(the ancient FAVENTIA). A city in N. Italy, 19 m. S.W. of Ravenna and 170 m. N. of Rome. F. surrendered to Caesar Borgia in 1501. In Barnes' Charter iii. 1, Astor asks, "What availeth it When, our State lost, the Faventines compounded That I should hold both life and liberty?" In iv. 5, Caraffa speaks of Astor and his brother as "Phaenzae's hope."


An important city of Etruria, on a hill 1000 ft. above the valley of the Arno, 3 m. N.E. of Florence; (now FIESOLE). Sulla made it a Colonia and settled a number of his veterans there; and it was chosen by Manlius as the headquarters of his army in the Catilinarian conspiracy, 63 B.C. In Jonson's Catiline iii. 3, Catiline says, "Manlius at F. is by this time up With the old needy troops that followed Sylla"; v. 1 is laid in "Etruria, the country near F." Milton, P. L. i. 289, compares Satan's shield to the moon, "whose orb Through optic glass the Tuscan artist views At evening, from the top of Fesole." The reference is to Galileo, who spent the latter part of his life in or near Florence. Milton visited him in 1638–9, when he was a prisoner in the Inquisition.


A ch. in the crypt of old St. Paul's Cathedral, Lond., under the choir. Stow says that it served for the stationers and others dwelling in Paul's Churchyard, Paternoster Row, and the places near adjoining. It dates from the middle of the 13th cent. and was destroyed in the Gt. Fire. In Dekker's Shoemaker's iv. 3, the servant reports that Master Hammond is to be married "at St. F. Ch. under Paul's." In B. & F. Kn. Of the B. Pestle v. 1, Humphrey, having lost his mistress Luce, says, "In the dark I'll wear out my shoe-soles In passion in St. F. Ch. under Paul's": where it is to be noted that "Paul's" rhymes with "soles." In S. Rowley's When You D. 2, the Cobbler says, "Though I sit as low as St. F., I can look as high as Paules."


A booksellers' sign in London.
  1. It was the sign of what is now No. 32 Fleet St. on the S. side. The name is retained in F. Court. A doubtful tradition asserts that Wynkyn de Worde printed at the sign of the F. The 1st edition of Gorboduc was "Imprinted at Lond. in Flete strete at the sign of the Faucon by William Griffith"; the same imprint is found in Harman's Caveat 1567, and Pickering's Horestes was printed there the same year. It was here that John Murray started his publishing business.
  2. There was another F. in the Strand. Cockayne's Obstinate was "Printed by W. Godbid for Isaac Pridmore and are to be sold at his shop at the sign of the F. beyond the New Exchange in the Strand. 1657."


A tavern sign. There was a F. Tavern on the Bankside a little E. of Blackfriars Bdge., which is said to have been frequented by Shakespeare and the other playwrights of his time. Epps' cocoa factory now [ed. note: in 1925] occupies its site. There was also a F. Inn in Stratford, just opposite New Place. Shakespeare's crest was "A falcon, his wings displayed urgent, standing on a wreath of his colours, supporting a spear of gold steeled."


The Falernus Ager was in N. Campania, in Italy, on the N. bank of the Volturnus. It was celebrated for the excellence of its wine. Nash, in Lenten (p.304), speaks of "one right cup of that ancient wine of F." Milton, P. R. iv. 117, mentions "Their wines of Setia, Cales, and Falerne." In Nabbes' Microcosmus iii., Sensuality promises Physander, "Shalt drink no wine But what Falernus or Calabrian Aulon Yield from their grapes." In Laelia iii. 1, 46, Stragalcius says, "Quin ego vini Falerni cantharum putem dulciorem." In May's Agrippina ii. 206, Crispinus says, "Let's . . . drown our cares in rich Falernian wine As ancient as Opimius' consulship." Opimius was consul 121 B.C., and that year was famous for the excellence of its vintage.


A spt. in Cornwall at the mouth of the Fal, 269 m. W. of Lond. It has a magnificent harbour, but until the reign of James I it was a mere fishing village. Jane of Navarre, the 2nd wife of Henry IV, landed here when she came over to marry the K. About 1613 Sir John Killigrew, obtained the K.'s permission to build a new quay, and laid the foundation of the future prosperity of the town. In T. Heywood's Maid of West A. iii. 5, Bess says, "There's a prize Brought into F. road, a good tight vessel." Drayton, in Polyolb. i. 162, calls it Flamouth, and says, "In her quiet bay a hundred ships may ride Yet not the tallest mast be of the tall'st descried."


The chief town of Cyprus, on the E, coast, some 5 m. from the site of the old capital Salamis. It was taken by the Turks after a long siege in 1571. In Dekker's Fortunatus i. 2, Shadow says, "I am out of my wits to see our F. fools turn half a shop of wares into a suit of gay apparel." The scene of Ford's Lover's Melan. is laid at "F. in Cyprus," some time during the Persian period before the.conquests of Alexander the Gt. Dekker, in Strange Horse-race (1613), describes Niggard as having in his pocket, to victual him for his voyage, "2 dried cobs of a red herring, reserved by a fishmonger at the siege of F." In Mason's Mulleasses 445, Eunuchus says, "I was a freeborn Christian's son in Cyprus When Famagusta by the Turk was sacked."




Possibly Fangcross, a vill. in E. Riding, Yorks., is intended. In Wilson's Pedler 249, the Pedler offers for sale "as fine Jenuper as any is in F. wood."




There are several Farnhams in England, but the one intended in the passage following is perhaps F. Genevieve, a vill. in Suffolk, about 14 m. S.W. Of Hurling, where Strowd lived, or it may be a misprint for Barnham, which lies 6 miles to the West of Hurling, on the Little Ouse, just over the hordes of Suffolk. In Day's B. Beggar ii., Sir Robert says to Strowd, "Strowd, Strowd, you think to have the land at Farnam."


Vill. in Notts., abt. 15 m. N. of Nottingham. In Downfall Huntington iii. 2, Robin says, "The nuns of F. . . . Gave napkins, shirts, and bands to him and me."


Apparently a misprint for FANO, a town about the centre of the E. coast of Italy. The names of the places mentioned in the following text (Ascoli, Foligno, Ancona, Samegaglia, Pesaro, Recanati) are all in that neighbourhood, and there is no Faro in those parts. In Cockayne's Trapolin ii. 3, Horatio speaks of "Faro, for handsome women most extolled."


Two of the 26 wards of the City of Lond. are F. Within and F. Without. Originally they were 1 ward, which covered roughly the dist. between Holborn and Cheapside on the N., and the Thames on the S. from Friday St. to Temple Bar. The ward took its name from one W. Farindon, who bought the Aldermanry in 1281. The division was made in 1391, the boundary between the 2 wards being the Fleet Ditch, now covered by F. St. In Dekker's Northward v. 1, Bellemont says, "Your conscionable greybeard of F. Within will keep himself to the ruins of one cast waiting woman an age."


One of the kingdoms in N.E. Africa, subject to the Emperor of Abyssinia. In Cockayne's Obstinate iii. 3, the Emperor of both the Ethiopias is described as "also emperor of Goa, Carrares, F., etc." See under ADEA.


The suburb of a city, applied specially to certain suburbs of Paris, now included within the city, but formerly outside the walls. In Davenant's Rutland, p. 2.23, the Londoner, in his comments on Paris, says, "I will pass into your fauxbourgs by Pont Rouge."




One of the Azores islands. Its capital, Horta, is the best port in the islands, and has a considerable trade in wines and fruit. The islands were colonized by the Portuguese early in the 15th cent., and, like the rest of the Portuguese dominions, were in the hands of Spain from 1580 to 1640; all were then returned to Portugal. 7n T. Heywood's Maid of West A. ii., 2 and 4 are laid at F., which has been taken by the English from the Spaniards. In iii. 3, Capt. Goodlack brings word: "The general is in health, and F. won from the Spaniards." The Azores were the theatre of a large amount of naval warfare between England and Spain in the latter part of the reign of Elizabeth. In The Earl of Essex' Ghost (1624), Essex says, "In the year 1597, my Spanish voyage towards the Terceras was intended for F. to assail the Adelantado there, and thither I shaped my course." The Terceras is another name for the Azores.


A tavern in Lond., in Fleet St, near Shoe Lane. The sign was doubtless the Prince of Wales' F. In T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, Valerius, in his catalogue of taverns, mentions the F. as the one to which the ladies hie: "To the F. ladies, you."


(i.e. FEOCK on the salt-water river). It is on the W. side of Falmouth Harbour, abt. 5 m. N. of Falmouth. In Cornish M.P. iii. 93, Pilate gives to the Gaoler, "F. ol yn tyen," i.e. "F. all entirely."


(originally FANCHURCH ST.). Lond., running from the corner of Aldgate and Leadenhall St. to Gracechurch St, which it enters almost opposite to Lombard St. The name is derived from the fenny character of the ground, caused by the Langborne, which flowed through it. The church was St. Gabriel Fen Ch, which stood in the middle of the st.: it was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and never rebuilt. Other churches in the st. were St. Dionis Backchurch on the N. side, and St. Benet's Gracechurch at the S. side of the corner of F. and Gracechurch Sts. These have both been removed of late years. Famous taverns in the st. were the King's Head, the Mitre, and the Elephant. Ironmongers' Hall is on the N. side. In Good Wife iii. 3, Amminadab asks, "How many parsons are there?" And Ripkin answers: "The Parson of F., the Parson of Pancras." In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 1, Delion asks, "Wat be name dis st., and wish be de way to Croshe-friars?" Heigham answers: "Marry, this is F.-st., and the best way to Crutched-Friars is to follow your nose." To which Delion answers: "Vanshe st.! How shance me come to Vanshe st.?" The 2nd title of T. Heywood's Fair Maid of the Exchange is "the pleasant humours of the Cripple of Fanchurch."


The low-lying, marshy dists. in Lincs., Cambridgesh., and the neighbouring counties in the E. of England. In Brome's Sparagus iii. 3, Sam says, "The island of 2 acres here, more profitable than twice 10,000 in the Fens, till the drainers have done them." A great enterprise for the draining of the fens was undertaken in 1634 by the D. of Bedford, but it was not at first successful.


The old Firmum Picenum, a city 4 m. from the Adriatic in Italy, 110 m. N.E. of Rome. In Barnes' Charter iv. 5, Guicchiardine, as chorus, tells how Caesar Borgia betrayed "the Prince of F. at Sinigaglia." This was in 1499.


A city in N. Italy, 4 m. S. of the PO, 53 m. S.W. of Venice, and abt. 200 m. N. of Rome. It contains an ancient castle, the seat of its dukes, a cathedral dedicated to S. Paolo, and a university in which is preserved the tomb of Ariosto. The room is still to be seen in the hospital of Santa-Anna in which Tasso was confined for over 7 years. The Casa Guarini was the residence of the author of Il Pastor Fido. F. originally formed part of the Papal States, but was granted by the Pope to Borso, the head of the Este family, in 1450. In 1597 it was reclaimed by Clement VIII, but in the interval it was in the hands of the Estes. The court, during the 16th cent., was one of the most cultured and artistic in Italy. F. was known to Chaucer, who in C. T. E. 51, traces the curse of the Po "to Emaleward, to Ferrare and Venyse." In Cockayne's Trapolin ii. 3, Horatio calls it "Civil F., Ariosto's town." In Gascoigne's Supposes iv. 6, Litio asks, "Have you not often heard of the falsehood of F.?" In Barnes' Charter iv. 3, Lucretia recalls how "the Marquess Mantoua Did in F. feast my lord and me." In T. Heywood's Maid of West B. iii., the chorus relates how Spencer, being shipwrecked, "Upon a chest gets hold and safe arrives i' th' Marquis of Farara's country,." In H8 iii. 2, 323, Surrey brings as a charge against Wolsey: "You sent a large commission To Gregory de Cassado to conclude Without the K.'s will or the state's allowance A league between his Highness and F." Wolsey's object was to get the help of F. in opposing the policy of the Emperor in 1527; the D. was Alphonso I. Wolsey's agent in Rome was Gregory de Cassalis: Shakespeare follows the mistake of Hall and Holinshed in calling him Cassado. The most famous of the Dukes of F. was Ercole or Hercules II, who reigned 1534 to 1559. The scene of Gascoigne's Supposes is laid in F. during the time of the "County Hercules." He also figures in Marston's Parasitaster (though there is nothing historical in the story) and is the Dux Ferrariae mentioned in Laelia 1, 4, 91. The hero of Shirley's Opportunity is a D. of F., who is a suitor for the hand of the Duchess of Urbino. In Mason's Mulleasses, a D. of F. joins the D. of Venice in an imaginary expedition against Florence. In B. & F. Custom iii. 2, Zabulon says that Hippolyta is the sister of "F.'s royal duke." In Jonson's Cynthia i. 1, Amorphus assures the company that the wine he offers them is derived authentically "from the D. of F.'s bottles." This is only one of the allusions to foreign courts and countries by which Amorphus tries to prove himself a much-travelled man. The scenes of Middleton's Phoenix, Shirley's Love's Cruelty and Imposture, and Nabbes' Unfortunate Mother are laid at F.


A small vill. in ancient Etruria, near Falerii, abt. 30 m. due N. of Rome. It is only remembered through the name "Fescennine verses," which was applied to extempore effusions sung at weddings and other rustic festivals, and marked by extreme licentiousness of language. They were supposed to have originated at F., though the authority for this is not very strong. Jonson, in Underwoods 243, says, "We dare not ask our wish In language Fescennine." In Cartwright's Ordinary v. 4, Rimewell says, "Mr. Hearsay told us that Mr. Meanwell was new married, and thought it good that we should gratify him and show ourselves to him in a Fescennine."




See FEZ.


Lond., running S. from Holborn into Fleet St., which it enters about half way between Ludgate Circus and Temple Bar. The town hostel of the Bps. of Norwich was here. It was originally Faiteres-L., or Faitur L., and according to Stow was so called from the Fewters, or idle people, lying there. It is called Viter L. in the 13th cent. It was the most Westerly st. consumed in the Gt. Fire. Jonson and Dryden both lived for a time in F. L.; and so did Lemuel Gulliver, who tells of a long lease he had "of the Black Bull in F. L." At No. 32 was the Moravian Meeting House, where John Wesley held the first Watchnight service in England. In the 17th cent. it would appear to have been a haunt of pawnbrokers. In Barry's Ram iii. 4, Throate says, "Beard, take thou these books, go both to the brokers in F.-L., lay them in pawn for a velvet jerkin and a double ruff." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 1, Fungoso says, "40 shillings more I can borrow on my gown in F. L."


A town in Kent on a creek of the E. Swale, 47 m. E. of Lond. and 8 m. W. of Canterbury. The abbey was founded by Stephen, and he and his Q. were buried there. It was surrendered to Henry VIII in 1538, and granted by him to Sir Thomas Cheyney. In Fam. Vict. i. 1, Henry says to his companions after the robbery, "Now, whither shall we go?" And they reply: "Why, my Lord, you know our old hostess at F." To which he responds, "Our hostess at F., blood! what shall we there? We have a thousand pound about us, and we shall go to a petty ale-house?" The scene of Feversham is mostly laid there; and in i. 1, Franklin informs Arden: "The D. of Somerset Hath freely given to thee and to thy heirs All the lands of the Abbey of F." The hero of W. Rowley's Shoemaker is Crispine, the son of a British prince, who has apprenticed himself to a shoemaker at F. The story is fully told in Deloney's Craft i. 5. The name is now usually spelt Faversham.


A Barony in Co. Armagh, some m. N. of Dundalk, which belonged to the O'Neils. It contains the Few mountains. In Stucley 892, O'Neale, at Dundalk, says, "Come, go back into the Fewes again "; and in 911, the Lieutenant speaks of "the North Gate [of Dundalk] that opens toward the Fewes."


One of the most important cities in Morocco, with which it was incorporated in 1548. It lies 197 m. N.E. of Morocco and 85 m. from the Mediterranean. It was founded by Edris in 793, and soon became the greatest seat of learning in W. Africa. It had a university, a magnificent library, and 700 mosques. Its fine palace is said to have been built by Christian slaves. It has a large trade, and until quite recently had a monopoly of the manufacture of the Turkish national headdress, which takes its name from the city. The peculiar red dye used for the f. is obtained from a berry which grows there. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. iii. 1, the Kings of F., Morocco, and Barbary are found amongst the supporters of Bajazeth against Tamburlaine. After his victory over them Tamburlaine makes his friend Techelles K. of F. In Stucley 1424, Hotalla, the Portuguese ambassador, informs Philip of Spain, "Lately from the K. of F., Muly Mahomet, to my royal master Hath ambassage been sent to crave his aid Against Mullucco, brother to that K." Sebastian of Portugal went to Mahomet's assistance, but was killed in the battle of Alcasar in 1578. In Peele's Alcazar i., the Moor says, "Our enemies have encamped themselves not far From F." In T. Heywood's Maid of West A. v. 1, we are introduced to Mullisheg, "the amorous k. of F., "who falls in love with Bess, but magnanimously bestows heron her old lover, Spencer. In Lust's Domin. v. 1, the Q.-mother says, "Your deceased K. made war In Barbary, Won Tunis, conquered F., and, hand to hand, Slew great Abdela, K. of F." The deceased K. is apparently Philip 1, but the story is imaginary, save for the general fact that in the early 15th cent. there was constant war between Spain and Morocco. In T. Heywood's Captives i. 1, when Mildew wants to sell some young girls, Sarleboys asks, "What say you to Morocho, F., Algiers?" i.e. as markets for them. In Milton's P. L. xi. 403, Adam is shown in vision "The kingdoms of Almansor, F., and Sus." Almansor was Caliph of Bagdad 754–775. His dominion extended over N. Africa.


A piece of ground abt. 10 acres in extent, now known as Lincoln's Inn New Sq, in Lond. It belonged to the Priory of St. John of Jerusalem till the dissolution of the monasteries, and was also known as Templars F. In Oldcastle ii. 2, Acton says, "From Lond. issue out 40 odd thousands into Ficket F. Where we appoint our special randevous." "Where's that Ficket f.?" asks Murley. And Acton replies: "Behind saint Giles-in-the-f., near Holborn."


