A bookseller's sign in Lond. T. Heywood's Love's Mistress was "Printed by Robert Raworth for John Crouch and are to be sold by Jasper Emery at the sign of the E. & C. in Paul's Churchyard. 1636." One of the quartos of Othello was "Printed by N. O. for Thomas Walkley and are to be sold at his shop at the E. & C. in Brittain's Burse. 1622."




The countries to the E. of Europe, especially India and China. In Mac. iv. 3, 37, Macduff protests, "I would not be the villain that thou think'st For the whole space that's in the tyrant's grasp And the rich E. to boot." In A. & C. i. 5, 46, Alexas brings Cleopatra a message from Antony: "All the E., Say thou, shall call her mistress." In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass iii. 2, 1223, Oseas predicts, "From the E. shall rise A lamb of peace, the scourge of vanities," i.e. the Messiah. Spencer, F. Q. iii. 4, 23, speaks of "The wealth of the E. and pomp of Persian kings." Milton, P. L. ii. 3, tells how "the gorgeous E. . . Showers on her kings, barbaric pearl and gold."


The Angles who settled in the E. counties of Britain at the time of the English Conquest. In Merlin i. 2, 74, Artesia is the sister of "Warlike Ostorius, the E. Angle k." See also ANGLES.


A st. in Lond. running E. from the junction of Cannon Stand Gracechurch St. to Gt. Tower St. The famous Boar's Head Tavern (q.v.) was at the W. end of E. C., just where the statue of K. William IV now stands. In H4 A. i. 2, 145, Poins tells the prince, "I have bespoke supper to-morrow night in E.c."; and in 176, Falstaff, as he goes, says, "Farewell; you shall find me in E.c." The scene of ii. 4 is the Boar's Head Tavern, E.c. In 14, the prince tells how he has won the hearts of the drawers that "when I am K. of England, I shall command all the good lads in E.c." In 485, Falstaff, impersonating the prince, and being asked, "Whence come you?" answers: "My noble lord, from E." In H4 B. ii. 1, 76, the Hostess, appealing to the Chief Justice against Falstaff, describes herself as "A Poor widow of E.c." In ii. 2, 161, Bardolph informs the prince that he will find Falstaff "at the old place, my lord, in E.c.": ii. 4 takes place there. Pistol marries the hostess, and in H5 ii. 3, she describes Falstaffs death, which evidently takes place in the Boar's Head. In Fam. Vict., Haz. p. 326, Prince Hal says to his companions, after the robbery on Gads Hill, "You know the old tavern in E.-ce.: There is good wine; besides, there is a pretty wench That can talk well"–doubtless Doll Tearsheet. Stow describes E.C. as "a flesh-market of butchers, there dwelling on both sides of the st.; it had sometime also cooks mixed among the butchers." He relates how in 1410, on the eve of St. John Baptist, there was a great disturbance, caused by the king's sons Thomas and John, for which the mayor and aldermen were called to account. This may have suggested to Shakespeare the choice of the Boar's Head as the scene of Prince Hal's revels. Lydgate, in Lickpenny, says, "Then I hied me into E. C.; One cries `ribs and beef ' and many a pie; Pewter pots they clattered on a heap; There was a harp, pipe, and minstrelsy." In Eastward iv. 1, Slitgut speaks of his master as "a poor butcher of E.c." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. ii. 1, Carlo says of Puntarvolo, "I'll ha' him jointed, I'll pawn him in E.c. among the butchers." In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 1, Eyre says to Firk, "Have not I ta'en you from selling tripes in E.c. and set you in my shop?" and in v. 4 be says to his men, "Beleaguer the shambles, beggar all E.c, serve me whole oxen in chargers." In T. Heywood's Prentices sc. iv., p. 82, Eustace cries. "O that I had with me as many good lads, honest prentices, from E.c., Canwick St., and Lond. Stone to end this battle." In Wager's Longer B. 1, Moros says, "In S. Nicolas shambles there is enough [meat] or in E.ce. or at St. Katherins." Dekker, in Bellman, speaks of E.-ce. as a favourite haunt of foysts, or pickpockets. In Deloney's Craft ii. 8, Tom says, "I went into E: Ce . . . . Immediately the wenches . . . forsook the butchers' shops and inticed me into a tavern."


The peoples living on the continent of Europe, East of the English Coast; in particular, the Low German tribes from the Elbe to the Rhine. In Bale's Johan (Farmer, p. 247), Pandulph says, "On the East side we have Esterlings, Danes and Norways." Spencer, F. Q. ii. 10, 63, tells how Constantine "in battle vanquished Those spoilful Picts and swarming E."






(the modern IVICA). The southernmost of the Balearic Islands, in the Mediterranean, 90 m. East of the Spanish coast. In Middleton's Chess v. 3, the Black Knight, in a list of fish esteemed by the Romans, mentions "the salpa from E." The salpa is a kind of stock-fish. Pliny, Hist. Nat. ix. 32, says, "Circa Ebusum salpa, obscenus alibi, et qui nunquam percoqui possit, nisi ferula verberatus." In Nabbes' Microcosmus iv., Temperance mentions as articles of luxurious diet "Idumaean palms candied with Ebosian sugar."


A famous city in the centre of Media, abt. 300 m. N.-East of Babylon. It is commonly identified with the present Hamadan, and lies at the foot of Mt. Elwend at an elevation of 6000 ft. above the sea. It was used as their summer residence by the Persian, and later by the Parthian, kings. It is mentioned in Ezra vi. 2, under the name of Achmetha. There appears to have been another E. in Atropatene, at the site of the present Takht-i.Sulayman. Milton, P. L. xi. 393, describes Adam as beholding, "Where The Persian in Ecbatan sat "; and in P. R. iii. 286, the Tempter points out to our Lord, "E. her structure vast there shows."




The name in Hebrew tradition of the garden in which the Lord God put the man whom he had formed (Gen. ii. 8). It is derived from the Sumerian name of the Plain of Babylonia, and was applied to the dist. round the sacred city of Eridu, at the head of the Persian Gulf. In R2 ii. 1, 42, the dying John of Gaunt speaks of England as "This other E., demi.paradise." In Machin's Dumb Knight iii., Mariana says to her brother, "O be thy days as fruitful in delights As E. in choice flowers." In Marston's Insatiate C. v., Rogero says of woman, "God in E.'s happy shade this same creature made." In Dekker's Babylon i. 1, the Cardinal asks, "Why were our gardens E.? why our bowers Built like those in Paradise?" Jonson, in Forest xi., says that true love is "A form more fresh than are the E. bowers, And lasting as her flowers." In Day's Travails (Bullen, p. 12), Sir Anthony, speaking of England, says, "My country's an island, defenced with streams such as from E. run." According to Gen. ii. 10, 4 rivers took their origin in the Garden of E. Milton, P. L. iv. 131, describes the beauty of E.; in 210 he says, "E. stretched her line From Auran eastward to the royal towers Of great Seleucia, built by Grecian kings, Or where the sons of E. long before Dwelt in Telassar" (see II Kings xix. 12). From 569 it appears that in Milton's conception there was a mtn. N. of E. From xii. 50 it is clear that Babylon was to the W. of E. The word is used figuratively in P. R. i. 7, where it is said that by his victory over the Tempter our Lord "E. raised in the waste wilderness."


The capital of Scotland, on the S. side of the Firth of Forth in MidLothian, 392 m. N. of Lond. In Greene's James IV i. 2, Andrew says, "I am one that knew your Honour in Edenborough." In Jonson's New World, the Printer says, "One of our greatest poets (I know not how good a one) went to E. on foot and came back." The reference is to Jonson's own visit to Scotland in 1618. In his lost poem entitled "E" he describes the city as "Edinborough the heart of Scotland, Britaine's other eye." In Brome's Antipodes i. 6, the Dr. says that Peregrine's traveller's tales are "like the reports of those that beggingly have put out on returns from Edenburgh." The reference may again be to Ben Jonson's journey. Three Of the scenes in Ford's Warbeck are laid in E. The scene of a large part of Sampson's Vow is laid in E. during the siege of Leith in 1560. In iii. 3,4, Crosse says, "Monlucke, Bp. of Valens, Desires safe convoy by your honour's forces From the red Brayes to Edenborough Castle." The Castle overlooks Princes St., on the S. side of the city. The Penn. Pilg. of Taylor, the Water-Poet, was from Lond. to E. This work contains a brief description of the city and the author's adventures therein. Fynes Moryson, Itinerary t, iii. 5, was another visitor to the city during our period


A Scottish fortress taken by Surrey in the campaign against Perkin Warbeck in 1497. It is a hamlet with the ruins of an ancient fortalice, 21 m. E. of Chirnside, Berwickshire. In Ford's Warbeck iv. 1, Surrey says, "Can they Look on the strength of Cundrestine defaced? The glory of Hedon-Hall devastated? that Of Edington cast down?"




