A town in Latium, 12 m. from Rome on the road to Praeneste. Its site is marked by the ruins of a mediaeval fortress called Castiglione. It was an important place in the early days of Rome, but in the time of the Empire it is described by Horace as deserted: Lebedus, he says, is "desertior Gabiis" (Ep. i. 11, 7); and Juvenal speaks of it as an insignificant village. In Sat. x. 100, he says, "Would you rather don the state robe of this wretch now being dragged along, or be a municipal magnate of Fidenae or G., delivering judgments on weights and measures?" (Leeper's trans.). This last passage is imitated in Nero iv. 1, where Nero says, "Would I had rather in poor G. Or Ulubrae a ragged magistrate, Sat as a judge of measures and of corn, Than the adored monarch of the world."


The 7th son of Jacob, from whom the tribe of Gad was descended. It occupied the fertile lands to the east of the Jordan. In Marston's Insatiate C. i. 1, we read: "Thou Jew of the tribe of Gad, that sure, were there none here but thou and 1, wouldst teach me the art of breathing."


The old name of Cadiz, known to the Elizabethans as Cales, q.v. It was looked upon as the W. extremity of the world by the ancients. In the old Timon i. 4, Pseudocheus says, "At G. I washed away Non ultra writ with Hercules' own hand." G. was a day's journey from the Pillars of Hercules. In Fisher's Fuimus iv. 4, Caesar says, "From Ganges to Hesperian G. Our name doth sound." In T. Heywood's B. Age v., Hercules says, "Here stand our pillars with non ultra insculpt Which we must rear beyond the Pyrene Hills At G. in Spain." In Tourneur's Atheist iii. 1, D'Amville says of Montferrers and Charlemont that they were so great and good "that on These 2 Herculean pillars where their arms Are placed there may be writ Non ultra." Milton, P. R. iv. 77, describes embassies coming to Rome "From Gallia, G., and the British west." In S. A. 716, the Chorus describes Dalila as sailing up "Like a stately ship of Tarsus, bound for the isles Of Javan or Gadire," i.e. G. The women of G. had a reputation in antiquity for lascivious dances. Martial has many references to them, and Juvenal (xi. 160) warns his guests not to expect at his banquet to be entertained by Gaditanean girls dancing their fandangos. In Massinger's Actor iii. 2, Stephanos says to Domitilla, "Sit down with this, And the next action, like a Gaditane strumpet, I shall look to see you tumble." Hall, in Satires iv. 1, says, "He tells a merchant tidings of a prize . . . Worth little less than . . . G. spoils." The reference is to the taking of Cadiz in 1596.


A form of Gades, q.v.


An imaginary tribe near the Antipodes. In Brome's Antipodes iv. 10, Peregrine says, "Mandivell writes of people Near the Antipodes, called G.: Where on the wedding night the husband hires Another man to couple with the bride."


A hill on the road from Lond. to Rochester, 21 m. from Rochester and abt. 27 from Lond. It was a well-known resort of footpads and highwaymen. In H4 A. i. 2, 139, Poins says, "My lads, to-morrow morning by 4 o'clock, early at G.! There are pilgrims going to Canterbury with rich offerings and traders riding to Lond. with fat purses. If you will go, I will stuff your purses full of crowns." The scene of ii. 2, where the robbery takes place, is "the road by G." In iii. 3, 43, Falstaff recalls how Bardolph ran "up G. in the night" to catch his horse. In H4 B. i. 2, 170, the Chief justice says to Falstaff, "Your day's service at Shrewsbury hath a little gilded over your night's exploit on G." In ii. 4, 333, Prince Hal says to Falstaff, "You knew me, as you did when you ran away by G." There is record in the Lansdowne MSS. of an actual robbery perpetrated on G. in 1590 by 2 thieves called Custall and Manwaring. They had good horses, and one of them wore a "vizard grey beard." The date of H4 is 1596. In Oldcastle iv. 1, the parson-highwayman gives a list of the places in Kent which, as he humorously says, "pay him tythe." G. is one of them. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Sogliardo says of Shift, "He has been the only Bidstand that ever kept Newmarket, Salisbury Plain, Hockley i' the Hole, G. He has done 500 robberies in his time, more or less." In Dekker's Westward ii. 2, Birdlime says of a certain lady of bad repute: "She lies, as the way lies over G., very dangerous." In Clavell's Recantation (1634), he says, "I oft have seen Gadd's Hill and those red tops of mtns. where good people lose their ill-kept purses." In Fam. Vict , p. 329, Dericke says to the thief, "I know thee for a taking fellow Upon Gad's Hill in Kent."


A dist. in N.W. Africa, lying S. of Mauretania, between it and the desert. It stretched from the S. of the Syrtis to the Atlantic. In Marlowe's Dido iii. 1, Iarbas says, "Am I not k. of rich G.?" In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, Caesar says that Juba, K. of Mauretania, was "Backed with Numidian and Getulian horse." In Kyd's Cornelia iii., the Chorus laments that Romans "run, like exiled us, From fertile Italy to proudest Spain Or poorest Getuly." In Lyly's Midas iii. 1, Midas says, "I call to mind my usurping in Getulia." His conscience was needlessly active, for he was never there.


A town in Lincs. on the Trent, 15 m. N.W. of Lincoln and 35 m. N.E. of Nottingham. The Trent is navigable as far as G., which is an important river-port. In Sampson's Vow v. 3, 12, the men of Nottingham petition the Q. to have the Trent made navigable from Nottingham "to G."




A province in the centre of Asia Minor, so called from the Galli who settled there in the 3rd century B.C. In Lyly's Midas iv. 1, Midas fears lest "the petty kings of Mysia, Pisidia, and G." should find out that he has asses' ears. G. was not known by that name till long after the time of Midas.


A province in N.W. Spain. The shrine of St. James at Santiago di Compostella was a great resort of pilgrims in the Middle Ages. Like the rest of Spain, it produces nuts. In Piers C. v. 124, the author, denouncing pilgrimages, would have it provided "that non go to Galys bote it be for evere." The pilgrim, in C. viii. 166, had "shilles [shelles] of Galys" as proof that he had been there. Chaucer's Wife of Bath (C. T. A. 466) had been "in Galice at Seint Jame." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 3, Usumcasanes says to Tamburlaine, "We have subdued the S. Guallatia And all the land unto the coast of Spain." The context shows that S. Spain is meant. In Middleton's Chessii. 1, the Black Bp. says of Gondomar, the Spanish Ambassador: "That Gn. brain can work out wonders." In Coventry M. P. of Mary Magdalen 478, the Taverner says he has "wine of Gyldyr and of Galles," i.e. G. In Middleton's Gipsy ii. 1, Constanza says, "They that crack me shall find me as hard as a nut of G."


The most northerly of the 3 divisions of Palestine in the 1st cent. A.D., lying N. of Samaria and W. of the Sea of G. The word was also applied to a porch in front of a ch. In Barnes' Charter v. 5, Alexander offers Caesar Borgia a phial of antidote against poison: "I bought it," he says, "of a Jew Born and brought up in Galily." In York M.P. xii. 136, the Prologue says, "Fro God in heaven is sent An angel is named Gabriell, To Nazareth in Galale." Milton, P. R. i. 135, represents the Almighty saying to Gabriel, "I sent thee to the Virgin pure In G." In iii. 233, the Tempter says to our Lord that he has yet "scarce viewed the Galilaean towns." In Lycidas 109, Peter is called "The pilot of the Galilaean lake," i.e. the Sea of G. or Gennesaret, lying E. of G. In Heming's Jewes Trag. 1959, Eleaxar says, "Caesar's son has conquered G. And now is marching to Jerusalem." The date is A.D. 67.




(Gl. = Gaul). The Latin name for what is now France. The form Gaul was used both for the country and its inhabitants. It is most properly used of the country and people during the Roman period. In Brandon's Octavia 117, Octavia says of Marcellus, confusing her husband with the great M. Marcellus, who won the Spolia Opima from the Gl. Viridomarus in 222 B.C., "His middle age the stoutest Gls. did fray." In Shirley's Honoria (a.k.a. Honor and Riches) ii. 2, Honoria says, "Does he not look like mighty Julius now, when he returned triumphant from the Gls.?" In Jonson's Catiline iii. 3, Catiline says, "What the Gl. or Moor could not effect Nor emulous Carthage . . . Shall be the work of one, and that my might," i.e. the destruction of Rome. In B. & F. False One i. 1, Achilles says, "'Tis Labienus, Caesar's lieutenant in the wars of Gl." He was one of Caesar's most trusted officers in the Gallic Wars of 58–50 B.C., but on the outbreak of the Civil War he deserted to the Pompeians. In Casar's Rev. ii. 5, young Cato says, "No Gl. Would with such cruelty thy worth repay," when his father is about to kill himself. In Jonson's Poetaster iii. 2, Horace says, "Nor is't a labour fit for every pen To paint . . . The lances burst in G.'s slaughtered forces. Great Caesar's wars cannot be fought in words." In Nero ii. 3, Scaevinus says, "Shall we, whom neither The Median bow . . . Nor the fierce Gl . . . . could Subdue, lay down our necks to tyrant axe?" Milton, P.R. iv. 77, describes es embassies coming to Rome "From G., Gades, and the British West." In Cymbeline, the date of which is the latter part of the 1st cent. A.D., we read in several passages of the Roman legions now in G., which are expected to invade Britain. See ii. 4,.18; iii. 5, 24; m.7, 4; iv. 2, 333; and iv. 3, 24. In i. 6, 66, Iachimo tells of a Frenchman "that much loves a Gn. girl at home." In i. 6, 201, he says, "From G. I crossed the seas on purpose and on promise To see your Grace." Gl. is also used for the Galli who invaded Greece in the 3rd cent. B.C. and afterwards settled in Thrace and in Galatia. In Casar's Rev. iv. 2, Cassius speaks of "Those conquering Gls. that built their seats in Greece." Montaigne (Florio's Trans. 1603) i. 48, calls the Galatians "the Gaules, our ancient forefathers in Asia." G. is also used for mediaeval and modern France. In H5 i. 2, 2 16, Canterbury says to, the K., "You withal shall make all G. shake." In v. 1, 94, Pistol says that he will swear he got the bruises which Fluellen has given him "in the G. wars." In H6 A. iv. 7, 48, the Bastard says of the Talbots: "Their life was England's glory, G.'s wonder." In v. 4, 139, Charles boasts, I am possessed With more than half the Gn. territories." In H6 C. v. 3, 8, Edward speaks of "those powers that the q. Hath raised in G." Kyd, in Soliman i. 3, says, "In France I took the standard from the k., And give [i.e. assume] the flower of G. in my crest," i.e. the fleur-de-lys. In King Leir, Haz., p. 378, Mumford addresses the French army, "Show yourselves now to be right Gawles indeed, And be so bitter on your enemies That they may say you are as bitter a.9 Gall." In M.W.W. iii. 1, 99, the Host says to Evans and Caius, "Peace, I say, G. and Gl.," but Farmer amended "Guallia and Gl.," where Guallia means Wales. In Massinger's Guardian i. 2, Calypso mentions "Amadis de Gl.," and in Dekker's Satiromastix i. 2,492, Tucca calls Horace "My sweet Amadis de Gle.": Amadis was the son of Perion of France, and one of the most famous of the paladins of the old chivalrous times. His romance was in Don Quixote's library.


Another name for Galatia, q.v. In Tiberius 525, Germanicus speaks of "The Gallogretians proud for to rebel." This was in A.D. 15.


In Kirke's Champions iv. 1, Denis reads a prophecy in which it is said that "a g. helmet "is necessary for the carrying out of the prediction; and James says, "Here is a helmet framed in Normandy, Which I have worn in all my travels since." I suppose that g. means made in Gaul; otherwise there is no relevance in James' remark. Possibly we should read "Gallian."


Originally included the whole of the Peninsula in S.W. Scotland between the Solway Firth and the Clyde; later restricted to Kirkcudbright and Wigtown. Until the 13th cent. it was ruled by its own princes in feudal dependence on the Kings of Scotland. The lordship was in the Douglas family till 1455, when it was forfeited to the Crown. The present Earldom was created in 1623, and remains in the Stewart family. In Dekker's Fortunatus, there is a G. at the court of Athelstane in Lond. who is described as a Scotch noble. In Peele's Ed. I, p. 28, Elinor addresses Baliol as "Brave John Baliol, lord of G. and K. of Scots." He had gained the title by his marriage with Devergoil, the daughter and heiress of Allan of G. G. was famous for a breed of small, strong horses, mostly used for riding. In H4 B. ii. 4, 205, when Doll suggests that he should be turned out, Pistol exclaims, "Thrust him down stairs! Know we not G. nags?" He means that Doll is like a G. nag, because anyone may ride her. In Trouble. Reign, p. 308, Philip relates how he escaped destruction in the Wash: "Myself upon a G. right free, well-paced, Outstript the floods." In Dekker's Hornbook v., he advises the Gallant to ride to the Ordinary "upon your g.-nag, or your Spanish jennet." In Jonson's Barthol. iv. 3, Knockem addresses the northcountry man as "my g. nag." Drayton, in Polyolb. iii. 28, speaks of "the rank-riding Scots [betting heavily] upon their Gs." Hall, in Satires iv. 3, 56, asks, "Sayst thou that this same horse shall win the prize Because his dam was swiftest Trunchefice, Or Runcevall his sire?himself a G.?"


A small river rising in N. Phrygia, and flowing into the Sangarius in Bithynia. Lyly, in Euphues England, p. 405, says, "It fareth with lovers as with those that drink of the river G. in Phrygia, whereof sipping moderately is a medicine, but swilling with excess it breedeth madness." Blount, Glossographia (1656), s.v., says it is "a river in Phrygia, the water whereof made men mad." See Pliny, Hist. Nat. xxxi. 5.


A coppice at Penshurst named after the Lady G., the 1st wife of Sir Robert Sidney. Jonson, in Ode to Penshurst, says, "Thy copse, too, named of G., thou hast there."


A fortress of great strength on the E. side of the Sea of Galilee, generally identified with the present El Hosan. It was besieged and taken by Vespasian is the Jewish war which ended in the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. In Heming's Jewes Trag. 590, Titus reports that the ammunition "is brought from Antioch, within a day's journey of G."


Mtn. in the middle of Abyssinia, where, according to Heylyn, there were 34 palaces, and a library containing, amongst other things, the pillars of Enoch and the whole works of Livy. Gondar now occupies the site. In Cockayne's Obstinate iii. 3, Carionil, who pretends to be the ambassador of Prester John of Abyssinia, says, "I in Garama live Magnificent for silken palaces." In iv. 2, he says, "I can make famous G. as pleasing to you As is your native country." Evidently Garama in the former passage is a misprint or slip for G. Heylyn (s.v. TURCOMANIA) says, "The Emperors of Habassia use to immure up all their younger children in the hill A." Milton, P. L. iv. 281, speaks of "Mt. A.," "where Abassin Kings their issue guard," "under the Ethiop line By Nilus head, enclosed with shining rock A whole day's journey high."


A fortified city on the E. coast of Spain, in the province of Valencia, 210 m. S.E. of Madrid. The eldest son of Pope Alexander VI was D. of G. He appears in Barnes' Charter as the D. of Candie, and his murder by his brother, Caesar Borgia, is the subject of iii. 5.


A river in India rising in the Himalayas and flowing into the Bay of Bengal at Calcutta after a course Of 1540 m.through the N.W. Provinces. In Marlowe's Dido v. 1, AEneas, as he plans the building of Rome, prophesies: "From golden India G. will I fetch, Whose wealthy streams may wait upon her towers." In Fisher's Fuimus iv. 4, Caesar records the fulfilment of this prophecy: "From G. to Hesperian Gades Our name doth sound." In Marlowe's Tamb. A. v. 1, Tamburlaine says of himself: "From the bounds of Afric to the banks Of G. shall his mighty arm extend." In B. & F. Lover's Prog. iv. 4, Lisander says, "Can all the winds of mischief from all quarters, Euphrates, G., etc., Make it [this ocean] swell higher?" In Caesar's Rev. i. 6, Caesar says to Cleopatra, "Thy beauty shining like proud Phoebus' face When G. glittereth with his radiant beams." In the old Timon ii. 5, Pseudocheus, in the course of his travellers' tales, says, "In G. Iles I 30 rivers saw Filled with sweet nectar." In Chapman's D'Olive, iii. 1, Vandome says, "The Persian k. Made the great river G. run distinctly In an innumerable sort of channels; By which means, of a fierce and dangerous flood, He turned it into many pleasing rivers." The story is taken from Petrarch's Secretum, p. 358. So, in T. Heywood's Dialogues iii. 1519, Earth prays that she might have "So many rivulets of tears as was by thee [Cyrus] Let into G.' drops, thereby to breed Dry waste unto that channel drowned his steed." The author's note is "K. Cyrus, because he had a steed, whom he much loved, drowned in the river G., to be revenged thereof caused so many currents to be cut, that he dried the channel." In May's Agrippina ii. 57, Otho says that if Poppaea lived "beyond The Indian G., Scythian Tanais," she would draw the Emperor thither. Spenser, F. Q. iv. 11, 21, mentions "great G." amongst the largest rivets in the world. Milton, P. L. iii. 436, compares Satan to a vulture who "flies toward the springs Of G. or Hydaspis' Indian streams." In ix. 82, he tells how Satan surveyed the world, including "the land where flows G. and Indus." of Hall, in Quo Vadis, p. 37, says, "We can tell of those cheap dieted men that live about the head of the G., M. without meat, without mouths, feeding only upon air at their nostrils."


(misprint for GAMARA, q.v.).


A general name for the Libyans inhabiting the E. oases in the great desert of Africa: in a narrower sense the name is used for the people of Phazania, now Fezzan. In T. Heywood's Dialogues iii. 1818, Samson says that, though Fame "Be fled unto the sun-burnt Garamanti," she will not find his equal in strength.


The G. in the following passage is probably Covent G., q.v. In Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says to Judith, "You must to the Pawn to buy lawn, to St. Martin's for lace, to the G., to the Glass-houses."


There were many gardens in Lond., as, for example, those at Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, the Temple, Covent G., Bear G., Paris G., etc. These were the natural hunting-grounds of women of bad character, and in their alleys they plied their trade. In Nobody 1891, Nobody says, "Somebody doth maintain a common strumpet in G.-alles and undid himself." In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 4, Trimtram says to Meg, "Mayst thou live tiff thou stinkest in G.-as." In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, Fortress, the President of the Twiball knights, is described as "Duke of Turnbull, Bloomsbury, and Rotten Row, Lord Paramount of all G.-as., Gun Alley, and Rosemary Lane."


St. in Westminster, running from 26 King St. to Delahay St. In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, Mirth says, "My gossip Tattle knew what fine slips grew in G. L.," i.e. what illegitimate children were born there. The pun suggested the choice of this particular st.


A fountain and valley in Boeotia, close to Plataea. It was here that Actaeon was turned into a stag and devoured by his hounds for having seen Diana bathing. In Chaucer, C. T. A. 2626, he says, "Ther nas no tygre in the vale of Galgopheye So cruel on the hunte as is Arcite." Probably Chaucer was thinking of Gargaphia, though there are no tigers there. In Jonson's Cynthia, Ind., one of the actors says, "The scene [of the play is] G.: which I do vehemently suspect for some fustian country," i.e. imaginary. In i. 1, Cupid says, "Diana, in regard of some slanders breathed against her for her divine justice on Actaeon, hath here in the vale of G. proclaimed a solemn revels."


(more properly GARGARA). One of the peaks of the Ida range in Phrygia. In T. Heywood's Dialogues xviii. 4835, Mercury says, "Phrygia is not far, for in our view Ida and G. are."


(may be intended for the capital of the Garamantes, possibly a slip for Gamra, i.e. GAMARA, q.v.). In Bacchus, the 19th guest came from G. in AEthiopia, called Goody Goodale."


The high land near Mylor in S. Cornwall, overlooking the N. end of Falmouth harbour, still called Carrick Roads. In Cornish M. P. i. 2464, Solomon says to the Mason, "My a re thyurgh plu Vuthek Ha'n G. R. gans by thyr," i.e. "I will give you the parish of Vuthek And the G. R. with its land."


An Inn in Windsor, on the right side of Thames St. coming up from the river, just before one reaches Peascod St. The sign was the G. of the most noble Order of the Knights of the G. There is no trace of the G. left, but it probably stood on the site of the White Hart. Mine Host of the G. plays a leading part in M.W.W., and scenes i. 3; ii. 2; iii. 5; iv. 3, 5, 6; v. 1, are laid in the G. Inn, where Falstaff had his lodging.


(= GASCOIGNE). A dist. in S.W. France between the Bay of Biscay, the Garonne, and the Pyrenees. It was named from the Basques or Vasques who occupied it when the Visigoths drove them out of N. Spain. It became part of the Dukedom of Aquitania, and was in the possession of the English Crown from 1152 till 1453. The people of G. had a reputation for exaggeration and boastfulness. The chief product of the country was wine. In World Child, p. 170, Manhood claims to have conquered "France and also G." The reference is to the French conquest of 1453. Hycke, p. 88, claims to have been in "Brytayne, Byske, and also in Gascoyne." In Barnes' Charter i. 5, Gascons are among the troops of Charles VIII in his invasion of Italy, 1494. In Middleton's R.G. v. 2, Fitzallard ironically congratulates Wengrave on his son's marriage with Moll Cutpurse: "Give you joy, Sir; of your son's Gaskoyne bride; you'll be a grandfather shortly to a fine crew of roaring sons and daughters." The reference is to Moll's gasconnading tone: she is the "roaring girl." In Piers C. i. 229, the taverners cry," White wine of Oseye and of Gascoyne." In Webster's Weakest iv. 3, Sir Nicholas says, "I promised to bowl a match at Guynes for a wager, viz. 2 gallons of G. wine." In Nash's Wilton 145, Jack says that his friends "know a cup of neat G. wine from wine of Orleance." The G. wine was much stronger than that of Orleans. In Greene's QUIP (p. 243), he says, "If the vintner hath a strong G. wine, he can allay it with a small Rochel wine." In Davenant's Wits i. 1, Pert says, "It is not comely to see us sons of war walk by the pleasant vines of G., as we believed the grapes forbidden fruit." Taylor, Works (iii. 65), says, "No Gascoygne, Orleance, or the chrystall Sherrant, Nor Rhenish from the Rhine would be apparant." In Yarington's Two Trag. i. 1, the Neighbour says, "I had rather drink such beer as this as any Gascoine wine." The scene of H6 A. iv. 3 and 4 is laid in the plains of G.


A prison near the W. end of Westminster Abbey, with 2 gates, one to the N., the other to the W. It was here that Raleigh wrote, the night before his execution, the lines, "Even such is time, etc." Here also was the birthplace of Lovelace's To Althea from Prison. It was built in the reign of Edward III and pulled down in 1776. Taylor, Works (i. 91), says, "The ocean that Suretyship sails in is the spacious Marshal-sea, sometimes she anchors at the K.'s Bench, sometimes at the gulph of the Gate-house." The Gate was used as a debtors' prison. In Ev. Wom. I. i. 1, Acutus speaks of the bankrupt husband of an extravagant wife "carried from the Gate-house to his grave."