A famous temple on the Capitoline Hill at Rome. It was founded by Numa, and restored in the 1st Punic War. It was often used for meetings of the Senate, and was the scene of the session which preceded the murder of Tiberius Gracchus. In Tiberius 3197, the stage direction runs: "Enter Caligula and Macro from F. t."


A translation of the Hebrew Aceldama. See Matthew xxvii. 6–8, and Acts i. 19. The traditional site is S. of Jerusalem, on the N.E. slope of the Hill of Evil Counsel, overlooking the valley of the Son of Hinnom. In York M. P. xxxii. 370, Pilate says, "The F. of B. look ye it call." In line 350, its owner says, "Calvary locus men calls it ": a curious mistake.


In Massinger's Maid Hon. iii. 1, Gonzaga, at Sienna, says that the Duchess "at this instant is at F." Some of the editors read Pienza, which is probably right–Pienza being a town in Italy, 15 m. S.E. of Sienna. It was the birthplace of Pius II and an immense palace was built there by his nephew, Pius III.


A county on the E. coast of Scotland between the Firths of Forth and Tay. The palace of Falkland was the seat of the Macduffs, and the cross of Macduff may still be seen on the Ochil Hills. In Mac. i. 2, 48, Ross says that he has come "from F. Where the Norweyan banners flout the sky." In ii. 4, 36, after the murder of the K., Macduff says, "I'll to F." In iv. 1, 72, the witches bid Macbeth, "Beware the Thane of F.," i.e. Macduff; and consequently, in iv. 1, 150, Macbeth says, "The castle of Macduff I will surprise; Seize upon F." The next scene is laid at "F. Macduff's Castle," i.e. Falkland Castle. In v. 1, 47, Lady Macbeth soliloquises, "The Thane of F. had a wife; where is she now?" In H4 A. i. 1, 71, the K. says, "Of prisoners, Hotspur took Mordake, the Earl of F." This Murdoch was the son of the D. of Albany, Regent of Scotland; and was also Earl of Menteith, though Shakespeare follows Hollinshed's mistake in making them different persons, and in speaking of Murdoch as eldest son to the beaten Douglas.


(now PHILPOT L). In Lond., running S. from Fenchurch St. to East Cheap. It was named from Sir John Filpot, once Lord Mayor, who in 1378 equipped 1000 soldiers at his own expense and with them captured John Mercer, a notorious pirate, and 15 Spanish ships laden with great riches. He lived in the L. and was the owner thereof, says Stow. In Jonson's Christmas' Christmas sings, "Kit cobler it is, I'm a father of his, And he dwells in the l. called F."


(more properly FINKE'S L.). In Lond., running from Cornhill to Threadneedle St., to the E. of the Royal Exchange. It was named in honour of Robert Finke, who built the ch. of St. Bennet Fink in Threadneedle St. Deloney, in Craft ii. 10, mentions "Anthony Now-Now, the firkin fidler of Finchlane." He is said to have got his nickname from his singing of Dowland's lovely air, "Now, O now, we needs must part."


A vill. in Middlesex on one of the main approaches to Lond. from the N.W., 8 m. N. from the Post Office. It is mentioned by Acton in Oldcastle iii. 2, as one of the villages where his army of rebels is quartered: "Some here with us in Hygate, some at F."


In N.W. Spain. In Eastward iii. 3, Seagul says, "When I come to C. Finister, there's a forth-right wind continually wafts us till we come to Virginia." Chaucer's Shipman (C. T. A. 407), "knew well alle the havenes as they were, From Gootland to the C. of Fynystere."


A dist. in Lond., N. of Cripplegate and Moorgate. The name is still preserved in F. Circus, F. Pavement, etc. It was during the Elizabethan times an open field, and was a favourite walk for the citizens and their wives. In H4 A. iii. 1, 257, Hotspur chaffs his wife for saying "in good sooth ": "Thou giv'st such sarcenet surety for thy oaths As if thou never walk'st further than F. . . . leave 'in sooth' To velvetguards and Sunday-citizen." In Goosecap iii. 1, Sir Gyles says, "I love day-light and run after it into F. Fields in the evening to see the windmills go." In Stucley 610, Blurt is described as "Sir Bailif of F."; and in 615 he says that Jack Dudley is "in F. Jail for hurting a man behind the Windmills last Saturday "(see WINDMILL). In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, Fortress says, "Our orders are such as the most envious Justice at F. shall not exclaim on." Duels were often fought there. In K.K.K. (Dods. vi. 591), Honesty says, "Bad-minded men stand in F. Fields near Lond. and there be shot to death." In Shirley's Wedding iv. 1, Landby says, "Rawbone has challenged Master Lodam; the place F."

The Fields were specially used for the practice of archery. Marks, both rovers and butts, were set up there, to the number of 160, and were distinguished by names such as "Dunstan's Darling," "Lee's Leopard ... "Mildmay's Rose," and the like. No obstructions were permitted that would obscure the archers' sight of the marks. The Ayme for Finsburie Archers, published in 1594, gives a list of the marks with their names and distances, which were reckoned as so many score, i.e. of yards. Some of the marks were in the shape of a Turk. In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 1, Hodge says, "If I stay I pray God I may be turned to a Turk and set in F. for boys to shoot at." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 1, Stephen asks, "Because I dwell at Hogsden, shall I keep company with none but the archers of F.?" In Davenant's Wits i. 1, Young Palatine professes his conversion from his wild curses: "This deboshed whinyard I will reclaim to comely bow and arrows and shoot with haberdashers at F., and be thought the grandchild of Adam Bell." In Penn. Parl. 31, it is enacted "that there shall great contentions fall between soldiers and archers; for some shall maintain that a Turk can be hit at 12 score pricks (i.e. 240 yards) in F. Fields, ergo the bow and shafts won Bullen "(see BOULOGNE). In Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, Quarlous says to Overdo, "Nay, Sir, stand not you fixed here, like a stake in F, to be shot at." In Davenant's Playhouse i. 1, the Poet speaks of "that famous duel which in the fields of F. was fought whilom at Rovers with long bow and arrows; it began at day-break and ended at sun-setting." The Fields were naturally a haunt of beggars. In Middleton's Hubbard, p. 99, a wounded sower goes begging there on Sunday: "and I saw the tweering Constable of F. making towards me."

The Fields were also used for the drilling of the City Train-bands; and these citizen-soldiers came in for a good deal of fashionable ridicule tiff in the Civil War they proved their mettle. In Shirley's Fair One v. 1, Fowler speaks of "a spruce Capt. that never saw service beyond F. or the Artillery Garden." In Jonson's Devil iii. 1, Meercraft advises Gilthead to get his son "his posture book and 's leaden men To set upon a table 'gainst his mistress Chance to come by, that he may draw her in, And show her F. battles." In Shirley's Honoria (a.k.a. Honor and Riches) iv. 3, Fulbank boasts, "I was knocked down thrice and lost my beard At taking of a fort in F." In his Riches ii., the Soldier says to the Courtier, "Some fellows have beaten you into belief that they have seen the wars, that perhaps mustered at Mile-end or F." In Killigrew's Parson v. 4, Sad says, "You have missed that man of war, that knight of F." In Brome's Couple i. 1, Wat says, "He would ha' so beaten you, as never was citizen beaten since the great battle of F.-Field." In Nabbes' Bride ii. 6, one of the Blades, having been beaten by Theophilus, says, "There is more valour in some than what's only shown in a F. muster." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon iv. 2, Luce's Father says, "When I was young, I had my wards and foins and quarterblows, Tuttle, F., I knew them all." The City Hounds were kept in F. Peacham, in Worth of a Penny (1647), says that, rather than dine at a superior's table, "any noble spirit had rather dine with my Lord Mayor's hounds in F. Fields." The scene of Jonson's Tub is F. Hundred; and 4 of the characters, a knot of clowns, dub themselves "the Council of F."


(now called FISH ST. HILL). In Lond., running S. from East Cheap to Lower Thames St. It was the main thoroughfare to Lond. Bdge. before the new approach by K. William St. was made. Here the Monument was erected in memory of the Gt. Fire of 1666, and over against it was the Black Bell Inn, which stood on the site of the Lond. house of Edward the Black Prince. At the S. end of the Hill is the Ch. of St. Magnus. In H6 B. iv. 8, 1, Cade cries to his rabble, "Up F. St.! Down St. Magnus corner! Kill and knock down! Throw them into Thames!" In Middleton's No Wit ii. 1, Weatherwise, the Astrologer, says, "Sol in Pisces! The sun's in N. F. St." In his Black Book (1604), p. 17, he says, "There was an house upon F.-st, hill burnt to the ground once." In News Barthol. Fair, in the list of taverns, we have "Kings Head in N. F.-st. where roysters do range." In Prodigal ii. 4, Lancelot says to Oliver, "Let's meet at the King's Head in F. St." The site of the tavern is marked by King's Head Court, near the Monument.


Lond., which used to run W. from Bread St. to Old Change. The E. end of it disappeared to make room for Q. Victoria St., and the W. end was absorbed in Knightrider St. The Ch. of St. Nicholas on the S. side of Knightrider St. used to be in O. F. St. It was the original fish-market of Lond., and is mentioned in the Statute 8, Edward 1, as Elde-fis-strate. There were many taverns in it, at which fishdinners were served with good wine to wash them down. Curiosities from the sea, such as huge or strange fish and alleged mermaids, were exhibited in the st. In Chaucer's C. T. C. 564, the Pardoner warns the company to keep them from wine, "And namelly fro the white wyn of Lepe That is to selle in Fysshstrete or in Chepe." In Penn. Parl. 41, it is enacted that "salmon shall be better sold in F.-st. than the beer shall be at Billingsgate." In Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, Littlewit, explaining his puppet-show, says, "I make . . . Hero a wench o' the Bankside who, going over one morning to O. F.St., Leander spies her land at Trig Stairs." Later on, Leatherhead says, "Hero of the Bankside Is come over into F.-st. to eat some fresh herring." In Brome's City Wit i. 1, Josina sends Bridget "to Mrs. Parmisan the cheesemonger's wife in o. F.-st." In Davenant's Rutland, p. 215, the Parisian says, "Oh, the goodly landskip of O. F. St. which, had it not the ill luck to be crooked, was narrow enough to have been your founder's perspective i.e. telescope. In Mayne's s Match iii. 2, Timothy is disguised and exhibited as a sea-monster, "Just like a salmon upon a stall in F.-st."; and in iii. 3, he complains, "Within this fortnight I had been converted Into some pike; you might ha' cheapened me In F.-st." In Temp. ii. 2, 20, Trinculo says, "Were I in England now, as once I was, and had but this fish [Caliban] painted, not a holiday fool there but would give a piece of silver." Doubtless he would have exhibited him in F.-st. In B. & F. Wife ii. 1, Tony tells, "There was a drunken sailor that got a mermaid with child; the infant monster is brought up in F.-st." In the list of taverns in News Barthol. Fair, we find "the Bores Head in O. F.-st."; and "0. F.-st. at the Swan." Tokens of both these taverns may be seen in the Beaufoy collection. In the dedication of Day's Humour to Signior Nobody, he says, "Till I meet you next at your great Castle in F. St. I'll neither taste of your bounty nor be drunk to your health." Evidently there was an Inn in F.-st. with the popular sign of a man with a head and legs, but no body. In Middleton's Inner Temple 22, Fasting Day says, "F. St. loves me e'en but from teeth outward," i.e. because on fast days more fish was sold. T. Heywood's Traveller was "Printed by Robert Raworth dwelling in O. F.-st. near St. Mary Maudlins Ch. 1633." This ch. was near to Dolittle Lane. In Jonson's Christmas, when Gambol announces, "Here's one out of Friday st. would come in," Christmas replies, "By no means, nor out of neither of the F.-sts. admit not a man; they are not Christmas creatures; fish and fasting days! Foh!" Gambol consequently gives orders, "Nobody out o' Friday St., nor the 2 F. sts., there, do you hear?" In B. & F. Prize v. 2, Jacques says that if Maria, the shrew, is thrown into the sea she would spoil all the fishing: "the a F. sts. would sing a woeful misereri." Dekker, in Bellman, speaks of "both Fishstreetes" as haunts of foysts, or pickpockets.


(the VIA FLAMINIA). One of the great Roman roads in Italy, leading from Rome to Ariminum. It was constructed by C. Flaminius in 220 B.C., and restored by Augustus 27 B.C. Like the Appian Way, it was lined with sepulchral monuments for some distance out of the city. Thomas May, in lines on Massinger's Roman Actor 9, describes the funeral of Paris, the actor: "his ashes laid In the F. W., where people strowed His grave with flowers."


(Fg. = Fleming, Fh. = Flemish). A country in the Netherlands, including the provinces of E. and W. F., now part of Belgium; Dutch F., which became part of the United Provinces; and some of the departments in N. France. In 1384 F. went to the Dukes of Burgundy by the marriage of the Countess Marguerite to Philip the Bold; and in 1477 by the marriage of its heiress Mary to the Archduke Maximilian, it was transferred to the house of Hapsburg. It remained part of the Austrian dominions until the abdication of Charles V (1556), when it passed to the Spanish branch of the Hapsburgs. By the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 it reverted to Austria. By the settlement of Vienna in 1815 the Spanish Netherlands were united with Holland, but in 1830 Belgium was separated from Holland and made into a separate kingdom. The manufactures of F. in the time of Elizabeth included, as Heylyn tells us, "linens, scarlet worsted, saies, silk velvets, and the like stuff." It also exported butter, cheese, and other agricultural produce. Its breed of heavy horses was especially valued in England for the drawing of carriages, which in those days of bad roads needed strong animals. It had a very considerable trade with England. In the reign of Henry II a large number of Flemings came over and settled in England, and a further immigration took place in the reign of Edward III. The English cloth manufacture was much benefited by these expert artificers, but they were regarded with much jealousy by the working classes, who thought that they were taking the bread out of their mouths. Fynes Moryson, in Itinerary iii. 2, 4, says that owing to the commercial importance of Bruges "F. gave the name to all Netherland." In many of the quotations following Fg. must not be interpreted too narrowly.

Sir Thopas, the hero of Chaucer's Tale, was "yborn in Flaundres al biyonde the see at Poperyng ": which is a town in W. F. close to the French border. The scene of the Pardoner's Tale is laid in "Flaundres." In the Shipman's Tale, the absence of the merchant in F., where he had business in Bruges, gave Dan John his opportunity. In the prol. to C. t., we are told that the Squire "hadde been somtyme in chyvachie In Flaundres, in Artoys, and Picardie ": probably in the expedition which was sent to assist the citizens of Ghent against the French K. in 1383 under Spenser, the warlike Bp. of Norwich. In World Child, p. 170, Manhood says, "Manhood mighty am I named in every country . . . for gentle Artois, Florence, F., and France and also Gascoigne, all have I conquered as a knight." Hycke, p. 88, names F. as one of the countries that he has visited. In Wealth 426, Ill Will says, "By war in F. there is wealth." In Chivalry, which apparently is placed in the reign of St. Louis of France, there is a D. of F. amongst the characters. In H6 C. iv. 5, 21, Hastings advises Edward to go to Lynn and "ship from thence to F." This was in 1470, after Warwick's defection. In Day's B. Beggar i., Beaufort says to Gloster, "Thou wilt abuse her As once thou didst the Earl of F., wife." The reference is to Jaqueline, the wife of John of Brabant, whom Gloster had persuaded to leave her husband and marry him. In B. & F. Rule a Wife i. 1, Clara says, "Capt., I hear you're marching down to F. To serve the Catholic K." The scene is in Valladolid, and the reference to the wars in F. between Philip II of Spain and the United Provinces.

The Flemings in England. In Chaucer, C. T. B. 4586, we are told: "Certes, he Jacke Straw and his meynee Ne made never shoutes half so shrille Whan that they wolden any Fleming kill." In Lickpenny, Lydgate tells how, outside Westminster Hall, "Fgs. began on me for to cry Master, what will ye copen or buy? Fine felt hats or spectacles to read?" In Three Ladies ii., Mercator says, "De Frenchman and Fgs. in dis country be many." In Skelton's Magnificence, fol. v., when someone calls "Fancy!" Fancy, not wishing to answer, says, "It was a Fg. hight Hansy."

Character and appearance of the Flemings. Heylyn says, "They are much given to our English beer." In M.W.W. iii. 1, 23, Mrs. Page, calls Falstaff "this Fh. drunkard." In Wealth 400, Wit says, "Such drunken Fgs. your company still mar." In Dekker's Westward ii. 2, Birdlime says, "Frenchmen love to be bold, Fgs. to be drunk." In Fulwell's Like, Haz., iii. 325, Tosspot has a train of "Fh. servants that will quaff and carouse and therein spend their gain." In Ford's Warbeck i. 1, Dawbeny says that Warbeck is only ft "to be a swabber to the Fh. After a drunken surfeit." In Webster's Weakest ii. 3, Bunch says, "This F. is too thrifty a country, for here the women heel their husbands' hose themselves." In Dekker's Babylon 262, Fidell says, "The Capt. swears, Fg.-like, by 20,000 devils." In Davenant's Plymouth v. 1, Inland desires to embrace Bumble "in a F. hug, embracing coarsely, like 2 lofty younkers of the Hague." In Jonson's Alchemist iv. 1, Subtle says of Surly, "He does look too fat to be a Spaniard." And Face replies: "Perhaps some Fg. or some Hollander got him in D'Alva's time." In Nabbes' Microcosmus v., Tasting says, "I have converted more butter into kitchen stuff than would have victualled a Fh. garrison." In Nabbes' Spring, Christmas says, "Though thou be fat as a Fg., I'll have Lent choke thee." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 2, Cob opines that fasting-days "are of a Fh. breed, for they ravin up more butter than all the days of the week beside." In M.W.W. ii. 2, 316, Ford says, "I will rather trust a Fg. with my butter than my wife with herself." In Boorde's Intro. of Knowledge 147, the F. man says, "Buttermouth Fg. men do me call." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. A. i. 2, Viola says, "I long to have my patent husband eat up a whole porcupine to the intent the bristling quiffs may stick about his lips like a Fh. mustachio, and be shot at me."