Vill. in Middlesex, 7 m. N. of Lond.; originally called Adelmeton. John Gilpin's adventures have immortalized the Bell Inn. Charles Lamb died and was buried here. In Oldcastle iii. 2, Acton gives a list of villages in which the rebel troops are quartered: "Some here with us in Highgate, some at Finchley, Tot'nam, Enfield, E., Newington." The scenes of Drayton's Merry Devil and of Dekker's Edmonton are laid in this village. The former is based on the story that a certain Peter Fabell, who is buried in the ch., cheated the devil by his skill. He lived in the reign of Henry VII.


(see BURY ST. EDMUNDS). In K.J. iv. 3, ti, Salsbury says, "Lords, I will meet him [the Dauphin] at S. E."; and in v. 4, 18, Melun tells the English Lords, "He [the Dauphin] means to recompense the pains you take By cutting off your heads, thus hath he sworn Upon the altar at S. E." Drayton, in Polyolb. Xi. 280, asks, "What English hath not heard St. Edmond Bury's name?"


The tribe living East and S. of the Dead Sea in Palestine. The Eites. showed great cruelty to the Jews at the time of the taking of Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar 597 B.C., and were thenceforward regarded by them with peculiar enmity. In Darius, p. 89, Zorobabel, referring to this, speaks of the "Temple which the Eites. burnt without fain." In Mariam i. 2, Alexandra says of Herod, "My curse pursue his breathless trunk and spirit, Base Eite., the damned Esau's heir I" The Eites. were descended from Esau; and Herod, according to one account, was of Idumean of Eite. descent. In Milton, P. R. ii. 423, the Tempter asks, "What raised Antipater the Eite., And his son Herod placed on Judah's throne, Thy throne, but gold, that got him puissant friends?"In his Trans. Ps. lxxxiii. 21, amongst the enemies of Israel are "The tents of E., and the brood Of scornful Ishmael." In Hemings' Jewes Trag. 560, the defence of "the country of the Eites." against Titus is assigned to Eleazar. Eite. was used as a term of abuse by the Puritans. In Alimony iii. 4, Benhadad the Puritan assails the soldiers: "I proclaim you all Eites.; dragooners of Dagon; ding-dongs of Dathan."


See ELY.




A town in Bohemia, 91 m. W. of Prague. In the castle is still to be seen the room in which Wallenstein was murdered in 1634. E., or Egers, as it is called, is the scene of Glapthorne's Wallenstein. In v. 2, Lesle says, "Egers is grown proud, Dares with Vienna stand in competition."


(En. = Egyptian, AE. = AEgypt, AEn. = AEgyptian). A country in N. Africa, W. of the Red Sea, stretching along the Nile from its mouth to the N. boundary of Nubia. The history of E. extends back to the time of Menes, some 4,000 years B.C., and the country was ruled by a succession of dynasties, numbered from i. to xxvi., until 525 B.C., when it was annexed by Cambyses to the Persian Empire. Of its history up to this point the Elizabethans knew very little except what they had learned from Greek legends and from the Old Testament. In Massinger's Virgin i. 1, the K. of Macedonia speaks of "The AEn. Hercules, Sesostris, That had his chariot drawn by captive kings." The Greek legends of Sesostris gathered round the exploits of User-tesen III of the 12th Dynasty, who lived about 2500 B.C., but the details are mostly fabulous. In Tw. N. v. 1, 121, the D. says, "Why should I not, Like the En. thie at point of death, Kill what I love?" The allusion is to a story told in the Ethiopica of Heliodorus of how Thyamis, an En. pirate, killed Charicles, with whom he was in love, when he was in danger of being captured by his enemies.

Allusions to the sojourn of the Chosen People in E., as told in Genesis and Exodus, abound. Milton, P. L. xii. 157, relates how the patriarchs came "From Canaan to a land hereafter called E., divided by the r. Nile." In the following lines the history of Israel in E., the Plagues, and the Exodus are related. In P. R. iii. 379, the Tempter says, "Their fathers in the land of E. served"; and promises our Lord that he shall reign "From E. to Euphrates and beyond." In Bale's Promises iv., Pater Coelestis says, "The sons of Jacob into E. did their brother sell." When Falstaff, in H4 A. ii. 4, 520, says, "If to be fat is to be hated, then Pharaoh's lean kine are to be loved,"he is referring to the story of Pharaoh's dream in Gen. xli. In Jonson's Epicoene iii. 2, Truewit speaks of "All E.'s 10 plagues." In Marlowe's Jew i., 2, Barabas prays, "The plagues of E. and the curse of heaven Inflict upon them!" In Jonson's Alchemist v. 3, Ananias speaks of Subtle and his crew as "Worse than the grasshoppers or lice of E.": these being 2 of the plagues. In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage iii., Ilford says to the usurers, "Good security, you En. grasshoppers!" In iii. 1, Ilford wishes Scarborow "as many good fortunes as there were grasshoppers in E." In Middleton's Chess, Ind., Loyola says, "I thought my disciples had covered the earth's face and made dark the land, like the En. grasshoppers." Milton, P. L. 1, 339, says, "the potent rod Of Amram's son, in E.'s evil day, Waved round the coast, up-called a pitchy cloud Of locusts." In Middleton's Phoenix ii. 2, the Capt. says, "The En. plague creeps over me already; I begin to be lousy." Dekker, in Bellman, speaks of "the idle drones of a country, the caterpillars of a Commonwealth, and the AEn. lice of a kingdom." In Day's Travails (Bullen, p. 59), Zariph says of the Christians, "The lice of E. shall devour them all." In Tw. N. iv. 2, 48, the Clown says to Malvolio in his dark room, "There is no darkness but ignorance; in which thou art more puzzled than the Ens. in their fog" (see Exodus x. 21). In Randolph's Muses, 1, 4, Mime says, "In me. . . self-love casts not her En. mists." In Andromana v. 2, Plangus leaves his mistress "hemmed in with a despair thicker than En. darkness." The last Plague was the destruction of the first-born. Milton, P. L. 1, 488, tells how "Jehovah, when he passed From E. marching, equalled with one stroke Both her firstborn and all her bleating gods." In As You Like It ii. 5, 63, Jaques says, "I'll rail against aft the firstborn of E." He means those who are heirs to great wealth, and is thinking of Psalm lxxviii. 52, translated in the Great Bible, "He smote all the firstborn in E.; the most principal and mightiest in the dwellings of Ham." In Much Ado iii. 3, 142, "Pharaoh's soldiers in the reechy painting "were doubtless represented as being drowned in the Red Sea. In Bale's Promises vi., Pater Coelestis says, "Sesack, the K. of E., took away their treasure." This is the K. known as Shishak, or Sheshonk 1, who reigned 945–924 B.C. (see 1 Kings xiv. 25). In Chivalry, Bowyer swears, "Not we [retreat] by the life of Pharo." In Jonson's Ev. Man I., Bobadil's favourite oath is "By the foot of Pharaoh." In P. L. iv. 171, Milton recalls how Asmodeus by the fishy fume was "sent from Media post to E." (see Tobit viii. 3). Milton, P. L. 1, 721, speaks of the time "when E. with Assyria strove In wealth and luxury." These were the 2 rival empires of the East until the fall of Nineveh in 606 B.C. Cambises takes place partly in E., at the time of the successful attack of that K. on the country; and Cambises complains, "The Egiptians against us repunge as varlets slave and vile."

