The Hall of the H. Company in Lond. It stands in Maiden Lane, opposite to the Goldsmiths H. The site was bequeathed to the Company by William Baker in 1478. The original H. was destroyed in the Gt. Fire. It was used as the meeting-place of the Commissioners of Parliament during and after the great Civil War, and many confiscations of cavaliers' property were made there. In Cowley's Cutter [a.k.a. Guardian]i. 4, Jolly, the Cavalier, says that if he married the widow of Barebottle who had got his sequestrated estate, "That were as hard a composition for one's own as ever was made at H.-H."


A tributary of the Euphrates rising in Karej Dagh and flowing S.W. into the Euphrates at Karkaseea, after a course of abt. 200 m. According to II Kings xvii. 6, the Ten Tribes of Israel, after the capture of Samaria by Shalmaneser and Sargon, were transferred to "H., the river of Gozan." Milton, P. R. iii. 376, speaks of "those 10 Tribes Whose offspring in his territory yet serve In H." Milton, like the translators of the A. V., evidently regarded H. as the name of the dist., and did not know that it was a river.


A vill. in Bedfordsh., on Wading St., 6 m. N.W. of Dunstable and 5 E. of Leighton Buzzard. In Trag. Richd. II iii. 3, 48, the scene of which is laid at Dunstable, the Grazier says, "Here's my other neighbour, the butcher, that dwells at H., has heard his landlord tell strange tidings."


A vill. N. of Lond., a little over 2 m. from St. Paul's. It is now incorporated in the great city, but was in the 16th cent. a fashionable country suburb where many noble families resided. It was a favourite resort of the citizens for an afternoon's outing, and it was even suggested that H.-coaches were so called from their constant employment in taking people there: this is, however, a wrong derivation.

Jonson, in his Epigram to Mime, says, "There's no journey set or thought upon, To Brentford, H., Bow, but thou mak'st one." In Webster's Cuckold ii. 3, the 1st boy says, "Did he not dance the hobby-horse in H. Morrice once?"In Middleton's Black Book, p. 25, we are told of 2 men hanging in chains "between Mileend and H." In Trag. Richd. II iii. 2, 157, Woodstock says to the Lord who has come from Court to summon him thither, "You're pricked more with the spur than the provender, I see that. I think your dwelling be at H., when y' are at home." The point is that the Lord is a common h., or cheap roadster, in the service of the King. H., in the sense of a horse, has no connection with the place-name. Q. Elizabeth frequently visited H. with her Court. In Peele's Speeches of Q. Elizabeth iii. 7, the Mole-catcher says that in pursuit of the Q., "Next was I pointed to H.; there they said the Court was gone into the country."


A town in Suffolk-on the Brett, 8 m. W. of Ipswich. The play of Apollo Shroving was written for the boys of the Free School of H., probably by William Hawkins, and was performed by them on Shrove Tuesday, 1626.


In Barnes' Charter ii. 1, the Pope orders Gasper de Fois "on the turret of St. Adrian plant 6 more cannon." The reference is to the Castle of St. Angelo, q.v. It was originally the mausoleum of the Emperor H., built in A.D. 130. It is amusing to find the old Emperor turned into a saint.


A range of mtns. running from the Black Sea to the Adriatic across N. Thrace, especially the E. half of the range, the modern Balkans. In Caesar's Rev. v. 1, Antony, about to fight Brutus and Cassius at Philippi in Macedonia, S. of the H., says, "Hemus shall fat his barren fields with blood." In Fisher's Fuimus ii. 4, Laberius says, "Waken Gradivus where he sleeps on top of H." Gradivus is the god of War, Mars, to whom Thrace was specially sacred. In T. Heywood's Dialogues 5241, Io says that the Peneus "waters Hemonian Tempe." The epithet is not too happy, as Tempe lies a good way S. of the H. range. Spenser, F. Q. iii. 9, 22, tells how Enceladus, transfixed with the spear of Bellona, "down tumbled dead From top of H. by him heaped high." This was one of the legends of the war between the Giants and the Gods. In vii. 7, 12, he tells of the assembly of the gods "on H. hill" at the marriage of Peleus and Thetis. The marriage, however, took place on Mt. Pelion, not on H.


A town in S. Holland, 2 m. from the German Ocean, abt. 50 m. S.W. of Amsterdam. It is the handsomest and best-built city in the Netherlands. The court buildings in the centre of the city were bought by the States in 1595. It was sacked by the Spaniards in 1572, 1573, and 1574; restored by William I in 1576; and in 1584 made the seat of government for the United Provinces. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 1, Shift boasts, "I have seen Flushing, Brill, and the H., with this rapier, Sir, in my Lord of Leicester's time." Leicester was in the Netherlands 1585–1587. In Barnavelt ii. 1, Barnavelt says, "I'll back to the Hage and something there I'll do." The last scene describes his execution in front of the court buildings of the H. In Middleton's Quiet Life i. 1, the fashionable Lady Cressingham exclaims: "O the new fashioned buildings brought from the H.! 'Tis stately!" In Davenant's Plymouth v. 1, Inland speaks of "2 lofty younkers of the H." In Cartwright's Ordinary iv. 1, Credulous inquires, "What news from Bruxels or the H.?"


An abbey in Gloucestersh., just N. of Sudeley, near Winchcomb. It was founded by Richd., K. of the Romans, brother of Henry III. Richd.'s son Edmund brought the Holy Blood of our Lord from Germany, and presented a portion of it to the Abbey, where it became an object of great veneration. In 1538 it was examined by Latimer. He describes it as "inclosed within a round berall, garnished and bound on every side with silver." It turned out to be an unctuous gum coloured like blood. It was subsequently exhibited at St. Paul's Cross by Hilsey, Bp. of Rochester. The Palmer in J. Heywood's Four PP. i. 1, had been "at the blood of Hayles." In Bale's Johan 229, "the good blood of Hales" is mentioned as "amongst Sedition's relics." In his Three Laws ii., Infidelity says, "It was a good day when we went to the blood of Hales where no good cheer fails." In Chaucer's C. T. C. 652, "By the blood of Crist that is in Hayles" is mentioned as a common oath. Latimer, in Serm. vii. before Edward VI (1549), speaks of "this great abomination of the blood of Hales."


Now one of the S. provinces of Belgium, between Flanders and Namur. It formerly included a large part of the French Département du Nord. It belonged during the 10th and 11th cents. to the Counts of Flanders; fell to the house of Burgundy in 1436; and passed to the house of Austria in 1477. In 1678 the S. part was ceded to France, and in 1830 the rest became part of Belgium. In Marlowe's Ed. II iv. 2, Sir John of H. says to Q. Isabella, "Will your Grace with me to Henault And there stay time's advantage with your son?" This was in 1325. The invitation was accepted and young Prince Edward was affianced to the D.'s daughter Philippa. In Ed. III i. 1, Edward sends Derby as ambassador to "our father-in-law, the Earl of Henalt," to solicit his aid against the French. Spenser, F. Q. ii. 10, 21, tells of the British chief Ebranck, who "Warryed on Brunchild In Henault." And in 24, he speaks of the rivers being stained "With blood of Henalois which therein fell."


An ancient town in Prussian Saxony, 110 m. S.W. of Berlin. In Glapthorne's Wallenstein v. 2, Newman offers to sing "a military madrigal; I learned it of a red-faced sergeant at H."


A very common tavern-sign in Lond. There was one in the Strand, at the lower end of Bedford St.; another in Cheapside by Gutter Lane; another in Aldersgate St. on the W. side; and another in Milk St. Taylor, in Works ii. 37, says, "I do purpose to go dine at the H. Moone in Milk St." In the Arraignment of Robert Drewerie (1607), it is stated, "The forenamed meeting together in Aldersgate-st., went into the H. Moone tavern to drink." In Chapman's All Fools, v. 2 takes place in the H. M. Tavern in Florence.


A town on the N. cast of the Sinus Ceramicus in Caria, a little S. of Miletus. It was a very strong fortress, and its principal citadel was on a steep rock N. of the city, called Salmacis. At its foot was a well gushing out near the temple of Aphrodite, which was supposed to have an enervating influence on those who drank its waters. In Davenant's Salmacida Spolia it is stated: "On the top of the right horn of the hill which surrounds H. is a famous fountain of most clear water and exquisite taste, called Salmacis." Here on the rock E. of Salmacis, Artemisia built the famous mausoleum in honour of her brother Mausolus, which was regarded as one of the 7 wonders of the world. In T. Heywood's Dialogues xiii. 4279, Mausolus says, "I have a stately monument erected In H., famed for magnitude, With rare and never-equalled pulchritude."


A town in W. Riding, Yorks., on the Hebble, 36 m. S.W. of York. The cloth manufacture began in the 15th cent., and was much increased in the latter part of the 16th cent. by an influx of Netherlanders who came over to escape the persecutions of the Spaniards. It was famous for its "Gibbet Law," according to which anyone found within the forest of Hardwick, which was part of the parish of H., with stolen goods to the amount of 13 pence halfpenny was decapitated on a rude sort of guillotine, the remains of which may still be seen in the gaol. Hence the proverb, "From Hell, Hull, and H. good Lord deliver us." The last execution of this sort took place in 1650, and during the cent. preceding this 49 persons had suffered death. Nash, in Lenten (P. 324), says that if the Pope wanted King Red Herring he could seek him, "and neither in Hull, Hell, nor H." In Taylor, Works ii. 12, we have "From Hull, from H., from Hell, 'tis thus, From all these 3 good Lord deliver us." Drayton, in Polyolb. xxviii. 60, says that Caldor travels along "by Heading-H.," and in a note adds: "Beheading, which we call H. Law." In Deloney's Reading, one of the clothiers is "Hodgekins of H.": in chap. 4 he tells the K. that "the town of Halyfax lived altogether upon clothing," and gets the privilege of hanging at sight "whosoever they find stealing their cloth." In chap. 8 the story is told of the invention by a certain friar "of a certain gin that shall cut off their heads without man's help"; and Hodgekins gets leave of the K. to use it instead of hanging. To "H." is used in the sense of "to cut off." In Brome's Covent G. iv. 1, Nick says, "Mum, hold your tongue still in your mouth, lest I h. it with your teeth."


(WESTMINSTER HALL, q.v.). Middleton, in Black Book Intro., p. 8, says, "Ploughmen leave their field to till the H."


In Marlowe's Tamb. B. iii. 5, the K. of Soria says, "Of Sorians from H. is repaired . . . 10,000 horse." Soria seems to mean Tyre, the old Sor, and H. must be some city of importance in N. Palestine. Possibly Aleppo may be intended.


There are 2 Hams in Essex. W. H. is 41/2 m. from Lond. to the N.E., E. H. 61/2 m. to the E., but both are now, in fact as well as in name, part of "Greater London." There is another H. in Surrey, on the Thames, abt. 10, m. S.W. of Lond., between Richmond Park and Teddington, where H. House was built for Henry, Prince of Wales, son of James I. In Dekker's Westward ii. 3, Whirlpool says, "We'll take a coach and ride to H." Probably the Surrey H. is intended. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. i. Josselin says, "My mansion is at H., and thence you know I come to help you." In Dekker's Edmonton i. 2, Carter says of Somerton: "He has a fine convenient estate of land in W. H. by Essex."


A scriptural name for Egypt, as being peopled by the descendants of H., the 2nd son of Noah. In Gen. x. 6, Mizraim (the two Egypts) is one of the sons of H, and no doubt the original inhabitants of Egypt were Hamitic, though the dominant race in historical times was Semitic in descent. In Psalms cv. 23 (Prayer Book vn.), it is said: "Israel also came into Egypt; and Jacob was a stranger in the land of H." In Middleton's Family v. 3, Gerardine, thinking of this passage, says to Purge, "You have made your wife A stranger in your land of H." In Mariam i. 6, Constabarus says, "Mildest Moses, friend unto the Lord, Did work his wonders in the land of H."


(now HAMAH). An important city on the Orontes, in N. Syria, abt. 100 m. S.E. of Antioch. In Numbers xxxiv. 7, 8, it is mentioned as the N. limit of the part of Syria assigned to the Israelites. Milton, P. L.xii. 139, states that God promised to the progeny of Abraham "all that land From H. northward to the Desert S."


The most important commercial city on the continent of Europe. It lies on the N. bank of the Elbe, at the point where it is joined by the Alster, 93 m. from its mouth. It was a leading member of the Hanseatic League and a free city of the Empire. It was famous for its beer. Taylor, in Works iii. 78, speaks of "kilderkins fraught with H. beer." In Davenant's Plymouth i. 2, Mrs. Carrack boasts," My husband . . . took a prize from the Hamburghers." The late Mr. Carrack was a seaman. In Davenant's Playhouse i., the housekeeper mentions, in a list of applicants for the theatre: "The German fool, Yan Boridge of Hamb'rough." Heylyn (s.v. GERMANIE) says of H.: "In this town are 777 brewers, 1 lawyer, 1 physician, and 40 bakers." Fynes Moryson i. (1591), says, "The citizens are unmeasurably ill affected to the English," owing partly to the removal of the English trade to Stoade.


The castle of Ham in Picardy, on the Somme, 70 m. N.E. of Paris. It has frequently been used as a state prison, one of the most distinguished prisoners being Louis Napoleon, afterwards Emperor of France. In H6 C. v. 5, 2, after the battle of Barnet, K. Edward says, "Away with Oxford to H. C. straight." This is an anticipation of the event. Oxford escaped from Barnet, but was ultimately besieged and captured at St. Michael's Mt. in 1473 and sent to H. C., where he was kept a close prisoner for 12 years. In True Tragedy, p. 84, Richd.'s page says, "The valiant Earl of Oxford, being but mistrusted, is kept close prisoner in H. C."


Vill. on the N. bank of the Thames, 6 or 7 m. W. of St. Paul's, Lond. The ch. was built in 1631. In Jonson's Tub i. 2, To-Pan says that his ancestor To-Pan beat the first kettle-drum before Julius Caesar on his march from Dover, "Which piece of monumental copper hangs up, scoured, at H. yet; for there they came over the Thames at a low water-mark." To-Pan is not so very far out in his identification of the place where Caesar crossed the Thames. Mr. Montagu Sharp has recently brought forward many conclusive reasons for fixing the crossing described in De Bell. Gall. v. 11, 8, at Brentford, 3 m. W. of H. In Brome's Covent G. i. 1, Cockbrain tells of a west-country gentleman who has come to Lond.: "he was to lie at H. last night." In his Northern ii. 1, Widgin says, "I am a Cockney and was never further than H."


A county on the S. coast of England. In Stucley 254, Stucley asks his father, "How does my mother, Sir, and all in H.?" This is a slip, as Devonshire, not H., was the home of the Stucley family. In May's Old Couple iv. 2, Sir Argent Scrape says, "I'll purchase all in parcels, far from home; In H. some." Edell, Earl of H., appears in the army of K. Etheldred in Brewer's Lovesick King. In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 552, Scattergood describes himself as "of the Scattergoods of H." In Trag. Richd. II. iv. 1, 207, "H." is one of the counties granted by the K. to Bagot.




(i.e. SOUTHAMPTON, q.v.). In H5 ii. 2, 91, the K. tells of the conspiracy of Cambridge and others "to kill us here in H." The Chorus (iii. 4) says, "Suppose that you have seen The well-appointed K. at H. pier Embark his royalty." The Ff. read "Dover," but Theobald's correction to "H." is generally adopted as being in accordance with the facts. In Thersites (A. P. i. 199), Mulciber, having armed Thersites, says, "If Bevis of H., Colburn, and Guy Will thee essay, set not by them a fly." This Bevis was one of the heroes of mediaeval romance: a picture of him and the giant Ascupart, whom he slew, was long preserved in the Guildhall of Southampton, over Bar-Gate. His story is told in Drayton's Polyolb. ii.


A palace on the N. bank of the Thames, abt. 15 m. W. of Lond. It was built by Cardinal Wolsey and presented by him to Henry VIII, who enlarged it considerably. Wren built a 3rd quadrangle for William III. Its grounds are now a public park, and a number of decayed gentlemen and gentlewomen are granted the occupancy of rooms in it. In Greene's Friar, scene iv. is laid at "the C. at H. House", but this is an obvious anachronism. In Nash's Wilton, the Earl of Surrey exclaims, "O thrice imperial H. C., Cupid's enchanted castle." He met his Geraldine there. The Great Hall was often used for the production of plays: thus Bristowe was "played at H. before the K. and Q." in 1605. Jonson, in Epigram to Mistress Carey, says, "Retired 'mongst H. shades, And Phoebus' grove of bays, I plucked a branch." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. A. 232, Philip says of the Princess Elizabeth: "We now will have her brought to H. C., There to attend the pleasure of the Q." Herrick, in Tears to Thamesis (1647), recalls his trips up the river "To Richmond, Kingston, and to H. C."




Now HAMPSTEAD. A small Vill. 5 m. N.W. of St. Paul's, Lond. Now a suburb of the great city, but in the 16th cent. a separate hamlet, chiefly inhabited by washerwomen. In the 18th cent. it became a favourite resort of Londoners. In Jonson's Tub i. 1, "Old Rasi' Clench of H, petty constable," is one of the members of the self-styled Council of Finsbury, who had set themselves to find a husband for Mrs. Awdrey Turfe, the daughter of the High Constable of Kentish Town.