One of the 5 cities of the Philistines, in the maritime plain on the S. coast of Syria, abt. 25 m.W. Of Jerusalem. It was never taken by the Israelites, and remained a thorn in their side until the close of the monarchy. It was the home of the famous giant Goliath. It is probably the modern vill. of Dhikrih. In Peele's Bethsabe ii. 1, David says, "The plains of G. and Askaron rejoice, And David's thoughts are spent in pensiveness" (cf. II Samuel i. 20). In iii. 1, he speaks of "Achis, mighty K. of G." Milton, P. L. i. 465, mentions that Dagon was worshipped "in G. and Ascalon." In S. A. 266, Samson says that if Judah had been united "They had by this possessed the towers of G." In 98 1, Dalila predicts that she will be fatuous "In Ecron, Gaza, Asdod, and in G." In 1068, Harapha of G. is introduced: in 1078, he says, "I am of G., Men call me Harapha." In 1127, Samson predicts to him, "Thou oft shalt wish thyself at G . . . . but shalt never see G. more."




(spelt GUALTREE in the Ff.). The f. of Galtres lay N. of York, and covered about 100,000 acres. It was a Royal f. till 1670, when it was cut up and enclosed. Hg B. iv. 1, 2, and 3 are laid in G. F.




A vill. in Norfolk, 6 m. E. of King's Lynn. In Mankind 502, Now-a-days says, "I shall go to William Baker of Walton; to Richard Bolman of G."


The modern Ghazzeh, a town in Palestine, 50 m. S.W. of Jerusalem. It was one of the 5 Philistine cities. It has always been an important frontier fortress. It still has a population of some 1800. G. is the scene of Milton's S. A. In 435, Manoah says, "This day the Philistines a popular feat Here celebrate in G." In 981, Dalila predicts that she will be famous "In Ecron, G., Asdod, and in Gath." In 1558, after Samson's death, the Messenger reports: "G. yet stands; but all her sons are fallen." In P. L. i. 466, Dagon is said to be honoured "In . . . Accaron and G.'s frontier bounds." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. iii. 1, the K. of Jerusalem brings, or professes to bring, 100,000 men "from Jerusalem, Judaea, G., and Scalonia's bounds."


A mountainous dist. in Palestine, S. of the Dead Sea, now called Jebal. Milton, in Trans. Ps. lxxxiii, 25, says, "G. and Ammon there conspire And hateful Amalek."


The valley of Hinnom, S. of Jerusalem, where the refuse of the city was thrown and kept constantly burning: hence it is used in the New Testament of Hell, "where their worm dieth not and their fire is not quenched." Dekker, in News from Hell, speaks of the Devil as" the M. Gunner of G.," M. standing for Master.


A province of the Netherlands lying S.E. of the Zuyder Zee. At the rise of the United Provinces most of G. joined them, but one part, Spanish G., remained true to Spain. At the Treaty of Utrecht this dist. went to Prussia, but in 1814 it became part of the kingdom of Holland. It was the scene of various operations in the wars of the 16th and 17th cents., and it was at Zutphen, one of its towns, that Sir Philip Sidney was killed. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. v. 2, Bots says, "I ha' been tried in G. and scaped hardly there from being blown up at a breach." In Northward iv. 2, Capt. Jenkin says, "I think she has sent the poor fellow to G." In both passages the double entendre is the motive for mentioning the place. In Barnavelt iv. 5, a document is produced against Barnavelt signed "by the Governor of G. and Zutphen." G. was famous for its fat cattle. Heylyn (s.v.) says, "In 1570 there was a Guelderland bull killed at Antwerpe which weighed 3200 pounds."


(= French GUELDRES). A town in the Rhenish Provinces, 27 m. N.W. of Dusseldorf. It was founded in 1097, and was the residence of the sovereigns of the circle of G. till 1343. It gave its name to a variety of Rhenish wine. In Coventry M. P. of Mary Magdalen 478, the Taverner says he has "wine of Gyldyr and of Gaffes."


The Scalae Gemoniae, a stone staircase at the N.E. corner of the Form at Rome, between the Carcer and the Temple of Concord, where the bodies of executed criminals were exposed. In Jonson's Sejanus iv. 5, Arrius says, "May I say it rains or it holds up, And not be thrown upon the G.?" In Massinger's Roman Actor i. 1, Lamia says, "Domitian . . . Is so inclined to blood that no day passes In which some are not fastened to the hook, Or thrown down from the G." Burton, A. M. iii. 1, 2, 3, says, "As so many Sejani, they will come down to the Gemonian scales." In Scot. Presb. iii. 1, Liturgy defies all torments to make him recant, including "Cemonian stairs, Phalarian bulls" where Cemonian is a misprint for Gemonian.


A very fertile plain on the W. side of the Sea of Galilee, toward the N. end. The sea of Galilee is often called from it the Lake of G. Milton, P. R. ii. 23, describes the disciples seeking for our Lord in "each town or city walled On this side the broad lake G."


In Switzerland, at the S.W. end of the Lake of G., at the point where the Rhone leaves the Lake. In 1499 it became practically independent of the empire, and under the leadership of Farel and John Calvin it accepted the reformed principles in religion. Calvin's dictatorship made it "the moral capital of the half of Christendom, and the great frontier fortress against the invasions of Rome" (Webster). During the Marian persecution in England many of the British Protestants emigrated to G., including John Knox, Coverdale, Whittingham, Bodley, Sampson, and Gilby. Here, in 1560, they published the G., or "Breeches," Bible, which was the popular version in England until long after the publication of the Authorized Version in 1611. Numbers of pamphlets on the extreme Puritan side were issued from the G. presses, and G. print came to stand for that type of literature. The G. hat, bands, and gown became the outward and visible signs of the Puritan profession. In True Trag. epilogue, it is said, in compliment to Elizabeth, "Ieneva, France, and Flanders hath set down The good she hath done since she came to the Crown." But there was little love lost between the players and the Puritans, and almost all the references to G. in the plays are scornful and sarcastic. In New Custom ii. 2, Perverse Doctrine says, "Since these Genevian doctors came so fast into this land, Since that time it was never merry with England." In Middleton's Witch i. 1, Almachildes says to Amoretta, when she will not kiss him, "Amsterdam swallow thee for a Puritan and G. cast thee up again." In Barry's Ram v., Small-shanks taunts Throate, "Wert not thou a Puritan and put in trust to gather relief for the distressed G., and didst thou not run away with all the money?" In B. & F. Fair Maid I. ii. 2, the Clown says, "I'll provide myself with another movable [i.e. mistress] and we will most purely retire ourselves to G." In their Elder B. iv. 4, Andrew says of a song that he overhears: "This was never penned at G.; the note's too sprightly." In Barry's Ram iv., Smallshanks, exhibiting Face as a performing baboon, says, "What can you do for the Pope of Rome?Hark, he stirreth not, he moveth not, he waggeth not; what can you do for the town of G., sirrah?" [he holds up his hands instead of praying.] "Sure," says Constantia, "this baboon is a great Puritan." In Mayne's s Match iv. 5, Baneswright says, "You must be married At the French Ch. [i.e. the ch. granted to the French Protestants in Lond.]; I have bespoke a priest; One that will join you in the right G. form Without a licence." In Gascoigne's Government, Philotimus becomes a preacher "of singular commendation "in G, whilst Philosarchus is whipped "openly three several days in the market of G. and banished the town with great infamy." In Cockayne's Trapolin iv. 1, Bulflesh says of a Puritan: "He is a fellow of strange opinions and hath sent his son to G. to hear Jack Calvin preach."

In Pilg. Pernass. iii. 1, Stupido says, "Buy two or three hundred of catechisms of Jeneva's print and I warrant you will have learning enough." In Glapthorne's Wit i. 1, Tristram says, "He has already spoiled his eyes with prying on G. prints." In Massinger's Milan i. 1, Graccho says, "If you meet an officer preaching of sobriety, Unless he read it in G. print, Lay him by the heels." In B. & F. Chances iii. 1, Don John says to the Puritan landlady, "Now could I willingly, were 't not for abusing thy G. print there, venture my body with thee." In Merry Devil, p. 245, the Host says, "Smith, I see by thy eyes thou hast been reading a little G. print," i.e. the smith's eyes are bloodshot with drinking, as if he had been reading the small blackletter of the G. version. In Chapman's D'Olive ii. 2, D'Olive describes a Puritan weaver: "Purblind he was with the G. print." In Webster's Malfi iv. 2, the 3rd madman says, "Greek is turned Turk: we are only to be saved by the Helvetian translation": which apparently means the G. Bible.

In Davenant's Wits i. 1, Palatine says, "I am a new man, Luce; thou shalt find me in a G. band that was reduced from an old Alderman's cuff." Earle, in his Microcosm. xxxiv., says of the She Precise Hypocrite: "She is a non-conformist in a close stomacher and a ruff of G. print": a jocular application of the familiar term. The Puritans wore small ruffs which are compared to the small type of the G. Bible. In Davenant's Plymouth iv. 1, Trifle speaks of a Puritan as "Your little-ruffed G. man or Fleming." In Mayne's s Match v. 1, Newcut says that Salewit looks "like a G. weaver in black who left the loom and entered into the ministry for conscience' sake." In Davenant's Platonic iii. 3, Arnoldo says, "He's grown demurer than a G. bride." In Armin's Moreclacke H. 4, Tutch says, "Nurse shall sing a G. psalm." In Cuckqueans iv. 10, Olivel directs the intending travellers, "You shall carry in one of your pockets G. Psalms; in the other Lady Matins. If you be taken by Spaniards, you shall shew them your Lady Matins; if by the English, you shall produce them your G. Psalm." The Lake of G. is not specially rich in fish, but several species are found there, including the Carp (Cyprinus Carpio). In Davenant's Wits iv., Engine, in a list of delicacies, mentions "Your aged carp, bred i' the G. Lake."


(It., GENOVA). Often called Geane and Jeane in the 15th and 16th cents. A city in Italy on the Gulf of Genoa, 75 m.S.E. of Turin. The rapid rise of the hills on which it is built gives it a most impressive appearance from the sea. Its origin is lost in antiquity, and it is said to be older than Rome itself. In the 11th and 12th cents. G. became a formidable sea-power, and about A.D. 1020 drove the Saracens out of Corsica and Sardinia. Rivalry broke out between G. and Pisa in the 12th cent., which ended in the disastrous defeat of the Pisans in a sea-fight at Meloria in 1282. The next hundred years were spent in wars with Venice with varied success. Venice came off victorious in 1380 in the battle of Chioggia. From this blow G. never fully recovered. She had been governed since 1339 by a Doge elected for life, but internal feuds distracted her until, in 1396, she renounced her independence and received a governor nominated by Charles VI of France. In 1528, however, Andrea Doria threw off the French domination and established a biennial dogeship, which lasted down to the time of Napoleon. In 1815 it was united to the Sardinian kingdom: it is now part of the kingdom of Italy.

Historical allusions. In Ed. III iii. 4, Loraine ascribes the defeat of the French at Cressy to the flight of "the garrison of Genoaes That came from Paris, weary with their march." The Genoese archers opened the attack, but the reply of the English bowmen drove them into flight. In B. & F. Fair Maid I. i. 1, Alberto relates how his son Cesario returned "from the rescue of the G. fleet, Almost surprised by the Venetian gallies"; and how "the brave dames of war-like G." all fell in love with him. The scene of Ford's Lady's Trial is laid at G., and one of the characters is "the gallant of gallants, G.'s Piero" (i. 1). The date is in the early part of the 16th cent., and G. is fighting along with Florence against the Turks. B. & F. Valour also takes place at G.: in i. 1, Alice speaks of Valentine's son, whom "You lost at sea among the G. gallies." In Marston's Malcontent, the scene of which is laid at G., the D. of G. is the chief character; but in his preface Marston asserts that he has willingly erred "in supposing a D. of G., and in taking names different from that city's families." In his Antonio & Mellida iii. 1, Piero writes: "The just overthrow Andrugio took in the Venetian Gulf hath assured the Genowaies of the justice of his cause." In Shirley's Gent. Ven. iv. 2, the D. of Venice thanks Giovanni for having "suppressed the late insolent Genoese." In Dekker's Wonder i. 1, Lotti is banished for "dealing with the Genoway." The scene of Glapthorne's Privilege and of Day's Law Tricks is laid at G. In Webster's Law Case the scene is laid in Venice, but the great Genoese families of the Fieschi, the Grimaldi, and the Doria are mentioned as pillars of the State. In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 1, Bobadil boasts that he was at "the taking in of Tortosa last year by the Genoways." This was in 1597, the year before the 1st production of the play: in the edition of 1606 the reading was altered to "the taking in of what do you call it." In Shrew iv. 4, 4, the Pedant says, "Signior Baptista may remember me, Near 20 years ago, in G." Hycke, p. 88, relates that he has been "in Gene and in Cowe."

Trade and Commerce of Genoa. It was in G. that Tubal heard, in Merch. iii. 1, 102, that Antonio had an argosy cast away coming from Tripolis. In Day's Law Tricks v. 80, we read of "a Gn. merchant that with much suit ransomed "the speaker from the Turk. In Davenant's Favourite iii., we find a prayer that "the Genovesse may be dismissed without a tax upon his goods." In Killigrew's Parson iv. 7, the Parson says, "'Tis she that married the G. merchant." G. was one of the most important banking cities in the world. The Bank of St. George, founded in 1407, was one of the most ancient and famous in Europe. in Massinger's Madam iv. 2, Luke, rejoicing in the prospect of his wealth, says, "G.'s bankers shall look pale with envy When I am mentioned." In Davenant's Distresses v. 1, Basilente says to Orgemon, "You have received by letters of exchange from G. enough to furnish your imagined quality." Howell, Travels 41 (1642), says, "When a Jew meeteth with a Genoway, he puts his fingers in his eyes, fearing to be over-reached by him." In Jonson's New Inn iii. 1, Pierce says, "Mas. Bartholomew Burst has broken thrice." To which Tipto rejoins, "Your better man, the Genoway proverb says." The Genoese had learned the value of a judicious bankruptcy. Rabelais, Pantagruel iv, prol., calls the Genoese "greedy curmudgeons"; and says that their daily greeting to one another was "Santa e guadagno"–"Health and gain to you." The best-known products of G. were articles of jewelry and filigree work, and cloth of all degrees of fineness. In Merch iii. 1, Tubal returns from searching for Jessica, and tells Shylock that she "spent in G. in one night fourscore ducats"; and that he saw a ring there that she had sold for a monkey. In Dekker's Fortunatus iv, the Chorus says, "In G. may you take this fugitive Where, having cozened many jewellers, To England back he comes." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon iv. 1, Sencer says, "I can read service and marry, Que genus et flexum, though I go in Genes fustian." In Jonson's New Inn ii. 2, Tipto suggests to Lord Beaufort to wear "the cloke of G. set With Brabant buttons." The passage is repeated almost verbatim in B. & F. Pilgrimage i. i. In Davenant's Wits iv. 1, Young Palatine gives a list of table delicacies, which includes "The red-legged partridge of the G. hills "and "G. paste." The former is the so-called red-legged partridge of Europe (Caccubis Rufa), as distinguished from the grey or English partridge. G. paste was a sweetmeat made of quinces, spices, and sugar. Other Genoese products were G. lettuce and G. treacle. It will not be forgotten that Christopher Columbus was, as Capt. Smith (Virginia i. 1) puts it, "a Genoesian." In Cockayne's Trapolin ii. 3, Horatio speaks of "proud and stately G., Renowned by her sea-faring citizen, Colombo."


Apparently means "from Geneva": possibly it might mean "from Genoa," but the first suggestion suits the context better. In King Leir, Haz., p. 378, Mumford addresses the French army, "Ye valiant race of G. Gawles."


The patron saint of England, q.v. With or without his dragon he was a common sign for taverns and other houses. In K.J. ii. 1, 288, the Bastard says, "St. G. that swinged the dragon and e'er since Sits on his horse back at mine hostess' door Teach us some fence." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. ii. 1, Carlo says of the knight Puntarvolo, "When he is mounted, he looks like the sign of the G." In Strode's Float. Isl. i. 2, Irato says, "How long shall 1, like to a painted G., Advance my idle sword?" There were G. Inns in Lond. on the S.W. of Drury Lane; on the N. of Snow Hill, near Holborn Bdge.; on the W. side of W. Smithfield; on the W. side of Aldersgate St.; in Dogwell Court off Bouverie St., afterwards Bowyer's Publishing Office; in Lombard St.; and on the E. side near the S. end of the Borough High St., Southwark. The G. and Vulture–the Vulture doubtless a corrupted form of the Dragon–is in Castle Court, off G. Yard, and dates from Elizabethan times: Dickens has conferred on it a new lease of life. In Deloney's Craft i. 10, Mrs. Eyre says, "We'll dine at my cousin John Barker's in St. Clement's Lane, which is not far from the G. in Lumbard-st. where the merchant-strangers lie." In Abington i. 2, Coomes says, "Now do I stand like the G. at Colebrook." This tavern is also mentioned in Deloney's Craft ii. 1. In B. & F. Prize i. 3, Petronius says, "We shall have you look like St. G. at Kingston Running afoot back from the furious dragon That with her angry tail belabours him For being lazy." The merry Host of the G. at Waltham, named Blague, is one of the characters in the Merry Devil. In Killigrew's Parson i. 3, Sad says, "I cannot amble nor ride like St. G. at Waltham." The same sign was used by the booksellers. The Ship of Folys was "Imprinted in the cyte of Lond. in Fletestrete at the sign of Seynt G. by Richd. Pynson. 1509." The 1660 edition of the Book of Merry Riddles was "Printed for John Stafford and W. S. and are to be sold at the G. near Fleetbridg." Pynson's shop was next to St. Dunstan's churchyard by the Chancery Lane corner. Sidney's Apology for Poetry was "Printed for Henry Olney and are to be sold at his shop in Paules Churchyard at the sign of the G. near to Cheap-gate. 1595."


The chapel of the Knights of the Garter at Windsor Castle. It was 1st built by Edward III, and afterwards re-erected by Edward IV. Drayton, in Polyolb. xv. 315, speaks of it as "The Garter's royal seat, from him who did advance That princely order first, our first that conquered France; The temple of St. G., whereas his honoured knights Upon his hallowed day observe their ancient rites." Hence the figure of St. G. was the badge of the Order. In R3 iv. 4, 366, Richd. says, "Now by my G., my garter, and my crown."


A large open space on the Surrey side of the Thames between Southwark and Lambeth, named after the adjoining Ch. of St. George the Martyr. It is now completely built over, but St. G.'s Rd., running from the Elephant and Castle to Westminster Bdge. Rd., and St. G.'s Circus at the S. end of Blackfriars Rd. preserve the name. It was a favourite Sunday resort of Londoners, and was often used for large gatherings of people, such as the mustering of the Trainbands; and the welcome of distinguished visitors like Catherine of Arragon and Charles II. The notorious Dog and Duck Inn was here, on the site now occupied by the Bethlehem Hospital: the old sign, dated 16l7, may still be seen, built into the wall of the Hospital garden. In H4 B. iii. 2, 208, Shallow says to Falstaff, "O, Sir John, do you remember since we lay all night in the windmill in St. G.'s Field?" The Windmill is marked in Fairthorne's Map of London, 1658, and was probably a tavern. In H6 B. v. 1, 46, York says to his soldiers, "Meet me to-morrow in St. G.'s Field, You shall have pay and every thing you wish." The passage in Contention, from which this is taken, says "St. Georges F." In Ford's Warbeck iii. 1, the K. says, "From their own battlements they may behold St. G.'s F. o'erspread with armed men." This was in T497, when the K. assembled his forces there to meet the Cornish rebels who were at Blackheath. Harman, in Caveat c. xi., tells how a certain "counterfeit Crank went to the waterside and took a sculler and was set over the water into St. Gs. f." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon iv. 2, Luce's father says, "I'll have 'my sword; when I was young, like him, I had my wards and foins and quarter blows, And knew the way into St. G.'s F. Twice in a morning. Tuttle, Finsbury, I knew them all." These were all places where duels were frequently fought. In Chivalry C. i., Bowyer says, "Once I was fighting in St. G.'s F., and blind Cupid shot me right into the left heel, and ever since Dick Bowyer hath been lame." In Long Meg iv., there is an account of a duel fought in St. G.'s F. between Meg and a Spanish Lord. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV B. 120, Jane Shore is found by Brackenbury near the Marshalsea, and says she has come "To take the air here in St. G.'s F. and to visit some poor patients that cannot visit me."


Ch. at the corner of Borough High St., Southwark, and Long Lane, on the E. side. The original ch. was of great antiquity, and belonged to the Abbey of Bermondsey. The prisoners who died in the Marshalsea prison were buried here, amongst them Bp. Bonner. In the Dirige of Bastarde Edmonde Boner (1569), we find: "My flesh is consumed, there is but skin and bone, In St. G. Churchyard my grave and I alone." The present ch. was built in 1734 on the site of the old one. In J. Heywood's Four PP. i. 1, the Palmer mentions "Saynt G. in Southwarke "as one of the saints whose shrines he had visited. Taylor, Works (ii. 37), says of someone: "He's in Southwark near St. G. his ch." There was also a ch. of St. G. in Botolph Lane, Billingsgate, not far from Eastcheap it was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt by Wren. Simon Read, the supposed original of Jonson's Alchemist, lived in the parish of St. G.'s Southwark.


A harbour on the N.E. coast of Malta, a few miles N. of Valetta. In B. & F. Malta i. 3, Astorius says to Mountferrat, "You must prepare against To-morrow morning in the valley here Adjoining to St. G. P."


A gate on the S. of, the city of Antwerp, near the Ch. of St. G. In Larum D. 2, Alva says, "St. G. P. and Kibdop we assign To Lord Romero."


The dist. between the Black Sea and the Caspian, S. of the Caucasus. It boasts a long line of kings, extending over 2000 years. Tamburlaine invaded Georgia in 1386 and took the K., Bagrat V, prisoner: Bagrat having fumed traitor after his submission, Tamburlaine ravaged the whole country in 1393; George VII having succeeded to the throne, Tamburlaine again conquered the country in 1403. In 1801 it was annexed to the Russian Empire. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. ii. 2, Meander speaks of "having passed Armenian deserts now, And pitched our tents under the Gn. hills."


A Gothic tribe who, under their K., Ardaric, joined Attila in his invasion of Gaul, and then settled in Dacia. Their kingdom was ultimately destroyed by Justinian. In Davenant's Albovine ii. 1, Albovine says to his bride, "Thy father was great k. of the Girpides "[sic]. This was Cunemuedus, whom Albovine overthrew and killed, and of his skull made a drinking-cup. He married Rosamund, the daughter of Cunemuedus, and compelled her to drink from her father's skull: she, resenting the insult, plotted his death.


An ancient merchant's house in Lond., on the S. side of Basing Lane off Bread St., Cheapside. In 1245 it belonged to John Gisors, Lord Mayor of Lond., and Stow thinks that G. H. is a corruption of Gisors' H., which hardly seems likely. It was chiefly remarkable for its fine Norman crypt, built of Caen stone. There was a legend that it was the home of a giant called Gerard, and a fir-pole, 40 ft. long, was preserved in the H., which was said to have been his walking-staff. The H. was destroyed in the Gt. Fire, but the crypt was not injured. For some time before it had been a tavern, and a new tavern was put up on the site. In 1852 it was removed to make way for the new Cannon St. Station. The stones of the crypt were numbered and presented to the Crystal Palace, where they were used in making the foundations of an engine-house. Taylor, Works (ii. 81), says, "Deliver this letter at G. H. to Christopher Guppie, a carrier." Deloney, in Reading, Intro., says that the western clothiers "would ever meet upon one day in Lond. at Jarrats H, surnamed the Giant, for that he surpassed all other men of that age, both in stature and strength." In Chap. 5, he tells how they entertained the K.'s sons "at our host Garrats, who hath a fair house and goodly rooms."


