mom of Malabar, he wore." In B. & F. Princess, the inhabitants of Ternata in the E. Indies are called Ms. In Marlowe's Faustus i. 119, Valdes says, "Indian Ms. obey their Spanish lords," i.e. in America.


The part of the old city moat of Lond. lying between Bishopsgate and Moorgate. It was kept full of water by the drainage into it of the adjoining fen of Moorfields, and was the depository for all kinds of filth and rubbish. Stow records efforts to cleanse it an 1540 and 1549; and in 1595 it was thoroughly cleansed and made a little broader. In 1638 it was covered in with brick arches; and is the course of the next 20 years buildings began to be erected on it.

In More iii. 2, Faulkner, who has had his hair cropped by the order of More, says, "More had bin better a scoured Moreditch than a notched me thus." In Nobody 754, Nobody promises: "I'll empty Mooreditch at my own charge and build up Paules-steeple without a collection." Nash, in Lenten, p. 326, speaks of the astonishment of the "common people about Lond., some few years since, at the bubbling of M." Possibly the bubbling was due to some putrefactive action, and it may have been this that led to the cleansing of 1595. Dekker, in Hornbook i., says that to purge the world "will be a sorer labour than the cleansing of Augeaes stable, or the scouring of Mooreditch." In his News from Hell, he says, "Look how Moor-ditch shows, when the water is three-quarters out, and by reason the stomach of it is overladen, is ready to fall to casting."

It seems to have been used for the ducking of scolding women. W. Rowley, in New Wonder ii., says, "'Twill be at Moorgate, beldam; where I shall see thee in the Ditch, dancing in a cucking stool." In H4 A. i. 2, 86, when Falstaff says, "I am as melancholy as a gib cat or a lugged bear," the Prince suggests, "What sayest thou to a hare, or the melancholy of M.?" Taylor, in Penniless, says, "M mind is attired with moody, muddy, M. melancholy." The old Bedlam hospital was close by, on the E. side of Moorfields, and the reference may be to some wretched Bedlam who haunted the neighbourhood.


A low-lying, marshy piece of ground immediately N. of the old city wall of Lond., between Bishopsgate and Cripplegate. In Norden's Map (1593) it is shown as an oblong, measuring about 320 yards from E. to W., and 200 from N. to S. Finsbury Circus occupies a part of it. In 1415 a postern, called Moorgate, was broken through the wall to give access to it; in 1527 it was drained, but continued to be a "noisome and offensive place, being a general lay-staff, a rotten morish ground, crossed with deep stinking ditches" (Howes, Continuation of Stow's Annals, 1631). In 1606 it was laid out in walks and became a popular summer resort for the citizens. It was also used as a training ground for the citizen forces and as a place for the bleaching of linen. It was a favourite haunt of beggars, especially of the poor lunatics from Bedlam, which lay on its E. side; and duels were frequently fought there. The concourse of citizens drew thither fortune-tellers, ballad-singers, and pick-pockets. A few summer-houses began to be erected on it, but it was not built over till after the Gt. Fire–indeed, it remained partly open ground till the end of the 18th cent. In Jonson's Ev. Man I. ii. 2, Brainworm says, "My old master intends to follow my young master, dry-foot, over M. to Lond. this morning"; and this scene is laid there. In iv. 4, Knowell tells how he engaged the disguised Brainworm "this morning, as I came over M." The next scene is laid in M., where Matthew and the rest have gone out for a stroll. In Barthol. i. 1, Littlewit, praising his wife's dress, says, "I challenge all Cheapside to show such another; M., Pimlicopath, or the Exchange, in a summer evening." In Jonson's Underwoods lx., he says, "O what strange Variety of silks were on the Exchange, Or in M., this other night." In Braithwaite's Whimsies (1631), we read of "the flourishing city-walks of M." In Mayne's s Match iii. 3, Bright says that his father "would commend the wholesomeness of the air in M." In H8 v. 4, 33, the Porter, annoyed by the crowd, asks indignantly, "Is this M. to muster in?" In B. & F. Pestle v. 3, Ralph says, "Then took I up my bow and shaft in hand, And walked into M. to cool myself; But there grim, cruel Death met me again, And shot this forked arrow through my head."