A piece of open ground, originally 500 acres in extent, lying N. of the vill. of H. In 1870 the Metropolitan Board of Works bought the manorial rights for £45,000, and made it the property of the citizens. In Jonson's Tub iv. 3, Hilts says to Metaphor, "Thou, that when last thou wert put out of service, travelled'st to H. H. on an Ash-We'nesday, where thou didst stand 6 weeks the Jack of Lent, for boys to hurl, 3 throws a penny, at thee." This shows that the Heath was already in Jonson's time a holiday resort for the Londoners. One may still hear on any Bank Holiday the echo of Jonson's phrase: "3 shies a penny "


A Lond. bookseller's sign. Liberality was "Printed by Simon Stafford for George Vincent and are to be sold at the sign of the H.-i.-H. in Wood st. over against St. Michael's ch. 1602."


The Druidical remains known as Stonehenge, 9 m. N. of Salisbury. In Middleton's Quarrel v. 1, Chough starts a catalogue of the places where he could have made conquests of women. Amongst them is "the H. S. in Wilts." In the names of most of the places there is a double entendre, as in this.


The capital of the province of Hanau in Hesse-Cassel, at the confluence of the Kinzig and the Main, near Frankfurt, 250 m. S.W. of Berlin. In 1593 it received a large number of refugees from the Low Countries, whose industry greatly developed its wealth. It was involved in the 30 Years' War, and was taken by the Swedes in 1632 and recaptured by the Imperialists in 1636 after a stubborn resistance. Jonson, in his Epigram cvii. To Capt. Hungry, says, "Keep your names Of H., . . . and Boutersheim For your next meal." The Capt. got his meals by telling stories of his imaginary exploits at these places.


In Mankind, p. 23, New Guise says, "First I shall begin at Master Huntington of Sanston; from thence I shall go to William Thurlay of H., and so forth to Pilchard of Trumpington." The mention of Trumpington suggests that H. and Sanston are to be looked for in the neighbourhood of Cambridge. Sanston I guess is meant for Sawston, an old vill. 6 m. S. of Cambridge; and H. I take to be Histon, a vill. 4 m. N.W. of Cambridge. Many villages are mentioned in this Morality; all of them in Norfolk or Cambridgesh. Obviously the play was written by someone familiar with this country–possibly some Cambridge man.


(see FORTUNATE ISLANDS). These fabulous islands of the blessed were often identified with the Hesperides, q.v. They were supposed to be in the W. Atlantic, and some thought them to be the W. Indies. In B. & F. Bonduca i. 2, Petillius, speaking of the extravagant demands of the soldiers, says, "Orontes must be sought for, And apples from the H. I." In Locrine ii. 1, 50, Estrild says of Britain: "These are the h. Iles." In B. & F. Prize ii. 1, Petronius says, "There they'll sail, As brave Columbus did, till they discover The h. islands of obedience."


(originally HABICHTSBURG, i.e. HAWK'S CASTLE). A castle, now in ruins, on the Aar, in the canton of Aargau, Switzerland. It gave their name to the Counts of H., from whom was descended Rudolf, elected K. of Germany in 1273, the founder of the Royal House of the Hs., from whom the late Emperor of Austria was descended. In Greene's Friar iv., the Emperor (Frederick II) says, "From H. have I brought a learned clerk . . . surnamed Jaques Vandermast." Frederick was a Hohenstaufen, and had no connection with the Hs., but Greene is speaking in the language of his own time, when the H. Rudolph II was Emperor. By H. he means simply Germany, as in ix., where Bungay says, "H. holds none such, None read so deep as Oxenford contains." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. A. 202, Philip and Mary are proclaimed "Count and Countess of Hasburg, Majorca, Sardinia."


A very ancient city in N.W. Mesopotamia, on the Belias, a tributary of the Euphrates, 600 m. N.W. of Ur of the Chaldees. Its tutelary god was Sin, the Moon-god, who was also the tutelary god of Ur. There is, therefore, ground for believing that it was a colony from Ur, and this would account for Abraham choosing it for his residence after his migration from Ur. (see Gen. xi. 31). It is the Carrae where the Parthians defeated and captured Crassus. It is now an insignificant vill. Milton, P.L. xii. 131, says of Abraham: "He leaves . . . Ur of Chaldaea, passing now the ford To H." Apparently Milton thought that H. was W. of the Euphrates, and that Abraham would have to cross the river to get to it.


A vill. in the N.W. of Middlesex county, 17 m. from Lond. Here was the seat of the Lord Chancellor Ellesmere, who married Alice, the widow of the 5th Earl of Derby. After the Chancellor's death his widow retained her old title, "Countess of Derby." Milton's Arcades is styled, "Part of an entertainment presented to the Countess Dowager of Derby at H." The house was destroyed by fire in 1660.


(spelt HARFLEW in the old editions, HARFLUE in Holinshed). A town in France on the N. bank of the estuary of the Seine, 4 m. E. of Havre. Its fine Gothic church was built by Henry V as a thank-offering after the battle of Agincourt. It was taken by Edward the Black Prince in 1346; and again by Henry V in 1415. In Ed. III iii. 3, Prince Edward says, "Some of their strongest cities have we won, As Harflew, Lo, Crotay, and Carentigne." In H5 iii., Chor. 17, we are told that the K.'s Fleet is "Holding due course to Harflew "and in 27, that the ordnance are "With fatal mouths gaping on girded Harflew ": iii. 1, 2, and 3 are laid before H., and describe its siege and capture. In iii. 5, 49, the French K. describes the English pennons as "painted in the blood of Harflew "; and in iii. 6, 128, Montjoy, the French Ambassador, tells Henry, "we could have rebuked him at Harflew."




A city in N. Holland on the Spaaren, 12 m. W. of Amsterdam. It was taken by Alva in 1572. In Barnavelt v. 2, the executioner of H. throws dice with his brethren of Leyden and Utrecht for the honour of beheading Barnavelt. Utrecht wins. In Larum A. 4, the Gunner at the siege of Antwerp says, "We have raised the cannons that came last from Harlam." This refers to the cannon taken by the Spaniards at H. in 1572.


A town in Norfolk, 17 m. S. of Norwich and 41/2 from Fressingfield. In Greene's Friar i. 137, Prince Edward says, "Next Friday is St. James' And then the country flocks to H. fair." Scene III takes place at H. Fair, which is held on July 5th: St. James's Day is 25th July, so that the Prince is 3 weeks late in his calculation.


A town in Norfolk, more fully E. Harling, 20 m. S.W. of Norwich. W. Harling is about 2 m. S. of it. In Day's B. Beggar, one of the prominent characters is "a Norfolk man, one Strowd of H."


Probably Harlow is meant, a town on the border of Herts. in Essex, 20 M. N. of Lond. It was formerly the seat of a considerable woollen manufacture, and its fair, known as Harlow Bush Fair, was widely celebrated. In Wit and Wisdom (A. P.) i. 2, Idleness says, "We came over the sea into Kent and we got its both down to H.-b."


A bookseller's sign in London. Webster's White Devil was "Printed by Hugh Perry at the sign of the H. in Britaine's Burse. 1631." The Tragedy of Hoffman was published at the same place in the same year. Marston's Tragedies and Comedies was "Printed by A. M. for William Sheares at the H. in Britaines Burse. 1633."


A tavern on the outskirts of Lond., but there is nothing to show exactly where it was. In B. & F. Coxcomb iii. 2, the Tinker says, "There's ale will make a cat speak at the H."


A vill. in Middlesex, 10 m. N.W. of Lond. The Hill is crowned by the ch. of St. Mary, founded in the reign of William I. It owes its chief reputation to the school founded by John Lyon of Preston in 1571 and actually opened in 1611. At first intended for the poor boys of the neighbourhood, it is now one of the great public schools of England. In J. Heywood's Weather, p. 100, Report says, in his alliterative list, he has been ". . . . at H.-o.-H." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 2 (4 in old edns.), Puntarvolo mentions one "Signior Clog, that was hanged for the robbery at H. o' t. h." Harman, in Caveat 24, mentions a tavern, "Draw-the-pudding-out-of-the-fire in H.o.t. hyll," which was a common resort of rogues and vagabonds. In Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, one of the characters is introduced as "Master Bartholomew Cokes of H. o' t. H., in the county of Middlesex, esquire." In iii. 1, after his unfortunate experiences in the Fair, he says, "Lord, send me home once more to H.-o-t.-H. again; if I travel any more, call me Coriat with all my heart ": "Coriat" being the eccentric author of the Crudities, who travelled over Europe on one pair of shoes, which he hung up as a votive offering in his native parish ch.




On the S.W. road from Lond., near Bagshot Heath, Surrey. Notorious for highway robberies. Parson Haben was robbed here by 7 thieves, who then made him preach them a sermon in praise of thieving "upon a mold hill at Hartely R." 2 copies of the sermon are preserved in MS., and are printed in Viles and Furnivall's Rogues and Vagabonds. It is satisfactory to know that the sermon so pleased the audience that the preacher's money was returned.


A spt. on the coast of Essex, on a promontory in the estuary of the Stour and Orwell, 70 m. N.E. of London. It has one of the finest harbours on the E. coast of England, and is the natural point of departure for Holland. In Jonson's Staple iii. 1, Fitton suggests, as the subject of a sensational paragraph, that Spinola has a new project "to bring an army over in cork-shoes and land them here at H." Spinola was the famous Spanish engineer whose captures of Juliers in 1622 and of Breda in 1625, the year of the production of this play, were in everyone's mouth. In J. Heywood's Weather, p. 100, Report includes H. in his alliterative list. Spenser, F. Q. iv. 11, 33, speaks of the Stour that "Clare and Harwitch both doth beautify." In Deloney's Craft ii., Sir Hugh lands "at a place called H." The scene of Percy's Cuckqueans, written in 1601 for the Paul's Boys, was in part H.: Colchester and Maldon being at the same time supposed to be represented by other sections of the stage.


A town on the coast of Sussex, one of the Cinque Ports, 64 m. S.E. of Lond. It has given its name to the battle in which William the Conqueror defeated Harold, though the battle was actually fought at Senlac, where Battle Abbey now stands, some 5 m. inland. The Lord H. who appears in H6 C. and R3 was descended from William de H., the steward to Henry I. He became Baron H. in 1461, and was beheaded on Tower Hill in 1483. The Lord H. of H4 B. was not a lord at all, but Sir Ralph H., beheaded at Durham in 1405. Drayton, in Barons' Wars v. 49, recalls how William the Conqueror "The fields of H. did defile With Saxon blood and Harold did surprise."


A town in Herts., 18 m. N.W. of Lond. Near it is H. House, erected first as the palace of the Bps. of Ely. It came into the hands of Henry VIII in 1538, and remained a royal palace till 1607, when James I exchanged it for Theobalds with Sir Robert Cecil. afterwards Earl of Salisbury, in whose family it still remains. In H6 B. ii. 2, 12, York mentions "William of H." as the 2nd son of Edward III; and by a curious coincidence it is Salisbury who, in line 33, says "William of H. died without an heir." In Oldcastle iii. 1, Cambridge says, "William of H., and their 2nd brother, Death, in his nonage, had before bereft." A play entitled Holophernes was acted before the Princess Elizabeth at H. House in 1556.


A mansion built on the site of the orchard and garden of Ely Place, Holborn (q.v.), by Sir Christopher H. in the reign of Elizabeth. It came later the hands of the D. of Richmond, whose corpse lay in state there in 1624. About 1654 it was pulled down and the present H. Gardens was built on its site. In Shirley's Peace, which was presented before the K. and Q. in Whitehall in 1633, "At Ely and H. Houses the gentlemen and their assistants met and prepared for the Court." The Masque was one of the most magnificent ever presented, and cost at least £21,000. Wright, in English Actors, tells how in 1648 a company of actors playing the Bloody Brother were arrested and carried away "to H. H., then a prison."


The capital of Pembrokesh., S. Wales, on the W. Cleddy, 251 m. W. of Lond. In R3 iv. 5, 7, in answer to Derby, Sir Christopher Urswick informs him that Richmond is "At Pembroke or at H., in Wales." According to Hall, Chron., p. 410, "The earl arrived in Wales in the evening of August 7th at a port called Milford Haven, and at the sun-rising removed to Harrford west where he was received of the people with great joy."


A dist., according to Gen. ii. 11, encompassed by the Pison, "where there is gold, and the gold of that land is good." It is generally identified with N.E. Arabia, but there is much doubt about its exact locality. In Mason's Mulleasses 1409, Eunuchus says of Bordello's readiness to come to meals: "You speak of the days of hunger, when the slave was a stranger in the land of H., but the word is retrograde; the last age is a golden age with him," i.e. he used to be poor, but now has got into the golden age of the land of H.


The home of the poet William Drummond, 7 m. S. of Edinburgh, on the Esk. Here Ben Jonson visited Drummond in 1619, and Drummond embodied his recollections of the visit in the well-known Conversations. In Jonson's New World (1620), the Printer says, "One of our greatest poets went to Edinburgh on foot and came back; marry, he has been restive, they say, ever since."


One of the fortresses in which, according to H. Shirley's Mart. Soldier iii. 4, Huneric, K. of the Vandals, had Christian prisoners confined. I have not been able to identify it.


(i.e. BAAL–HAZOR). The present Tell Asur, 5 m. N. of Bethel, in Palestine. Here Absalom had a farm, where he treacherously slew his brother Amnon (1I Sam. xxiii). The murder is described in Peele's Bethsabe; and in ii. 3, David says to Absalom, "Hast thou slain [Ammon] in the fields of H.?" Ammon was inserted by Dyce, but it should be Amnon, not Ammon. Peele, however, calls the unhappy Prince Ammon throughout the play, probably by confusion with the nation Ammon, whose K. is one of the characters.


A subterranean apartment under Westminster Hall, granted by Henry VII to Antony Keene in 1485. But the name was transferred to a house of entertainment opposite the end of Henry VII's Chapel. In Jonson's Alchemist v. 2, Dapper is instructed by Subtle, "Her Grace would have you eat no more Woolsack pies, no Dagger frumety "; and Doll continues, "Nor break his fast in H. and Hell."


(commonly spelt EBREW in earlier English). A name first applied to Abraham (Gen. xiv. 13), and meaning "the man from over the river [Euphrates] "; then given to his descendants through Jacob, and equivalent to Jew, but without the offensive religious and social associations which have gathered round the latter name. In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass iv. 1, 1357, Jonas says, "I am an Hebrue born." Milton, p. R. iv. 335, speaks of "our H. songs and harps, in Babylon That pleased so well our victor's ear "(see Ps. cxxxvii. 3). In S. A. 1, 308, the Officer addresses the Chorus as "Ebrews"; and in 1319, Samson says, "I am an Ebrew." So, in 1540, the chorus calls the Messenger "An Ebrew." In Merch. i. 3, 58, Shylock speaks of "Tubal, a wealthy H. of my tribe." In line 179, Antonio says of Shylock: "This H. will turn Christian." Chaucer, in House of Fame iii. 343, speaks of "the Ebrayke Josephus." In T. Heywood's S. Age ii. 1, Josua is called "Duke unto the H. nation." In Day's Travails (Bullen, p. 54), Zariph says, "The H. God Bless them that cast kind greeting at the Jew." The word is used contemptuously, especially when amplified by "Jew." In Two Gent. ii. 5, 57, Launce says to Speed, "Go with me to the ale-house; if not, thou art an H., a Jew, and not worth the name of a Christian." In H4 A. ii. 4, 198, Falstaff, telling his story of the affair at Gad's Hill, says, "They were bound, every man of them; or I am a Jew else, an Ebrew Jew." The study of H. as the language of the O.T. was eagerly encouraged by the Puritans. In Mayne's City Match ii. 2, Baneswright, talking about a Puritan lady, says, "She can expound, and teaches to knit in Chaldee and work H. samplers." The H. language is written from right to left. In Middleton's Old Law iii. 1, Gnotho hopes "the clerk understands no H. and cannot write backward what he hath writ forward already." Dekker, in Armourers, says that Violence "reads Law as men read H., backward." In Partiall iii. 2, Lucina says, "Dreams are always read, like H., backwards." In Chapman's Bussy iii. 2, 46, Bussy describes a luxurious cleric as eating pheasants and partridges, and "Venting their quintessence as men read H.," i.e. backwards! Few people understood H.: hence it comes to mean something unintelligible. In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass: i. 3, 304, AIcon says of a usurer: "Thou speakest H. to him when thou talkest to him of conscience." In Chapman's Bussy v. 1, Bussy cries: "Murdered! I know not what that H. means." In B. & F. French Law. ii. 1, Cleremont says, "Yield up my sword! That's H.; I'll first be cut to pieces." In Ev. Wom. I. iv. 2, Bos, when reproached for being too dark, says, "I speak H. indeed, like Adam and Eve before they fell to spinning." In Val. Welsh. iv. 1, when the Roman Ambassador cannot understand Morgan's Welsh-English, he exclaims, "Doth Morgan speak H. or not?"In Brome's Queen's Exch. ii. 2, Jeffrey says, "We must forbear! What H.'s that a We understand not what 'must forbear' means."