(a misprint for GERAZIM; more properly GERIZIM). The mtn. in Palestine S. of Shechem, now Nablous, facing Mt. Ebal on the N. of the narrow valley. According to Deut. xxvii. 12, the Levites who,were to pronounce the blessings of the Law after the Israelites came into the Promised Land were to stand on Mt. Gerizim, and those that pronounced the curses on Mt. Ebal. The author of Mariam reverses this arrangement, doubtless by a slip of memory. In Mariam iv. 8, Doris prays, "Hear Thou, that didst mt. G. command To be a place whereon with cause to curse; Stretch Thy revenging arm."


There are 2 old churches dedicated to St. G. in Paris: St. G. L'Auxerrois, between the Rue de Rivoli and the Pont Neuf, from the belfry of which the signal for the massacre of St. Bartholomew was given; and St. G.-des-Prés in the Boulevard St. G., originally connected with the Abbey of St. G. founded in the 6th cent. In Devonshire v. 1, Manuel confesses falsely that he has stabbed his father "near St. Gs. in Paris in a dark night." Probably St. G.-des-Prés is meant, as it would be a more lonely place.


(= SAINT GERMAIN–EN–LAYE). A town in France, 14 m. W. of Paris. The French kings had an ancient royal residence there, which Francis I replaced by a fine palace. Louis XIV was born there, but transferred the Court to Versailles. James II of England resided there after his deposition. It is pow used as a military prison. In B. & F. Wild Goose ii. 2, Lillia says, "You know Ismena, the fair gem of St.-G.?"


(Ge. = Germanie, Gn. =German). The central part of Europe, lying between France and Belgium on the W.; Denmark on the N.; Poland and Hungary on the E.; and the Alps on the S. It was divided into High or Upper, and Low or Lower, G. According to Fynes Moryson, Upper G. included Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Athesis (the Tyrol), Rhetia (the Grisons), Vindelicia (round Augsburg and Ulm), Bavaria, Suevia, Helvetia (Switzerland), Alsatia, and the Rhine provinces as far N. as Metz: Lower G. included Franconia, Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Saxony, Lusatia, Meissen, Thuringia, Marchia, Brunswick, Mecklenburg, Hesse, Julich, Cleves, Westphalia, East Friezeland, Pomerania, and Borusia, or Prussia, i.e. East Prussia. The Netherlands (i.e. Belgium and Holland), as originally a part of the Empire, are sometimes included in Low G., but are more often distinguished from it. In More iii. 2, Erasmus of Rotterdam is called "Thou reverent G." The Gn. or Holy Roman Emperor had a titular authority over the whole country, but the actual government was in the hands of archdukes, dukes, marquesses, bishops, and other magnates. The Hanse towns, of which the chief were Lubeck, Hamburg, and Stoade, were practically under the control of their own league, and there were 60 Free Imperial cities which recognized the authority of the Emperor, but were really independent.

High and Low German distinguished. In Dekker's Edmonton iii. 1, Cuddy says there are 8 days in the week in the Low Countries: "How dost thou think they rise in High G., Italy, and those remoter places?" In Barnes' Charter iv, 3, the Physician has studied "in France, in Spain, and higher G." In T. Heywood's Challenge ii. 1, Bonavide asks, "What of the women of high G.?" In Cuckqueans iv. 8, Floradin says that he has "Travelled High Ge. and low Ge." Boorde, in Intro. of Knowledge (1542), distinguishes between Base Almayne and High Almayne, which is S. of Metz: the Gn. says, "I am a High Almayne, sturdy and stout, I labour but little in the world about; I am a yonker; a feather I will wear . . . My raiment is woven much like a sack." Low G. is sometimes used for Hell. Dekker, in News from Hell, speaks of the devil as "our Lansquenight of Lowe-Germanie."

General Allusions. In Lear iv. 7, 90, the Gentleman says, "They say Edgar is with the Earl of Kent in G." In All's Well iv. 1, 78, Parolles begs, "If there be here Gn. or Dane, low Dutch, Italian, or French, let him speak to me." In M.W.W. iv. 3, 1, Bardolph brings word to the Host of the Garter: "Sir, the Gns. desire to have 3 Of your horses; the D. himself will be to-morrow at Court and they are going to meet him." The Host knows nothing of this D., and it appears that these Gns. (who can speak English) have had the run of the inn for a week. In iv. 5, we are told that the 3 cozen Gns. have run off with the horses: Evans brings word that they have already cozened all the hosts around of horses and money; and Caius affords the further information: "It is a-tell me dat you make grand preparations for a d. de Jamany; by my trot dere is no d. dat de Court is know to come." It is hard to see why this incident should have been brought in, unless there was some allusion that the Q. and Court would understand. Now Frederick, D. of Würtemberg and Count Mompelgard, visited Windsor in 1592, and passed through Maidenhead, Brentford, and Reading. He had from Sir William Herbert permission to take post-horses on his journey without any payment. In the quarto of 1602, Evans says, "There is 3 sorts of cosen garmombles, is cosen all the Hosts of Maidenhead and Readings." In the Folio this is altered to "3 Cosen-Jermans." Garmombles seems to be a perversion of Mompelgard, the 2nd title of the D. of Würtemberg. The date of M.W.W. is probably 1599, but the D. had been in constant correspondence with Q. Elizabeth, and his visit would not have been forgotten in 7 years.

Allusions to German History. Milton, P. R. iv. 78, describes embassies coming to Rome: "Gns. and Scythians and Sarmatians." In Chapman's Caesar i. 1, 28, Cato speaks of Caesar's army as the scum of G. In Tiberius 260, the Emperor speaks of Germanicus as "Roome's shining beacon in rude G." In Nero v. 1, Tigellinus says, "Spain's revolted, Portingale hath joined; As much suspected is of G." The reference is to the revolt of Galba in Spain and of Verginius Rufus in Upper G. in A.D. 68, which led to the deposition of Nero. In Dekker's Fortunatus i. 1, Fortune says, "This sometime was a Gn. Emperor, Henry V, who, being first deposed, Was after thrust into a dungeon, And thus in silver chains shall rot to death." Probably Henry IV is meant: he was excommunicated by Paschal II, and taken prisoner by his revolting son, Conrad. He died heartbroken in 1106. In K.J. i. 1, 100, Robert tells how his father "was once dispatched in an embassy To G., there with the Emperor To treat of high affairs." This may have been in connection with the homage done by Richd. I to the Emperor Henry VI, when the latter invested Richd. with the kingdom of Arles. In H5 i. 2, the Archbp. of Canterbury, relating the history of the Salic Law of Pharamond, declares "This Salique . . . between Elbe and Sala Is at this day in G. called Meisen." In H8 v. 3, 30, Gardiner refers to the religious wars in G. which followed the Council of Trent and lasted till the Treaty of Passau in 1552. If Cranmer is allowed to have his way, Gardiner predicts "Commotions, uproars, with a general taint Of the whole state; as of late days our neighbours, The Upper G, can dearly witness." The Emperor of G. in Greene's Friar is Frederick II, Fredericus Stupor Mundi, who reigned 1212–1250. When Greene makes him say, in sc. iv., ". From Hapsburg I have brought a learned clerk "he is in error, for Frederick was the last of the Suabian Emperors, and had nothing to do with Hapsburg. In Marlowe's Faustus, chor. before sc. viii, we are told of "the Emperor Carolus the Fifth, at whose palace now Faustus is feasted." Sc. x. takes place at the Emperor's Court at Innsbruck. Charles V. was Emperor from 1519 to 1556. Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus deals with the disputed election to the Empire between Alphonso of Castile and Richd., Earl of Cornwall, in 1254. In i. 1, 12, Alphonsus claims, "I am the lawful Gn. Emperor." In Merlin iii. 6, 115, the Saxon invaders of Britain are called "The offal fugitives of barren G." Donne, Elegy i. 34 (1600), speaks of the Gns. scorning "the Pope's pride." Smith's Hector deals with an imaginary contest for the position of Emperor during the reign of our K. Edward III.

German Religion. The Protestant Reformation may be definitely dated from 1517, in which year Luther nailed his Theses to the ch. door of Wittenberg. By the middle of the cent. the N. States of G. had almost all accepted the Reformed Doctrines, and the Lutheran Ch. became dominant. In Marlowe's Faustus i., Faust boasts, "I . . . have with concise syllogisms Gravelled the pastors of the Gn. ch. And made the flowering pride of Wittenberg Swarm to my problems."

National Character. Heylyn (s.v. GERMANIE) says, "The men of the poorer sort are laborious, painful, and of sincere behaviour; the nobles either profound scholars or resolute soldiers, lovers of true honour; though Tacitus thought otherwise, saying, 'The Gaules fight for liberty, the Belgians for honours, the Germanes for gain'; They are little addicted to Venus and very much to Bacchus: whence the proverb, Germanorm vivere est bibere. They are of a strong constitution and much inclined to fatness; They [are] a people that take more pleasure to be commanded than to command. In matters of war, this people have been ever in a measure famous; yet not so much by valour of conduct of their Captains, as by their own hardiness. The women are of a good complexion, though by reason of their intemperance in eating and drinking they are somewhat corpulent: women of good carriage; good bearers and good breeders." In H6 C. iv. 8, 2, Warwick says, "Edward from Belgia With hasty Gns. and blunt Hollanders Hath passed in safety through the narrow seas." There is apparently a contrast intended between the heavy Dutch and the more sprightly Gns. The Gns., along with the Dutch and the Danes, had the reputation of being heavy drinkers. In Merch. i. 290, Portia says of the young Gn. lord that she likes him "very vilely in the morning, when he is sober, and most vilely in the afternoon, when he is drunk." In Oth. ii. 3, 80, Iago says that in potting "your Dane, your Gn., and your swag-bellied Hollander are nothing to your English." In Cromwell iii, 3, Cromwell reports," In G. and Holland riot serves, And he, that most can drink, most he deserves." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. v. 4, Macilente calls Carlo "my good Gn. tapster," when he is proposing to have a carouse. In B. & F. Wild Goose v. 6, Belleur says, "Say we pass through G. and drink hard?" In their Friends i. 1, Marius says that he has not travelled "to bring home a Gn. health." In Middleton's Gipsy i. 1, Roderigo says, "It is as rare to see a Spaniard a drunkard as a Gn. sober." In Glapthorne's Privilege iii. 1, Adorni says, "Your Gn. will carouse a score of goblets to provoke his stomach to his bread and butter." In Davenant's Albovine i. i[, Grimold says that Albovine "is a Gn. in his drink." In Tiberius 683, Sejanus says that the man who will climb must be all things to all men "Drink with the Germain, with the Spaniard brave." Burton, A. M. iii. 3, 1, 2, says, "G. hath not so many drunkards . . . as Italy alone hath jealous husbands."

Appearance of the Germans. In Nero iv. 1, Nero speaks of overcoming "the grey-eyed Gn." Tacitus speaks of their "truces et caerulei oculi" (Germ. iv.). In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, Caesar speaks of the "big-boned Gn." In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus i. 2, 261, Alexander says, "in G. A man must be a boy at 40 years, And dares not draw his weapon at a dog, Till, being soundly boxed about the ears, His lord and master gird him with a sword."

Dress. In Much Ado iii. 2, 34, Pedro says of Benedick: "[He is] a Gn. from the waist downward, all slops." In Merch. i. 2, 81, Portia thinks that the young Baron of England "bought his bonnet in G." In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius, enumerating the hats of various nations, says, "The Gn. loves his cony-wool," i.e. rabbit-skin cap.

German Women. In H5 i. 2,48, the Archbp. thinks that the Salic Law was due to the French "holding in disdain the Gn. women For some dishonest manners of their life." In Massinger's Guardian ii. 5, Calipso, characterizing the women of the nations she has visited, speaks of "the sober Gn." In Costly Wh. ii. 1, the D. says, "Courtesans are strange with us in G."

German Magic and Proficiency in the Black Art. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. v. 4, Carlo says to Puntarvolo, "You may have, as you come through G., a familiar for little or nothing, shall turn itself into the shape of your dog or any thing, what you will." Faust, in Marlowe's Faustus, is a Gn.; and in i. 96, he addresses Valdes as "Gn. Valdes": this may be a mistake for Herman, but if the reading is right it would seem to mean "Valdes proficient in magic." In B. & F. Fair Maid I. iv. 2, the Host, speaking of the conjurer Forobosco, says, "Were Paracelsus the Gn. now living, he'd take up his single rapier against his terrible long sword." In M.W.W. iv. 5, 7 1, Bardolph says that the Gns. "Set spurs and away like 3 Gn. devils, 3 Dr. Faustuses." In Glapthorne's Wit i. 1, Thorowgood says that Holdfast has learned "to walk like Faustus or some high Gn. conjurer, in a cap ft for a costermonger."

German Skill in Mechanics. In Davenant's Wits v., 5 Thwack says, "I'll send him down to country fairs for a new motion made by a Gn. engineer." A motion means a puppet-show, or a mechanical marionette. The Gn. clocks with moving figures, like the clock in Strasbourg Cathedral, were very common. In L.L.L. iii. 1, 192, Biron says, "A woman that is like a Gn. clock, Stiff a-repairing, ever out of frame, And never going aright." In Jonson's Epicoene iv. 1, Otter says of his wife: "She takes herself asunder still when she goes to bed, into some 20 boxes; and about next day noon is put together again, like a great Gn. clock; and so comes forth and rings a tedious larum to the whole house." In Middleton's R.G. iv. 11, Sir Alexander says, "Here, take my Gn. watch, hang 't up in sight." In Cartwright's Ordinary i. 5, Hearsay speaks of the antiquary as "that old Eremite thing That, like an image in a Gn. clock, Doth move, not walk." In Dekker's Westward i. 1, Birdlime says, "No Gn. clock requires so much reparation as a lady's face."

Miscellaneous allusions. In H4 B. ii. 1, 156, Falstaff speaks of "the Gn. hunting in a water-work": that is, in some sort of distemper or water-colour. The picture was probably one of a boar hunt, that form of sport being popular in G. In Marston's Malcontent v. 1, Passarello says of Maquerelle: "She gets all the picture makers to draw her picture; when they have done she most courtly finds fault with them; they, in revenge of this, execute her in pictures as they do in G., and hang her in their shops." But in Dodypoll i. 2, Moth says, "More art is shadowed here Than any man in G. can show."

The Boar was common in the forests of G., and was frequently hunted. In Cym. ii. 5, 16, Posthumus speaks of Iachimo as "a full-acorned boar, a Gn. one." In Davenant's Siege i. 1, Ariotto says, "We shall live worse than boars in G.," i.e. we shall be merely prey to Mervole's exactions. In Coryat's Crudities (161l) 396, we find –."Hunting of wild boars is more exercised by the Gns. than by any other Christian nation." In Davenant's Italian v. 3, Altamont says, "The cymbals of India call Castilian comets forth And Gn. viols wake the Tuscan lute." In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus iii. 1, 148, when Edward says, "Alas! I cannot dance your Gn. dances," Bohemia says, "We Gns. have no changes in our dances, An Almain and an Upspring, that is all." The former was a grave, the latter a lighter measure. In Chivalry, Bowyer says of Peter: "His tongue crawls as fast as the cheese doth in G." In Brome's City Wit ii. 2, Crasy says, "The taking of my degree cost me 12 French crowns and five-and-thirty pound of salt butter in upper G." Heylyn (s.v. GERMANIE) says, "Their language is very harsh, by reason of its many consonants." Germania is used in the sense of the gibberish spoken by the Spanish rogues; in Middleton, GIPSY ii. 1, Alvarez says, "The arts of Coco-quismo and Germania used by our Spanish pickaroes–I mean, filching, foisting, nimming, jilting–we defy."

Special allusions. In Middleton's R.G. ii. 1, Moll says, "I have struck up the heels of the high Gn.'s size ere now"; and again (iii. 1), "A name which Id tear out of the high Gn.'s throat, if it lay leiger there." This would appear to have been a Gn. fencer of great height and strength, who was in Lond. at the time. In the Curtain Drawer of the World (1612) 27, it is said: "Those escape very hardly, like the Gn. out of Woodst." In Shirley's Opportunity iii. 1, Ascanio comes in disguised as the High Gn. who "has beaten all the fencers in Europe." In Noble Soldier ii. 2, Baltasar says, "Shall I be that Gn. fencer and beat all the knocking boys before me?" Dekker, in Owls Almanac (1618) 7, says, "The G. fencer cudgell'd most of our English fencers now about a month past." In Swetnam i.. 2, Misogonus says, "I'll teach you the very mystery of fencing that you shall beat all the fencers in G." Dekker, in News from Hell, says of the Devil: "As for rapier and dagger, the Germane may be his journeyman." In Ret. Pernass. iv. 3, Philomusus inquires of the actor Kemp, "How doth the Emperour of G.?" Apparently the reference is to some recent visit of Kemp to G.: English comedians occasionally visited G. and were acting at Nurnberg in 1604. This play was first printed in 1606. In Shirley's Courtier iv. 1, Orsino says, "There is a famous painter sojourns here in Mantua, a Gn, Shadan Wierex." In his Honoria (a.k.a. Honor and Riches) iii. 11, Maslin says of Fulbank: "He looks like the pyed piper in G. that undertook to cure the town of rats." This is the Piper of Hamelin, immortalized by Browning. The story is told in Verstegan's Restit. of Decayed Intelligence, published in 1634, and the date is there given as June 26, 1284. The piper's name was Bunting. The German method of execution was by breaking on the wheel. In Dekker's Dead Term (1608), Westminster says of Charing Cross that his limbs are broken "as if he were a malefactor and had been tortured on the G. wheel." W. Rowley, in Search 30, says, "There were others that offered to suffer the Gn. strappado for his [Money's] sake," i.e. hanging up by a rope and then being suddenly dropped, so as to dislocate the joints.


On the E. coast of England, more properly called the North Sea. In Peele's Alcazar ii. 4, 126, Sebastian says of England: "The G. Seas alongst the E. do run." Drayton, in Polyolb. xv. 62, describes the Gt. Ouse as taking his course "directly down into the G. deep."




A small Syrian state on the W. border of Bashan, S. of Hermon. David married Maacah, the daughter of Talmai, K. of G., and Absalom took refuge with him after the murder of his brother Amnon. In Peele's Bethsabe ii. 3, David says to Absalom, "Live, and return from G. to thy home; Return from G. to Jerusalem."


A tribe inhabiting the dist. in Thrace between Mt. Haemus and the Ister. They are often confused with the Gothi, but are really quite distinct from them. (see under GOTHS). In T. Heywood's Dialogues iii. 1757, Hector speaks of "powerful skiff in Geticke weapons tried."




(French, GAND), usually spelt GAUNT. A city in Belgium, 30 m. W. of Antwerp. It was a great trading city in the Middle Ages. Its cathedral and Hôtel de Ville are amongst the most beautiful in Belgium. It was besieged and captured by the D. of Parma in 1584. Chaucer's Wife of Bath (C. T. A. 448) had of clothmaking "swich an haunt, She passed hem of Ypres and of Gaunt." John of Gaunt, D. of Lancaster, was born there in 1340. The scene of Acts I and II of B. & F. Beggar's is laid at G. In Jonson's Fortun. Isles, Jophiel sings of "Mary Ambree Who marched so free To the siege of Gaunt And death could not daunt." This lady, who disguised herself as a soldier, is celebrated in the ballad beginning, "When captains courageous whom death could not daunt Did march to the siege of the city of Gaunt." Hall, in Epp. i. 5 (1624), says of it: "Gaunt, a city that commands reverence for age and wonder for the greatness."


Town on the coast of Syria, 40 m. N.E. of Sidon; formerly Byblus, now Djebail. It was captured by Saladin in 1188, and finally evacuated by the Crusaders in 1291. There is no record of any further fighting there; but in the quarto of Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 1, 103, Bobadilla boasts that he was present at "the beleaguering of G. where 700 resolute gentlemen, as any were in Europe, lost their lives upon the breach." For this imaginary siege the Folio edition substitutes "the beleag'ring of Strigonium," which happened in 1595.


A town in the tribe of Benjamin in Palestine, probably to be identified with Tel-el-Ful, 3 m. N. of Jerusalem. It was the birth-place of Saul, and the scene of the outrage described in judges xix. 14, etc. Milton, P. L. i. 504, refers to "that night In G., when the hospitable door Exposed a matron, to avoid worse rape."


An ancient city of Palestine, now el-Jib, between 5 and 6 m. N.W. of Jerusalem. The inhabitants tricked Joshua by a false embassy and were in consequence condemned to be "hewers of wood and drawers of water" (see Josh. ix. 3– 27). In Variam i. 6, Constabarus says, "Make us wood-hewers, water-bearing wights, Use us as Joshua did the Gibonites." In Marmion's Leaguer i. 5, Agurtes says of some men who are announced to see him: "They are my Gibeonites, are come to traffic with me." In Peele's Bethsabe ii. 3, David recalls the defeat of Ishbosheth "by the pool of G." (see II Sam. ii. 13). The pool still remains, to the S.W. of the hill on which the vill. stands. Milton, P. L. xii. 265, quotes Joshua's command to the sun, "Sun, in G. stand, And thou, moon, in the vale of Ajalon" (see Joshua x. 12).


A fortress on the southernmost point of Spain on the Straits of the same name. The Moors made it the site of a fortress in the 8th cent., and named it Gebel Tarik (Rock of Tarik), from their leader. In 1462 it was taken by the Spaniards, and remained in their possession till 1704, when Sir George Rooke took it and hoisted the English flag. It was besieged by France and Spain in 1782, but unsuccessfully. It is still a British possession. In Stucley 2451, Muly Hamet boasts that his dominions "look upon Canaries, wealthy iles And on the west to Gibaltara's straights." In line 1562, Philip of Spain promises that a fleet shall wait the coming of Sebastian "near to the Straits Of Giberalter in a haven there Called El Porto de Sancta Maria." In Middleton's Changeling i. 1, Vermandero says of his father: "An unhappy day Swallowed him at last at G. In fight with those rebellious Hollanders." I cannot find any record of a fight with the Dutch at G. In Davenant's Plymouth iv. 1, Trifle invents the preposterous news that "The Spanish fleet that anchored at G. is sunk by the French horse." In Day's Travails (Bullen, p. 40), the Chorus says that Sir Thomas "is come unto the Streights of Gibralter." In W. Rowley's All's Lost i. 1, 23, Medina speaks of "the streights of Gibbraltar "as separating Africa from Europe. Milton, P. L. i. 355, speaks of the barbarian hordes spreading "Beneath G. to the Libyan sands," i.e. to the south of G. In Draytons ton's Merry Devil i. 2, 14, the Host says, "Let me cling to your flanks, my nimble Giberalters, and blow wind in your calves to make them swell bigger." The rock of G. is the only place in Europe where monkeys are found: hence the meaning is "monkeys." There is probably also some thought of the "gibbering" of these animals. Cf. Harvey, Pierce's Supererogation (1592) 158: "Cumane ass and fool, And dolt, and idiot, and Gibaltar." Puttenham, Art of Poesie (1589) ii., tells how Hercules set "2 pillars in the mouth of the strait G." with the motto Non plus ultra. In verses pre prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Vadianus says that Coryat's fame stretches "from the Magellan strait to G." See also JUBALTAR.