In Ret. Pernass iii. 1, Sir Raderick says, "I am going to M. to speak with an unthrift." In Mayne's s Match ii. 6, Plotwell says, "We have brought you a gentleman of valour, who has been in M. often; marry, it has been to squire his sisters and demolish custards at Pimlico." Peacham, in Worth of a Penny (1641), says, "Go among the Usurers in their walk in Moor Fields." In Massinger's Madam iv. 4, Anne says of Hebe and Iris: "They were sure some chandler's daughters, Bleaching linen in M." In Davenant's Rutland, p. 221, the Parisian says of M.: "Because the place was meant for public pleasure and to shew the munificence of your,city, I shall desire you to banish the laundresses and bleachers, whose acres of old linen make a shew like the fields of Carthagena, when the 5 months' shifts of the whole fleet are washed and spread." In Shirley's Riches iii., Gettings swears by "our Royal Change, and by M." In The Great Frost (1608), the Countryman commends "your new, beautiful walks in M." Donne, Elegy xv. (1609) 27, refers to "New-built Aldgate and the Moorfield crosses." In Raleigh's Ghost (1626), mention is made of "our new Moorfield walks." W. Rowley, in Search Intro., says to his readers, "There hath been many of you seen measuring the longitude and latitude of Morefields any time this 2 years." In Field's Weathercock iv. 2, Pouts says, "Zoons! I see myself in M. upon a wooden leg, begging three-pence." In Jonson's Alchemist i. 1, Subtle pictures Mammon, after he has got the philosopher's stone, "dispensing for the pox, Walking M. for lepers." The Author of Penn. Parl. opens by, enacting that anyone who does not laugh at his book "shall be condemned of melancholy, and to be adjudged to walk over M. twice a week, in a foul shirt and a pair of boots, but no stockings." In More ii. 2, Kit says to Marry, "If thou beest angry, I'll fight with thee at sharp in M.; I have a sword to serve my turn." In Massinger's Madam i. 2, Plenty says to Lacy, "How big you look! Walk into M., I dare look on your Toledo." In Jonson's Barthol. i. 2, Mrs. Littlewit quotes" the t'other man of M." as having told her mother's fortune. In Dekker's Northward ii. 2, Mayberry says, "Your sister shall lodge at a garden-house of mine in M."


A gate in the wall of Lond., made in 1415 to admit the citizens to Moorfields. It was restored in 1472 and rebuilt in 1672 in noble style. It was pulled down in 1762, and the stones sunk in the Thames to protect the central arches of Lond. Bdge. It stood at the junction of M. St. and Lond. Wall. In W. Rowley's New Wonder ii. 1, Stephen says, "At AL, beldam, I shall see thee in the ditch [i.e. Moorditch] dancing in a cucking stool." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 2, Edward Knowell says, "I am sent for this morning by a friend in the Old Jewry, to come to him (from Hogsdon]; it's but crossing over the fields to M." Dekker, in Seven Sins, says of Lying: "Espying certain colliers with carts most sinfully loaden for the City, he mingled his footmen carelessly amongst these, and by this stratagem of coals bravely through Moore-gate got within the walls." There is a pun on the meaning of Moor, viz., a negro.


A town in Spain, 18 m. S.E. of Madrid, and abt. 30 m. from Toledo. In B. & F. Maid Mill v. 2, Gillian explains that Florimel's nurse Amaranth," In a remove from M. to Corduba, Was seized on by a fierce and hungry bear."


A town on the N.E. shore of the Lake of Morat in Switzerland, 8 m. N. of Freybourg. It is chiefly memorable for the defeat inflicted by a small army of Swiss on the huge host led by Charles of Burgundy in 1476. In Massinger's Dowry i. 2, Charalois recalls his father's exploits "In those 3 memorable overthrows At Granson, M., Nancy, where his master, The warlike Charalois, lost treasure, men, and life."


A margravate in the Austrian Empire, S.E. of Silesia and Bohemia. The horses bred in the plain of the Hanna were highly esteemed. In Jonson's Epigram cvii. to Capt. Hungry, he says, "Tell the gross Dutch those grosser tales of yours . . . fill them full Of your Moravian horse, Venetian bull."


A name given to the Peloponnesus in S. Greece, according to the popular etymology, because of its resemblance to a mulberry leaf in shape. Donne, in Progress of Soul (1601) xxxi., says, "As if unmanacled From Greece M. were, and that, by some Earthquake unrooted, loose M. swum."