The H. Cabbala was supposed to have some magic character. It was in fact the oral tradition of the interpretation of the O.T., but it was naturally an esoteric matter to the Gentile, and he attached all sorts of imaginary powers to it. In Underwit ii. 2, Device says, "Your Hieroglyphick was the Egiptian wisdom, your H. was the Cabala." In Brewer's Lingua i. 1, Lingua speaks of "The ancient H. clad with mysteries." One of the books of the N.T. is the Epistle to the Hs., frequently, but erroneously, ascribed to St. Paul. More probably it was written by Apollos; or, as some think, Priscilla. In Juventus, p. 157, Good Counsel says, "I will shew you what S. Paul doth declare in his epistle to the Hebrues, and the x chapiter."


The group of islands lying off the W. coast of Scotland. There are about 300 of them, of which 80 are inhabited: the rest are little more than rocks. The most important are Lewis, N. and S. Uist, Skye, Jura, Islay, and Aran. Milton, Lycidas 156, pictures the body of his drowned friend, Edward King, as being hurled "beyond the stormy H." He was drowned in the Irish Sea. See also EUBIDES.


One of the oldest cities in the world, lying in a fertile valley in S. Syria, 19 m. S. of Jerusalem. It is now called Khalil-er-Rahman. Abraham was reported to have settled in its neighbourhood, and to have bought the cave of Machpelah from the Hittites, who then inhabited it, as a burial place. There Abraham, Isaac, Rebekah, Leah, and Jacob were buried, and the mosque erected over the cave is one of the most sacred places in the Mahommedan world. David took it as his capital in the early part of his reign, before he had captured Jerusalem from the Jebusites. In Peele's Bethsabe ii. 1, David, being told of his son's approaching death, says, "Ye sprouting almonds, Droop, drown, and drench in H.'s fearful streams." In Milton, S. A. 148, the Chorus tell how Samson "bore the gates of Azza . . . up to the hill by H., seat of giants old "(see Judges xvi. 3). According to Joshua xv. 13, H. originally belonged to the Anakim, or Giants.




Now the Maritza, the principal river of Thrace, rising at the foot of Mt. Rhodope, and falling into the AEgean Sea opposite Samothrace. According to the Greek legend, Orpheus settled in Thrace after the return of the Argonautic expedition. His devotion to the lost Eurydice inflamed the jealousy of the Thracian Maenads, and they tore him limb from limb and flung the remains into the H. In Nero iii. 2, Nero says, "They tell of Orpheus, when he took his lute . . . H. stood still, Pangaeus bowed his head." In Rutter's Shepherd. Hol. iii. 3, a song begins: "Orpheus on the banks of H. torn." Milton, Lyc. 63, says of Orpheus: "His gory visage down the stream was sent, Down the swift H. to the Lesbian shore." Spenser, in F. Q. i. 11, 30, says of the Well of Life: "Ne can Cephise nor H. match this well." The waters of the H. were supposed to be specially pure. In Selimus 2491, Selim says, "Mars Scatters the troops of warlike Thracians And warms cold H. with hot streams of blood." Mars was specally associated with Thrace.


("the city of a hundred gates"), The ancient capital of Parthia, lying somewhere S.E. of the Caspian Sea at a distance Of 224 m. (Strabo) or 122 (Pliny). The exact site is uncertain. Milton, p. R. iii. 287, says, "Ecbatane her structure vast there shows, And H. her hundred gates." In Bacchus, the 16th guest was "a pleasant Parthian of the stately city Catompylon."


(= EDIN'S, or ETIN'S HALL). In Berwicksh., on Cockburn Law, 4 m. N. of Duns. In Ford's Warbeck iv. 1, Surrey mentions that "the glory of H. H." has been "devasted" by the English. This was in the expedition against the Scotch, who had supported Perkin Warbeck in 1497.


An ancient city now in Baden, formerly the capital of the Palatinate. It lies on the S. bank of the Neckar, 12 m. from its junction with the Rhine. The castle, on the W. of the town on a hill 330 ft. above the Neckar, is the finest in Germany. It was begun in the 13th cent., and much enlarged by the Elector Rupert and Ferdinand V. K. of Bohemia. Since 164 it has been a ruin. In the vaults of the castle was the famous Tun of H., constructed 1589–1591. The present Tun [in 1925], which holds 49,000 gallons, was made in 1751 to take the place of the earlier one. The university is the oldest in Germany, and was founded in 1356 by the Elector Rupert. After the Reformation it became a stronghold of Protestantism, and from it was issued in 1563 the famous H. Catechism. The city suffered much in the 30 Years' War, and was taken and pillaged in 1622 by Tilly. In Chettle's Hoffman C. 4, Ferdinand is styled "Prince of H., lord of Pomer, and D. of Prussia." This wild story of revenge has no historical foundation. In Jonson's Alchemist ii. 1, Ananias tells Subtle that the brethren will not venture any more in the way of supplying him with materials for converting into gold: for this reason amongst others, that "one at H. made it of an egg And a small paper of pin-dust." In iii. 1, Tribulation Wholesome reproaches Ananias for upbraiding braiding Subtle "with the brethren's blessing of H.", i.e. their success in making gold as stated above. In Shirley's Wedding i. 1, Isaac says of Lodam: "The barrel of H. was the pattern of his belly." In Taylor, Works ii. 74, he says that Coryat needs a cask to hold his books "much bigger than the Hian. bumbard." In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Thorowgood says, "The little Conduit shall be still, like the great Tun of H., filled with wine." In his Wallenstein v. 2, Newman says, "And 'twere the tun of H., I'd drink it off." Jonson, in Underwoods lxx., speaking of his own stoutness, says, "But yet the Tun at H. had hoops." Coryat, in Crudities 486 (1611), gives a very full account of the Tun and a picture of himself standing on top of it. According to his computation it contained about 34,000 gallons. Herrick, in Epig. on Spunge (1647), who boasts of his capacity for beer, says. "His triumph's poor; I know the Tun of H. holds more." In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] ii. 5, Puny says, "We'll drink up a whole vessel . . . so big that the Tun of Heydelburg shall seem but a barrel of pickled oysters to it."


A ch. in Lond., in Gt. St. Helen's Pl., on the E. side of Bishopsgate St. Within. It was the ch. of the Priory of the Nuns of St. H., founded 1212, and also the parish ch. It has 2 parallel naves, one for each purpose, divided by a screen. It was one of the very few City churches that escaped the Gt. Fire. Here were buried Sir John Crosby and Sir T. Gresham. In an assessment roll of 1598, the name of William Shakespeare occurs 19th in the list of inhabitants of the parish of St. H. as the owner of property of the value of L5: probably the furniture of his rooms. A memorial window to the poet has been placed in the ch. by an American donor. In Brome's Covent G. iv. 1, the Puritanical Gabriel inquires of Madge, whom he supposes to have come from Amsterdam, "how the 2 zealous brethren thrive there that broke in St. Hellens." These were doubtless a couple of Puritans who had interfered with the ch. services in some way. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 57, Crosbie says, "In little St. H. will I be buried." The altar-tomb with the recumbent figures of himself and his lady is on the S. side of the chancel.


The third of the 6 gates of Troy. The prol. to Troil. 16 speaks of "Priam's six-gated city, Dardan, and Tymbria, H., Chetas, Troien, and Antenorides." The list is taken from Caxton's Destruction of Troy iii. 4.


A mtn., or rather a range of mtns., in Boeotia, between Lake Copais and the Corinthian Gulf. They were sacred to the Muses. The 2 fountains, Aganippe and Hippocrene, issuing from the slopes of the range, were supposed to inspire those who drank of them with poetic passion. In Nero i. 4, Lucan, speaking of his poem on the Civil Wars, says, "I love the unnatural wounds from whence did flow Another Cirrha, a new H.": where, as is common in the 16th cent. writers, the mtn. is confused with the springs. In Jonson's Cynthia v. 3, Crites condemns the company of selflovers to "Pass to the well of knowledge, H." In Glapthorne's Wit i. 1, Thorowgood asks: "will the Cabalists drink their morning's draught of H. with you?" In Pilg. Pernass. ii. 1, Madido says, "There is no true Parnassus but the 3rd loft in a wine tavern, no true H. but a cup of brown bastard." In Ford's Sacrifice ii. 1, Maurccio, the would-be poet, says, "I am rapt with fury; and have been for these 6 nights together drunk with the pure liquor of H." In Randolph's Hey Hon. v., we read of "poor shallow scoundrels that never drank any H. above a penny a quart." In H4 B. v. 3, 107, Pistol says, "Shaft dunghill curs confront the Hs.!" I suppose by Hs. he means true poets, though it is wasted labour to try to discover anything but idle rhodomontade in much that he says. In Lyly's Maid's Meta. v., Phoebus addresses the Muses as "You sacred sisters of fair Helicon." In Ev. Wom. I. ii. 1, Terentia exclaims, "Oh, a fine tongue dipped in H.! In Chapman's May Day iii. 3, Lodovico says, "We have watered our horses in H.", i.e. we too are poets. In his D'Olive iii. 2, D'Olive proposes to have in his house a statue of a poet with his nose running as if he had a cold in the head: "it shall like a spout run pure wit all day long;–and it shall be fed with a pipe brought at my charge from H. over the Alps and under the sea." In Brewer's Lovesick ii., Thornton says, "If there be any Hellicon in England, 'tis here at Newcastle, every coal-pit has a relish on't, for who goes down but he comes out as black as ink?"In Suckling's Goblins iv., the devil says of the Poet: "We have set him with his feet in a great tub of water in which he dabbles and believes it to be H." In Brome's Ct. Beggar i. 1, Gabriel says of a madman: "He was a poet that drunk too deep of H." In his City Wit ii. 1, Crasy addresses Sarpego as "Minion of the Muses, dear water-bailey of H." In his New Academy ii. 1, Lady Nestlecock says of Whimlby: "Alas, good Knight!He weeps pure H." In Marmion's Companion i. 4, Careless declares that he loves the Horseshoe Tavern "for the sign's sake; 'tis the very print of the shoe that Pegasus wore when he broke up H. with his hoof "(see HIPPOCRENE). In Jonson's Poetaster i. 1, Luscus swears "by the banks of H." In v. 1, Tucca says to Horace, "give me thy wrist, H.!" In Ret. Pernass. i. 2, Judicio says of John Marston: He quaffs a cup of Frenchman's h.," i.e. he imitates the style of the French poets. In iii. 4, Furor invokes the Muses, "Awake, you paltry trulls of H." In Dekker's Satiromastix i. 2, 419, Tucca calls Crispinus "heir apparent of H." Milton, in Epitaph on M. of Winchester 56, says, "Here be tears of perfect moan Wept for thee in H." Davies, in Idea (1594) liii. 14, says to the stream that flowed by his native place, "Thou, sweet Ankor, art my H." Spenser, in Amoretti i. 10, says that his rhymes are "bathed in the sacred brook Of H." Heliconist is used for a poet. In Dekker's Satiromastix iv. 2, 130, Tucca says to Horace (Jonson), "Thou'lt . . . bring me and my Heliconistes into thy dialogues to make us talk madly, wut not, Lucian?" Hall, in Satires i. 8, 5, says in reference to the religious poetry of the time, "Now good St. Peter weeps pure H." Nash, in Lenten, calls Homer "that good old blind bibber of H."


Formerly a debtors' prison under Westminster Hall, but it became a tavern, and was much frequented by lawyers. In Jonson's Alchemist v. 2, Subtle tells Dapper, "Her Grace would have you eat no more Woolsack pies, no Dagger frumety "; and Doll adds, "Nor break his fast in Heaven and H." Peacham, in Worth of a Penny (1647), says that if one marries a wife that is a perfect "linguist," he were "better to take his diet in H. than his dinner at home."


(i.e. HELLASTON, now HELSTON). A town in S. Cornwall, on the Cober, 8 m. S.W. of Falmouth. In Cornish M. p. iii. 673, Pilate gives to the soldiers who have been guarding the tomb of our Lord "Penryn yn weth ha H.," i.e. "Penryn and likewise H.," as the price of their silence.


(= HELBRE). A small island in the mouth of the river Dee between Cheshire and Flintsh. In Middleton's Quiet Life v. 3, Water-Camlet says that if his loquacious wife goes to Ireland "she will be heard from H.-b. to Divelin." In other words, her strident voice will carry right across the Irish Sea. There is doubtless a double entendre intended both in H.-b. and Divel-in. In Merlin iii. 4, 130, the Clown says of Merlin: "I think his ancestors came first from H.-b. in Wales," i.e. he is a child of the devil. Drayton, in Polyolb. xi. 123, says that "Hilbre lifts his head "out of the foaming surge near the mouth of the Mersey.


(now called the DARDANELLES). The strait connecting the Propontis, or Sea of Marmora, with the AEgean. It is about 40 m. long and from 1 to 4 m. broad. It was bridged by Xerxes in the neighbourhood of Abydos and Sestos, and it was at this point that Leander used to swim across to visit his mistress, Hero, until at last he was drowned. The name was supposed to be derived from the drowning of Helle there when she and her brother Phrixus tried to cross it on a ram. There is always a strong current setting outwards to the AEgean. Milton, P. L.x. 309, says, "Xerxes . . . over H. Bridging his way, Europe with Asia joined." In Fisher's Fuimus i. 2, Caesar says, "I long to stride the H. Or bridge it with a navy." In Caesar's Rev. i. 6, Caesar boasts, "To chase The flying Pompey have I dreadless passed The toiling H." This is poetical licence: Caesar went straight to Egypt after Pompey's flight thither. In Locrine i. 1, 104, Brutus says that he came "From Graecia, through the boisterous H. . . . unto the fields of Lestrigon." As Lestrigon was in Sicily (if anywhere), Brutus was a good deal out of his way. In Oth. iii. 3, 456, Othello compares his bloody thoughts to "the Pontic Sea, Whose icy current and compulsive force Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on To the Propontic and the H." Pliny (Nat. Hist.) says, "The sea Pontus evermore floweth and runneth out into Propontis, but the sea never retireth again within Pontus."

The story of Leander, popularized by Marlowe's Hero and Leander, is constantly referred to. In Two Gent. i. 1, 22, Valentine charges Proteus with having read "How young Leander crossed the H."; and adds: "You are over boots in love And yet you never swum the H." In As You Like It iv. 1, 104, Rosalind says, "Leander went but forth to wash him in the H. and, being taken with the cramp, was drowned; and the foolish coroners of that age found it was Hero of Sestos.' "In Peele's Ed. I, p. 41, Elinor says, "Shouldst thou . . . with Leander swim the H. . . . Thy Nell would follow thee." In Ed. III ii. 2, the K. says, "I will through a H. 6f blood To arrive at Cestus where my Hero lies." In the old Shrew i. 1, Polidore speaks of "good Leander For whom the Helespont weeps brinish tears." In Shirley's Master iv. 1, Bombo says, "Hero was a lady of Leander's lake." On which Guido exclaims, "There's a new word now for the Helespont." In T. Heywood's B. Age i., N-asks, "Have I not swum the H. When waves, high as yon hills, have crowned me?" In Marmion's Leaguer ii. 1, Trimalchio, intending to go to Holland's Leaguer, a brothel on the Surrey side, says, "I'll view this leaguer and swim Like a Leander o'er the H. That shall divide me from these Heroines." In Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, Littlewit, explaining his Motion of Hero and Leander, says, "As for the H., I imagine our Thames here. "


A bookseller's sign in St. Paul's Churchyard, Lond. Caesar's Rev. was "Imprinted for Nathanael Fosbrooke and John Wright and are to be sold in St. Paules, Church-yard at the sign of the H. 1607."


Lond., in the Strand, opposite Somerset House, so called from the H. Inn at its corner. Henry Condell, co-editor of the 1st Folio of Shakespeare's works, left to his wife "my freehold messuages, etc., lying and being in H. C. in the Strand."


(= ELSINORE, q.v.). In Chettle's Hoffman ii. C. 3, Jerom says, "I'll retire to my castle at H. and there write a new poem."


Properly the country of the Helvetii, a warlike tribe of Germans conquered by Julius Caesar B.C. 58. They occupied the lands between the Jura, the Rhine, and Lake Geneva, but the name H. came to be used for the whole of Switzerland. The word is also used punningly for Hell. In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, Caesar says, "The big-boned German and Hn. stout . . . Can Caesar's valour witness, to their grief." In S. Rowley's When You H. 3, Gardiner, referring to the religious wars in Germany, says, "Half the province of H. Is with their tumults almost quite destroyed." Switzerland was divided between the Romanist and the Protestants during the years following the Reformation, and there were many conflicts between the 2 parties, in one of which the famous Zwingli was killed (1531). In Dekker's If it be 277, Ruffman, the devil, says punningly, "I am an Hn. born ": meaning that he comes from Hell. So Tarpax, the devil, in Kirke's Champions i. 1, tells his son, "Thou art by birth Duke of Styx, Sulphur, and H." In Webster's Malfi iv. 2, the 3rd madman says, "Greek is turned Turk; we are only to be saved by the Hn. translation." The reference is to the English version of the Bible, known popularly as the "Breeches" Bible, first published at Geneva in 1560.