When Alexander the Gt. conquered the Persian Empire in 330 B.C. E. came under his sway, and the city of Alexandria is the memorial of the glory he won there. In Lyly's Campaspe iii. 4, Hephaestion stirs up Alexander to war by saying, "Behold all Persia swelling in the pride of their own power; and the Ens. dreaming in the soothsaying of their augurs and gaping over the smoke of their beasts' entrails." On the death of Alexander and the partition of his empire, E. fell to Ptolemy Lagos, and passed in succession from him to his descendants, who all bore the name Ptolemy, the last being Ptolemy XV. Their queens, who bore the name of Cleopatra or Berenice, were frequently associated with them in the throne. The Ptolemies were Greek by birth, not En., though they adopted many of the old En. court manners and customs."Ptolemy, the most sacred K. of E., 1st of that name," appears in Chapman's Blind Beggar; he reigned 323–285 B.C. One of the queens in Jonson's Queens is "Fair-haired Berenice, E.'s fame ": explained by Jonson in a note to be the daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus and wife of Ptolemy Euergetes. She dedicated her hair to Venus on condition of her husband's safe return from an expedition into Asia, and, her vow having been fulfilled, her hair was taken up into the sky and became the constellation known as Coma Berenices–so at least the graceful legend ran. In Massinger's Believe i. 2, Flaminius, speaking about 190 B.C., charges the Carthaginians with having chosen "to pay homage and fealty to the En. Ptolemy, or indeed any, than bow unto the Roman." But the name which figures most largely of all the En. monarchs in the Elizabethan dramatists is Cleopatra VI, who, along with her brother Ptolemy XIV, succeeded to the throne in 51 B.C. She was then a girl of 17, her brother a boy of 10. In 48 B.C., Pothinos, an influential eunuch, persuaded Ptolemy to assume sole control, and Cleopatra was driven into exile. At this moment Pompeius came to E. as a fugitive after the defeat of Pharsalia, and was treacherously murdered by Ptolemy. Caesar shortly afterwards arrived in E., and, after a narrow escape from destruction in Alexandria, restored Cleopatra along with her younger brother Ptolemy XV, and took her back with him to Rome as his mistress. She bore him a son, who was called Caesarion. On Caesar's death in 44 she returned to Alexandria. During the civil war which followed Antony was put in charge of the East: he summoned Cleopatra to appear before him at Tarsus, and she went to meet him there and succeeded in completely fascinating him and carrying him back to E. with her in 41. Antony returned to Rome after a time and married Octavia, the sister of Octavian. But the fascination of Cleopatra drew him back to E. In 36 he went against the Parthians and, summoning her to meet him at Antioch, he gave her the dominion over Phoenicia, Cyprus, Cilicia, and other districts in the East. He came back from Parthia defeated, but she met him and kept him from returning to Rome; and in 34 he revenged his defeat on the Parthians, and coming back to Alexandria he conferred the lordship of the whole of the East on her and her sons Caesarion, Alexander, and Ptolemy. War was now declared on Antony by Octavian, and Cleopatra accompanied her lover to the battle of Actium, but her flight was the cause of his defeat, and together they went to E. closely followed by Octavian. Antony committed suicide, and the Q., after a vain attempt to charm the austere Octavian, followed his example. The death of Pompeius is an incident in Chapman's Caesar v. 1, 244, etc. The earlier intrigue with Julius Caesar is the subject of B. & F. False One, and, we may add incidentally, of Bernard Shaw's Caesar and Cleopatra; and the later intrigue with Antony is treated in Shakespeare's Antony, in Daniel's Cleopatra, and in Dryden's All for Love.

In Jonson's Poetaster v. 1, Caesar speaks of Cornelius Gallus as "the first provost That ever let our Roman eagles fly On swarthy E." Gallus was sent by Caesar to E. immediately after the battle of Actium to complete the defeat of Antony. In Massinger's Milan ii. 1, Tiberio speaks of the Duchess as "she that lately Rivalled Poppaea in her varied shapes, Or the En. Q." In Mariam i. 2, Alexandra says that if Antony had seen Mariamne "he would Have left the brown En. clean forsaken." The story of Cleopatra dissolving a costly pearl in vinegar for a toast to Antony impressed the popular imagination. In Jonson's Volpone iii. 6, Volpone promises to Celia "A rope of pearl; and each more orient Than that the brave En. Q. caroused." In Greene's Friar ix., Bacon promises the Emperor Frederick "wines richer than the AEn. courtesan Quaffed to Augustus' kingly counter-match." In Shirley's Venice iii. 4, Thomazo says, "Let the banquet be as rich as the En. Q. made for Marc Antony." In Marmion's Companion i. 1, Valeria says, "Could the En. Q. Rather endure the poignant stings of adders Than that of death which wounded Antony? And must I then survive you?" In Mason's Mulleasses 2063, Timoclea says, "The En. Q. Ne'er died more daring." In Mariam iv. 8, Mariam speaks of Cleopatra as "that face That to be Egipt's pride was born."

Milton, P. L. ix. 443, refers t<) the dalliance of the sapient king Solomon "with his fair En. spouse" (see 1 Kings iii. 1). The lady was probably the daughter of Pesebkhenno II, the last king of the XXI Dynasty. According to Matthew ii. 13, the Virgin Mary took our Lord to E. in his infancy to escape from the jurisdiction of Herod. In Candlemas, p. 14, the Angel says to Joseph, "Take Mary with thee and in to Egipt flee." So, in York M. P. xviii. 79, Joseph says, "Unto Egipte wend we will." In Milton, P. R. ii. 76, the Virgin Mary tells how she was "enforced to fly Thence into E. till the murderous king Were dead." In A.D. 640 the Arabs took Alexandria, and thenceforward E. was under the rule of the Moslems. By the direction of the Caliph Omar the famous library was ransacked and all the books consumed by fire. Till 868 the viceroys were appointed by the Caliphs of Bagdad and Damascus; but they then asserted their independence, the most famous of the Sultans of E. being the chivalrous Saladin. In 1517 Selim, the Turkish Sultan, conquered the last independent ruler of E. and made it a part of the Ottoman Empire. 1!n Greene's Orlando i. 1, 20, the Soldan of E. is one of the suitors for the hand of Angelica. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. i. 2, Zenocrate is described as the daughter of "The mighty Soldan of AEgyptia." This was Farag, who was defeated by Tamburlaine in Syria; but Marlowe is in error in making Tamburlaine actually enter E. In Selimus, the En. Soldan Tonombey comes to assist Acomat in his fight against his brother Selim. This is supposed to be in 151:2. In line 2418 Selim says, "Acomat brings with him That great AEn. bug, strong Tonom-bey, Usan-Cassano's son." This is not quite accurate: Tuman Bey was not descended from Usum-Cassanes, but was a slave who was elected Sultan of E. in 1516, 4 years after Selim's accession, and was defeated and put to death by him at Cairo in 1517; neither did he come to help Acomat. In Day's Travails, the Sultan Agmed I claims to be "emperor of Babilon, Catheria, AEgipt, Antioche."

The religion of ancient E. was a curious conglomerate of sun and star worship with the more primitive adoration of totem-animals. The supreme god was Ra, the sun-god, but he was supposed to be incarnated in the sacred Apis Bull; and other animals were worshipped in a similar way. There were also a number of semihuman deities, of whom Osiris, with his mother Isis, was the chief. Milton, P. L. i. 480, mentions "Osiris, Isis, Orus "as having "abused Fanatic E. and her priests to seek Their wandering gods disguised in brutish forms." In Brome's Concubine iii. 9, the K. says, "He's no son of mine That with less adoration dares look up On thy divinity than the AEns. Gave to the Sun itself." In Milkmaids i. 3, Ranolf says of Lord Callow: "I have lighted upon one of the En. idols; taught with some engine to put off his hat and screw his face a little; I cannot speak to it like a man." In the same scene Dorigene says, "We came but as the AEns. to adore the rising sun and to fall down before it." In Lyly's Midas ii 1, Sophronia says, "They honour Lust for a god as the AEns. did dogs." Milton, P. R. iii. 416, calls the gods which Israel worshipped "the deities of E.": he is thinking of the golden calf, and of the calves which Jeroboam set up at Bethel and Dan. The En. priests were credited with profound skiff in sorcery; they were also thought to be expert in astrology and philosophy. This was due largely to the account of the priests who withstood, Moses with enchantments. In Daniel's Cleopatra iv. 3, the chorus says, "Mysterious E, wonderbreeder, Strict religion's strange observer." In Lyly's Endymion iii. 1, Cynthia says, "If the soothsayers of E. can find remedy, I will procure it." In Chapman's [Glapthorne's?] Rev. Hon. i. 1, 155, Selinthus says, "No En. soothsayer Has truer inspiration than your small courtier's." Spenser, F. Q. v., prol. 8, speaks of "those aen. wisards old Which in starrede were wont have best insight." In B. & F. Wild Goose i. 3, Mirabel fears that, if he marries the learned Dillia, his 1st son must be Aristotle, his 2nd Solon, "And I must look En. god-fathers Which will be no small trouble." Burton, A. M. iii. 1,:Z, 3, says, "Plato and Pythagoras left their country to see those wise En. priests."

