The scene of B. & F. Cure v. 3. It is in Seville, but I cannot find any reference to it further. St. Iago being the patron saint of Spain, his name is used generically for a Spanish castle.




In Seville, running S.E. from the Ch. of Santa Catalina, in the E. of the city. In Tuke's Five Hours iii. 2, Don Carlos says, "At the 2nd house Beyond the ch. in St. L's St. He entered."


(now CAPO SANTA MARIA Di LEUCA). The promontory at the extreme S.W. point of Italy, at the tip of the heel. In T. Heywood's Dialogues xiv. 4393, Crates tells Of 2 rich men who "being from Sycion unto Cyrra bound, Were in the mid way near I. Drowned": a violent storm indeed.


The dist. S. of the Caucasus, between the Black and Caspian Seas, roughly corresponding to the modern Georgia. It became a province of the Roman Empire in A.D. 115. Arbaces, K. of I., is the chief character in B. & F. King, and the scene of the play, except Act I, is laid in the metropolis of I. In Chapman's Caesar ii. 5, 122, the K. of I. offers his services to Pompey in his war against Caesar. The incident is entirely fictitious. The scene of J. S.'s Andromana is I., but the whole play is non-geographical; it is an adaptation of a story in Sidney's Arcadia. Milton, P. R. iii. 318, tells of hosts of soldiers coming from "the Hyrcanian cliffs of Caucasus and dark In. dales."


The Greek name for the Spanish Peninsula, derived from the river Iberus. It is used poetically for Spain. In Larum G. 1, a soldier speaks of the "great deluge of In. blood" in the wars in the Netherlands. In Massinger's Maid Hon. i. 1, Bertoldo, praising England, says: "The In. quaked, her worthies named." In Shirley's Arcadia v. 2, the champion of Musidorus is "Palladius of I." In Milton's Comus 60, the prol. tells of Comus "Roving the Celtic and In. fields." In Nabbes' Hannibal i. 2, the Capuan lady says to the soldier, "I'll fill thy burgnet with In. gold Stamped into medals." Drayton, in Polyolb. xv. 252, says, "I. takes her name of crystal Iberus." Milton, P. R. ii. 200, says, "Remember. . . How he surnamed of Africa dismissed, In his prime youth, the fair In. maid." The reference is to the story that Scipio Africanus, when he was 25, restored a young Spanish girl, of whom he was enamoured, to her parents. Hall, in Satires v. 2, 37, calls the Escurial "The vain bubble of In. pride." In Kirke's Champions iv. 1, Denis reads a prophecy: "L's earth must yield a knight That must extinguish this great light." The reference is to St. James of Spain.


The Latin name for the Ebro, the largest river in N.E. Spain. It rises in the Cantabrian mtns. and flows in a S.E. course to the Mediterranean. It is used poetically for Spain. Daniel, in Epist. Ded. to Cleopatra 75, claims that English poetry should "to I., Loyce, and Arve teach that we part glory with them."


An island a little larger than Ireland, on the border of the Arctic Ocean, between Norway and Greenland. It belongs to Denmark, but in 1919 gained complete Home Rule. Heylyn (s.v.) says it is "a damnable cold country!" In Elements, p. 24, Experience, in his geography lesson, says, "There lieth I. where men do fish, But beyond that so cold it is, No man may there abide." In Hughes' Misfort. Arth. iv. 2, among Arthur's allies are enumerated "lslandians, Goths, Norwegians, Albans, Danes." In Cuckqueans iv. 8, Floridin says that since he left Oxford he has "travelled Frizland, lseland, and Groenland." In Brewer's Lingua iv. 5, Gustus speaks of "Jet or marble fair, from I. brought." The I. dog, with pointed snout, short ears, curled tail, and short legs, was imported into England in the 16th cent., and was a fashionable lap-dog amongst ladies. In H5 ii. 1, 44, Pistol abuses Nym, "Pish for thee, I. dog! thou prick-eared cur of I.!" In Massinger's Picture v. 1, Ubaldo says, "Would I might lie Like a dog under her table, and serve for a footstool, So I might have my belly full of that Her lsling cur refuses." In B. & F. Corinth iv. 1, Ones cries: "Hang, hair, like hemp, or like the Isling cur's; For never powder nor the crisping-iron Shall touch these dangling locks." In Barry's Ram iii. 3, Oliver Smallshanks promises Mrs. Taffata, "You shall have jewels, a baboon, parrot, and an I. dog." In Alimony v. 3, we have "Lies the fault there, you Island cur?" Fleming, in English Dogs v. 37 (1576), speaks of "Iceland dogs, curled and rough all over, greatly set by." Swetnam, in Arraignment of Women (1615), says, "If I had brought little dogs from Island, you would have wooed me to have them." Deloney, in Craft i. 10, describes the shoes worn in England in the 15th cent. as "very sharp at the toe, turning up like the tail of an Island dog." I., like other N. countries, was supposed to be plentifully supplied with witches. Burton, A. M. i. 2, 1, 2, says, "Dithmarus Bleskenius, in his description of I., reports that almost in every family they have yet some such familiar spirits."


A British tribe who seem to have lived in Essex and Herts. Boadicea, the wife of Prasutagus, K. of the I., revolted against the Romans in A.D. 62, and, being defeated, committed suicide. In B. & F. Bonduca iv. 4, Junius says, "See the Icenian Q. in all her glory From the strong battlements proudly appearing."


An ancient city in Asia Minor, now Koniyeh, at the foot of the Taurus range, 310 m. E. of Smyrna. It was incorporated in the Ottoman Empire in 1486, and is the capital of the vilayet of Caramania. In Selimus 1117, Acomat (Achmet) says, "My nephew Mahomet Departed lately from I." The plot of the play is cast about the beginning of the 16th cent.


A range of mtns. in Phrygia, one branch of which encloses the plain of Troy. The highest peak is Gargarus (4650 ft.) The rivers of Troy, Scamander and Simois, rise in the I. range. The range is covered with woods, and is described by Homer as rich in wild beasts. It was in I. that Paris fed his flocks and won the love of the nymph OEnone; and here he made his famous judgment on the beauty of the 3 goddesses, Hera, Artemis, and Aphrodite, which ultimately led to the Trojan War. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. iii. 5, the Messenger compares the hosts of Tamburlaine to "the quivering leaves Of I.'s forest, where your Highness' hounds Pursue the wounded stag." In Taming of a Shrew (Haz., 513), Ferando swears: "More fair and radiant is my bonny Kate Than silver Zanthus when he doth embrace The ruddy Simies at I.'s feet." In Jonson's Poetaster i. 1, Ovid says, "Homer will live whilst Tenedos stands, and Ide, Or to the sea fleet Simois loth slide." Nero, in the play of that name (iv. 1), says of Poppaea: "Such Venus is, when on the sandy shore Of Xanthus, or on I.'s pleasant green She leads the dance." In Webster's White Devil i. 2, Flamineo tells Camillo that he need not be jealous if some flattering knave calls Vittoria's brow "the snow of I. or ivory of Corinth." In B. & F. Valentinian iv. 4, Maximus says that the funeral pile of AEcius "will be more and greater Than green Olympus, I., or old Latmus Can feed with cedar." In Chapman's Chabot ii. 3, 173, Chabot says to the K., "You. . . showed your royal palms as free and moist As I., all enchased with silver springs."

In Greene's Friar xvi., the Emperor, speaking of Elinor and Margaret of Lincoln, says, "If but a 3rd were added to these 2, They did surpass those gorgeous images That gloried I. with rich beauty's wealth," i.e. the 3 goddesses. Lyly, in Maid's Meta. iii. 1, speaks of "the mtn. I. groves Where Paris kept his herd." In Caesar's Rev. i. chor., Discord avows: "'Twas I that did the fatal apple fling Betwixt the 3 Idaean goddesses That so much blood of Greeks and Trojans spilt." In Rutter's Shepherds Hol. iii. 3, Mirtillus calls OEnone "The fairest nymph that ever I. blessed." In Chapman's May Day iii. 3, Aurelio says, "Celestial sphere, wherein more beauty shines Than on Dardanian I., where the pride Of heaven's selected beauties strived for prize." In T. Heywood's Dialogues xviii. 4795, Mercury says of Paris: "There lives with him a smug Idaean lass": meaning OEnone. The scene of Peele's Arraignment is laid in I., and i. 3 ends with a song: "O I., O I., happy hill! This honour done to I. may it continue still!" In Marmion's Leaguer i. 4, Philautus says, "Did you never hear of. . . 3 Goddesses that strove on I. hill, Naked before a shepherd, for a ball With an inscription, 'Let the fairest have it?'" Spencer, F. Q. ii. 7, 55, speaks of the golden apple "For which the Idaean Ladies disagreed." Milton, P. L. v. 382, says that Eve was fairer than "the fairest goddess feigned Of 3 that in Mt. I. naked strove." According to one form of the legend, Ganymede, the cup-bearer of the gods, was the son of Tros, and was carried off from Mt. I. by Zeus in the form of an eagle. In Marmion's Leaguer iii. 1, Philautus says, "For this cause [i.e. his beauty] Jove took up Ganymede from I. hill To fill him wine." Milton Penseroso 29, makes Melancholy, the daughter of Vesta and Saturn, begotten "in secret shades Of woody I.'s inmost grove." In Brewer's Lingua iii. 1, Anamnestes says that the siderite, or magnet, "was found out in I by one Magnes, whose name it retains." The more usual derivation is from Magnesia, where the magnet was supposed to have been first discovered.


The loftiest point of the mtn. range that forms the back-bone of Crete. It is the centre of the island, and is now called Psiloriti. It was connected with the legends about the early life of Zeus, and there was a cave in its side sacred to him. Milton, P. L. i. 515, says that the Greek gods of the dynasty of Zeus were "first in Crete And I. known."


A town in Cyprus, near to a grove sacred to Aphrodite. In Massinger's Parl. Love ii. 3, Clarindore begs Bellisant to dissuade her admirers from extravagant compliments: "Or, when you dance, to swear that Venus leads The Loves and Graces from the In. green." Jonson, in Epig. cv. i. 1, says that if Lady Wroth were dancing, "all would cry, the In. Q. Were leading forth the Graces on the green." In Hymen, he speaks of the planet Venus as "the bright In. star." It T. Heywood's Mistress iii., a song begins: "Phoebus, unto thee we sing, Oh thou great In. king." But why the epithet should be given to Phoebus I do not know. In Cockayne's Obstinate i. 1, Carionil says, "As thou host me, In. archer [i.e. Cupid], so On her use thy eternal stringed bow." In May's Agrippina iii. 162, Pallas calls Venus "the In. Queen."


The Latin form of Edom, the land lying S. and E. of the Dead Sea, and extending to the Gulf of Akaba. It was inhabited by the descendants of Esau, who were the object of special hatred on the part of the Jews, especially after the Babylonish captivity. Herod the Gt. was an In. according to the story of Josephus (see also EDOM). In Mariam i. 2, Alexandra, speaking of Herod, says, "My gracious father Did lift this In. from the dust." In Nabbes' Microcosmus iv., Temperance mentions amongst luxurious dainties "In. palms (i.e. dates] candied with Ebosian sugar."


The island of Ceos, now Zea, one of the Cyclades, in the AEgean Sea, 13 m. S. of the S. point of Attics. Sir Thomas Shirley attacked it in 1603, but was repulsed and taken prisoner. The incident is described in Day's Travails and the Chorus says (Bullen, p. 40) that he "is come to I. in the Turk's dominion."


Vill. in Essex, 7 m. N.E. of Lond., on the Roding. In Day's B. Beggar ii., young Strowd sends his man Swash to Chingford for £100, and promises "Soon towards evening I'll meet thee at I, for fear of base knaves." In Tarlton's Jests (1611), we are told: "Tarlton rode to I. where his father kept," and there made a poor fellow so drunk that next morning, "meaning to go towards Lond., he went towards Rumford to sell his hogs": Rumford being exactly in the opposite direction.


(I. = Ikon, Im. = Ilium). Synonym for Troy, the famous city in the N.W. corner of Asia Minor, between the Scamander and the Simois, abt. 5 m. from the Hellespont. It was the scene of the Trojan War, which the Greeks undertook to avenge the rape of Helen by Paris. In Lucrece 1370, a painting is described of the "power of Greece, For Helen's rape the city to destroy Threatening cloud-kissing I. with annoy "; in 1524 Sinon's words are described as burning like wildfire "the shining glory Of rich-built I." In L. L. L. v. 2, 658, Hector is spoken of as "the heir of I." In Troil. ii. 2, 109, Cassandra exclaims: "Troy must not be nor goodly I. stand; Our firebrand brother Paris burns us all"; in iv. 4, 118, Troilus says to Diomed, "Name Cressid, and thy life shall be as safe As Priam is in I."; in v. 8, 11, when Hector is killed, Achilles cries: "So, I., fall thou next! Now, Troy, sink down!" In this play Im. is used for the citadel of Troy, I. for the city itself. In i. 2, 46, Pandar asks Cressid, "When were you at Im.?" and a line or two further down, "Was Hector armed and gone ere ye came to Im.?" In 194, Pandarus says, "Shall we stand up here And see them [the Trojan warriors] as they pass towards Im.?" In Ham. ii. 2, 496, the player recites: "Then senseless Im., Seeming to feel this blow, with flaming top Stoops to his base." Here the meaning is the palace of Priam. In Marlowe's Faustus xiii., Faust exclaims, on seeing the vision of Helen: "Was this the face that launched a thousand ships And burnt the topless towers of Im.?" In his Tamb. B. iv. 4, Tamburlaine proposes to build a city "whose shining turrets Shall cast the fame of I.'s tower to hell." In B. & F. Prize ii, 2, Bianca says, "Im. shall burn and I, as did AEneas, Will on my back carry this warlike lady." AEneas carried his father Anchises out of the flames of Troy. In Wilson's Pedler, I. is used as a synonym for Lond., and its destruction is predicted. In Kyd's Cornelia ii., Cicero apostrophises "Fair Im., razed by the conquering Greeks." In Locrine iii. 1, 48, Hecuba is called "the Q, of Im." In Sackville's Ferrex iii. 1, Gorboduc talks of "I.'s fall made level with the soil." In Richards' Messalina ii. 961, Silius says that Messalina is "More pleasing sweet to my innate desire Than was to Synon Illion's lofty fire." Milton, P. L. i. 578, speaks of "the heroic race. . . That fought at Thebes and Im." W. Smith, in Chloris (1596) xxv. i. 1, says, "Love made a chaos where proud I. stood." In Fletcher's Valentinian ii. 5, a song says of Love: "I., in a short hour, higher He can build, and once more fire." In T Heywood's Iron Age, Im. is generally spelt Islium: though doubtless the "s "was silent, as in island.


A small stream in Attics, rising in Mt. Hymettus, and flowing through the S. part of Athens towards the Phaleric Bay, which, however, it only reaches in wet weather, as it dries up completely in the warmer part of the year. Milton, P. R. iv. 249, says of Athens: "there I, rolls His whispering stream."


The Greek and Roman name for the dist. on the E. shore and inland of the Adriatic Sea. It is defined by Heylyn as bounded on the E. by Dalmatia, on the W. by Histria, on the N. by Croatia, and on the S. by the Adriatic Sea. Its chief town was the spt. of Zara. The scene of Twelfth Night is laid in "a city of I. and the sea-coast near it." Zara is probably intended. The historic period is quite indefinite. In H6 B. iv. 1, 108, Suffolk says, "This villain here, Being captain of a pinnace, threatens more Than Bargulus the strong In. pirate." Bargulus, whose real name was Bardyllis, is mentioned by Cicero in De Officiis. He was first a collier, then a pirate, and finally K. of I. He was defeated and killed by Philip of Macedon, the father of Alexander. Cicero calls him "Bargulus, Illyricus latro." In Caesar's Rev. iii. 5, Cassius says, "Brutus, thou host commanded. . . the Ilirian bands." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 1, Orcanes says, "We have revolted. . . Ins., Thracians, and Bithynians, Enough to swallow forceless Sigismund." Sigismund, the German Emperor, was defeated by the Turks at Nicopolis in 1396. In T. Heywood's Iron Age A. ii.. Achilles speaks of Hector as having conquered "Pannonia, I., and Samothrace." In Tiberius 559, Germanicus says of Tiberius: "He tamed the foxes of Illiria." The reference is to the subjugation of the Pannonians by Tiberius in 10 B.C. Milton, P. L. ix. 505, says that Satan, when changed into a serpent, was lovelier than "those that in I. changed, Hermione and Cadmus." These two, Cadmus of Thebes and his wife, Harmonia, came to I. and were changed into serpents (see Ovid Metam. iv. 562). In Deloney's Newberie i., John says, "The people of Illyris kill men with their looks." The origin of this idea has not been discovered.