A town in Oxfordsh., on the N. bank of the Thames, 22 m. S. of Oxford and 35 m. W. of Lond. The H. Royal Regatta has made the name known throughout the civilized world. In Greene's Friar ii., Bacon asks Burden, "Were you not yesterday at H. upon the Thames?"And then by his conjuring he brings to Oxford the "Hostess at H., mistress of the Bell," who reveals that Burden was playing cards with her at H. the night before.


A st. in Stratford-on-Avon in which the house stands where Shakespeare is reported to have been born. It is the road out from Stratford to H.-in-Arden, and was an inconsiderable st. in the outskirts of the town. John Shakespeare established himself there in 1551, and in 1556 bought 2 tenements, one in H. St. next to the birthplace house, and another in Greenhill St. These passed on to the poet on his father's death, and in his will he says, "I give unto my daughter Susanna Hall . . . 2 messuages or tenements situate, lying, and being in H. St."


In Fam. Vict., Haz., p. 362, the Capt., enumerating the French forces, speaks of "The H. with their cutting glaves and sharp car-buckles." They come between the Picardes and the Borgondians; and I suppose the Hainaux, i.e. the men of Hainault, are intended. See HAINAULT.




These were generally understood to be the rocks that guard the entrance to the Mediterranean by the Straits of Gibraltar: Calpe on the European and Abyla on the African side. One form of the legend was that H. tore the rocks asunder and so separated Europe from Africa; another, that he bent them over the Straits to make a bridge for the cattle of Geryon. At all events, they stood to the ancients for the limit of the world westward. Another form of the legend was that H. set up .2 brazen pillars near Cadiz, with the inscription "Ne plus ultra "(see under CALES). In B. & F. Philaster i. 1, Dion says of Megra: "The trophies of her dishonour [are] advanced beyond H.' P." In Day's Law Tricks ii. 1, Lurda says, "The world sees Colossus on my brows, H.' P., here's non ultra writ." In Marmion's Leaguer ii. 3, Autolicus says, "You shall have trophies . . . set up for you . . . more than Herculean p., to advance your fame to a non ultra." In Chapman's Rev. Bussy iii. 1, 5, Maillard says of the French soldiers: "With such men Methinks a man might pass th' insulting pillars Of Bacchus and Alcides." Alcides is H.: Bacchus was said to have erected similar pillars in India.


The capital of Herefordsh., on the Wye, 120 m. N.W. of Lond. The cathedral was built by William I. It was usually pronounced as a dissyllable, Harford. Henry Bolingbroke, son of John of Gaunt, afterwards Henry IV, married Mary, the daughter of Humphrey Bohun, Earl of H., in 1385, and was created D. of H. in 1397. In the early scenes of R2 he is called H., but after his father's death, when, in ii. 3, 69, Berkeley addresses him as "My lord of H.," he rejoins: "My lord, my answer is to Lancaster And I am come to seek that name in England." In H4 B. iv. 1, 131, Westmoreland, speaking of his quarrel with Mowbray, calls him the Earl of H., and says, "The Earl of H. was reputed then In England the most valiant gentleman." In R3 iii. 1, 195, Gloucester says to Buckingham, "When I am k., claim thou of me The earldom of H.," but when, in iv. 2, 93, Buckingham claims the fulfilment of the promise, Richd. refuses to listen to him. His son, Edward Stafford, the Buckingham in H8, appears to have used the title, though he was never so created, for in i. 1, 200 he is addressed as D. of Buckingham and Earl of H., Stafford, and Northampton. He was beheaded in 1521; and in 1550 the title of Viscount H. was conferred on Walter Devereux, in whose family it still continues. Oldcastle opens with a fight in the streets of H. between the followers of Lord Herbert and Lord Powis. In J. Heywood's Weather, p. 100, Report claims to have been at H. In Jonson's Wales, Howell sings that the Welshman has goat's milk sufficient to "buy him silk Enough to make him fine to quarrel At H. sizes [ie. assizes] in new apparel." Drayton, in Polyolb. vii. 166, says, "H. doth show Her rising spires aloft."


One of the counties in the W. of England bordering on Wales. In H4 A. i. 1, 39, Westmoreland announces to the K. that "the noble Mortimer, Leading the men of H. to fight Against . . . Glendower, Was by the rude hands of that Welshman taken." In Brome's Couple i. 1, Saleware affirms that his kinswoman is "a gentlewoman of the best blood in H."–"Yes," replies Wat, "Welsh-blood." In Trag. Richd. II. iv. 1, 213, "Heriford "is one of the counties granted by the K. to his favourite, Bushy. H. was famous for its morris-dancers, of whom an interesting account is given in Old Meg, published in 1609, and reprinted in Misc. Antiq. Anglicana 1816.


The highest peak in the Anti-Libanus range in N. Syria. It rises to a height of 9200 ft., and is snowcovered during the greater part of the year. Its lower slopes to the W. and S. are specially fertile. In Peele's Bethsabe i. 1, David speaks of the dew "That hangs, like chains of pearl, on H. hill., (see Psalm cxxxiii. 3). Milton, P. L.xii. 141, says that God promised to Abraham's sons "all that land . . . From H. E. to the great W. sea; Mt. H., yonder sea, each place behold In prospect, as I point them."


A brook in Attica, on the road between Athens and Eleusis, between the Cephissus and the temple of Apollo on Mt. Poecilum. It gave its name to one of the demes of Attica. In England's Helicon (16l4), p. 20, we have "Her golden locks like H. sands, Or than bright H. brighter."


A great oak-tree towards the S. end of the Little Park at Windsor. It was supposed to be haunted by the ghost of a certain Herne the hunter. Lord Redesdale, in a letter to Gosse, quoted in Gosse's Life of Swinburne, p. 321, says, "We used to take long walks together in Windsor Forest and in the Home Park, where the famous o. of Herne the hunter was still standing, a white, lightning-blasted skeleton of a tree." Swinburne was at Eton 1849–1853. In M.W.W. iv. 4, 28, Mrs. Page says, "There is an old tale goes that Herne the hunter, Sometime a keeper here in Windsor Forest, Doth all the winter time, at still midnight, Walk round about an o, with great ragged horns "; and Page adds: "Why, yet there want not many that do fear In deep of night to walk by this H. o." A plot is laid to get Falstaff there, and the last scene is laid at the o.


(pronounced, and often spelt, HARTFORD). The county town of Herts., on the Lea, 19 m. N. of Lond. The castle was built by Edward the Elder in 905. John II of France and David of Scotland were imprisoned there in the reign of Edward III. Its site is now occupied by Haileybury school, abt. 2 m. out of the town. In Davenport's Matilda i. 3, the K. says to the Q., "Post thou to Hartford Castle, whither we are certified young Bruce is fled "; ii. 3 takes place there. In Death Huntington ii. 2, Fitzwater says, "Your nephew Bruce shall post to H. Castle." The castle was taken by the revolting Barons in the reign of John: later John made Fitzwater governor of H. Castle. In Oldcastle v. 9, the Bp., being at St. Albans, directs: "See they be conveyed to H. Size, both this counterfeit and you, Sir John of Worthy, and your wench." The next scene is at H. in a Hall of Justice.


(pronounced HARTFORDSHIRE). One of the S.E. counties of England, lying N. of Middlesex. The New River water supply of Lond. was taken from springs near Ware. The air is salubrious and stimulating, and there was an old saying: "He who buys a home in H. pays 2 years' purchase for the air." In Merry Devil, p. 246, the Host of the George at Waltham, going on a poaching expedition, says, "I'll fence with all the justices in H. I'll have a buck till I die." In Three Ladies ii. 1, Simplicity says to Fraud, "Thou didst go into H. to a place called Ware, and thou didst grease the horses' teeth that they should not eat hay." In Piers C. vii. 413, we read: "Ys non so hongry hounde in Hertforde-shire That thorst lape of that levynge," i.e. the vomit of Glutton. The name of the county was probably chosen for the sake of the alliteration. In Trag. Richd. II. iv. 1, 231, "Harford-shere "is one of the counties granted by the K. In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] i. 2, young Truman says to his father, "He plundered your house in H. and took away the very hop-poles."


The chief city of the Amorites, 15 m. E. of the Jordan and 12 N.E. of the N. end of the Dead Sea. There are still extensive ruins there. Milton, P. L.i. 408, says that Chemos was worshipped "in H. And Horonaim, Seon's realm."


  1. The land of the West, a poetical name applied by the Alexandrian and Roman poets to Italy. In Marlowe's Dido i., Cloanthus says, "There is a place, H. termed by us, An ancient empire . . . which now we call Italia." Milton, P. L.i. 520, tells of the ancient Greek gods "who with Saturn old Fled over Adria to the Hn. fields."
  2. Hesperia is also used of Spain. In Fisher's Fuimus iv. 4, Caesar says, "From Ganges to Hn. Gades Our name doth sound." In T. Heywood's Challenge ii. 1, Hellena says to the Spaniard Bonavida, "Through all H. you may boast, Though my face please, yet shall my virtue most." In Fraunce's Victoria i. 4, 195, Onophrius says to Fidelis, who has just returned from Spain, "Reversus es ab oris Hesperiis."
  3. Hesperian is used as the adjective of Hesperides; See HESPERIDES.


The daughters of Hesperus who had charge of the golden apples which Ge gave to Hera as a marriage gift. They had the assistance of the dragon Ladon in this function. The gardens of which they had charge are commonly called the H. by the Elizabethans, and their location was fixed by different poets in different parts of N. Africa, or further W. in the Islands of the Blessed in the Atlantic Ocean. The 11th labour of Heracles was the getting of the golden apples, which he accomplished by the aid of Atlas. In Per. i. 1, 27, Antiochus says to Pericles, who has come to try to win his daughter, "Before thee stands this fair H., With golden fruit, but dangerous to be touched." In L.L.L. iv. 3, 341, Biron says, "For valour, is not Love a Hercules, Still climbing trees in the H.?"In Greene's Friar ix. 82, Bungay undertakes to "Show thee the tree, leav'd with refined gold, Whereon the fearful dragon held his seat That watched the garden called H." In Middleton's Changeling iii. 3, Antonio justifies his proposal to Isabella by saying, "Shall I alone Walk through the orchard of th' H., And, cowardly, not dare to pull an apple?"Marlowe, in Hero and Leander, end of Sest. ii., says, "Leander now, like Theban Hercules, Entered the orchard of the H.: Whose fruit none rightly can describe but he Who pulls or shakes it from the golden tree." In Glapthorne's Argalus ii. 2, Strephon says, "My arms are dragons that defend all these; Now view in me living H." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 4, Fastidius Brisk tells the company that if a man lives at Court, "he shall behold all the delights of the H. to be mere umbra: and imperfect figures." In Greene's Orlando i. 1, 56, Mandrecarde declares that Mexico is "richer than the plot H." In Barnes' Charter i. 5, Lucretia Borgia says to her husband, "The Esperian dragons kept not with more watch The golden fruit than thou my fatal beauty." In Devonshire i. 3, Henrico says, "With greater care than were the dragons supposed to watch the golden apples growing in the H. shall Henrico wait on his best-beloved." In Barnavelt iii. 6, Leidenberch, contemplating suicide, says, "Is there not Some hid H., some blessed fruit, Moated about with death?"In Milton's Comus 393, the 2nd Brother says, "Beauty, like the fair Hesperian tree Laden with blooming gold, had need the guard Of dragon watch." In Brewer's Lingua iv. 5, Phantastes says, "When Hercules had killed the flaming dragon of Hesperida, with the apples of that orchard he made this fiery meat, in memory whereof he named it snap-dragon." In Marmion's Leaguer iii. 4, Fidelio says, "You see that I have brought you to the treasure And the rich garden of th' H.; If you can charm those ever watchful eyes That keep the tree, then you may pull the fruit." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 1, Knowell objects to being regarded as playing "the Hesperian dragon with my fruit," because he takes good care of his apricots. In W. Rowley's All's Lost i. 1, 137, Roderique says of Jacinta: "By rapine's force We'll pluck this apple from th' H." Harvey, in Pierces Supererogation 167, speaks of "the occidental islands of the Ocean called H." Milton, P. L.iii. 568, compares Eden to "those Hesperian gardens, famed of old." In iv. 250, he again says of Eden: "Hesperian fables true, If true, here only." In p. R. ii. 357, our Lord's banquet is waited on by "ladies of the H., that seemed Fairer than feigned of old:' Linche, in Diella (1596), says of his mistress (xxii. 10): "Her breasts, 2 apples of H."




A town in Northumberland on the S. bank of the Tyne, 20 m. W. of Newcastle. The Bailiff of H. is one of the characters in K.K.K. (Haz., vi. 531). Honesty says, "Here is a cluster of knaves; here lacks but the Bailly of H." The time is the reign of Edgar the Peaceable, but why the Bailly of H. has such a bad character I do not know.




A salt-water creek. It is applied to several creeks on the coast of Cornwall. The context shows that we must look for one on the E. coast: probably Helford Creek, 5 m. S. of Falmouth, is intended. Pedler identifies it with Hayle Bay, just N. of Padstow Creek, on the W. coast, but that would hardly suit the passage quoted, for there is nothing W. of it except the ocean. In Cornish M. p. ii. 2744, the executioner, who is boring a hole for one of the nails in the cross, boasts, "Nynsus guns a west the H. An tollo guel," i.e. "There is not a fellow W. of the H. Who can bore better."


Corrupted form of Iverna, from Ierne, the old name of Ireland. In Fisher's Fuimus iv. 6, the Chorus sings: "More ghastly monster did not spring From the Hn. flood With which Morvidius combatting Of foe became his food." Geoffrey of Monmouth tells how "there came from the Irish coasts a most cruel monster ": Morvidius encountered it, but it "rushed upon him and swallowed him up like a small fish." In Chapman's Caesar iii. 1, 101, Pompey says, "I'd sooner trust Hn. bogs and quicksands "than Caesar. In King Leir i. 2, Skalliger says to Ragan, "Your younger sister [i.e. Cordella] he would fain bestow Upon the rich k. of H."






Vill. N. of Lond., 5 m. in a direct line from St. Paul's. It stands 350 ft. above the level of the Thames and commands a fine view of the City. In 1386 the Bp. of Lond. allowed the Gt. North Road to come through his park at H., and put a toll-bar at the top of the hill which was thought to have given rise to the name of the vill., the High Gate on the hill. The Gate House Tavern still marks its position. The way to Barnet and St. Albans by the N.W. Road lay over H. Hill, which rises pretty steeply from Holloway. At the bottom of the hill is Whittington's Stone. Higher up is Andrew Marvell's cottage, and opposite to it Cromwell House, built in 1630 for Ireton, Cromwell's son-in-law. It is now a convalescent hospital for children. Higher still was Arundel House, where Jonson's Penates was performed before James I on 1 May, 1604, and where Lord Bacon died in 1626. In the main st. of the vill. were many taverns, and in most, if not all, of them was a pair of horns, on which the ceremony of swearing on the horns was carried out. A full account will be found in Hones Year Book. H. Green stands at the top of West Hill, opposite St. Michael's Ch. It was a favourite resort of Lond. people. Drayton, in Polyolb. xvi. 255, says, "Then H. boasts his way, which men do mgt frequent." In Liberality v. 5, the Clerk says to Prodigality, "Thou art indicted that thou at H., in the county of Middlesex, didst take from one Tenacity, of the parish of Pancridge, £1000." All the great roads out of Lond. were infested with highway robbers. The scene of Oldcastle iii. 2 is "on a road near H."; and in iv. 1 Butler reports, "As I scouted to Islington The gray-eyed morning gave me glimmering Of armed men coming down H. Hill." In Jack Drum i. 1, there is a morrice dance and a song: "Let us be seen On Hygate Green To dance for the honour of Holloway." In Jonson's New Inn iv. 1, Barnaby, arriving at Barnet, tells how he lost his hat: "the wind blew't off at H." In Jonson's Tub i. 2, Clench says, "Zin Valentine! He was a deadly zin and dwelt at H."; and adds, to lend verisimilitude to his story, that he lived "at the Cock-and-Hen in H." In Tomkis' Albumazar i. 3, Ronca boasts that he has a perspective (ie. telescope) by which he can read small punt "as plainly, 12 long miles off, as you see Paul's from H." In B. & F. Wit Money iii. 1, Shorthose, annoyed at the prospect of having to drive his mistress out of town, prays: "May zealous smiths so housel all our horses That they may feel compunction in their feet, And tire at H.," i.e. before they have gone 5 m. In Middleton's Trick to Catch iv. 2, Freedom tells Lucre that his nephew is so melancholy that "you may hear him sigh In a still evening to your house at H." In Goosecap iii. 1, Rudesby asks: "Would any ass in the world ride down such a hill as H. is in such a frost as this, and never light?"In Dekker's Northward iii. 1, Doll says, "If you should but get 3 or 4 Cheshire cheeses, and set them a-running down H. Hill," the Welsh rapt. would run after them. In Underwit iv. 3, Courtwell, savagely disparaging his mistress, says of her breasts: "H. compared with 'em is Paradice." In W. Rowley's New Wonder iii., Foster says, "He's in Ludgate again." To which Mrs. Foster replies: "No, he's in H.: he struts it bravely." Ludgate was used as a prison: the point of the pun is obvious; he is not in prison, but in high gait.