The Oak, or Terebinth, of M. is mentioned in Gen. xii. 6 as the scene of a Divine revelation to Abraham. The A. V. translation, "plain of M.," is incorrect. This sacred tree was in the neighbourhood of Shechem, but its exact position cannot be identified. Milton, P. L. xii. 137, says of Abraham: "I see histents Pitched about Sichem and the neighbouring plain of M."


The mtn. range in Spain, S. of the central plateau, and separating Andalusia from La Mancha. In May's Heir i., Clerimont speaks of "the most sad penance of the ingenious knight, Don Quixote, on the mountains of S. M." The story is told in Book iii. c. 11 of Cervantes' Don Quixote.


(= Moor, q.v.). In T. Heywood's Maid of West B. 2, Clem says, "The same M. intreated me to he with him." Lyly, in Euphues England, p. 297, says, "A fair pearl in a M.'s ear cannot make him white."


Properly used of the Moors who remained in Spain after they were conquered by the Christians. By a great breach of faith they were ultimately expelled by Philip III. It seems, however, to be used loosely for anything Moorish. In Dekker's Match me ii., Bilbo asks, "Do you want no rich spangled M. shoe-strings?" A little before he has called them "Barbarian shoestrings." M. is used in the sense of a Morris-dance, or a Morris-dancer. Dorialus says, "There's mad met. in the state "(B. & F. Cupid ii. 3); York says, "I have seen Mm [Cade) caper upright like a wild M." H6 B(iii. 2, 365); Mullisheg says, "In wild Moriskoes we will lead the bride "(T. Heywood's Maid of West B. i.).


Spt. on N. coast of Brittany. Sacked by the Earl of Surrey in July 1522. In True Trag., Epilogue, it is said of Henry VIII: "Then after, Morle and Morles conquered he, And still he kept the Frenchmen at a bay." Morles is meant for M., the scansion requiring a dissyllable.


Vill. in Normandy, close to Bayeux, about half-way between Havre and Cherbourg. In True Trag., Epilogue, it is said of Henry VIII: "Then, after, Morle and Morles conquered he." Morle is Morles, Morles is Morlaix, q.v.


The country in N.W. Africa, anciently called Mauretania. The native name is Marrakush. From the 8th cent. onwards it has been governed by a succession of Mohammedan dynasties; Hamed Sherif el-Mansur was the Sultan from 1579 to 1603, and this was the time of M.'s greatest splendour. In 1578, Sebastian of Portugal was defeated at Alcasar; in 1585, the Company of Barbary Merchants was founded in Lond., and Elizabeth sent an ambassador to M., who was well received. The inhabitants are a mixed race of Berbers and Moors with a strong infusion of Jews. The Elizabethans regarded them as black. In Merch. i. 2, the Prince of M. is announced as one of Portia's suitors; and she says, "If he have the condition of a saint and the complexion of a devil, I had rather he should shrive me than wive me." In ii. 7, he chooses the golden casket, and so fails. In Middleton's Chess v. 3, the Black Knight tells how "Fat Sanctius, K. of Castile, was killed by a herb, taken to make him lean, which old Corduba, K. of M., counselled his fear to." This old Corduba was Miramoline. In Kirke's Champions iii. 1, George, having redeemed Sabrina, is imprisoned by her father Pomil, who is moved thereto by "the M. king, our champion's rival." In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iii. 1, the K. of M. appears as one of the dependents of Bajazeth. Tamburlaine defeats him, and makes Usumcasane K. of Moroccus. In T. Heywood's Maid of West A., iv. 3 and the whole of Act v. are placed in the court of the K. of M., whose name is given as Mullisheg. To him says Clem, "Mayst thou never want sweet Water to wash thy black face in, most mighty monarch of M." In Chapman's [Glapthorne's?] Rev. Hon. i. 1, 70, Mura is called "Governor i' th' Ms." Milton, P. L. i. 584, speaks of the knights who "Jousted in . . . Damasco or Marocco or Trebisond." These joustings took place in the wars between the Moors and Spaniards. In xi. 404, Adam is shown in vision "The kingdoms of Almansor, Fez and Sus, Marocco and Algiers and Tremisen."