Adriatic Sea, on the E. coast of which Illyria lies. In Locrine i. 1, 108, Brutus says that after leaving the land of the Lestrigonians (Sicily), "We passed the Cicillian Gulf And so transfretting the Illirian sea Arrived on the coasts of Aquitaine." He has just informed us that he came from Graecia to Sicily by way of the Hellespont. Evidently the author knew little of geography.


Vill. in Devonsh., 13 m. S.W. of Exeter. Here John Ford, the dramatist, was born in 1586.


(i.e. ELBA). An island off the coast of Tuscany, 5 m. from the mainland. It has been famous from old times for its iron mines. In Thersites 30, Thersites, wanting a helmet, says to Mulciber, "I would have some help of Lemnos and I." Hazlitt suggested Ithalia for I., in order to rhyme with gales in the next line. Ithalia, or AEthalia, was another name for Elba, and also for Lemnos:. I incline to accept the emendation, but I think Elba is meant: there would be no point in repeating Lemnos by another name.


The name given in Mercator's Atlas (1636) to the range of mtns. running N. from the N.E. corner of Afghanistan to the Arctic Ocean, now called the Bolor range. The name is sometimes used for the Himalayas, but the context shows that the Bolor range is meant in the passage following. Milton, P. L. iii. 431, compares Satan to "a vulture, on Imaus bred, Whose snowy ridge the roving Tartar bounds [which, being short of food] flies toward the springs Of Ganges or Hydaspes, Indian streams, But in his way lights on the barren plains Of Sericana."


A river in the Argolis, flowing past Argos into the Argolic Gulf. Io was said to be the daughter of the river-god I. In T. Heywood's Dialogues 5246, Io, in a list of the rivers of Thessaly, says, "'Mongst these, my father, good old I., Lifts up his reverend head." The poet apparently thought the I. was in Thessaly.


At Venice: possibly the Old Lazaretto is meant, which lay on an island S.E. of San Giorgio. In Jonson's Volpone v. 8, Volpone's property is "confiscate To the h. of the I."


(Is. = Indies, In. = Indian). From the Persian Hind, a river (the Indus), through the Greek; I. is properly the region of the Indus, Sindh. It was gradually extended to cover all I. E. of the Indus, and now includes also Further I. The form Inde, or Ynde, pronounced with a long vowel, to rime with mind, came through the French, and an early adaptation of the Latin I. was Indie, with the plural Indies. When Columbus discovered the islands off the E. coast of America it was supposed that they were connected with the islands E. of Ceylon, and they were called Is.; whilst the natives, both of the islands and the continent of America, were called Ins. When fuller knowledge showed the error of this supposition, the In. peninsula and islands were distinguished as E. Is. and the American islands as W. Is., or, rarely, N. Is. About the middle of the 17th cent. Hindu began to be used for the natives of Asiatic I., and it gradually became the regular name for them, whilst In. was restricted to the natives of America. Pretty much all that was known to our authors of the history of I. was that it was the E. limit of the ancient Persian Empire, and that Alexander the Gt. reached the Indus and defeated Porus at the Hydaspes in 327 B.C. They were familiar with the Spanish conquest of the American Is. and the exploits of the English seamen there. Both E. and W. Is. suggested the thought of great wealth in gold and gems, and it is most often of this that the dramatists think in their references. In many passages it is difficult to decide which of the Is. is referred to, as both had this connotation. There was much curiosity about the American Ins., and they were even exhibited as shows in Lond.

India in the sense of Continental India. In M. N. D. ii. 1, 69, Titania asks Oberon, "Why art thou here, Come from the furthest steppe of I.?" In 124, Titania says of the mother of her changeling: "In the spiced In. air Full often hath she gossiped by my side." In ii. 1, 22, Puck says that the changeling was "stolen from an In. King" and in iii. 2, 375, Oberon speaks of him as "her In. boy." In Merch. iii. 2,272, Bassanio mentions that Antonio had ventures "in I." In Troil. i. 2, 80, Pandarus says that Troilus is not himself. Cressida says that he is; and Pandarus answers: "Condition I had gone barefoot to I.," i.e. he is no more himself than I am able to perform an impossible feat. In Kirke's Champions ii. 1, Ancetes says to the Emperor of Trebizond, "That shield From the In. provinces was sent as tribute." In Marlowe's Tamb. A. i. 2, Tamburlaine says, "Not all the gold in I.'s wealthy arms Shall buy the meanest soldier in my train." In Tamb. B. v. 3, Tamburlaine says, "I meant to cut a channel [between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea] That men might quickly sail to I." an interesting anticipation of the Suet Canal. The much-travelled Hycke, p. 88, had been "in Caldey, Tartare, and Inde." In Nero iv. 1, Nero says to Poppaea, "The Seres and the feathered mean of Ind Shall their fine arts and curious labours bring." In Chapman's Trag. Byron iv. 2, Byron says that Alexander the Gt. taught "The Ins. to adore the Grecian gods." In Milton's Comus 139, Comus says, "Ere the nice morn on th' In. steep From her cabin'd loophole peep": where In. means little more than Eastern. In Hester, p. 285, a proclamation runs: "We, Ahasuerus, k. and high regent from I. to the Ethiopian plain "(see Esther i. 1). The scene of Greene's Orlando iv, is partly laid in I. In Shirley's Gent. Ven. iii. 1, Thomazo says, "I'll return with In. spoils Like Alexander." In Elements, p. 25, Experience says, "This said N. part is called Europa, and this S. part called Affrica, this E. part is called Ynde, but this new lands found lately been called America." In York M. P. xlvi. 287, Thomas says, "To Ynde will I turn me and travel to teach." St. Thomas was said to have introduced Christianity into I. Milton, P. R. iv. 74, describes embassies coming to Rome "From I. and the Golden Chersonese, And utmost In. isle, Taprobane." In P. L. i. 781, he speaks of "the pygmean race Beyond the In. mount," i.e. the Himalayas. In iii. 436, he calls Ganges and Hydaspes "In. streams."

East Indies (=Asiatic India and the Islands of the Malay Archipelago). In Jonson's Magnetic ii. 1, Polish tells Diaphanous, "Her aunt has worlds to leave you; The wealth of 6 E.-In. fleets at least." The reference is to the fleets of the English E. In. Company, founded 1599. In Tomkis' Albumazar i. 5, Albumazar says, "My almanack, give 't th' E. I. company; There they may smell the price of cloves and pepper." In B. & F. Prize iv. 3, Bianca says to Livia, "Thy lips shall venture as many kisses as the merchants do dollars to the E.-Is." In Middleton's Quiet Life i. 1, Franklin says, "Your Lordship, minding to rig forth a ship To wade for the E. Is., sent for me." In Launching, the poet says, "My brother Would powder up my friend and all his kindred For an E. In. voyage ": powder means to salt-down meat. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. i. 1, Cosines is acclaimed "D. of. . . E. I. and the late discovered Isles." By these last the W. Is. are meant, in spite of the flagrant anachronism. In Dekker's Fortunatus i. 2, Andelocia says, "Gold riseth like the sun out of the E. Is., to shine upon every one." In B. & F. Fair Maid i. ii. 2, the Clown says of England: "Another shows bawdy E. In. pictures, worse than ever were Aretine's: "In Milkmaids v. 1, Ranoff says of his mistress: "Thou look'st like the Phoenix of the E. Is., burning in spices, for doves, mace, and nutmegs are in thy breath." In Webster's Law Case i. 1, Romelio is represented as trading to the "E. Is."; in iii. 3, he proposes to send 2 inconvenient surgeons "to the E. Is.," where he hopes they will catch "the scurvy or the In. pox." This is unfair to the E. Is.: it is generally believed that this disease was introduced into Europe from the W. Is. by the Spanish discoverers. In Cowley's Cutter i. 4, Col. Jolly enters "in an In. gown and night-cap." In Tw. N. iii. 2, 86, Maria says that Malvolio "does smile his face into more lines than is in the new map with the augmentation of the Is." Mr. C. H. Coote, in a paper contributed to the New Shakespeare Society, June 14th, 1878, gives good reason for supposing that this new map was one published to go with the 2nd edition of Hakluyt's Voyages about 1599. It contained much hitherto unknown detail in I., Ceylon, Cochin, China, and Corea, and also more parallels of latitude and longitude than had been used in earlier maps. It seems to have been drawn by Mr. Emmeria Mollineux, of Lambeth, and to have been published separately as a companion to Hakluyt's Voyages. Fuller, Church Hist. (1656) i. 6, 11, says, "All far countries are E. Is. to ignorant people."

North-West or North-East Passage to India. Attempts were made by a succession of English navigators to find a passage to I. through the Arctic Ocean. John Cabot tried in 1496, and discovered Newfoundland; Willoughby followed in 1553, and further expeditions were made between 1576 and 1616 by Frobisher, Davis, Hudson, and Baffin: all without success. In Massinger's Madam ii. 3, Sir Maurice says to Plenty, "I will undertake To find the N. passage to the Is. sooner Than plough with your proud heifer." In Brewer's Lingua ii. 2, Phantastes opines that "the next way to the Is." will be discovered "ad Graecas calendar," i.e. never. For further illustrations, see under NORTH–EAST PASSAGE.

India was proverbial for its wealth in gold and gems. In Tw. N. ii. 5, 17, Sir Toby addresses Maria as "my metal of I.," i.e. my girl of gold. In H4 A. iii. 1, 169, Mortimer says that Glendower is "As bountiful as mines of I." In H8 i. 1, 21, Norfolk says that at the Field of the Cloth of Gold the English "Made Britain I.; every man that stood Showed like a mine." In Troil. i. 1, 103, Troilus says of Cressida: "Her bed is I.; there she lies, a pearl." In H6 C. iii. 1, 63, K. Henry says, "My crown is. . . Not decked with diamonds and In. stones." In Dekker's Shoemaker's v. 5, Lacy protests that he would not lose his Rose "for all I.'s wealth." In the old Shrew (Haz., p. 507), Aurelius says he has got by merchandise "precious, fiery-pointed stones of Indie." In Dekker's Fortunatus i. 1, Fortunatus speaks of his inexhaustible purse as "an In. mine in a lamb's skin." In Marlowe's Dido v. 1, AEneas says, "From golden I. Ganges will I fetch "to enrich the newly built Carthage. In Greene and Lodge's Looking Glass i. 1, 101, Rasni says, "I'll strip the Is. of their diamonds." In Lady Mother i. 3, Bonville says, "Persuade an In. who has dived Into the ocean and obtained a pearl To cast it back again." In Ford's Sun i. 1, Raybright says, "Honesty's a fine jewel, but the Is. where it grows is hard to be discovered."

Greene's Alphonsus v. 2, 1614, Alphonsus promises Iphigina, "The In. soil shall be at thy command Where every step thou settest on the ground Shall be received on the golden mines." In Milton, P. L. ii. 2, Satan's throne "outshone the wealth of Ormuz and of Ind." Toft, in Laura (1597) vii. 6, speaks of pearls "so just and round That such in I. rich cannot be found." Some of these passages may, however, allude to the gold mines of Peru and Mexico. Indian Devil is used in the sense of money, because of the wealth of the Is. In Tourneur's [ed. note: anonymous, probably Middleton's]Revenger i. 3, Vendice, being offered money as a bribe, says, "This In. devil will quickly enter any man but a usurer; he prevents that by entering the devil first."

Indian Customs and Practices. In Massinger's Milan i. 3, Sforza says, "The slavish In. princes, when they die, Are cheerfully attended to the fire By the wife and slave that, living, they loved best." The reference is to the Suttee. In Tiberius 165, Tiberius says, "Arabians [are] simple fools and Ins. Droyles," i.e. dull slaves. The Ins. were clever in cheating those who bought from them, as every traveller to the East knows they still are. In Massinger's Maid Hon. i. 1, Adorni hopes that Fulgentio's words are "not like In. wares, and every scruple To be weighed and rated." In H. Shirley's Mart. Soldier iv. 3, the Camel-driver says, "I fare hard and drink water; so do the Ins.; so do the Turks." He is thinking of the Mahommedan Hindus, who are forbidden to drink wine.

The Indians were dark in colour. In Merch. iii. 2, 99, Bassanio says that "Ornament is. . .the beauteous scarf Vailing an In. beauty." Dark women were regarded as ugly by the admirers of the blonde Q. Elizabeth: an In. beauty means a beauty that is really ugly if her face could be seen. In Brewer's Lovesick King iii. 1, Grim says, "700 black Ins. or Newcastle colliers your Worship keeps daily to dive for treasure 500 fathom deep for you." The scene of the play is Newcastle. Davies, in Nosce, says that the sun "Makes. . . the East In. red." Barnes, in Parthenophil Sonn. lxxv. 5, says to Cupid, "Seek out thy kin Amongst the Moors and swarthy men of Ind."

The historians of Alexander's campaigns in I. brought back the report of an ancient sect of philosophers in I., called Gymnosophists, who almost entirely abjured clothing. In Massinger's Believe ii. 1, Chrysalus relates that Antiochus went "To I. where he spent many years With their gymnosophists." Heylyn (s.v. I.) says, "These Gymnosophists were to the Ins. as the Magi to the Persians. . .and are called by the Ins. Brachmanni. They are held in great reverence, and live for the most part a very austere and solitary life in caves and deserts; feeding on herbs and wearing poor thin weeds; and for a certain time abstain from all kind of vice." The Brahmins had been heard of, and were considered to be a kind of philosophical priests. Burton, A. M. Intro., couples together "Britain Druids, In. Brachmanni, AEthiopian Gymnosophists."

Various things described as Indian. In Jonson's Alchemist ii. 1, Mammon says, "My meat shall all come in is In. shells." In T. Heywood's B. Age ii., Meleager speaks of the Calidonian boar as having "tusks like the In. Oliphant's." In Davenant's Wits ii., Pert says of the elder Palatine: "All he swallows is melting conserve and soft In. plumb." The In. plum is Flacourtia Cataphracta. In B. & F. Fair Maid I. iv. 2, the Muleteer, who has got money by showing strange beasts, says, "Your camelion or East-In. hedgehog gets very little money." The Common Chamelion is found in S. Asia. In Davenant's Nightcap i. 1, Abstemia says, "You are just like the In. hyssop, praised of strangers for the sweet scent, but hated of the inhabitants for the in jurious quality." Gascoigne, in Steel Glass 767, speaks of "The crimosine and lively red from Inde." In Greene and Lodge's Looking Glass ii. 1, 526, Rasni says, "Herbs, oils of Inde, alas! there nought prevail." In Fisher's Fuimus i. 2, Caesar says, "The Pellaean Duke [i.e. Alexander] Did eastward march, adorned with In. rubies." In Davenant's Italian v. 3, Altamont says, "The cymbals of I. call Castilian cornets forth." In Cyrus G. 2, Panthea says, "Make sweet fumes of In. cassia." In H. Shirley's Mart. Soldier ii. 3, Bellizarius says, "In. Aramaticks were nothing scented unto this sweet bower." In Nabbes' Microcosmus iii., Bellanima talks of "as air making perfume which no In. balsam can imitate." Lyly, in Euphues Anat. Wit., p. 101, says, "Amomus and Nardus will only grow in I." In Wilson's Swisser i. 1, Clephis says, "Thou never leav'st licking till, like an In. rat, thou bast devoured the bowels of his honour." The In. Rat, or Rat of Inde, is the In. Ichneumon, or Mongoose. Holland, in Pliny i. 103, speaks of "Rats of Inde, called Ichneumones."

In. Blue, or Indigo, became known in Europe early in the 14th cent. It is obtained from certain plants of the leguminous order. In Skelton's Magnificence fol. xviii., Courtly Abusion promises Magnificence a mistress with "the strains of her veins as azure Inde blue." Milton, P. L. ix. 1102, says that Adam and Eve made their first clothing from "The fig-tree-not that kind for fruit renowned, But such as to this day to Ins. known In Malabar or Decan spreads her arms Branching so broad and long that in the ground The bended twigs take root," i.e. the Banyan (Ficus Indices)."There oft [he goes on] the In. herdsman. . . shelters in cool." In Jonson's Neptune, the Poet describes the tree of Harmony: "brought forth in the In. Musicana first," and proceeds to describe the Banyan: "from every side The boughs decline, which, taking root afresh, Spring up new boles." Davies, in Orchestra (1594) xc. 3, speaks of "the bashful bride Which blusheth like the In. ivory Which is with dip of Tyrian purple dyed." In Philotus 61, Flavius compares Emily's breasts to "In. ebur."