Flemish occupations and industries. The Fh. Were much occupied in fishery in the North Sea, and the word "hoy," meaning a small sloop-rigged vessel, was borrowed from them. In B.&F.Gentleman iii. 1, Clerimont speaks of "Some lean commander of an angry blockhouse To keep the Fh. eel-boats from invasion." In Marlowe's Ed. II ii. 4, young Mortimer says, "Here in the river rides a Fh. hoy; Let's all aboard." Dekker, in Hornbook Proem, speaks of men "driven, like a Fh. hoy in foul weather, to slip into our school." In B. & F. Prize v. 2, Jaques says that if Maria is thrown into the sea, "she would make god Neptune as weary of the Fh. Channel as ever boy was of the school."

Textiles and other articles of clothing were the staple of the manufacturing industry. In Jonson's New Inn ii. 2, Tipto says, "I would put on the ruff . . . And cuffs of F." In Brief Conceipt of English Policy (1581), the author complains that Englishmen will not be contented with kersie, "but it must be of F. dye." In Davenant's Platonic ii. 1, Sciolto speaks of "A corslet edged with F. purl": purl being a fringe made of twisted gold or silver wire. In Brome's Ct. Beggar i. 1, Gabriel describes one of the Drs. as "He that affects gay clothes and F. laces." The Merchant, in prol. to Chaucer's C. T. A. 272, had "Upon his heed a Flaundryssh bevere hat." In Davenant's Favourite iv. 1, a lady says, "She's needs compare her F. peak to mine." The peak was a part of a lady's headdress projecting over the forehead. In B. & F. Pilgrimage i. 1, Incubo mentions, "A cloak of Genoa velvet With Fh. buttons." In Jonson's New Inn ii. 2, Tipto speaks of "A cloak of Genoa set With Brabant buttons." There are still 5 button-factories in Brussels. In Juventus B. 4, Hypocrisy says, "If I had not been, Thou haddest not been worth a F. pin." In Life of Thomas Parr (1635), it is stated: "There was no starch used in England till a F. woman, one Mrs. Dinghen Vanden Plasse, brought in the use of starch 1564." Swords were made in F., but they were regarded as much inferior to the Spanish, or Toledo, swords. In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 1, Bobadil, examining the sword which Stephen has bought, says, "This a Toledo, pish! A Fg. by heaven! I'll buy them for a guilder a-piece." F. mares were specially valued as carriage-horses in England. They are of a heavy and powerful breed, and are now imported for use in lorries and brewers' carts. In B. & F. Wit Money iii. 2, Valentine says to Lady Heartwell, "What though you have a coach lined through with velvet And 4 fair F. mares?" In Shirley's Fair One iii. 5, Brains wishes that he, had "a caroch and 6 F. mares." In his Gamester iii. 3, Hazard says of the knight: "He will talk you nothing but postilions, Embroideries for his coach, and F. mares." In B. & F. Scornful i. 2, the Traveller has "a F. mare that leaped "to the sun. In Massinger's Madam ii. 2, Anne demands from her suitor "my caroch, Drawn by 6 F. mares." In B. & F. Wit S. W. i. 1, Oldcraft says, "At first snap she's a Countess, drawn with 6 mares through Fleet St., and a coachman sitting bareheaded to their F. buttocks." In Dekker's Edmonton iv. 1, Mother Sawyer affirms that city wives are the true witches: "Those by enchantment can turn ploughs and teams To F. mares and coaches." In Ford's Trial iii. 1, Benatzi cries, "F. mares! Stately!" In Marlowe's Jew iii. 4, Ithamore says, "Here's a drench to poison a whole stable of F. mares." In Lawyer v., Nice says, "He has sold his caroch with 4 F. mares."

In Davenant's Love Hon. iv. 2, Vasco says, "If I command thee to cut off these ladies' heads, thou'lt do it with the dexterity of a Fg." Taylor tells of the skill of the Fh. executioners and the training they had to undergo. In Chaucer, C. T. B. 4357, Roger says, "Sooth play quaad play, as the Flemyng saith," i.e. "A true jest is an evil jest." In H349, we read: "The Flemyng seith and lerne it if thee leste, That litel janglyng causeth muchel rest," i.e. "Least said, soonest mended." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 27.t, John says, "If I do not make a F. reckoning of it–and that is, as I have heard mad wags say, receive it here and revel it away in another place–let me be spit out of the room of good fellowship." In B. & F. Cure E. 1, Pachico tells of "the miraculous maid in F. who lived 3 years without any other sustenance than the smell of a rose." See s.v. BRABANT.

The Fh. language was a dialect of Low German. In Webster's Weakest there is a Fg., Jacob, who speaks a sort of mixture of Fh. and English, thus: "Come floux, betall gelt, Lodowick gelt! Ware been de France crown? de rix daler? de Anglis skelling? Lik dore, see de creet, de chalke; eane, twea, dree, viar guildern for brant ween," i.e. "Look sharp, pay money, Lodovic money! Where are the French crowns, the rix dollars, the English shillings? Look there; see the chalk, the score: one, two, three, four guilders for brandy." See also s.v. DUTCH, HOLLAND, Low COUNTRIES, NETHERLANDS.


One of the 4 bdges. across the Fleet Ditch, Lond. It connected Ludgate Hill with F. St. There was a bdge. at this point as early as the reign of Richd. I. A stone bdge. was built in 1431 by the Mayor, John Wels, which had a stone coping with iron pikes and provision for lights on the S. side. This was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and replaced by a stone structure of the same width as the st. and high enough to allow barges to get under it. After the Ditch had been covered in to the N. of F. St., the S. coping was left. The bdge. was finally taken down in 1765. In Barry's Ram iii., Shortshanks' wife has gone "down toward F. B."; Thomas says later that she went in by the Greyhound (q.v.), and so struck into Bridewell. Beard, on the contrary, thinks she went along Shoe Lane. In Mayne's s Match i. 4, Newcut asks, "Didst look to hear such language beyond Ludgate?"and Bright answers, "I thought all wit had ended at F. B., but wit that goes by the score; that may extend, if 't be a courtier's wit, into Cheapside." The idea is that wit was to be found amongst the lawyers in the Temple, W. of F. B., and courtiers (who went on tick with the citizens), and did not extend into the city. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. ii. i. Sogliardo says, "There's a new motion of the city of Nineveh with Jonas and the whale to be seen at F.-b." In Chaunticleers v., Welcome says of Bung: "He has tricks enou' to furnish all the tapsters between Charing Cross and F. B.," i.e. in the Strand and F. St. F. St. was amply suppled with taverns: for a list, see under FLEET ST.


The Fleet was a stream rising in the Hampstead and Highgate Hills, N. of Lond., and flowing through Kentish Town, Camden Town, and St. Pancras to Battle Bdge.; thence to Holborn Bdge., and so into the Thames at Blackfriars. Above Holborn it was known as the Hole-bourn; and it was also called the River of Wells, from the many wells or springs that fed it, like Clerkenwell, Skinnerswell, Fagswell, Todswell, Loderswell, and Radswell. Near Holborn it was called Turnmill Brook, from the mills on its banks. In the I 13th cent. it was easily navigable up to Holborn Bdge., and was 10 ft. in breadth. Already in 1356 we find that it was choked up by the filth that was constantly thrown into it from the tanneries and lay-stalls on its banks. I. the 16th cent. it had become a common sewer and was called F. D. In 1652 it is reported quite impassable for boats on account of the garbage thrown in from the butchers' shops and cook-shops. The Gt. Fire cleared off all the crazy buildings on the d.-side, and it was widened to 40 ft. and the channel deepened so that barges could once more go up to Holborn. Bdges. spanned it at the bottom of Ludgate Hill–the F. Bdge.–at Bridewell, at F. Lane, and at Holborn. But it soon reverted to its old filthiness, and in 1733 it was covered in from Holborn to F. Bdge. and the F. Market was established over its course. In 1766 the rest of the d. was covered in from F. Bdge. to Blackfriars. It now flows under Farringdon St. and New Bridge St., and empties itself into the low-level sewer, though provision is made for diverting it, if necessary, into the Thames. In Jonson's Famous Voyage there is an amusing account of how Sir Ralph Shelton and Sir Christopher Heyden rowed up the D. from Bridewell to Holborn, in which the filthy condition of it is described with malodorous minuteness. In W. Rowley's Match Mid. iv. 2, Jarvis speaks of "one of my aunts (videlicet bawds), a widow by F.-d." In Davenant's Wits i. 2, Thwack says, "I have a strong mind to re-edify The decays of F.-D.; from whence I hear The roaring vestals late are fled through heat Of persecution." In Davenant's Plymouth v. 1, Cable speaks of "the distressed daughters of old Eve, that lie wind-bound about F.-D." In Epilogue to Ev. Man O., Jonson calls it "our city's torrent, bent to infect The hallowed bowels of the silver Thames." In B. & F. Pestle, the Prologue proposes as the subject of a play in honour of the City: "The Life and Death of fat Drake, or the Repairing of F.-privies."


A st. in Lond. running W. from Old Bailey, a little S. of the prison, to the F. Ditch (now Farringdon St.). It was chiefly occupied by taverns and cook-shops, and was the boundary of the F. liberties northward. John Felton was lodging in F. Lane before he set out for Portsmouth to murder the D. of Buckingham, and one of the witnesses at his trial was Elizabeth Josselyn, who kept a circulating library in F. L. In Massinger's Madam i. 1, Anne reviles the cooks hired by Holdfast, "Fie on them! They smell of F.-l. and Pie-corner." Jonson, in Famous Voyage, speaks of the banks of the F. Ditch, "on whose banks Your F.-l. Furies and hot cooks do dwell." Tourneur's [ed note: anonymous, probably Middleton's] Revenger was "Printed by G. Eldand and are to be sold at his house in F.-L. at the sign of the Printer's Press. 1607."


This famous prison lay on the E. side of the F. Ditch, Lond., a little N. of the junction of Ludgate Hill and F. St. The site is supposed by Mr. Roach Smith to have been originally a Roman amphitheatre. The 1st mention of its use as a p. occurs in the reign of Richd. I, when Nathanael de Leveland was appointed to keep the K.'s gaol of F. Bdge. The prisoners were taken by boat along the F. Ditch and entered by a water-gate. It was long used as the p. of the Star Chamber and Chancery Courts, but when the former was abolished in 1642 it was made a p. for debtors, bankrupts, and persons guilty of contempt of court. The chief officer was named the Warden of the F. The original p. was burnt down by Wat Tyler's rabble and rebuilt. It was again burnt down in the Gt. Fire, and once more by the Gordon rioters. It was re-erected on the E. side of Farringdon St., which runs along the course of the F. Ditch, now entirely covered in; it was finally abolished in 1846, and its site is now occupied partly by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway and partly by the Farringdon St. Memorial Hall,. Prisoners were allowed to live anywhere within the liberties of the F., which were bounded by Ludgate Hill, Old Bailey, F. Lane, and F. Ditch. In the p. and the Liberties marriages were permitted to be celebrated by members of the clergy who lived there. No questions were asked and no formalities insisted on. These F. marriages were abolished in 1774. Among the notable prisoners who have been confined in the F. may be mentioned the poet Surrey, Bp. Hooper, and many of the Marian martyrs: Wycherley; William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke; Prynne, and Lilburne. In Hg B. v. 4, 98, the Chief Justice commands, "Go, carry Sir John Falstaff to the F.; Take all his company along with him." In Skelton's Colin Clout I 158, we have: "Take him, Warden of the F., Set him fast by the feet." In Look about iii., the K. says, "Warden of the F., Take you the charge of Gloster." In Fam. Vict. (Hazlitt, 336), the Judge says to Prince Henry, "I commit you to the F. until we have spoken with your father." In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 1, Gaveston says of the Bp. of Coventry: "He shall to prison and there die in bolts." To which the K. replies: "Ay, to the Tower, the F., or where thou wilt." In Eastward iii. 2, Quicksilver says to Sir Petronel, whose creditors have laid to arrest him, "Let 'em take their choice; either the K.'s Bench, or the F., or which of the 2 Counters they like best." Jonson, in Famous Voyage, tells of the "outcries of the damned in the Fleet." Bradford, in his paraphrase of Ps. lxxix., says, "How miserable they handle Thy bondservants, the prisons of the K.'s Bench, Marshalsea, F., Newgate, and in many other places doth to all the world cry out." In Massinger's Madam iv. 3, Hoist says, "I'll be removed to the F. and drink and drab there In spite of your teeth." In Shirley's C. Maid ii. 2, Hornet says, "I see my chattels seized and I am already marching to the F." In Middleton's R.G. iv. 1, Moll sings, "She lay with one of the navy, Her husband lying i' the F." In Field's Amends iv. 1, there is a reference to the F. marriages. Bold tries to persuade Lady Brightwell to yield to his unlawful passion, and says, "Newness of the trick, if nothing else, might stir ye." To which she replies: "'Tis a stale one, and was done in the F. 10 years ago."


Lond., running W. from the bottom of Ludgate Hill to Temple Bar, the site of which is now marked by the Griffin. It was originally a mere path along the river bank: its existence as a road dates from the 12th cent., when the Knights Templars took: up their abode on the river side and built the Temple Ch. It took its name from the F. river, which it crossed at its E. end. At first it extended up what is now Ludgate Hill, as far as Old Bailey. In Elizabethan times the lawyers occupied the Temple, which they had held since the middle of the 14th cent. At the W. end of the st. was Temple Bar, which came into existence some time about the end of the 13th cent. At the other end was Ludgate, which stood just W. of St. Martin's at the end of Old Bailey. Just west of Shoe Lane stood The Conduit, originally erected in 1388 and rebuilt with great magnificence in 1478: it had a stone tower with St. Christopher on the top and angels lower down, and a chime of bells worked by "an Engine placed in the tower." Starting from Ludgate on the N. side of the st., and going W., Shakespeare would pass in succession the Belle Savage Inn, The Rose Inn, F. Bdge., Shoe Lane, Peterborough Court, Fetter Lane, St. Dunstan's Ch., and Chancery Lane; turning back and going E. on the S. side, the great gate of the Temple, the Queen's Head, the Hand, the Falcon, the Star and Ram, from which Ram Alley got its name, the entrance to the White Friars, the Bolt-in-Tun, the Boar's Head, the Cock and Key, Hanging Sword Alley, Salisbury House, St. Bride's Ch., and F. Bdge., with a view, down the stream, of Bridewell on the W. and Blackfriars on the E. bank; while, looking N., he would see on the E. bank the frowning pile of the F. Prison. The Inns of Court, and the great houses of the nobles stretching along the Strand, made F. St. a fashionable suburb. In Mayne's s Match i. 4, Bright and Newcut, the Templars, cannot conceive that wit can extend further E. than F. Bdge. In Shirley's Love Maze iii. 3, I.ady Bird's steward "lies in F. St." In B. & F. Wit S. W. i. 1, Oldcraft says of his niece: "at first snap she's a Countess drawn with 6 mares through F. St." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. ii. 1, Downright avers, "If I swallow this, Ill ne'er draw my sword in the sight of F. St. again." The lawyers, or Templars, were familiar figures in the st. In Stucley 152, Newton tells old Stucley, whose son is in the Temple, "Th' other day I saw him come up F.-st. with the Lord Windsor and Lord Aburganny." In Mayne's s Match i. 3, Plotwell greets Bright and Newcut, the Templars, "What, my F.-st. friends?" In Dekker's Northward i. 2, Doll says, "I'm as melancholy now as F.-st. in a long vacation." There was quarrelling enough, but much of it was done for effect. In Dekker's Northward ii. 2, Featherhead says, "Your husband is as tame as a fray in F.-st. when there are nobody to part them." The lawyers were not, however, reckoned as quite equal in gentility to men of title. Dekker, in Hornbook vi., says, "By sitting on the stage, if you be a knight, you may happily get you a Mistress; if a mere F.-st. Gentleman, a wife." Here is the premonition of the "bad baronet "of later fiction.

There were many taverns in F. St. In Nobody i. 1139, Nobody tells how, "coming through Fst., there at a tavern door 2 swaggerers were fighting." In Massinger's Trick to Catch iv. 5, Audrey sings, "Let the usurer cram him, in interest that excel, There's pits enough to damn him before he comes to hell; In Holborn some, in F. st. some ": where I suppose she means taverns and houses of ill-fame. In Stucley 564, Sparing demands,C.30 from Stucley "for tavern suppers and for quarts of wine at the Greyhound in F. St." In Barry's Ram iii., Thomas says that Will's wife "went in by the Greyhound and so struck into Bridewell." I fail to find this tavern in Bell's monograph on F. St., but it is clear from the Ram Alley passage that it was close to the F. Bdge. on the S. side of the st. In Barry's Ram ii., Throate says, "Meet me straight at the Mitre-door in F. st." This famous inn occupied the site of Hoare's Bank on the. S. side of the st., near Mitre Court, but it is not the same as the present Mitre in Mitre Court. In 1603 the jury presented the Mitre, because it had a back door into Ram Alley by which persons wanted by the police could convey themselves into the sanctuary of Whitefriars. Its balcony was burnt in the Gt. Fire. In a volume of poems by Richard Jackson, published 1625 or thereabout, the first is entitled Shakespeare's Rime which he made at the Myter in Flete Strete. It was Dr. Johnson's favourite tavern. In T. Heywood's Witches ii., Generous praises the wine he drank "at the Myter in Fst." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i. 3, the Capt. asks, "How shall we keep our word with Saunder Bloodhound in F. st. after dinner at the Fountain?" This was the building next to Inner Temple Gate, now No. 17. The upper part was a chamber belonging to the Crown, and it was successively known as the Hand, the K.'s Arms, and the Prince's Arms; and later as the Fountain. The building has been happily preserved and in part excellently restored. Other F. St. taverns were the Devil, opposite to St. Dunstan's; the King's Head at the corner of Chancery L.; the Boar's Head by Whitefriars St.; the Bolt-in-Tun just W. of it; the Horn, now [circa 1925] Anderton's Hotel; the Cock, of Tennysonian fame, near the corner of Chancery Lane; the Rainbow on the opposite side, and many more.