The capital of M. has the same name. The city lies at the foot of the Atlas range, abt. 350 m. S.W. Of Gibraltar. It was one of the most flourishing cities in the Mohammedan world, with a population of about 700,000, but it now has less than a tenth of that number. In Stucley 2505, Stucley says, "We have Larassa and M. both, Strong towns of succour to retire unto." In Peele's Alcazar i. 2, the Moor orders Pisano to march by "those plots of ground That to Moroccus leads the lower way."


In the parish of Kingsland, in Herefordsh., some 13 m. N. of Hereford. Here Edward, afterwards Edward IV, defeated Pembroke in 1461. Act ii. 1, of H6 C. apparently takes place near the battlefield.


An underground passage from the river Leene to Nottingham Castle, said to have. been constructed by Mortimer to enable him to visit Q. Isabella secretly. Other explanations have been suggested, but probably it was merely a passage made .to convey provision into the Castle if it should be besieged. In Sampson's Vow v. 3, 2 114, the Q. says, "Tomorrow we'll survey The under-minings and unpaced greise That Mortimer and Isabell did devise To steal their sportive dalliances in, Of whom your stately fortress does retain The Labyrinth, now called M. H." A full description of the building of it is given in Drayton's Barons' Wars vi. 30 seq., where it is called "the Tower of Mortimer."


A town on the S, bank of the Thames, some 9 m. W. of St. Paul's, in Surrey. James I set up a manufactory of tapestry here, which attained considerable celebrity. In Mayne's s Match ii. 3, Timothy says, "Why, lady, do you think me Wrought in a loom? some Dutch piece weaved at M.?" In Dekker's Westward iii. 3, Justiniano asks: "Hath he not a child at nurse at Moreclacke?" Armin's Moreclacke is laid M.


A Colchian tribe living S.E. of the Black Sea, N. of the mtns. of Armenia. In Nero iii. 3, Seneca says, "O Rome, The men of Colchis at thy sufferings grieve The Mosch condemned to perpetual snows." Mosch is Bullen's satisfactory conjecture for the Qq. reading "most."


The old capital of Russia, lying about the centre of the country on the Moskva, 400 m. S.E. of Petrograd. It began to rise to importance towards the end of the 13th cent., and in 1367 the Kremlin, or central fortress of the city, was surrounded by stone walls. Under Ivan III and IV in the 16th cent. it became the capital of all Russia, though it had hard fighting to do against the Mongols, who burnt it to the ground in 1571. It soon recovered, however, and its position made it in the 17th cent. the centre of Russian trade. An English company was formed to carry on the large fur trade, and so M. became interesting to English people. It was now a large city 14 m. in circumference, though Heylyn says that both the churches and houses are mostly "made with wood and dirt." In Ed. III iii. 1, the Polish Capt. says to the K. of France, "From great Musco, fearful to the Turk, I bring these servitors to fight for thee." In Marlowe's Jew iv. 1, Barabas claims to have debts owing to him "In Frankfort, Lubeck, M., and where not." Greene, in QUIP, p. 239, satirizes the skinner who swears that a worthless fur "is a most precious skin and came from Musco." T. Smith, in Voyage in Russia (1605), compares a ship in a storm to "a Musco beare bayted with excellent English dogs."

In Webster's Malfi v. 2, Ferdinand, pretending to be mad, says, "I am studying the art of patience, to drive 6 snails before me from this town [Milan] to M." Jonson, in Epigram xxxii., says that "the cold of Mosco "had not been able to kill Sir John Roe. The scene of B. & F. Subject is laid in M. and the neighbouring country, and a war with the Tartars forms its enveloping action. In Milton, P. L. xi. 395, Adam beholds in vision "where the Russian Ksar in Mosco [sat]."