One of the rivers of Paradise. In Gen. ii. 13, we read: "the name of the 2nd river is G.; the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Cush." If Cush means the land of the Cassi, the river will be the Kerkhah: others think that the Nile is intended, and that the tradition was that the 4 great rivers of the world, the Tigris, Euphrates, Nile, and Ganges, all rose in the Garden of Eden. In Greene's Orlando i. 2, Rodamant speaks of "that wealthy Paradise From whence floweth Gyhon and swift Euphrates." In his Friar xvi. 66, K. Henry compares England to "that wealthy isle Circled with Gihen and swift Euphrates," i.e. Paradise. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. v. 1, Tamburlaine says, "I will not spare these proud Egyptians For all the wealth of G.'s golden waves." Possibly Marlowe was confusing G. with the first river. Pison, "which compasseth the whole land of Havilah where there is gold." Greene, in Mourning Garment (Wks. ix. 127), describes the city of Callipolis as "seated in the land of Avilath compassed with G. and Euphrates, 2 rivers that flow from Eden." Spenser, F. Q. i. 7, 43, describes Eden as the land "Which Phison and Euphrates floweth by And Gehon's golden waves do wash continually."


Mtn. in Palestine on the S.E. of the Plain of Jezreel, now Jebel Fuqua. It is chiefly memorable as the scene of the defeat and death of Saul. In Middleton's Tennis, Pallas says of Joshua: "At his command Hyperion reined his fiery coursers in And fixed stood o'er Mt. G." Pallas is not quite exact in her knowledge of the scriptures. The passage in Joshua x. is runs: "Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon": no doubt therefore G. is a slip of memory for Gibeon. In Peele's Bethsabe ii. 3, Hamon says that the blood of Saul and Jonathan "from G. ran In channels through the wilderness of Ziph" (see I Sam. xxxi.). But the wilderness of Ziph was nearly 100 m. from Mt. G.!


A bookseller's sign in Lond. The Honest Lawyer was "Printed by George Purslowe for Richard Woodroffe and are to be sold at his shop near the great North-door of Paules at the sign of the guilded Key. 1616."




Ch. in Lond. at the W. end of Fore St. The 1st ch. was built in 1090, and was replaced by the present building in the 14th cent. It escaped the Gt. Fire, and is one of the few old Gothic churches yet remaining in the City. Margaret Lucy, the 2nd daughter of Shakespeare's Sir Thomas Lucy, was buried here, as were John Foxe, Martin Frobisher, and the John Miltons, father and son. There is an entry in the marriage register: "Married Ben Johnson and Hester Hopkins "July 27th, 1623. This may have been rare Ben. Nathan Field, the dramatist, and a child of James Shirley's Were christened in the ch., and here Oliver Cromwell was married to Elizabeth Bourcher. Dekker, in Wonderful Year (1603), speaks of the ravages of the Plague in Lond., and says, "The 3 bald sextons of limping St. Gyles, St. Sepulchres, and St. Olaves ruled the roast more hotly than ever did the Triumviri of Rome." Limping St. Gyles means St. Gyles in Cripplegate as distinguished from St. Gyles-in-the-Fields.


Originally a vill. near Lond., S. of what is now New Oxford St. It grew up round a hospital for lepers founded by Matilda, Q. of Henry 1, in i. 1101, and dedicated to St. Giles, the patron saint of lepers. It lay S. of High St., near the present parish ch. The hospital chapel became the parish ch., and so continued till 1623, when it was demolished, and a new ch. was built and dedicated in 1630. The present ch. took its place in 1734. The pound and cage stood in the middle of High St., but were removed in 1656 to the junction of Tottenham Court Rd. and Oxford St. Prisoners on the way to Tyburn to be executed passed the Hospital, and it was customary to give them there a bowl of wine. After the dissolution of the hospital the custom was kept up at the Bowl Inn, between the end of High St. and Hog Lane. Bowl Alley, on the S. side of High St., long preserved the name. The Angel Inn was a rival of the Bowl in this function. Executions not infrequently took place at St. G.'s at the back of the hospital garden. George Chapman and James Shirley buried in the churchyard.

In Bale's Chronicle of Sir John Oldcastle, we read: They had a great assemble in Sainct Gyles-Field at Lond. purposing the destruction of the land." In Oldcastle ii. 2, the rendezvous is Ficket's Field, "behind St. G. i. t. field near Holborne." At which Murley exclaims: "Newgate, up Holborne, St. G. i. t. field, and to Tiborne: an old saw." Bale goes on to say that Sir John "was drawn forth into Sainct Giles-Felds where as they had set up a new pair of gallows": there he was executed by being burnt over a slow fire. In Hycke, p. 99, Freewill tells how he got into prison and his friend Imagination went to look for him: "He walked through Holborne and walked up toward Saynte Gyles in the felde," evidently expecting to see Freewill on his way to Tyburn. The town, as it was still called at the end of the 16th cent., was a poor dist. and a resort of bad characters. Harman, in Caveat ii., tells of his pursuit of a counterfeit crank, who dodged him by taking a boat to St. George's F.: "I had thought," says he, "he would have gone into Holborne or to Saynt Gylles in the felde." In Jonson's Devil v. 1, Ambler tells how he went with his doxy to Tyburn, and then had to lend her his shoes and "walk in a rug by her, barefoot, to St. G." In B. & F. Wit S. W. ii. 4, Wittypate and his fellow-thieves have their rendezvous "at the Three Cups in St. G." In Barry's Ram iii. 2, Throate, planning to abduct Frances, says, "Let the coach stay at Shoe-lane end; and when she's in, hurry towards St. G. i. t. F." In News from the Wood St. Counter (1642), it is mentioned in a list of places of a bad reputation. In Brome's Sparagus v. 6, Hoyden is carried in a sedan "up to a lodging in St. Gileses." In Stucley 580, we are intro introduced to "Thomas Thump, the buckler-maker of S. G." To go by St. G. to Westminster is a proverbial expression for missing one's way or making a mistake. Nash, in Pierce E. 1, says, "I would not have you think that all this that is set down here is in good earnest, for then you go by S. Gyles, the wrong way to Westminster." In Deloney's Craft ii. 11, the Green K. of St. Martin's "at St. G. i. t. f. met the rest of his company," and shortly after "they came to the highway turning down to Westminster."


An ancient ch. in Oxford, at the N. end of St. G. St. In Seven Days the prologue is spoken by the clerk of St. Gyleses.


The sign of a bookseller's shop in Paternoster Row. The relation of Sad and Lamentable Accidents at Wydecombe was "Printed at Lond. by G. N. for R. Harford and are to be sold at his shop in Queen's-Head-Alley in Paternoster Row at the Gilt Bible. 1638."


A st. in Lond. running N. from the W. end of Newgate St. to W. Smithfield. Originally the part between Cock Lane and Smithfield was called Pie Corner. Stow says it was at first called Knightrider St., because the knights coming to tournaments in Smithfield passed along it. Lady Alimony was "Printed by Tho. Vere and William Gilbertson and are to be sold at the Angel without New-Gate and at the Bible in G. st."




Applied to a wandering race originally from India, who appeared in England in the 16th cent. They were supposed to have come from Egypt, and the name is a short form of Egyptian, q.v. In As You Like It v. 3, 16, the 2 pages both in a tune, like 2 gipsies on a horse." It is used depreciatingly of a dark beauty, the fashion in Elizabeth's reign being for blondes. In R. & J. ii. 4, 44, Mercutio says, "Cleopatra to this lady was a g." In Antony i. 1, 10, Philo says that Antony "is become the bellows and the fan To cool a g.'s lust." In iv. 12, 28, Antony says, "This false soul of Egypt . . . Like a right g. hath at fast and loose Beguiled me to the very heart of loss." "Fast and loose "was a trick like Pricking the Garter, by which the gs. cozened the simple folk. It is also used of a woman in the sense of a baggage or flirt. In Shirley's Love Maze iv., Thorold says of a lady: "She was a very g. You were no sooner parted but she used me basely." In B. & F. [Rowley's?] Gipsy, these people play a leading part. In Middleton's Dissemblers iv. 1, Aurelia disguises herself as a g. and joins a band of them. Gs. were usually fortune-tellers and astrologers. Randolph, in Hey Hon. i. 1, says, "Troth, and he may tell you your fortune, gipsie-like and all out of your pockets too." In Lawyer iii., Robert says, "Skyconsulting Gypsiemen commit sins dark as night and blame the stars for it." The English Gs. had their head-quarters in the Peak of Derbyshire, as Jonson's Gipsies indicates. See under EGYPT.




Vill. in Forfarsh., Scotland, 45 m. N. of Edinburgh: 1 m. N. of the vill. is the ancient castle. Macbeth became Thane of G. by the death of his father Synel, and was so at the opening of the play. In i. 3, 48, the 1st witch addresses him, "Hail to thee, Thane of G." In 71, Macbeth says, "By Sinel's death I know I am Thane of G." In i. 5, 16, Lady Macbeth says, "G. thou art and Cawdor"; in ii. 2, 42, Macbeth says, "G. hath murdered sleep and therefore Cawdor Shall sleep no more." In iii. 1, 1, Banquo says, "Thou hast it now; k., Cawdor, G., all." But, as a matter of fact, Macbeth's father was Finley or Finel; and probably Sinel is merely a compositor's mistake for Finel, just as in i. 3, 39 he prints Sorres for Forres. Moreover, it was the thanedom of Ross, not of G., that descended to Macbeth from his father.


A county in S. Wales on the Bristol Channel. The N. parts of the county are very mountainous. In Jonson's Wales, Howell declares that their music is as loud as "rumbling rocks in s'eere [i.e. shire] G." In T. Heywood's Royal King i. 1, the Welchman says, "If ever I shall meet you in G. or Radnock-shire, I will requite your kindnesses." Spenser, F. Q. ii. 10, 33, says of Morgan: "He to those woody hills did fly, Which hight of him G."




The first glass manufactory in Lond. was set up about 1580 in Crutched Friars by James, or Jacob, Verselyn, a Venetian. Another and better known one was established in Blackfriars, between Church Entry, Playhouse Yard, and Water Lane. It was a fashionable amusement to visit the glass-houses and see the process of glass-making. Dekker, in Knight's Conjuring, says of Hell: "Like the g.-h. furnace in Blackfriars, the bone-fires that are kept there never go out." In Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says to Judith, "You must to the Pawn to buy lawn; to St. Martin's for lace; to the Garden; to the G.-h." In Killigrew's Parson iii. 1, Adm. Pleasant says, "I'll go to a play with my servant and so shall you; and we'll go to the g.-h. afterwards." Dekker, in jests, says, "O Envy, wash thine eyes that looks flaming like the ceaseless fire of the Glashouse."


A town in Somersetsh., 124 m. W. of Lond. The abbey, of which considerable ruins remain, was one of the oldest in England. According to legend the 1st ch. was built there by Joseph of Arimathaea, who also planted the famous G. Thorn from a slip of the Crown of Thorns placed upon the brow of our Lord. The actual thorn was destroyed at the Reformation, but specimens of it are still to be seen in different parts of the county. The monastery was founded by Ine in the 8th cent., but the buildings were restored by Henry II. The famous Dunstan was appointed abbot in 946. In J. Heywood's Weather, p. 100, Merry Report has been "at Gravelyn, at Gravesend, and at G." In Grim i. 1, Dunstan tells of a vision "Which I beheld in great K. Edgar's days Being that time Abbot of Glassenbury." In S. Rowley's When You B. 1, Summers says, "There is other news: the great bell in GLassenberie has tolled twice, and K. Arthur and his knights of the Round Table are alive again."


A vill. in Dumfriessh. Scotland. In Sampson's VOW i. 3, 17, James Coningham, "son to the Earl of G.," is mentioned as one of the hostages to England.


In the island of Skye, 8 m. W. of Dunvegan. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 83, jockey, who from his dialect is meant to be a Scotchman, appeals for justice against "Billy Grime of G." This probably means William Graham: Graham, or Graeme, being a common Scottish name.


The famous theatre on the Bankside, Southwark. It was begun in Dec. 1598 by the brothers Richd. and Cuthbert Burbage, who pulled down their old house, the Theatre in Shoreditch, and used the materials for the new building. Dr. Wallace has recently proved that it stood, not where Barclay's Brewery is situated, S. of Park St. (formerly Maiden Lane), but N. of Park St., between Deadman's Place and Horseshoe Alley. It was a round wooden structure on a foundation of brick and cement, and had a thatched roof. Over the door was the sign of Hercules bearing the world on his shoulders. In Ham. ii. 2, 365, Rosencrantz declares that the boy actors carry away "Hercules, and his load too." Here Richd. Burbage acted and Shakespeare's greatest plays were produced, the poet being one of the shareholders in the house. On June 29th, 1613, a discharge, of pieces in the performance of the play All is True set fire to the thatched roof, and the whole theatre was destroyed. It was at once rebuilt in an octagonal form and with a tiled roof. It was pulled down by Sir Matthew Brand on April 15th, 1644, to make room for tenement houses. Henry V was probably produced here in 1599, though others think that it was first played at the Cockpit. In the prologue 13, the Chorus says, "May we cram Within this wooden O the very casques That did affright the air at Agincourt!" Jonson's Ev. Man O. was produced the same year; and in v. 7, Macilente appeals to the audience," We . . . entreat The happier spirits in this fair-filled G . . . . That with their bounteous hands they would confirm This as their pleasure's patent." In his Poetaster iii. 1, Histrio says that the theatres are "on the other side of Tyber," i.e. Thames. And Tucca answers: "An you stage me, your mansions shall sweat for it, your tabernacles, varlets, your Gs., and your Triumphs!" In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 558, Scattergood says, "Let's go see a play at the G." Jonson, in his Execration upon Vulcan, says, "O these reeds! thy mere disdain of them Made thee beget that cruel strategem, Which some are pleased to style but thy mad prank, Against the G., the glory of the Bank; Which, though it were the fort of the whole parish, Flanked with a ditch and forced out of a marish, I saw with 2 poor chambers taken in And razed, ere thought could urge this might have been. See the world's ruins! nothing but the piles Left, and wit since to cover it with tiles." Taylor, Works (iii. 3 1), says, "As gold is better that's in fire tried, So is the Bankside G. that late was burned; For where before it had a thatched hide, Now to a stately theatre 'tis turned." In Randolph's Muses i. 1, Mrs. Flowerdew, the Puritan, tells how she heard a brother pray "that the G., wherein, quoth he, reigns a whole world of vice, might be consumed." Glapthorne's Wallenstein was "acted at the G. on the Bank-side 1640." In prol. to Leaguer, Marmion, speaking of the rival theatres, says, "The one The vastness of the g. cannot contain." In 1607 the Stationers' Register states that "a book called Mr. William Shakespeare his history of K. Lear was played before the K.'s Majesty at Whitehall by his Majesty's servants playing usually at the g. on the Banksyde." Hugh Holland, in his verses on Shakespeare, prefixed to the 1st Folio, says, "His days are done that made the dainty plays Which made the G. of heaven and earth to ring." Lenten, in Young Gallant's Whirligig (1629), describes "His satin garments and his satin robe, That hath so often visited the G."


A tavern in Shoe Lane, with a passage into Fleet St., on the N. side at what was formerly No. 134. In 1629 one John Clopton was the landlord. In T. Heywood's Lucrece ii 5, Valerius, in his tavern-list, sings "The G. the seaman doth not scorn." In Jonson's Devil iii. 1, Meercraft upbraids Everill with "haunting the Gs. and Mermaids, wedging in with lords still at the table."


(pronounced and often spelt GLOSTER; Gr. = Gloster). The county town of Gshire., on the left bank of the Severn, 107 m. W. of Lond. It is the ancient British Caer-Gloui, the Roman Glevum. A monastery, dedicated to St. Peter, was founded in 679, and was placed under the Benedictine rule in 1022. The foundations of the present cathedral were laid about the end of the 11th cent. The tower belongs to the 15th cent. Henry I died here, Henry III was crowned in the cathedral, then the abbey ch., Robert, son of William 1, and Edward II were buried in the abbey. The New Inn in Northgate St. dates from 1450. There are 14 churches in the city: hence the proverb "as sure as God's in G." The curfew is still rung at the Ch. of St. Michael. In Earle's Microcosmography xv. (1628), he says of the Carrier: "He is like the vault in G. Ch. that conveys whispers at a distance." In Tomkis's Albumazar i. 3, Ronca says that Albumazar has made an instrument to magnify sound, so that you may hear a whisper from Prester John "as fresh as it were delivered Through. . G.'s list'ning wall." Burton, A. M. i. 3, 3, mentions "that whispering place of G." The triforium of the cathedral, carried in a curve under the E. window, forms a whispering gallery. In Willis's Mount Tabor (1639), he says, "In the city of G., the manner is, that when players of interludes come to town they first attend the Mayor, to inform him what nobleman's servants they are, and to get a licence for their public playing." In Lear i. 5, 1, Lear says to Kent, "Go you before to G." Shakespeare thus makes the residence of Cornwall to be in G., so that he may be near to the castle of the Earl of G., which is presumed to be adjacent to the city. The town has given their title to many noble families. In Merlin, there is an Earl of G. who is purely mythical; and another in Val. Welsh. In Lear, the Earl of G. is a principal character, and in his castle, which must be assumed to be near the city, scenes i. 2; ii. 1, 2, and 4; iii. 3, 5, 7 are laid. The heath of iii. 1 and the farmhouse of iii. 6 are in the immediate neighbourhood. In iii. 5, Cornwall creates Edmund Earl of G. in his father's place. The prototype of the old Earl is the Prince of Paphlagonia in Sidney's Arcadia. In Val. Welsh. iv. 7, Caradoc brings word that "the town of G." has been vilely betrayed to the Romans by the Earl of Cornwall.

The natural son of Henry I was Robert, 1st Earl of G., created 1109. In Span. Trag. i. 5, Hieronimo in his mask introduces 3 knights, the 1st of whom, he explains, is "English Robert, Earl of G., Who, when K., Stephen bore sway in Albion, Arrived with five-and-twenty thousand men In Portingale; and, by success of war, Enforced the King, then but a Saracen, To bear the yoke of the English monarchy." The reference is to the capture of Lisbon from the Saracens in 1147, in which some English crusaders assisted, but Robert was not there at any time, and, indeed, died in England a week after the capture of Lisbon. Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of G., is one of the characters in Peele's Ed. I. He was appointed by Henry III Lord Lieutenant of the kingdom in the absence of Prince Edward. He marries the K.'s daughter, Joan of Acon, who dies suddenly in the course of the play. In R2 i. 1, 100, Bolingbroke charges Mowbray, "That he did plot the D. of G.'s death." This D. was Thomas of Woodstock, the youngest son of Edward III, who was created D. of G. in 1385. He had been removed by the K. from his Council in 1389; in 1396 he was arrested and taken to Calais (q.v.), where Mowbray was Governor, and it was reported that he died of apoplexy. There was little doubt, however, that he had been murdered, and that the K. was privy to it. York clearly thinks so (ii. 1, 165)In iv. 1, Bagot, the K.'s favourite, whilst trying to throw the responsibility on Aumerle, admits that "G.'s death was plotted." He is a prominent character in Trag. Richd. II., where he is called "Thomas of Woodstock "and "plain Thomas." His murder at Calais is described in v. 1, where the Governor is wrongly called La Poole. The D. of G. of H4 B., H5, and H6 A. and H6 B. is Humphrey, youngest son of Henry IV. After his divorce from Jacqueline of Hainault he married Eleanor, daughter of Lord Cobham. He was created D. of G. in 1414, and the next year fought with great valour at Agincourt. He incurred the enmity of Q. Margaret and Suffolk, and was arrested in 1447 and a few days later was found dead in his bed. According to Shakespeare's account (in H6 B. iii. 2), he was murdered by hirelings of Suffolk. In Day's B. Beggar i., Bedford says of him: "G. is to blame And Winchester hath neither grace nor shame." In H6 C. and R3, Richard, D. of G., plays the leading part. He was the 8th son of the D. of York and younger brother to Edward IV. He was created D. of G. in 1461. After the murder of the young princes in the Tower he became K. in 1483, and was defeated and slain at Bosworth by Henry VII in 1485. He was buried in the Grey Friars Ch. at Leicester, but at the time of the suppression of the monasteries his tomb was defaced, and it is said that his stone coffin was used as a drinking-trough for horses till the beginning of the 18th cent. In Jonson's Devil ii. 1, Meercraft proposes to get Fitzdottrel the title of G., but Fitzdottrel objects on account of the bad luck of the Dukes of G. "Thomas of Woodstock, I'm sure was D., and he was made away at Calice, as d. Humphrey was at Bury; and Richard the 3rd, you know what end he came to." He adds that he has found all this out from the playbooks. So, in H6 C. ii. 6, 107, Richd. himself says, "G.'s Dukedom is too ominous."


A county in S.W. of England. The Cotswold Hills are in the N. of the county. R2 ii. 3 is laid in the "wilds of G.," where Bolingbroke and Northumberland are discovered on their way to Berkeley, and meet Harry Percy. In H4 A. i. 3, 242, Percy recalls that it was in G. "where I first bowed my knee Unto this k. of smiles, this Bolingbroke." In R2 v. 6, 3, Bolingbroke says, "The rebels have consumed with fire Our town of Cicester in G." (see CIRENCESTER). In Hg A. iii. 2, 176, the K. directs Prince Henry to march to the rendezvous at Bridgnorth through G. In H4 B. iii. 2, Falstaff calls on justice Shallow in G. In H4 B. iv. 3, 88, after the battle of Gaultree Forest, Falstaff asks leave "to go through G.," his object being to "visit Master Robert Shallow, Esquire." He does so, and v. a and 3 are laid in G. at Shallow's house. In M.W.W. iii. 4, 42, Slender, Shallow's cousin, says he loves Mrs. Anne "as well as I love any woman in G."; and in v. 5, 193, he says he'll make the best in G. know on 't," i.e. of how he has been cheated of Anne Page. In i. 1, 5, Slender describes Shallow as "In the county of G., Justice of Peace and Coram." The local allusions in H4 B. iii. 2, v. a and 3 show that Shakespeare was well acquainted with this part of G.: it has been suggested that he took refuge there for a time after his poaching exploit on Sir Thomas Lucy's deer. Sir Thomas was certainly the original of justice Shallow.


(= GLOGAU). A town in Silesia on the Oder. In Glapthorne's Wallenstein ii. 3, the K. of Hungary speaks of "the General of your forces of G., etc."


(= CNIDOS). A city at the extreme S.W. corner of Asia Minor, at the end of a long peninsula. It was specially sacred to the worship of Aphrodite (Venus), and had 3 temples to her divinity. Her statue by Praxiteles in one of them was one of the finest things in Greek sculpture. In T. Heywood's B. Age ii., Venus reproaches Adonis with having made her "leave Paphos, G., Eryx, Erycine, and Amathon." Greene, in a poem on Silvestro's Lady in Morando, speaks of "The Gnydian doves whose white and snowy pens Doth stain the silver streaming ivory." The dove was sacred to Venus. Spenser, F. Q. iii. 6, 29, says that Venus brought Amoretta to her joyous Paradise, "Whether in Paphos or Cytheron hill, Or it in Gnidus be, I wote not well." Percy, in Coelia (1594) v.i, says, "Fair Q. of Cnidos, come, adorn my forehead."


The capital of Crete, in the N. of the island near the coast. It was said to have been founded by Minos; and the famous Labyrinth was in its neighbourhood. In Hon. Law. ii., Benjamin says to Vaster's wife, "Thou shalt make ebrious waste Of the sweet Gnossian wines" (see under CRETE). The author of Zepheria (1594) xxiv. 20 says to Zepheria, "A veil immortal shall we put on thee, And on thy head instar the Gnosian crown. Ariadne doth herself undeify, Yielding her coronal to thy installation." Ariadne was the daughter of Minos of Crete.