Tobacconists' shops speedily sprang up in F. St., or, at all events, tobacco was added to the commodities sold in other shops. The St. Dunstan's Register tells of several shopkeepers who were summoned for selling tobacco without licence, or annoying the judges with the smell of the weed, or keeping open at unlawful hours. Dekker's Lanthorn tells how rogues lie in wait for the Gull, "to note in what tobacco-shop in F.-st. he takes a pipe of smoke in the afternoon." Other businesses were carried on in F. St. It was the headquarters of the "cappers," or hat-makers, from the 13th cent. onward. In Dekker's Shoemaker's i. 1, Eyre speaks of "the courageous cordwainers; the flower of St. Martin's, the mad knaves of Bedlam, F. St., Tower St., and Whitechapel." Deloney, in Craft ii. 5, tells the story of "Peachey, the famous shoemaker of F.-st . . . . as good a shoemaker as any is in F.-st." Akin to the cordwainers were the saddlers.. one of whom had a sign of a man on horseback over his shop; in Jonson's Epicoene iv. 1, Dauphine says he saw Morose sitting over a crossbeam of the roof, "like him on the saddler's horse in F. St." In Stucley 363, Spring introduces us to" Sharp, the cutler of F.-st." S. R., in Letting of Humours Blood (1611), speaks of "Rapiers and daggers . . . As good as any F. St. hath in shop." The printers and booksellers, who in the kind of Journalism have now taken possession of the st., entered it in 1500 in the person of Caxton's partner, Wynkyn de Worde. His sign was the Sun, opposite Shoe Lane. The Ordinarye of crysten men was "Emprynted in the Cyte of Lond. in the Flete stret in the syne of the sonne by Wynken de Worde the yere of our lorde Mcccccii." William de Machlinia had a press even earlier than de Worde, "by Flete-brigge." Richard Pynson came in 1503 to the George, next St. Dunstan's Churchyard, and was succeeded there by Robert Redman. Thomas Berthelet had the sign of the Lucretia Romana in F. St., near to the conduit. Other printers of the 16th cent. were John Wayland at the Blue Garland; John Butler at the St. John Evangelist; and Robert Copeland at the Rose Garland. Richard Tottel, publisher of the famous Miscellany, was at the Hand and Star, between the 2 gates of the Temple, now No. 7. Darius was "Imprinted at London in Fleete-street beneath the Conduite at the sign of S. John Evangelist MDLXV." The 2nd quarto of Hamlet was "Printed by I. R. for N. L. and are to be sold at his shop under St. Dunstan's Ch. in F. St. 1604." Another edition was "Printed by W. S. for John Smethwicke and are to be sold at his shop in St. Dunstan's Churchyard in F.-st., under the Diall." Other St. Dunstan's printers were William Griffith, Richard Marriott, Matthias Walker, and John Browne. The 1st quarto of Midsummer Night's Dream was "sold at the shop of Thomas Fisher," at the Signe of the White Hart in Fleete-streete. 1600." John Hodgets published many plays of Dekker, Day, Webster, and Heywood at the sign of the Flower-de-Luce at the corner of Fetter Lane and F. St. Henry Wykes published at the Black Elephant, Lawrence Andrewe at the Golden Cross, Thomas at the King's Arms (No. 17), Anthony Clarke at the White Hart, and Richard Bankes next the White Hart. Phillip's Grissil was "Imprinted at London in Fleete-streat beneath the Conduit at the signe of St. John Evangelist by Thomas Colwell."

A disreputable business in irregular marriages was carried on within the liberties of the F. Prison (q.v.). In Barry's Ram iv., Thomas Smallshanks says to his friends, "Huffy the wench to F.-street; there my father and I will this morning be married "; and in the next scene one of them says to Thomas, "Away with her to F.-st.; go, the curate stays for you."

F. St. was a usual place for the exhibition of puppetplays, or "motions" as they were called. In Middleton's Trick to Catch i. 4, Dampit speaks of "motions of F.St, visions of Holborn." In Jonson's Volpone v. 2, the 1st Merchant says of the trick that has been played on Sir Politick: "'Twere a rare motion to be seen in F.-st." See also under F. BDGE. In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Peacham mentions amongst other curiosities "The F.-st. mandrakes." In Webster's Wyat, sc. xii, Arundel says, "Wyat is marched down F. St., after him!" In 1554 Wyat attacked Lond. and marched up F. St. as far as Ludgate, which was closed against him; and in the mêlée that followed he was taken prisoner. In Brome's Moor iv. 5, Quicksands says of the Inductor of the Masque: "He made the speeches last year before my Lord Marquess of F. Conduit."








Capital of Flintsh., N. Wales. It lies on the S. side of the estuary of the Dee, 197 m. N.W. of Lond. The ruins of the castle stand on a rocky eminence N.E. of the town. It was built by Henry II, and dismantled in 1647 by order of Parliament. In R2 iii. 2, 209, Richd. says, "Go to F. Castle; there I'll pine away." The next scene, in which Richd. surrenders to Bolingbroke, is laid in "Wales; before F. Castle."


The most N. county in Wales. In Jonson's Wales, Evan, being insulted by Jenkin, says, "I is angry and hungry too, if you mark me; I could eat his Flintseer face now."


A vill. in Northumberland, just S. of the Tweed, 50 m. N.W. of Newcastle. Here was fought the battle of F. Field, Sept. 9, 15 13, in which the Scots were defeated by the Earl of Surrey, and the K., James IV, slain. A stone pillar still marks the spot where he fell The full title of one of Greene's Plays is The Scottish History of James IV, slain at Flodden. Deloney, in Newberie ii., quotes a ballad, "At F. Field the Scots came in, Which made our Englishmen fain, At Bramstonegreene this battle was seen; There was K. Jamie slain."


(Fe. = Florentine); the Roman FLORENTIA and Italian FIRENZE. The capital of Tuscany, on the Arno, 125 m. N. of Rome. It was founded as a colony for Sulla's veterans in the early part of the 1st cent. B.C. Its greatness as a commercial centre began in the 10th cent. A.D. In the 13th cent., and the first quarter of the 14th, it attained the highest point of its greatness, in spite of the quarrels between the Guelphs and the Ghibellines which continually disturbed its peace. To this period belong the Duomo of Santa Maria del Fiore with its campanile and baptistry, the Ch. of Santa Maria Novella, the poems of Dante, and the art of Cimabue and Giotto. A terrible outbreak of the Black Death in 1348 was the occasion of Boccaccio's Decamerone. In the latter part of the 14th cent. the Medici family first appears on the stage, where it was destined for 300 years to act the leading part. In 1434 Cosimo the Elder was recalled from banishment, and finally destroyed the ascendancy of the Albizzi, who for about 50 years had held the chief power in the city. Piero the Gouty succeeded him in 1464, and was followed by his son Lorenzo, known as the Magnificent. After the murder of his brother Giuliano in 1478 he held undivided authority in F., and carried on the enlightened policy of his grand father by encouraging art and literature, until his Court became the centre of the Renascence movement. His son Pietro succeeded him in 1492, but was expelled by the citizens for his betrayal of Leghorn and Pisa to the French K., Charles VIII. From 1494 to 1512 F. retained its liberty, but through the influence of the Popes Leo X and Clement VII, both members of the Medicean family, the Medici were reinstated: the successive dukes being Alessandro (1529); Cosimo I (1537), who was created Grand D. of Tuscany by Pope Pius V in 1567; Francesco 1 (1574), whose intrigue with Bianca Capella horrified Europe; Ferdinand 1 (1587), who paid much attention to his navy and did good service against the Turks; Cosimo II (1609); Ferdinand II (1627); Cosimo III (1670); and Giovan Gastone (1723), at whose death in 1737 the family became extinct, the Grand-Dukedom passing to the D. of Lorraine, husband of Maria Theresa, who was shortly elected Emperor. In 1859 the last of the Hapsburgs was expelled, and in the following year Tuscany was united to N. Italy under the House of Savoy. In 1865 F. became the capital of the new Kingdom of Italy, and continued so until the seat of Government was transferred to Rome in 1870. The chief buildings beside the Duomo are the Palazzo Vecchio, the Churches of Santa Croce and San Lorenzo, and the Uffizi, Pitt, and Ricardi palaces. The names of Savonarola, Machiavelli, Galileo, and Guicciardini lend lustre to the fame of F. F. was one of the wealthiest cities in Europe, and her bankers supplied most of its monarchs with funds; and she had world-famed manufactures of woollen cloth, jewellery and goldsmith's work, and rich brocades. Her university, which includes the famous Accademia della Crusca, was founded in 1348.

In All's Well iii. 1, 3, 5, 6, and iv. 1–4 are laid in F., or in the camp of the Fes. The Fes. and Senoys are by the ears (i. 2). But whether there is any historical reference–the story is taken from Boccaccio–is quite uncertain. Bertram goes to F. as a volunteer, and is appointed General of the Horse by the Duke. Middleton's Women Beware tells the story of Bianca Capella's flight from Venice and her subsequent intrigue with Francesco I. Shirley's Traitor deals with the life of Lorenzino de Medici, who murdered D. Alessandro in 1529: though he was not killed as in the play, but survived his victim 11 years. In Barnes' Charter, there are references to the attack made on F. by Charles VIII of France in 1494. In ii. 1, Charles says, "Hence was it that we did capitulate So strictly with the crafty Fe. Whom we well knew favoured Alphonso's part." In Chapman's Consp. Byron i. 1, 200, K. Henry speaks of his marriage "with the Great D.'s niece." This was Marie de Medici, niece of the Grand Duke Ferdinand I.

Many other plays have their scene in F., but the alleged historical details are mostly imaginary. B. & F.'s Women Pleased concludes with the marriage of the Duchess of Florence to the D. of Sienna: this is unhistorical. In their Fair Maid I., one of the characters is the Grand D. of F., and another is the Admiral of F. who has rescued the fleet of Genoa from the Venetian gallies, and is ordered to attack the Turks at sea. In iii. 2, the D. speaks of the sad example "At Rome between the Ursins and Colonnas, Nay, here at home in F. 'twixt the Neri And the Bianchi." The Orsini.Colonna troubles at Rome and the Neri.Bianchi struggles at F. occurred about the middle of the 14th cent., 200 years before there was any Grand D. of Florence. The Great Duke of Florence, in Massinger's play of that name, is called Cozimo–presumably Cosimo I–and he has a nephew Giovanni, but the plot is taken from an old English story and has no historical foundation. In Mason's Mulleasses, an expedition against F. is undertaken by the Dukes of Ferrara and Venice, in order to win the hand of the D.'s daughter. The D. is called Borgias, and is obviously intended for Caesar Borgia. The supposed date must be about 1500, for Borgias is addressed, in line 1809, as Valentine, and Borgia was made D. of Valentinois in 1499. But he was never D. of F. In K. K. Hon. Man, "Medesa, D. of F.," is clearly meant for "Medici," but which of them is not clear. In Dekker's Wonder, the D. of F. has a son Piero and a daughter Fiametta, who marries the Prince of Pisa. In iii. 1, Torrenti's brother tells of having led forth "a fleet Of gallant youthful Fes., all vowed To rescue Rhodes from Turkish slavery." This must have been after 1522, when the Turks took Rhodes. A D. of F. is one of the personages in Shirley's Master. Piso, the son of a usurping D. of F., occurs in Sharpham's Fleire. The actors in T. Heywood's Maid of West find their way at last to the court of the D. of F. The scene of Cockayne's Trapolin is laid at F. during the reign of an imaginary D. Lavinio. In Shirley's Bird, a fictitious Rolliardo, Prince of F., is suitor for the hand of Eugenia, daughter of the Earl of Mantua. A Palatine of F. is mentioned in Suckling's Brennoralt. The original location of Jonson's Ev. Man I. was F., but he changed it in the later editions to Lond. T. Heywood's Maidenhead takes place in part at F.

In Ford's Trial, the scene of which is at Genoa in the 16th cent., reference is made in i. 1, to "the Turkish pirates in the service Of the Great D. of F." In Webster's White Devil iii. 1, Antonelli brings word to Lodovico: "The Pope on 's deathbed At the earnest suit of the Gt. D. of F. Hath signed your pardon." The D. is Francesco I; the Pope, Gregory XIII, who died 1585. In Marlowe's Faustus vii., the Pope shows a dish which "was sent me from the Cardinal of F." If the Pope be Adrian VI (1522–3), the Cardinal will be Giulio de Medici, who became Pope is 1523 under the name of Clement VII. In B. & F. Wife ii. 1, Tony says, "There was a fish taken, A monstrous fish, with a sword by his side, a long sword, A pike in 's neck, and a gun in's nose, a huge gun, And letters of mart in his mouth, from the D. of F." Cleanthes responds: "This is a monstrous le": and Tony admits it. If anything is meant, it may be an allusion to hostilities between Florence and Naples. Henslowe mentions a play (Cosmo de Medici), now lost, as produced 1590–7. In World Child p. 170, Manhood says, "Mighty am I named in every country; F., Flanders, and France, and also Gascoigne, all have I conquered as a knight." Probably he is thinking of the French defeat the Fes. by Charles VIII. Claudio, in Much Ado, is "a Fe."; Lucentio, in Shrew i. 1, 14, is "Vincentio's son, brought up in F." Michael Cassio, in Oth. i. 1, 20, is a Fe. In All's Well v. 3, 158, Diana says, "I am a wretched Fe. Derived from the ancient Capilet." The Capulets, however, belonged to Verona, not F. In Oth. i. 3, 44, it is stated that "Marcus Luccicos," evidently one of the Venetian generals, "is now in F." In Jonson's Alchemist iv. 1, Mammon says that Doll has "such a forehead as yet the Medici of F. boast." Galileo was born at Pisa, but died at F., and was buried in Santa Croce. In Webster's Malfi ii. 4, the Cardinal refers to "that fantastic glass Invented by Galileo the Fe." The allusion to the telescope is an anachronism, as it was not invented till 1609, some time after the supposed date of the play, which is definitely stated in ii. 3 to be 1504, though there is a subsequent reference (Act iii.) to the battle of Pavia (1525). In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, Thomas reports a news item "from F.": "They write was found in Galileo's study A burning glass . . . to fire any fleet that's out at sea." Nicolo Machiavelli, the author of The Prince, was born in F. in 1469 and died there in 1527: he was buried in Santa Croce. In Marston's Antonio's Rev. B. iv. 1, Antonio speaks of "that Fe. Deep, deep-discerning, discerning, sound-brained Machevell." Dante was born in F. in 1265, but was banished, and died in Ravenna in 1321. Chaucer, C. T. D. 1–125, speaks of "the wise poete of F. That highte Dant." The Chorus in Barnes' Charter is spoken by the Fe. historian Francis Guicciardini (1482–1540). In Cromwell i. 3, Bagot says, "This is the lodging of Master Friskibull, A liberal merchant and a Fe." This was Francesco Frescobaldi, the story of whose treatment by Cromwell is related in Foxe's Book of Martyrs. In Greene's Friar ix. 112, Vandermast includes F. amongst the universities to which he has given the non-plus. In Dallington's Method for Travel (1598), F. is said to be the place where the best Italian is spoken. In Mucedorus i. 1, 46, Anselmo suggests that Mucedorus should disguise himself "like a Fe. or mountebank," i.e. a travelling physician.

The Fes. were credited with the finest manners in Italy. In Oth. iii. 1, 43, Cassio says of Iago: "I never knew A Fe. more kind and honest ": he does not mean that Iago was a Fe., for in v. 1, 89, Iago calls Roderigo "my dear countryman"–and Roderigo, according to ii. 1, 312, is "this poor trash of Venice"–but that he has never met even a Fe. kinder than Iago. In Shirley's Courtier ii. 2, Laura says, "You Fes. insinuate with great subtlety in human natures ": where human means humane, cultured. In K. K. Hon. Man E. 3, Lelio says, "Fear not, my Lord, the Fes. are men That honour right." In Noble Soldier v. 3, Malateste says, "Just is your indignation, high and noble, And the brave heat of a true Fe." In Davenant's Platonic v. 2, Fredoline says, "You are a Fe.: one of the subtle tribe That think your neighbours have no brains." F. gave its name to the Florin, which was first coined there in 1252: it was a gold coin, with a lily on one side and a figure of St. John the Baptist on the other. In Marlowe's Jew ii. 3, Barabas says, "I learned in F. how to kiss my hand, Heave up my shoulders when they called me dog." In iv. 1, he tells of debts owing to him in F. In Middleton's Changeling iii. 4, Beatrice says, "Look you, Sir, here's 3000 golden florens." In Davenant's Siege v., Florello will not give up Bartolina "for the wealth of F." In Middleton's Quiet Life i. 1, Lady Cressingham has sent designs for silks to the factors "at F. and Ragusa, where these stuffs are woven." In Marston's What You i. 1, Randolpho speaks of "a Fe. cloth-of-silver jerkin." In Jonson's New Inn i. 2, Tipto advises Lord Beaufort to wear "the Naples hat With the Rome hatband, and the Fe. agat." The passage is repeated almost verbatim in B. & F. Pilgrimage i. i. In Greene's Quip (Harl. Misc., vol. II, p. 220), we are told of "costly breeches who had girt unto them a rapier and dagger gilt, point pendente, as quaintly as if some curious Fe. had trickt them up." In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 2, the surgeon exhibits I. a narcotic medicament, made of iris of F." This is the Fe. Lily (Iris Florentina). Fe. was also the name for a kind of meat-pie, baked in a plate or basin, with a cover of paste. In Hake's Newe Pauls Churchyard D. iii., we read of "custards, tarts, and fes. the banquet to amend." In Shirley's Ball v. 1, Freshwater speaks of "F. From whence we have the art of working custards Which we call Fes." In Dekker's If it be 281, Rush talks of "pie, custard, fe., and tart." In T. Heywood's Witches iii., "Custard, Flawn, Fes." form part of the bill of fare for the wedding feast. In B. & F. Woman Hater v. 1, Lazarillo speaks of "custards, tarts, and fes." Duelling was rare in F. In B. & F. French Law. i. 1, Cleremont, speaking of duels, says there have been only 3 in Venice in as many years; "In F. they are rarer."


The westernmost island in the Azores, q.v. Taylor, Wks. i. 131, says, "Our ship did ride at anchor at the isle of F. One of the isles of the Azores." It was "At F. in the Azores "that Sir Richard Greville lay before the famous fight described in Tennyson's Revenge.