Indies and India in the sense of the West Indies and America, specially Spanish South America. Fabulous wealth came to Spain from her American possessions. In Err. iii. 2, 136, Antipholus, catechising Dromio about his kitchen-maid, asks: "Where America, the Is.?" And Dromio answers: "Oh, Sir, upon her nose, all o'er embellished with rubies, carbuncles, sapphires, declining their rich aspect to the hot breath of Spain." In Merch. i. 4, 19, Shylock says that Antonio "hath an argosy bound to the Is." In H8 iv. 1, 45, one of the Gentlemen, looking at the Q., says, "Our K. has all the Is. in his arms. . . when he strains that lady." In Jonson's Alchemist iii. 2, Subtle promises Ananias wealth enough "to buy Spain out of his Is." In Massinger's Madam iii. 3, Lacy asks Luke to "Receive these Ins., lately sent him from Virginia, into your house." They were really Englishmen disguised. In Marlowe's Massacre i. 1, Guise says, "From Spain the stately Catholics Send In. gold to coin me French écues." In B. & F. [e.g. Fletcher and Massinger's] Cure i. 2, Lucio speaks of "the In. maid the Governor sent my mother from Mexico." In Tuke's Five Hours i., Geraldo says that the K. of Spain is "master o' th' Is. Where money grows." In Middleton's Blurt iv. 2, Lazarillo says, "The Spanish fleet is bringing gold enough, All from the Is." In Noble Soldier iii. 3, the K. of Spain says, "I would not have thy sin scored on my head For all the In, treasury." In Devonshire i. 2, the merchant recalls how "Drake, that glory of his country and Spain's terror, Harrowed the Is." In Ford's Fancies i. 3, Livio speaks of a clever man as "One whose wit's his Is.," i.e. the source of his wealth. In Dekker's If it be i. 1, Charon says, "Men, to find hell, New ways have sought, as Spaniards did to the Is." In Mayne's Match iii. 2, Quartfield says of the supposed strange fish that is being exhibited: "We took him in the Is. near the mouth of the Rio de la Plata," so that practically all S. America is included in the term. In Dekker's Northward v. 1, Bellamont says, "You gallants visit citizens' houses as the Spaniard first sailed to the Is.; you pretend buying of wares or selling of land, but the end proves 'tis nothing but for discovery and conquest of their wives for better maintenance." In Webster's Law Case iii. 1, Crispiano says, "The K. of Spain [Philip II] suspects that your Romelio here has discovered some gold mine in the W. Is." Spencer, F. Q. ii. pro. 2, asks: "Who ever heard of th' In. Peru?" In Jonson's Magnetic v. 5, Needle calls Alderman Parrot's rich widow "an In. mag-pie," because she has, like a magpie, hidden her wealth "in little holes in the garden." In B. & F. [e.g. Fletcher and Massinger's]Cure iv. 2, Malroda speaks of women of the town as ladies "That make their maintenance out of their own Is." In the same play (v. 3) Syavedra says that the reconciliation between Vitelli and Alvarez "will be A welcomer present to our master Philip [i.e. Philip II of Spain] Than the return from his Is." In W. Rowley's Shoemaker iv. 2, 160, Hugh says, "Could I give In. mines, they all were yours": a curious anachronism, as the date of the play is A.D. 297.

West Indies specifically so called. In Span. Trag. iii. 14, the K. of Spain says, "We now are kings and commanders of the W. Is." But his statement that the Portuguese once were so is inaccurate. In Middleton's Gipsy iv. 3, Roderigo says to Alvarez, "Send me to the W. Is., buy me some office there." In Marlowe's Jew iii. 5, Ferneze says, "Gold's to be gotten in the W. Ind." In Tailor's Hog Hath Lost his Pearl iii. 3, when Hog the usurer enters, Haddit cries: "Here comes half the W.-Is., whose rich mines I mean this night to be ransacking." In Noble Soldier v. 2, Baltasar says, "You were better sail to Bantom in the W. Is. than to Barathrum in the Low Countries." In Devonshire i. 2, the Merchant says, "Did not Spayne fetch gold from the W. Is. for us?" In T. Heywood's Challenge i. 1, Aldana says, "How, Mistress daughter, have you conquered the W. Is. that you wear a gold-mine on your back?" In Dekker's Satiromastix iii. 1, 226, Tucca says to Mrs. Miniver, "Thou shalt be my W. Indyes and none but trim Tucca shall discover thee." Herrick, in Ode on Country Life (1647), speaks of the cares "The industrious merchant has, who for to find / Gold, runneth to the W. Inde." Note the rhyme.

In. is used for a native of America, most often of the Spanish America. In Temp. ii. 2, 61, Stephano, seeing Caliban, says, "Do you put tricks upon us with savages and men of Ind?" In Oth. v. 2, 347, Othello speaks of himself as "one whose hand, Like the base In., threw a pearl away Richer than all his tribe." So the Qq: the Ff. read "Iudaean," but there can be little doubt that the Qq. are right. Compare Habington's Castara: "So the unskilful In. those bright gems Which might add majesty to diadems 'Mong the waves scatters"; Howard's Roman's Conquest: "Behold my Queen Who with no more concern I'll cast away Than Ins. do a pearl that ne'er did know Its value"; and Drayton's Matilda: "The wretched In. spurns the golden ore." Nash, in Pierce i. 3, says, "The Ins. have store of gold and precious stones at command, yet are ignorant of their value." In Chapman's [Glapthorne's?] Rev. Hon iv. 2, 136, Caropia says, "I prize My life at no more value than a foolish Ignorant In. does a diamond." In Cowley's Cutter ii. 1, Aurelia says, "The poor wench loves dyed glass like an In." In Jonson's Eastward iii. 3, Seagul says the Virginian colonists have "married with the Is." In Chapman's Mid. Temp., the principal actors are In. princes from Virginia. In Lust's Domin. i. 3, Mendoza says, "To beg with In. slaves I'll banish you." The Spaniards enslaved the natives of Spanish America and treated them with terrible cruelty. In Chivalry B. 4, Katharine says to Pembrook, "You vanquish beauty with no lesser awe Than In. vassals stoop unto their lords." In Marlowe's Faustus i. 119, Valdes tells how "In. moors obey their Spanish Lords." In Dekker's If it be, p. 307, Rufman says, "The Ins. are warm without clothes, and a man is best at ease without a woman."

Ins. from America were exhibited as curiosities in England. Frobisher brought some over in 1577; and in 1611 5 Indians were brought to Lond., of whom one died and his body was exhibited as a show. In Temp. iiii. 2, 34, Trinculo says of the English: "When they will not give a dolt to relieve a lame beggar, they will lay out 10 to see a dead In." In H8 v. 4, 34, the Porter says to the crowd, "Have we some strange In. with the great Toole come to Court, the women so besiege us?" The double entendre needs no explanation: there may be a reference to Arthur Severus O'Toole, in honour of whom Taylor, the Water Poet, in 1622, wrote a poem in which he says, "The great O'Toole is the tool that my muse takes in hand." When, in Middleton's Quarrel iv. 4, Meg says, "I and my Amazons Stript you as naked as an In.," she is thinking of one of these unfortunate exhibits, who were shown in puris naturalibus.

The American Ins., specially those of S. America, were sun-worshippers. In Harcourt's Voyage to Guiana (1613), he says, "As touching religion, they have none among them more than a certain observance of the sun and moon." The sun was the chief object of worship amongst the Peruvians, whose Incas were supposed to be the children of the Sun. In L. L. L. iv. 3, 222, Biron says, "who sees the heavenly Rosaline, That, like a rude and savage man of Inde At the first opening of the gorgeous east, Bows not his vassal head, and stricken blind Kisses the base ground? It may be noted that Inde rimes with blind. In Glapthorne's Wallenstein v. 1, the Emperor says, "They all look on him As superstitious Ins. on the sun, With adoration."

The American Ins. have flat noses. In Shirley's Hyde Park iii. 2, Mrs. Carol says to Fairfield, "Your nose is Roman, which your next debauchment at tavern, with the help of pot or candlestick, may turn to In., flat."

Indian Customs and Practices. Montaigne's Essay, Of the Caniballes (Florin's trans. i. 30), gives a full and interesting account of the manners and customs of the American Ins. In Glapthorne's Wallenstein iv. 2, Leslie says, "In. princes Do carry slaves into the other world To wait on them." Spencer, F. Q. ii. 11, 21, speaks of "arrows. . . Headed with flint, and feathers bloody dyed, Such as the Ins. in their quivers hide." In iii. 12, 8, he speaks of the painted plumes "Like as the sunburnt Ins. do array Their tawney bodies."

Various things described as Indian. In Marston's Malcontent ii. 4, one of the components of Maquerelle's aphrodisiac is "pure candied In. eringoes." In Ford's Trial ii. 1, Guzman speaks of "pearls which the In. cacique presented to our countryman De Cortex." Cacique means a native prince of an American tribe. In Jack Drum i. 326, Brabant says of his brother: "His jests are like In. beef, they will not last." In B. & F. Pilgrimage i. 1, Incubo asks: "What do you hear of our In. fleet? They say they are well returned." This was the Spanish Plate Fleet which brought the tribute from the W. Is. to Spain year by year. Nash, in Lenten, speaks of "In. canoes or boats like great beef-trays or kneading troughs." In Davenant's Distresses ii., Claramante, who is disguised as a man, says, "I shrink like the In. flower which creeps within its folded leaves when it is touched." This is Mimosa Pudica, or the Sensitive Plant, a native of tropical America. In his Love Hon., Alvaro speaks of "the chaste In. plant that shrinks and curls its bashful leaves at the approach of man." In Underwit, Justina says, "In I. there is a flower, they say, Which, if a man comes near it, turns away." In Alimony (1659) v. 2, the Officer says, "Here be those In. rats that cant and chirp in my pocket," i.e. coins.

Indian Weed used for Tobacco. In Kirke's Champions i. 1, Tarpan advises the Clown, "If they cloud the air with I.'s precious weed, Kindle that fuel–let thy chimney smoke too." In Marmion's Companion ii. 4, Careless (who really speaks for the poet after an evening at the Apollo Club) says, "Thence do I come, my brains perfumed with the rich In. vapour." Dekker, in Hornbook, apostrophizes tobacco as "Thou beggarly monarch of Ins. and setter-up of rotten-lunged chimneysweepers"; and again: "As for the nose, some make it serve for an In. chimney." In Ret. Pernass. i. 1, 447, we have: "Long for a reward may your wits be warmed with the In. herb." Taylor, in Works, speaks of "carousing In. Trinidado smoke." In Day's Law Tricks ii. 1, Adam says, "He is in love with the In. punk, Tobacco." In Jonson's Ev. Man I, iii. 2, Bobadill, speaking of tobacco, says, "I have been in the Is., where this herb grows." In Middleton's R. G. ii. 1, Laxton says of Mrs. Gallipot, who "minces tobacco" in her husband's shop: "She's a gentlewoman born, though it be her hard fortune now to shred In. pot herbs." Tobacco was first brought into England in 1565; in 1573, Harrison, in Chronology, says, "In these days the taking-in of the smoke of the In. herb called Tabaco by an instrument formed like a little ladel is greatly taken up and used in England." King James' Counterblast was issued in 1604. Drayton, in Polyolb. xvi. 351, praises the good old times "Before that In. weed so strongly was imbraced." Scoloker, in Preface to Daiphantus (1604), says, "If I seem mystical or tyrannical. . . it is an In. humour I have snuffed up from divine Tobacco." Donne, Satire (1593) i. 87, speaks of one "which did excel The Ins. in drinking his tobacco well." In Sharpham's Fleire i. 359, when Sparke swears "by the divine smoke of tobacco," Petoune says, "Profane not the In. plant."

The East and West Indies specifically differentiated. In As You Like It iii. 2, 93, Orlando's verses begin: "From the E. to W. Ind. No jewel is like Rosalind." The succeeding rhymes (wind, mind, hind, etc.) show the pronunciation. In M. W. W. i. 3, 79, Falstaff says of Mrs. Ford and Mrs. Page: "They shall be my E. and W. Is.; and I will trade to them both." In Day's Parl. Bees vii., Acolastes says, "Had I my will, betwixt my knee and toe I'd hang more pearls and diamonds than grow In both the Is." In T. Heywood's Traveller i. 1, Delavil says, "A scholar is to seek When a plain pilot can direct his course From hence unto both the Is." In Massinger's Guardian v. 4, Severinus, on seeing Alphonso's treasures, exclaims: "The spoils, I think, of both the Is." In Davenant's Favourite v. 1, Cramont, being challenged to fight by Amadore, replies: "Not for the wealth of both Is." In Shirley's Honoria iii. 1, Traverse, the lawyer, says, "Wax [i.e. sealing-wax] more precious than a trade to both the Is." In Ford's Sun ii. 1, Health says, "Who, for 2 such jewels [health and youth] would not sell the E. and W. Is.?" In Suckling's Aglaura iv. 1, Aglaura says, "Wouldst thou not think a merchant mad If thou shouldst see him weep and tear his hair Because he brought not both the Is. home?" In Dekker's Wonder iii. 1, Philippo says, "This proud fellow talks As if he grasped the Is. in each hand." In iv. 1, Torrenti says, "I'd melt both Is. but I'd feast 'em all." In Shirley's Gamester iv. 1, Hazard says, "If thou part'st with her for less than both the Is. thou'lt lose by her." In Spencer's F. Q. i. 6, 2, Una "wandred had from one to other Ynd Him for to seek": where Ynd rhymes with behind and find. Milton, P. L. v. 339, describes Eden as producing "Whatever Earth, all-bearing mother, yields In I. East or West." Spencer, in Amoretti xv. 3, says, "Ye tradeful merchants that. . . both the Indian of their treasure spoil."

North Indies-apparently used for the W. Indies. In Satiromastix v. 2, 161, Sir Vaughan says, "I rejoice very near as much as if I had discovered a New-found Land, or the N. and E. Is." Nether Inde is also used for the W. Is. and N. America. Drayton, in Polyolb. xvii. 347. says that Elizabeth "sent her navies hence Unto the nether Inde, and to that shore so green, Virginia which we call."

Is. is used vaguely without any indication whether E. or W. Is. are intended. In Jonson's Case i. 1, Valentine, in his travels, has seen "Constantinople and Jerusalem and the Is.," and many other places. In his Alchemist ii. 1, Mammon promises, when he gets the philosopher's stone: "I'll purchase Devonshire and Cornwall And make them perfect Is." In his Ev. Man O. ii. 1, Fastidius Brisk affirms, "I possess as much in your wish as if I were made Lord of the 1s." In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 4, the K. says, "Ere my sweet Gaveston shall part from me, This isle shall fleet upon the ocean And wander to the unfrequented Inde." In his Faustus i., Faustus will have his spirits "fly to I. for gold." In Davenant's Siege iii. 2, Ariotto says, "I have not the Is. nor the philosopher's stone." Sidney, in Astrophel (1581) xxxii. 12, says of Stella's charms: "No Indes such treasures hold."

Indian Customs and Practices not definitely specified. In Davenant's Wits iv. i. Palatine speaks of lying "7 days buried up to the lips like a diseased sad In. in warm sand."


The great river rising in Thibet and flowing in a generally S. direction through the Punjaub, past Hyderabad, to its mouths in the Indian Ocean. Its length is abt. 1650 m. Spencer, F. Q. iv. 7, 6, says that the ears of the giant were "More great than th' ears of Elephants by I. flood." In the list of rivers in iv. 11, 21, he calls it "deep I." Jonson, in Neptune's, ad fin., speaks of a ship coming "From aged I. laden home with pearls." In Milton, P. L. ix. 82, Satan surveys all the world from Darien" to the land where flows Ganges and I." In p. R. iii. 272, the Tempter shows to our Lord the old Assyrian Empire "As far as I. E., Euphrates W."


In Bale's Laws iv., Infidelity says he has a pardon in his sleeve "of our Lady of Boston, I., and St. John's Friary." There are 3 villages of the name: (1) 8 m. S.W. of Lincoln; (2) 16 m. N.E. of Norwich; (3) 4 m. N. of Bury St. Edmunds. But there does not appear to be any trace of a shrine of the Virgin in any of them. Is it possible that I. is short for Walsingham, where there was a famous shrine of the Virgin? See WALSINGHAM.


One of the 4 great Inns of Court in Lond. It lies on the E. side of the Temple, and is approached by a gateway of the time of James I. The Hall is modern, and was opened in 1870, but it stands on the site of the great Hall and Refectory of the Knights Templars (see INNS of COURT arid TEMPLE for further details). James Becket had a bookseller's shop at I. T. Gate in Fleet St. in 1640. Glapthorne's Argalus was "Printed by R. Bishop for Daniel Pakeman at the Rainbow near the I. T. Gate. 1639." Beaumont supplied the Masque performed by the members of the T. on the marriage of the Princess Elizabeth in 1613.


A city on the Inn, the capital of the Tyrol, 60 m. S. of Munich. After the union of the Tyrol with Austria in 1363 it was a favourite residence of the Emperors. The monument to Maximilian I in the Franciscan Ch. is one of the finest pieces of sculpture in the world. Some of the best steel imported into England came from I. Scene x. of Marlowe's Faustus is laid in the Court of Charles V at I. In Oth. v. 2, 252, Othello says of his sword: "It is a sword of Spain, the Ise brookes temper." This may mean I., lsebrook being a recognized spelling of I. in the 16th cent. Modern editions mostly read "ice brook's." Nash, in Lenten (p 306), says, "As for iron: about Isenborough, and other places of Germany, they have quadruple the store that we have."