The hierolglyphic inscriptions of E., being hitherto uninterpreted, were supposed to have a mystical significance. In Jonson's Alchemist ii. 1, Subtle says, "Was not all the knowledge Of the AEns. writ in mystic symbols?" In Underwit ii. 2, Device says, "Your Hieroglyphick was the Egiptian wisdom." In Histrio B. 2, Chrisogonus says, "This time We call a year whose hieroglyphick was Amongst the AEns. figured in a snake Wreathed circular, the tail within his mouth." In Jonson's Poetaster v. 1, Maecenas says, "By that beast [the ass] the old AEns. Were wont to figure in their hieroglyphs Patience, frugality, and fortitude." This is pure imagination: the AEns. used the head and ears of an ass to symbolize a stupid and ignorant person, but it was not an ordinary hieroglyphic character. In Massinger's Guardian ii. 3, Mirtille gives Adorio a gem with the Rape of Proserpine engraved on it, from his mistress, and says, "She presents you this jewel in which, as by a true En. hieroglyphic, you may be instructed." The AEns. preserved the bodies of the dead by mummification. Hakluyt, in Voyages ii. 1, 201 (1599), says, "These dead bodies are the Mummie which the Physicians. . . make us to swallow." Mummy was often used as a medicine. Falstaff, in M.W.W. iii. 5, 18, says that if he had been drowned he would have been a mtn. of Mummie." Sandys, in Travels 133, saw "The Mummes, lying in a place where many generations have had their sepulture, not far above Memphis." Bacon, in Sylva viii. 771, says that the mummies of AE. have lasted "as is conceived some of theta 3,000 years."

The AEns. were dark and swarthy in complexion, and were credited with being expert in lying and treachery. Probably, however, the speakers were thinking of the Gipsies, who were supposed to be AEns. In M.N.D. v. 1, 11, Theseus says, "The lover. . . Sees Helen's beauty in a brow of E." In Brome's Moor iii. 1, Quicksands says, "Why think'st thou, fearful Beauty, has Heaven no part in AE.? Is not an AEthiope's face his workmanship As well as the fairest ladies'?" Dark women were regarded as repulsive in the reign of the blonde Elizabeth. In Tiberius 684, Sejanus says that a man who will climb must adapt himself to all circumstances: "Brag with the French, with the AEn. lie." The wealth of E. was proverbial, possibly from Hebrews xi. 26, where Moses is described as refusing "the treasures of E." In Lyly's Endymion v. 3, Gyptes says, "I choose rather to live by the sight of Cynthia than by the possessing of all E." Barnes, in Parthenophil xlviii. 3, wishes "No diamonds the En. surges under."

E. is a rainless country, and depends altogether for its fertility upon the annual rising of the Nile. The mud or slime left by the falling of the river was the most precious possession of the land, and was rich in harvests with little need for cultivation. It was supposed to produce also serpents, crocodiles, and other venomous beasts by spontaneous generation. In H8 ii. 3, 92, the old lady speaks of a woman "who would not be a Q. For all the mud in E." In Antony ii. 5, 78, Cleopatra, in her wrath, prays: "Melt E. into Nile, and kindly creatures Turn all to serpents!" and in 94 she cries: "O! would thou didst, So half my E. were submerged and made A cistern for scaled snakes." In ii. 7, 30, Lepidus says, "Your serpent of E. is bred now of your mud by the operation of your sun; so is your crocodile." In Massinger's Renegado iii. 1, Mustapha apostrophises, "O land of crocodiles Made of accursed slime, accursed woman!"Bacon, in Sylva viii. 767, says that there is "little or no rain "in E.; and that "the water of Nilus is sweeter than other waters in taste" (see also under NILE). The crocodile was the best known of the animals of E. Many legends gathered round it: as that it wept in order to attract its prey; and that the dogs drank of the Nile at a run in order to avoid it. In Selimus 441, Baiazet says, "Even as the great AEn. crocodile Wanting his prey, with artificial tears And fained plaints his subtil tongue doth fie To entrap the silly wandering traveller, So playeth crafty Selimus with me." In Chettle's Hoffman i. 1, Hoffman says, "Thou couldst shed tears As doth the En. serpents near the Nile." In Locrine iii., prol., Ate tells a story of" an AEn. crocodile "that was stung to death by an adder. Lyly, in Euphues England, p. 256, says, "Wine should be taken, as the dogs in E. drink water, by snatches." Lodge, in Ans. to Gosson 9 (Eliz. Pamph.), tells how "the dastardly ichneumon of E. Besmears herself with clay "as a pro tection against the bite of the asp. In Tiberius 2073, Drusus says, "Me thought I saw Martichora, The dreadful hideous Ain. beast, Faced as an hydra like some uncouth man Whose ears hang draggling down unto her feet. . . With lion's claws and scorpion's poisoned sting." This fabulous monster is described by Aristotle in Mist. Animal. ii. 1, p. 53, Ctesias being quoted as his authority; but he makes it an Indian, not an En., beast. The name is the Persian Mard-khora, i.e. man-eater. The Sacred This (Ibis Religiosa) was indigenous to E., and was greatly valued because it kept the snakes down by killing them and eating their eggs. In Selimus 2523, Selim says, "The AEn. ibis hath expelled Those swarming armies of swift-winged snakes. Those ibides met them in set array And eat them like to a swarm of gnats." In 2539 he says, "I, like AE.'s bird, Have rid that monster." Greene, in Pandosto 51, speaks of the "bird Ibys in E. which hateth serpents, yet feedeth on their eggs." In Middleton's Chess v. 3, the Black Knight, in a list of fish esteemed by the Romans, mentions the "golden-headed coracine out of E." This coracine is a Nile fish, Sparus Chromis. Pliny, Hist. Nat. ix. 32, says, "Coracinus in AEgypto principatum obtinet."

The palm-tree grows freely in E., and dates are one of its principal exports. In Nash's Summers, p. 70, Christmas says, "I must rig ship to E. for dates." In Lyly's Gallathea v. 2, Haebe says, "The AEns. never cut their dates from the tree because they are so fresh and green."

The plant which produces the drug Nepenthes, some kind of opiate, is stated by Homer (Odyss. iv. 2,28) to be from E. "where the rich glebe evermore Yields herbs in foison, some for virtue known, Some baneful." Milton, in Comus 676, speaks of "that Nepenthes which the wife of Thone In E. gave to Jove-born Helena." The wife of Thone was called Polydamna. Other drugs and spices were produced in E. In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass ii. 1, 428, Remilia speaks of "The precious drugs that M.'s wealth affords." Barnes, in Parthenophil xvii. 17, says, "En. gums and odours Arabic I loathe." In Carlell's Deserv. Fav 2855, the Hermite says, "I must attribute His sudden curing to a sovereign balm That an En. gave me." Some of the En. stones, especially Syenite and Diorite, are extremely hard. In Chapman's Consp. Byron ii. 1, 147, Byron says, "Though he prove harder than En. marble, I'll make him malleable as th' Ophir gold." The art of hatching eggs by artificial heat was known to the Ens. In Jonson's Alchemist ii. 1, Surly says scornfully to Subtle, "That you should hatch gold in a furnace, Sir, As they do eggs in E.!" In Chapman's [Glapthorne's?] Rev. Hon. i. 1, 67, Selinthus says that Abrahen "has hatched more projects than the ovens In E. Chickens."