(= XOA or SHOA). A dist. in S. Abyssinia. In Cockayne's Obstinate iii. 3, it is mentioned as one of the kingdoms tributary to the Emperor of both the Ethiopias. See under ADEA.


Apparently the sign of a tavern at Smithfield, In B. & F. Wit S. W. iv. 1, Lady Ruinous exclaims to Ruinous, who comes in with a stolen purse, "The G. at Smithfield Pens!" There was another G. Tavern in Covent Garden. In Brome's Covent G. ii. 1, Belt says, "Come to my master to the G. in Covent-garden, where he dines with his new landlord today." It was also a bookseller's sign. Glapthorne's Wit was "Printed by Io. Okes for F. C. and are to be sold at his shops in Kings-st. at the sign of the G. and in Westminster Hall. 1640."




A bookseller's sign in the Strand, Lond. Sampson's Vow was "Printed by John Norton and are to be sold by Roger Ball at the sign of the G. A. in the Strand near Temple-Barre. 1636."


One of the taverns mentioned in the song of Valerius in T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5: "The knights unto the G. F." Most of the names are those of taverns in Lond., but I have not been able to identify this one. The knights go to the G. F. because it is the name of an order of knighthood instituted in 1430 by Philip the Good of Burgundy. When the Burgundian heritage passed into the hands of the K. of Spain (Charles V) it became the chief Order of Spain.


A st. in Lond. running N. from the E. end of Barbican, opposite Red Cross St., to Old St. The Fortune Theatre stood between G. L. and Whitecross St., and the famous nursery or training-school for actors, in the reign of Charles II, was in G. L. "It is of no great account," says Stow, "either for buildings or inhabitants." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon ii. 1, the Wise-woman, giving a list of fortune-teffers, mentions "Mother Sturton, in G. L., is for fore-speaking." Melton, in The Astrologaster, says, "Another will foretell of lightning and thunder that shall happen such a day, when there are no such inflammations seen; except men go to the Fortune in Golding-l. to see the tragedy of Doctor Faustus."


The sign of several taverns in Lond. There was one in Fetter Lane, another near Hick's Hall in St. John St., and another on the W. side of Red Cross St., near Barbican. In Grim ii. 4, Harvey says, "The G. L. is my dwelling place."


The sign of a bookshop in Creed Lane. The 1st edition of Spenser's Shepherds' Calendar was "Printed and sold by Hugh Singleton, dwelling at the sign of the Gylden Tunne, in Creede Lane, near unto Ludgate."




A vill. in Beds., 14 m. W. of Bedford. In Hon. Law., the scene of which is laid in Bedford (iii), Gripe says, "Son Benjamin, you must to G. To view young Bruster's 1=&."


The Hall of the Goldsmiths Company, in Lond., on the E. side of Foster Lane at the corner of Carey St. The Hall of Shakespeare's time was built in 1407. It was used as the Exchequer of the Commonwealth from 1641 to 1660, and the Committee for dealing with the sequestered estates of the Royalists was held there: hence it was nicknamed Squeezing Hall. It was taken down in 1829 and the present Hall erected. In Middleton's Chaste Maid v. 4, Yellowhammer, who is a goldsmith, says, "I'll have the dinner kept in G. H., To which, kind gallants, I invite you all." In Brome's Moor iii. 2, Buzzard says, "'Tis a rich room, this; is it not G. H.?" In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] i. 6, Cutter says that Worm "turned a kind of solicitor at G.-H." the reference is to the court held there as stated above.


A row of "10 fair dwellings and 14 shops all in one frame and uniformly built 4 stories high," stretching on the S. side of Cheapside from Bread St. to the Cross opposite the end of Wood St. They were built in 1491 by Thomas Wood, a goldsmith, and were mainly occupied by men of that trade. Howe complains in 1630 that many of the younger goldsmiths had left the R. and moved to Fleet St., Holborn, and the Strand; so that the shops were turned to "milliners, booksellers, linen drapers, and others." In 1634 Charles I issued an order that none but goldsmiths were to occupy shops in the R., but it was ineffectual. At present there is only one jeweller's shop in the R.

In Look about xx., Fauconbridge says, "I sought the G. R. and found him not." In Marston's Malcontent, Ind., Sly boasts, "I'll walk but once down by the G. R. in Cheap, take notice of the signs, and tell you them with a breath instantly. They begin with Adam and Eve; there's in all just five-and-fifty." In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage iv., Butler says, "I am now going to their place of residence situate in the choicest place in the city, and at the sign of the Wolf, just against G. R., where you shall meet me. You may spend some conference with the shopkeepers' wives; they have seats built a purpose for such familiar entertainments." In Dekker's Lanthorn, Jack in the Box is described, a sort of confidence-trick man; "'tis thought his next hunting shall be between Lumbard-st. and the G. R. in Cheapside." In Jonson's Devil iii. 5, Fitzdottrel says, "There's not so much gold in all the R., he says, Till it come from the Mint."


A city in N. Africa, in Tunis. It was taken from the Spaniards in 1574 by Selim II, and this is said to have brought about the death of Don John of Austria. In B. & F. Rule a Wife iv. 1, Estifania taunts the "copper captain," Perez, "Here's a goodly jewel! Did you not win this at G., Captain?"


The place outside the walls of Jerusalem where our Lord was crucified. The word means in Aramaic a skull; but it is doubtful whether it was so called as being the place of execution or from the rounded configuration of the hill. The traditional site is within the Ch. of the Holy Sepulchre, but many modern investigators prefer the hill to the N. of the city under which Jeremiah's grotto lies. It is used figuratively for a place of death and destruction. In R2 iv. 1, 144, the Bp. of Carlisle, predicting the wars of the Roses, says, "this land [shall) be called The field of G. and dead men's skulls." In Mac. i. 2, 40, the Sergeant, speaking of the exploits of Macbeth and Banquo against the rebels, thinks "they meant To memorize another G." In Marston's Malcontent iv. 5, Malevole says, "This earth is only the grave and g. wherein all things that live must rot." In his Antonio B. iv. 4, Antonio says, "My breast is G., grave for the dead." In Thracian ii. 1, one of the Lords says, "I think this be the land of G., Inhabited by none but by the dead." In Yarington's Two Trag. v. 1, Allenso prays, "Wash away our faults in that precious blood Which Thy dear Son did shed in Galgotha." Milton, P. L. iii. 477, satirizes the pilgrims "that strayed so far to seek In G. him dead who lives in heaven." In Good Wife 1915, Anselm calls the vault "this G." See also CALVARY.


One of the "cities of the Plain "destroyed by fire from heaven for the sins of their inhabitants (Gen. xix.). These cities lay N. of the Dead Sea, and some ruins, marked Khumran, about 1 m. from the sea, are supposed to represent G.

In Bale's Promises iii., Pater Coelestis says, "From Sodom and G.–the abominations call for my great vengeance." In Phillips, Grissill 386, we read: "As God did plague Sodom and Gomora in his ire, So will he destroy the wicked with flaming fire." In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass i. 1, the Angel says, "I have brought thee unto Nineveh, As Sodom and G., full of sin." In Jack Drum iv. 205, Pasquil says, "Then comes pale-faced lust-next Sodome; then Gomorha." In Shirley's Duke's Mist. iv. 1, Horatio says of a lady's over-painted face: "Her cheeks represent G. and her sister Sodom burning." In Webster's White Devil iii. 1, Monticelso says of Vittoria: "Like those apples travellers report To grow where Sodom and G. stood, I will but touch her, and you straight shall see She'll fall to soot and ashes." Mandeville tells of these Sodom apples: "whoso breaketh them or cutteth them in two, he shall find within them cats and cinders" (see SODOM). The destruction of Sodom and G. was the subject of a motion, or puppet-play. In Jonson's Barthol. v. 1, Leatherhead says, "O the motions that I have given light to! Jerusalem was a stately thing, and so was Sodom and G., with the rising of the prentices and pulling down the bawdy houses upon Shrove Tuesday": a Lond. practice being transferred to the cities of the plain.


In the quarto of M.W.W. i. 3, 23, Pistol says to Bardolph, "O base G. Wight, wilt thou the spigot wield?" Stevens says that this is a parody on a line in an old play, "O base G., wilt thou the distaff wield!" He had forgotten what play it was, and no one has yet found the passage. The FL have Hungarian, q.v.


At the S. extremity of Africa. It was discovered in 1486 by the Portuguese Bartholomew mew Diaz, who failed to double it, and christened it Capo dos Tormentos. John II of Portugal changed the name to Capo de Bon Esperanza, and in 1497 Vasco di Gama doubled it and opened up the route to India. In Val. Welsh. iv. 5, Caradoc says, "Patience Must steer my reason to the C. of H." Milton, P. L. iv. 160, speaks of "them who sail Beyond the C. of H., and now are past Mozambic." Fynes Moryson, in Itinerary mi. 3, 124, says, "The inhabitants of Capo di buona speranza (the Cape of 'Good Hope) are exceeding black." Rabelais, Pantagruel iv. 1, describes the course of the Portuguese to India as being round "Cape Bona Speranza at the S. point of Afric."


(= GOODRICH). A vill. and castle in Herefordsh, 12 m. S. of Hereford, on the Wye. In H6 A. iv. 7, 64, one of the titles of Talbot is "Lord Talbot of G. and Urchinfield."


A shoal off the coast of Kent between the Isle of Thanet and the S. Foreland. It is 10 or 11 m. long and from 3 to 4 broad at its greatest breadth. It lies some 4 or 5 m. from the cast. It is said to have been formed by the sea overflowing a part of the lands of Godwin, Earl of Kent, in 1097: hence the name. Sir Thomas More tells a story which has become a stock instance of the "post hoc ergo propter hoc "fallacy. An old man being examined before a Commission appointed to inquire into the decay of Sandwich harbour testified, "I think that Tenterton steeple is the cause of G. S. I remember the building of Tenterton steeple; and before the Tenterton steeple was in building there was no manner of speaking of any flats or sands; and therefore I think that Tenterton steeple is the cause of the destroying of Sandwich haven."

In Merch. iii. 1, 3, Salarino speaks of the G. S. as "a very dangerous flat and fatal, where the carcasses of many a tall ship lie buried." In K.J. v. 3, 11, a Messenger brings word that the Dauphin's supplies "Are wrecked 3 nights ago on G. s." The same news is brought to the Dauphin in v. 5, 13. In Webster's Weakest v. 3, Villiers says, "This gentlewoman . . . 'Twixt Sluys in Flanders, where she went aboard, And G. S., by sturdy adverse winds Was beaten back upon the coast of France." In Jonson's Case i. 1, Juniper asks the traveller Valentine if he has seen "Jerusalem and the Indies and G.-s. and the tower of Babylon." In Carew's Ode on Jonson's New Inn, he says, "Let the rout say, 'The running sands that, ere thou make a play, Count the slow minutes, might a Godwin frame.'" In Shirley's Peace, a projector is introduced who will "undertake to build a most strong castle on G. s." In Brome's Damoiselle i. 1, when Dryground tells Vermine that he has a project, Vermine asks: "Is't not to drain the Goodwins? to be lord of all the treasure buried in the s. there?" Campion, in Book of Airs ii. (1601), says of his kisses, "Sooner may you count the stars . . . Or G. s. devouring." It is used metaphorically for a greedy moneylender. In Jack Drum i. 160, Drum says of a usurer: "He is a quicksand; a G.; a gulf."


See under Bow.


Lond., off Bow Lane, Cheapside, by Bow Ch. There was also a G. Alley on the E. side of Fleet Ditch running into Seacoal Lane. In Ellis, Early Metrical Romances i. 279, we are told," Through G.-L. Bevis went tho', There was him done right mickle woe; That lane was so narrowly wrought That Sir Bevis might defend him nought."


(Gn. = Gordian). A town in Bithynia, afterwards rebuilt by Augustus under the name of Juliopolis. It was the ancient capital of the Phrygian kings. According to the legend, Gordius, the 1st K., was originally a peasant. On being made K. he dedicated his wagon in the Acropolis, and an oracle predicted that whoever untied the knot of hide that fastened the pole to the wagon would rule over all Asia. Alexander the Gt. visited G. on his way to Persia and cut the knot with his sword. In Cym. ii. 2, 34, Iachimo, taking off Imogen's bracelet, says it is "As slippery as the Gn. knot was hard." Hence it is used of anything difficult of solution. In H5 i. 1, 46, Canterbury, praising the K., says, "Turn him to any cause of policy, The Gn. knot of it he will unloose, Familiar as his garter." In B. & F. Brother i. 1, Rollo says, "My title needs . . . my sword; With which the Gn. of your sophistry Being cut shall show the imposture." In Shirley's Honoria (a.k.a. Honor and Riches) i. 2, Alworth says, "The Gn. which great Alexander could not by subtilty dissolve his sword untwisted." In Davenant's Rhodes B. ii. Solyman says, "Even the Gn. knot at last was cut Which could not be untied." In Chapman's May Day ii. 3, Lodovico says, "I'll so hamper thy affections in the halter of thy lover's absence, making it up in a Gn. knot of forgetfulness, that no Alexander of thy allurements, with all the swords of thy sweet words, shall ever cut it in pieces." In his Chabot i. 1, 119, the Chancellor speaks of the political situation as "A Gn. beyond the Phrygian knot, Past wit to loose it, or the sword." Milton, P. L. iv. 348, says that the serpent "wove with Gn. twine His braided train." In Vacation Exercise 90, he asks, "What power . . . can loose this Gn. knot?" It is most often used of the bond of marriage. In Brandon's Octavia 1107, Octavia speaks of "This same ring that knit the Gn. knot "of her marriage with Antony. In the old Shrew (Haz., p. 530), Polidor says, "Stay to see our marriage rites performed, And knit in sight of heaven this Gn. knot." In Day's Humour iv. 1, Octavio characterizes marriage as "The Gn. knot which none but heaven can loose." In Massinger's Picture ii. 2, Honoria says, "The Gn. of your love was tied by marriage." In Tomkis' Albumazar v. 6, Antonio says, "Conformity of years, likeness of manners, Are Gn. knots that bind up matrimony." In these last two quotations the Gn. knot is not exactly marriage, but the love and mutual suitability that make marriage firm. In Greene's Orlando ii. 1, 580, Orlando says, "This Gn. knot together co-unites A Medor partner in her peerless love." In Mason's Mulleasses 1436, Ferrara says, "I ope my arms To tie a Gn. knot about her waist." In W. Rowley's Shoemaker iii. 1, 43, Winifred says, "War not with heaven, Sir, To that is tied my nuptial Gordion."


A misprint for Gordias, i.e. Gordium's. See GORDIUM. In Tiberius 2082, Drusus sees in a dream a monster whose tail was "Woven in G. hundred thousand knots."


An open space just outside the walls of Coventry, where the lists were erected for the fight between Bolingbroke and Mowbray described in R2 i. 3.


Dist. in Egypt granted by Pharaoh to Jacob and his sons when they came down into that country, as told in Gen. xlvii. 27. It lay W. of the present Suez Canal, between it and the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, round the city of Pithom (Tel-el-Mashkuta). The Vulgate calls it Gessen. In York M. P. xi. 53, the 2nd Consol says of the Hebrews: "Sithen have they sojourned here in Jessen 400 year." In the corresponding passage in the Towneley M.P. it is called Gersen. Milton, P. L. 1, 309, tells how the Egyptians "pursued The sojourners of G."


A vill. in Notts., abt. 7 m.S. of Nottingham in the Leake Hills. According to the legend, when K. John was about to pass through the town in order to buy a castle in the neighbourhood, the people, not wishing him to do so, industriously played the fool when he came; so arose the proverb of the Wise Fools of G. Properly therefore a man of G. is one who plays the fool for some wise object, and is not such a fool as he looks, but the name came to be applied to anyone of preposterous folly. In the reign of Henry VIII was published The Merrie Tales of the Mad Men of G., in which, amongst many others, is told how they stood round a bush and joined hands in order to prevent a cuckoo in the bush from flying away. The bush is still shown about 1 m. S. of the village. In the Towneley M. P. xii. 180, we read of "the foles of G." In the Hundred Mery Tales there is a section headed "Of the 3 wise men of G." In Richards, Misogonus ii. 3, Cacurgus says, "The wise men of G. are risen again." In K.K.K. (Haz., vi. 568), the townsmen of G. present a petition to K. Edgar "to have a license to brew strong ale thrice a week; and he that comes to G. and will not spend a penny on a pot of ale, if he be a-dry, that he may fast." Nash, in his preface to Menaphon, p. 8, speaks of "the perusing of our Gothamists' barbarism." Dekker, in Hornbook iii., says, "If all the wise men of Gottam should lay their heads together, their jobbenowls should not be able to compare with thine." In Chaunticleers vi., Ditty, the Ballad-monger, has "The Seven Wise Men of G." in his collection. In J. Heywood's Weather, p. 100, Merry Report mentions among the places he has visited "Gloucester, Guildford, and G." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon iv. 1, when Sir Boniface says, "I proceeded [i.e. took my degree] in Oxford," Sencer rejoins, "Thou would'st say, in G." Hall, in Satires ii. 5, 19, says to the simoniacal parson, "St. Fool's of Gotam mought thy parish be For this thy base and servile simony." Burton, A. M., Intro., says, "Convicted fools they are, madmen upon record; they are all of Gotam parish." Taylor, in Works (1630), mentions one,Gregory Gandergoose, an alderman of G.," who asked him whether Bohemia was a great town, and whether the last fleet of ships was arrived there.


A Teutonic people who first appear in history on the N. of the Lower Danube in the 3rd cent. A.D., though their original home was probably on the Baltic. This was the ancient country of the Getae, and this fact, along with the similarity of the names, has caused the 2 peoples to be confounded. The Getz and the Gothi, or Gothoni, are, however, probably quite distinct., During the 3rd cent. the G. gave great trouble to the Roman Empire, and made several inroads with varying success. In the 4th cent. we find them divided into E. and W., or Ostrogoths and Visigoths. Both sections were Christianized before the end of the 5th cent., and Wulfilas (310380) gave the world the oldest monument of the Teutonic language in his translation of the Scriptures. For a time Rome extended her protection to the West G., but in 410 Alaric, K. of the W. G., sacked Rome to the amazement of the whole civilized world. Theodoric the Gt. united the 2 branches of the race, and established the E. Gothic Empire at Rome in 493. With his death the E. G. pass out of history, but the W. G. set up a dominion in Spain which outlasted the Empire, and was one of the most important factors in the formation of the Spanish nation. The background of Titus Andronicus is a war between the Romans and the G. in the reign of an imaginary Emperor Saturninus: Tamora, the Q. of the G., is equally unknown to history. The word frequently occurs in the play, and the G. are variously characterized as warlike (the commonest epithet), lusty, and trusty; while the Romans speak of them as giddy, lascivious, and traitorous. But there is nothing in this but pure conventionality. In Jonson's Queens, one of the galaxy is "the wise and warlike Goth, Amalasunta." She was the daughter of Theodoric the Gt., and was equally celebrated for her learning and her capacity for affairs. In H. Shirley's Mart. Soldier i. 1, Henrick (Huneric), the successor of Genseric A.D. 477, is hailed as "K. of Vandalls and of G." These were the W. G., who, with the Vandals, invaded Africa from Spain under Genseric in 429. In Cockayne's Trapolin i. 1, Montemores says, "Would G. and Vandals once again would come into Italy," that he might have a chance of fighting them. In Skelton's Magnificence fol. xviii., Magnificence mentions "Alericus, that ruled the Gothians by sword," as one of the world's heroes. In W. Rowley's Shoemaker ii. 2, 96, the Nuntius announces, "Allerick, K. of Goaths, hath entered France." In iii. 3, the K. of the G. is called Huldrick; but in any case there is an error of over a century, as the date of the play is A.D. 297. Donne, in Valediction to Songs and Sonnets (1623), says, "When this book is made thus Should again the ravenous Vandals and the G. invade us, Learning were safe." In Hughes' Misfort. Arth. iv. 2, Arthur's allies are "Islandians, G., Norwegians, Albans, Danes." It would seem that by G. the Scandinavians are meant, and it was long held that Scandinavia was the original home of the G., or, at all events, was taken possession of by them at an early date: there is little evidence, however, to support either of these theories.

In As You Like It iii. 3, 9, Touchstone says to Audrey, "I am here with thee and thy goats as the most capricious poet, honest Ovid, was among the G." The double pun will be noted: capricious is from caper, a goat. Ovid was banished by Augustus to Tomi, a town of Lower Moesia, on the Black Sea, which dist. was formerly inhabited by the Getae and later by the G. In Ret. Pernass. ii. 4, Academico says, "Good Ovid in his life time lived with the Getes." In Brome's Covent G. iv. 1, Cockbrain speaks of "Monsters, as Ovid feigned among the Getes." To the men of the Middle Ages the destruction of Rome by the G. seemed a piece of barbarism; and so Gothic was used in the sense of savage, rude, uncultivated. Jonson, in Prince Henry's Barriers, speaks of "all the ignorant G. have razed." In Nero iii. 3, Seneca says, "O Rome, the Getes, The men of Colchis, at thy sufferings grieve." It is impossible to say whether the author means here the Getae or the G.: probably the latter. In the old Timon ii. 4, Demeas cries to the sergeants who have arrested him, "Where hale ye me, Getes, cannibals, ye cruel Scythians?": where the metre demands that Getes should be pronounced as a monosyllable. In Shirley's Pleasure ii. 1, the Steward tells Frederick, who is fresh from the university, that his aunt means "to make you a fine gentleman and translate you out of your learned language, Sir, into the present Goth and Vandal, which is French." From the university point of view French is a barbarous tongue compared with Latin. In B. & F. Wit Money iii. 4, Lance asks whether all the gentry are to suffer interdiction for Valentine's sake: "No more sense spoken, all things Goth and Vandal." In their Philaster v. 3, Dion speaks of "the goatish Latin "which the shopkeepers write in their bonds. I take this to be intended for Gothish, which is a common form of the adjective: the meaning being barbarous Latin. In Shirley's Courtier ii. 2, when Volterre speaks in bad Spanish, Giotto calls it something "between Goth and Vandal Spanish." In his Honoria (a.k.a. Honor and Riches) i. 1, Mammon says of scholars: "Next to the Goth and Vandal you shall carry The babble from mankind," i.e. shall bear the palm for incomprehensible jargon.


A dist. in Abyssinia, round Lake Tzana. In Cockayne's Obstinate iii. 3, it is mentioned as one of the kingdoms tributary to the Emperor of both the Ethiopias. See under ADEA.


A small island in the Mediterranean close to Malta on the N.W. It has always belonged to Malta, q.v. In 1551 the Turks ravaged it and carried off a great many prisoners, though they were unsuccessful in their attack on Valetta. In B. & F. Malta v. 2, Colonna says, "My name is Angelo Who from the neighbourisland here of Goza Was captive led in that unfortunate day When the Turk bore with him 3000 souls." Montaigne (Florio's Trans. 1603) ii. 3, writes in 1580 of "the island of Gosa being some years since surprised and overrun by the Turkes."


E. of Tower Hill, Lond. It was built by Edward III in 1359 to the honour of God and our Lady of G., and handed over to the Cistercians. It was dissolved in 1539, and was pulled down and replaced by a storehouse for the Navy. In Deloney's Craft i. 14, Florence and Haunce are to be married "at the A. of G. on Tower Hill."


The Ch. of St. Bennet at the corner of Gracechurch St. and Fenchurch St. See BENNET'S (ST.) and GRACIOUS ST.


The seat of the Beaumont family in the Charnwood Forest dist. of Leicestersh. Here Francis Beaumont was born in 1586. In Bancroft's Epigrams 1639, we read: "G.-d., that under Charnwood stands alone, As a great relic of religion, I reverence thine old but fruitful worth That lately brought such noble Beaumonts forth."