In Bologna: probably the Strada Maggiore is intended. It runs from the E. end of the Corso to the Porta Maggiore. In B. & F. Chances i. it Don Frederic arranges to meet Don John "I' th' H. St." The scene is at Bologna.


Running from the Guildhall, in Whimple St., to Notte St., the Parade, and Sutton Pool. In T. Heywood's Maid of West A. iii. 2, Clem says to Roughman, "You lie, Sir, at the Raven in the H. St." In Davenant's Plymouth i. 1, Cable says, "If you walk but 3 turns in the H.-st., they will ask you money for wearing out the cobbles."




In Caesar's Rev. ii. 5, Cato says, "Raze out of thy lasting Kalenders Those bloody songs of Hs. dismal fight." I suspect a misprint for Allia's, q.v.




A town lying just off Old Watling St., on the border of Warwicksh. and Leicestersh., in the latter county. It is some 30 m. N.E. of Stratford and 50 from the Cotswold dist. In H4 B. v. 1, 27, Davy asks Shallow, "Do you mean to stop any of William's wages about the sack he lost the other day at H. Fair?"The Fair was held on August 26th, and was for horses, cows, sheep, and cheese. As Henry IV died on March 20th, Davy must have had a long memory!


A tavern in Stepney. I have not been able to trace any other reference to it. There is a H. Arms now in Upper North St., Poplar, but whether it represents the old tavern I cannot say. In Look about xxv., Lady Fauconbridge says, "At Stepney by my summer house . . . There is a tavern which I sometimes use: It is the H."


Vill. in England, abt. 1 m. S. of Oxford. In Thersites 220, Mater, in her charm for worms, invokes "Mother Brice of Oxford and great Gib of H."


On the W. and S. sides of Jerusalem, and joining the valley of the Kedron at the S.E. corner of the city. The "opprobrious hill," or "Hill of Offence," where Solomon built temples to Chemosh and Moloch (I Kings xi. 7), lay S. of its E. end. It was used as the rubbish-tip of the city, and the refuse was kept constantly burning: hence it became the symbol of Hell, for which the Hebrew form of the name, Gehenna, is regularly used in the N. T. Milton, P. L.i. 404, says that Moloch led Solomon "by fraud to build His temple right against the temple of God On that opprobrious hill, and made his grove The pleasant v. of H., Tophet thence And black Gehenna called, the type of Hell." See also GEHENNA, TOPHET.


(now known as MAKARIOTISSA). A fountain near Mt. Helicon in Boeotia, sacred to the Muses. It was said to have sprung from the foot-print of the horse Pegasus: hence it is called the "horse-foot spring." In Jonson's Poetaster v. 1, Tucca addresses Horace as Helicon and Virgil as "thy noble H. here ": where the word is used as equivalent to Poet. Barry, in Ram prol., speaks of "those ancient streams Which from the Horse-foot fount do flow." In Day's Part. Bees v., Poetaster says, "Drink 9 healths of sacred H. To the 9 Muses; this will make a poet." In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Justiniano swears "by H., which was a certain well where all the Muses watered." In Alimony i., Timon speaks of "the precious rills of H." In Ford's Sun ii. 1, Delight says, "Not far off stands the Hippocrenian well Whither I'll lead thee, and . . . to welcome thee 9 Muses shall appear." In Marmion's Antiquary iii. 2, Lionel asks: "Have you lately drunk of the horse-pond or stept on the forked Parnassus, that you start out so sudden a poet?"Drayton, in Odes (1606) ix. 12, commends Sack: "Which to the colder brain Is the true H."




(more commonly spelt ISPAHAN). An important city of Persia, lying on the Zendarood, abt. 250 m. N.E. of the head of the Persian Gulf. Its mud walls were 24 m. in circuit. Timur took it and massacred its inhabitants in 1387; Shah Abbas I made it his capital, and under him it reached its highest splendour and had a population of upwards of 1,000,000. His 2 palaces still remain, as well as mosques, colleges, and bridges built or adorned by him. It is now in a state of decadence and filth, and is no longer a royal residence. In Milton, P. L.xi. 394, Michael points out to Adam "where The Persian in Ecbatan sat, or since In H."


One of the great Antilles in the W. Indies. It is also known as San Domingo, or Hayti. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and Spanish settlements were soon made there. It is now the republic of Haiti. In Devonshire i. 2, the Merchant tells how "H. was ravished by Drake ": this was in 1585. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 333, Chorus, referring to the same expedition, the famous Island Voyage, says, "Drake and Christopher Carlisle set on Cap de Verd, then H:'


A town in Herts., 13 m. N.W. of Hertford. The poet George Chapman was born near H., and lived there for some time. In his poem Euthymius Raptus, he speaks of Homer's visits to him "on the hill next H.'s left hand," i.e. probably Offley Hill, 2 or 3 m. W. of H. Browne, in his Pastorals, speaks of Chapman as "The learned shepherd of fair H. hill." Ralph Radclif (1519–1559), the author of over 12 plays, mostly on scriptural subjects, had a school in the dismantled Carmelite monastery at H., where his plays were performed in the old Refectory.


One of the 7 nations of Palestine who were to be dispossessed by the Children of Israel. They were of Mongol race, and from the 15th cent. B.C. were prominent amongst the peoples of Asia. They founded a great empire, which for a time was a dangerous rival to Egypt, and continued till the end of the 8th cent. to wield a formidable power. Their capitals were at Carchemish, and at Kadesh on the Orontes, and their curious carvings and inscriptions in N. Syria and Asia Minor have recently thrown quite a new light on their importance. Uriah, the husband of Bathsheba, who was murdered by David's orders, was a Hittite. In Mariam iv. 7, Herod says that if David had seen Marianne, "The Hittits [? Hittite] had then felt no deadly sting, Nor Bethsabe had never been a Q." In Peele's Bethsabe ii. 1, Nathan says to David, "Thou bast ta'en this Hethite's wife to thee," i.e. Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah the Hittite. In i. 3, David speaks of Uriah's "true conversion from a Hethite To an adopted son of Israel."




There are two places of the name:
  1. A village lying in the Fleet Valley in Lond., N.W. of Clerkenwell Green: the site is marked by Ray St., off Farringdon Rd., N. of Clerkenwell Rd. The name Ray St. dates from 1774, and the further improvements of 1856–7 have altered the place beyond recognition. In the 18th cent. a famous bear-garden was established there (Pope writes: "Fox loves the Senate, Hockley Hole his brother "), but in our period it was still a country village. In Middleton's R.G. iii. 2, Gallipot cries out: "Are my barns and houses yonder at Hockley Hole consumed with fire?" In Brome's Academy iii. 1, Matchil says to Rachel, "Depart at your leasure, you know the way to your old aunt, the applewoman at Hockley Hole."
  2. Hockcliffe in Beds., on the N.W. Road (Watling St.), between Dunstable and Fenny Stratford. It lies in the valley of a small stream which flows into the Ousel, a tributary of the Ouse, and may have got its name (In the Hole) from a recollection of the London Hockley. It had an ill name for highway robbery. Middleton, in his Black Book, p. 20, says of his villains: "Sometimes they are clerks of Newmarket Heath; they make many a man stand at Hockley-in-the-Hole." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 5, Sogliardo says of Shift: "He has been the only Bid-stand that ever kept Newmarket, Salisbury Plain, Hockley 1, the Hole, Gadshill, and all the high places of any request." In Merlin iii. 1, 127, the Clown says to Merlin, "Our standing-house is Hocklye-i'-the Hole and Layton Buzzard [4 m. to the W.]," i.e. we are either footpads or fools. It was also a place of assignations. In Dekker's Northward i. 1, the Chamberlain says, "Your Captains were wont to take their leave of their London pole-cats at Dunstable. The next morning their wenches brought them to Hockley i' the Hole, and so the one for Lond., the other to West Chester." Taylor, Works ii. 238, says, "Every Gill Turntripe must be coached to St. Albans, Bruntwood [i.e. Brentwood in Essex, on the E. road], Hockley in the Hole, Croydon, Windsor, Uxbridge, and many other places."


The cliff at the head of p. Sound, between Mill Bay and Sutton Pool. At the E. end of it is the Citadel, and a fine promenade now runs along the sea-front. It was here that Drake was playing bowls when the news came of the approach of the Spanish Armada, and his statue commemorates the incident. In T. Heywood's Maid of West A. i. 3, Fawcett brings word from Spencer to Bess: "He prays you, when 'tis dark, Meet him o' th' H. near to the new-made fort." Drayton, in Polyolb. 1, 482, says of Corin and the giant Gogmagog: "Upon that lofty place at p. called the H. Those mighty wrestlers met."




Now called Worship St., Lond., on the W. side of Norton Folgate, leading to Bunhill Field. Gabriel Spencer (see under HOGSDON) lived in H. L. It is probable that Shakespeare lived for a time in H. L. An entry in Bodleian MS., Aubrey 8, 45, runs: "Mr. Beeston, who knows most of him fr. Mr. Lacy he lived in Shoreditch at Hoglane within 6 doors from Norton-folgate." The reference seems to be to Shakespeare. See discussion in Cornhill Mag., April 1916, p. 478.


(called in Domesday Book HOCHESTON, and now HOXTON). H. is probably the result of a Hobson-Jobson derivation. A dist. N. of Lond., W. of the Kingsland Rd. and N. of Old Street Rd. Stow describes it in 1598 as "a large st. with houses on both sides." The H. Fields were a favourite place for afternoon jaunts by the Londoners, and they were also used as a drilling-ground for the Trainbands. Here stood a famous tavern, "The Pimlico," the name of which is preserved in Pimlico Walk.

In Oldcastle iii. 2, Acton names "H., Pancredge [i.e. St. Pancras], Kenzington "as villages where the rebels were waiting. In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 1, Stephen says, "Because I dwell at H., I shall keep company with none but the archers of Finsbury: .." In Jonson's Alchemist v. 1, Lovewit says he has heard that "Gallants, men and women, and all sorts, tagrag [have] been seen to flock here . . . as to a second H. in days of Pimlico and Eyebright "In v. 3, one of Mammon's projects was to make a ditch of silver about the city "run with cream from H." In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Satan reproaches Pug for his paltry exploits: "Some good ribibe [i.e. old woman] about Kentish Town or H., you would hang now for a witch." T. Heywood's Hogsdon is concerned with such a woman. In Middleton's R.G. ii. 1, Gallipot says, "Come, wenches, come; we're going all to H." In Shirley's Wedding iv. 1, Capt. Landly exclaims: "They point a duel! At H., to show fencing upon cream and cake-bread." In B. & F. Pestle iv. 5, Ralph says, "March out and show your willing minds, By 20 and by 20, To H. or to Newington, Where ale and cakes are plenty." In The Wizard (1640), we have: "You true ladies abhor it, upon one meeting, or over a H. cask, to clap up a match." I suppose the meaning is "on a picnic to H.," but it is not certain. Possibly for "cask "we should read "cake." Ben Jonson fought a duel in H. Fields with Gabriel Spencer, and killed him, in 1598. In Brome's Academy iii. 2, Strigood says that Cash is not "of those that gall their hands with stool-balls or their cat-sticks for white-pots, pudding-pies, stewed prunes, and tansies, to feast their tits at Islington or H." The author of Tarlton's Purgatory, in his preface, tells how, being prevented from going to the theatre by the crowd, "I stept by dame Anne of Cleeres well, and went by the backside of H." for a country walk. In Nabbes' Bride ii. 4, Raven calls the Cheapside prentices "the learned youth of H." from their habit of frequenting that popular resort. In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 1, Wellbred writes: "Do not conceive that antipathy between us and H. as was between Jews and hogs-flesh." In Deloney's Craft i. 12, Haunce says to Florence, "Let me entreat you to go to H., and I will bestow a mess of cream upon you." Gosson, in School of Abuse (1579), p. 37 (Arber), says of loose women: "They live a mile from the city like Venus' nuns in a cloister at Newington, Ratliffe, Islington, H., or some such place."


A humorous corruption of Hock Norton, a vill. in Oxfordsh., 24 m. N. W. of Oxford. On the principle of giving a dog a bad name and then hanging him, the village became proverbial for rusticity and boorishness. In Youth ii. 110, Youth says to Humility, "Were thou born at Trumpington and brought up at H. N.?"In Val. Welsh. ii. 3, Morgan, the comic Welshman, says, "This fellow was porn at h. N. where pigs play on the organ." Nash, in Strange News K. 4, says, "If thou bestowest any courtesy on me and I do not require it, then call me cut, and say I was brought up at Hogge N., where pigs play on the organ." In Randolph's pluses' iii. 1, Banausus proposes to build a cathedral ch., amongst his other wild projects: "It shall be at Hog's N., with a pair of stately organs; more than pity 'twere the pigs should lose their skill for want of practice."


One of the main thoroughfares of Lond., running W. from the corner of Newgate St. and Old Bailey to Drury Lane. The traditional derivation is from a mythical Oldbourne which was reported to have run down the st. from the Bars to H. Bdge. The name in Do Domesday Book is Holeburne, and was probably another name for the Fleet river. The erection of the H. Viaduct, opened in 1869, has completely altered the old st. In the 16th cent. it crossed the Fleet river by a stone bdge. (H. Bdge.), then ascended steeply to the corner of Fetter Lane (H. Hill);from this point to the Bars, just W. of Brooke St., it was called H., and thence to Drury Lane, High H. W. of the Bars, which marked the boundary of the liberties of the City, was a block of buildings obstructing the st., called Middle Row: they were removed in 1868. H. was a great lawyers' quarter; on the N. side were Furnival's Inn and Gray's Inn; on the S., Thavies Inn, Barnard's Inn, and Staple Inn. As one of the main entrances to Lond., it had many taverns, amongst which were the George and Blue Boar, the Castle, the Old Bell, the Sun, the Bear, and the Black Bull. At the junction of Snow Hill (or Snor Hill) and H. stood the H. Cross, and by it a conduit, built in 1577 by William Lamb on the site of an older one that had fallen into decay. Prisoners from Newgate and the Tower were taken to Tyburn for execution along H., and H. Hill was nicknamed Heavy Hill in consequence.

In R3 iii. 4, 33, Gloucester says to the Bp. of Ely, "When I was last in H. I saw good strawberries in your garden there." Ely Place, the town house of the Bp. of Ely, was on the N. side of H., E. of Hatton Garden (see ELY PLACE). The Fleet was navigable up to H. Bdge. Jonson's Famous Voyage describes how Sir R. Shelton and Sir C. Haydon "proposed to go to H. in a wherry "from Bridewell Dock. Towards the end of the voyage we have: "Behold where Cerberus, reared on the wall Of H. Height (3 serjeants' beads) looks o'er. They cryed out Puss. He told them he was Banks That had so often showed them merry pranks." The serjeants are Serjeants at Law in the Inns of Court on the top of H. Hill, and Banks–or rather the spirit of Banks, transmigrated, with that of his performing horse, into the body of a cat–is, as he has explained earlier, one of the cats that preyed for garbage on the banks of the Fleet. In Hycke, p. 99, Frewyll, having been put into prison for theft, his fellow Imagynacyon "walked through H. . . . And walked up towards St. Gyles in the fields," evidently expecting to see Frewyll led out to execution. In Oldcastle ii. 1, Acton says that Ficket Field is "Behind st. Giles in the field near H." (see FICKET FIELD). Murley retorts: "Newgate, up H., S. Giles in the field, and to Tiborne: an old saw." This is the route of prisoners to execution. In Middleton's Chess ii. 1, the Black Bp. says he undertook to cure Gondomar's fistula "with a High H. halter," and told him that "3 turns at Tyburn "was the only way to mend him. In Glapthorne's Hollander iii, 1, Fortress prescribes the keeping of the rules of the Twiball knights "under penalty of being carried up H. in a cart and at Tiburne executed." In Selimus 2082, Bullithrumble says, "Marry, that had been the way to preferment, down Holburne, up Tiburne." In Dekker's Northward ii. 1, Hornet, who has got round his neck a copper chain, says, "Better men than old Jack Hornet have rode up H. with as bad a thing about their necks as this." Criminals wore the rope round their necks on the way to the gallows. In K. K. Knave Dods. vi. 591, Honesty says, "You must bear your sheet and in a cart be towed up H.-Hill." The prisoners going to Tyburn were dressed in a shroud. Taylor, Works i. 101, says, "A beggar seldom rides up H. Hill." In Shirley's Wedding iv. 3, Rawbones says, "Now I'm in the cart riding up H. with a guard of halbardiers." In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 4, Chough says to Meg, "Mayst thou be drawn from H. to Hounslow Heath!" H. was commonly chosen for the public carting and flogging of criminals: e.g. Titus Oates was flogged up H. In Jonson's Barthol. ii. 1, Knockem says to Ursula, "What!my little lean Ursula! art thou alive yet?"= ` Yes," she replies, "and to amble a-foot to hear you groan out of a cart up the heavy hill.''? "Of Holbourne, Ursula, meanest thou so?"says he. In Day's B. Beggar iii., Canby, when urged by Hadland to turn gipsy and go about fortune-telling, says, "That's the smooth footpath up H.; no, Jack." In Brome's City Wit iii. 1, when Crasy tells Crack he is "in the high way of preferment," he replies: "Not the high H. way I hope, Sir." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon v. 4, Young Chartley says, "I took post-horse, Rid out of H., turned by Islington, So hither, wench, to lodge all night with thee "at Hogsdon. In Middleton's R.G. ii. 1, Laxton asks Moll to meet him "somewhere near H." And she answers: "In Gray's Inn Fields then." These lay just N. of H. In Barry's Ram iii. 3, Will Smallshanks, pursuing Lady Sommerfield's daughter, says, "Let's along Shoe-lane, then straight up H." Shoe Lane runs N. from Fleet St. to H. In World Child, p. 180, Folly says, "In H. was I brought forth and with the courtiers to Westminster I used to wend, for I am a servant of the law." In Middleton's Trick to Catch i. 4, Dampit, the rascally lawyer, calls his clients "motions of Fleet St., visions of H." In iv. 5, Audrey sings to Dampit, "Let the usurer cram him, in interest that excel, There's pits enow to damn him before he comes to hell: In H. some, in Fleet st. some." I am not sure whether she means lawyers or taverns: probably the former. In his R.G. iii. 3, Serjeant Curtilax dwells in H.: Moll says, "This H. is such a wrangling st."; and Trapdoor adds: "That's because lawyers walks to and fro in it."