Originally meant the whole E. coast of N. America as far N. as Newfoundland. The Spaniards made several attempts to possess themselves of it, and the French had no better luck. So the name came to be used contemptuously of a kind of imaginary El Dorado; it was even travestied into Stolida and Sordida; affairs of gallantry were called adventures of F.; and houses of ill-fame were called Terra F. The English Colonization of Virginia cut off the N. part of it, and the name became restricted to the Peninsula, which, with brief intervals, remained in the possession of Spain until it was ceded to the United States in 1819. It was first discovered by the Spaniards in 1513. An interesting description of it is found in Robert Tomson's account of his travels in 1556–1558. In Sir John Hawkins' Second Voyage to the West Indies 1564–5, he tells how the people smoked a kind of herb, dried, "with a cane and an earthen cup in the end "; how there are unicorns and lions and tigers there, to say nothing of a serpent "with 3 heads and 4 feet." Drayton, in Polyolb. ix. 320, tells how Madock discovered America "Ere any ear had heard the sound of F." In Cuckqueans iv. 8, Claribel says he has visited "Guinie, F., and Brasiles." In Armin's Moreclacke, there is a song: "Have o'er the sea to F." In Deloney's Craft ii. 5, Stukeley and Strangwidge say, "When they would be seeking us in Fleet-st. we would be seeking out the coast of F." In Marmion's Leaguer iv. 1, Pandar says of the Leaguer, which was a well-known house of ill-fame, "It has the credit to be styled the Terra F."


The old armorial bearing of the Kings of France, thought by some to represent an iris, by others a lance-head. It was also borne by the Kings of England until the Peace of Amiens (1802) in token of their claim to the throne of France. It was a popular sign both for taverns and booksellers' shops. There was a Flower-de-Luce tavern at the corner of Shoe Lane and Fleet St. which once belonged to Sir John Walworth, who built the Conduit opposite to it. In Poverty (Lost Plays 336), Misrule says, "Let us go straight to the Fleur-de-Lys; there shall ye find a man will play at dice with you for an hundred pound." In Middleton's Mad World iv. 3, Folly-Wit, disguised as a courtesan, says to Gumwater, "I bind you to meet me to-morrow at the Flower-de-Luce yonder between 9 and 10." There was another tavern of the same name in Fleet St. at the corner of Fetter Lane, the name of which is preserved in Fleur-de-Lis Court, which then ran into Fleet St. under what was afterwards Peele's Hotel. There was another in Turnmill or Turnbull St. In Middleton's Quiet Life iii. 2, Margarita says to Franklin, "Ma fille conversera avec vous la Fleur-de-lis on Turnbull st." A 4th was found in Lombard St. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV B. 145, Jane Shore orders, "See my trunks be conveyed forth to Mrs. Blages, an Inn in Lombard St, the Flower-de-Luce." There was also a Flower-de-Luce Tavern at Feversham. In Feversham iv. 3, Ales says, "Get you to Feversham to the Flowre de Luce And rest yourselves." The 1st Quarto of M.W.W. was "Printed by T. C. for Arthur Johnson, and are to be sold at his shop in Powles Church-yard at the sign of the Flower de Leuse and the Crown."


(or VLISSINGEN). Spt. in Holland on the S. of the island of Walcheren on the N. side of the estuary of the W. Schelde. It was one of the cautionary towns handed over to Q. Elizabeth in 1585 as security for the men and money sent to help the Dutch. It was the usual landing-place of the volunteers who went from England to assist the Dutch in the 16th cent. In Feversham v. 4, Will, one of the murderers, says, "Therefore must I go aboard some hoy And so to F." The Epilogue tells how he was afterwards "burnt in F. on a stage." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 1, Shift claims to have seen "P., Brill, and the Hague . . . in my Lord of Leicester's time," i.e. in 1585. In his Underwoods lxii., he says of the Lond. Trainbands: "He that but saw thy curious captain's drill Would think no more of F. or the Brill." In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 4, Trimtram says of the pander, bawd, and whore: "They lived by F., by Sloys, and the Groyne "; the double entendre is obvious. In T. Heywood's Challenge ii. 1, the Clown says, with the same wretched pun," In F. there is good riding, but not without danger, for many at a high tide have been like to have been cast away in the road." Greene, Quip (p. 247), says of the Walloon and the Dutchman: "Let them be launching to F., for they shall be no triers of my controversy." In Massinger's New Way iv. 1, Greedy says, "I will not have you feed like the hangman of F., alone, while I am here." No one, of course, would eat with the executioner. In a letter from Mont to Bullinger (1572), he says, "In F. alone, a very small town, there have been hung some Spanish persons of rank, who were taken prisoners at sea." Davis, in Mirum in Modum (1602), says, "Since our English were Flusheniz'd [i.e. infected with the vices of F.] Against good manners and good men they kicke, As beasts they were."


The sign of a bookseller's shop in Lond. It was no doubt a representation of Pegasus. Davenant's Britannia was "Printed by John Haviland for Thomas Walkley and are to be sold at his shop at the F. H. near York House. 1637." Agrippina was published at the same place in 1639.


A town in central Italy, in a winding valley in the Apennines, 76 m. N. of Rome. In Cockayne's Trapolin ii. 3, Horatio speaks of "F., full of sug'ry streets among the Apennine": where sug'ry seems to mean sticky, muddy.


A town in France in the midst of the forest of F., 37 m. S. of Paris. The forest covers 40,000 acres. Louis VII had a residence here, and the chapel which he built was dedicated by our Thomas a Becket. Francis I founded the present palace, which was restored and augmented, first by Louis XIV, and then by Napoleon I and Louis Philippe. The palace has 6 courtyards, and the gardens are magnificently laid out. In B. & F. Lover's Prog. i. 2, Dorilaus tells how he has been set upon by bandits "Twixt this [Paris] and F., in the wild forest." The meeting between Henri IV and Biron on June 13th, 1602, took place at F., and is described in Chapman's Trag. Byron iii. 2.


Vill. in France, on the boundary between Burgundy and Franche-Comté, abt. 4 m. N.E. of Dijon. Here, in 1595, Biron won a great victory over the Spanish troops who were fighting for the League. In Chapman's Consp. Byron ii. 1, Savoy relates, "A league from F. F. . . . he pashed them all Flat as the earth, and there was that field won." In v. i. 146, Byron says, "None but I at F. F. burst The heart-strings of the Leaguers."


(now FUENTERRABIA). A frontier fortress on the coast of Spain, on the Bay of Biscay, 20 M. S.W. of Bayonne. It is abt. 35 m. N.W. of Roncesvalles, where Agramonte, the Saracen, defeated the Paladins of Charlemagne, though Charlemagne was not killed there, as Milton seems to suggest. Milton, P. L. i. 587, speaks of the troops sent from Africa, "When Charlemagne with all his peerage fell By F."


(a town in Italy, the ancient FoRum LIVII). It lies at the foot of the Apennines, 38 m. S.E. of Bologna. In Cockayne's Trapolin ii. 3, Horatio characterizes it as "odd-humoured Forly."


A town in Elginsh., Scotland, 160 m. N. of Edinburgh. The castle, the ruins of which are still to be seen, was the occasional residence of the early kings of Scotland. In Mac. i. 3, 39, Banquo asks Macbeth, "How far is 't called to F.?" The next scene is in the palace of F., where Duncan welcomes Macbeth. The whole of Act III, except Scene 5, is laid there; and it is clear that "the blasted heath "was in its neighbourhood.


Fabulous islands supposed to lie somewhere in the Western Ocean. They were the home of the blessed dead, and in them the golden age had returned. Some writers identified them with the Canaries. The idea is derived from the Greek and Latin writers. In Massinger's Maid Hon. i. 1, Astutio speaks Of "3 crops in a year in the F. I." In the old Timon i. 4, Pseudocheus speaks of those who are more fortunate "Than those that live in the Iles F." In Shirley's Gamester iii. 3, Wilding says, "I swell with imaginations like a tall ship bound for the F. I." Jonson uses it to mean England. In Ev. Man O. Ind., Mitis asks, "What's his scene?" Cordatus answers: "Marry, Insula Fortunata, Sir." "0, "says Mitis, "the F. Island." So, in the Penates, Mercury hails the K. and Q.: "Hail, K. and Q. of the Islands Called truly F."


A tavern in Lond. I have not been able to locate it exactly. In T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, Valerius, in his song of the taverns, says, "The fool to the F. hie."


A theatre in Lond., erected by Henslowe and Alleyn between Golding (now Golden) Lane and White Cross St., at the point now indicated by Playhouse Yard. The contract for the building with Peter Street is still preserved. It was 80 ft. square and cost £520. It was opened by the Admiral's men in November or December 1600, destroyed by fire in 1621, and rebuilt 2 years later in the more usual round form, with a figure of F. over the door. It was finally dismantled by the Puritans in 1649, and pulled down in 1662. In Middleton's R.G. v. 1, Moll says, "One of them is a nip; I took him once in the two-penny gallery at the F." In Tomkis, Albumazar ii. 1, Trincalo says, "Then will I confound her with compliments drawn from the plays I see at the F. and Red Bull." In Field's Amends ii. 1, Lord Fee-simple says, "Faith, I have a great mind to see Long Meg and the Ship at the F." Long Meg was performed first in 1594, and evidently retained its popularity; of The Ship nothing is known. In iii. 4, the Drawer says, "All the gentlewomen went to see a play at the F. and are not come in yet, and she believes they sup with the players." In Jonson's Poetaster iii. 1, Tucca says to Histrio (the actor), "You grow rich, do you? and purchase, you twopenny tear-mouth? you have F. and the good year on your side, you stinkard?" The above references are to the original theatre. Jonson, in his Execration upon Vulcan, refers to its destruction. "F., for being a whore, Scaped not his justice any jot the more; He burnt that idol of the Revels too." In Randolph's Muses, i. 1, Alm. Flowerdew, the Puritan, imprecating vengeance on the theatres, prays that "The F. [may be] whipt for a blind whore." In T. Heywood's Traveller iv. 6, Reignald says, "I'll rather stand here like a statue in the fore-front of your house, for ever, like the picture of Dame F. before the F. playhouse." In Vox Borealis (1641), we read of "a lamentable tragedy, acted by the prelacy against the poor players of the F. play-house." The players had staged a play, The Cardinal's Conspiracy, and were arrested for introducing altars, images, and crucifixes on the stage. Middleton's R.G. was "acted on the F.-stage "; and in the prologue the poet predicts "A Roaring Girl Shall fill with laughter our vast Theater." Melton, in The Astrologaster, speaks of men going "to the F. in Golding Lane, to see the tragedy of Doctor Faustus."


Is the 1st element in the names of a large number of towns in the Roman Empire (Forli, Frejus, etc.), just as in England we have Market-Rasen, Market-Drayton, Market-Bosworth, etc. In Rome itself there were many Fora. In the following passage it seems that the F. Augusti at Rome is intended. It lay N.E. of the F. Romanum, on the site marked by the 3 surviving pillars of the Temple of Mars Ultor in the Via Bonella. In Richards' Messallina ii. 805, Messallina says, "He must not live at F.; Though it be near at hand, 'tis too far off." The scene of Chapman's Caesar i. 2 is "The F. before the Temple of Castor and Pollux," q.v.




One of the ancient military roads built by the Romans in Britain. It began at Totness, and ran N. through Exeter, Bath, Leicester, Newark, and Lincoln to Barton-on-Humber. Drayton, in Polyolb. xiii. 312, describes it with some poetical licence as running "from Michaels utmost mt. To Cathnesse."


St. in Lond., running N. from Cheapside to Gresham St. past the General Post Office. It was originally Fauster L., and got its name from the Ch. of St. Vaast, or Vedastus, which was built there early in the 16th cent. on the site of an older ch. It was partially destroyed in the Gt. Fire, and was taken down and rebuilt in 1694, with a particularly fine spire. Here John Manningham heard a sermon on 19 Dec. 1602, by "one Clappam, a black fellow with a sour look but a good spirit." At the Cheapside corner was the Dagger Tavern, noted for its pies. F. L. was chiefly occupied by goldsmiths and jewellers, and there were also some booksellers' shops. The W. side was almost all cleared away for the Post Office, and many houses on the E. side to make room for the Goldsmiths' Hall. One edition of Skelton's Colin Clout, about 1550, was "Imprynted at Lond. by Jhon Wallye dwelling in F. l." John Evangel. was "Imprinted at Lond. in F. L. by John Waley." Youth was "Imprinted by John Waley dwelling in F. L."


In As You Like It iv. 1, 155, Rosalind says, "I will weep for nothing like Diana in the f." The reference is probably to the Cross in Cheapside. Stow says, "On the E. side of the same Cross was then [1595] set up a curiously wrought tabernacle of grey marble and in the same an image alabaster of Diana, and water conveyed from the Thames trilling from her naked breast for a time, but now [1603] decayed." As the date of the play was 1600, the allusion would be well understood by the audience. For reference to Fountain Tavern, see under FLEET ST.


The sign of a bookseller's shop in St. Paul's Churchyard. The 1604 quarto of H4 A. was" Printed by Valentine Simmes for Matthew Law and are to be solde at his shop in Paules Churchyard at the signe of the Fox. 1604." The 1605 quarto of R3 was "Printed by Thomas Creede and are to be solde by Mathew Lawe dwelling in Paules Churchyard at the signe of the Foxe neare St. Austin's gate. 1605." Yarington's Two Tragedies was published at the same place by Lawe, 1601.


Spt. in Cornwall near the mouth of the Fowey, abt. 15 m. W. of Plymouth. It furnished 47 ships to the fleet of Edward III in his French wars, the largest number of any port in England: its services against the Spanish Armada are recorded in a painting in the church. It has a good harbour, well defended. One of the ships in the great navy met by Hycke-Scorner (p. 88) on its way to Ireland was "the Anne of Foye." There is no doubt here a reference to the fact that it was in the Anne of Fowey that Edgecombe sailed to Ireland to settle the affairs of the Geraldines in 1488. In T. Heywood's Maid of West A. i. 4, Spencer says to Bess, "I have a house in F., a tavern called the Windmill: that I freely give thee." Bess answers: "I'll not fail to visit F. in Cornwall ": ii. 1, 3; iii. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; iv. 2 are laid at F, in the Windmill Tavern or its neighbourhood. Nicholas, who slew John Dory in the ballad (see under PARIS), was the son of a widow near F.


Ch. at Milan. Probably S. Fedele's is meant. It is an elegant ch. built for the Jesuits by St. Carlo from the designs of Pellegrini. In connection with it is the repository of Public Archives. It is now the most fashionable ch. in Milan. In Jonson's Case v. 1, Christofero says, "At the old priory behind St. F., That was the place of our appointment, sure." The scene is laid in Milan.


A town in Suffolk on the Ore, 87 m. N.E. of Lond. The castle, the ruins of which are still to be seen, was built by Redwald, K. of the East Angles, at the end of the 6th cent. It belonged in succession to the Bigods, the Mowbrays, and the Howards. It was sold in 1635 to Sir Robert Hitcham, who settled it on Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. Here Mary found shelter, on the death of Edward VI, until the succession was settled. In Webster's Wyat ii., Wyat says to Q. Mary, "Come, let us straight from hence from F." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. A. i., Dodds speaks to Q. Mary of the time "when We made first head with you at Fromagham ": this spelling represents the local pronunciation (cf. Birmingham and Bromicham). F. is the scene of Prince Edward's love-making in Greene's Friar. In iv. 33, the K. says, "He posted down from the Court To Suffolk side, to merry F., To sport himself amongst my fallow deer." In x. 159, Margaret says, "I win straight to stately F. And in the abbey there be shorn a nun." There was no abbey at F., but there was a Hall of the Guild of the B. V. Mary, where a mansion called the Guildhall now stands.


(Fn. = Frenchman, Fd. = Frenchified, Fh. = French, Fen. = Frenchmen). The country on the W. coast of Europe, stretching from the English Channel to the Pyrenees, and from the Atlantic to the Rhine and the Alps. It first appears in history as Gallia, Englished Gaul, when in the 1st cent. B.C. it was conquered by Julius Caesar. The inhabitants were of Celtic stock, but they soon adopted Latin as their speech, and modern Fh. is thus one of the Romance languages. For 400 years Gaul remained a part of the Roman Empire, and was Christianized throughout by about A.D. 250. During the 5th cent. the German tribes began to settle in various parts of Gaul; notably the Visigoths in the S. and the Franks in the N.E. By the beginning of the 6th cent. the Franks had established their ascendancy, and henceforth the land is properly called F., and the people and language Fh. Clovis, who died in 1511, may be regarded as the founder of modern F. His line, the Merovings, held supreme power till 687, when Pepin of Heristal, the Mayor of the Palace, became practically master of F.: his grandson, Pepin the Short, dethroned Childeric, and was crowned K. in 754. His son was the famous Charlemagne, who reigned 771–814. In 843 his great empire was divided and F. fell to Charles the Bold. His descendants, however, failed to hold their own, and in 987 Hugh Capet was elected K. and the Caroling line definitely came to an end. The conquest of England by D. William of Normandy brought that country into close connection with F., and ultimately led to the wars of the reigns of Edward III. and of Henry V. and VI. which form the chief interest of many of our historical plays. Finally, about the middle of the 15th cent., the English were driven from F., of which their kings had held large provinces for over 350 years, and only Calais was left to them, and this last fragment was lost in the reign of Q. Mary. The Kings of France during our period were Francis 1 (1515), Henri II (1547), Francis II (1559), Charles IX (1560), Henri III (1574). During the later years of his reign the country was thrown into 2 hostile camps, and the Wars of the League resulted in the establishment of the Bourbon line of kings in the person of Henri IV of Navarre (1589). He was succeeded by Louis XIII in 1614, Louis XIV (1643), and Louis XV (1715)

Geography and climate. In Err. iii. 2, 124, Dromio finds F. in the forehead of the kitchen-maid, and recognizes it by the "salt rheum that ran between "it and her chin, England. In Greene's Orlando i. 3, 402, a soldier speaks of the wealth of Charlemagne drawn from his mines "found in the mountains of Transalpine F.": the mines are mythical, and Transalpine F. means merely that F. is N. of the Alps. In H5 v. 2, 37, Burgundy celebrates "this best garden of the world, Our fertile F." In Ford's Sacrifice i. 1, Fernando, speaking of F., says, "To give the country due, It is on earth a paradise." Heylyn (s.v. FRANCE) says "The soil is extraordinary fruitful."