Now Gracechurch St., Lond., running S. from the junction of Cornhill and Leadenhall to East Cheap. It was originally Grass St, so called from its being the market for grass, corn, and malt. The parish Ch. of St. Bennet, which stood at the corner of Gracechurch St. and Fenchurch St., was for the same reason called the Grass Ch. When the reason for the name was forgotten, it was natural that it should become Grace Ch., and the st. becomes Grace's St., or, more commonly, G. St. After the Fire it was rechristened Gracechurch St., as it still continues. Leaden Hall, the poultry market for Lond., was built at the corner of Gracechurch St. and Leadenhall in 1445 by Simon Eyre, the hero of Dekker's Shoemaker's. There was a conduit towards the S. end of the st., erected by Thomas Hill's executors in 1491. Taylor mentions the Tabard near the Conduit in Gracious St. The name is preserved in Talbot Court by No. 55. Richard Tarlton, the clown, kept the Saba Tavern in this st.: other hostelries were the Cross Keys, the Bell, and the Spread Eagle, q.v.

In Tarlton's jests, we read that "Tarlton dwelt in G. St. at a tavern at the sign of the Saba," i.e. the Q. of Sheba. In Dekker's Shoemaker's v. 2, Firk says, "Let's march together to the great new hall in G. St. corner, which our master, the new lord mayor, hath built." The last 2 scenes take place in the great hall, and the open yard before it. This is Leadenhall. In T. Heywood's Hogsdon, Sir Harry, the knight who is no scholar, lives in G. St. In i. 1, Chartley speaks of "Gratiana, the knight's daughter in G. Street." In ii. 2, Sir Harry says, "My house is here in G. St." In v. 1, Old Chartley tells the servant that he will be found "At Grace Ch. by the Conduit near Sir Harry." Sir Harry's, therefore, was at the S. end of the st. In W. Rowley's Match Mid. iv, the watch have come up Gracechurch St, and kept on "straight towards Bishopsgate"; then the Constable gives the word, "Come, let's back to Grace Ch., all's well." In S. Rowley's When You D. 3, the K. (Henry VIII) says, "Bid Charles Brandon to disguise himself And meet me presently at Grace Ch. corner." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV B. 153, Shore says he will go "to one Mrs. Blages, an inn, in G. St." As Jockey has already told us that Mrs. Blages keeps the Flower-de-Luce in Lombard St., it must have been at the corner of Lombard and Gracechurch Sts. In his F. M. Exch. ii. 7, Barnard says there is to be the rarest dancing "at a wedding in G. st." The poultry trade spread out from Leadenhall into Gracechurch St. In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 4, when Margery asks, "Canst thou tell me where I may buy a good hair?" Hodge replies: "Yes, forsooth, at the poulterer's in G. St." To which Margery retorts: "I mean a false hair for my periwig." In Killigrew's Parson v. 1, the Capt., preparing for Wild's wedding, sends one of the watermen "to G. st. to the poulterer's." In Jonson's Neptune, the Boy speaks of "a plump poulterer's wife in Grace's st." There was also a bookshop in the st. Jack Straw was "Printed at Lond. by John Danter and are to be sold by William Barley at his shop in G. st. over against Leadenhall. 1593." Harman's Ground work of Conny-catching was published by the same firm in 1592, and The Pedler's Prophecy in 1595. Thersites was "Printed by John Tysdale and are to be sold . . . in Alhallowes ch. yard, near unto G. Ch."




(more fully, GRAFTON REGIS). A vill. in Northants., on the boundary of Bucks, about 10 m. S. of Northampton. Here was the country seat of Sir Richd. Woodville: and here Edward IV met Woodville's daughter, Lady Elizabeth Grey, and married her privately. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. i., the K. says, "Welcome to G., Mother; by my troth, You are even just come as I wished you here."


A Latinized name for Gray's Inn, q.v. In Marston's Mountebanks, presented at Gray's Inn in 1618, Paradox says that he has come to see the presentments "promised by the gallant spirits of G."


A range of mtns. in Scotland, extending in a N.E. direction from Loch Awe along the N. of Perthshire, and then dividing into 2 ranges N. and S. of the Dee respectively. In Fisher's Fuimus ii. 5, Belinus speaks of "the Albanian realm Where Grampius ridge divides the smiling dates." Drayton, in Polyolb. viii. 303, tells of the battle between Agricola and the Britons under Galgacus, "at Mt. Grampus."


The capital of the Spanish Province of G., at the confluence of the Darro and the Genil, 250 m.S. of Madrid. It was founded by the Moors in the 10th cent., and in 1235 it became the capital of the Kingdom of G. It was finally taken from the Moors by Ferdinand in 1492. Its chief glory is the Moorish fortress and palace of the Alhambra, built by Mohammed-ebn-Alahmar. In the days of its glory it had 400,000 inhabitants, but since the 16th cent. it has greatly declined. In the cathedral are buried Ferdinand and Isabella. It was once a great centre of the silk-weaving industry, but the production is now very limited. In Lust's Domin. ii. 3, the Q. says, "Spread abroad In Madrid, G., and Medina The hopes of Philip." In W. Rowley's All's Lost i. 1, 25, Medina speaks of "the streights of Gibbraltar whose watery divisions their Affricke bounds from our Christian Europe in Granado and Andalusia." In Greene's Quip (p. 220), Velvet Breeches has his "netherstock of the purest Granado silk." In Jonson's Cynthia v. 2, the Milliner swears that his goods are "right Granado silk." In Brewer's Lingua iii. 5, the fantastical gull is described as wearing "a Granado stocking."


The great canal in Venice, which runs through the city under the bridge of the Rialto in an S-shaped course from the Piazza of Saint Mark to the island of San Chiara. In Jonson's Volpone v. 8, the Avocato says, "Thou, Corvino, shalt be rowed Round about Venice through the gd. c., Wearing a cap with fair long asses' ears." In Shirley's Gent. Ven. iii. 1, Thomazo says, "Go to the rendezvous, to Rosabella's on the G. C." In Brome's Novella i. 2, Astutta says, "You were best leap From the top o' the house into the Cavail [misprint for Canail] grande." In Dekker's London's Tempe, Oceanus says, "That Grand Canal, where stately once a year A fleet of bridal gondolets appear To marry with a golden ring . . . Venice to Neptune, a poor landscip is To these full braveries of Thamesis."


A vill. in France on the Aisne in the S.E. corner of the department of Ardennes, 120 m. N.E. of Paris. The Earl of G. is mentioned in H5 iii. 5, 44, as one of the lords summoned by the French K. to Agincourt. In iii. 7, 138, the Constable refers to him as "a valiant and mast expert gentleman"; and it is stated that he measured the ground between the French and English forces. In iv. 8, 104, he is mentioned in the list of the slain. He was one of the leaders in the main body of the French army under the Dukes of Alençon and Bar.


A tavern in Lond., near Lincoln's Inn Fields between Carey St. and Clements Lane, near Portugal Row. It was taken down in 1853, and King's College Hospital now occupies the site. In Davenant's Playhouse i., the Player says, "Let him send his train to our house-inn, the G." The Playhouse in question was the Duke's Theatre in Portugal Row.


(= GRANDSON, or GRANSEE). A town in Switzerland on the S.W. shore of Lake Neufchâtel. It was taken by Charles the Bold, D. of Burgundy, in 1475, but in 1476 he was defeated there by the Swiss. In Massinger's Dowry i. 2, Charalois speaks of "those 3 memorable overthrows At G., Morat, Nancy, where . . . The warlike Charalois . . . lost treasure, men, and life."


The old name of the Cam, the river on which Cambridge stands. In Domesday Book the town is called Grantebridge, and the vill. of Grantchester still keeps the old name. In the Ret. Pernass. ii. 1, Philomusus says, "Banned be those hours when 'mongst the learned throng By G.'s muddy bank we whilome sung." In v. 4, Ingenioso says, "And thou, still happy Academico, That still mayst rest upon the Muses' bed, Enjoying there a quiet slumbering, When thou repairest unto thy G.'s stream Wonder at thine own bliss, pity our case." Hall, in Satires i. 1, 28, asks "What baser Muse can bide To sit and sing by G.'s naked side?"


A town in Lincolnsh., on the Witham, 105 m. N.E. of Lond. The parish Ch. of St. Wulfran dates from the 13th cent., and has a fine spire 284 ft. high. In Ret. Pernass. iii. 1, Sir Radericke, in his oral examination of Immerito, asks him, "How many [miles] from Newmarket to G.!"; and is answered: "10, Sir." The actual distance is about 50 m. But the answer is all of a piece with the rest; still, Immerito passes and gets his preferment. In Randolph's Muses, iii. 1, Banausus mentions among his other projects, "I'll have 2 wondrous weathercocks Of gold, to set on Paul's and G. steeple." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. iv., Alexander threatens the widow that he will strip himself "as naked as G. steeple or the Strand May-pole." In B. & F. Wit Money ii. 4, Lance proposes to spread rumours of "whirlwinds that shall take off the top of G. steeple and clap it on Paul's." Taylor, Works (ii. 178), speaks of "a hat like G. steeple, for the crown was large with frugal brim." The steeple seems to have been twisted in a storm at some time. Dekker, in the Owl's Almanac (1618), says, "A little fall will make a salt [i.e. a salt-cellar] look like G. steeple with his cap to the ale-house." Middleton, in Black Book (1604), p. 21, says, "They turn legacies the wrong way, wresting them quite awry like G. steeple." Drayton, in Polyolb. xxv. 241, speaking of old churches, says, "One above the rest . . . Of pleasant G. is, that pyramid so high, Reared (as it might be thought) to overtop the sky, The traveller that strikes into a wondrous maze, As on his horse he sits, on that proud height to gaze."




A name given to the Royal Exchange, Lond., from the G., the crest of Sir T. Gresham, which formed its weathercock. Hall, in Satires iv. 6, says of the returned traveller: "Now he plies the newsfull g. Of voyages and ventures to inquire."


A bookseller's sign in Lond. Gascoigne's Government was "Imprinted at Lond. by H. M. for Christopher Barker at the sign of the G. in Paules Churchyard, A.D. 1575."


A fortress of N. Brabant on the Maas, 55 m. S.E. of Amsterdam. It was taken by the D. of Parma in 1586 and recaptured by Prince Maurice in 1602. In Barnavelt iv. 5, Sir John says, "When Graves and Vendloe were held by the Spaniard, who rose up before me to do these countries service "


Spt. in N. France, on the English Channel, 12 m. E. of Calais. In J. Heywood's Weather, p. 100, Report has been "at Gravelyn, at Gravesend, and at Glastonbury." It was here that Wolsey met the Emperor Charles V on 10 July, 1520.


A dist. in Gascony in S.W. France. It is specially famous for its white wines. In T. Heywood's Maid of West A. i. 3, Bess brings wine, saying, "'Tis of the best G. wine, Sir." Montaigne (Florio's Trans. 1603) i. 40, asks, "Shall we . . . persuade our taste that aloes be wine of G.?"


A port in Kent on the S. bank of the Thames, 30 m. below Lond. It is the limit of the Port of Lond. The fare for a wherry from Lond. to G. in the 16th cent. was 2d. Ships for distant ports often started there. In B. & F. Scornful i. 1, Loveless is going to France: his brother says, "You'll hazard losing your tide to G." In Love & F. ii. 1, Simplicity says to Fraud, "I knew thee when thou dwelledst at a place called G." Seaports are usually a good field for swindlers and women of bad character. In Dekker's Westward i. 1, Justiniano speaks of women "as stale as wenches that travel every second tide between G. and Billingsgate." In J. Heywood's Weather, p. 100, Report, in the alliterative list of places he has visited, mentions G. In W. Rowley's Match Mid. iv. 1, Jarvis reveals a plot to carry Mary "down to the water-side, pop her in at Puddledock, and carry her to G. in a pair of oars." In Tomkis' Albumazar iii. 3, Albumazar says, "Speak a boat Ready for G., and provide a supper . . . and thus well fed and merry, Take boat by night." In Massinger's Madam iv. 1, Fortune tells how he has 2 ships returned from Barbary, near G. In Field's Weathercock iii. 3, the Capt. bids, "Go and provide oars; I'll see G. to-night." In Dekker's Edmonton iii. 1, Cuddy says, "This was an ill night to go wooing in; thinking to land at Katherine's Dock, I was almost at G." In Middleton's Quiet Life v. 3, Beaufort says, "My warrant shall overtake him ere he pass G." In T. Heywood's Fortune iii. 1, Anne has "a brother lives at G. who soon would ship you over into France." There was good drinking at G. In Look about vii., Skink says, "At G. I'll wash thy stammering throat with a mug of ale." In Dekker's [sic] Eastward iv. 4, Touchstone says, "For reaching any coast save the coast of Kent or Essex with this tide, I'll be your warrant for a G. toast." Dekker, in Raven's Almanac (i (1609), speaks of Londoners "that in all your lives, time scarce travel to G., because you are sworn to keep within the compass of the freedom." In Nash's Prognostication, he says, "Fishmongers shall go down as far as G. in wherries and forestall the market." In Webster's Weakest i. 2, Bunch tells that he was born "at G."

In a letter prefixed to Milton's Comus, he says, "The passage from Genoa into Tuscany is as diurnal as a G. barge." There was evidently a daily service of barges from London to G. Dekker, in News from Hell, says that Charon's boat "is like G. Barge; and the passengers privileged alike, for there's no regard of age, of sex, of beauty, of riches; he that comes in first sits no better than the last." The Cobler of Canterburie contains tales "told in the barge between Billingsgate and G." Nash, in Prognostication, says, "There is like to be concluded by an Act set down in G. Barge, that he that wipes his nose, and hath it not, shall forfeit his whole face." Nash, in Somewhat to Read (1591), says, "Only I can keep pace with G. barge; and care not, if I have water enough to land my ship of fools with the Term: the tide, I should say." In Deloney's Craft ii. 2, Meg of Westminster says, "I am not so high as Paules nor is my foot as long as Graves-end barge." In ii. 10 "The Green K. of St. Martins sailed in G. Barge "on his way to Flanders. In Sharpham's Fleire ii. 387, Fleire says to the gallants, "I'll put you in the way of all flesh, I'll send you to Graves-end, I'll see you in the tilt-boat."


The monastery of the Franciscan F. who came to England in the 13th cent. and built their home on the N. side of Newgate St. in 1225. In 1327 the ch. of the monastery was rebuilt; in 1429 Whittington built the f. a large library and over £500 was spent in equipping it with books. It was seized by Henry VIII at the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and with unwonted generosity presented to the City for the use of the poor. The ch. became the parish Ch. of Christ Ch. Edward VI actually incorporated Christ's Hospital on the site of the old G. F. For further details, see under CHRIST'S HOSPITAL, CHRIST CH. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 276, Dean Nowell relates that "Sir Richard Whittington began the Library of G. F. in Lond."


An Inn of Court in Lond., to which are attached 2 Inns of Chancery, Staple Inn and Barnard's Inn. It stands on 30 acres of ground on the N. side of Holborn and the W. side of G. I. Rd., formerly G. I. Lane. It was made up of 4 courts: N. of the Courts are the famous gardens, which were laid out by Lord Bacon, the most illustrious of the members of the I., about 1600. The Hall, which still remains, was erected between 1555 and I 560. The Gate from Holborn was built of red brick in the beginning of the 17th cent., and has recently been covered with stucco. The I. takes its name from Reginald de Grey, of the family of the Greys of Wilton, who held the property, then known as Portpoole, in the beginning of the 14th cent.: the name survives in Portpoole Lane, between G. I. Rd. and Leather Lane. After passing through the hands of Hugh Denny and the Prior of East Sheen, it came to the Crown at the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and was rented by Henry VIII to the lawyers, who had previously held it from the former owners.

Revels were annually held in the Hall under the presidency of a Lord of Misrule, who gloried in the title "The most high and mighty Prince of Purpoole [i.e. Portpoole], Arch-Duke of Stapulia and Bernarda, etc." The 1st Masque performed in the I., of which notice has survived, was written in 1527 by John Roo, who expiated in the Fleet his allusions to Wolsey in the Masque. In 1594 Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors was performed in the Hall, which thus shares with the Hall of the Middle Temple the distinction of being one of the 2 surviving buildings in which his plays were presented. Sir William Gascoigne, the Chief justice in Henry IV B., who committed Falstaff to the Fleet, was reader at G. I. Lord Bacon had rooms in No. I Coney Ct., and took from them the ride which resulted in his death. Amongst the dramatists, George Gascoigne, George Chapman, Abraham Fraunce, and James Shirley resided for a time in G. I. In Dekker's Westward iii. 2, we learn that Monopoly, the lawyer, belonged to the I.: "I will have the hair of your head and beard shaved," he says, "and e'er I catch you at G. I." Taylor, in Works i. 122, mentions "the Green Dragon against G. I. Gite." In Hg B. iii. 2, 36, Shallow tells how "the very same day did I fight with one Sampson Stockfish, a fruiterer, behind G. I.": probably in G. I. Fields, q.v. Barry's Ram was printed by "Robert Wilson at his shop in Holborn at the New Gate of G. I. 1611." Glapthorne's Hollander was "Printed by I. Okes for A. Wilson and are to be sold at her [sic] shop at Grayes-Inne Gate in Holborne. 1640."


The open fields N. of G. I. Gardens, used as a practice ground for archers, and afterwards frequented by footpads and other undesirable characters. In Middleton's R.G. ii. 1, Laxton asks Moll for an appointment to meet her "somewhere near Holborn." And she replies: "In G. I. F. then." In Pasquil's Nightcap 163.2, we read: "Fairer than any stake in G. I. F., Guarded with gunners, bill-men, and a rout Of bowmen bold which at a cat do shoot." Rout was evidently pronounced to rhyme with shoot.


(now raised to the dignity of G. I. Rd.). Lond., running N. from Holborn on the E. side of G. I. to the junction of Pentonville Rd. and Euston Rd. James Shirley, the dramatist, lived for a time in G. I. L. T. Heywood's S. Age was "Printed by Nicholas Okes and are to be sold by Benjamin Lightfoote at his shop at the upper end of Graies Inne-Lane in Holborn. 1613."


(the ATLANTIC OCEAN). In Elements 25, Experience says, "This sea is cared the G. O., so great is it that never man could tell it since the world began; till now, within these 20 years, westward be found new lands that we never heard tell of before this."


(Gk. = Greek, Gn. = Grecian, Gsh. = Greekish). The S.E. promontory of Europe, S. of the Olympus and Acroceraunian mtns. The inhabitants themselves called it Hellas: the name Graecia was given to it by the Romans, probably from the Epirot tribe of the Graii, with whom they first came into contact. In 146 B.C. it became a Roman province under the name of Achaia. Immediately after the conquest of Constantinople it fell into the hands of the Turks, and remained a part of the Ottoman Empire tiff 1830, when it was constituted an independent kingdom at the Conference of Lond.

Geographical references. In Shrew, Ind. ii. 95, we are told of "old John Naps of G." amongst the friends of Sly. We should read "Greet," which is a little vill. on the Tewkesbury Rd. between Gretton and Winchcombe. In Prr. i. 1, 133, AEgeon tells the D., "5 summers have I spent in furthest G.," which seems to include the Gk. cities of Asia Minor. The same wider use of the word to include the Gk. cites of Asia Minor and Africa is found in Per. i. 4, 97, where the people of Tarsus pray for Pericles of Tyre: "The gods of G. protect you!" and in ii. 1, 67, where a fisherman of Pentapolis, in N. Africa, says, "Here's them in our country of G. gets more with begging than we can do with working." In T. Heywood's Traveller i. 1, Geraldine has travelled through "Spain and the Empire, G. and Palestine." Hycke, p. 88, has travelled in "G." In T. Heywood's B. Age iii, Jason speaks of "fertile and populous G., G. that bears men such as resemble gods." Milton, P. R. iv. 240, speaks of "Athens, the eye of G." In iii. 118, the Tempter says that God requires glory, "and glory he receives Promiscuous from all nations, Jew, or Gk., Or Barbarous."

The Mythology of the ancient Gks. is constantly referred to in the dramas and poems of our period. The stories most often alluded to are the dethronement of Chronos (Saturn) by Zeus (Jupiter), and the division of the universe between Zeus (Jupiter), Poseidon (Neptune), and Pluto; the rebellion of the Giants against the Gods of Olympus; the story of Prometheus; the labours of Heracles; and the incidents connected with the siege of Troy, the early history of Thebes, Athens, and Sparta, and the oracles at Delphi and Dodona. The Gods are almost invariably mentioned under their Latin names, as follows:
  • Chronos is Saturn;
  • Zeus, Jupiter;
  • Hera, Juno;
  • Poseidon, Neptune;
  • Ares, Mars;
  • Aphrodite, Venus;
  • Hephaistos, Vulcan;
  • Artemis, Diana;
  • Athene, Pallas
    [ed. note: actually, Pallas is a Greek alternate, the Latin equivalent being Minerva]
  • Dionysus, Bacchus;
  • Heracles, Hercules.

T. Heywood's Gold., S., B., and Iron Ages are a series of stories from the Gk. Mythology, and Lyly drew many of his subjects from the same source. Incidental allusions are exceedingly numerous in all our playwrights, their knowledge being gained for the most part from Ovid. Milton, P. L. i. 739, says that Mammon was not "unadored In ancient G.," and identifies him with Hephaestus or Mulciber.