The Gipsies, as the name implies, were believed to have come from E., though they really were of Hindu origin. They first appeared in England about the beginning of the 16th cent., and quickly established a reputation for themselves as fortune-tellers and sorcerers; besides being shrewdly suspected of petty thefts. They are often called by the fuller name Ens. In Antony iv. 10, 38, Antony says of Cleopatra, "O this false soul of E.!. . . this grave charm. . . . Like a right gipsy hath, at fast and loose, Beguiled me to the very heart of loss." Lyly, in Euphues England, p. 309, says, "Thus, with the En., thou playest fast and loose." This was a common Gipsy trick, like the modem "pricking the garter." In Per. iii. 2, 84, Cerimon says, "I heard of an En. That had 9 hours lien dead, Who was by good appliance recovered." The original of this speech in Wilkins' novel, The Painful Adventures of Pericles, Prince of Tyre (1608) is: "I have read of some Ens. who, after 4 hours' death, have raised impoverished bodies to their former health." In Oth. iii. 4, 56, Othello says, "That handkerchief Did an En. to my mother give," and proceeds to relate its magical pro perties. In Middleton's Gipsy iii. 1, Sancho says, "If you ask whence we are, We are En. Spaniards." In his Widow iii. 3, Violetta says of Brandino, "Francisco is a child of E. to him,"ie. a mere gipsy. In Jonson's Gipsies, Jackman sings, "Thus the Ens. throng in clusters." Harman, in Caveat Intro., speaks of "the wretched, wily, wandering vagabonds, calling and naming themselves Egiptians." In Shirley's Sisters iii. 1, Giovanni says of the Chaldaean fortune-tellers: "They do not come for money like your starch-faced Ens." The starch of Elizabethan days was yellow. In Middleton's Chess iii. 1, the Black Q.'s Pawn speaks of "a magical glass I bought of an En." In Brome's Moor iv. 5, the Inductor of the Masque comes in with a blackened face, and says he will devise a husband for MiIlisent "such as I shall draw, Being an AEn. prophet.. Dekker, in Lanthorn viii., says of the Moon-men: "By a byname they are called Gipsies, they call themselves Egiptians." In Whetstone's Promos ii. 7, "a Giptian "is led out with 5 other prisoners to execution.


Used in the O. T. several times for the brook which divides E. from Syria. It is the Wady-el-Arish, which flows into the Mediterranean between Pelusium and Gaza. Milton, P. L. i. 421, calls it "the brook that parts E. from Syrian ground."


In Ham. v. 1, 299, Hamlet says to Laertes, "Woo't drink up e.? eat a crocodile?"Some of the editors, remarking that in the Folio the word is printed with a capital initial and in italics as if it were a proper name, interpret it as meaning some river: either the Yssel in Holland, or by conjecture the Nile. Most, however, take it to mean vinegar.


A r. in Germany, rising in Bohemia and flowing in a northerly direction into the North Sea at Cuxhaven, between Holstein and Bremen. Hamburg is at the head of the estuary, abt. 85 m. from the sea. Its total length is between 600 and 700 m. In H5 i. 2, 45, the Archbp. of Canterbury says, "Their own authors faithfully affirm That the land Salique is in Germany Between the floods of Sala and of E." (old edns. Elve). So in line 52, "Which Salique. . . 'twixt E. and Sala Is at this day in Germany called Meisen." This is almost verbatim from Holinshed. See SALA.


One of the wonders of the Peak of Derbyshire. It is a natural chasm some 30 yards long by 15 wide, and of great depth, and lies abt. 4 m. W. of Castleton. In Jonson's Love's Welcome, Accidence includes amongst the wonders of the Peak "St. Anne of Buxton's boiling well, Or E., bottomless like Hell."


The name given by the Elizabethans to Manoa, the chief city of Guiana, in S. America, because of its supposed wealth. Raleigh led an expedition to discover it in 1585. Milton, P.L. xi. 411, represents Adam as seeing in spirit "yet unspoiled Guiana, whose great city Geryon's sons [i.e. the Spaniards] Call E. D." Burton, A. M. ii. 2, 3, says, "I would see those inner parts of America, whether there be any such great city of Manoa, or Eldorado, in that golden empire."


(now EL–AL). A vill. in the land of Moab, a little more than 1 m. N. of Heshbon. Milton, P. L. i. 411, says that Chemos was worshipped "in Hesebon. . . And E. to the Asphaltic pool."


An inn in the chief city of Illyria. In Tw. N. iii. 3, 39, Antonio says, "In the S. suburbs at the E. Is best to lodge"; and in iv. 3, 5, Sebastian complains that he could not find Antonio "at the E." There was an E. Alley on the N. side of Maid Lane, Southwark, leading to the East end of the Bankside, which possibly suggested the name to Shakespeare. The famous E. & Castle in Newington was not built till the middle of the 17th cent. There was an E. Inn in Fenchurch St.


An island in the Nile, just opposite to Syene. In Jonson's Alchemist ii. 1, Mammon says, "I will have. . . mine oval room Filled with such pictures as Tiberius took From E." The allusion is to Suetonius, Vit. Tiberii 43, "Cubicula plurifariam disposita tabellis ac sigillis lascivissimarum picturarum et figurarum adornavit librisque Elephantidis instruxit."


A town in Attica, standing on a height a little way from the sea abt. 12 m. N.W. of Athens, with which it was connected by the Sacred Way along which the great Eleusinian procession passed once a year to celebrate the Mysteries of Demeter. There was another E. in Boeotia, near Lake Copais. In Nabbes' Microcosmus iii., Sensuality mentions "Eleusinian plaice "amongst dainties for the table.


A mtn. in Wales, mentioned by Jonson in his Wales. But as among the other "mtns." he mentions Talgarth, which is not a mtn., but a market town (in the N. of Brecknock), it would be waste of time to ask what he may have meant by E.


The capital of the dist. of E., which lies on the W. coast of the Peloponnesus between Achaia and Messenia. In the time of Pausanias it was one of the most splendid and popular cities of Greece, and contained the largest gymnasium in the country. Some .25 m. S.E. of E. was Olympia, where the Olympic games were celebrated. These were originally under the control of Pisa, but passed at a very early date into the hands of the Gleans, who elected from among themselves the 10 Hellanodici , or Judges. In Nero i. 3, Nero boasts, "Not Bacchus. . . Stuck amazed India with wonder As Nero's glories did the Greekish towns, E. and Pisa and the rich Mycenae." The allusion is to Nero's visit to Greece in A.D. 67, when he contended in Music in the Olympic Games. In Chapman's Consp. Byron v. 1, Henri says to Byron," In this dissension I may say of you As Fame says of the ancient Eleans That in the Olympian contentions They ever were the justest arbitrators, If none of them contended or were parties." In Andromana ii. 6, in the fictitious war between the Iberians and Argives, Plangus "with a winged speed Fell down to the Elean straits." Probably the mouth of the Gulf of Corinth is intended, if anything.


The fort at the extremity of the ridge separating the 2 harbours of Valetta on the N.E. coast of Malta. On it stands one of the most powerful lighthouses in the Mediterranean. In B. & F. Malta i. 3, Valetta, the Grand-Master of the Knights of St. John, after whom the city was named, speaks of "That great marvellous slaughter of the Turks Before St. Elme, where 25,000 Fell, for 5000 of our Christians." The reference is to the repulse of the Turks from St. E. in 1565


(Danish, HELSINGOR). Spt. on the N.E. of Zealand, on the narrowest part of the Sound, 22 m. N. of Copenhagen. Close by is the castle of Kronburg, built in 1574. It was the birth-place of Saxo Grammaticus. In Ham. i. 2, 1174, Hamlet asks Horatio, "What is your affair in E.?"and in ii. 2, 278, he asks Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, "What make you at E.?"In line 387, he welcomes the players "to E.," and again in 573. These passages fix the scene of the play, which is not elsewhere indicated. (See also HELSEN.)


A vill. in Kent, 8 m. S.E. of Lond., at the foot of Shooter's Hill. There was a royal palace here which was much frequented by the Plantagenet kings, but was not used as a royal residence after the reign of Henry VIII, though it was visited by Elizabeth and James I. The great hall, built by Edward IV, still remains: a noble Gothic structure 100 ft. long, 36 broad, and 55 high. In H6 A. i. 1, 170, Exeter says, "To E. will 1, where the young K. is," and in 176 Winchester adds: "The K. from E. I intend to steal." In iii. 1, 3156, Gloucester says, "At E. Place I told your Majesty." In Chaucer, Legend of Good Women 497, Venus says to him, "Whan this book is made, yive it the quene, On my byhalfe, at E. or at Sheene." In Oldcastle, 2 of the scenes are laid in an ante-chamber in the Palace of E. In iii. 2, Acton says, "The k. is secure at E."; in iii. 4, the K., in disguise, tells Sir John he comes "from the court at E."; and in iv. 1, Sir John says he won his gold "in play of the keeper of E. Park." In Fair Women ii. 620, Browne says, "Crossing the field this morning here from E. (we] Chanced by the way to start a brace of hares." At Christmas 1515 the Story of Troylous and Pandour, by William Cornish, was played before the K. at E. by the children of the Chapel Royal. Jonson, in Epigram xcvii., says, "See you yond Motion? not the old fa-ding, Nor Capt. Pod, nor yet the E. thing"; and in Epicoene v. 1, Morose says, "I dwell in a windmill; the perpetual motion is here, and not at E." This was a machine supposed to be capable of perpetual motion which was exhibited at E. Palace by its inventor, Cornelius Drebbel, who came to England in 1610 and had apartments granted to him at E. Palace. It was a hollow glass globe representing the heavens, which was kept revolving round a small ball in the centre, representing the earth. In Vendenheym's Relation of the Journey of Lewis Frederick, Prince of Wirtemberg, to England, under date Tuesday, 1 May 1610, it is said: "His Excellency went to E. Park to see the perpetual motion; the inventor's name was Cornelius Trebel, a native of Alkmaar, a very fair and handsome man." Peacham, in his Sights of England (1611), mentions "the heavenly Motion of E."