Legal societies in Lond., established about the end of the 13th cent. Their chief function is the admission of persons as barristers. They constitute what is practically a legal University. There were 4 principal I., with others subordinate to them, as follows: There were some other minor Inns like which have passed out of existence. In H4 B. iii. 2, 14, Shallow says that his cousin William, who is at Oxford, "must to the Inns o' C. shortly," and goes on to say that in his time "you had not 4 such swinge-bucklers in all the I. o' c." as the 4 whom he has just mentioned. In H6 B. iv. 7, 2, Cade orders his followers, "Go some, and pull down the Savoy; others to the I. of c.; down with them all." Jonson dedicated his Ev. Man O."to the noblest nurseries of Humanity and Liberty in the Kingdom, the I. of C." Lawyers are called I. o' C. men, and they had the character of being decidedly rowdy and fast. In Barry's Ram iii. 1, Throate says, "Come you to seek a virgin in Ram Alley, So near an Inn-of-C.?" In i. 1, Smallshanks says, "No puny Inn-a-c. but keeps a laundress at his command." In Middleton's R.G. ii. 3, Laxton, waiting in Gray's Inn Fields for Moll, says, "Yonder's two I.-o-c. men with one wench; but that's not she." In Mayne's s Match ii. 4, Aurelia speaks of Bright and Newcut as "Two I: o'-C. men. . . known cladders through all the town"; and defines cladders as "Catholic lovers, from country madams to your glover's wife, or laundress." In Jonson's Barthol., Induction, the Stagekeeper suggests that it would be a good scene to have a pump on the stage and a punk set on her head and 'soused by my witty young masters o' the I of C." In Glapthorne's Wit iii. 1, Knowell speaks of gills having "wit sufficient to withstand the assaults of some young I.-a-c. man." In Jonson, Ev. Man O. i. 1, Sogliardo boasts that he has "a nephew of the I. of C." Earle, in Microcosmography xiii., defines a tavern as "the I.-a-c. man's entertainment." In Jonson's Devil iii. 1, Guilthead tells his son he will learn in business "that in a year shall be worth 20. . . Of sending you to the 1. of C., or France." Masques and Revels were frequently celebrated by the various 1.: the last being performed at the Inner Temple in 1734. Details will be found under the several I. In Dekker's Northward ii. 2, Bellamont says, "she doth clip you as if she had fallen in love with you at some I.-a-c. revels." Shirley's Peace is entitled, The Masque of the Gentlemen of the Four Honourable Societies or 1. o. C. A Master of the Revels was appointed. In Shirley's Sisters ii. 2, Lucio speaks of one of the characters as "Some monarch of I. of C. in England, sure." In Nabbes' Totenham ii. 5, Stitchwell says of his wife: "I have trusted her to a Maske and the I. a C. revelling; she knew the way home again without a cryer."


The I. was in the N.W. part of the city, in the Calle de Isabel la Catolica, which runs N. from the Plaza de Santo Domingo to the Ministry of Justice In Middleton's Gipsy i. 4, Louis says, "Diego, walk thou the st. that leads about the Prado; Ill round the W. part of the city; meet me at the I. c."


(i.e. INCHKEITH). An island in the Firth of Forth, on the E. coast of Scotland, a little over 3 m. N. of Leith. In Sampson's Vow. i. 3, 20, the Herald is instructed to convey the Scots hostages "from the red Brayes to I." In iii. 3, 1, Crosse brings word that the Bp. of Valens is "Newly anchored in the haven of I."


An ancient city in Scotland on the Ness, abt. 1 mile from its mouth, at the head of Moray Firth, 155 m. N.W. of Edinburgh. The castle of Macbeth, in which he murdered Duncan, is said to have been on a hill S.W. of the town. It was razed to the ground by Malcolm Canmore, who built another on the S. of the town on the site now occupied by the courthouse and gaol. In Mac. i. 4,42, Duncan says to Macbeth, "From hence to I. And bind us further to you "; and the rest of Acts I and II take place in Macbeth's castle at I.


A dist. on the W. coast of Asia Minor, extending from Phocaea to Miletus. It was colonized by the Greeks about 1050 B.C., and included the cities of Ephesus and Miletus, and the islands of Samos and Chios. In Antony i. 2, 107, the Messenger brings Antony word of Labienus: "His conquering banner shook from Syria To Lydia and to I." This was in 40 B.C., when Labienus, having allied himself with Orodes, K. of Parthia, overran the whole of Asia Minor after routing Antony's lieutenant. In T. Heywood's Dialogues xiii. 4271, Mausolus boasts, "The great'st part of I. I laid waste." In Chapman's Caesar iii. 1, 126, Pompey says that the Roman Genius is not "rocked asleep soon, like the In. spirit." The reference is to the easy acquiescence of the Ins. in the Persian rule, but in the passage in Plutarch's De Fortuna Romanorum ii. from which this is taken the words are "neque subito sopitus ut Colophoniorum." Colophon was an In. city on the coast of Asia Minor, 15 m. N. of Ephesus. The Ionic order in architecture is more ornate than the Doric, but less elaborate than the Corinthian. It is characterized by the spiral volute of the capitals. Hall, in Satires v. 2, 36, says, "There findest thou some stately Doric frame Or neat Ionic work." The name In. was applied by the Hebrews, in the form of Javan, to the whole of the Hellenic world. Milton, P. L. i. 508, speaks of the Greek gods, Saturn, Jove, etc., as "The In. gods of Javan's issue held Gods."


The portion of the Adriatic Sea between Greece and S. Italy: it is sometimes used as synonymous with the Adriatic. The I. Islands take their name from it. In Antony iii. 7,23, Antony, speaking of Caesar, says, "Is it not strange That from Tarentum and Brundusium He could so quickly cut the I. sea And take in Toryne?" This was in 31 B.C., just before the battle of Actium. In Caesar's Rev. i. 6, Caesar says, "To chase the flying Pompey have I cut The great I. and Egean seas." This was in 48 B.C., after the battle of Pharsalia. In the old Timon iii. 3, Pseudolus tells Gelasimus at Athens that the ship which is to transport him to the Antipodes "as yet is in the 1. sea "; whereupon Gelasimus sends a messenger to Pyraeum to enquire "If any ship hath there arrived this day From the I. Sea." In Randolph's Muses' v. 1, Mediocrity speaks of the Isthmus of Corinth as "the small isthmus That suffers not the Agean tide to meet The violent rage of the I. wave." In Hercules iv. 3, 2255, Jove, in the person of Amphitruo, claims to have subdued the pirates who "awed. . . the I., AEgaean, and Cretick seas."


The chief town of the island of the same name in the AEgean Sea, lying N. of Thera and S. of Naxos. It was famous as the burial place of Homer. In Lyly's Gallathea, prol., he says, "I. and Smyrna were 2 sweet cities, the 1st named of the Violet, the latter of the Myrrh; Homer was born in the one and buried in the other."


The county town of Suffolk, at the head of the estuary of the Orwell, 68 m. N.E. of Lond. It received its 1st charter from John in 1199. In Bale's Johan 272, Verity says of John: "Great monuments are in I., Dunwich, and Bury, Which noteth him to be a man of notable mercy." Wolsey was born in I., and founded a college there in 1528, of which the gateway still remains. It was overthrown at his fall. In H8 i. 1, 138, Buckingham, speaking of Wolsey, says, "I'll to the K. and quite cry down This 1. fellow's insolence." In iv. 2, 59, Griffith says of Wolsey: "He was most princely; ever witness for him Those twins of learning that he raised in you, I., and Oxford; one of which fell with him." In Mayne's s Match ii. 2, Aurelia says of the Puritan maid, Dorcas: "As though She were inspired from I., she will make The Acts and Monuments in sweetmeats; quinces Arraigned and burnt at a stake." The reference is to Prynne's book, The News from Ipswich and the Divine Tragedy, Recording God's Fearful judgments against Sabbath-breakers. 1636." for which he was sentenced to lose the rest of his ears. In Dekker's News from Hell, he says, "The miles [between England and Hell] are not half so long as those between Colchester and I. in England." The Ch. of St. Mary possessed an image of the Virgin which was credited with special virtues and was the object of numerous pilgrimages. Sir Thomas More, in Works, p. 140, says, "They will make comparisons between our Lady of Ippiswitch and our Lady of Walsingham; as wening that one image more of power than the other."


A dist. on the N. coast of Africa, abt. 75 m. E. of Cyrene, where Pindar (Pyth. ix, 114) locates the wrestling between Heracles and Antaeus. Milton, p. R. iv. 564, says, "Satan. . . fell, as when Earth's son, Antaeus. . . in I. strove With Jove's Alcides and, oft foiled, still rose, Receiving from his mother Earth new strength."


(Ih. = Irish, In. = Irishman, Ien. = Irishmen). The island separated from England by the Ih. (or St. George's) Channel. It was inhabited by a branch of the Celts, and the language was akin to the Gaelic and Welsh. It was christianized by St. Patrick in the early part of the 5th century, but there were some Christian communities there before his arrival. It was governed by local chieftains, who were often at war with one another. In 1155 Pope Hadrian IV granted I. to Henry II of England, and the beginning was made of the English settlement in and around Dublin, in what came to be (mown as the English Pale. Richard II visited I., but no English king crossed the Ih. Channel again until James II, after his flight from England, went to I. and began the campaign which ended in the battle of the Boyne. Elizabeth's policy was successful in bringing all I. under English control, and James I, by his colonization of Ulster, laid the foundations of the future prosperity of the N.E. of the island, and incidentally furnished an outlet for energetic but impecunious English and Scotch men, who went there, as they did to Virginia, to repair their fortunes.

Geographical features. The channel separating England from I. was known as the Rase of I. Hycke, p. 88, tells how, on his travels, he met "a great navy full of people that would into blonde," and he rejoices that they "were all drowned in the race of Irlonde." About 1/7th of the surface of I. is covered with bogs. In Err. iii. 2, 119, Dromio says that I. is in the buttocks of his kitchen-maid: "I found it," he says, "by the bogs." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 28, Spicing, the rebel, says to the Londoners, "We made your walls to shake like Ih. bogs." Armin, in Ninnies Pref., says, "I have in this book gone through I.; if. I do stick in the bogs help me out, not with your good skene head me." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. ii.11, Carlo talks of "our nimble-spirited catsos that will run over a bog like your Wild Ih."

Allusions to history. In Mac. ii. 3, 144, Donalbain, after the murder of Duncan, takes refuge in I. In K.J. i. 1, 11, Arthur lays claim to I. as part of the possessions of the K. of England. In Bale's Johan 1364, Private Wealth arranges for the publication of the Interdict laid on England in John's reign "In Wales and in Erlond." In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 4, the K appoints Gaveston "governor of I." This was in 1308, and Gaveston held the office with vigour and success for over a year. In R2 i. 4, 52, Richard decides to "make for I. presently "in order to deal with "The rebels that standout in I." He goes thither in the interval between ii. 1 and ii. 2, and in ii. 2,141, Bagot says, "I will to I. to his Majesty." During his absence Bolingbroke returns to England, as he relates in Hg A. iv. 3, 88: "When he was personal in the Ih. war "; and in v.1, p. 53, he says that Richd."held So long in his unlucky Ih. wars That all in England did repute him dead." This was in 1399. In Trag. Richd. II., one of the characters is the Duchess of I. This lady was the wife of Robert de Vere, whom Richd. had created D. of 1. He was driven into exile by Gloucester and his party in 1387, and died in the Netherlands. In H6 B. i. 1, 194, Salisbury refers to York's "acts in I. In bringing them to civil discipline." York was sent as viceroy to I. in 1449. In iii. it 282, news comes that "the rebels in I. are up," and the task of quelling the rebellion is committed to York, who accepts it with the view of making I. his base for an attack on the Lancastrians. Accordingly, in iv. 9, 24, it is reported that "The D. of York is newly come from I. [and] is marching hitherward." In v. 1, York enters with his army of Ih. in the fields between Dartford and Blackheath, and says, "From I. thus comes York to claim his right." This was in 1450. In Ford's Warbeck i. 3, Clifford informs the K. that Warbeck shapes his course "for I." Warbeck landed at Cork in 1492 and secured many partisans there. In H5 ii. 1, 42, one of the gentlemen speaks of "Kildare's attainder, Then deputy of I.; who removed, Earl Surrey was sent thither": Kildare had besieged Dublin in 1534, and was deprived of his position in consequence. In iii. 2, 260, Surrey upbraids Wolsey with having sent him "deputy for I." in order to get him out of the way when Buckingham was arrested and executed. In Peele's Alcazar v. 1, 157, Stucley says, "There was I graced by Gregory the Gt. That then created me Marquess of I." The Pope encouraged Stucley to attack I. in 1578, and gave him this title, but he turned aside to help Sebastian and was killed at Alcazar. Stucley had previously been sent to I. by Cecil in 1565, entered into negotiations with Shane O'Neil, and defended Dundalk against him in 1566. The story is told in Stucley. In H5 v. prol. 31, we have: "Were now the general of our gracious Empress, As in good time he may, from I. coming, Bringing rebellion broached upon his sword, How many would the peaceful city quit To welcome him [ "The Earl of Essex left England to suppress Tyrone's rebellion on March 27th 1599, and returned, after failing to do anything, on Sept. 28th. This fixes the date of this passage (not necessarily of the whole play) as being between these dates. In Ret. Pernass. iv. 2, Sir Roderick says, "What have we here? 3 begging soldiers? Come you from Ostend or from I.?"The reference is to beggars who pretended to have served in the Ih. expedition of Essex. In Jack Drum i. i. Drum says that a usurer "will waste more substance than Irelond soldiers." Again the reference is to the cost of Essex's expedition. In Chapman's Bussy iv. 1, 153, Pero says, "Whence is it You rush upon her with these Ih. wars More full of sound than hurt?" This passage appears only in the 2nd edition of the play, and probably refers to the futile revolts of Tyrone and Tyrconnel in 1607, and of O'Doherty in 1608. Armin, in Ninnies Pref., says, "If you should rebel like the Ih., 'twere much." In Jonson's Epicoene ii. 3, Morose threatens that his nephew's for tune "shall not have hope to repair itself by Constantinople, I., or Virginia." The reference is to the efforts made by James I to colonize Ulster in 1611, when the title of Baronet was created to raise funds for this purpose, and desperate men were invited to repair their fortunes by settling there. In Cooke's Greene's Quoque i. 2, Staines says, "I am spent; my refuge is I. or Virginia."

The patron Saint of I. is St. Patrick. He was a Scotchman, born at Kilpatrick near Dumbarton, and went as a missionary to I. in the early part of the 5th cent Shirley's St. Patrick gives a highly imaginative story of his career. In Kirke's Champions, Patrick appears as the champion of I. Patrick became a favourite name in I., and In. are often called "Patricks," or "Pats." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. iii. 1, Orlando, speaking of Bryan, the Ih. footman, says, "Little St. Patrick knows all." The arms of I., according to Heylyn, are "Blue, an Ih. harp Or, stringed Argent."

The Shamrock (Trifolium Minus) was used by St. Patrick as an emblem of the Trinity, and so became the national plant of I. It was often eaten by the native Ih. In Sharpham's Fleire iii. 342, Fleire names amongst j his customers "Master Oscabath the In., and Master Shamrough his lackey." Taylor, in Sir Greg. Nonsense (1622), says, "All the Hibernian kernes in multitudes Did feast with shamerags steeped in usquebaugh."Wither, in Abuses Stript (1613) i. 8, speaks of people who "feed on shamrootes as the Ih. do."