A famous tavern which still is to be found on its old site, though it has been pulled down and rebuilt at least twice. It stands in High St., Camden Town, at the corner where it is joined by Camden Rd. and Kentish Town Rd. It is said to have been the favourite resort of Moll Cutpurse, the heroine of Middleton's R.G. In Bacchus, one of the characters is Tom Typsay, "wellnear choked with a marvellous dry heat, which he of late had got by lifting overlong at old M. R.'s." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon iv. 3, Sencer says, "This, over against M. R.'s, is her house; I'll knock." In Randolph's Muses iii. 1, Micropepes says, "I have seen in M. R.'s hall, in painted cloth, the story of the Prodigal." A lost play by Drayton and Munday, produced in 1597, was entitled M. R., and dealt with the story of the old witch whose name survived in this tavern. In Dekker's Satiromastix iii. 1, 263, Tucca says to Mrs. Miniver, "I'll name thee no more, M. R., upon pain of death. In v. 2, 316, Tucca says, "Run, R., ware horns there." The allusion is probably to the play by Drayton and Munday mentioned above. There is another old tavern. with the same sign in Holloway Rd., at the corner of Whitley Rd.: it is hard to say which of the 2 is intended in the above quotations. M. R. is said to have been a witch who was carried off by the Devil during the time of the Commonwealth. The name was used for a variety of cap. In W. Rowley's Search 31, the feltmakers complain that their trade is destroyed by the popularity of caps: "that was Monmouth-caps, Wantige caps, round caps, Mother-red-caps."


A city in France on the Allier, 195 m. S.E. of Paris. In the 14th cent. it became the residence of the Dukes of Bourbon, and the ruins of the old château are still to be seen. In Webster's Weakest i. 1, a gentleman reports: "a mighty power had in charge To meet the D. [of Anjou] at Mullins."




A Lond. tavern. probably the Bull and M. close to Aldersgate St. at the N. end of Butchers' Hall Lane, which led up to it from Newgate St. The Post Office buildings on the W. side of St. Martin's-le-grand have absorbed the site. The original name is said to have been "The Boulogne M." In T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, Valerius, in his list of Roman (Lond.) taverns, says, "Unto the M. the oyster wife." There was also a M. Tavern in Bishopsgate St. Without. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 21, Spicing says, "There's hot drinking at the M. of Bishopsgate, for our soldiers are all mouth." In his I.K.M., B. 270, John says to Timothy, "A man might find you quartered betwixt the M. at Bishopsgate and the preaching place in the Spittle." In Dekker's Satiromastix iii. 1, 245, Tucca says to Mrs. Miniver, "I'll dam thee up, my wide M. at Bishopsgate." In his Lanthorn, he speaks of "the Father of Hell looking very terribly with a pair of eyes that stared as wide as the M. gapes at Bishopsgate."


A province on the E. coast of Africa, opposite to Madagascar. The capital of the same name is on a small island off the coast, some 1800 m. N. of the Cape of Good Hope. It was visited and taken by the Portuguese at the beginning of the 16th cent., and was made the centre for their S. African possessions. Milton, P. L. iv. 161, says, "to them who sail Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are past M., off at sea N.E. winds blow Sabaean odours from the spicy shore Of Araby the Blest."


In Marston's Insatiate ii., Abigail says, "My husband goes to M. to renew the farm he has." Later in the play the same place is called Maurano and Mawrano. But both scene and personages in this play are purely fictitious.


A name applied with some degree of contempt to the Germans and Swiss. It appears to have been originally a Dutch nickname for the Westphalians. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 1, Uribassa reports: "K. Sigismund hath brought from Christendom Sclavonians, Almain rutters, Ms., and Danes." Florio translates Stiticozzi "swearing or swaggering muffs or dutchmen." Dekker, in his Dream (1620), speaks of "The M, the Scythian, and the Freeze-land boor "as inhabitants of specially cold countries. In his Satiromastix i. 2, 426, Tucca says, "Marry m., my man a' gingerbread, wilt eat any small coal?" Lodge, in Wits Miserie (1596), dresses Lying in "the French doublet, the Ms. cloak, the Toledo rapier," etc. Moffen is still used by the Dutch as a nickname for the Germans (like the French Boches).


(=MUGWELL, or MONKWELL, ST.). Lond., running S. from the front of St. Giles Cripplegate to Silver St. A hermitage with a well stood at the N. end of the st., from which it is said to have derived its name. William Lambe bought the hermitage in the reign of Edward VI and erected on its site a set of almshouses called after him. Barber Surgeons' Hall is in M. St. In Brome's Moor iii. 1, Phillis says, "I have an old aunt in M.-st., a midwife that knows what's what as well's another woman."




The S.W. of the 4 old divisions of Ireland, including the counties of Clare, Cork, Limerick, Tipperary, and Waterford. In Jonson's Irish, Dennise introduces himself and his fellows: "We be Irish men of Connough, Leymster, Ulster, M."