The strongest fortress in Portugal, abt. 11 m. W. of Badajoz. It is the seat of a bp., and has an old cathedral. It is the scene of part of Shirley's Maid's Revenge.


An episcopal city in Cambridgesh., on the Ouse, 67 m. N.E. of Lond. A monastery was founded here by Q. Etheldreda about A.D. 670. In 1107 E. was made the seat of a bishopric by Henry I; and Henry VIII converted the conventual ch. into a cathedral. The transept dates from the reign of William Rufus: the nave and W. tower were built in 1174. The Bp. of E. in H5 i.1, was John Fordham, who died 1425. The Bp. of E. appears as one of the Council in R3 iii. 4. In iv. 3, we are told that he has fled to Richmond; and in iv. 4, 468, Stanley says that Richmond has been stirred up by "Dorset, Buckingham, and E." to claim the Crown of England. This was John Morton, who was made Bp. of E. in 1478: he was committed in custody by Richd. to the D. of Buckingham, who confined him in what was known from this circumstance as the Bishop's Tower in Brecknock Castle; after Buckingham's disgrace he persuaded him to call in the Earl of Richmond. Henry VII made him Archbp. of Canterbury in 1486, and it was he who built the central tower of the cathedral there. In 1487 he became Lord Chancellor; in 1493 he was created a cardinal; and he died at the age of 91 in 1500There is a Bp. of E. in Downfall Huntington, which is placed in the reign of John. In iii. 1, Fitzwater says to him, "E., thou wert the fox to Huntington." In More iii. 2, Fawkner, who has been arrested for a st. riot, says "The fray was between the Bp.'s men of Eelie and, Winchester." In B. & F. Wit S. W. iii. 1, the fiddler's boy, being asked what countryman he is, says, "Sir, born at E.; we all set up in Ela." The joke turns on the "E "or "La," the note to which the viol was tuned. In Greene's Friar v. 8, Ralph says, "I'll send to the Isle of Eely for 4 or 5 dozen of geese." E. was famous for goose-breeding. Drayton, in Polyolb. xxi., says there was "abundant store "of fish and fowl bred there.


The Lond. residence of the Bps. of E. It was on the site of the present E. Place, which runs N. from Charterhouse St. near Holborn Viaduct. Originally the H. had a fine gate opening into Holborn, built in 1388. The death of John of Gaunt, described in R2 ii. 1, took place at E. H., which was often let by the Bps. to noblemen. In R3 iii. 4, 32, Richd. says to the Bp. of E., "When I was last in Holborn I saw good strawberries in your garden there; I do beseech you, send for some of them." Sir Christopher Hatton got a lease of it in 1576, and erected Hatton H. on part of the estate. Hatton Gardens mark the site. The Spanish ambassador Gondomar lodged at E. H., and during his residence in 1621 the last Mystery Play ever represented in England up till recent years was acted there. Lady Hatton held the house till 1646; and in 1633 the performers in Shirley's Masque, The Triumph of Peace, assembled at E. and Hatton H., and marched thence down Chancery Lane to the Banqueting House at Whitehall, where the Masque was presented. In 1772 the property was transferred to the Crown, and 37 Dover St., Piccadilly, was made over to the see of E. in its stead. All the buildings were then taken down except the ancient chapel of St. Etheldreda, which, after being used as a National School and as a Welsh Episcopalian Ch., was purchased in 1874 by the Lazarist Fathers and opened as a Catholic Chapel by Cardinal Manning in 1879.


The Elysian Plain was in Greek mythology the abode of the blessed dead. Homer places it in the W. near the Ocean stream; Hesiod and Pindar identify it with the blessed Isles. Later it was conceived as in the lower world. It is used by the Elizabethans as a synonym for Heaven: a region of perfect bliss. In Two Gent. ii. 7, 38, Juliet says, "There I'll rest as after much turmoil A blessed soul doth in E." In Tw. N. i. 2, 4, Viola says of her brother, supposed to be drowned, "My brother he is in E." In Cymb. v. 4, 97, Jupiter calls the Ghosts "poor shadows of E." In Marlowe's Faustus i. 3, the hero says, "This word damnation terrifies me not, For I confound Hell in E.; my ghost be with the old philosophers." In Marston's Malcontent v. 4, Mercury says, "Cyllenian Mercury calls 4 highfamed Genoan Dukes to come And make this presence their E." In Span. Trag. iv. 1, the maid says of Horatio, "He sleeps in quiet in the Elysian fields." In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 1, Gaveston says, "The sight of Lond. to my exiled eyes Is as E. to a new-come soul." In Champions iii., George says, "How pleasant is this place! the farther that I go, The more elizium-like it doth appear." In Marlowe's Tamb. A. v. 2, Zabina speaks of "The blasted banks of Erebus Where shaking ghosts. . . Hover about the ugly ferryman To get a passage to Elisian [sic)"; and further on Tamburlaine says, "Hell and Elisian swarm with ghosts of men That I have sent from sundry foughten fields." In Ford's 'Tis Pity i. 3, Giovanni says, "I would not change This minute for E." In B. & F. Rule a Wife v. 4, Perez says to Estifania, "Hast ne'er a knife nor never a string to lead thee to E.?" In Jack Drum iii. 278, Katharine says to the supposed ghost of Pasquil, "Thrice sacred spirit, why dost thou forsake Elizeum pleasures!" In Massinger's Virgin iv. 3, Theophilus says to Dorothea: "Weigh the remembrance Of the Elysian joys thou mightst have tasted, Hadst thou not turned apostata to those gods That so reward their servants." In Suckling's Aglaura v. 1, the heroine says, "Our priests assure us an E.; and can that be E. where true lovers must not meet?" Milton, P.L. iii. 472, tells Of Cleombrotus, "who, to enjoy Plato's E., leaped into the sea." He is said to have drowned himself after reading Plato's Phaedon. Hence it is used metaphorically of any state of perfect bliss and happiness. In H5 iv. 1, 291, Henry says that the labouring man "all night sleeps in E." In H6 B. iii. 2, 399, Suffolk says he would breathe his soul into the body of the Q., "And then it lived in sweet E." In H6 C. i. 2, 30, Richd. of York says, "How sweet a thing it is to wear a crown, Within whose circuit is E." Hence for anything that is the object of supreme desire. In Venus 600, Adonis is called the E. of Venus: "Worse than Tantalus is her annoy To clip E. and to lack her joy."


A dist. of Macedonia around Edessa. After the Roman Conquest it formed the 3rd district of Macedonia. In Caesar's Rev. v. 31, Anthony says, "We'll meet the enemy in Macedon; AEmathian fields shall change their flowery green, And dye proud Flora in a sadder hue." Milton speaks of Alexander as "the great En. conqueror" (Sonn. iii. 10). In Kyd's Cornelia iv., Cassius says, "Egypt, E., Italy, and Spain Are full of dead men's bones. by Caesar slain." In Caesar's Rev. v. i. Cassius says, "Why died I not in those En. plains Where great Domitius fell by Caesar's hand?" i.e. at the battle of Pharsalia in Macedonia. Milton, P. R. iii. 290, speaks of Seleucia, Nisibis, and other cites in the East as "Built by En. or by Parthian hands." Seleucia was built and Nisibis rebuilt by the Seleucid kings of Syria, who were descended from Seleucus Nicator, one of the generals of Alexander the Gt.