National character. Boorde, in Intro. of Knowledge iii, describes the In. as loving to wear a saffron shirt (saffron being supposed to be fatal to lice), hasty in temper; keeping a hobby, a garden, and a cart; he can make good Ih. frieze, aqua vita', and good square dice; he is bitten by lice, eats sitting on the ground; boils his food in a beast's skin, and lives in poverty in his own country. Heylyn (s.v. IRELAND) says, The people are generally strong and nimble of body, haughty of heart, careless of their lives, patient of cold and hunger, implacable in enmity, constant in love, light of belief, greedy of glory; in a word: if they be bad, you shall find nowhere worse; if they be good, you shall hardly meet with better." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. i. 1, Lodovico says of the Ih.: "they are very proper men, many of them, and as active as the clouds; and stout, exceeding stout; why I warrant this precious wild villain would so than 16 Dunkirks."The Ih. native soldiers were known as gallowglasses and kerns. According to Dymmok, Ireland (1600), 7, the Galloglasses were "picked and selected men of great and mighty bodies, cruel without compassion." They were armed with pole-axes or hatchets. The word is the Ih. gall-oglach, i.e. a foreign warrior. Dymmok, Ireland 7, describes the kern as "a kind of footman, slightly armed with a sword, a target of wood, or a bow and sheaf of arrows with barbed heads, or else 3 darts." The word is the Celtic "Ceithern," pronounced "kehern." In R2 n. 1, 156, the K. says, "Now for our Ih. wars; we must supplant These rough, rug-headed kerns." In H5 iii. 7, 56, the Dauphin says to the Constable, "You rode like a kern of I., your French hose off, and in your strait strossers," i.e. tight-fitting trews. Theobald absurdly takes it to mean with no breeches, but their own skins!In H6 B. iii. Y, 310, the Cardinal says, "The uncivil kerns of I. are in arms." Later, in 361, York tells how Cade in I."Opposed himself unto a troop of kerns," and disguised himself "like a shag-headed crafty kern "to spy on them. In iv. 9, 26, news is brought that "The Dof York is come from I. And with a puissant and a mighty power Of gallowglasses and stout kerns Is marching hitherward." In Mac. i. 2, 13, the Serjeant reports: "The merciless Macdonwald. . . from the western isles Of kerns and gallowglasses is supplied." But Macbeth "Compelled these skipping kerns to trust their heels." In v. 7, 17, Macduff says, "I cannot strike at wretched kerns whose arms Are hired to bear their staves." In Marlowe's Ed. II ii. 2, Lancaster says, "The wild Oneyl, with swarms of Ih. items, Lives uncontrolled within the English Pale." In Hughes' Misfort. Arth. iii. 1, Arthur describes Modred's army as made up of "sluggish Saxons crew and Ih. items, Dekker, in Lanthorn, says, "Look what difference there is between a civil citizen of Dublin and a wild Ih. kerne." Drayton, in Idea (1594) xxv. 12, says, "Let the Bards within that Ih. isle. . . mollify the slaughtering Gallowglass."

The native Ih. were also known as the Wild Ih., as distinguished from the English-Ih. of the Pale; and as red-shanks, from their going bare-legged. Boorde, in Intro. of Knowledge iii., says, "The other part of I. is called the wild Irysh; and the Redshankes be among them." In Middleton's Quarrel ii. 2, Chough calls the Scotch and the Ih."redshanks." In Ford's Warbeck iii. 2, we have the direction: "Enter Warbeck's followers disguised as 4 Wild Ih. in trowses, long-haired, and accordingly habited." In Brome's Covent G. ii. 1, Crosswill says to his son, who is studying the Law, "Dost thou waste thy time in learning a language that I understand not a word of? I had been as good have brought thee up among the wild Ih.": who, of course, talked Erse. In Dekker's Match me iv. 1, the K. says, "Sirrah, cast your darts elsewhere." And Cordolente responds: "Among the wild In., Sir." The reference is to the dart which was carried as a badge of office by the Ih. footboys in London. In his Lanthorn 3, he says: "The devil's footman was very nimble of his heels, for no wilde-Ih. man could outrun him." In Middleton's Phoenix i. 5, the jeweller's wife asks: "Would he venture his body into a barber's shop, where he knows 'tis as dangerous a place as I.?" The English in the Pale were in constant danger of attacks by the wild Ih. The English charged them with savage cruelty. In Webster's White Devil iii. 2, Francesco de Medici says of Brachiano, "Like the wild Ih., I'll ne'er count thee dead Till I can play at football with thy head."

To break wind in an In.'s presence was regarded as a deadly insult. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. i. 1, Bryan says, "Dow knowest an In. cannot abide a fart." In Marston's Malcontent iii. 3, Mendozo says, "The D. hates thee." And Malevole adds: "As Irishmen do bumcracks." In Webster's White Devil ii. 1, Flamineo tells of a doctor who "was minded to have prepared a deadly vapour in a Spaniard's fart that should have poisoned all Dublin." In Ford's Sun iv. 1, Folly says, "Hey-hoes! a god of winds!there's four-and-twenty of them imprisoned in my belly; and how sweet the roaring of them will be, let an In. judge!" Nash, in Pierce D. 1, sags, "The In. will draw his dagger and be ready to kill and slay, if one break wind in his company." In B. & F. Cure iv. 3, Bobadilla says of the effeminate Lucio: "He looks as if he were murdering [i.e. trying to suppress] a fart Among wild Ih. swaggerers."

Dress and general appearance. In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius sings of the headgear of various nations, "The German loves his cony-wool, The In. his shag too ": where shag means a cap of rough frieze. In Webster's White Devil v. 3, Francesco says to Zanche, "Lest thou should'st take cold, I covered thee with this Ih. mantle," i.e. a cloak of rough frieze: a double entendre may be suspected. Heylyn (s.v. FRANCE) speaks of "The trouzers which are worn by the Ih. footmen, and are called in Latin braccae." Shirley, in Love Tricks i. 1, uses the phrase "as close as a pair of trusses to an In.'s buttocks." In T. Heywood's Challenge iii., Manhurst says, "I am clean out of love with your Ih. trowses; they are like a jealous wife, always close at a man's tail." See also above the quotation from Hg iii. 7, 56. In the directions for the dumb show in Hughes' Misfort. Arth. ii. 1, we have: "A man bareheaded with long black shagged hair down to his shoulders, apparelled with an Ih. jacket and shirt, having an Ih. dagger by his side and a dart in his hand." Dekker, in Hornbook iii., says, "It was free to all nations to have shaggy pates as it is now only for the In." In B. & F. Coxcomb ii. 3, Antonio, who is disguised as an Ih. footman, is addressed by Maria as "Sirrah Thatchedhead." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. i. 1, Lodovico says, "It goes, the In. for his hand, the Welshman for a leg, the Englishman for a face, the Dutchman for a beard."

Customs and practices of the Native, or Wild, Irish. It was the custom, both in I. and Scotland, to use a withy instead of a rope in hanging malefactors. In Oldcastle v. 11, the In. prays: "Let me be hanged in a withe after my country-the Ih.-fashion."The Ih. were inveterate gamblers. In Webster's White Devil i. 2, Flamineo compares Camillo to "an Ih. gamester that will play himself naked, and then wage all downwards at hazard." The Ih. game was a kind of backgammon: the object of the game is to remove all the men from the board after they have completed the round; the technical word for this is "bearing." The after-game, or 2nd game, was often very long protracted and difficult to finish. Barclay, in Ship of Fools (1509) 14, says, "Though one knew but the Yrishe game Yet would. he have a gentleman's name." In Tarlton's Purgatory 74, we have: "Her husband, that loved Ih. well, thought it no ill trick to bear a man too many." In B. & F. Hon. Man v. 1, Montague, wishing to qualify himself as a good, domesticated husband, says, "I shall learn to love ale and play at two-hand Ih." In Shirley's St. Patrick, the Epilogue says, "Howe'er the dice run, gentleman, I am the last man borne still at the Ih. game." In Middleton's R.G. iv. 2, Gallipot says, "Play out your game at Ih., Sir; who wins?" And Mrs. Openwork adds: "The trial is, when she comes to hearing": with an obvious double entendre. In Webster's Law Case iv. 2, Sanitonella tells of a law-case which "has proved like an after-game at Ih.," i.e. h as been long protracted. In B. & F. Scornful v. 4, the Lady says, "I would have. . . been longer bearing than ever after-game at I. was." Howell, in Familiar Letters (1650), says, "Though you have learnt to play at backgammon, you must not forget Ih., which is a more serious and solid game." It was the custom for the women to offer to kiss the men when they wished to show affection. In W: Rowley's Match Mid. i. 1, the Widow says, "I was bred in I., where the women begin the salutation." The Ih. were apt to get noisy and rowdy in their social gatherings; and the word Hubbub was coined from the Ih. war-cry "Abu ": to mean a noisy gathering. In Ford's Warbeck ii. 3, when a masque is proposed in connection with Warbeck's visit to I. in 1492, Astley says, "There have been Ih. hubbubs where I have made one too." The Ih. jig was, and is, a wellknown lively dance. In Middleton's Women beware iii. 3, the Ward says: "Her heels keep together, so, as if she were beginning an Ih. dance." Dekker, in Catchpol, says, "The dance was an infernal Ih: hay, full of mad and wild changes." The Bards, or Filid, formed an important element in the literary life of I. during the earlier times, and individual members of the order were still credited with the power of prophecy. In R3 iv. 2, 109, Richd. says, "A bard of I. told me once I should not live long after I saw Richmond." The Ih. lords were for the most part impecunious, through the constant disturbances in the country. In Massinger's Madam iii. 1, Dingem tells Goldwire that an Ih. lord has offered Shavem "5 pound a week "to marry him.

The Irish belonged to the Roman Ch., and after the Reformation in England religious animosity fanned the flame of political controversy between the 2 countries. In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] i. 4, Cutter tells of the arrival of an Ih. priest "in the habit of a fish-wife. . . he's to lie lieger here for a whole Ih. college beyond sea." In Ford's Warbeck i. 3, the K. says that Warbeck has "advanced his fiery blaze for adoration to the superstitious Ih." In Jonson's Devil v. 1, Ambler tells how he had "to walk in a rug, barefoot, to St. Giles's." Whereon Meercraft exclaims: "a kind of Ih. penance." Funerals were celebrated with vigils or wakes, where much whisky was drunk, with the usual effect. In Webster's White Devil iv. 1, Brachiano says, "Ye'd furnish all the Ih. funerals With howling past wild Ih." In Devonshire iv. 2, the Friar says, "We, though friars in Spain, were born in I." The national instrument was the harp, which appears in the coat-of-arms. In Underwit ii. 2, Courtwell says, "I shall hear sadder notes Upon the Irich harp." Drayton, in Odes (1606) i. 4, says, "The Ih. I admire And still cleave to that lyre As our Music's mother." Inverses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Vadianus says of the author: "Tom is an Ih. harp whose heartstrings' tune As fancies wrest doth strain or slack his cord." The bagpipes were also native to I. In Dekker's If it be 288, Brisco speaks of "Welsh harps, Ih. bagpipes, Jews' trumps, and French kitts." The national drink was usquebaugh, i.e."uisge beathe," water of life, or aqua vita: our modern whisky. It was distilled from malted barley. In 1G1. W. W. ii. 2, 318, Ford says, "I will rather trust an In. with my aquavitae bottle than my wife with herself." In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius sings: "The Briton he metheglin quaffs, The Ih. aqua-vita;." In Marston's Malcontent v. 1, there is a song: "The Dutchman for a drunkard, The Dane for golden locks, The In. for usquebaugh, The Frenchman for the pox." In B. & F. Coxcomb ii. 3, Antonio, disguised as an Ih. footman, is addressed by Maria as "aqua-vitae barrel." In Penn. Part. 35, it is enacted: "He that takes Ih. aqua-vitae by the pint may by the Law stumble without offence and break his face." In Marston's Insatiate iv. 4, Zucco says, "The In. shall have aquavity, the Welshman cheese." In Webster's Law Case iii. 1, the surgeon talks of "choking an In., that were three quarters drowned, with pouring usquebaugh in's throat. In Cartwright's Ordinary i. 4, Slicer says, "The Ih. savour of usquebaugh." Almost the only manufacture of I. was a rough kind of frieze of which rugs were made. In W. Rowley's New Wonder ii. 1, Stephen says, "It had been better thou hadst been pressed to death under 2 Ih. rugs." Ih. money was a base coinage and of little value. In Middleton's Phoenix iii. 1, Falso says, "Your master feeds you with lean spits, pays you with Ih. money."

Natural Products of Ireland. Animals: The Ih. horses, known as hobbies, were small, ambling ponies. In Boorde, Intro. of Knowledge iii. 131, the In. says: "I am an Iryshe man. . . I can keep a hobby." In Stucley 1910, Stucley presents "30 Ih. jades "to Philip of Spain. Dekker, in Hornbook iv., says that the Gull must "keep an Ih. hobby, an Ih. horseboy, and himself like a gentleman." In Davenant's Albovine iv. 1, Grimold says, "Be cropeared like Ih. nags." In Davenport's Matilda iii. 1, the K. says, "They would have called a scare-crow stuffed with straw, And bound upon a 10 groats Ih. garron The glorious Richmond on his fiery steed." The Ih. rat was supposed to be readily killed by incantations, or magic rhymes. In As. iii. 2, 188, Rosalind says, "I was never so be-rhymed since Pythagoras' time, when I was an Ih. rat." Randolph, in Jealous Lovers v. 2, says, "My poets Shall with a satire steeped in gall and vinegar Rhyme 'em to death, as they do rats in I." In Jonson's Poetaster Epil., the author says of his critics: "I could rhime them to death, as they do Ih. rats, in drumming tunes." Sidney, in Apol. for Poetry 72, prays "not to be rimed to death, as is said to be done in I." In Jonson's Staple iv., Intermean. Censure, speaking of Pennyboy Canter, says, "I would have. . . the fine madrigal-man in rhyme to have run him out of the country, like an Ih. rat." I. is free from venomous snakes. According to tradition, they were all expelled by St. Patrick. Boorde, in Intro. of Knowledge iii., says, "In Ierland is stupendous things; for there is neither pyes nor venomous worms. . . English merchants do fetch of the earth of Won& to cast in their gardens, to keep out and kill venomous worms." In R2 ii. 1, 157, the K. says, "We must supplant those rough, rug-headed kerns, Which live like venom, where no venom else, But only they have privilege to live." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. iii. 1, Hippolito calls Bryan "that Ih. Judas, bred in a country where no venom prospers but in the nation's blood." Flamineo, in Webster's White Devil ii. 1, says, "I. breeds no poisons." In Fisher's Fuimus iii. 1, Cassibelan says, "Ih. earth doth poison poisonous beasts." In Brome's Concubine iv. 9, Horatio says, "I'll undertake to find snore toads in I. Than rebels in Palermo." Hall, in Satires iv. 3, says, "An Ih, toad to see Were as a chaste man nursed in Italy," i.e. there is no such thing. Connected with this was the belief that Ih. wood is deadly to spiders. The roof of Westminster Hall was built of Ih. wood for that reason (see WESTMINSTER HALL). In Jonson's Alchemist ii. 1, Mammon says that cedar wood, which is proof against worms, is "like your Ih. wood 'gainst cobwebs." Lice were, however, plentiful enough; saffron and staves-acre were used to destroy them. In Dekker's Westward iii. 3, Justiniano says, "There were many punks in town, as common as lice in I." In Middleton's Blurt i. 2, Lazarillo says, "Your Ih. louse doth bite most naturally 14 weeks after the change of your saffron-seasoned shirt." In Wise Men vii. 1, Insatiato says, "This saffroning was never used but in I., for bodily linen, to dissipate the company of creepers." Nash, in Lenten Pref., (p. 289), speaks of the" quantity of Staves aker we must provide us of to kill lice in that rugged country of rebels," i.e. I. There were large numbers of wolves in I. up to the end of the 17th cent. In 1662 the House of Commons was moved to take measures to deal with "the great increase of wolves "in I. The last of them is said to have been killed in 1710, In As You Like It v. 2, 119, Rosalind says, "No more of this; 'tis like the howling of Ih. wolves against the moon." In Day's Galls iv. 1, Dorus says, "Like an Ih. wolf, she barks at her own shadow." Other products: There are some good marbles to be obtained in L, particularly the black marble of Kilkenny and the white of Connemara. Spenser, F. Q. ii. 5, 24, speaks of "Jett or marble far from I. brought." A variant reading is Iceland.

There are still about 120 curious round-towers in different parts of I. They are circular in shape and somewhat tapering towards the top They are usually near to a ch. They date between the 8th and the 13th cents., and were probably intended as refuges in times of inter-tribal war. Nash, in Lenten (p.,316), says that Hero's Tower was "such another tower as one of our Ih. castles, that is not so wide as a belfry, and a cobler cannot jerk out his elbows in."