H. had not a good reputation, especially towards the W. end of it, where the gardens lent themselves to loose behaviour. In Barry's Ram i. 1, Constantia says of her lover: "What makes he here in the skirts of H., so near the field and at a garden-house? he has some punk." In News from Hell, the Cardinal mentions H. as a haunt of whores and thieves. In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 1, persons wishing to learn the gentle art of roaring are advertised to "repair into H. at the sign of the CheatLoaf ": so called because it was once a baker's shop. In Jonson's Alchemist i. 1, Face picked up Dapper, the lawyer's clerk, "in H., at the Dagger "(q.v.). In the Actors' Remonstrance (1643), we read of "the famous motion of Bell and the Dragon so frequently visited at H. Bilge."

There were several booksellers in H. Glapthorne's Wallenstein was "Imprinted by Tho. Paine for George Hunton and are to be sold at his shop within Turnstile in H. 1640." There were 2 turnstiles in H. leading from Whetstone Park, on the S. side, N. of Lincoln's Inn Fields. Glapthorne's Hollander was "Printed by I.Okes for A. Wilson and are to be sold at her [sic] shop at Grayes-Inn-Gate in H. 1640." Three Ladies was "Printed by Roger Warde dwelling near H. Conduit at the sign of the Talbot. 1584." Three Lords was "Printed by R. Thomas at the Rose and Crown near H. Bilge. 1590 "Marlowe's Ed. II was "Imprinted by Richard Bradocke for William Jones dwelling near Holbourne conduit at the sign of the Gunne. 1598." Milkmaids was "Printed by Bernard Alsop for Lawrence Chapman and are to be sold at his shop in H., over against Staple Inne, hard by the Barres. 1620." John Milton lived from 1647 to 1649 in a house on the S. side of High H., between the Turnstiles, opening backward on Lincoln's Inn Fields. In 1660, after his deliverance from the perils of the Restoration, he lived for a short time on the N. side of H., near Red Lion Sq.


A dist. in E. Riding, Yorks., in the extreme S.E. of the county, N. of the estuary of .the Humber. Hall, in Satires v. 1, 65, speaks of "A starved tenement, such as I guess Stands straggling in the wastes of H." Being now drained, it is a very fertile dist. and well adapted for farming.


In the Lond. Counters the prisoners were accommodated according to their ability to pay. The Master's side was the best and most expensive; then came the Knights' ward, the two-penny ward, and finally the H., which was the cheapest and worst. It was also used of the worst quarters in other prisons. From Enforced Marriage we learn that prisoners in the H. had straw mattresses'. In the Puritan iii. 4, Puttock says of Pybord: "If e'er we clutch him again, the Counter shall charm him." And Ravenshaw adds: "The H. shall rot him." In Walks of Hogsdon (1657), there is a sort of thieves' litany: "Next from the stocks, the H., and Little-Ease, Libera nos, Domine." In T. Heywood's Woman Killed iv. 1, Susan, telling old Mountford of the arrest of Sir Charles, says, "He is denied the freedom of the prison, And in the H. is laid with men condemned." In Eastward v. 1, Wolf, the Keeper of the Counter, describes the penitence of his prisoners: "Mr. Quicksilver would be i' the H. if we would let him." In Ford's Warbeck ii. 3, Heron says, rather than let the Scots get all the glory of helping Warbeck, "Let me live first a bankrupt and die in the lousy H. of hunger." In Killigrew's Parson iv. 2, Wild says, "Make his mittimus to the h. at Newgate." In T. Heywood's F. M. Exch. i., Cripple asks Bowdler, "Didst thou lie in the Knights' ward or on the Master's side?"–"Neither," says he. "Where then," rejoins the Cripple, "in the H.?" In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 563, Spendall, being committed to prison, asks, "What ward should I remove in?" Holdfast replies: "Why, to the twopenny ward; it's the likeliest to hold out with your means; or, if yon will, you may go into the h., and there you may feed for nothing." Spendall rejoins, "Aye, out of the alms basket." In Webster's Appius & Virginia iii. 4, the Clown says, "The Lord Appius hath committed her to ward, and it is thought she shall neither lie on the knight side, nor in the two-penny ward; if he may have his will of her, he means to put her in the h." A double entendre is intended. Middleton, in Black Book (1604), p. 8, says of certain fools: "They are dark . . . As is the H. at Newgate: "


(D.=Dutch, Hr.=Hollander). The country in N.W. Europe, on the North Sea, stretching from the mouth of the Scheldt to the mouth of the Ems, with Belgium on the S. and Germany on the E. The people belong to the Low German division of the Teutonic family, and the language is Low D. Rome partially conquered the country in the 1st cent A.D. In the 3rd cent. the Franks came, and, after a long struggle between them and the Saxons, H. became part of the Frankish Empire under Charlemagne. During the 9th and loth cents. the Northmen harried the land, with the result that the people congregated into cities for safety and laid the foundations of the future greatness of such places as Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and The Hague. From the 11th to the 14th cent. H. was governed by a succession of counts, in nominal dependence on the Empire. Becoming part of the Burgundian territory, it passed eventually to Don Carlos of Spain (the Emperor Charles V), and from him it passed to his son Philip of Spain. H. accepted the principles of the Protestants: Philip was a devoted son of the Roman Ch. He determined to make H. conform to the Romish Ch., and so began the long struggle in which the D. of Alva represented the Spanish K. It resulted in the formation of the United Provinces under William the Silent in 1576. In the nurse of this struggle many Englishmen went to H. to assist the D. against the common enemy, Philip: amongst them Sir Philip Sidney, who was killed at Zutphen, and the Earl of Leicester. The conflict continued and was merged into the 30 Years' War. In 1648 Spain finally relinquished her claims, and the United Provinces were recognized as free and independent. The policy of Charles II led to war between the English and the D., but the Revolution of 1688 completely changed the position of affairs and made William of Orange K. of England. In 1814 H. and Belgium were united under William 1, K. of the Netherlands, but in 1831 Belgium seceded and established itself as a separate kingdom.

Geographical and General Allusions. In Dekker's Northward iv. 1, Capt. Jenkins speaks of "all the Low Countries in Christendom, as H. and Zealand and Netherland and Cleveland too." Fuller, Holy State (1642) iii. 4, says, "H. is all Europe in an Amsterdam-print, for Minerva, Mars, and Mercury-learning, war, and traffic."

Allusions to the History of Holland. In H6 C. iv. 8, 2, Warwick tells that "Edward from Belgia With hasty Germans and blunt His. Hath passed in safety through the narrow seas." In 1470 Edward had fled for refuge to the Flemish court of Charles the Bold ' "who had married his sister Margaret, and with his connivance he gathered a body of men and landed at Ravenspur in 1471. In Jonson's Staple iii. 1, one of the items of news is "One Cornelius-son hath made the Hrs. an invisible eel to swim the haven at Dunkirk and sink all the shipping there." This was in 1625, when war was going on between the D. and Spinola: the Spaniards held Dunkirk and their fleet was assembled there. This is a curious anticipation of submarines. In Davenant's Wits v. 3, Thwack tells of an ape "led captive by the Hr. because he came aloft for Spain and would not for the States." There are many allusions to apes that were trained to show sympathy with Protestantism and dislike to the Pope in this way. This particular ape was, however, of an opposite mind. In Marmion's Companion ii. 1, Spruce boasts, "I serve your women as the Hrs. do by some towns they get: when they have won them they slight [i.e. dismantle] them straight." In Glapthorne's Wit v. 1, Busie says, "Let's drink a health to H. and the mad boys that trail the puissant pike there." In Davenant's Plymouth iii. 1, Trifle says, "We have peppered the H. hulks; I saw 3 of 'em sink." The reference is to the D. privateers, between which and the English merchants there was constant friction. So, in Shirley's Riches iii., the Soldier asks Riches, "Were you never taken by the Hr.?" In Devonshire ii. 1, the Soldier speaks of the good service of the Hrs. There were 16 sail of the Hrs. in the attack on Puntal. In Underwit iii. 3, Engine tells of a man who "went to sea in a Hr. and was taken by the Dunkirke." In Brome's Ct. Beggar i. 1, Gabriel talks of a treasure "of deeper value than all the Hrs. have waited for these 7 years out of the Spanish plate fleets." In Webster's Northward iv. 2, Bellamont says he will fight "like a Hr. against a Dunkirk." In the above 5 quotations Hr. means a D. man-of-war. Sidney, in Astrophel (1581) xxx. 7, says, "H. 's hearts, now so good towns be lost, Trust in the shade of pleasing Orange tree," i.e. of William the Silent, who was Prince of Orange. Hall, in Characters (s.v. The Busie-bodie), represents the Busybody as knowing "whether H. will have peace and on what conditions." In B. & F. Cure i. 1, Lamoral speaks of "H., with those Low Provinces that hold out Against the arch-duke." The date is the reign of Philip II of Spain. The Protestantism of H. was of an extreme Puritan type, and was not at all popular with the English, at any rate with those that frequented the playhouses. In Jonson's Alchemist iii. 1, Subtle speaks to Tribulation and Ananias, whose names declare their Puritan character, of "the Hrs., your friends."

The Dutch were great Traders and Merchants. In Jonson's Alchemist iii. 2, Subtle promises to make of pewter "as good D. dollars As any are in H:' In Davenant's Wits iv., Thwack says, "Our French and Deal wines are poisoned so with brimstone by the Hrs. that they will only serve for medicine." In Webster's Law Case i. 1, Romelio says, "The Hrs. scarce trade More generally than I." In iv. 2, reference is made to the E. Indian trade of H: "How! go to the E. Indies? and so many Hrs. gone to fetch sauce for their pickled herrings! Some have been peppered there too lately." The allusion is to the massacre of the English by the D. in Amboyna, Feb. 1622. Burton, A. M. iii. 3, 1, 1, says, "H. [hath not so many] mariners as Italy alone hath jealous husbands." H. was famous for its linen, which was called first H. cloth and then H. In H4 A. iii. 3, 82, when Falstaff declares that the shirts the Hostess had bought for him were "dowlas, filthy dowlas ": she retorts, "Now, as I am a true woman, h. of 8s. an ell." in H4 B. ii. 2, 26, Prince Hal says punningly to Poins about his lack of shirts, "The rest of thy low countries have made a shift [another pun] to eat up thy h." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. iv. 1, Bryan says, "I preddee let me see some hollen to .make linen shirts:' In Tomkis' Albumazar ii. 6, Pandolo orders his daughter to "lay out the fairest H. sheets "to welcome his mistress. In B. & F. Pilgrimage i. 1, Incubo, in an inventory of fine clothes, mentions "the ruff and cuffs of H." In Three Lords, Dods., vi. 484, Simplicity asks, "What do you lack? fine lockram fine canvas, or fine H. cloth?" In Glapthorne's Wit iii. 1, Thorowgood asks, "Would'st trust me for 40 ells of H.?" In Middleton's Quiet Life i. 1, Franklin speaks of "H., where the finest linen's made." In Goosecap v. 1, Rudesby says to. Hippolita, "If the sun of thy beauty do not white me like a shippard's h., I am a Jew to my Creator." In Wit Woman 1070, Balia says, "If he have e'er an odd piece of ordinary shepherd's H., I pray you I may have a pennyworth in it." In Middleton's R.G. ii. 1, Mrs. Openwork says to her husband, "Keep you your yard to measure Shepherd's h." It is contrasted with "noble women's linen." In Ev. Wom. I. iv. 1, the Hostess says, "I shall go to court attired like an old dairy woman, a ruff h. of 8 groats, 3 inches deep, of the old cut." In Ford's Queen iii. 1774 Pynto tells of a drunken man who "lay all night in pure h. in's stockings and shoes." Gosson, in Pleasant Quips, speaks of "These H. smocks as white as snow."

H. has always had a high reputation for butter and cheese. In Mayne's s Match ii. 1, Dorcas laments that "the price of H. cheese is very much increased," so that the "brethren "are feeling the strain. In More iii. 2, Randal, disguised as Sir Thomas, asks Erasmus, "I pray you, Erasmus, how long will the H. cheese in your country keep without maggots?" in Middleton's Quarrel v. 1, Russell "will believe the sun is made of brass"–and Chough interpolates, "And the moon of a H. cheese ' =" rather than this impossibility." In B. & F. Fair Maid I. iv. 2, Forobosco proposes to divide the year "as a chandler with his compass makes a geometric proportion of the H. cheese he retails by stivers." In Greene's Quip (p. 230), he speaks of a beard "trimd with Christ's cut, round like the half of a H. cheese:' In Glapthorne's Wit i. 1, Tristram says, "You make the ignorant believe by Logick the moon's made of a H. cheese." In Shirley's Imposture v. 1, Bertoldi says, "Would I were a mite in a H. cheese now!" Nash, in Pierce B. 2, satirizes the would-be politician who lives "all the year long with salt butter and H, cheese in his chamber." Dekker, in Bellman, says, "Rats going to the assault of a H. cheese could not more valiantly lay about them."

H. had a large fishing industry in the North Sea, and there was much jealousy between the D. and English fishermen. In Jonson's Staple iii. 1, the sews from the Netherlands has been brought by "eel-boats out of H." In Glapthorne's Hollander i. 1, Popingate says, "I am come as hot from the sea as a Hr. from herring-fishing." The drunkenness of the D. was proverbial. In Oth. ii. 3, 80, Iago says that in drinking "your swagbellied Hr. is nothing to your English. He gives your Hr. a vomit ere the next pottle can be filled." In B. & F. Rule a Wife i. 5, Castro says, "I scorn the Hrs.: they are my drunkards." The D. are represented as great eaters of bacon, butter, and other greasy foods. In Shirley's Ball v. 1, Freshwater, in the description of his adventures in foreign parts, says, "I caught a surfeit of boar in H." See also DUTCH, FLANDERS, LOW COUNTRIES, and NETHERLANDS.


One of the 3 old divisions of Lincs., containing most of the Fen country, in the S. and S.E. of the county. In Brome's Northern i. 1, Widgin says, "Our ancestors flew out of H. in Lines. to prevent persecution." Spencer, F. Q. iv. 1, 35, tells of an old prophecy that the Welland "shall drown all H, with his excrement."


A mansion in Kensington in H. Park, lying N. of Kensington Rd., between H. Walk and Addison Rd. It was built in 1607 for Sir Walter Cope. By his daughter's marriage to Henry Rich, created Earl of H. in 1622, it passed into the Rich family. The Earl was beheaded in 1649, but his house was restored to his widow. In Wright's Historic Histrionics, we read: "In Oliver's time the players used to act privately 3 or 4 miles out of town, now here, now there; sometimes in noblemen's houses, in particular H. H. at Kensington."


A notorious house of ill-fame in Southwark, at the corner of Holland St. and Bankside, just E. of where Blackfriars Bdge. now spans the river. It was originally an old moated manor-house, but fell to low uses. Leaguer is used in the sense of a military camp, the women being supposed to be the soldiers. In Nabbes' Totenham iv. 4, the Taster says of the trick Ballamie is playing: "Here's a Totenham Court project translated over the water from Holland." Marmion's Leaguer takes its name from this place, and the scene is partly laid there. In iv. 1, one of the women says, "Some term us the L."; and it is so called throughout the play. In Glapthorne's Hollander i. 1, Popingaie boasts, "None such soldier had H. L:"


A dist. in N. London, stretching along the H. Rd. from Highbury to Highgate. As it was on the Gt. North Rd., it had many taverns and houses of entertainment, amongst them the famous Mother Redcap Tavern, the sign of which still remains. In Jack Drum i. 1, the Morrice dancers sing, "Let us be seen, On Hygate-greene, To dance for the honour of H." In Jonson's Tub ii. 1, Hilts says, "That I would fain zee, quoth the blind George of H." In Pardoner, Hazlitt, i. 232, we have: "Marry that I would see, quod blind Hew."