Near the mouth of the Ems, the capital of the principality of East Friesland. It is now decayed, but in the 16th cent. it was a famous port, and one of its princes, Count John, made a treaty in 1563 with Elizabeth. In the next year it was visited by an English fleet, which was received with much pomp. Its noble Rath-haus, built in 1573, remains as an evidence of its former greatness. In Marlowe's Faustus v., Faust says, "Of Wealth! Why, the Signiory of E. shall be mine." In Barnavelt iv. 3, amongst Sir John's letters is one from "grave Embden." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 295, the Burse at Rome is said to be "built after the manner of Frankford and Embden," with streets and penthouses. Henslowe, in 1594, describes a play entitled The Merchant of Eamden.


A legendary race of giants who were supposed to have lived in Palestine, East of the Jordan, in what was afterwards the land of Moab. In Milton, S.A. 1080, Harapha says he is "of stock renowned As Og of Anak, and the E. old That Kiriathaim held." See Gen. xiv. 5.


University of Cambridge, founded by Sir Walter Mildmay in 1584. It stands at the S. corner of St. Andrew St. and Emmanuel St. In Middleton's Quiet Life ii. i. Mrs. Knavesby, confessing her sins, says, "A handsome scholar, one of E. C., fell in love with me."


A vill. in Judaea, 7 or 8 m. W. of Jerusalem. It was the scene of our Lord's manifestation of himself to 2 of his disciples recorded in Luke xxiv. 13. The vill. of Kolonieh is the most likely site; but the Onomasticon places it at E. Nicopolis, now Amwas, 20 m. from Jerusalem. In J. Heywood's Four PP. ii. i. the Palmer says that in the course of his pilgrimages he went "round about to Amias." In York M. P. xl. 14, the 1st of the 2 disciples says he is going "To Emax, this castle beside us."


(i.e. HAEMONIA). The dist. in N. Greece lying S. of the Haemus range: specially applied to Thessaly. In Kyd's Cornelia i., Chor, the poet, referring to the battle of Pharsalia, says, "War that hath sought the Ausonian fame to rear In warlike E." Spenser, in Astrophel 3, says of Sir Philip Sidney: "A gentle shepherd born in Arcady, About the grassy banks of Hoemony Did keep his sheep."


The name of a tavern in Venice, mentioned in Chapman's May Day iii. 1, where Lodovico says, "I have housed the Capt. in the E. H. Tavern." The name was probably invented by Chapman for the occasion.






A vill. in Middlesex, II m. N. of Lond. The manor house was the residence for a time of the Princess (afterwards Q.) Elizabeth. N.W. of the town is E. Chase, the remains of an ancient forest which originally belonged to the citizens of Lond., but was ultimately enclosed in, great part, the Chase itself becoming the property of the Crown. During the reign of James I it was stocked with deer, and the K. frequently hunted there. In Merry Devil, p. 245, Sir John says, "Neighbour Banks of Waltham and goodman Smug, the honest smith of Edmonton, as I dwell betwixt you both at E., I know the taste of both your ale-houses." In Oldcastle iii. 2, "Highgate, Finchley, Tot'nam, E., Edmonton, etc., etc.," are mentioned as being the quarters of the rebels. In Dekker's Witch i. 2, we hear of one "Mr. Ranges that dwells by E." In ii. 1, Cuddy says, "No hunting counter! leave that to E. Chase men." In Merry Devil, p. 250, Mounchessey promises Millicent: "I will convey you hence unto a lodge I have in E. Chase." In Dekker's Northward iii. 2, Featherstone says, "His wife shall come and receive some small parcel of money in E. Chase at a keeper's that is her uncle." In a letter to Sir William Cecil, 1563, Bp. Grindall asks for "your warrant in Hatfield Park or E. Chase," i.e. for a doe. Dekker, in jests, describes a class of swindlers called Reachers, who "walk together male and female and will have you a house to dwell at about Endfield, Brainford, or any place within 6, 7, or 8 m. of Lond." Drayton, in Polyolb. xvi. 259, speaks of E. as "A forest for her pride, though tided but a Chace." In Merry Devil, p. 243, Fabel says, "We'll first have Envil in such rings of mist As never rose from any dampish fen."


(E.=England, Eh.=English, Eman. = Englishman). The part of the Island of Great Britain S. of the Tweed and East of the Severn: excluding, that is, Scotland and Wales. The following plays deal more or less directly with English history:
  1. The Legendary pre-Roman period.
    Sackville's Ferrex and Porrex; Hughes' Misfortunes of Arthur; Anon. History of King Leir and his three Daughters; Shakespeare's King Lear; Anon. Nobody and Somebody (reign of Elidure); Anon. Birth of Merlin; Anon. Locrine.
  2. Roman period from Julius Caesar (or rather Claudius) to about A.D. 400.
    Shakespeare's Cymbeline (reign of Claudius); Beaumont and Fletcher, Bonduca; Fisher's Fuimus Troes; Anon. The Valiant Welshman (Caractacus); W. Rowley's Shoemaker a Gentleman.
  3. Anglo-Saxon period (from 450 to 1066).
    Middleton's Mayor of Queenborough (Hengist and Horsa); Anon. Knack to Know a Knave (Edgar); Anon. Edmund Ironside; Brewer's Lovesick King (Canute); Dekker's Old Fortunatus (Athelstan).
  4. Post-Conquest period (from 1066 onwards).
    Anon. Fair Em. (William I); Dekker's Satiromastix (William II); Anon. Look about You (Henry I); Anon. Fair Maid of Bristowe (Richard I); Bale's King Johan; Anon. Troublesome Reign of King John; Shakespeare's King John; Munday and Chettel's Downfall of Huntington (John); Munday and Chettle's Death of Huntington (John); Davenport's King John and Matilda; Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber; Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay (Henry III); Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus of Germany (Henry III); Wentworth Smith's Hector of Germany (Henry III); Peele's Edward I; Anon. George a Greene (Edward 1); Marlowe's Edward II; Anon. King Edward III; Anon. Tragedy of Richard II; Shakespeare's Richard II; Anon. Life and Death of Jack Straw (Richard II); Shakespeare's Henry IV (two parts); Anon. Famous Victories of Henry V; Shakespeare's Henry V; Anon. Sir John Oldcastle (Henry V); Day and Chettle's Blind Beggar of Bednall Green (Henry VI); Shakespeare's Henry VI (three parts); Anon. True Tragedy of Richard Duke of York (Henry VI); Contention of the Two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster (Henry VI); Anon. True Tragedy of Richard III (Edward IV and Richard III); T. Heywood's Edward IV (two parts); Shakespeare's Richard III; Ford's Perkin Warbeck (Henry VII); Shakespeare's Henry VIII; S. Rowley's When you See me, you Know Me (Henry VIII); Anon. Sir Thomas More (Henry VIII); Anon. Lord Cromwell (Henry VIII); Dekker's Sir Thomas Wyatt (Mary); T. Heywood's If you Know not Me (Elizabeth); Anon. Life and Death of Thomas Stukeley (Elizabeth); Peele's Battle of Alcazar (Elizabeth); Sampson's Vow-breaker (Elizabeth).

General references to geographical features and climate. In Mac. iii. 1, 31, Macbeth says, "Our bloody cousins are bestowed In E. and in Ireland." In iv. 3, 43, Malcolm says, "Here from gracious E. have I offer Of goodly thousands." In K.J. ii. 1, 26, Austria speaks of "E. hedged in with the main, That water-walled bulwark, still secure And confident from foreign purposes." In R2 ii. 1, 61, Gaunt celebrates "E., bound in with the triumphant sea, Whose rocky shore beats back the envious siege Of watery Neptune." In Chapman's Trag. Byron v. 2, 14z, Byron describes E. as "the isle that, of the world admired, Is severed from the world." In Kirke's Champions ii. 1, Andrew speaks of Britain as "An island. . . Whose lovely waist proud Neptune circles round, Her craggy cliffs ambitiously threat heaven And strikes pale terror to the mariner. The inhabitants. . . Well skilled in science and all human arts; A government of peace and unity." In Err. iii. 2, 128, Dromio, in his geography of his cook-maid, says of E., "I looked for the chalky cliffs, but I could find no whiteness in them; but I guess it stood in her chin by the salt rheum that ran between France and it." In H5 v. 2, 378, the French k. speaks of "the contending kingdoms Of France and E.; whose very shores look pale With envy of each other's happiness." For further references to the chalk cliffs of the S.E. coast, see s.v. ALBION. In H5 iii. 5, 16, the Constable says of the Eh., "Is not their climate foggy, raw, and dull, On whom, as in despite, the sun looks pale, Killing their fruit with frowns?"In Jonson's Devil ii. 1, Meercraft says to Fitzdottrel, "Now you perhaps fancy the smoke of E. rather?"