The Ih. language, or Erse, is a branch of the Celtic, family of the Indo-European group. It is still spoken in parts of I., and a patriotic attempt to revive it is now going on. In H4 A. iii. 1, 241, Hotspur, being asked to hear Lady Mortimer sing in Welsh, says, "I had rather hear Lady, my brach, how! in Ih." Probably the dog was an Ih, terrier. In Dekker's Match me iii., Gazetto says, "I do speak English when I'd move pity, when dissemble, Ih." Dekker, in Lanthorn, says that before the confusion of tongues there was "no unfruitful, crabbed Ih." The Ih. pronunciation of English is ridiculed in many plays. The chief points are the use of "sh "for "s," the sharpening of the flat mutes ("p" for "b," etc.), the substitution of "t" or "d" for "th," and the pronunciation of "I" as "e." It is nothing like the Ih. brogue as we understand it, which is a product of the 18th cent., and in some points reproduces what was then the current pronunciation, e.g. "say" for "sea," "jine" for "join." Examples are Captain Macmorris, "an In., a very valiant gentleman," in H5 iii.2; Bryan, the Ih. footman in Dekker's Hon. Wh. B.; the In. in Oldcastle; the disguised Andelocia in Dekker's Fortunatus; the disguised Antonio in B. & F. Coxcomb; and the 4 footmen in Jonson's Irish Masque. The Irish in England. The Ih. who had come over to England were usually of the lowest class. Many of them were beggars; and we find others employed as chimneysweeps, costermongers, footboys, foot-racers, and beaters for game. In Day's Humour ii. 2, Octavio says, "I am like an Ih. beggar, will stick close where I find a good nap." Dekker, in Bellman, says, "An Ih. Toyle is a sturdy vagabond who stalks up and down the country with a wallet at his back in which he carries laces, pins, points, and such like, and so commits many villainies." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. i. 1, Lodovico asks: "Why should all your chimney sweepers be Irishmen?" And Carolo explains that it is because St. Patrick keeps purgatory: "he makes the fire and his countrymen could do nothing if they cannot sweep the chimneys." In Noble Soldier iii. 3, Baltasar says, "I can be a chimney sweeper with the Ih." In Jonson's Alchemist iv. 1, Face says that Doll's father was "an Ih. costarmonger." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. i. 1, Lodovico says, "In England all costermongers are Ien." In his Fortunatus iv. 2, Andelocia and Shadow enter "disguised as Ih. costermongers," and talk the usual English-Ih. lingo. In his Westward ii. 2, Birdlime says, "Ien. love to be costermongers." In Field's Amends ii. 3, "Enter Maid like as Ih. foot-boy with a dart." The dart was carried as a badge of office. Brathwayte, in Time's Curtain Drawn (1621), mentions "two Ih. lacquies "amongst the attendants of a courtier. Bryan, "an Ih. footman," is one of the characters in Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. Talking of him, Lodovico says, "You have many of them like this fellow, especially those of his hair, footmen to noblemen and others, and the knaves are very faithful where they love." In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 4., Trim wishes that Meg may be escorted by "10 beadles running by, instead of footmen "; and Chough adds: "with every one a whip, 'stead of an Ih. dart." In B. & F. Coxcomb ii. 3, Antonio disguises himself as "an Ih. footman with a letter." Middleton, in Black Book, says, "Away they ran like Ih. lacqueys." In Puritan i. 4, Pyeboard says he will cause the devil "with most Ih. dexterity to fetch his [Sir Godfrey's] chain." In Shirley's Hyde Park iii. 1, a race takes place on the stage between "an Ih. and an English footman," and is run amid shouts of "A Teague!A Teague! Well run, Ih.!" In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. iii. 1, Orlando, speaking of Bryan, the Ih. footman, says, "That Ih. shackatory beats the bush for him and knows all." Shackatory is possibly a corruption of the Italian "Cacciatore ": a hunter, or beater.


A court in Lond., on the W. side of St. Andrew's Hill, formerly Puddledock Hill, off Q. Victoria St., near Blackfriars Bdge. Shakespeare bought a house here. The Deed of Conveyance is shown in the Guildhall Library. It is described as "abutting upon a st. leading down to Puddle Wharf, and now or late in the tenure or occupation of one William I.": from him no doubt I. Y. got its name.


The sea between England and Ireland sometimes known as St. George's Channel. In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 4, Mortimer speaks of "that vile torpedo Gaveston, That now, I hope, floats on the I. seas." It is called the Rase of Irlonde by Hycke, p. 88: he rejoices that all the ship's company of Virtues were "drowned in the Rase of Irlonde." Drayton, in Polyolb. ix. 146, speaks of Carnarvonsh. as "that straitened point of land Into the I. sea which puts his powerful hand." In note prefixed to Lycidas, Milton says, "In this Monody the Author bewails a learned friend unfortunately drowned is his passage from Chester on the I. Seas, 1637." Burton, A.M. i. 2, 3, 10, says, "Our whole life is an I. sea, wherein there is nought to be expected but tempestuous storms and troublesome waves." In iii. 2, 5, 3, he says: "An I. sea is not so turbulent and raging as a litigious wife."


(now the USK). A river rising in, and flowing through, Brecknocksh. and Monmouthsh. into the estuary of the Severn at Newport, after a course of 60 m. In Locrine iii. 1, 68, Camber says that he has an army "in the fields of martial Cambria Close by the boisterous Iscan's silver streams:" Browne, in Britannia's Pastorals ii. 3, says, "Not Pelops' shoulder whiter than her hands, Nor snowie swans that jet on I.'s sands."




The descendants of Ishmael, the son of Abraham by Hagar: the Arabs. It is applied also, though wrongly, to the Turks. In Webster's Malfi i. 1, Castruccio tells of a jest his wife made "of a captain she met full of wounds." She "told him he was a pitiful fellow to lie, like the children of Ismael, all in tents." There is a play on the double meaning of tent: a tabernacle and a roll of lint for bandaging or probing a wound. In Jonson's Alchemist iv. 3, Doll, in her assumed mad fit, talks of raising "the building up of Helen's house Against the Ismaelite." This is intended to be mere nonsense. In Day's Travails (Bullen, p. 17), Sir Antony says to the Turkish Bashaw, "Stir not, thou son of Ismael, or thou diest." Spencer, F. Q. iii. 3, 6, speaks of "the Africk Ismael "as a remote part of the world apparently identifying the Saracens who conquered N. Africa with the Iites. Milton, in Trans. Ps. lxxxiii. 22, speaks of "the brood Of scornful I." amongst the enemies of Israel.


Strictly the name of the Thames, from its source in the Cotswolds, close to Cirencester, up to its junction with the Cherwell, just below Oxford: Oxford and Cambridge being often referred to as the universities of the I. and the Cam respectively. Indeed, it is poetically used as a synonym for the Thames from source to mouth. In Fisher's Fuimus ii. 8, there is a song: "Brutus by I: current a 2nd Troy did frame." In Caesar's Rev., iii. 2, Caesar, recounting his own exploits, says, "I. wept to see her daughter Thames Change her clear christal to vermilion sad." He refers to his defeat of the Britains at the Thames. Peele, in Farewell to Drake (1589), says, "Pleasant Thames from I: silver head Begins her quiet glide." Spencer, in his river-list in F. Q. iv.11, 24, says that the mother of the Thames is "The Ouze, whom men do I. rightly name; Full weak and crooked creature seemed she, And almost blind through eld, that scarce her way could see." Drayton, in Idea (1594) xxxii, 5, says, "Cotswold commends her I. to the Tame."




Specifically for the Spanish I. in the Atlantic (the Azores and W. Indies), especially in the phrase "the island voyage "= an expedition against the Spanish islands. In T. Heywood's Maid of West A. i. 1, the Capt. says, "Most men think the fleet's bound for the I." The reference is to the expedition against the Azores in 1597. In Dekker's Northward ii. 2, Kate says, "He pretended he would go the Island voyage." This refers to the expedition to Hispaniola in 1585. Dekker, in Hornbook v., says, "If you be a soldier, talk how often you have been in action: as the Portingale voyage, Cales voyage, the Island voyage." Drake led this expedition, which consisted of 21 ships, manned by 2000 volunteers. They took San Domingo, Cartagena, and St. Augustine, and returned in 1586 with a booty of £60,000. In B. & F. Custom iii. 5, the Governor of Lisbon says that Hippolyta has lent the city 100,000 crowns "Towards the setting forth of the last navy Bound for the I."


(also spelt ISENDONE, ISELDONE, YSELDON, EYSELDON, and HISSELTON). One of the N. suburbs of Lond., lying N. of Clerkenwell as far as Highgate and W. of Hackney as far as St. Pancras, and covering about 3000 acres. Until the 19th cent. it was a rural vill., quite separate from the City. Latimer, in Sermon before Edward VI (1550), says, "What is Lond. to Ninive? Like a vill., as I. or such another, in comparison of Lond." In 1559 Elizabeth was beset by a number of rogues "in her coach near Islyington "(Letter of Fleetwood to Cecil). In Laneham's Letter (1575), it is described as "the worshipful village of I. in Middlesex, well known to be one of the most ancient and best towns in England next Lond. at this day." In Oldcastle, Acton mentions I. as one of the villages round Lond. where the rebels are assembled (iii. 1). There they are to draw to a head (iii. 4); and in iv. 1, Butler says that he was scouting near to I. when he saw "armed men coming down Highgate Mll." In Jonson's Tub i. 1, Hugh mentions "In-and-In Medlay, cooper of I., and head-borough "as one of the self-styled Council of Finsbury. In T. Heywood's Hogsdon v. 4, Chartley, on his way to Hoxton, "rid out of Holborn, turned by I." In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 1, Chough says he heard the "roarers from the 6 windmills [in Finsbury Fields] to I." In Shirley's C. Maid iv. 1, Close, when found wandering about by the watch, explains: "I have been at I. about business." In Davenport's New Trick iii. 1, Friar John says, "We are now at I.; what hope have we to get to Crutched Friars before the gates be shut?" The fields were a haunt of thieves and beggars. In T. Heywood's Royal King iv., the Clown says, "Let me find you between Wood's Close stile and I. with 'Will it please your worship to bestow the price of 2 cans upon a poor soldier?'" They were also used as a practising ground for archers and for the trainbands. In Glapthorne's Hollander ii. 1, Sconce speaks of "the great training last summer when the whole city went in arms to take in I." Duels were often fought there, one of the most famous being that between Sir James Stewart and Sir George Wharton in 1609, when both were killed. In Cooke's Good Wife v. 3, Old Arthur says to Old Lusam, "Meet me to-morrow morning beside I. and bring thy sword and buckler, if thou dar'st."

It was a favourite place for outings with the citizens, and the many dairies there supplied them with cream and cakes. Nash, in Wilton 35, says, "He made it as light a matter as to go to I. and eat a mess of cream." In Massinger's Madam iv. 4, Mry speaks of "Exchange wenches Coming from eating pudding-pies on a Sunday At Pimlico or I." In Shirley's Pleasure i. 2, Celestina, finding fault with her coach, says: "Twill hackney out to Mile-End, or convey your city tumblers, to be drunk with cream and prunes at I." In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Valentine says, "You can have your meetings at I. and Green Goose Fair, and sip a zealous glass of wine." One of the favourite dishes was a whitepot, made of milk, eggs, and sugar, baked in a pot. In Dekker's Shoemaker's v. 4, Eyre says to Margery, "Away, you I. white-pot!"Withers, in Britannia's Remembrances (1628), says, "Hogsdone, I., and Tothnam Court For cakes and cream had there no small resort." The scene of Jordan's Walks of I. and Hogsdon (164 1) is laid at the Saracen's Head, I., and the poet says, "Though the scene be I., we swear We will not blow ye up with bottle beer, Cram ye with creams." In Brome's Couple ii. 1, Careless offers to escort his aunt to "I., Newington, Paddington, Kensington, or any of the city out-leaps, for a spirt and back again." In his New Academy iii. 2, Strigood says that Cash is "none of those that feast their tits at I. or Hogsden." Lodge, in Answer to Gosson, p. 30, says to his opponent, "I would wish him beware of his I. and such like resorts." In Middleton's R.G. iii. 1, Laxton, in Holborn, sees "two Inns-a-Court men with one wench: they walk toward I, out of my way." In Deloney's Craft i. 12, John and Florence "Appointed the next Sunday to go to I. together, and there to be merry." Gosson, in School of Abuse (1579), P• 37 (Arber), says of loose women: "They live a mile from the City like Venus' nuns in a cloister at Newington, Ratcliffe, I., Hogsdon, or some such place."

The Ducking Ponds were on I. Green, near White Conduit House, in the Back Road, where the reservoir of the New River Head afterwards stood. They were so called because they were used for the sport of duck-hunting. In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 1, Stephen says, "Because I dwell at Hogsdon, shall I keep company with none but the citizens that come a-ducking to I. ponds?" In Field's Amends iii. 4, Feesimple says, "Let the pond at I. be searched; there is more have drowned themselves for love this year than you are aware of." In Field's Weathercock iii. 3, Pendant says, "I think the pond at I. Will be her bathing tub, and give an end To mortal misery." Davenant, in Long Vacation, says: "Ho, ho!To I.!Enough; Fetch job my son and our dog Ruffe; For there in pond through mire and muck We'll cry, 'Hey, duck there, Ruffe, hey, duck!'" The reservoir for the New River, constructed in 1613, was at I. In Middleton's Triumph of Truth, in the title, we read: "The running stream from Amwell Head into the cistern at Islinton." In B. & F. Wit S. W. iv. 1, Pompey says, "Direct him and his horses toward the New River by I."


T. Heywood's peculiar way of spelling ILIUM, q.v.


The eastern of the two rivers, or rather brooks, on which Thebes in Boeotia stands. It is now called Ai Ianni. Milton, p. R. iv. 575, describes how the Theban monster, the Sphinx, "Cast herself headlong from the Ismenian steep," i.e. from the cliffs near Thebes.


The name given to Jacob after his wrestling with the Angel at the brook Jabbok: meaning "he who strives with God" (see Gen. xxxii. 28). It became the national name of the Hebrews of the Bible story, and has not the offensive connotation which was attached to "Jew." In Ham. ii. 2, 422, Hamlet exclaims to Polonius, "O, Jephthah, judge of I., what a treasure hadst thou!" The reference is to an old ballad beginning: "I read that many years ago When Jephtha, Judge of I., Had one fair daughter and no more Whom he loved so passing well" (see Judges xi. 34). In Bale's Promises iv., Pater Coelestis says, "I will punish them, all I. shall see." The reference is to the tribes who fought against I. In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass iii. 1, Jonas says: "Lo, I., once that flourished like the vine, Is barren laid." In Marlowe's Jew ii. 1, Barabas prays: "O Thou that with a fiery pillar ledst The Sons of I. through the dismal shades" (see Exodus xiii, 21). In Marston's Malcontent iii. 2, Malevole says to Bilioso, an elderly husband with a pretty young wife, "Elder of I., when did thy wife let thee lie with her?" The allusion seems to be to the story of Susanna and the Elders told in the apocryphal book of Susanna. In Skelton's Magnificence fol. xvii., Magnificence speaks of "Syrus [i.e. Cyrus] that solemn czar of Babylon That Israeli released of their captivity." In Gascoigne's Government i. 4, Gnomaticus says, "When the people of I. provoked Him at sundry tunes, He did yet at every submission stay His hand from punishment." In King Leir, Haz., p 372, Leir says of his food: "It is as pleasant as the blessed manna That rained from heaven amongst the Israelites "(see Exodus xvi. 13). In Candlemas Prol., we are told, "Herod. . . commanded his knight forth to go anon Into all Israeli to search every town and city "for the new-born king.

Milton uses the word frequently. In P. L. i. 412, he speaks of the apostasy of "I. in Sittim "(Numbers xxv.); in 432, of the frequent lapse of "the race of I." into idolatry; in 482, of I. worshipping the golden calf (Exodus xxii.); in xii. 267, of their victory over the Canaanites at Ajalon (Joshua x.). In P.R. i. 216, our Lord reveals his early ambition "To rescue I. from the Roman yoke "; in 254, our Lord is known to the Magi as the "K. of I." (Matthew ii. 1); in ii. 36, the disciples rejoice in the hope that through our Lord "The kingdom shall to I. be restored "; and appeal to the "God of I." to send his Messiah forth; in 89, Simeon's word is quoted: "to the fail and rising he should be Of many in I." (Luke ii. 34). In ii. iii, the Tempter says, "A.ll the race Of I. here had famished, had not God Rained from heaven manna "(Exodus xvi. 3 1); in 442, our Lord predicts that David's offspring shall "reign in I. without end." In iii. 279, the Tempter says of Salmanassar: "[his] success I. in long captivity still mourns." Shalmaneser took Samaria and carried the 10 tribes into captivity into Assyria 722 B.C. In 378, he speaks of the 10 tribes as "lost Thus long from I." In 410, David's sin in "numbering I." is referred to (1 Chron. xxi. 1); in 441, our Lord is called "I.'s true king." In Milton's S. A. 179, Samson is said to have been "the glory late of I." In 285, the Chorus recalls how Jephtha "Defended I. from the Ammonite "(Judges xi. 4); in 1428, Jehovah is called "the Holy One Of I." I. was also used by the Puritans to mean the true ch., the I. of God. In Wise Men iv. 2, Rusticano's Puritan wife, when it is suggested that marriage should be abolished, objects: "How shall the I. of God be multiplied?" Land of I. is used for Palestine. In York 1P1. p. xii. 114, the Prol. says, "He [Jacob] says the sceptre shall not pass Fro Juda of Israeli Or he come that God ordained has "(see Gen. xlix. 10).


The old Greek name for the Danube (q.v.), especially the part near the mouth of the r., which was all that they knew definitely. In T. Heywood's B. Age iv., Phoebus says, "We will decline our chariot towards the west Till we have washed our coach-steeds and ourself In I.'s icy streams." Spenser, in the list of rivers in F. Q. iv. 11, 20, mentions "Fair I., flowing from the mtns. high."


The triangular peninsula at the head of the Adriatic Sea, between the Gulf of Trieste and the Gulf of Quarnero. Until 1919 it was part of Austria-Hungary. It now belongs to Italy. In Middleton's Widow iii. 1, Ansaldo says, "I should have been at I. by daybreak." Probably Capo d'I. is meant (q.v.).