A fine mansion in Northants., 6 m. N.W. of Northampton. It was built by Sir Christopher Hatton, and demolished by order of the Commonwealth Parliament. Here Charles I was seized by Cornet Joyce on June 4th, 1647. It was only a mile or two N. of Althorp, where Jonson's Masque, The Satyr, was performed in 1603 before the Q. on her way from Scotland to Lond. In the course of the Masque Nobody sings, "There's none of these dancers doth hope to come by wealth to build another H." There may be a humorous allusion intended to the reputation Sir Christopher had as a dancer, and a suggestion that he got the money to build H. for that reason. There were 2 giants in front of the house which were destroyed by Joyce when he arrested the K. Corbett, in Iter. Boreale, says, "O you that do Guildhall and Holmeby keep, You are good giants and partake no shame With those a worthless trunks of Nottinghame."


One of the Cheviot Hills on the boundary of Northumberland, near to Wooler. It was here that Percy defeated the Scots on 14 Sept. 1402. It was really 3 months later than Glendower's defeat of Mortimer, though Shakespeare, in H4 A. i. 1, makes them contemporaneous. In line 55 Westmoreland announces: "On Holy-Rood day Young Harry Percy and brave Archibald, That ever valiant and approved Scot, At H. met," and Sir Walter Blunt saw 10,000 Scots "balked in their own blood on H.'s plains." In i. 3, 24, Northumberland speaks of the "prisoners Which Harry Percy here at H. took." In v. 3, 14, Hotspur exclaims, "O Douglas, hadst thou fought at H. thus, I never had triumphed upon a Scot."


The hill on which St. Albans is built (see ST. ALBANS). In W. Rowley's Shoemaker v. 2, 187, Crispin says, "A beauteous monastery On H. H. where Albon lost his head Offa shall build." In iv. 2, 28, it is called Holnurst H.


A bookseller's sign in St. Paul's churchyard. The sign would doubtless be a dove in flight. Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis was "Imprinted at Lond. for William Leake dwelling at the sign of the H. G. in Paule's Church yard. 1602."


A bookseller's sign in St. Paul's Churchyard. Wily Beguiled was "Printed by H. L. for Clement Knight and are to be sold at his shop in Paules Churchyard at the sign of the H. L: 1606." In Dekker's Babylon, p. 215, Plain Dealing says that Truth "dwells at the sign of the H. L."


W. Palestine, and particularly Judaea, as being the scene of our Lord's crucifixion and resurrection. The earliest example of its use in English in N.E.D. is in Robert of Gloucester, 1297. In R2 v. 6, 49, Bolingbroke says, "I'll make a voyage to the H. L. To wash this blood off from my guilty hand." In H4 B. iii. 1, 108, the K. says, "We would, dear Lords, unto the H. L." In iv. 5, 211, the K. explains that he had a purpose "To lead out many to the H. L. Lest rest and lying still might make them look Too near unto my state." In Greene's Friar iv., Elinor speaks of "Edward's courageous resolution Done at the H. L. 'fore Damas walls." As a matter of fact, Edward was never at Damascus. In Massinger's Renegado v. 1, Francisco speaks of "Knights that in the H. L. Fought for the freedom of Jerusalem." In Bristowe A 3, Harbert advises Sentloe, "Go to brave Richd. in the H. L." In Jonson's Magnetic i. 1, the Boy states as one of the constituents of a successful play "the knight to travel between the acts and do wonders in the H. L. or elsewhere." In T. Heywood's Traveller i. 1, Wincott's wife says to Geraldine, "My husband hath took much pleasure in your strange discourse about Jerusalem and the H. L." In Webster's Law Case ii. 3, Leonora says, "I have some earth Brought from the H. L., right sovereign To staunch blood." Milton, P. L.iii. 536, speaks of "Beersaba, where the H. L. Borders on Egypt."


Shoreditch, Lond, continuing Bishopsgate St. N. It is now called High St. Richd. Burbage, the actor, lived and died in H. St., and in the immediate neighbourhood were the Theatre and The Curtain, q.v.


Lond., off Cheapside, opposite Bow Ch. It was named, like Bread St., Milk St., Fish St., etc., from the commodity sold there. Honey was a much more important article of diet before the introduction of cane-sugar. In Jonson's Christmas, Father Christmas in a song, introduces the masquers to his audience, one of them "With orange on head And his gingerbread, Clem Waspe of H. L.'tis."


One of the principal sts. in Paris, running E. and W. from the Rue Royale to the Rue des Halles, N. of, and parallel to, the Rue de Rivoli. In Davenant's Rutland, p. 223, the Londoner, in his critical account of Paris, says, "Lae rue St. Antoine, St. H., and St. Denis are large enough for the vista." Fynes Moryson, in Itinerary i. 2, 188 (1595), says of the sts. of Paris: "Among them the fairest is that of St. Dennis, the 2nd St. H., the 3rd St. Antoine, and the 4th St. Martine."


The sign of a tavern in Plymouth. In Davenant's Plymouth i. 1, Seawit says, "Your hostesses daughter at the H. desired I would speak with you."


On the Bankside, Southwark. It was originally a bear-garden, but was rebuilt as a combined playhouse and baiting-ring by Philip Henslowe and Jacob Meade in 1613. It stood between the Bankside and Maiden Lane, to the W. of Bear Garden Alley. Jonson's Barthol. was produced here in 1614. The house fell out of use as a playhouse in 1616, partly because the playgoers found the smell of the animals offensive, but continued to be used for bear-baiting until 1682. In Jonson's Barthol., Ind., the scrivener reads: "Articles of agreement between the spectators or hearers at the H. on the Bankside in the county of Surrey and the author of Bartholomew Fair." Later the author says: "Though the Fair be not kept in the same region that some here perhaps would have it, yet think that therein the author hath observed a special decorum, the place being as dirty as Smithfield and as stinking every whit." [ed. note: This playhouse's foundations are thought to be the two long brick walls unearthed in Bear Garden alley in May of 2001.]


The name used in Deuteronomy for the mtn. where the Law was given to Moses. It is a mtn., or range of mtns., in the Sinaitic Peninsula: the actual peak is now generally identified with Ras Sufsafeh. In Jack Drum i. 122, Sir Edward says, "I care not to be like the H. calf, One day adored, the next pushed all in pieces "(see Exodus xxxii.). In Conf. Consc. i. 2, Philologus says, "Elias the Tishbite for fear of Jezebel did fly to H." (see 1 Kings xix.). Milton, P. L.i. 7, invokes the Heavenly Muse "that on the secret top Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire That shepherd who first taught the chosen seed," i.e. Moses.


(more fully the H. ON THE HOOP) A tavern in Fleet St., on the site now occupied by Anderton's Hotel (Nos. 162–165). The sign has been traced back to 1385, when the house belonged to John Phippe, a carrier; the next owner was Thomas Atte Haye, who combined the businesses of goldsmith and brewer. In T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, Valerius, in his list of the taverns of Rome (i.e. Lond.), sings: "The townsman to the H." In Underwit ii. 2, Thomas is sent to find out the lawyer Sackbury, and reports: "Inquiring at the H. tavern, I heard he had been there." Middleton, in Hubburd (1604), p. 67, says, "They were to dine together at the H. in Fleet St., being a house where their lawyer resorted:' It was, of course, near the lawyers' quarters in the Temple. On p. 77 the lawyer advises the young would-be gallant that "his eating must be in some famous tavern, as the H., the Mitre, or the Mermaid."


A lane in Lond. off the E. side of Aldersgate St., about midway, now Edmund Pl. In Alimony i. 2, Timon says of the play: "My scene is H. A., the name it bears is Lady Alimony." No doubt the locality was chosen for the sake of the double entendre on "horns," which the Elizabethans seem to have thought very funny.


A vill. in Essex on Bowies Brook, 19 m. S.W. of Chelmsford. In Nash's Prognostication, he predicts: "If the parson of Hornechurch in Essex take not heed, there may hap to prove this year some cuckolds in his parish." This is the horn joke again.


An eating-house in Lond., but it is possible that it is a fictitious name for a brothel, with the usual Elizabethan play on the word horn. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Carlo says of Sogliardo: "He's a leiger at H. O. yonder."


A city of ancient Moab, E. of the Jordan. Its site has not been certainly determined. Milton, P. L.i. 409, says that Chemosh was worshipped "in Hesebon And H., Seon's realm."




A dist. in Southwark extending from the E. end of Tooley St. to Dockhead. The H. stairs are just at the foot of the Tower Bdge. A fair used to be held here, of which there is a painting at Hatfield House by Hofnagle. Fair St. still preserves its memory. In Humorous Lovers (1617), one of the characters says, "I'll set up my bills that the gamesters of Lond., H., Southwark, and Newmarket may come in and bait the bear here before the ladies."


A pond on the N.W. side of W. Smithfield, "where the inhabitants of that part of the City did water their horses." In Jonson's Barthol. ii. 1, Quarlous, proposing to duck Dame Ursula, says, "Do you think there may be a fine cocking-stool in the Fair to be purchased?one large enough, I mean. I know there is a pond of capacity for her."


A tavern in Lond. The sign was a common one: there was one on Tower Hill and another in Drury Lane. In Marmion's Companion i. 4, Careless says, "Entreat him to meet me at the H. tavern at dinner; I love that house for the sign's sake, 'tis the very print of the shoe that Pegasus wore when he broke up Helicon with his hoof." The fountain of Hippocrene on Helicon was said to have sprung from the hoof print of Pegasus. There was also a H. Tavern at Daventry, to the host of which Mr. Andrew Hilton-Taylor dedicated his Scourge of Baseness.


Vill. in S. Bucks., near Windsor, abt. 20 m. W. of Lond. Here John Milton lived, in his father's house, from 1632 to 1638 and wrote most of his earlier poems.


In Lond., running from W. Smithfield to King St. Stow describes it as "not over well built or inhabited, having all old timber houses "; and says that during Bartholomew Fair all the houses were made public "for tippling and lewd sort of people:' In Barry's Ram v. 2, Smallshanks informs Throate that the supposed heiress whom he has married is "the wench I kept in H: L."






(= HUDDERSFIELD). A town in W. Riding, Yorks. The name is still locally pronounced Huthersfield. In Downfall Huntington i. 3, Little John says, "At Rowford, Sowtham, Wortley, H. Of all your cattle money shall be made And I at Mansfield will attend your coming."


A tavern in Waltham mentioned in one of Tarlton's jests.


St. in Lond. running N.W. along the line of the old City moat from Aldgate to Bishopsgate. The name was originally applied to the whole extent of the City moat, but became confined in the 16th cent. to this section of it. It probably got its name from the City Hounds, which were kept in kennels there. The moat was filled in early in the 16th cent. and the st. was paved in 1503. It was mainly occupied by brokers, i.e. old clothes dealers, of whom many are still to be found there, though the centre of the trade has shifted east to Petticoat Lane, now more respectable under the title of Middlesex St. In Nabbes' C. Garden ii. 2, Warrant says to Spruce, "Thou buy'st thy laundry in Long-Lane or H." In Dekker's Seven Sins, Cruelty, "spying the brokers of H., he stops, calling them all his dearest sons." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 2, Brain, being asked where he got his coat, says, "Of a H. man, Sir, one of the devil's near kinsmen, a broker." Dekker, in Knight's Conjuring (1607), speaks of "all the brokers in Long Lane, H., or elsewhere." Rowland, in Liking of Humours (1611), calls H. "the brokers' Row." Middleton, in Black Book, p. 16, says, "Let brokers become honest and remove to heaven out of H." Taylor, in Works iii. 7, says, "Was H. H. called, can any tell, Before the brokers in that street did dwell?No, sure it was not, it hath got that name From them." In ii. 3, he says, "I come from H., Long Lane, and from Bridewell, Where all that have lived ill have all not died well." In Middleton's No Wit i. 1, Weatherwise exclaims: "Some lousy fiddler run away with your daughter! May Clerkenwell have the first cut of her, and H. pick her bones!" In W. Rowley's Match Mid. iv. 1, Crack writes: "I Randal Crack of Carmarden, do love thee Mary Ploodhounds of H., dwelling near Aldgaie and Bishopsgate." In Dekker's Devil's Last Rill, one item runs: "My will is that all the brokers in Long-lane be sent 'tome with all speed possible; and for their brethren (the rest of their Jewish tribe in the synagogue of H.) let them be assured they shall not be forgotten." In his Strange Horse-race (1613), Dekker says, "The Brokers went both away like a couple of hounds in a string together, and lie buried at the grate which receives the common sewer in the midst of H." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 21, Spicing, he and his rebels having been driven back from Bishopsgate, says, "We are all like to feed hogs in H." See also DOGSDITCH.


A town on the great Western coach road in Middlesex, 11 m. W. of Land. Owing to its position it had many excellent taverns for the accommodation of travellers. Adjoining the town is the Heath, which was notorious for the frequency of its highway robberies. There appears to have been a sword factory on the Heath: it has, however, given place to a large manufactory of gunpowder. In Cromwell iv. 2, after Cromwell's exaltation, Seely and his wife wait upon him; and Cromwell exclaims: "What men are these?My honest Host of H. and his wife," and proceeds to help them. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 1, Shift undertakes to teach Sogliardo the Whiffe, which consists in taking 3 whiffs of tobacco, drinking 3 cups of Canary, and then riding from Lond. to puff out 1 whiff "at H., a 2nd at Staines, and a 3rd at Bagshot." In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 4, Chough prays that Meg may "be drawn from Holborn to H. Heath," where executed felons were often hung in chains. It was near enough to Lond. for an afternoon's excursion. In Jonson's New Inn iv. 3, Pinnacia tells how her lover would hire a coach-and-four and run "to Rumford, Croydon, H. or Barnet, the next bawdy road," with her. In Underwit i. 1, Underwit has "an old fox blade made at H. heath."


The third largest spt. in England, at the mouth of the Humber, in E. Riding, Yorks, 34 m. S.E. Of York. It received its charter as a free borough from Edward I (who gave it the name of Kingston-on-Hull) In 1299, and from that time it rapidly grew in importance. Chaucer's Shipman (C. T. A. 404) was unrivalled in seamanship "from Hulle to Cartage." Barclay, in Ship of Fools (1517), begins: "Where may we best argue (?) At Lyn or else at Hulle? To us tray no haven in England be deneyed." In Beguiled (Dods, ix. 308), Robin Goodfellow professes, "By birth I am a boat-wright's son of H." In Massinger's New Way i. 3, Order says, "There came not 6 days since, from H., a pipe Of rich Canary." In Sampson's Vow v. 3, 13, the men of Nottingham have petitioned the Q. to have the Trent made "navigable to Gainsborough, So to Boston, Kingston, Humber, and H." The author forgot that H. and Kingston are the same place. H. was noted for its ale, which was known as H. cheese. Taylor, in York for my Money, says, "There I got a cantle of H. cheese," and explains that H. cheese is composed of malt and water, and is cousin german to the mightiest ale in England. Taylor, in Worksii. 12, says, "From H., from Halifax, from Hell, 'tis thus, From all these 3 good Lord deliver us." This is a familiar Yorkshire proverb, and is called the Thieves' Litany. The magistrates of Hull were noted for their severity in dealing with thieves and vagabonds. In allusion to this, Nash, in Lenten (p. 324), says to the friars who want K. Herring, "Let them seek him, and neither in H., Hell, nor Halifax." See also HALIFAX.


The estuary between Yorks. and Lincs. which receives the waters of the Ouse and Trent. In Nobody 255, Vigenius says, "Thus we'll divide the land; all beyond Trent and H. shall suffice one moiety." In Fisher's Fuimus ii. 5, Belinus calls it "curl-pated H., Neptune's heir." In Sampson's Vow v. 3, 13, the men of Nottingham are reported to have petitioned that the Trent should be made "navigable to Gainsborough, So to Boston, Kingston, H., and Hull." The river is said to have taken its name from H., the Hunnish chief, who drowned himself there after his defeat by Locrine. The story is told in Locrine iv. 4, and by Spenser in F. Q. ii. 10, 16. Milton, in Vacation Exercise 99, speaks of "H. loud that keeps the Scythian's name." Spenser, in the river list in F. Q. iv. 11, 30, calls it "storming H."