References to the Trojan War. This famous war was undertaken by the Hellenes to avenge the rape of Helen, the wife of Menelaus, K. of Sparta, by Paris, the son of Priain, K. of Troy. Agamemnon of Mycenae, the brother of Menelaus, was the leader of the Hellenic forces, and amongst their chiefs were Achilles, Odysseus (Ulysses), Nestor, Ajax the Greater, and Ajax the Lesser. Of the Trojan heroes Hector stands preeminent; AEneas became famous through the legend which traced the origin of Rome to him, and which received world-wide currency through the Eneid of Vergil; Troilus has become immortal through the story of Cressida's faithlessness. The siege lasted 10 years and ended in the fall of Troy. That some such expedition took place in, or about, the 12th cent. B.C. is highly probable, but the details of the story are, of course, legendary. Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida is based on the incident of Cressida's infidelity to the Trojan hero. There is no hint of this in Homer's Iliad, and it is first found in the Roman de Troyes, by Benoit de Saintmore (1175). Boccaccio told the story in his Filostrato, and Chaucer followed him in his Troylus and Chryseyde. In Troil. prol., we are told how "from isles of Greece The princes orgulous . . . Put forth toward Phrygia, and their vow is made To ransack Troy." In i. i. 7, Troilus says, "The Gks. are strong and skilful to their strength, Fierce to their skill, and to their fierceness valiant." In ii. 1, 13, Thersites says to Ajax, "The plague of G. upon thee!" He is probably referring to the plague which Apollo sent among the Gks., as related in the first book of the Iliad. In ii. 2, 78, Troilus speaks of Helen as "A Gn. Queen whose youth and freshness Wrinkles Apollo and makes stale the morning." In iii. 3, 211, Ulysses says, "All the Gsh. girls shall tripping sing." The usage throughout the play is Gk. as a noun, Gn. or Gsh. as adjectives. In iv. 1, 7, Paris speaks of Diomed as "a valiant Gk." In iv. 1, 73, Diomed says of Helen: "She hath not given so many good words breath As for her Gks. and Trojans suffered death." In iv. 4, 78, Troilus says, "The Gn. youths are full of quality: They're loving, well composed with gifts of nature, And flowing o'er with arts and exercise"; and in 90, "I cannot sing, nor heel the high lavolt, Nor sweeten talk, nor play at subtle games; Fair virtues all to which the Gns. are Most prompt and pregnant." In v. 5, 24, Nestor says of Hector: "The strawy Gks., ripe for his edge, Fall down before him, like the mower's swath." In v. 6, 10, Troilus reviles Diomed and Ajax as "both you cogging Gks." In Merch. v. 1, 5, Lorenzo says, "In such a night Troilus methinks mounted the Troyan walls And sighed his soul toward the Gn. tents Where Cressid lay." In As iv. 1, 96, Rosalind says, "Troilus had his brains dashed out with a Gn. club; yet he did what he could to die before and he is one of the patterns of Love." In All's Well i. 3, 74, the Clown sings of Helen: "Was this fair face the cause, quoth she, Why the Gns. sacked Troy?" In Cor. i. 3, 46, Volumnia says, "The breasts of Hecuba . . . looked not lovelier Than Hector's forehead when it spit forth blood At Gn. sword." In M.W.W. ii. 3, 34, the Host says to Caius, "Thou art a Hector of G., my boy." Hector was, of course, a Trojan, not a Gk.: the mistake may be intentional and humorous, but in Cor. i. 8, 12, Aufidius calls Hector "the whip of your bragged progeny," i.e. of the Trojans: where the obvious meaning is that Hector whipped the Trojans, though it may mean that he was the whip that they employed against the Gks. In H6 A. v. 5, 104, Suffolk, going to woo Margaret of Anjou for Henry, says, "Thus Suffolk goes, As did the youthful Paris once to G., With hope to find the like event in love," i.e. to win Margaret for himself In H6 C. ii. 2, 146, Edward says to Margaret, "Helen of G. was fairer far than thou Although thy husband may be Menelaus," i.e. although he may have been cuckolded by Suffolk. In H4 B. ii. 4, 181, Pistol rants about "Caesars and Cannibals and Trojan Gks." In Cym. iv. 2, 313, Imogen says, "Pisanio, All curses madded Hecuba gave the Gks . . . . be darted on thee!" When Hecuba, the mother of Hector, was taken by the Gks., she cursed them so vigorously that they killed her and buried her at Cynos Sema, i.e. the tomb of the bitch. In Tit. i. 2, 379, Marcus says, "The Gks. upon advice did bury Ajax That slew himself." The story is told in Sophocles' Ajax. The hero committed suicide after his fit of madness, and the Atreidz would have refused him burial, but were compelled to bury him by Teucrus and Odysseus. In Tit. v. 3, 84, Marcus refers to the story told by AEneas to Dido "of that baleful burning night When subde Gks. surprised K. Priam's Troy." The fall of Troy is the subject of the Player's speech in Ham. ii.; 2, 472. In H6 C. ii. 1, 52, the Messenger describes the death of the D. of York: "He stood against them, as the hope of Troy Against the Gks. that would have entered Troy." In Sonnets liii. 81 the poet says of his mistress: "On Helen's cheek all art of beauty set, And you in Gn. tires are painted new." In Lucrece 1368, a painting is described, "made for Priam's Troy, Before the which is drawn the power of G., For Helen's rape the city to destroy"; and a detailed account of the siege follows. In Marlowe's Ed. II ii. 5, Lancaster addresses Gaveston, "Monster of men That, like the Gsh. strumpet, trained to arms And bloody wars so many valiant knights." In Marlowe's Faustus xiii. 21, Faust says, "You shall behold that peerless Dame of G. No otherways for pomp and majesty Than when Sir Paris crossed the seas with her." In Selimus 2480, Selim says, "When the coward Gks. fled to their ships . . . the noble Hector Returned in triumph to the walls of Troy" (see Iliad xv.). In Caesar's Rev. i. chor., Discord says, "'Twas I that did the fatal apple fling Betwixt the 3 Idaean goddesses That so much blood of Gks. and Trojans spilt." The decision of Paris to give the apple, "for the most beautiful," to Aphrodite was the result of her promise that he should have the most beautiful woman in Hellas; which led to his abduction of Helen and the Trojan War. In Phillips' Grissill 1824, Diligence says that Grisill's daughter was "as beautiful as ever the Gsh. Hellin was whom Paris the Troyan hath won in fight." In Alimony ii. 5, Joculette talks of "Thersites, that disfigured Gk." (see Iliad ii. 211 seq.). In Fisher's Fuimus iii. 7, Cassibelanus says of Nennius: "Could Britain's genius save a mortal man, Thou hadst outlived the smooth-tongued Gk.," i.e. Nestor, of sweet speech, the oldest of the Gk. warriors (see Iliad i. 248). In Middleton's Blurt iv. 2, Lazarillo says, "I would I had the Gks., wooden curtal to ride away." In May's Heir i., Roscio says he is "Tired more with wooing than the Gn. Q. In the long absence of her wandering lord." The reference is to Penelope and Odysseus. In Greene's Orlando i. 1, 167, Rodamant speaks of Helen as "that Gsh. giglot . . . That left her lord, Prince Menelaus, And with a swain made scape away to Troy." In Trouble. Reign, Haz., p. 245, the Bastard says, "I shall surprise his [Richd.'s] living foes As Hector's statue did the fainting Gks.": where statue seems to mean appearance. In Massinger's [ed. note: Middleton's] Old Law iv. 1, Gnotho says, "Do not I know our own countrywomen, Suren [he means Hiren, i.e. Irene] and Nell of G.?" Milton, P. L. ix. 18, tells of "Neptune's ire or Juno's that so long Perplexed the Gk., and Cytherea's son [AEneas]." In B. & F. Prize ii. 5, Petruchio denounces vengeance on Maria," Were she as fair as Nell-a-G."

Allusions to Other Events in Ancient Greek History. In Cor. iii. i. 107, Coriolanus speaks of the Roman senate as "a graver bench Than ever frowned in G." He is probably thinking of the Court of the Areopagus at Athens. Later, in 114, he speaks of giving forth "The corn o' the storehouse gratis, as 'twas used Sometime in G." The passage is taken verbatim from North's Plutarch. The system of doles to the citizens from the Theoric Fund became greatly abused at Athens from the 4th cent. onwards. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. i. 1, Menaphon says to Cosroe, "How easily may you with a mighty host Pass into Graecia, as did Cyrus once, And cause them to withdraw their forces home." Cyrus was never in G.: possibly Darius or Xerxes is intended. In Middleton's Old Law iv. 1, the Cook speaks of "Hiren the fair Gk." The reference is to Peele's The Turkish Mahomet and Hiren the Fair Greek. Hiren is meant for Irene. In H4 B. ii. 4, 172 Pistol, drawing his sword, says, "Have we not Hiren [quasi iron] here?" In Locrine i. 1, 46, Corineus boasts of his victories over "The Gn. monarch, warlike Pandrassus." This is purely legendary. Milton, P. L. iv. 212, describes Seleucia as "built by Gn. kings." It was built by Seleucus, one of Alexander's generals, at the beginning of the 3rd cent. B.C. In P. L. x. 307, he speaks of Xerxes setting out "the liberty of G. to yoke." In P. R. iv. 270, he tells how the Athenian orators "fulmined over G. To Macedon and Artaxerxes' throne." The reference is to the patriotic orations of Demosthenes, Isocrates, and the rest against Philip of Macedon and the Persians.

Greek Empire. After the division of the Roman Empire in A.D. 395, the E. half, with its capital at Constantinople, is often spoken of as the Gk. Empire. In Massinger's Emperor ii. 1, Pulcheria says to the Emperor Theodosius of Amasia, sister to the D. of Athens: "If you think her worth your embraces And the sovereign title of the Gn. Empress," then marry her.

The Turkish Conquest of Greece. In Fulke-Greville's Mustapha, chor. ii., the Mahometan priests boast of their swords having bound "lett'red G., the lottery of Arts, Since Mars forsook her, subtle, never wise."

Greek = the language of Ancient Greece. In As You Like It ii. 5, 61, Jaques says that Ducdame "is a Gk. invocation to call fools into a circle." Probably he means to suggest that it is unintelligible to his friends (see below). In Shrew ii. 1, 81, Gremio presents Lucentio as "cunning in Gk., Latin, and other languages." In 101, Tranio gives Baptista "a small packet of Gk. and Latin books "for his daughter's use. In J.C. i. 2, 282, Casca tells Cassius that Cicero "spoke Gk." In B. & F. Wit. S. W. i. 2, Witty decides that Priscian is "a very excellent scholar in the Gk."; and Sir Gregory mockingly says that if Achilles spoke but this tongue, "I do not think but he might have shaken down the walls [of Troy] in a sennight and never troubled the wooden horse." In their Wild Goose ii. 2, when Pinac comes courting Mirabel, the servant asks him: "Can you speak Gk.?" and as he cannot he tells him he has no chance with his mistress. In Shirley's Honoria (a.k.a. Honor and Riches) i. 1, Mammon says that scholars "think themselves brave fellows when they talk Gk. to a lady." Jonson, in the verses prefixed to 1st Folio, says of Shakespeare: "Thou hadst small Latin and less Gk." In Gascoigne's Government i. 4, Phylosarcus, a young man about to proceed to the university, says of himself and his brother: "We were also entered into our gk. grammar." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 1, Stephen declares that the hawking and hunting languages "are more studied than the Gk. or the Latin." Milton, in Sonnet on Detraction 14, refers to Sir John Cheek, who taught "Cambridge and K. Edward Gk." Sir John was the 1st Professor of Gk. at Cambridge,1514–1557. In B. & F. Elder B. i. 2, Andrew, the servant of Charles, says, "Were it Gk., I could interpret for you," but he disclaims knowledge of Syriac and Arabic. In i. 1, old Miramont says, "Though I can speak no Gk., I love the sound on 't; It goes so thundering as it conjured devils." In their Thomas iii. 1, Thomas says that a physician's head "is filled with broken Gk." Gk. not being commonly understood, the phrase "it is Gk. to me "means "it is unintelligible." In J.C. i. 2, 288, Casca says of Cicero's speech: "For mine own part it was Gk. to me." In Jonson's Alchemist ii. 11, Subtle says of his alchemistical terms: "This is heathen Gk. to you." In ii. 5, he says, "Is Ars Sacra a heathen language?" Ananias replies, "Heathen Gk., I take it."–" How?" says Subtle, "heathen Gk.?" Ananias replies, "All's heathen but the Hebrew." In Greene's James IV iv. 2, when Eustace asks Ida, "Will you wed?" she answers, "'Tis Gk. to me, my lord." In Killigrew's Parson iii. 5, the drawer at the Devil says, "I'll fetch you that, Sir, shall speak Gk. and make your worship prophesy." The wine will make the drinker talk nonsense. In Middleton's Blurt iii. 3, Imperia says, "Nay, 'tis Gk. to me."

Greek Authors, Orators, Poets, etc. In Chapman's Rev. Bussy ii. 1, 113, Baligny says, "What said the princess, sweet Antigone, In the grave Gk. tragedian, when the question 'Twixt her and Creon is, for laws of kings?" The reference is to the Antigone of Sophocles. In Massinger's Roman Actor i. 1, Paris speaks of "The Gks., to whom we owe the first invention Both of the buskined scene and humble sock," i.e. tragedy and comedy. Gk. orators, headed by Demosthenes, were the most famous in the world. In Caesar's Rev. v. 1, Cassius speaks of Rhodes as "my nurse when in my youth I drew The flowing milk of Gsh. eloquence." There was a famous school of oratory at Rhodes. Jonson, in Discov. 128, says, "Which of the Greeklings durst ever give precepts to Demosthenes?" In Chapman's Rev. Bussy iii. 2, 47, Clermont says, "Demades (that passed Demosthenes For all extemporal orations) Erected many statues, which (he living) Were broke." Demades was,contemporary with Demosthenes. The Gk. poets stand in the first rank of the world's literature. In Jonson's Poetaster v. 1, Vergil says, "Use to read (but not with a tutor) the best Gks. As Orpheus, Musaeus, Pindarus, Hesiod, Callimachus, and Theocrite, High Homer; but beware of Lycophron, He is too dark and dangerous a dish." Jonson, in Underwoods xlvii. 3 ',says, "Gk. was free from rhyme's infection Happy Gk. by this protection, Was not spoiled." The Seven Wise Men of G. were In Marmion's Companion ii. 4, Careless says, "I am now as discreet in my conceit as the 7 Sophies of G." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 2, young Knowell protests he did not recognize Brainworm, "an I might have been joined pattern with one of the 7 wise Masters for knowing him." G. was famous for its wisdom; but in Lyly's Endymion v. 3, Pythagoras says, "I had rather in Cynthia's curt spend 10 years than in G. one hour." In Middleton's Old Law i. 1, the Lawyer calls G. "Our ancient seat of brave philosophers." In Davenant's Platonic ii. 1, Sciolto says, "Plato was an old Gk. fellow that could write and read." In Milton's Comus 439, the Elder Brother asks, "Shall I call Antiquity from the old schools of G. To testify the arms of chastity?" In Brewer's Lingua i. 1, Lingua speaks of "The learned Gk. rich in fit epithets." In Lyly's Endymion iii. 1, Cynthia says, "If the philosophers of G. can find remedy I will procure it." In Chapman's Rev. Bussy i. 1, 335, Clermont quotes from Epictetus, whom he calls "the good Gk. moralist." Later (353) he refers to "The splenative philosopher that ever Laughed at them all," i.e. Democritus.

Arts, Luxury, Dress, etc. Milton, P. R. iv. 338, makes our Lord suggest that "rather G. from us [the Hebrews] these arts [music and song] derived." This was a common belief amongst the older theologians. In 360, he says that the Hebrew prophets taught the rules of civil government better "Than all the oratory of G. and Rome." In Jonson's Volpone iii. 6, Mosca says, "Let's die like Romans, since we have lived like Gns." The Gks. were held to be flatterers and dissemblers. In Tiberius 685, Sejanus advises the man who would succeed to do at Rome as Rome does: "Flatter in Creet and fawn in Graecia." In Lyly's Euphues Anat. Wit. 74, Philautus says, "It is commonly said of Gns. that craft cometh to them by kind." In Hoffman ii., Clois says to the actors, who are to disguise themselves as Gks., "Within are Gn. habits for your heads." In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius sings, "Some like breechless women go, The Russ, Turk, Jew, and Gn."

Greek Calends. The Romans dated the days of the month from the Calends, which was the 1st of the month, but there was no such thing in G. Hence the Gk. calends means "never." In Shirley's Honoria (a.k.a. Honor and Riches) iii. 2, Alamonde asks," When is this day of triumph?" And Phantasm answers: "At the Gk. Calends." So, in Rabelais, Pantagruel iii. 3, Panurge says he will be out of debt "at the ensuing term of the Gk. calends." In Brewer's Lingua ii. 2, Phantastes says that the squaring of the circle, the philosopher's stone, and the next way to the Indies "will be found out all together, ad Graecas calendas," i.e. never.

Gk. is used in the sense of a frivolous, lively rascal; often in the phrase "merry Gk." The origin of the use is to be found in the Roman contempt for the Gk,adventurers who were attracted to the capital of the Empire. In Troil. iv. 4, 58, Cressida speaks of herself as "A woeful Cressid 'mongst the merry Gks." In Tw. N. iv. 1, 19, Sebastian says to the Clown, "I prithee, foolish Gk., depart from me," In Jonson's Case iv. 4 juniper addresses Onions, "Sayst thou so, mad Gk.?" In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 549, Pursenet says of Spendall: "This is the Agamemnon of all merry Gks., i.e. jolly good fellows. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. A. v. 1, George says there are madmen of all countries in Bedlam," but especially mad Gks., they swarm." Mathewe Merygreeke is the clown in Roister. In B. & F. Prize ii 2, Bianca says, "Go home and tell the merry Gks. that sent you, Ilium shall burn and I as did AEneas Will on my back carry this warlike lady." In Dekker's Northward iv. 2, Bellamont, visiting Bedlam, says, "Let's see what Gks. are within." In Ret. Pernass. i. 1, we have: "Thou seems a mad Gk. and I have loved such lads from my infancy." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 26, Spicing addresses Falconbridge as "My brave Falconbridge! my mad Gk.!" Merry Gk. as applied to a woman means one of bad character–a courtesan. In Troil. i. 2, 117, when Pandarus tells Cressida that Helen loves Troilus better than Paris, she replies, "Then she's a merry Gk. indeed." In Massinger's Guardian, ii. 5, Calipso, in a list of foreign females, mentions" The merry Gk., Venetian courtesan." In Middleton's Old Law iv. 1, the Drawer exclaims, "Here's a consort of merry Gks.!"

Gk. Wines seem to have been highly esteemed in the 16th and 17th cents., though they are now looked upon as of inferior quality and lacking in body. In Troil. v. 1, 1, Achilles says of Hector: "I'll heat his blood with Gsh. wine tonight Which with my scimitar I'll cool tomorrow." In Massinger's New Way iii. 2, Overbury says to Lovell, "May it please my lord to taste a glass of Gk. Wine?" In Marlowe's Tamb. B. ii. 3, Orcanes says, "With full Natolian bowls of Gsh. wine Now let us celebrate our happy conquest." In his Jew i. 1, Barabas speaks of his "Spanish oils and wines of G." In Shirley's Pleasure i. 1, Bornwell says, "We have no Gk. wine in the house, I think," and sends a footman to buy some. In Ford's Trial iii. 1, Benatzi, in a list of luxuries, says, "Gk. wines-rich!" In Massinger's Very Woman iii. 5, Antonio says to Pedro, "Send me 2 or 3 bottles of your best Gk. wine." In his Old Law iv. 1, the Drawer says, "Here's the quintessence of G.; the sages never drunk better grape." To which the Cook replies, "Sir, the mad Gks. of this age can taste their Palermo as well as the sage Gks. did before them." In Marston's Antonio & Mellida ii., Piero says, "Fill out Gk. wines; we'll have a banquet." In Shirley's Honoria (a.k.a. Honor and Riches) iii. 1, Traverse says, "Let me indulge a glass of the Gk. wine." In Barnes' Charter iii. 5, Frescobaldi says to Bagnioli, "I'll drink a flagon of Gk. wine with thee." In Chapman's Blind Beggar x.' Cleanthes says, "Let us go to frolic in our Court Carousing free whole bowls of Gsh. wine." In Nabbes' C. Garden iv. 1, Dasher says, "I will but present a glass of Gk. sack to the hands of a noble lord, and return to serve you." In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass ii. 3, 361, Alvida asks, "Will he swear it to my Lord the King And in a full carouse of Gsh. wine Drink down the malice of his deep revenge?"

Greek Animals. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Puntarvolo is to bring back from his travels "a Turk's moustachio, my dog a Gn. hare's lip." The hare is common in G.

Greek Monastery. The Gk. religion has always been that of the Orthodox Gk. Ch., and there are a large number of monasteries there. In B. & F. Fair Maid I. v. 3, Prospero relates that Juliana "enjoined me to place her in a Gsh. monastery."


A lane in Lond., leading from the upper end of Old Bailey into Seacoal Lane. It was swept away when the Holborn Viaduct was built. The steps that led into it were called "Break Neck Steps." Prynne's Histriomastix was "Printed for Michael Sparke and sold at the Blue Bible in Grene A. in Little Old Bailey. 1633." The Book of Riddles was "Printed by T. C. for Michael Sparke dwelling in Greene A. at the sign of the blue Bible. 1629."


There were several taverns in Lond. with this sign. The best-known was the one at 56 Fleet St., which still keeps the old name. This is probably the one referred to by Taylor, who, on the 1st day of his Penniless Pilgrimage i. 12.2, visited "the G. D. against Grays Inn Gate." In Webster's Weakest v. 2, Bunch says that the best liquor in Ardres is to be had "at the G. D." It was also a bookseller's sign. The 1st Quarto of Merch. was "Printed by I. R. for Thomas Heyes and are to be sold in Paules Churchyard at the sign of the Greene D. 1600." Brome's Five New Plays were "Printed for A. Crook at the G. D. in St. Paul's Church-yard. 1659."


The name of a house in St. Martins-le-Grand, Lond.: probably a mistake for Queen G. In More ii. 2, Lincoln says, "This is St. Martin's and yonder dwells Mutas, a wealthy Piccardye, at the Greene G." According to Holinshed his name was Newton, and his house was called Queene G., not G. G., and was in Cornhill.


A large island or continent belonging to Denmark, lying between Iceland and N. America. A settlement was made there from Iceland by Red Eric in 986, the people were christianized, and bishops were appointed over a period Of 5 cents. But from the middle of the 13th cent. G. passed out of history until it was rediscovered by Davis in 1585,. It was resettled in 1721. In Jonson's Devil ii. 1, Meercraft gulls Fitzdottrel into thinking that he is to be Duke of Drowned Land: and Engine says encouragingly, "It goes like Groen-land, Sir, if you mark it." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 1, Orcanes speaks of the Christian armies including men from "Vast Grantland compassed with the frozen Sea." In B. & F. Fair Maid I. iv. 2, Forobosco threatens by his magical power to send the Clown "to G. for a haunch of venison." In a letter from Sir Philip Sidney to Hubert Languet (1577) we are told how Frobisher passed the Feroe isles and an island which he supposed to be Friesland discovered by the Venetian Zeni. This was probably G. In Cuckqueans iv. 8, Floradin says that he has "travelled Frizland, Iseland, and Groenland." Drayton, in Elegy of his Lady (1627), speaks of ships putting out "Both to our G. and Virginia."


A town in Kent on the S. bank of the Thames. The present Naval College occupies the site of an ancient royal palace in which Henry VIII, Mary, and Elizabeth were born. Henry VIII made it his chief residence and new-named it Placentia. James I and Charles I used it frequently, but Charles II pulled it down and began the building of the Naval Hospital, which was completed in the reign of Anne. G. Park, in which is the Observatory, built in 1675, was enclosed 1433, and covers nearly 200 acres. Shakbag, in Feversham epi., "was murdered in Southwark as he passed to Greenewitch where the Lord Protector [the D. of Somerset: the date is 1551] lay." In Dekker's [sic] Eastward iv. 4, Golding brings word that "the Colonel and all his company, putting forth drunk from Billingsgate, had like to have been cast away on this side G." In Fair Women ii. 145, Beane asks, "Must I go first to G., Sir?" And adds: "I cannot go by water, for it ebbs; The wind's at west, and both are strong against us." The scene is at Woolwich, which is east of G. Chaucer's pilgrims passed above "Grenewych, ther many a shrewe is inne, at half way pryme "on the 1st day, i.e. about 7:30 a.m. (C. T. A. 3907). It would seem that Chaucer was residing in G. at this time, for, in Lenvoy a Scogan 45, he speaks of being "in thende of which streme," i.e. the Thames, and the MSS. add a note to the line–" G." This would account for the comment of the poet about the shrews. He was speaking from painful experience. In Oldcastle iii. 4, the K., at Blackheath, orders Butler to "Go down by G. and command a boat At the Friar's Bdge. attend my coming down." The easiest way from Kent to Lond. was by way of G. and the Thames. In Prodigal iv. 1, Delia, being in Kent, says, "I will first go to G., and so to Lond." In Nash's Quip, he says, "Now, Master Waterman, there is none so simple but that knows your fares and what is due between G. and Lond." In B. & F. Scornful i. 1, young Loveless says it is from Lond. "a long half-mile by land to G."