In Webster's Cuckold ii. 3, Compass thinks if Blackwall were left uninhabited "our neighbours from Bow might come further from the I, and inhabit here." This is a hitherto unsolved puzzle. Unless it is a punning reference to Ulysses, the Ithacan bowman, I. is probably a misprint.


(Id. = Italianated, In. = Italian). The peninsula in S. Europe, E. of Spain and W. of Greece. It was the central province of the Roman Empire, and many plays, a list of which will be found under Rome, deal with episodes in the history of I. during the Roman Empire and later Republic. After the fall of Rome it came successively–at least so far as the northern part is concerned–under the sway of the Ostrogoths, the Lombards, and the Franks: the German emperors, too, had vague rights which they asserted at intervals, whilst all the time the Popes at Rome exercised more or less temporal power. By degrees the great cities of the North gained in influence, and became practically independent states, constantly at war with the Popes, the Emperors, and one another. Chief amongst these were Florence, Venice, Milan, Cremona, Pavia, Genoa, Mantua, Ferrara, Bologna, and Pisa. In the S., Naples was the predominant city. In the 12th cent. the Normans established the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, with Naples as its capital. In 1194 it fell to the Emperor Henry VI, but in 1265 the Pope conferred it on Charles of Anjou. A few years after Sicily was divided from Naples, the Angevins ruling at Naples and the House of Aragon in Sicily until 1442, when Alphonso V of Aragon reunited the 2 kingdoms. After his death they were again divided till the end of the cent., when Ferdinand of Spain possessed himself of them both. They continued under Spanish rule till 1707, when they were formed into an independent kingdom under a branch of the Spanish Bourbons. So they remained (except in Napoleon's time, when Naples was made into a nominally independent kingdom, first under Joseph Bonaparte, then under Murat) until they were liberated by Garibaldi in 1860. Thus, during our period there were the free cities in the N., the Papal States in the centre, and the kingdom of the two Sicilies in the S. under the Spanish Kings. Details of the historical allusions in the plays will be found under the headings of the various cities above mentioned. About one-fourth of the plays of our period have their scene in Italy during the 16th and 17th cents. All travelled Englishmen visited Italy, and the plays are full of references to the manners, customs, dress, and character of the Italians.

General references. In Kirke's Champions ii. 1, Antony speaks of I. as "Mother of arts and nurse of noble spirits." In Lucr. 106, Tarquin speaks of "the fields of fruitful I." In Shrew i. 1, 4, Lucentio calls Lombardy "The pleasant garden of great I." In All's Well ii. 1, 12, the K. says to Bertram, who is going to Florence, "Let high I. . . . see that you come Not to woo honour but to wed it." The Ff. read "higher," but the sense is the same, viz. N., or Upper, I.

Historical references. In J.C. i. 3, 88, Casca believes that Caesar intends to be k."and wear his crown. . . In every place save here in I." In iii. 1, 264, Antony predicts that "Domestic fury and fierce civil strife Shall cumber all the parts of I.": which was grievously fulfilled in the civil wars that followed Caesar's death. In Antony i. 2, 97, the Messenger tells how Caesar has driven Antony's wife and brother from I.: this was in 41 B.C. In i. 4, 51, mention is made of the pirates: "many hot inroads They make in I."–this was in the winter of 40 B.C. In R2 iv. 1, 97, Carlisle tells that Norfolk "retired himself to I." and died at Venice. He died there on Sept. 20th, 1399; Richard's deposition took place the nest day, so that Carlisle could not have known of Norfolk's death at that time. In All's Well ii. 3, 307, Bertram says, "His present gift Shall furnish me to those In. fields Where noble fellows strike." The reference is to the constant wars between the great cities of N. I. In Davenant's Rhodes B. v., Raxolana speaks of "In. courts Where little princes are but civil hosts," i.e. the numerous small courts of N. I. The most popular Saint of I. (hence her "champion "in the quotation which follows) was Antony of Padua, who died there in 1231. In Kirke's Champions i. 1, Antony says, "The rear is brought up by Antony, Who goes a champion forth fox I."

Ecclesiastical Pretensions of Italy, as the seat of the Pope of Rome. In K.J. iii. 1, 153, john says: "No In priest Shall tithe or toll in our dominions." So, in Trouble. Reign, Haz., p. 255 John says, "Never an In. priest of them all shall either have tythe, toll, or polling penny out of England." Milton, in Sonn. on Massacre in Piedmont ii, says, "Their martyred blood and ashes sow O'er all the In. fields, where still doth sway The triple tyrant," i.e. the Pope. See also under Rote and BABYLON.

National Characteristics. Heylyn (s.v. ITALIE) says, "The people are for the most part grave, respective, and ingenious; excellent men, but for 3 things: (1) in their lusts they are unnatural; (2) in their malice unappeasable; (3) in their actions deceitful. They will blaspheme sooner than swear, and murther a man rather than slander him. They are exceeding jealous over their wives. The women are generally witty in speech, modest in outward carriage, and bountiful where they bear affection; and it is proverbially said that they are magpies at the door, saints in the church, goats in the garden, divels in the house, angels in the street, and syrens in the windows." In Haughton's Englishmen i. 1, Frisco says he can tell an In."by these 3 points: a wanton eye, pride in his apparel, and the devil in his countenance." Nash, in Wilson K. 1, 146, says, "I., the paradise of the earth and the Epicure's heaven. It makes him to kiss his hand like an ape, cringe his neck like a starveling, and play at heypass, repass, come aloft when he salutes a man. From thence he brings the art of atheism, the art of epicurizing, the art of whoring, the art of poisoning, the art of Sodomitry. It maketh a man an excellent courtier, a curious carpet-knight, which is by interpretation a fine close letcher, a glorious hypocrite." The standard of courtly manners was set in I., and the recognized authority on the subject was Baldassare Castiglione's Cortigiano. In Dekker's Westward i. 1, Birdlime says "The young gentlewoman:. . hath read in the 'In. Courtier' that it is a special ornament to gentlewomen to have skill in painting." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 565, Staines says, "The most exactest nation in the world, the In.; whose language is sweetest, clothes neatest, and behaviour most accomplished." In Massinger's Guardian ii. 1, Calipso says of the French: "Their free breeding knows not the Spanish and In. preciseness practised among us." In B. & F. Wild Goose i. 2, Mirabel says, "I. for my money t Their policies, their customs, their frugalities, Their courtesies so open, yet so reserved too, Their very pick-teeth speak more man than we do And season of more salt." In Chapman's Consp. Byron ii. 1, Henry speaks of the English, "whose grave natures scorn The empty compliments of I." In Middleton's Gallants iv. 6, Pursenet asks: "Where's comely nurture?the In. kiss, or the French cringe?" Coryat, in Crudities (1611), mentions as a quite unique custom that "the Ins. do always at their meals use a little fork when they cut their meat." In Jonson's Volpone iv. 1, Sir Politick instructs Peregrine, who has just come to I., "You must learn the use And handling of your silver fork at meals:" In his Devil v. 4, Meercraft proposes to bring into fashion in England "The laudable use of forks. . . as they are is I." In his Epicoene ii. 1, Morose bids Mute, "Shake your head or shrug. Your In, and Spaniard are wise in these; and it is a frugal and comely gravity." In B. & F. Elder B. i. 2, Eustace says, "I'll vouchsafe him the new In. shrug. (He bows.) "In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 3, Fastidius says, "Oh, your wits of I. are nothing comparable to her; her brain's a very quiver of jests." In B. & F. Fair plaid 1. ii. 2, Forobosco says, "These Ins. are most nimblepated.''


In. subtlety and craft was crystallized, in English opinion, in Macchiavelli, whose work, The Prince, was well known and cordially disliked. In Chapman's Trag. Byron iii. 1, Byron says, "There are schools Now broken ope in all parts of the world, First founded in ingenious I., Where some conclusions of estate are held That for a day preserve a prince, and ever Destroy him-after." In M.W.W. iii. 1, 104, the Host cries: "Am I politic?Am I subtle?Am I a Machiavel?" Nash, in Pierce 68, says, "I comprehend. . . under hypocrisy all Machiavilism." Greene, in Gloats Worth of Wit (1592) 35, asks, "Is it pestilent Machivilian policy that thou bast studied?" The prologue to Marlowe's Jew is spoken by Machiavel: "Who now the Guise is dead, is come from France:" he says, "Though some speak openly against my books, Yet will they read me, and thereby attain To Peter's chair." In Shrew ii. 1, 405, Gremio says, "An old In, fox is not so triad "as to give all his property to his son before he dies. In Cym. v. 5, 196, Iachimo says, "Mine In. brain 'Gan in your duller Britain operate Most vilely ": on which Posthumus addresses him as "In. fiend!" In Noble Soldier iii. 1, the Q. says, "A true In. spirit is a ball Of wildfire hurting most when it seems spent." In iii. 3, Baltasar says, "I have a private coat for In. stilettos." Dekker, in Last Will, says of Hypocrisy: "After this he travelled into I., and there learned to embrace with one arm and stab with another." In Webster's Law Case ii. 1, Contarino says, "I have not ta'en the way, like an In., To cut your throat by practice," i.e. by treachery. In Jonson's Cynthia i. 4, Asotus says, "I do not offer it you after the In. manner," i.e. hoping that you will not accept it. In Ford's 'Tis Pity iv. 4, when Sorranzo says, "I burn; and blood shall quench that flame," Vasques rejoins, "Now you begin to turn In." In Massinger's Guardian ii. 3, Camillo says to Adorni, "Show yourself an In., and, having received one injury, do not put off your hat for a second." In Marmion's Antiquary v. 1, Lorenzo says, "I hate to differ so much from the nature of an In. as not to be revengeful." Nash, in Wilton M.3, says, "All true Ins. imitate me in revenging constantly and dying valiantly." In Shirley's Gent. Yen. v. 2, Florelli says, "The innocence of a saint Would not secure his life from an In. When his revenge is fixed." In Noble Soldier v. 3, the Q. speaks of "the In.'s second bliss, revenge."

In Cym. iii. 2, 4, Pisanio asks: "What false In., As poison-tongued as handed, hathprevailed On thy too ready bearing?" In iii. 4, 15. Imogen says, "That drug-damned I. hathout-craftied him And he's at some hard point." In Marlowe's Jew ii. 3, Barabas says, "I studied physic and began To practise first upon the In.; There I enriched the priests with burials." Nash, in Pierce C.4, apostrophizes I.: "O Italie, the academy of man-slaughter; the sporting-place of murder; the apothecary-shop of poison for all nations!" In Jonson's Ev. Man I., iii. 2, Bobadil, praising tobacco, says, "Had you taken the most deadly poisonous plant in all I., it should expel it." In Sharpham's Fleire i. 481, Fleire says to Sparke, an Englishman, "You cannot poison so well as we Ins." Hence an In. salad means a poisoned salad. In Webster's Devil iv. 1, Flamineo says, "I do look now for a Spanish fig or an In. salad daily." In Killigrew's Parson v. 4, the Parson asks the Capt., "Can any of you digest spunge and arsenick?" The Capt. exclaims: "Arsenick?What's that?" and the Parson explains: "An In. salad which I'll dress for you." In Shirley's Maid's Rev. iii. 2, Sharkino says, "I have probatums of In. salads," i.e. approved prescriptions for their making. In Cromwell iii. 3, Cromwell says, "Lust dwells in France, in Italie, and Spain." In T. Heywood's Traveller i. 1, Geraldine says, "The French is of one humour, Spain another; The hot In. has a strain from both," i.e. is both amorous and jealous. In Middleton's R.G. ii. 1, Laxton says of the heroine: "Such a Moll were a marrow-bone before an In.; he would cry buona roba till his ribs were nothing but bone." In his Mad World iii., Mawworm says, "There is the key given after the In. fashion backward; she closely conveyed into his closet." In his Gipsy i. 1, Roderigo says, "It's as rare to see a Spaniard a drunkard as a German sober, an In. no whoremonger." In Ford's Sacrifice i. 2, Ferentes says, "A chaste wife or a mother that never stepped awry are wonders, wonders in I." In Davenant's Albovine i. 1, Valdaura's mother tells her "The curled youth of I. Were prompt in wanton stealths and sinful arts." In Brome's Covent G. iii. 1, Mihil calls Nick's paramour "your Italick mistress." In B. & F. Custom iv. 1, Duarte says, "He was `of I., and that country breeds not Precisians that way, but hot libertines." Hall, in Satires iv. 3, says: "An English wolf, an Irish toad to see, Were as a chaste man nursed in I." There were no wolves in England nor toads in Ireland.

Burton, A. M. iii. 3, 1, 2, says, "Germany hath not so many drunkards, England tobacconists, France dancers, Holland mariners, as I. alone hathjealous husbands." In Jonson's Volpone ii. 3, Corvino says to his wife, "If you thought me an In., You would be damned ere you did this, you whore." In Massinger's Milan iv. 3, Mariana, telling Sforza of his wife's behaviour, says, "To a Dutchman This were enough, but to a right In. A hundred thousand witnesses." In his Great Duke ii. 1, Giovanni says, "I was allowed (Against the form followed by jealous parents In Italy) full liberty to partake His daughter's sweet society." In B. & F. French Law. iii. 1, Champernell says, "I am no In. To lock her up; nor would I be a Dutchman To have my wife my sovereign." In Massinger's Emperor v. 2, Theodosius says, "The wise In. . . For a kiss, nay, wanton look, will plough up mischief And sow the seeds of his revenge in blood." In Machin's Dumb Knight iv. 1, Epire says, "I see That lean In. devil, jealousy, Dance in his eyes." In Webster's Cuckold v. 1, Clare says, "Are you returned with the In, plague upon you, jealousy?" In Shirley's Gent. Ven. i. 1, Cornari says, "Our nice Ins. Impose severely on their wives." In T. D. 's Banquet i. 4, Tymethes says, "Hunger and lust blows ope castle doors, In. padlocks." In T. Heywood's Maid of West B. iv., Goodlack says, "Beware of these Ins., They are by nature jealous and revengeful." In Nabbes' Unfort. Mother iii. 1, Fidelio says, "My In. nature Begins to break her prison and grow violent." In Dekker's Westward iii. 3, Justiniano says, "You Ins. are so sun-burnt with these dog-days that your great lady there thinks her husband loves her not if he be not jealous." Middleton, in Mad World i. 1, says, "There's a gem, Kept by the Ins. under lock and key." In Day's Gulls iii. 2, Violetta complains that she and her sister are kept in servitude "as Englishmen keep their felons, and Ins. their wives; we never stir abroad without our jailors." Burton, A. M. iii. 3, 1, 2, quotes a proverb "I. [is] a paradise for horses, hell for women.'.

In All's Well ii. 1, 19, the K. advises Bertram: "Those girls of I., take heed of them. . . beware of being captives Before you serve." In Cym. i. 3, 29, Imogen tells how she intended to make Posthumus swear, "The shes of I. should not betray Mine interest and his honour." In i. 4, 71, Iachimo objects to Posthumus preferring Imogen to the ladies of I. In iii. 4, 51, Imogen says, "Some jay of I. . . . hath betrayed him." In v. 5, 161, Iachimo tells how he and his friends praised "our loves of I. For beauty that made barren the swelled boast Of him that best could speak, for feature laming The shrine of Venus or straight-pight Minerva, Postures beyond brief nature, for condition A shop of all the qualities that man Loves woman for." In Day's Humour iii. 1, Florimel speaks of "our In. dames who cause their friends to clap their jealous husbands in prison that they may surely know where to find them." In Glapthorne's Privilege iii. 1, Frangipan says, "Our In. courtesans excel all other nations." In Chapman's Usher iii. 2, Bassiolo says his friendship will last "while In. dames Be called the bona-robas of the world."


Englishmen who imitated In. manners and vices were called Id. In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 565, Bubble asks: "What's the lowest price of being Id.?"Ascham, in The Scholemaster (1570), defines "an Englishman Id." thus: "He bringeth home into England out of I, the religion, the learning, the policy, the experience, the manners of I. That is to say, for religion papistry or worse; for learning, less commonly than they carried out with them; for policy, a factious heart, a discoursing head, a mind to meddle in all men's matters; for experience, plenty of new mischiefs never known in England before; for manners, variety of vanities and change of filthy living." Hall, in Virgidemiarium i. 3, satirizes the playwright who "with terms Italianate, Big-sounding sentences and words of state" patches up his pure iambic verse. In Goosecap iv. 1, Fowlewether tells of "an Italianate Frenchman "he had met. In Val. Welsh. i. 4, Cadigune says, "My brain Italianates my barren faculties To Machivilian blackness." Nash, in Pierce B.2, says of the would-be traveller: "All Italionato is his talk." In Webster's Law Case iii. 2, Romelio, disguised as a Jew, says, "I could be a rare Id. Jew." In Cuckqueans ii. 7, when Floradin proposes to journey into I., Rafe says, "Having already horns, as you have [i.e. being a cuckold], then likewise being Italionate so might you become devil incarnate." Buckley, in Felic. Man. (1603) iv. 317, quotes a proverb "An English man Id. is a devil incarnated." The Ins. had a similar saying: "Tudesco Italionato è un Diavolo incarnato." Lyly, in Euphues England, p. 295, says, "If any Englishman be infected with any misdemeanour, they say with one mouth." He is Id. Similarly, Italianism is used for an In. practice. Nash, in Wilton M. 3, speaks of "some new Italionism whose murderous platform might not only extend on his body, but his soul also."