(Hn. = Hungarian). In E. Europe, wedged in between Russia, Poland, Austria, and the Balkan provinces. It corresponds roughly to the Roman provinces of Pannonia and Dacia. The Romans abandoned it to the Goths in A.D. 274. It was successively taken possession of by the Huns under Attila, and the Lombards under Alboinus, or Albovine, the hero of Davenant's play Albovine, about 530. At the close of the 9th cent. the Magyars, a Mongolian people, crossed the Carpathians and overran Hungary and Transylvania, where they long formed the ruling caste. It was ruled by Magyar kings from Stephen the Saint (1000) to the death of Andrew III in 1301. Then Wencislaus usurped the throne and founded a dynasty which lasted till 1527, when Hungary fell into the hands of the House of Hapsburg. The Turks, after the capture of Constantinople in 1453, attacked H., and ultimately Solyman the Magnificent utterly defeated the Hns. at the famous battle of Mohacs in 1526. The sultans held the greater part of the country till they were finally expelled in 1686. The Crown of H. remained in the Hapsburg family, and, except during the long reign of Maria Theresa, was worn by the reigning Emperor until the end of the late war, when the "Dual Monarchy "was broken up. In Davenant's Albovine ii. 1, Grimold says to Albovine, "Since my last services in H. you remain in my tally 6000 ducats." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 1, Uribassa announces to the Sultan, "K. Sigismond hath brought from Christendom More than his camp of stout Hns. That . . . Will hazard that we might with surety hold." Sigismond, who reigned from 1386 to 1437, was defeated by the Turks at Nicopolis in 1396. In Whetstone's Promos B. ii. 2, Corvinus is described as "the high and mighty k. of Hungaria and Boemia." "The date is indeterminate, but probably Matthias Corvinus is the K. intended. In Selimus 540, Selim 1, speaking of Samandria, says, "Here the Hn. with his bloody cross Deals blows about to win Belgrade again." Selim reigned 1512 to 1520. Earle, in Microcosmography I. ii., says a templar is as proud of repulsing a catchpole "as an Hn. of killing a Turk." In Middleton's R.G. v. 1, Trapdoor claims to have served "in H. against the Turk at the siege of Belgrade." So, in Jonson's Ev. Man I. ii. 2, Brainworm says he has served "in all the late wars in Hungaria." In Meas. i. 1, 1, Lucio says, "If the duke (of Vienna] with the other dukes come not to composition with the K. of H., why then all the dukes fall upon the K." To which a Gentleman, replies: "Heaven grant us its peace, but not the K. of H.'s." The date of the play is quite indefinite. In Glapthorne's Wallenstein i. 2, the Emperor says, "Despatch a trusty messenger unto the K. of H." This was Ferdinand II. In Webster's White Devil v. 1, Lodovico and Gasparo, the conspirators, are disguised as "2 noblemen of H." who had served against the Turk at Matta and had then joined the order of the Capuchins in Padua. In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus i. 1, 143, Alphonsus says that he has "rained a golden shower Of bright Hn. ducats and crusadoes Into the private coffers of the Bp.," i.e. money extorted from H.

Hn. is used with a punning reference to "hungry," to mean a hungry, needy fellow. In M.W.W. i. 3, 22, Pistol addresses Bardolph, "O base Hn. wight!wilt thou the spigot wield?"In Merry Devil i. 4, the Host says, "I have knights and colonels at my house and must tend the Hns., "i.e. hungry fellows. In Dekker's Westward v. 2, Sir Gosling says to the musicians, "Play, you lousy Hns.!" In Shirley's St. Patrick v. 1, Rodomant calls 2 soldiers whom he discovers eating their dinner "my brace of Hns." In Merry Devil, p. 251, Blague says to his companions, "Come, ye Hn. pilchers, we are once more come under the Zona Torrida of the forest." Dekker, in News from Hell, says of a miser: "The lean jade Hn. would not lay out a penny pot of sack for himself." Dekker uses the word in this sense very often in his prose writings. In Marmion's Leaguer iii. 2, Trimalchio says, "I am in mine appetite an Flu." Hall, in Satires v. 2, says of the objects of his satire they are "So sharp and meagre that who should them see Would swear they lately came from H." In Brewer's Lingua ii. 1, Appetitus says, "Give me no sceptre but a fat capon's leg, to shew that I am the great K. of H.," i.e. the K. of hungry fellows. Lupton, in London Carbonadoed (1632) iii. 12, says, "The middle ile [of St. Paul's] is much frequented at noone with a company of Hns., not walking so much for recreation, as neede." In Gascoigne's Government i. 5, Eccho says to the procurers Pandarina, "Why, were you not mother of the maids unto the Q. of H.?"Maximilian was K. of H. at the date of the play, but I can find no point in the allusion, unless Eccho means "the Q. of the Hns." in. the slang sense noted above. The princess Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander II, a king of H. in the 13th cent., was canonized, and her day was observed on Nov. 19th. In order to flatter Q. Elizabeth, this day was celebrated in her honour by joustings and other festivities. Possibly, therefore, in this passage the Q. of H. means Elizabeth of England. In Massinger's Madam iv. 4, Luke, reproaching the women for their love of foreign fashions, speaks of "your Hungerland bands and Spanish quellio ruffs." I suppose by Hungerland he means Hungary. In Dekker's Match me ii., Bilbo says, "I have excellent Hn. shag bands for ladies ": shag being a kind of rough velvet. The scene of Massinger's Picture is laid in H. Hn. horses are described by Blundeville as having great hooked heads and long manes and tails; their pace was a hard trot. Fynes Moryson, in Itinerary 1, 2, 174 (1594), records the buying of a Hn. horse in Padua for 20 crowns.


A town on the borders of Berks. and Wilts. on the Kennet, 60 m. W. of Lond. It gives their title to the Barons of H. In H6 A. i. 1, 146, Lord H. is reported as having been taken prisoner by the French. This was Sir Walter H., who was created Baron in 1422. In H6 C. iv. 1, 48, Clarence says, "Lord Hastings well deserves To have the heir of the Lord H." Edward Hastings, son of the William Hastings of R3. married Mary, the daughter of Thomas, 4th Baron H., and in this way the Baronage came into the Hastings family. It is now held by the Earl of London (Abney-Hastings.) In the passage from Massinger's Madam quoted in preceding entry, Gifford reads: "Hungerford bands." "Hungerland is Symons' emendation required by the context.




A tribe who first appear from the lands N. of the Caspian ill A.D. 372. They reached their highest fame in the 5th cent. under the famous Attila. They finally settled, partly in Great Bulgaria in S. Russia, and partly in White Bulgaria on the Danube. In Fisher's Fuimus ii. 8, there is a song in which the lines occur: "Locrinus' eldest son Did drown the furious H." The legend of these wars between Locrine and the H., or Scythians, is told in the play of Locrine: it is needless to say that they are entirely unhistorical. Rabelais, Gargantua i. 54, speaks of men "worse than the H. or Ostrogoths."


The county town of H.-shire, on the Gt. Ouse, on the North Road, 58 m. N. of Lond. At the Grammar School, founded by David of Scotland in 1200, Oliver Cromwell was educated. It gives their title to the Earls of H. Towards the end of the 16th cent. Robin Hood was raised to a mythical peerage as the Earl of H., or Huntington. Munday and Chettle's plays of the Downfall and the Death of Robert Earl of Huntington date from 1598; and in Look about Skink speaks of "young Robin Hood, the Earl of Huntington." His life in the greenwood may have suggested the title In Davenport's Matilda i. 1, Matilda says to the K., "Remember, pray, your vows to my betrothed, Earl Robert Huntington ": and the K. replies, "For Huntington he like a heap Of summer's dust into his grave is swept." The H. mentioned in H5 v. 2, 85 was John Holland, who afterwards married the widow of Edmund, Earl of March. He is one of the characters in Oldcastle. He is also mentioned in Fam. Vict., Haz., p. 363. George Hastings, the grandson of the Hastings of R3, was created Earl of H. in 1529, and the earldom still continues in his family. An Earl of H. is one of the characters in Webster's Wyat.


A town in Sicily, at the mouth of the Cantaro, some 10 m. N. of Syracuse. It was dose to, if not identical with, the Greek colony of Megara Hyblaea. The Latin poets celebrate the quality of its honey, and its reputation in this respect is perpetuated in the name of a vill. close to its site, Mellili. In H4 A. i. 2, 47, Prince Hal says that the Hostess is as sweet "as the honey of H." In J.C. v. 1, 34, Cassius says to Antony, "For I ur words, they rob the H. bees And leave them honeyless." In Lyly's Endymion iii. 4, Eumenides says, "Mistresses are as common as bees in H." In Marlowe's Dido v. 1, AEneas compares the rays of the sun to "labouring bees That load their thighs with H.'s honeyspoils." In Day's Parl. Bees v., Poetaster boasts, "No bee that frequents H. takes more pains Than we do in our cantons." In Jonson's Penates, Maia speaks of "all that H.'s hives do yield." In Fisher's Fuimus iv. 4, Cassibelan adjures the speckled bees, "Buz not about sweet H.'s bloomy head." In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says, "See what golden-winged bee from H. flies humming crura thymo plena." In Chapman's Usher iii. 2, Bassiolo swears his friendship will last "while there be bees in H." In Milkmaids i. 3, Ferdinand calls a swarm of bees "your people of H." Lyly, in Sapho prol., says, "In H., being cloyed with honey, they account it dainty to feed on wax."


(now the JELUM). One of the chief rivers of the Punjaub. It rises in the Himalayas and falls into the Indus at Mithun Kote. Here Alexander fought with Porus and founded Nicaea and Bucephala in memory of his victory. In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, Caesar says of Alexander: "He through H. and the Caspian waves Unto the sea his praise did propagate." In T. Heywood's Dialogues iii. 1806, Alexander says, "I golden-waved H. passed." In Jonson's Penates, Maia sings, "The odour that H. lends Or Phcenix proves before she ends." In Nero iv. 1, Nero says to Poppaea, "For thee H. shall throw up his gold." Milton, P. L.iii. 436, compares Satan to a vulture which "flies toward the springs Of Ganges or H., Indian streams."


Now applied to the open space in Lond. lying between Park Lane and Kensington Gardens, and extending from Oxford St. to Knightsbridge. It covers 386 acres, but originally it included Kensington Gardens and with them made an open park of over Goo acres. It is the ancient manor of Hide, which belonged to the Abbey of Westminster until it was taken possession of by Henry VIII. From his time to the end of the reign of James I it was reserved as a royal hunting-ground for deer, heron, and other game; and it was enclosed by a paling fence. A succession of small pools ran along the S. side of the P., which were united into the Serpentine river in 1730. Early in the reign of Charles I the Ring, or Tour, was formed: it was a circular drive about 90 yards in diameter, and lay some 150 yards N. of the E. end of the Serpentine. It was used for horse, foot, and coach-races, and soon became a fashionable resort; and cakes and cream were provided for the visitors at the Cake House. During the Commonwealth the p. was sold to 3 private buyers, but was resumed by the Crown at the Restoration and became still more popular with the aristocracy and gentlefolk of the town.

In Jonson's New World, the Factor asks of the new world in the Moon: "Have they any places of meeting with their coaches and taking the fresh open air, and then covert when they please, as in our H. p. or so?"In Staple prol., Jonson asks: "What is it to his [the author's] scene to know How many coaches in H. p. did show Last spring?"In his Devil i. 3, Fitzdottrel promises, "I'll go bespeak me straight a gilt caroch for her and you to take the air in; yes, into H. P." In Shirley's Ball iv. 3, Winfield says to the ladies, "I do allow you H. p. and Spring Garden." In his Fair One i. 3, Fowler says, "There is no discourse so becoming your gallants now at a horse-race or H. P.–what ladies' lips are softest, etc." One of his plays is called Hyde Park, and Acts III and IV take place in the p. and give a vivid description of a footrace between an Irishman and an Englishman; and of a horse-race on which the ladies bet Spanish gloves to scarlet stockings. The whole should be read by the student. In Mayne's s Match v. 2, Dorcas stipulates that she is to have "My footman to run by me when I . . . take the air sometimes in H. P." In Brome's Merry Beggars ii. 1, Vincent says, "Shall we make a fling to Lond. and see how the spring appears there in Spring Gardens and in H. P., to see the races horse and foot; to hear the jockeys crack; and see Adamites run naked afore the ladies?"In Killigrew's Parson i. 3, jolly says, "To H. p. or so I may venture on your lady-fair days when the filly-foals of 15 come kicking in." Randolph, Poems (1634) ii. 539, satirizes one whose ambition it is to "Keep his race-nags, and in H. p. be seen." In Davenant's Wits i. 2, Palatine advises his son, "So live that usurers shall call their money in, remove their bank to Ordinaries, Spring Garden, and H. P." In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Holdfast says, "I do intend to scour Hide p. this summer." In Brome's Couple i. 1, Wat tells Careless, "All your hidden ways in Hide-parke races are trod out and all your bowling booties beaten bare off o' the Grounds and Allies." In Brome's Academy iii. 1, Matchil says to Rachel's lover, "She shall not jaunt to this nor that town with you nor to Hide-P." In his Northern ii. 1, Fitchow surmises that Luckless has come to invite her forth "into the air of Hidepark or Maribone." In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] iii. 1, Aurelia says to jolly, who is proposing to marry the widow Barebottle, "You'd be very proud of a soapboiler's widow then in Hide-P., Sir!"


A range of mtns. S.E. of Athens, some 4 or 5 m. from the city. In T. Heywood's Dialogues iv. 2237, Jupiter says of Timon: "His tedious clamours in mine ears sound shrill (Near unto Athens) from Himettus hill." In Brome's Ct. Beggar iv. 2, the mad Frederick cries: "Carry me up to H. top, Where she [Diana] affects to walk and take the air." Milton, p. R. iv. 247, says of Athens: "There flowery hill H., with the sound Of bees' industrious murmur, oft invites To studious musing."


A legendary race who were supposed to inhabit the furthest recesses of the North, beyond Boreal, i.e. at the back of the North Wind. Hence the word is used to mean Northern. In B. & F. Friends iv. 1, Marcus says, "Betwixt the parched Indians, short-breathed men, And longest lived, cold H., Lives not a instant woman." In Greene's Orlando iv. 1, 994, Ogier says that the 12 Peers of France have "made our galleys dance Upon the Hyperborian billows' crests."


The river Hypanis, now the Bug, which flows into the Black Sea at Olbia. In Randolph's Muses' v. 3, Roscius says that the Fates gave to human life "a thread no longer than the beasts of H." In Florin's Montaigne 1, 603) i. 19, we find: "Aristotle saith, there are certain little beasts alongst the river Hyspanis that live but one day." The reference is to Aristotle, Hilt. Animal. v. 19, He says that the river Hypanis in the Cimmerian Bosporus brings down certain sacks, from which, when they are burst, there comes forth a winged four-footed animal which lives and flies about till evening and then dies. Evidently he means some species of insect belonging to the group Ephemeridae, or dayflies.


(= HIPPO REGIUS). A spt. in Numidia, abt. 150 m. W. of Carthage. It was afterwards famous as the seat of St. Augustine's bishopric. In Kyd's Cornelia v., the Messenger, relating the death of Metellus Scipio, says, "A sudden tempest takes him by the way And casts him up near to the masts of H." This was in 46 B.C., just after the battle of Thapsus.


A dist. on the S.E. coast of the Caspian Sea, N.E. of Media. It was rugged and mountainous, and Vergil AEn. iv. 367) gave currency to the idea that its tigers were specially ferocious. Milton, p. R. iii. 317, speaks of hosts coming from "the Hn. cliffs of Caucasus." In Cyrus i. 1, Cyrus addresses his army as "Ye Persians, Medians, and Hns."; and later the prowess of the Hn. archers is praised. In Chapman's Trag. Byron iv. 2, 126, Byron says that Alexander the Gt. "was said To teach the rapeful Hyrcans marriage." In v. 1, he refers to Pompey's conquest of the Hns. In Merch. ii. 7, 41. Morocco says, "The Hn, deserts . . . are as thoroughfares now For princes to come view fair Portia." In Chapman's Trag. Byron iv. 2, Byron, praising Philip II of Spain, says, "He spent not [his treasure] on Median luxury Nor dear Hn. fishes." The Caspian Sea is noted for its fine salmon, and especially for its sturgeon, from which most of the world's supply of caviare and isinglass is obtained. The passage is taken from Plutarch, De Alexandra Magni Virtute.

In H6 C. i. 4, 155, York says to the Lancastrians, "You are more inhuman, more inexorable, O, ten times more, than tigers of H." In Macbeth iii. 4, 101, Macbeth says to Banquo's ghost, "Approach thou like . . . the Hyrcan tiger . . . and my firm nerves Shall never tremble." In Ham. ii. 2, 472, Hamlet begins the speech he wants the player to recite: "The rugged Pyrrhus like the Hn. beast." In Brandon's Octavia 1032, Octavia says of slighted love: "No fierce Hn. forest doth possess So wild a tiger." In Selimus 1237, Zonara says to Acmat, "The Hircanian tigres gave thee suck." In Marlowe's Dido v., Dido, in a passage translated from Vergil (.En. iv. 36y), says to AEneas, "Tigers of H. gave thee suck." In Massinger's Lover ii. 7, Uberti speaks of Farnezes pursuing "Such a revenge as no Hn. tigress, Robbed of her whelps, durst aim at." In T. Heywood's B. Age i., Deyaneira speaks of being attacked "By the Hyrcan tigers or the Syrian wolves." In Cockayne's Trapolin iii. 2, Mattemores denounces Hipolita as "more cruel thaw Hn. ti tigers." In Nabbes' Microcosmus iii., Sensuality says, 401 count the beasts lurk in Hircania's dens." In Chapman's Chabot v. 2, 118, the Advocate says, "What tiger of Hn. breed could eve been so cruel!" Heylyn (s.v.) says, "These forests give lurking holes to infinite number of tigers, celebrated in all writers for their horrible fierceness." Daniel, in Sonnets after Astrophel (1591) xi. 12, exhorts his mistress, "Restore thy fierce and cruel mind To Hyrcan tigers and to ruthless bears."


One of the Cinque Ports, in Kent, half-way between Dover and Dungeness, 60 m. S.E. of Lond. It is at the foot of a steep hill. In Wager's The Longer A 3, Moros comes in singing, "Broom, broom, on Hive Hill The gentle Broom on Hive Hill."