It was at the court at G. that Buckingham's Surveyor heard the treasonable talk which he reports to the K. in H8 i. 2, 188. In Fair Women ii. 217, Beane says he is going to Lond. "when I have been at the court at G." In Middleton's Chaste Maid i. 1, Yellowhammer says, "`Honour' and `faithful servant!' they are compliments for the worthies of Whitehall or G." Plays were often performed at G. before the Court. At Christmas 1594 a company which included Kemp, Burbage, and Shakespeare, performed 2 unnamed comedies there. It was on the same day on which the Comedy of Errors was produced at Gray's Inn. Jonson speaks of "those flights [of the Swan of Avon] upon the banks of Thames That so did take Eliza and our James." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 317, Elizabeth says, "We at our Court of G. will dilate Further of these designs." Davies, in Hymns of Astraea (1599) ix. 3, says, "Empress of Flowers! Tell, where away Lies your sweet court, this merry May? In G. garden alleys; Since there the heavenly Powers do play." Skelton, in Colin Clout 742, speaks of "the order upon G. border called Observants." The Franciscan Observants had a settlement adjoining the palace, granted to them by Edward IV. They were favoured by Katharine of Aragon, and so vehemently opposed the divorce that Henry VIII suppressed the whole Order throughout England.

In Fair Women ii. 458, Browne says to Roger, "Go thou unto the hedge corner At the hill foot; there stand and cast thine eye Toward G. Park. See if Blackheath be clear." In Jonson's Gipsies, one of the gipsies sings of "The parks and the chases And the finer walled places, As St. James's, G., Tibals." Burton, A. M. ii. 2, 3, says, "Barclay the Scot commends that of G. tower for one of the best prospects in Europe." In Straw i., Jack says, "Upon Blackheath beside G., there we'll lie." When the K. went to meet the rebels, Newton says (in ii.), "The K. was rowed with oars As far as G. town."


A little vill. in N. Gloucestersh., near Winchcombe. In Shrew Ind., ii. 95, "John Naps of Greece "is mentioned as one of the friends of Christopher Sly: where we should certainly read "G." Shakespeare knew this dist. well, as is shown by the local references in H4 B. v. i. It is mentioned in the ancient rhyme, "Dirty Gretton, dingy G., Beggarly Winchcombe, Sudeley sweet, Hanging Hartshorn, Whittington Bell, Dull Andoversford, and merry Frog Mill."


The chapel of St. G. Priory, Canterbury. It was suppressed by Henry VIII, and nothing is now left of its ruins. In Deloney's Craft i. 6, Crispine and Ursula are married "at St. Gregories C."


In Lond., founded by the bequest of Sir T. Gresham for the delivery of lectures on Divinity, Civil Law, Astronomy, Music, Geometry, Rhetoric, and Physic to be read in the dwelling-house of the founder. This house was G. House on the W. side of Bishopsgate St. Within, with grounds reaching back to Broad St. The lectures began in 1596, and 7 professors were appointed. The house was taken down in 1768, and the lectures transferred to a room in the Royal Exchange. In 1843 the present C. was built at the corner of G. St. and Basinghall St. In Shirley's Love Maze iv. 2, Gerard says that in his Utopia "Lectures and public readings shall put down G.'s foundation for the liberal arts." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 301, G. says, "Lords, so please you but to see my school Of the 7 learned liberal sciences, Which I have founded here near Bishopsgate, I will conduct you."


(now PLACE DE L'HOTEL DE VILLE). In Paris, in front of the Hotel de Ville, entered from the junction of the Quai Pelletier and the Quai de Grève, on the N. bank of the Seine. It was for many cents. the place of execution for criminals. In Chapman's Trag. Byron v. 4, 112, Harley announces that Byron is "condemned to lose his head upon a scaffold at the Greave."


A tavern in Fleet St., Lond., evidently, from the quotations, close to Fleet Bdge., at the E. end of the st. In Stucley 565, John Sparling, the Vintner, demands £30 from Stucley "for tavern suppers and for quarts of wine at the G. in Fleet st." In Dekker's Westward ii. 3, Justiniano says, "The G., the G. in Blackfriars, an excellent rendezvous." In Barry's Ram iii. 2, Thomas Smallshanks says, "They went in by the G. and so stuck into Bridewell." The G. was also the sign of a bookseller's shop in Paul's Churchyard. Venus and Adonis was "Imprinted at Lond. for William Leake dwelling in Paule's Churchyard at the sign of the G. 1599." Selimus was "Printed for John Crooke and Richard Serger and are to be sold at their shop in Pauls Churchyard at the sign of the G.-H. 1638." Here the Passionate Pilgrim was published by W. Leake in 1599.


Now the S.E. canton of Switzerland, and the largest one; in Elizabethan times an independent Confederation. In Davenant's Siege i. 1, Ariosto refers to "a skirmish at Milan against the G." The reference is to the wars of the early 16th cent. between the French and Milan, in which the Swiss took a great part, first on one side, and then on the other.


The Hall of the Grocers Company in Lond. It was built in 1427 in what was then called Coneyhoop Lane, off the Poultry, E. of the Old Jewry. It lies between the Poultry and Princes St., into which an entrance was made in 1827. The 1st H. was destroyed in the Gt. Fire; a 2nd was built soon after, and the present H., the 3rd, dates from 798. In B. & F. Pestle v. 3, Ralph, the Grocer's apprentice, exclaims, "I die! Fly, fly, my soul, to G. H."




(= GROENLO). A town in Gelderland, 80 m. E. of Amsterdam. In Barnavelt iv. 5, Prince Maurice says, "Who was the cause no greater power was sent Against the enemy, when he took the towns Of Oldensell, Lingen, G.?"




(formerly spelt GROYNING or the GROYNE). A fortified city in Friesland, on the Hunze, 95 m. N.E. of Amsterdam. It was taken by the D. of Parma in 1580 and recovered by the United Provinces in 1594. The name suggested an obvious double entendre to the dramatists. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. v. 2, Bots says, "At the Groyne I was wounded in this thigh, and halted upon 't, but 'tis now sound." In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 4, Trimtram tells the story of a pander, a bawd, and a whore: "The Low Countries did ever find 'em bread; they lived by Flushing, by Sluys, and the Groyne."


Off Tower Hill, Lond. In News from Wood St. Counter (1642), we have: "It is worse than Pickthatch, Covent Garden, G. L., Tower Hill," etc.




A sailor's corruption of Corunna, a seaport on the N.W. coast of Spain. In Earl of Essex's Ghost (1624) ii., we read: "This mighty fleet [the Armada] made to the G. in Galicia, it being the nearest haven to England." In Coventry M. P. of Mary Magdalen 478, the Taverner says he has "wine of Gyldyr and of Galles, that made at the grome": where probably grome is a misprint for G.


Lond., running from 96 Fore St. to 56 Chiswell St. In 1820 the name was changed to Milton St. According to Stow, it was inhabited by bowyers, fletchers, and bowstring-makers; and as archery declined their place was taken by bowling alleys and dicing houses. Its reputation as the resort of poor authors dates from the latter part of the 17th cent. In Randolph's Hey Hon., he says, "Let Cupid go to G. St. and turn archer"; and again, "Her eyes are Cupid's G. St.; the blind archer makes his love-arrows there." Taylor says, in Works ii. 2, "Strait I might descry, The quintessence of G.-st. well distilled Through Cripplegate." In News from Hell, the Cardinal says, "This mess is . . . seasoned with the fees and bribes of all the whores and thieves that live in Westminster, Covent-Garden, Holborn, G.-st," etc. Camilton's Discovery of Devilish Designs was "Printed by T. Fawcet dwelling in G.-st. 1641." Henry Welby, the Hermit of G, St., died there in 1636. Dekker, in Raven's Almanac (1609), says, "As for the thighs, over which Sagitarius the archer carries sway, any fletcher in G.-st. or any that ever shot in a long bow, will stand to the proof thereof."




A vill. in Wales. In Jonson's Wales, Evan sings the praises of "Oatcake of G. With a goodly leek or onion."




The second in size of the Channel Islands, lying in the Gulf of Avranches, abt. 30 m.from the French coast. In Stubbs, Anat. of Abuses i. 57, we are told that the English "have netherstocks not of cloth, for that is thought too base, but of Jarnsey worsted, silk, thread, and such like"; and again, "Their netherstocks are of silk gearnsey, worsted, crewell, or at least of as fine yam as is possible to be had." In N.E.D., Jarnsey, in the 1st passage above, is taken as being equivalent to Jersey, but in the light of the spelling in the 2nd, gearnsey, and that Heylyn calls the islands Jarsey and Gernsey, I venture to suggest that in both passages G. is intended. In Middleton's No Wit i. 1, Savourwit tells how Lady Twilight, "crossing to G, was taken by the Dunkirks." Drayton, in Polyolb. i. 51, calls it "Jernsey, bravely crowned With rough-imbattled rocks."


A country on the N.E. coast of S. America, between the rivers Orinoco and Amazon. Part of it belongs to Brazil, the rest is divided into British, Dutch, and French Guiana. It was discovered by Vasco Nunez in 1504. Sir W. Raleigh ascended the Orinoco in 1595 in search for the Eldorado which was supposed to be in that part of the world. There is gold in G., but the mines were not discovered till the beginning of the 19th cent. In M.W.W. i. 3, 76, Falstaff says of Mrs. Page. "She bears the purse too; she is a region in G., all gold and bounty." The allusion was no doubt suggested by the interest of the Court and Q. in Raleigh's expedition. In Middleton's Quiet Life i. 1, we are told that young Franklin went on "the late ill-starred voyage to G." This is Raleigh's voyage of 1595. In Cuckqueans iv. 8, Claribel says that he has visited "Guinie, Florida, and Brasilea." Evidently G., not Guinea, is the place intended. Milton, P. L. xi. 410, says that Adam saw in vision "yet unspoiled G., whose great city Geryon's sons Call El Dorado": Geryon's sons are the Spaniards. Wilby, in Morley's Triumphs of Oriana (160z), says, "The Lady Oriana Was dight in all the treasures of G." Hall, in Satires iv. 3, 29, says, "Fortunio . . . gads to Guiane land, to fish for gold." Burton, A.M. Intro., says of a pilgrimage to a saint's shrine: "It is like to be as prosperous a voyage as that of G." Donne, Satire iv. (1597) .2.2, speaks of "a thing stranger . . . Than Afric's monsters, G.'s rarities." In Hall, Characters (1608), The Busie-bodie says, "What every man ventured in G. voyage, and what they gained, he knows to a hair." In Ham., the 1st quarto makes the scene of the play within the play "Guyana": perhaps a mistake for Vienna or Guienne.


The N. portion of the old duchy of Aquitania, in S.W. France, between the Bay of Biscay and the Cevennes. It came into the possession of the English Crown in 1152 by the marriage of Henry II to Eleanor, daughter and heiress of William, Earl of Poitou and D. of Guienne. It remained an English possession with short intervals until 1451, when it was recovered to France by Charles VII. In Ed. III i. 1, the D. of Lorrain demands from Edward homage to the French K. for "the Guyen Dukedom entayled to thee." In Florio's Montaigne i. 1, "Edward the Black Prince of Wales "is mentioned as having "long governed our country of G." In H6 A. i. 1, 60, a messenger announces "G., etc., Are all quite lost." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV B. i., Edward asserts his title to "all these Dukedoms following: "Aquitaine, Anjou, Guyen, Aguileme." In Coventry M. P. of Mary Magdalen 479, the Taverner says he has "wine of Wyan and Vernage": where Wyan means G.


The capital of the county of Surrey, 29 m. S.W. of Lond. The keep of an ancient Norman castle stands on a hill on the S. of the town, and there is a fine bridge over the Wey. In Death Huntington ii. 1, the K. says, "You and Earl Salisbury shall hie ye to G." In Davenport's Matilda i. 1, K. John says to Oxford, "Post unto G. and being there (Pretending a visit unto Bruce's lady) Wind into observation of the Castle." The scene Of i. 3 is G. Castle, which Oxford has seized.


The common Hall of the City of Lond. It was in existence in the 12th cent., but was rebuilt in 1411, and "of an old and little cottage made into a fair and goodly house" (Fabyan). Sir John Shaa, Mayor in 1501, added the kitchens, and from that time the Lord Mayor's banquet has been held there on Nov. 9th, the day of SS. Simon and Jude. The Gt. Fire destroyed the roof, but left the walls and crypt comparatively uninjured: it was at once restored, and a new st.–King St.–was opened up to give access to it from Cheapside. In 1864 the Hall was renovated, and the fine open oak roof, a replica, as nearly as possible, of the original one, was erected. The Hall is 153 ft. long, 50 broad, and 89 high. It contains the two wooden giants, Gog and Magog, supposed to represent Corineus and Gogmagog. The present statues were carved in 1708, but their predecessors existed as far back as 1415, and were carried in the Lord Mayor's procession and other City pageants. In the 16th cent. the main entrance was graced by a number of statues. William Wilderton, writing in 1560, says, "Jesus Christ aloft doth stand, Law and Learning on either hand, Discipline in the devil's neck, And hard by her are three direct; There justice, Fortitude, and Temperance stand: Where find ye the like in all this land?" The Court of Aldermen and the Court of Common Council sit at the G.; and there are held the Court of Hustings, the Lord Mayor's Court, and the Sheriffs Court. The Library and Museum have been removed to Basinghall St., and a building for their accommodation was erected in 1872. The Museum contains a deed of Conveyance with the signature of Shakespeare attached. There is also an Art Gallery in G. Yard.

In R3 iii. 5, 73, Gloucester, at the Tower, says to Buckingham, "Go after, after, cousin Buckingham, The Mayor towards G. hies him all in post." Buckingham goes, and advises Gloucester, "Towards 3 or 4 o'clock Look for the news that the G. affords" (line 102). In True Trag. (Haz., p. 58), the Page announces "The D. of Buckingham is gone about it, and is now in the G. making his oration." More ii. 3 takes place in the G.; and in ii. 4 More says, "I think 'twere best we meet at the G. And there determine that through every ward The watch be clad in armour." In Stucley 645, Lady Curtis says, "Husband, you are sent for to the G., about the soldiers that are to be despatched for Ireland." In Dekker's Shoemaker's i. 1, the Lord Mayor says, "If it please your cousin Lacy come to the G., he shall receive his pay." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 555, Staines says to Spendall, "Thou art the highest spirited citizen that ever G. took notice of." In Glapthorne's Wit iii. 1, Busie says, "I should have fined for Sheriff, but all G., hearing I was a Wit, cried 'Out upon him I," In Straw iii., Tom Miller says, "I have been amongst the records, and all that I saw in the G. I have set fire on." In W. Rowley's New Wonder v., his wife says that Stephen "Is now the Sheriff of Lond., and in Council, Set at the G. in his scarlet gown." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV. A. 23, the Lord Mayor says, "We will withdraw to G. to take advice." In Mayne's s Match i. 4, Bright says, "I' the name of G., who comes here?" In Shirley's Riches iii., Getting swears, "By the Hall ycleped Guild, and Lond. Wall." In Ibid. i., Clod says, "You march [on Lord Mayor's Day] to G., where you look upon the Saracen giants, and feed like Saracens till you have no stomach to Paul's in the afternoon." The reference is to the Lord Mayor's banquet and the service which followed at St. Paul's. In Dekker's Northward v. 1, Greensland says, "Thou smellest like G., 2 days after Simon and Jude, of drink most horribly." In Webster's Cuckold iv. 1, Compass says, "Three Tuns do you call this tavern? It has a good neighbour of G.": meaning that G. is a great place for drinking. There were several taverns of this name. Dekker, in Armourers, says, "Had Jove been bidden to dinner to the Guyld hall on Simon and Jude's Day, he could not have had more welcomes given him than Money had." In Brathwayte's Barnabys journal, the G. Giants are mentioned as the second of the 7 great sights of Lond. Corbett, in Iter Boreale, says: "O, you that do G. and Holmeby keep, You are good giants." In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Peacham mentions amongst the sights of Lond. "G. huge Corinaeus." Hall, in Satires vi. 1, 9, speaks of "The crabtree porter of the G. gates." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 1, Wellbred writes to young Knowell: "Draw your bill of charges, as unconscionable as any G. verdict will give it you." In Middleton's Michaelmas iii. 4, Shortyard has "a little urgent business at G." Look about was "Printed for William Ferrand and are to be sold at his shop at the sign of the Crown near G. Gate. 1600." The Wars of Cyrus was "Printed by E. A. for William Blackwal and are to be sold at his shop over against G. gate. 1594." The earliest recorded performance of a play in the City of Lond. is that of an unknown drama acted on Twelfth Night 1560 in the G. before the Lord Mayor.


A dist. on the W. coast of Africa, extending from Sierra Leone to Benin. It was originally called Bilad Ghana, i.e. land of wealth, by the Saracens, but Don Henrique of Portugal first opened it to European knowledge in the 15th cent. Trade with G. extended greatly during the 16th cent, and many products of the country became known, such as G. pepper, the G.-cock or turkey, and the G.-fowl or hen. The coin called a G. was first struck in 1663, "in the name, and for the use, of the Company of Royal Adventurers of England trading with Africa." In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] iv. 6, Worm says that Jolly's brother "went 7 years ago to Guiney "as a merchant. G. hen became a slang word for a prostitute. In Oth. i. 3, 317, Iago says, "Ere I would say I would drown myself for the love of a g.-hen, I would change my humanity with a baboon." In Glapthorne's Wallenstein iii. 3, Newman says, "Yonder's the cock o' the game about to tread your ginny hen." In Jonson's Alchemist iv. 1, Face says to Doll, "Well said, my G. bird." In Armin's Woreclacke D. 1, Sir William says to his wife, "Wife, coop up our ginnie hen," i.e. their daughter, who wants to marry. In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Peacham mentions amongst the sights of Lond. "St. James his Ginney hens, the Cassawarway moreover." These birds were kept in the aviaries in St. James's Park, which gave its name to Birdcage Walk. In Davenant's Albovine ii. 1, Grimold says, "I'll bribe your lordship with a Ginny toothpick." Compare Benedick's undertaking in Much Ado ii. 1, 2 4: "I will fetch you a toothpicker now from the furthest inch of Asia." In Nabbes' C. Garden ii. 2, Warrant threatens to kill Spruce and have his skin stuffed: "and [I will] shew thee at country fairs and markets for a Ginney Pigmy." The tradition of a race of Pygmies in Africa is of long standing. In Webster's Law Case ii. 1, Ariosto says, "You have 'pothecaries will Put 4 or 5 coxcombs in a sieve and searce [i.e. strain] them through like G. pepper."


(= GUINGAMP). A town in Brittany, on the Trieux, abt. 250 m. W. of Paris. Nash, in Pierce B. a, makes fun of the boastful traveller who "saith he hath adventured upon the barricadoes of Gurney or G., and fought with the young Guise hand to hand." The young Guise is Henry of Guise: the reference is to the wars of the eighties in France between the Guise and the Huguenots (under Henry of Navarre).




One of the 3 Basque Provinces in N.E. Spain on the coast of the Bay of Biscay. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 355, we read of 14 galleons "of Guipuscoa" in the Spanish Armada.


A town in N. France, 100 m. N.E. of Paris. From it the house of G. took its title. The ancient 16th cent. castle still remains. The 1st D. of G. was Claude, who died 1550: his son Francis died 1563; his son Henry died 1588; and his son Charles died 1640Henry is the hero of Marlowe's Massacre, the subtitle of which is "The Death of the Duke of G." He also appears prominently in Chapman's two Bussy D'Ambois plays; and was the subject of two lost plays, The G., by Webster, and The Duke of G., by Henry Shirley. Dekker, in News from Hell, says that all are equal there: "the D. of Guize and the D. of Shoreditch have not the breadth of a bench between them."


A bookseller's sign in Lond. The 1st quarto of Titus Andronicus was "Printed by John Danter and are to be sold by Edward White and Thomas Millington at the little North door of Paules at the sign of the Gunne. 1594." The .2nd and 3rd quartos came from the same publisher. Love and Fortune was also published there in 1589. Marlowe's Ed. II was "Printed at Lond. by Richard Bradocke for William Jones, dwelling near Holbourne Conduit at the sign of the Gunne. 1598." Mucedorus was published the same year at the same place. Brome's Five New Plays were "Printed for H. Brome at the Gunn in Ivy Lane. 1659."


Lond., on the W. side of Little Moorfields, where the Moorgate St. station now stands. It was a place of bad reputation. In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, Fortress, the president of the Twiball knights, is described as "Duke of Turnbull, Bloomsbury, and Rotten Row, Lord Paramount of all Garden-alleys, G. A., and Rosemary Lane."


Lond., on the E. side of Crutched Friars, N. of John St. In Westward i. 1, Birdlime says, "I keep a hot-house in G. A., near Crutched Friars." There is another G. A. on the W. side of Shoe Lane, where Richard Lovelace died.


An imaginary country which Pseudocheus, in the old Timon i. 4, claims to have visited. "Up to the fields Gn. I rode on horseback; the Antipodes Were distant thence about an hundred m." The name is taken from Plautus, Miles Gloriosus i. 1, 13, where Pyrgopolnices says he saved the life of Artotrogus" "in campis Gurgustidoniis."


(= GOURNAY). A town in N. France on the Epte, 28 m. E. of Rouen. For reference in Nash's Pierce, see under GUINGAN.


A st. in Lond. running N. from Cheapside to Gresham St. It was originally Guthrun or Goderoune Lane. It is used punningly for the throat. In Brathwayte's Cast of Characters (1631) 32, it is said, "Whatever he drains from the 4 corners of the City goes in muddy taplash down G.-L." In Dekker's Satiromastix iii. 1, 212, Tucca, who is calling Mrs. Miniver all the abusive names he can think of, says, inter alia, "Let me alone with my grannam in G.-L. there." Prof. Penniman, in his note on this passage, says that Cheapside was once so called from Guthurun, sometime the owner: I can find no authority for this statement.


A town in N.W. France some 5 m. S. of Calais. It belonged to England at the beginning of the reign of Henry VIII, and the famous meeting between Henry and Francis of France in 1520, known as the Field of the Cloth of Gold (which, in H8 i. 1, 7, Norfolk speaks of as "'Twixt G. and Arde), was held between G. and Ardres in English territory. In Webster's Weakest iv. 3, Sir Nicholas says, "I promised to bowl a match at G. for a wager, viz. 2 gallons of Gascoigne wine." In Day's B. Beggar i., Momford reports that "Hance Beamart has betrayed the Fort of G." This was in the French wars in the early part of the reign of Henry VI, before the death of Bedford in 1432- In Trag. Richd. II. iv. 1, 110, Richd. proposes, in exchange for aid from France, to surrender up "Our forts of G. and Callys to the French."


In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 1, 17, Gazellus says, "Proud Tamburlaine, that now in Asia, Near G.'s head, doth set his conquering feet." In line 47 he speaks of him as "marching from Cairon northward": which suggests that in the former passage we should read "Cairon "for "G." Of course, Cairo is not in Asia, nor was Tamburlaine ever there, but that does not matter much.


An ancient French town 33 m. N.W. of Paris. Near it are the ruins of a strong mediaeval castle. In H6 A. i. 1, 6.T, a Messenger announces, "G., Poictiers, Are all quite lost."


A small rocky island in the AEgean Sea, 12 m. S.W. of the S. point of Andros in the Cyclades. It was used as a place of banishment under the early Roman emperors. It is now uninhabited. In Nero ii. 2, Tigellinus says to Cornutus, "'Tis Nero's pleasure that you straight depart To G. and there remain confined." In Massinger's Believe v. 2, the practice is put back to the time of Antiochus the Gt. Marcellus says to him: "You are confined unto the Gyarae With a strong guard upon you." This is quite unhistorical.




See GILES (ST.).