Italian Dress and Personal Appearance. In Cym. v. 1, 23, Posthumus says, "I'll disrobe me Of these In. weeds and suit myself As does a Briton peasant." Strictly, Posthumus should appear in the armour of a Roman soldier, but he was probably dressed like a contemporary In. gentleman. In R2 ii. 1, 21, York blames the K. for following "Report of fashions in proud I. Whose manners still our tardy, apish nation Limps after in base imitation." In Jonson's Staple i. 1, Pennyboy asks Fashioner, the tailor, "Tell me what authors thou readst to help thy invention; In. prints?or Arras hangings? They are tailors' libraries." In his Cynthia ii. 1, Philautia says of a headdress: "'Tis after the In. print we looked on t'other night." Print is used in these passages in the sense of the goffering or pleating of a ruff: with a pun in the first passage on the other meaning of "a printed book." In Field's Weathercock i. 2, Pout says of Strange: "He looks tike an In. tailor out of the laced wheel that wears a bucket on his head." The. laced wheel is a wide ruff; the bucket a tall hat without a brim. In Shirley's Fair One ii. 1, the Tutor says, "Are not In. heads, Spanish shoulders, Dutch bellies, and French legs the only notions of your reformed English gentleman?" In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Birdlime says, "She's in that In. head-tire you sent her." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p 565, Staines says, "It has been the fashion in England to wear your hat thus, in your eyes; your In. is contrary, he doth advance his hat, and sets it thus." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Fastidius tells how in a duel his opponent cut off "6 purls of an In. cut-work band I wore, cost me £3 in the Exchange." Cut-work is a kind of deeply scalloped embroidery. In Webster's White Devil i. 1, Lodovico says, "I'll make In. cut-works in their guts." In T. Heywood's F. M. Exch. 42, Phillis offers for sale "Fine falling-bands [i.e. fiat collars] of the In. cut-work." In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 4, Mortimer says of Gaveston: "He wears a short In. hooded cloke Larded with pearls." In Cromwell iii. 3, Hales says, "They that are rich in Spain spare belly-food To deck their backs with an In. hood And silks of Seville." In Shirley's Love Maze v. 5, Thorney describes his master as wearing "along In. I cloak, coming down to his elbows." In Trag. Richd. II. j ii. 3, 91," In. cloaks "are mentioned among the foreign fashions affected by the K. and his favourites. The English Lord in Merch. i. 2, 80, "bought his doublet in I." In Dekker's Hornbook i., the author says that in the golden age there was "no In.'s close strosser," i.e. tightfitting breeches. In Webster's Malfi ii. 1, Bosola says, "The Duchess, contrary to our In. fashion, Wears a , loose-bodied gown." In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius sings of "The In. in her high chapine." ', Coryat, in Crudities (161l) 261, says, "There is one thing used of the Venetian women that is not to be observed amongst any other women in Christendom. It is called a-Chapiney, which they wear under their shoes. By how much the nobler a woman is, by so much the higher are her Chapineys "Puttenham, in Art of Poesie (1589) i. 15, 49, says, "The actors did walk upon those high corked shoes which now they call in Spain and I. Shoppini "Fynes Moryson, in Rim (1617) iv. 1, 172t says, "The women of Venice wear chorines or shoes 3 or 4 hand-breadths high." In Ham. ii. 1, 445, Hamlet says to the actor who plays the women's parts, "Your Ladyship is nearer heaven than when I saw you last by the altitude of a Choppine." Lyly, in Euphues Anat. Wit, p. 140, mentions "the In. hilt" as part of a fashionable man's equipment. In Greene's Quip, p. 230, the Barber asks: "Will you have your Worship's hair cut after the In. manner, short and round, and then frounced with the curling-irons, to make it look like to a I. half-moon in a mist?" In Alimony ii. 2, Hoy says, "Art has taught her to repair a decayed complexion with an In. focus," i.e. a cosmetic. In Brome's City Wit ii. 2, Crasy professes to supply "mineral focuses, pomatums, fumes, Italian masks to sleep in."

Food and Cookery. In Massinger's Great Duke ii. 2, Petruchio says, Ins. . . . think, when they have supped upon an olive, A root, or bunch of raisins, 'tis a feast." Fynes Moryson, in Itin. iii. 2, 113, says, "The Ins. generally, compared with the English or French, are most sparing in their diet." In Massinger's Guardian ii. 3, Carlo speaks of "our In. delicate, oiled mushrooms." In Davenant's Rutland, p, 214, the Parisian speaks of the Londoner's "opinion of his beef before the veal of I." In Ford's Fancies iv. 2, Romano disclaims "In. collations, rich Persian surfeits." In Massinger's Madam i. 1, Lady Frugal says, "I'll have none touch what I shall eat. . . . But Frenchmen and Ins.; they wear satin, And dish no meat but in silver." Certain Ins. set up eating-houses in Lond., which from the delicacy of their cookery and the refinement of their service became fashionable. In Shirley's Pleasure v. 1, Bornwell says, "I have invited A covey of ladies and as many gentlemen Tomorrow to the In. ordinary; I shall have rarities and regalias To pay for, madam; music, wanton songs, And tunes of silken petticoats to dance to."

Music and Dancing. In Day's Humour ii. 2, Octavio says, "Love's nothing but an In. dump or a French brawl," i.e. is either doleful or quarrelsome. In Ford's Sun ii. 1, Signor Lavolta, an In. dancer, says, "Me tesha all de bella corantoes, gagliardas, pianettas, etc."

Painting and Statuary. In W.T. v. 2, 1050 it is stated that the supposed statue of Hermione was "Newly performed by that rare In. master, Julio Romano." This was Giulio Pippi, a disciple of Raphael's –a painter, not a sculptor–who flourished 1492–1546. In Shirley's Pleasure i. 1, Bornwell mentions, among the extravagances of a fashionable lady, "Pictures of this In. master and that Dutchman." Jonson, in Discoveries, p. 707, says, "There lived in this latter age six famous painters in I., who were excellent and emulous of the ancients: Raphael de Urbino, Michel Angelo Buonarota, Titian, Antony of Corregio, Sebastian of Venice, Julio Romano, and Andrea Sartorio."

Horticulture. The In. terraced or hanging gardens gave the model to Europe. A good example is the Vatican Garden, begun in the early 14th cent. by Nicholas V. In B. & F. Prize iii. 2, Maria says, "Take in a garden of some 20 acres And cast it of the In. fashion, hanging." In Davenant's Plymouth i. 1, Trifle speaks of "A stately edifice, For orchards, curious gardens, private walks, Like an In. palace."

The Drama and Literature. Whatever the influence of the In. drama upon the English, a point much disputed, In. stories were very extensively used for the plots of our comedies and tragedies. About one-fourth of the plays of this period have their scene in I., though hardly any local colour is used. The In. actors were famous for their improvisations; and the Masque, so popular in the reign of James I, was of In. origin. The In. stage was much more elaborately arranged and decorated than the English. In Hercules Prol. 45, the speaker excuses Plautus for modifying his Greek originals by saying: "Besides, French and Ins. do the same." In Kyd's Span. Trag. v. 1, Hieronimo says, "The In. tragedians were so sharp of wit that in one hour's meditation they would perform anything in action." In Middleton's Gipsy ii. 4, Fernando says, "There is a way Which the Ins. and the Frenchmen use, That is, on a word given or some slight plot, The actors will extempore fashion out Scenes neat and witty." Whetstone mentions in 1582 the visit to England of certain "comedians of Ravenna [who] were not tied to any written device [but who had] certain grounds or principles of their own." Hall, in Characters (1608), p. 139, says that the Vain-glorious man is "a Spanish souldier on an In. Theater; a bladder full of wind." Gascoigne, in Steel Glas, p. 59 (Arber), speaks of "These Enterludes, these new In. sports." In prologue to Government, he says, "An Enterlude may make you laugh your fill; In. toys are full of pleasant sport." In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 1, Gaveston says of the K.: "Music and poetry is his delight, Therefore I'll have In. masks by night." In Histrio. ii. 322, Landolpho, an In., says of the play: "I blush in your behalfs at this base trash. In honour of our I. we sport As if a synod of the holy gods Came to triumph within our theatres." The Harlequin (In."Arlecchino ") was a stock character in the old In. comedies, and originally represented a simple Bergamese manservant. In Day's Gulls iii. 1, the Page says, "I, like a harlequin in an In. comedy, stand making faces at both their follies." In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage i., Bartley says, "The knight would have. made an excellent zany in an In. comedy." In Day's Travails 56, one says, "Here's an In. Harlaken come to offer a play to your Lordship." Heywood, in Apol. for Actors ii. 43, speaks of "the Doctors, Zawnyes, Pantaloones, Harlakeenes in which the French, but especially the Ins., have been excellent." The sonnet-form was perfected–it may almost be said, created–by the In. poet Petrarch, who found many imitators in the Elizabethan age from the Earl of Surrey onward. In Ret. Pernass. i. 3, Judicio says, "Sweet honey-dropping Daniell doth wage War with the proudest big In. That melts his heart in sugred sonnetting."Samuel Daniel's sonnetsequence To Delia was published in 1592.

Professions and Occupations. The country districts of I. were infested with banditti: a band of them appear in Two Gent. v. 3, 4. In Massinger's Guardian v. 3, Alphonso says, "Since Severino commanded these banditti (though it be unusual in I.) they have not done one murder." The Mountebank, or travelling quack, is a familiar figure on the Elizabethan stage. He sold his medicines from a public stage and was usually accompanied by a zany, who enlivened the proceedings and drew the crowd by his jokes and antics. In Bristowe B. 3, Challener disguises himself as "an In. doctor." In Jonson's Volpone ii. 1, Volpone disguises himself as a mountebank, with Nano as his zany. Peregrine, observing him, says, "They are most lewd impostors; Made all of terms and shreds; no less beliers Of great men's favours than their own vile medicines; Which they will utter upon monstrous oaths, Selling that drug for 2d., ere they part, Which they have valued at 12 crowns before." Dekker, in Hornbook ii., says, "Send [the doctors] packing, to walk like In. mountebanks." In Shirley's Bird ii. 1, Bonamico says, "I. is full of juggling mountebanks that show tricks with oils and powders." In Triumphs Love iv., Bomelio, disguised as a mountebank, says, "I am Italiane, Neopolitane." These fellows performed all sorts of juggling tricks. King James, in Demonology i. 105, says that the devil teaches men tricks with cards, dice, etc., "as they who are acquainted with that In. called Scoto, yet living, can report." Jonson, in Epigram cxv., says that the Town's Honest Man "doth play more parts Than the In. could do, with his dore ": where his "dore," or "dor," may mean his familiar spirit, in the form of a beetle, or possibly his fool, or zany. Probably Jonson is thinking of Scoto, for in Volpone ii. 1, Volpone, in his mountebank's disguise, calls himself "Scoto Mantuano."

The glass-workers at Murano, near Venice, led the way in this industry in modern Europe, and it was by them that the art was introduced into England in the 16th cent. In Sharpham's Fleire i.445, when Fleire says that he is an In., the Knight replies, "O then thou canst make glasses." Travellers found that bugs were common in the In. inns. In Davenant's Rutland, p. 225, the Londoner speaks of them as" those other slow enemies which were bred in I."

The In. language, like French and Spanish, is an out growth from Latin. Dante exalted it to the dignity of a literary language, and in the 16th cent. it was the mark of a travelled and educated gentleman to speak In., or, at least, to know a few sentences and phrases in that tongue. Heylyn (s.v. ITALIE) says, "The language is very courtly and fluent; the best whereof is about Florence and Siena." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 565, Staines says, "Your In. is smooth and lofty and his language is cousin-german to the Latin." In Merch. i. 2, 75, Portia complains that the English lord "hath neither Latin, French, nor In." In Ham. iii. 2, 274, Hamlet says that the story of the play within the play is "extant in choice In." In Jonson's Cynthia provide 3, Amorphus says, "Your pedant should provide you some parcels of French or some pretty commodity of In., if you would be exotic and exquisite." In Chapman's D'Olive ii. 2, D'Olive says that "to make a few graceful legs and speak a little In." is all that is necessary to cut a figure at Court. In Randolph's Muses, iii. 4, Alazon asks Eiron, "You understand the In.?"and he replies, "A little, Sir; I have read Tasso."

Italic type, or Italica, was the type used by Aldus Manutius of Venice: it slopes from right to left, whilst the roman type was erect. In B. & F. Valour iv. 1, Lapet, intending to print the story of his misfortunes, bids the printer "put all the thumps in Pica Roman "and the kicks "in Italica; your backward blows all in Italica." The In., or Roman, hand in writing was the most fashionable for ladies, and was taught by the professors of the art. In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] iii. 4, Aurelia says, "My hand, I'm sure, is as like hers as the left is to the right; we were taught by the same master, pure In." See also under ROME.


(now THIAKI). The smallest island but one of the Ionian group, in the Adriatic, or Ionian, Sea, off the coast of Acamania. It is famous as the home of Odysseus, or Ulysses, and the scene of Penelope's patience and constancy. In Troil. i. 3, 70, Agamemnon addresses Ulysses: "Speak, prince of I." In Cor. i. 3, 94, Valeria says to Virginia, "You would be another Penelope; yet they say all the yarn she spun in Ulysses' absence did but fill I. full of moths." In Marston's Malcontent iii. 2, Malevole says, "Ulysses absent, O In., the chastest Penelope cannot hold out." In Massinger's Great Duke i. 2, Contarino says of Lidia: "Had Circe or Calypso her sweet graces, Wandering Ulysses never had remembered Penelope or I." Ulysses spent some time with these ladies on his way home from Troy, but ultimately broke away from them. In Greene's Orlando ii. 1, 470, Sacrepant asks: "Shall such a syren offer me more wrong Than they did to the Prince of I.?" Ulysses escaped the Syrens by stuffing his comrades' ears with wool, and having himself tied to the mast of his ship whilst he sailed past them. In T. Heywood's Iron Age A. iv., Ajax addresses Ulysses as "king of I." In Marmion's Leaguer iv. 1, the Pandar says of his establishment: "'Tis an island which, had Ulysses seen, He would prefer before his I." Herrick, in Welcome to Sack (1647), speaks of the joy of the returning merchant "when fires betray The smoky chimneys of his I." In his Parting Verse, he calls Penelope "that chaste queen of I." In Beguiled, Dods. ix. 267, Fortunatus says, "Thus have I passed The beating billows of the sea By I.'s rocks."


i.e. AETHALIA, another name for Lemnos, q.v.; and for llva, q.v.


(YEOVIL). A town in Somersetsh. on the Yeo, 33 m. S.W. of Bath. In Middleton's Quarrel v. 1, Chough, the Cornish bumpkin, boasts, "I could have had a whore at Plymouth." And Trimtram adds: "Or as you came at I." [quasi, evil].


An arch under which ran a road to the Thames, at the end of I. B. Lane, which used to run from the Strand to the river, between Bedford House and Durham House, nearly opposite Exeter Hall. Stow, in 1603, says that the bdge. had been taken down, but the lane still continued to mark the boundary between the Duchy of Lancaster and the City of Westminster. In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 1, when Delion, trying to find his way to Crutched Friars in the dark, runs into a post and asks what it is, Frisco tells him, mockingly, "'Tis the May-pole on I. B., going to Westminster."

The next minute he informs the unhappy Frenchman that they have reached the furthest end of Shoreditch! In Deloney's Newberie ix., Jack says, "I would have this trunk-borne to the Spread Eagle at Iviebridge."


A st. in Lond., running N. from Paternoster Row to Newgate St. It is mentioned by name as early as 1312 in a writ of 5 Edward II. Stow says that it was so called from the ivy which grew on the Prebend houses. Possibly it was named after St. Ive, who preached in England in the 7th cent. and died at St. Ives in Huntingdonshire; St. Ives in Cornwall is named after him too. In Dekker's Shoemaker's iv. 5, Firk remembers that he has to attend a meeting of "a mess of shoemakers at the Woolsack in I. L." In Jonson's Owls, Capt. Cox introduces the 1st owl: "This bird is Lond.. bred As you may see by his horned head, And had like to have been ta'en At his shop in I. L. Where he sold by the penny Tobacco as good as any." Armin, in Ninnies, tells how John was robbed of a pair of boots that he was taking home from a cobbler's in Newgate Market, "as he was going through I. L." Brome's Five New Plays were "Printed for H. Brome at the Gunn in I. L. 1659." T. Heywood's Maid of West was "Printed for Richard Royston and are to be sold at his shop in Ivie L. 1631."