The chief town of Westphalia in Prussia on the Aa, 250 m. W. of Berlin. It is a well-preserved example of an old German town, and has a very interesting old Cathedral. It was here that the Anabaptists under Johann Matthyszoon, Johann Bockhold of Leyden (best known as John of Leyden), Knipperdolling, and others tried to set up a Theocracy in 1535–6. Matthyszoon was killed in a sally, and John proclaimed himself King. He delivered all sorts of fantastic prophecies, took 4 wives, whom he subsequently beheaded in the market-place with his own hands, and generally introduced profligate licence amongst his followers. The town was besieged and taken in 1535, and John and his leading officers were executed and their bodies hung up in iron cages, which are still to be seen on the tower of St. Lambert's Ch. It was at M. that the treaty of Westphalia was signed in 1648 in the Hall still called the Frieden Saal. In Bale's Johan 291, Imperial Majesty says, "The Anabaptists–the city of M. was lost through their debate ": a curious anachronism. In Dekker's Fortunatus i. 1, Fortune speaks of "This Dutch botcher wearing M.'s crown, John Leyden, born in Holland poor and base, Now rich in empery and Fortune's grace." In Davenant's Playhouse i., the Player says, "Your Kings of M. pay in prophecies only." Hall, in Characters, says of the Unconstant man: "Of late he is leapt from Rome to M., and is growen to giddy Anabaptism."


A town on an island in the Venetian lagoon, abt. i m. N. of Venice. It has been famous for its glass manufactories since the 11th cent. Harrison, in Descrip. Of England (1587), says of Venetian glass: "Such is the estimation of this stuff that many become rich only with their new trade unto M. from whence the very best are daily to be had."


A city and province in S.E. Spain, abt. 210 M. from Madrid. It was taken from the Moors in 1269. M. is the scene of Shirley's Doubtful Heir.


See Moscow.


(Me. = Muscovite). Properly the dist. around Moscow, but applied to the whole of Russia Heylyn gives the boundaries of Muscovie as Tartary on the E., Livonia, Lithuania, and Sweden on the W. the Frozen Ocean on the N., and the Caspian and Turkey on the S. (see under RUSSIA). In Ed. III iii. 1, before the battle of Cressy, K. John of France stations "My eldest son, the D. of Normandy, Together with this aid of Mes." on the higher ground. It has just been stated by a Polonian Capt. that he has brought men "from great Musco "to help the French. This was during the reign of Simeon the Proud, who first took the title of Grand D. of all the Russias. In Selimus 540, Selim says, "Basilius, the mighty Emperor of Russia, 'Sends in his troops of slave-born Mes." This was Basil V (1505–1533). In Marlowe's Massacre, p. 234, the D. of Anjou, receiving the ambassadors who offer him the crown of Poland, says that the K. of Poland will have to manage "The greatest wars within our Christian bounds, I mean our wars against the Mes., And on the other side against the Turk." Ivan the Terrible (15331584) was constantly at war with the Swedes and the Poles. Sidney, in Astrophel (1581), says that "the Poles' right k . . . . means . . . To warm with ill-made fire cold M." In ii. 10, he says, "Now, like slave-born Me., I call it praise to suffer tyranny." In L. L. L. v. 2, 121, Boyet announces that the K. and his companions are coming to visit the Princess "apparelled thus, Like Mes. or Russians." The ladies chaff them out of countenance, and, as they retire, the Princess says, "20 adieus, my frozen Muscovits ": where Muscovits rhymes with wits. They were in "shapeless gear"; and Rosalind thinks they are "sea-sick, coming from M." The idea was probably suggested by the fact that Ivan the Terrible had sent an embassy to England to secure a wife for himself from Elizabeth's Court; had again commissioned an Englishman, Anthony Jenkinson, to convey his compliments to Elizabeth in 1567, and 3 years later had written an auto graph letter to the Q. In Day's Travails, p. 37, we are told that Haly "Is graced by the Muscovian Emperor." This was Michael Romanoff. An imaginary Great D. of Muscovia is one of the characters in B. & F. Subject. In Jonson's Love Rest., Robin tells how Love is "wrapt up in furs, like a Me, and almost frozen to death." Nash, in Pierce, says that Greediness had "his cap furred with catskins after the Muscovie fashion." In Somewhat to Read (1591), he says that the ass "wears his ears, usevant muffe, after the M. fashion." Habington, in Arragon ii. 1, speaks of "the long night Which benumbs the Me." In Davenant's Platonic iii. 4, Fredaline says, "He is lea apt for love than Mes. Benighted when they travel on the ice." In B. & F. Cure ii. 2, Alvarez, mocking Lucio's coldness in love, says, "Did the cold Me. beget thee That lay here lieger in the last great frost?" Habington, in Castara (1640), Arber, p. 91, speaks of "the old Me. whose fur and stove Can scarce prepare him heat enough for love." In Wit Woman 912, Bizardo says to Braggardo, who has grown a beard, "I fear some will say you have robbed a Me.": the Russians being a bearded race. In B. & F. Hon. Man iii. 3, Mallicorn says, "We are true Mes. to our wives, and are never better pleased than when they use us as slaves, bridle and saddle us." He is speaking by contraries. Heylyn says of the Mes.: "It is the fashion of these women to love that husband best which beateth them most." Fuller, Holy State (1642) iii. 131, says, "The Me. women esteem none loving husbands except they beat their wives."