Historical allusions. F. is often used for the Gaul of Roman times. In Caesar's Rev. ii. 4, Sempronius says, "1 marvell of what mettle was the Fn. who, when he should have stabbed Marius, they say he was astonished with his looks." The story is that a Gaul was sent into the prison to kill Marius, who had been captured by Sulla in the 1st Civil War 88 B.C., but he was so daunted by his appearance that he flung down his sword, crying, "I cannot kill Caius Marius." Lodge, in Wounds of Civil War, has a version of the same story, and makes the Gaul talk broken English! In Chapman's Caesar i. 1, 28, Cato reproaches Caesar with having recruited his army from the scum of "Britain, Belgia, F., and Germany." In Caesar's Rev. i. 3, Antony says, "Caesar oft hath sacrificed in F. Millions of souls." In Kyd's Cornelia, Cicero calls the Gauls "the fierce and fieryhumoured Fh." In Tiberius 1799, Vonones says, "Spain must find horses, F. an enemy, Because that Brennus scaled the Capitol." In Nero v. 1, Tigellinus calls Julius Vindex "that giddy Fn."; and later the Messenger says, "Vindex is up and with him F. in arms." In B. & F. Prophetess ii. 3, Diocles says to Niger, "For thy news Be thou in F. pro-consul." In Jonson's Volpone iv. 2, Mosca says to the Advocate, "Mercury sit upon your thundering tongue Or the Fh. Hercules, and make your language As conquering as his club." This was Hercules Gallicus, celebrated by Lucian. His statue had chains leading from his tongue to the ears of his auditors.

France after the departure of the Romans. In Hester (A. P. ii. 265), Ambition says, "If war should chance either with Scotland or F., this gear would not go right ": an unusually daring anachronism. B. & F. Thierry tells the story of Brunhild and her 2 grandsons, Theodobert II of Austracia and Theodoric II of Burgundy, about A.D. 600. In L.L.L. iv. 1, Rosalind quotes a proverb: "that was a man when K. Pepin of F. was a little boy." In Lear, the husband of Cordelia is the K. of F. According to Holinshed his name was Agannipus, and "he was one of the 12 kings that ruled Gallia in those days." B. & F. Brother is concerned with Rollo, D. of Normandy, and his murder of his brother Otto. It is unhistorical. Heming's Fatal Contract deals with Fredegonda of Neustria and the later Meroving times. A princess of F. is one of the characters in L.L.L. As the supposed date is about 1447, this lady may be presumed to be the daughter of Charles VII. The scene of As You Like It is laid in F., but Lodge's Rosalynde, on which it is based, refers to no particular historical period. The scene of All's Well Well is for the most part in F., and the K. of F. plays an important part in it. The story was written by Bocaccio in 1356. Acts II & III of King John take place in F., and relate the story of the meeting between John and Philip Augustus of F., and the arrangement for the marriage of Louis the Dauphin to Blanche of Castile in 1200. The capture of Arthur belongs to 1202, and the visit of Pandulph to England fell in 1213. Act V deals with the invasion of England by Louis the Dauphin in 1216. Acts III, IV, & V of H5 tell the story of the campaign which led up to the battle of Agincourt in 1415, the conclusion of the Treaty of Troyes, and the marriage of Henry and Katharine of F. in 1420. The Fh. K. is Charles VI, le Bien Aimé. In H6 A., we have the story of the wars in F. from 1422 to the death of Joan of Arc in 1431, and the marriage of Henry with Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The Fh. K. is Charles VII, le Victorieux. H6 C. iii. 3 is laid in F., and describes the embassy of Warwick to demand the hand of the Lady Bona in 1470. The K. is Louis XI. In Ford's Warbeck i. 1, K. Henry complains of the support given to Lambert Simnel by "Charles of F." This was Charles VIII. Massinger's Parl. Love is placed in the reign of this same K. (1483–1498). In Barnes' Charter, one of the incidents is the war between Charles VIII and Pope Alexander VI in 1494. Chapman and Shirley's Chabot tells the story of Phillipe de Chabot, Admiral of F., who fell from power in 1541 but was restored by Francis I is 1542. The details are, however, freely modified. Chapman's Bussy and Byron plays have to do with almost contemporary Fh. history. Bossy D'Ambois belongs to the reign of Henri III (1574–1589) and Byron to that of Henri IV (1589–1610). Marlowe's Massacre is concerned with the massacre of St. Bartholomew in 1572. Other plays whose scene is laid in F. are B. & F. Brother, Thierry, French Law., Elder B., Wild Goose, Gentleman, Hon. Man, and Lover's Prog.; Webster's Weakest; Massinger's Dowry, Unnatural Combat; Tourneur's Atheist's T.; and Chivalry, which belongs to the reign of a K. Lewis, who has a son Philip: this would seem to point to Louis IX (St. Louis), but all the details are unhistorical. In May's Heir iv. 2, Euphues boasts that his ancestors "have been props of the Sicilian crown . . . 'Gainst the hot Fh. and Neapolitans." In Sec. Maid. 2372, the Tyrant says, "I'll doom thee with a death beyond the Fn.'s extremist tortures." The reference is to the frightful tortures inflicted on Ravaillac, the murderer of Henri IV, in 1610, the year before this play was licensed. In Sampson's Vow ii. 3, 6, Mortique speaks of Mary Q. of Scots as "the dowager of F." As a matter of fact, she was Q. of F. at this time (August 1560), as her husband, Francis II, did not die till December of that year. In B. & F. Prize iii. 2, Maria wants new tapestries "of the civil wars of F.," i.e. the wars of the League. Milton, in Son. to Skinner 8, advises him to cease worrying about "what the Swede intend and what the Fh." The allusion is to the 30 Years' War.

The Peers of F. were 12 famous Paladins in the Court of Charlemagne, of whom Oliver and Orlando, or Roland, are the best known. In Skelton's Magnificence fol. xviii., Magnificence mentions "Charlemagne that maintained the Nobles of Fraunce "amongst the world's great heroes. Dekker, in Armourers, says, "Deceit hath more followers than the 12 peers of F." They were Englished into Douzepers. In York M. P. xxvi. 8, we have "Nowdir with duke nor dugeperes." In Spenser's F. Q. iii. 10, 31, Braggadochio is described as "Big looking like a doughty Doucepere." Hence "Peer of F." is used humorously for an old-fashioned, punctilious person. In B. & F. Scornful i. 2, young Loveless addresses his steward Savil, "'Tis well said, my old Peer of F."

The patron Saint of F. was St. Denis. Some traditions identified him with Dionysius the Areopagite of Acts xvii. 34, who was supposed to have been the 1st Apostle of F., but he really was an archbp. of Paris who was martyred in A.D. 272. In Kirke's Champions i. 1, we have "George for brave England stands, Denis for brave F." In H5 v. 2, 220, Henry says to Katharine, "Shall not thou and I between St. Denis and St. George compound a boy, half F., half English?" In H5 A. i. 6, 28, Charles says, "No longer on St. Denis will we cry; But Joan la Pucelle shall be F.'s saint." In Club Law iv. 6, Puff appeals, "Nay, for St. Dennis, good Fn.!" In Sampson's Vow i. 2, 48, Clifton says, "Cry St. George and a fig for St. Dennis!"

The two chief orders of Knighthood in F. were In Chapman's Trag. Byron v. 4, 99, Byron is described as "Charles Constant of Byron, knight of both the orders." In Webster's White Devil iv. 2, Lodovico points out amongst the ambassadors "The Fn. there, Knight of the Holy Ghost."

The Fh. lilies, Flowers-de-luce, or Fleurs-de-lys, were borne in the ancient royal arms of F. They were added to the coat-of-arms of the English kings in the time of Edward III as a sign of his claim to the throne of F., and were retained by our sovereigns until 1802. In H6 B. v. i. 11, York boasts that his hand shall hold a sceptre "On which I'll toss the flower-de-luce of F." In H6 A. i. 1, 80, the Messenger says to the English lords, "Cropped are the Flower-de-luces in your arms." Minot, in Poems iv. 25 (1352), says, "Then the rich Floure de lice Won there ful little prise; Fast he fled for ferde." Sidney, in Astrophel lxxv., says of Edward IV: "He made the Floure-de-luce so fraid." In Kirke's Champions iv. 1, Denis reads a prophecy: "The Fleur de lys and Harp must join Before the riddle you untwine," ie, the champions of F. and Wales must unite. In Smith's Hector iv. 2, 986, Artoys says, "'Twas I that quartered with the English Lions The arms of F, in opening Edward's title." It was Artoys who suggested to Edward III his title to the Crown of F.

French national character. Heylyn (s.v. FRANCE) says of the Fh.: "As now, so in Caesar's time, they were noted for overmuch precipitation in all affairs, both martial and civil; entering an action like thunder and ending it like smoke. The Fh. is said to be like a flea, quickly skipping into a country, and as soon leaping out of it. This Fh. nation is endued chiefly with Phrygian wisdom; whence it is said that the Italian is wise beforehand, the German in the action, the Fh. after it is done. They are very litigious. They are great scoffers, yea, even in matters of religion. The women are witty, but apish, wanton, and incontinent. Their chief exercises are Tennis and Dancing." Boorde, in Intro. of Knowledge (1542) xxvii., describes the Fn. as delighting in gorgeous apparel and having a new fashion every day; "they have no great fantasy to Englishmen; they do love singing and dancing and musical instruments; and they be high-minded and stately people." In H5 iv. prol. 18, we read: "The confident and overlusty Fh. Do the low-rated English play at dice." In Merch. i. 2, 60, Portia says of the Fh. Lord, Le Bon: "God made him, therefore let him pass for a man. He! why, he hath a horse better than the Neapolitan's; a better bad habit of frowning than the Count Palatine; he is every man in no man; if a throstle sing, he falls straight a capering; he will fence with his own shadow; if I should marry him, I should marry 20 husbands." In Davenant's Wits v., Ample says, "My ancestors were of the fiery Fh. And taught me love, hot eagerness, and haste." In Dekker's Westward ii. 2, Birdlime says, "Fen. love to be bold." In Shirley's Courtier iv. 1, Volterre says, "I'll prefer the Fh.; whom, though a surly Don calls an impertinent people, giddy triflers, yet in my esteem they merit highly; they are active, even in discourse." In Kyd's Soliman 1, Erastus characterizes the Fh. knight as "the sudden Fn." In Davenant's Albovine iii. 1, we are told of a "Fh. skirmish where the onset is hot and fiery, but the retreat cold and tame." In his Cr. Brother ii. 1, Foreste says, "The Fh. have fiery nimble spirits; but they are all useless made By forward and affectate violence. Their valour is to attempt, not to perform. 'Tis a giddy nation and never serious but in trifles." Rabelais' Gargantua i. 48, says, "The Fh. are worth nothing but at the first push. Then they are more fierce than devils. But if they linger a little, and be wearied with delays, they will prove more faint and remiss than women." In Devonshire iv. 1, Manuel says the Fh. are "all fire, the soul of compliment, courtship, and fine language; witty and active; lovers of fair ladies, short nags, and English mastives; proud, fantastic, yet such a pride and such fantasticness it be comes them." In B. & F. Elder B. v. 2, Miramont says, "Let us be right Fen.; violent to charge, But, when our follies are repelled by reason, 'Tis fit that we retreat and ne'er come on more." In All's Well iii. 3, 291, Parolles describes F. as "a dog-hole "and, later, "a stable; we that dwell in 't jades." In iv. 5, 42, the Clown says that the devil's "fisnomy is more hotter in F." than in England. In H6 A. iii. 2, 68, Talbot exclaims, "Base muleteers of F.! Like peasant foot-boys do they keep the walls And dare not take up arms like gentlemen." In iv. 1, 138, the K. says, "Remember where we are: In F., among a fickle wavering nation." In iv. 6, 48, young Talbot exclaims, "If young Talbot fly . . . like me to the peasant boys of F. To be shame's scorn and subject of mischance." In iv. 7, 54, Lucy says, "Submission, Dauphin! 'Tis a mere Fh. word." In H6 A. i. 2, 23, the Dauphin denounces his own troops as "Dogs! cowards! bastards!" In K.J. v. 2, 130, the Bastard describes the Fh. as thrilling and shaking, "Even at the crying of your nation's crow, Thinking his voice an armed Englishman." Nash, in Pierce C. 1, says, "The Fn. is wholly compact of deceivable courtship, and for the most part loves none but himself and his pleasure." In Tiberius 684, Sejanus, advising the ambitious man to be all things to all men, bids him "Brag with the Fh., with the AEgyptians lie." In H5 iii. 6, 156, Henry boasts that he thought "upon one pair of English legs Did march 3 Fen.," and excuses his arrogant tone by saying, "Forgive me, God, That I do brag thus. This your air of F. Hath blown that vice in me": the next scene in the Fh. camp exhibits the bragging temper of the Fh. leaders. In Greene's James IV iii. 2, the Surveyor says, "For all your Fh. brags I will do my duty." In Sampson's Vow i. 3, 111, Grey says there is "Nothing but circumvention in the Fh." And Clifton adds: "By my Hollidam, jugglers, Constant in nothing but inconstancy, That's the Fh. merchandise." In Sharpham's Fleire iii. 130, Fleire says, "0, y' are of a Fh. humour, Sir, as inconstant as impatient." In H6 A. i. 1, 25, Exeter asks, "Shall we think the subtle-witted Fh. Conjurers and sorcerers, that, afraid of him [Henry V], By magic verses have contrived his end?" In K.J. iii. 1, 322, Elinor exclaims: "O foul revolt of Fh. inconstancy!" In Ford's Heart ii. 3, Orgilus, with bold anachronism, professes, "I'll tear my veil Of politic Fh. off." In Jonson's Volpone ii. 1, Sir Politick says, "Ay, ay, your Mamaluchi. Faith, they had A hand in a Fh. plot or two."

In B. & F. Wild Goose i. 2, Mirable says, "You talk of F.: a slight unseasoned country, Abundance of gross food which makes us blockheads." In Nash's Wilton, Jack asks, "What is there in F. to be learned more than in England, but falsehood in fellowship, perfect slovenry, to love no man but for my pleasure, to swear, 'Ah! par la mort Dieu,' when a man's hams are scabbed." In Goosecap i. 1, Bullaker says of Rudesby: "He will come into the presence, like a Fn., in foul boots." In Hg iv. 5, we have various Fh. oaths, as "O diable," "O Seigneur," "Mort de ma Vie." Modem humorists have made fun of their Sacré bleu, Ventre bleu, Mort bleu, etc. In Chapman's Caesar ii. 1, 115, Ophioneus says, "Thou shalt . . . drink with the Dutchman, swear with the Fn . . . . and turn all this to religion."

In Jonson's Magnetic iii. 4, Compass speaks of "F., that garden of humanity, The very seedplot of all courtesies." In his Devil iii. 1, Fitzdottrel instructs Pug, "Remember kissing of your hand and answering with the Fh. time, in flexure of your body." (I am disposed to suggest as an emendation, "the Fh. turn and flexure.") In Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Macilente says, "His seniors smile and salute in Fh. with some new compliment." In Ham., Laertes goes to F. to learn good manners and courtesy. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. A. i. 12, Bellafront says, "There's a Fh. curtsey for you." In Ford's Sacrifice i. 1, Fernando says, "The Fh. are passing courtly, ripe of wit, Kind, but extreme dissemblers." In Webster's Malfi i. 1, Antonio, asked how he liked the Fh. court, replies: "I admire it; In seeking to reduce both state and people To a fixed order, their judicious K. Begins at home." In B. & F. Princess i. 1, Piniero speaks of the Fh. as excelling "in courtship." In their Friends i. 1, Marius says, "I have not spent my 5 years, travels to bring home a Fh. compliment." In Chester M.P., Noah's Flood 100, Noah's wife says to him," For all thy frankish fare I will not do after thy read," i.e. for all your elaborate courtesy. In Brome's New Academy i. 1, Erasmus relates that Matchill "sent his son, a little lad, into F. to be bred there." In B. & F. French Law. i. 2, Dinant says, "I am a Fn., And for the greater part we are born courtiers." In R3 i. 3, 49, Richd. says, "Because I cannot flatter and speak fair, Smile in men's faces, smooth, deceive, and cog, Duck with Fh. nods and apish courtesy, I must be held a rancorous enemy." In Jonson's Cynthia v. 2, Mercury appears as a Fn. and makes an exaggerated bow to the company; and Crites comments, "The Fh. quirk this, Sir." In Shirley's Pleasure iii. 2, Frederick says, "This language should be Fh. by the motions of your heads and the mirth of your faces." In B. & F. Thomas i. 2, Sebastian says, "No more of your Fh. shrugs, I advise you." In Ford's Sacrifice i. 1, Fernando says, "You shall have A Fn. ducking lower than your knee At the instant mocking your very shoe-ties." In Webster's Cuckold v. 1, Woodroff says, "Carry it Like a Fh. quarrel and cut each other's throats With cringes and embraces." In Shirley's Courtier i. 1, Volterre says, "I have brought from F. the nice amorous cringe that so enchants the ladies." In Jonson's Case ii. 3, Aurelia says, "She should make Fh. court'sies so most low That every touch should turn her over backward." In Middleton's Five Gallants iv. 6, Pursenet asks," Where's comely nurture? the Italian kiss Or the Fh. cringe with the Polonian waist? Are all forgot?"In Killigrew's Parson i. 3, when Jolly tries to embrace the Capt., who has just returned from his travels, the Capt. "stands in a Fh. posture and slides from his old way of embracing." In Brome's Sparagus iv. 9, Money-lacke says, "Look that you congy in the new Fh. bum-trick." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. i. 1, Fastidious Brisk is introduced as "the fresh Fd. courtier." In Goosecap i. 1, it is asked: "Can ye not know a man from a marmoset in these Fd. days of ours?"In Trag. Richd. II. i. 2, 70, Nimble knows not what title to give to Trissilian, "unless you'll be Frenchefyd and let me lay the Mounsier to your charge." In Jonson's Cynthia v. 2, Amorphus says, "Your Fd. fool is your only fool, lady; I do yield to this honourable monsieur in all civil and humane courtesy."

In M.W.W. i. 3, 93, Falstaff says to Bardolph and the rest, "Falstaff will learn the humour of the age, Fh. thrift, you rogues; myself and skirted page." In Davenant's Rutland iii. 218, the Parisian says, "We, your poor Fh. frogs, are fain to sing to a salad." In Fam. Vict., p. 362, the Capt. says, "But give the Fn. a radish root And he will live with it all the days of his life." In M.W.W. iii. 3, 182, Caius says, "'Tis no de fashion of F.; it is not jealous in F." Per contra, in Greene's Orlando ii. 1, Sacrepant says, "Than the Fh. no nation under heaven Is, sooner toucht with sting of jealousy." This passage, however, stands quite alone: the Italians are usually spoken of as intensely jealous, but this fault is never attributed to the Fh.

In Marston's Malcontent iii. 1, Bilioso says, "You shall ever find . . . amongst an hundred Fen. 40 hotshots," i.e. men of loose morals in sexual matters. In Cromwell iii. 3, Cromwell says, "Lust dwells in F., in Italy, and Spain, From the poor peasant to the Prince's train." In Jonson's Volpone iii. 7, Corvino speaks of "some young Fn. Knew every quirk within lust's labyrinth And were professed critic in lechery." In Massinger's Guardian ii. 1, Calisto, being asked "Are these Fen. such gallants?" replies: "Gallant and active; what we call immodest with them is styled bold courtship; they dare fight under a velvet ensign at 14." In Shirley's Ball iv. 2, Frisk says, "Dere is no love like de Fh. love; love is hot and de Fh. is hot." But in Glapthorne's Hollander ii. 1, Mrs. Mixum says, "Your Fh. is with a woman as with an enemy, soon beaten off."

The diseases resulting from sexual excess were very commonly called "Fh." In H5 v. 1, 87, Pistol laments: "My Nell is dead i' the spital Of malady of F." The word "Syphilis" is derived from the name of the shepherd in the poem of Fracastoro (1530), entitled Syphilis sive Morbus Gallicus. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Carlo exclaims, "The Fh. pox! our pox; 'blood, we have 'em in as good form as they, man, what?" In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. i. 1, Lodovico, after enumerating the excellences of other nations, concludes, "The Fn., what a pox hath he?" In Marston's Malcontent v. 1, we have a verse, "The Dutchman for a drunkard, The Dane for golden locks, The Irishman for usquebaugh, The Fn. for the pox." In Jack Drum ii. 180, John complains, "De fine wench take de Fh. crown and give me de Fh. poc." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. v., Catharina asks, "Bawd, are the Fh. chillblains in your heels That you can come no faster?" In Eastward v. 4, Quicksilver sings, "Shun usurers, bawds, dice, and drabs, Avoid them as you would Fh. scabs." In Dekker's Westward iii. 3, Justiniano uses the comparison, "As common as lice in Ireland or scabs in F." In his Hon. Wh. A. i. 6, Hippolito says to Bellafront," In the end you show [your lover) a Fh. trick, and so you leave him that a coach may run between his legs for breadth." In i. 8, Bellafront calls the Bawd "the letcher's Fh. disease." In Haughton's Englishmen ii. 2, Mathea says, if she speaks Fh., "They'll say the Fh. et caetera infected me." In B. & F. Wild Goose i. 1, De Gard says, "They cannot rub off their Fh. itches." In their Double Mar. i. 2, Villo says that the Court ladies will help Castruccio "to the Fh. cringe; they are excellent surgeons that way." In Chapman's Widow's Tears v. 1, the Governor will give "old and withered widows to Surgeons Hall to be stamped for salve for the Fh. measles." In Three Lords (Haz., vi. 499), Simplicity says to Fraud, "The Fh. canker consume ye!" Greene, in Thieves Falling Out (1592), speaks of "men diseased of the Fh. marbles," a corruption of the Fr. morbilles. In Tourneur's [ed note: anonymous, probably Middleton's] Revenger i. 1, Vendice threatens, "If I meet her, I'll, like the Fh. mole, heave up hair and all." Cooke, in Greene's Quoque, p. 560, says, "May the Fh. cannibal eat into thy flesh And pick thy bones." In H. Shirley's Mart. Soldier iv. 3, the Camel-driver says, "I hear whole lordships are spent upon a fleshly device, yet the buyer had nothing but Fh. repentance and the curse of Chirurgery for his money." In T. Heywood's Royal King iii., the Capt. speaks of one infected with this disease as having "all his body stung with the Fh. fly." In Webster's Appius & Virginia iii. 2, a Lictor says, "Your Fh. fly Applied to the nape of the neck for the Fh. rheum Is not so sore a drawer as a lictor." In Nabbes' Totenham iii. 1, James says, "I had rather a Fh. consumption should wear my hair off than a round cap," i.e. a citizen's cap. In Middleton's Blurt i. 2, Lazarillo says, "The commodities which are sent out of the Low Countries and put in mother Cornelius' dry-fats are most common in F.": Mother Cornelius' tubs were the common remedy for this disease.

In M.W.W. iii. 3, 57, Falstaff says of Mrs. Ford: "Let the Court of F. show me such another." In Massinger's Guardian ii. 4, Calipso, enumerating the different kinds of women she has seen, speaks of "The lusty girl of F., the sober German." In B. & F. Span. Cur. i. 1, Leandro, discussing the beauties of different nations, says, "Some prefer the Fh. For their conceited dressings." In Dekker's Westward iii. 3, Justiniano says, "Many Frenchwomen coming out of the Isle of Wight [sc. to Winchester] there were many punks in the town."

French fashions in dress. In H8 i. 3, 14, the Lord Chamberlain laments the spells of F. that have juggled the English visitors to the Field of the Cloth of Gold into strange mysteries: "Their clothes are after such a pagan cut, too, That sure they've worn out Christendom." Benedict, in Much Ado iii. 2, 33, is "a Dutchman today, a Fn. tomorrow." In Ham. i. 3, 73, Polonius speaks of the careful and suitable dress of the Fh.: "For the apparel oft proclaims the man; And they in F. of the best rank and station Are most select and generous, chief in that." In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius sings, "The thrifty Fn. wears small waist" where the pun should be noted; and later, speaking of hats, he sings, "The Fh. inconstant ever." In Jonson's Volpone iii. 6, Volpone says, "I will have thee Attired like some sprightly dame of F." In Shirley's Fair One ii. 1, the Tutor says, "I will not read F. to you; it is unnecessary; all the Fh. fashions are here already." In Chapman's Bussy i. 1, Montsurry says that the English, when they travel, "Come home, delivered of a fine Fh. suit." In Skelton's Magnificence, fol. xi., Courtly Abusion describes his fine clothes as "this newfound jet from out of Fraunce." In Dekker's Westward ii. 2, Birdlime says, "She's in that Fh. gown, Scotch falls, Scotch bum, and Italian head-tire you sent her." In Davenant's Platonic v. 7, Gridonell says, "I dreamt of Fh. gowns and fine Italian tires."

Special articles of attire specified as French. French tailors were the most fashionable. In Jonson's Epicoene iv. 1, Truewit advises Clerimont, if he wishes to succeed in love, "Have your learned council about you every morning, your Fh. tailor, barber, linener, etc." In Shirley's Pleasure iv. 2, Littleworth says, "Your Fh. tailor has made you a perfect gentleman." In B. & F. Rule a Wife iv. 3, Juan says that Perez is "as mad as a Fh. tailor that has nothing in his head but ends of fustians." In Massinger's Renegado iii. 1, Donusa says, "Get me some Fh. tailor To new-create you." In Glapthorne's Privilege iii. 1, Adorni, after describing in detail the dress of a fashionable Englishman, says, "All this magazine of device is furnished by your Fh. tayler." In Devonshire iii. 4, when Buzzano announces that he has rare news from F., Henrico sarcastically asks, "Have they banished their tailors and tire-women?" In Brome's Damoiselle ii. 1, Valentine says, "This morning the Fh. tailor brought a gown home, of the fashion, for my wife." In Webster's Law Case ii. 1, Ariosto says, "Tailors in F., they grow to great abominable purchase and become great officers."

French national customs and practices. In H5 v. 2, 283, Katharine informs Henry that "it is not a fashion for the maids in F. to kiss before they are married." As we learn from Erasmus's account of his visit to Sir Thomas More, it was customary in England for young ladies to be kissed by visitors to the house. Puttenham, in Art of Poesie iii. 24,:Z92, says, "With us the women give their mouth to be kissed "(cf. Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus ii. 2). In Webster's Malfi ii. 1, the Duchess says, "I have heard you say that the Fh. courtiers Wear their hats on 'fore the king." In B. & F. French Law. i. 1, Cleremont says, "These private duels . . . had their first original from the Fh."; and in i. 2, he says, "I think there is no nation under heaven That cut their enemies' throats with compliment, And such fine tricks, as we do." In iv. 4, he warns the duellists, "You must first talk; It is a main point of the Fh. method." In Davenant's Plymouth iii. 1, Seawit, speaking of a proposed duel, says, "If they should fight it out after the Fh. way, where the seconds must encounter too, how will you find an opposite?"In his U. Lovers iv. 4, Altophil says, "Your rapier-miracles Are chronicled by the hotfencing Fh." In Nabbes' Unfort. Mother iii. 2, Amanda speaks of a physician "that hath proved more men mortal than Fh. duels."

French Dances. In Shirley's Fair One ii. 1, the Tutor says, "Dancing o' the Fh. cut in the leg is most fashionable, believe it, pupil, a genteel carriage." In his Courtier ii. 2, Volterre says, "Your Fh. glide away like rivers, without a noise, and turning with meanders outmove you." Burton, A. M. iii. 3, 1, 2, says, "Germany hath not so many drunkards . . . F. dancers, Holland mariners, as Italy alone hath jealous husbands." In iii. 2, 3, he records: "Nothing so familiar in F. as for citizens' wives and maids to dance a round in the sts., and often forwant of better instruments to make good music of their own voices and dance after it." In Poverty (Lost Plays, 334), Misrule asks, "Will ye have a Fh. round?": the Round being a circular dance. In Brome's New Academy iii. 2, Camelion says, "I saw last night your new Fh. dance of 3, What call you it?"–"O," says Strigood, "the Tres-boun," i.e. the très bon (very good), with a pun on the Latin tres, three. A well-known Fh. dance was the Brawl, a dance resembling a cotillion. Cotgrave describes it as a dance wherein many (men and women) holding by the hands, sometimes in a ring, and otherwhiles at length, move altogether. In L.L.L. iii. i. 9, Moth asks, "Master, will you win your love with a Fh. Brawl?"–"How meanest thou?" says Armado, .. brawling in Fh.?"–"No," replies Moth, "my complete master; but to jig off a tune at the tongue's end, canary to it with your feet, etc." The pun is too obvious for the Elizabethans to resist. In Day's Humour ii. 1, Octavio declares, "Love's nothing but an Italian dump or a Fh. brawl." In Shirley's Pleasure iii. 2, Celestina says, "You excel [your horse] only in dancing of the brawls because the horse was not taught the Fh. way." In Jack Drum v. 128, Sir Edward inquires, "Have you ne'er a page can entertain This pleasing time with some Fh. brawl or song?" In Massinger's Picture ii. 2, Ladislaus says, "Let the maskers enter; by the preparation 'tis a Fh. brawl, an apish imitation of what you really perform in battle."

Music and Musicians. In H8 i. 3, 41, Lovell thinks that "a Fh. song and a fiddle has no fellow for winning the complaisance of the ladies." In Marlowe's Jew iv. 6, Barabas enters "disguised as a Fh. musician with a lute, and a nosegay in his hat." In Marston's What You ii. 1, Laverdure urges, "Sing! Give it the Fh. jerk, quick, spart, lightly!" In Richards' Messallina iv. 1898, Saufellus speaks of making a wooden Cupid wag "Like the apish head of a Fh. fiddler when he firks with his fingers." In Dekker's If it be 288, Brisco has collected a band in which are "Jews' trumps and Fh. kitts," i.e. small fiddles. In Jonson's Love's Welcome, Accidence says, "Fetch the fiddles out of F. To wonder at the hornpipes here." Fynes Moryson, in Itin., iii. 3, 136, says of the Fh.: "They use much mirth and singing, in which art they take great delight."

Occupations and trades.

Actors and dramatists. In Middleton's Gipsy ii. 4, Fernando says, "There is a way Which the Italians and the Fen. use, That is, on a word given, or some slight plot, The actors will extempore fashion out Scenes neat and witty." In Span. Trag. v. 1, Lorenzo says, "I have seen the like [i.e. the performance of a new play at an hour's notice] in Paris, 'mongst the Fh. tragedians." In Davenant's Playhouse i. 1, the Player says, "The Fh. convey their arguments [i.e. plots of their plays] too much in dialogue, their speeches are too long." In Dekker's Northward iv. 1, Bellamont decides to have his tragedy of Astyanax "presented to the Fh. court by Fh. gallants "; and the Capt. swears, "Your Fn. will do a tragedy enterlude poggy well." In Hercules, prol. 45, the speaker excuses Plautus for having altered the Amphitruo in translating it from the Greek by saying, "Besides, Fh. and Italians do the same." In Ret. Pernass. i. 2, Judicio says of the dramatist John Marston: "He thinks he is a ruffian in his style Withouten bands or garters ornament; He quaffs a cup of Fn.'s Helicon, Then royster-doyster in his oily terms Cuts, thrusts, and foins at whomsoever he meets." The harlequin was a stock character in the Fh. light comedy. In Marston's Malcontent iii. 1, Bianca says, "All your empirics could never do the like cure upon the gout the rack did in England or your Scotch boot. The Fh. Harlequin will instruct you."

Trade and Commerce. The Fh. crown was well known in England. It was a gold coin with a crown on the obverse, issued by Philp of Valois in 1339, and known to the Fh. as the Écu, worth from 4 to 5 shillings. The pun on the other meaning of the word, the crown of the head, is very common. In H4 B. iii. 2, 236, Bullcalf offers Bardolph "4 Harry ten shillings in Fh. crowns "to be excused from service. In H6 B. iv. 2, 166, Cade says that in Henry Vs time "boys went to span-counter for Fh. crowns ": the idea being that Henry's victories in F. had made them as common as pennies. In H5 iv. 1, 242, the K. says, "Indeed, the Fh. may lay 20 French crowns to 1, they will beat us; for they bear them on their shoulders; but it is no English treason to cut Fh. crowns, and to-morrow the K. himself will be a clipper." Clipping or cutting the coin of the realm was a capital offence. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. ii. 1, Carlo says, "You should give him a Fh. crown for it; the boy would find 2 better figures in that." The figures are the shield and the crown surmounting it on the coin. In Ret. Pernass. i. 11, Ingenioso says, "The world shall hardly give me a cracked crown, although it gives other poets Fh. crowns." In Haughton's Englishmen ii. 2, Pizarro tips the Post generously, and he exclaims, "What! a Fh. crown? sure he knows not what he does." In Marlowe's Faustus iv., Wagner gives the Clown some Fh. crowns; and he says, "Mass, but for the name of Fh. crowns, a man were as good have as many English counters." The allusion is to the depreciation in the value of Fh. money in England in 1595 owing to the large sums, which had been received from F. in trade, and in payment of loans by Henri IV. In B. & F. Thomas i. 2, Sebastian says to Launcelot, "Tell me plainly lest I crack your Fh. crown." In Marlowe's Massacre i. 1, Guise says, "From Spain the stately Catholics Send Indian gold to coin me Fh. écus." In Jack Drum ii. 177, John says, "Me send a Fh. crown to fetch a fine wench, de fine wench take de Fh. crown and give me de Fh. poc." In Chapman's Rev. Bussy i. 1, Monsieur says, "A Fh. crown would plentifully serve To buy both to anything." In Dekker's If it be 298, the Bravo says punningly, "We turn away cracked Fh. crowns every day." One of the results of the "French disease "was baldness, and many puns are made on this subject. In Meas. i. 2, 52, Lucio says, "I have purchased as many diseases under her roof as come to–" The 2nd Gentleman interposes: "To 3000 dolours a year." The 1st adds: "Ay, and more "; and Lucio concludes "A Fh. crown more." In M.N.D. i. 2, 97, Bottom says, "I will discharge it in your Fh.-crown-coloured beard": and Quince retorts, "Some of your Fh. crowns have no hair at all." In L.L.L. iii. 1, 142, Costard says, "Remuneration! Why, it is a fairer name than Fh. crowns," i.e. it has not the same unpleasant connotation. In All's Well ii. 2, 23, the Clown says his answer is ..as fit as your Fh. crown for your taffeta punk": it being, with its unsavoury innuendo, a suitable fee for such a woman.

The chief articles imported from France were wines and textiles, especially silk and velvet. In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius sings, "The Fh. affects the Orleans grape." In Davenant's Wits iv., Thwack says, "Our Fh. and Deal wines are poisoned so with brimstone by the Hollanders that they will only serve for medicine." In Massinger's Great Duke ii. 2, Petruchio speaks of the wines drunk by the northern nations of Europe as "Fh. trash, made of rotten grapes And dregs and lees of Spain, with Welsh metheglin." In Hester (A.P. ii. 270), Hardy-dardy says, "He that would drink wine and hath never a vine Must send or go to F." In Chaunticleers xiii., Welcome complains that men would rather "be drunk like the Fn. with claret than with their own native beer." In Trag. Richd. II. i. 1, 89, Arondel claims to have captured so much wine from the Fh. "As that a tun of high-prized wines of F. Is hardly worth a mark of English money." In Webster's Weakest i. 2, Bunch says, "This F. . . . is a goodly country, but it breeds no ale-herbs; good water . . . and de vine blanket [i.e. vin blanquette, one of the Gascony wines], and de vine coverlid, dat is vine claret for great out-rich cobs." In Meas. i. 2, 35, the 1st gentleman says to Lucio, "1 has as lief be a list of an English kersey as to be piled as thou art piled for a Fh. velvet." The manufacture of velvet was introduced from Italy into F., and was greatly encouraged by Francis 1, Henri II, and Henri IV. Its chief seat was, and is still, at Lyons. The joke, such as it is, depends on the double meaning of "Piled ": (i) stripped of hair as the result of the Fh. disease; (2) covered with a short furry pile, like velvet. A particular shade of dark brown was known as Fh. russet. In Middleton's Chess ii. 1, the Black Knight says, "Take these letters, burn 'em to Fh. russet." Watches of good quality were made in F. In Lawyer iii., Curfew asks, "How speaks your watch? Who made it, Fh. or Dutch?"