Dekker, in Dead Term, says, "No stoves [i.e. vapour baths] in M. can put a man into more violent sweats." Burton, A. M. i. 2, 2, 2, says, "Their chief comfort, to be merry together in an ale-house or tavern, as our modern Mes. do in their mede-inns." In B. & F. Captain ii. 2, Piso says of Capt. Jacomo: "His hide is ranker than the M. leather, And grained like it." Russia leather is tanned with birch-bark oils, and has a peculiar smell and a dark colour. In Marston's Malcontent i. 7, Passarello says of Maquerelle: "She were an excellent lady, but that her face peeleth like M. glass." M. glass is mica; it was used for lanterns, hence called M. lanterns. Dekker, in News from Hell, says, "A wise .man might have taken it for the snuff of a candle in a Muscovie lanthorn." Jonson's Devil Prol. says, "Would we . . . were M. glass That you might look our scenes through as they pass." One of the ingredients of the aphrodisiac prescribed by Maquerelle in Marston's Malcontent ii. 4 is "lamb-stones of Muscovia." The bears for the sport of bear-baiting were imported from Russia. In Cowley's Cutter i. 5, Worm says, "The Emperor of M. has promised to land 10,000 bears in England to over-run the country ": which Jolly thinks is "in revenge of the late barbarous murder of their brethren here."


A Muscovite, or Russian. In All's Well iv. 1, 76, Parolles says, "I know you are the Muskos, regiment And I shall lose my life for want of language."


A town in Scotland, at the mouth of the Esk in the Firth of Forth, 6 m. E. of Edinburgh. In its neighbourhood was fought the battle of Pinkie, in 1547, when the D. of Somerset defeated the Scots with great slaughter. In Wit and Wisdom ii. 1, Idleness says, "I have been at Musselborough at the Scottish field." In his Nine Days Wonder (1600), Kemp tells how, on his dance to Norwich, he met an old soldier at Rockland to whom "Kett's Field and Musselborough fray Were battles fought but yesterday." In Brome's Ct. Beggar iv. 3, Ferdinand says, "The battle of Musleborough Field was a brave one." In Sampson's Vow, v. 3, §4, Elizabeth speaks of "The bloody sweat that Muslborough bred." Deloney, in Craft ii. 11, tells how Tom Drum came "from the winning of Mustleborow." A ballad in Choyce Drollery (1656) begins: "On the 12th day of December In the 4th year of K. Edward's reign two mighty hosts, as I remember, At Muscleborough did pitch on a plain." In Tw. N. ii. 3, 90, Sir Toby starts singing this ballad: "O the 12th day of December": where the O should be printed O', i.e. On.


A hill in Hornsey, some 51/2 m. N. of the Lond. Post Office. On the top of the hill was a famous spring, the M., under the protection of our Lady of M., the waters of which performed miraculous cures. One of the patients was an unnamed K. of Scotland. It was frequented by pilgrims in the Middle Ages. The site is now occupied by the Alexandra Palace. In J. Heywood's Four PP i., the Palmer mentions "Muswel "as one of the shrines which he has visited.


(the Roman name for MODENA, q.v.). In Antonie iii. 948, Antony says, "I bare, mean while besieging M., Two consuls' armies."