Various articles are spoken of as French.

The French language is one of the Romance languages derived from the Latin. It was held in some contempt by the English common people, although it was a mark of a man of fashion to be able to garnish his speech with a few tags of French. In a woman a knowledge of Fh. was regarded with some suspicion, as an indication of questionable morality. Chaucer, C. T. A. 126, says that the Prioress spoke Fh. "after the scole of Stratford-atte-Bowe, For Fh. of Parys was to hire unknowe." No passage has suffered more from erroneous quotation. Heylyn (s.v. FRANCE) says, "The language of the Fh. is amorous. A smooth language truly it is, the people leaving out in their pronunciation many of their consonants." The English Lord, in Merch. i. 2, 75, "hath neither Latin, Fh., nor Italian." The Duchess of York, in R2 v. 3, 124, protests, "The chopping Fh. we do not understand." In H5 v. 2, the K. speaks slightingly of his own knowledge of Fh., "which I am sure will hang upon my tongue like a new-married wife about her husband's neck, hardly to be shook off." "By mine honour," he goes on, "in true English, I love thee." This is all historically absurd: Henry no doubt spoke Fh. as easily as English. In H6 B. iv. 2, 176, Cade decides that Lord Say is a traitor because he can speak Fh. Pistol, in H5 iv. 4, does not understand Fh., and has to get a boy to interpret between himself and Monsieur le Fer. In Jonson's Cynthia iii. 3, Amoroso tells Asotus, "Your pedant should provide you some parcels of Fh. to commence with, if you would be exotic and exquisite." In Haughton's Englishmen i. 1, Frisco says "Pigs and Fen. speak one language, awee, awee." In B. & F. Brother ii. 2, the Cook says, "I'll make you pigs speak Fh. at table," i.e. cry, "Wee, wee, "quasi "Oui." In Shirley's Pleasure iii. 2, Kickshaw says to Celestina, "You speak abominable Fh. And make a curtsey like a dairymaid." In Glapthorne's Privilege iii. 1, Adorni says, "Your Fh. is a thing easily gotten, and when you have it, as hard to shake it off as 'twere your mother tongue." In Davenant's Platonic iii. 3, Jasper says, "Fh. is the smoothest and most prosperous language for courtship," i.e. curtly use. In Goosecap iv. 1, Sir Gyles observes," In Fraunce they speak Fh. as well as their mother-tongue." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. ii. 1, the gentlewoman gives as proof of the Knight's learning, "He can speak the Fh. and the Italian." In Dekker's Westward i. 1, Justiniano says to the bawd, Mrs. Birdlime, 'You may speak Fh.; most of your kinds can understand Fh." In Webster's Law Case i. 2, Romelio forbids his wife to have anything to do "with a hackneycoachman, if he can speak Fh.": the inference being that he is a procurer in that case. Specimens of English as spoken by Frenchmen may be found in M.W.W. (Caius), Henry V (the Princess), Ret. Pernass. (Theodore), Three Ladies, Three Lords, Triumphs Love, Dekker's Fortunatus, Wonder of a Kingdom (Angelo), Club Law, Marius and Sulla (Pedro), Dr. Dodypoll, Anything for Quiet Life (Margarita), Sun's Darling, Jack Drum (Mons. John), Shirley's Ball (Le Frisk), and many others. The chief mark of this Fh.-English is the substitution of "d "or "t "for "th," and the pronunciation of "i "as "ee."

Law French is the Norman-Fh. in which the old laws of England were written. In Jonson's Alchemist iv. 2, Kastrel says, "It goes like law-Fh. And that, they say, is the courtliest language." In Tomkis' Albumazar ii. 2, Trincalo says, "He'll boil me in a caldron Of barbarous law-Fh." In Stucley 291, Stucley says, "This law-Fh. Is worse than buttered mackerel, full of bones." In Davenant's Playhouse i. 1, the Player says, "Burlesque and travestie? These are hard words, and may be Fh., but not law-Fh."

Pedlar's French means thieves' slang: it has nothing to do with Fh., which is used merely in the sense of an unintelligible language. In Massinger's Virgin ii. 1, Spungius says, "We were speaking in pedlar's Fh." In B. & F. Friends i. 2, Bellario speaks of himself as one "that, instead of pedlar's Fh., gives him plain language for his money." A book was published in 1592 entitled, The Groundworke of Conny-Catching; the manner of their Pedlers-French and the meanes to understand the same. In Nash's Summers (Haz., viii. 69), we read of "Beggars that profess the pedler's Fh." In Love and Fortune iv. 1, Lentulo says, "And you can speak any pedler's Fh., tell me what I say." In Middleton's Family v. 3, Club says, "I like that law well; there's no quiddits nor pedlar's Fh. in it." In Underwit ii. 2, his mistress says to Courtwell, who has been quoting his poetry to her, "Out upon 't! Pedlar's Fh. is a Christian language to this." Dekker, in Lanthorn, speaking of thieves, says, "For that cause was this language (which some call Pedlers Fh.) invented, that they might freely utter their minds to one another, yet avoid the danger." He gives several examples of this curious lingo. In Middleton's R.G. v. 1, Jack Dapper says, "I'll give a school-master half-a-crown a week and teach me this pedlar's Fh." Several examples are quoted in this scene, of which one may be given here: "A gage of ben rom-bouse In a bousing ken of Romvile Is benar than a caster, Peck, pennam, lap, or poplar, Which we mill in deuse a vile. O I wud lib all the lightmans, O I would lib all the darkmans By the salomon, under the ruffmans, By the salomon, in the hartmans, And scour the queer cramp ring, And couch till a palliard docked my dell, So my bousy nab might skew rom-bouse well. Avast, to the pad let us bing ": which is, being interpreted, "A quart-pot of good wine in an alehouse of Lond. is better than a cloak, meat, bread, butter-milk, or porridge, which we steal in the country. O I would le all the day, O I would lie all the night, by the mass under the bushes, by the mass in the stocks, and wear fetters, and lie till a scoundrel lay with my wench, so my drunken head might quaff wine well. Avast, to the highway let us hence." A Pedler's Fh. is used for a beggar. In Histrio iv. 1, Mavortius laments the degeneracy of the times, "When every Pedler's-Fh. is termed Monsigneur."


The imaginary scene of Suckling's Goblins.


A province in France, E. of Burgundy and W. of the Jura. Originally a fief of the Dukedom of Burgundy, it passed to Spain in 1493, and remained a Spanish province tiff 1674, when it was, for the second time and definitely, conquered by Louis XIV. In Chapman's Trag. Byron iii. 1, Brun says, "Your truest friends advise you for your latest hope To make retreat into the F. C." There he would be out of the jurisdiction of the French K. In Consp. Byron i. 1, 41, Rochette complains that the Infanta Isabella, who married the Archduke of Austria," Had the F.-C. and Low Provinces."


A name for Tarragona, a city in N.E. Spain, at the mouth of the Francoli. Baltazar Gracian (1584–1658), a Spanish prose writer of the Gongorist School, was rector of the Jesuit College at Tarragona. In Cockayne's Trapolin v. 3, the hero says, "You take me for a doctor–Gracian of F., I warrant you–or a fool in a play, you're so saucy with me."


A city on the right bank of the Main abt. 20 m. E. of its confluence with the Rhine. It was the most ancient of the 4 free cities of the German Confederation and the meeting-place of the Diet. In the Guildhall, or Roemer, are the Wahlzimmer, where the emperors were elected, and the Kaisersaal, where they held their public dinner after election. The Golden Buff Of 1356 is still preserved in the archives. It was a great commercial and banking centre, and its 2 fairs at Easter and in August or September were thronged by tens of thousands of traders from all over Europe. In Merch. iii. 1, 89, Shylock laments the loss of his diamond which "cost me 2000 ducats in Frankfort." In B. & F. Fair Maid I. iv. 2, Cesario, coming into the inn where Forobosco is entertaining the company, cries: "How now? a Frankford mart here?" Marlowe's Jew iv. 1, has debts owing in F. In Cromwell ii. 1, Cromwell, in Antwerp, inquires of the Post, "You go so far as Frankford, do you not?" In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 295, the Burse at Rome is said to be built "after the manner of Frankford and Embden; with sts. and pent-houses where the merchants meet." The meeting for the election of the Emperor, in Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus i. 2, is held in "The Hall of Electors at F."


A city on the Oder in Germany, 50 m. E. of Berlin: it was the seat of a university which was founded in 1506. In Greene's Friar iv. 114, Vandermaast mentions F. as one of a long list of universities where he has given the scholars the non-plus.


A town in Italy, on the Tanaro, 10 m. S.W. of Verona. It has a fine old castle. In Rom. i. 1,109, the Prince of Verona says to old Montague, "Come you this afternoon To old F.-t., our common judgement-place." Shakespeare got the name from Arthur Brookes' Romeus and Juliet 1937, but Brookes makes F.-t. the castle of the Capulets: "Our castle called Freetowne."


Ch. of St. Anthony's Hospital in Threadneedle St., Lond., granted to the French Protestant refugees by Edward VI. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt, but the building of the New Royal Exchange required an approach in Threadneedle St., and it was pulled down. See under ST. ANTHONY'S HOSPITAL. In Mayne's s Match iv. 5, Baneswright says to Warehouse, "You must be married, Sir, at the F. Ch; I have bespoke the priest, one that will join you i' the right Geneva form without a licence." In Wapull's Tarrieth, B. 4, Helpe says, "To sell a lease dear, whoever that will, At the F. or Dutch ch. let him set up his bill; What an Englishman bids they will give as much more."


Vill. in Suffolk, some 5 m. S. Of Harleston. It has a fine old Norman ch. The heroine of Greene's Friar is Margaret, the Fair Maid of F., the Keeper's daughter, with whom Prince Edward falls in love. The whole story is fictitious. Scenes 8, 10 and 14 are laid at F.


A Lond. house-sign near the Stocks Market, q.v. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B..282, Tawnie-Coat says, "Sure this is the lane; there's the Windmill there's the Dog's Head in the Pot; and here's the Fryer.,'


An abbreviated name for Blackfriars, q.v. Friar, formerly F., St., running from Carter Lane to Ireland Yard, preserves the name. In Jonson's Alchemist i. 1, Subtle mocks Face as "an Honest, plain, livery- three-pound-thrum, that kept Your master's worship's house here in the Friers ": it is in this house that the scene of the play is laid; in iv. 1, Mammon says of Doll: "This nook here of the Friers is no climate For her to live obscurely in." Lord Cobham had his house in the F., and writes to Mellersh in 1605 to let him know if his house at the F. is seized. In Killigrew's Parson v. 1, the Capt. says, "There's a new play at the Fryers to-day" i.e. the Blackfriars Playhouse.


A b. at Greenwich by the Convent of the Grey Friars, founded by Edward IV, and finally suppressed by Elizabeth. In Oldcastle iii. 4; the K. (Henry V) orders Butler, "Go down by Greenwich and command a boat, At the F. B. attend my coming down." The b. was over a small brook flowing into the Thames.


(i.e. FRIBOURG). The capital of the canton of the same name in Switzerland, lying on the Saane, 22 m. E. of the S. end of Lake Neufchâtel. In Bacchus, I the 20th guest was "one Tom Tospot; he came from F., an Helvetian."


Lond, running S. from Cheapside to Cannon St., between Old Change and Bread St. It gained its name from the fishmongers who sold fish there for consumption on Friday, the fast day in the Roman Catholic Ch. At the Cheapside corner was the Nag's Head Inn. The White Horse was at the end of the st. on the W. side. St. Matthew's Ch. stood on the W. side, but has now been pulled down. In Jonson's Christmas, Gambol announces: "Here's one o' F.-st. would come in." Christmas answers: "By no means, nor out of either of the Fish sts. admit not a man; they are not Christmas creatures; fish and fasting days! foh!" Gambol consequently announces: "No body out o' F. st. nor the 2 Fish sts. there, do you hear?" In Nabbes' Spring, Shrovetide calls Lent "This lean thingut starveling, begot by a Spaniard, and nursed at the lower end of F. st." One of Thos. Weelkes' Ayres (1608) begins: "The Ape, the Monkey, and Baboon did meet, And breaking of their fast in F. st. Two of them sware together, etc." In Peele's jests (1627), we read that "George was invited to supper one night at the White Horse in F. St."


A town in Bohemia, at the junction of the Wittich and the Rasnitz, 68 m. N.E. of Prague. The castle, built in 1014, stands on a hill at the S. end of the town. Wallenstein was D. of F. In Glapthorne's Wallenstein i. 1, Leslie says, "These court Parasite's and the Emperor's weak distrusts Puts this disgrace on Fridland," i.e. Wallenstein.


The most N. of the provinces of Holland. It is sometimes called W. F. to distinguish it from E. F. in Hanover. Hycke, p. 88, names Freslonde as one in the long list of countries he has visited. In Hughes' Misfort. Arth. v. 1, Arthur says, "The Scots and Picts and Orcades we wan, The Danes and Goths and F. men." In Chaucer, Rom. Rose 1093, we read of a jewel "worth all the gold in Rome and Fryse." Fryse is not in the original French, and is added merely to rhyme with wyse. In Barnavelt iv. 5, Sir John is described as "Advocate of Holland and W. F." The name suggested that it was a particularly cold country, quasi Freeze-land. In Brewer's Lovesick King ii., Canute says of Cartesmunda: "She is colder than Freezeland snow, and yet she burns me." In Dekker's Dream (1620), "The Muffe, the Scythian, and the Freeze-land-boore "are mentioned as inhabitants of very cold countries. F. produced a breed of horses that were small but nuggety, and Markham says they could "make a good career." In Kyd's Soliman i., Basilisco says, "The grass grew, else had my F. horse perished." Hall, in Satires v. 4, 13, scoffs at the farmer's son who "hires a Friezeland trotter, half yard deep, To drag his tumbril through the staring Cheap." In Glapthorne's Hollander iv. 1, Urinal says, "Alas, poor gentlewoman, would they have thee covered with a Frisland horse, a Dutch stallion? "In Rabelais, Gargantua i. 12, the Hero says, "I will bestow upon you this Frizeland horse."


Vill. close to Windsor Castle on the road to Staines. In M.W.W. ii. 3, 78, the Host first instructs Shallow, Page, and Slender, "Go you through the town to F." Then he says to Caius, "Go about the fields with me through F." In iii. 1, Evans is waiting for Caius in a field near F.; and at line 33, Simple cries: "There comes my master, Master Shallow, and another gentleman from F., over the stile."




A small town on the Gulf of Lyons, close to Montpellier, in S. France. It is famous for its muscatel wine and raisins. In Davenant's Wits iv. 1, Young Palatine says, "Nothing could please your haughty palate but The muscatelli and Frontiniac grape." In Alimony i. 2, Timon speaks of the poet's pericranium "deeply steeped in Frontiniac."


In Worcester Place, which ran S. from Upper Thames St. The Mystery of F. in Lond. was incorporated in 1606 with a master, wardens, and assistants, and it was their custom to present the Lord Mayor every year with 12 bushels of apples. In Ford's Sun iv. 1, Folly calls Autumn "This apple-john Kent and warden of F. H."


Vill. in Cambridgesh., 5 m. E. of Cambridge. In Mankind (Farmer, Anon. Plays, p. 23), Nowa-days says, "I shall spare Master Wood of F."


A vill. in Berwicksh., 4 m. N.E. of Berwick. In Ford's Warbeck iv. 1, Surrey says, "Can they Look on ... the pile of F. O'erthrown. . And yet not peep abroad?"


A vill. in Middlesex, abt. 6 , m. W. of St. Paul's, on the N. bank of the Thames, opposite to Putney. The palace of the Bps. of Lond. has been there since the reign of Henry VII, and stands on the banks of the river a little W. of the village. It is now practically a suburb of Lond. In J. Heywood's Weather (Farmer, p. 100), Merry Report says, "I have been ... at F., at Faleborne, and at Fenlow." In Dekker's Northward v. 1, Mayberry says, "He [Featherstone] has land between F. and Lond." In Westward iii. 4, Monopoly says, "Here's an honest gentleman was born at F." In Cromwell i. 1, Hodge, of Putney, speaks of "goodman Car of F.; O, he knows the stars." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque i. 1, Sir Lionel says, "Tomorrow I remove into the Strand, There for this quarter dwell, the next at F." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 1, Carlo says of Shift, "He keeps high men and low men. He has a fair living at Fullam." The joke depends on the fact that a kind of dice used for cheating was called Fullam. So, in At. W. W. i. 3, 94, Pistol says, "Let vultures gripe thy guts; For gourd and fullam hold, and high and low Beguile the rich and poor." In Nobody i. 337, Sicophant asks, "Give me some bales of dice. What are these?" And Somebody replies: "These are called high fulloms, those low fulloms." In N.E.D. it is stated that F. was "once a noted haunt of gamesters," and that this may be the reason for the use of fullam for a false die. It is also suggested as an alternative that fullam, or fullom = full one, i.e. a loaded die.


(more properly FULWOOD'S RENTS). A court in Lond., opposite the end of Chancery Lane, leading from Holborn into Gray's Inn Walks. It was chiefly occupied by taverns and ale-houses, and had the privileges of sanctuary for debtors and other fugitives from justice. In Brome's Couple ii. 1, Careless, having got hold of some money, says, "I need no more insconsing now in the forts of F.-R. and Milford-lane, whose walls are daily battered with the curses of bawling creditors." In his Damoiselle i. 2, Bumpsey reproaches Dryground with his poverty, which makes him "live confined in Milford Lane or F. R. or who knows where."


(= FORLI). The old Form Livii, a city in N. Italy, near Ravenna, 170 m. N. of Rome. Caesar Borgia besieged Catharine Sforza in F., and took it in 1499. The story of the siege forms the subject of iv. 4 in Barnes' Charter.


An Inn of Court in Lond., formerly an Inn of Chancery, and afterwards attached to Lincoln's Inn. It stood on the D4. side of Holborn between Leather Lane and Brooke St., where F. I. Buildings now are. The Society ceased to exist in 1817, and the whole I. was rebuilt in 1818. Shirley's Bird was "Printed by B. Alsop and T. Fawcet for William Cooke, and are to be sold at his shop near F. I. Gate in Holborne. 1633."