Lond., between Vine St. and Clerkenwell Green. It shared the bad reputation of the district. In Davenport's New Trick i. 2, Slightall wanting a loose woman, sends Roger to search, amongst other places, "White Fryers, St. Peters st., and M. L."




One of the most ancient cities in Greece; at the N.E. extremity of the plain of Argos., It was the royal city of Agamemnon, and the scene of his murder by Clytemnestra and the subsequent vengeance of Orestes. It was taken by Argos, 468 B.C., and was never again inhabited. Its ruins are of the greatest interest as illustrating the Heroic Age of Hellenic history. M. is the scene of the play Horestes. Early in the play a Messenger announces, "Horestes purposeth to invade this Mycoene city strong." In Nero i. 3, Nero mentions it as one of the Greek towns which he has amazed with his artistic glories. This is an error, as the city was in ruins in his time. In T. Heywood's B. Age ii., Atreus prays, if he does not kill the Calidonian boar, that he may nevermore "Mycenes visit." In May's Agrippina 161, Octavia says, "Thou hast at Rome beheld A feast more black than e'er M. saw." The reference is to the banquet at which Atreus served up to Thyestes the flesh of his own sons.


An island in the Aegean Sea, N.E. of Delos, loo m. W. of Miletus. According to tradition, the inhabitants lost their hair at an early age: as both Pliny and Strabo avouch. Lyly, in Euphues England, p. 358, says, "To be without hair amongst the Myconians is accounted no shame, because they be all born bald." In his Sapho iii. 1, Pandion says, "To be bald among the Mycanians it was accounted no shame, because they were all bald."




A tribe settled near Phthia in ancient Thessaly who were led by Achilles to the Trojan War. In Troil. i. 3, 378, Ulysses calls Achilles "the great Myrmidon." In v. 5,39, Ulysses says that "his mangled M." have roused the drowsy blood of Achilles. In v. 7, 1, Achilles cries: "Come here about me, you my M.," and in v. 8, 13, he appeals to them: "On M., and cry you all amain, Achilles hath the mighty Hector slain." In T. Heywood's Iron Age A. iii., Ajax says to Achilles, "Let thy Patroclus lead thy Mirmidons." In Greene's Orlando ii. 1, 490, Sacrepant's man says to him, "Stand you in dumps, like to the Mirmydon Trapt in the tresses of Polixena?" Achilles fell in love with Polixena. In Locrine iii. 1, 46, Locrine speaks of the sons of Priam "Slain traitorously by all the Mermidons."

The M. were credited with extraordinary callousness and cruelty. In Span. Trag iv., p. 504, Senex says, "My cause, but slightly known, Might move the hearts of warlike M." In Chapman's [Glapthorne's?] Rev. Hon. ii. 2, 49, Selinthus says, "Not a soldier here but's an Achilles, Valiant as stoutest Myrmidon." The word is used of any faithful follower. In B. & F. Philaster v. 4, the Capt. cries, "Come, my brave M., Let us fall on!" In Partiall iii. 3, the servingman refers to his boon-companions as "our Myrmidonians." In B. & F. Prise ii. 2, Livia says, "This quarter fierce Petruchio Keeps with his m." fn Tw. N. ii. 3, 29, the Clown says, "The Mermidons are no bottle-ale houses." This is mere fooling; but it may have been suggested by the ancient legend of the mission of St. Matthew to the Mermidones, as they are called in the old English poem Andreas. They are represented as cannibals, who eat and drink nothing but human flesh and blood: hence they would have no alehouses. I venture to suggest ha' as an emendation for are: "The Mermidons ha' no bottle-ale houses "the Clown implying that Sir Toby and he, who love good ale, are far higher in the scale of humanity than the savage M.






The capital of the island of Lesbos, is the Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor. It is still a flourishing city. It was the home of the poetess Sappho, and her head appears on some of its coins. In Per. iv. 2, Marina is brought by the pirates to M. and sold to a brothel-keeper. The scenes of iv. 5 and 6 are laid in M., and of v. 2 off the coast of M. In the old Timon v. 1, Demosthenes says, "What is the end of his journey?not Sparta, not Thebes, not M. itself; but he travels to the Antipodes." Hall, in Satires vi. 1, says they "would their face in stamped coin express As did the Ms. their poetess."