The patron saint of E. is St. George. He was a soldier, born in Cappadocia during the reign of Diocletian and martyred at Nicomedia on April 23rd, 303. Legend told of his slaying of a dragon somewhere in S. Palestine, where a ch. was dedicated to him at Lydda, where his relics were preserved. Our Australian Light Horse, digging trenches in this neighbourhood in 1917, found a mosaic inscription in honour of "George the beloved of God," which is supposed to have been his tombstone. Richd. I invoked his aid in his 1st crusade; in 1222 the synod of Oxford made him a saint; and in the reign of Edward III he was formally adopted as the patron saint of E., and of the order of the Garter, instituted in 1348. The insignia of the Order include a collar of gold with an enamelled figure of St. George and the dragon as a pendant; a garter of dark-blue velvet edged with gold, worn below the left knee, with the motto: "Honi soit qui mal y pense"; an eightpointed star, and a blue mantle. From the 1st year of the reign of Henry V his day (April 23rd) has been observed as a national festival; and by a curious co incidence it is also Shakespeare's birthday. The cross of St. George was our earliest national Rag, and is a plain red cross, placed vertically and horizontally on a white ground. The figure of St. George slaying the dragon appears on some of our coins, especially the old half-crown and the modern gold coins. It was a popular ale-house sign in E. In L.L.L. v. 2, 620, Biron compares the face of Holofernes to "St. George's half-face [i.e. profile] in a brooch." In K.J. ii. 1, 288, the Bastard prays, "St. George that swinged the dragon, and e'er since Sits on his horse back at mine hostess, door, Teach us some fence!" In R2 i. 3, 84, Bolingbroke cries: "Mine innocency and St. George to thrive!" In H5 iii. 1, 34, the K. says to his men, "Cry God for Harry, England, and St. George!" In H6 A. i. 1, 154, Bedford says, "Bonfires in France forthwith I am to make, To keep our great St. George's feast withal." "God and St. George "is the Eh. battle-cry (see H6 A. iv. 2, 551 H6 C. ii. 1, 204, iv. 2, 29; R3 v. 3, 270)" Eh. George "is one of the Seven Champions in Kirke's play, where he is said to be the son of the Earl of Coventry; doubtless because of his prominent place in the annual Coventry pageants. In Chapman's Usher i. 2, Strozzo speaks of "The Eh. sign of great St. George." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. i., Edward says of Falconbridge, "Let this Phaeton Look he sit surely, or, by E.'s George, I'll break his neck." In Sampson's VOW i. 2, 47, Clifton says, "Cry St. George and a fig for St. Dennis." Spenser, F. Q. i. 10, 61, identifies him with his red-cross knight, and says, "Thou St. George shalt called be, St. George of merry E., the sign of victory." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 1, Bobadil swears, "By St. George, I was the first man that entered the breach." Puttenham, Art of Poesie (1589) ii. (cancelled pages), says, "K. Edward III, first founder of the famous order of the Garter, gave this posie with it, Hony soit qui mal y pense." In H6 A. iv. 31, 15, Talbot says to Falstaff, "I vowed, base knight, when I did meet thee next, To tear the Garter from thy craven's leg"; and in line 34, he says, "When first this order was ordained, my lords, Knights of the Garter were of noble birth, Valiant and virtuous, full of haughty courage, Such as were grown to credit by the wars; Not fearing death, nor shrinking for distress, But always resolute in most extremes." In H6 B. iv. 1, 29, Suffolk says, "Look on my George! I am a gentleman." In R3 iv. 4, 366, Richd. swears "by my George, my garter, and my crown." In Webster's White Devil iv. 2, Lodovico says, "The Eman. is knight of the honoured Garter, dedicated unto their saint, St. George." In Kirke's Champions i. 1, his father says to George, "England's red cross shall George, then St. George, wear." Later, James says to him, "Let thy white standard bear A bloody cross, to fill the world with fear." In T. Heywood's Fortune iv. 1, the boy says of an approaching ship, "She bears the Cross of E. and St. George." In Webster's Cuckold iii. 3, Rochfield reports that 3 Spanish men-of-war, "having spied the Eh. cross advance, Salute us with a piece to have us strike." In More iv. 2, More says, "To prevent in French wars E.'s loss Let german flags wave with our Eh. cross." In Trag. Richd. II. i. 3, 177, Woodstock says of Arundel, "He did with fame advance the Eh. cross." In Greene's James IV v. 3, Douglas says, "O Eh. k. . . . The roseal cross is spread within thy field, A sign of peace, not of revenging war" (see also GEORGE ST.).

The lion was first used as part of the armorial bearings of E. by Richd. I; at first he bore 2 lions passant guardant in pale or; but in 1194 he added the 3rd lion, as it now appears in the 1st and 4th quarters of the shield. Heylyn (s.v. BRITTISH ILES) says, "The Armes of E. are Mars [ie. gules] 3 lions passant guardant Sol (i.e. Or). They are compounded of the lion of Aquitaine and the 2 lions of Normandy." In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus v. 1, 439, Alexander says, "At last the Eh. lions fled." In H6 A. i. 5, 28, Talbot exclaims: "Hark, countrymen! Either renew the fight Or tear the lions out of E.'s cat." In Greene's James IV v. 3, Douglas says, "O Eh. k., thou bearest in thy crest The k. of beasts that harms not yielding ones." In Smith's Hector iv. 2, 986, Artoys says, "'Twas I that quartered with the Eh. lions The arms of France, in opening Edward's title." Artoys had suggested to Edward III his claim upon the Crown of France.

Historical allusions. In Ham. v. 2, 39, Hamlet tells how he wrote a letter as from the K. of Denmark, conjuring the K. of E. to do as he wished, "As E. was his faithful tributary." Shakespeare evidently dated the play during the Danish domination of E. in the beginning of the 11th cent. In H5 i. 2, 169, Westmoreland says, "Once the eagle E. being in prey, To her unguarded nest the weasel Scot Comes sneaking, and so sucks her princely eggs." In Webster's Law Case iv. 2, Romelio speaks of "the horrid powder-treason in E." referring to the Gunpowder Plot of 1605

Land tenure in England. In Webster's Cuckold iii. 1, Lessingham says, "The tenure by which land was held In villanage [is] quite extinct in E." Serfdom gradually died out in E. in the 14th cent., but the tenure of the Villein was perpetuated for a long time in the form of copyhold tenure.

Patriotic Praise of England. In K.J. v. 7, 117, the Bastard says, "Come the 3 corners of the world in arms And we shall shock them. Nought shall make us re, If E. to itself do rest but true." In H6 C. iv. 1, 40, Hastings says, "Why, knows not Montague that of itself E. is safe, if true within itself?" In Trouble. Reign, ad fin., the Bastard says, "If E.'s peers and people join in one Nor Pope nor France nor Spain can do them wrong." In Wealth 292, Remedy says, "Consider Emen. how valiant they be and fierce; No land can do them harm but by falsehood and stealth. Remember what number of men, of artillery and good ordinance, Specially the grace of God, which is our chief furtherance." In R2 i. 3, 306, Bolingbroke says, "Then, E.'s ground, farewell! sweet soil, adieu! My mother and my nurse, that bears me yet! Where'er I wander, boast of this I can, Though banished, yet a true-born Eman!" In ii. 1, 40, Gaunt utters his famous panegyric: "This royal throne of kings, this sceptered isle, This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, This other Eden, demi-paradise; This fortress, built by Nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war; This happy breed of men, this little world; This precious stone set in the silver sea Which serves it in the office of a wall Or as a moat defensive to a house Against the envy of less happier lands; This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this E., This nurse, this teeming womb of royal kings, This land of such dear souls, this dear, dear land, Dear for her reputation through the world." In H5 ii, chor. 15, we read: "O E., model to thy inward greatness, Like little body with a mighty heart, What might'st thou do, that honour would thee do, Were all thy children kind and natural?" In H6 B. i. 1, 128, York boasts, "I never read but E.'s kings have had Large sums of gold and dowrie with their wives." In H6 B. i. 1, 238, York speaks of "Fertile E.'s soil." In H6 B. iv. 8, 5.2, Clifford appeals to Cade and his followers: "Spare E., for it is your native coast." In H5 i. 3, 22, the Lord Chamberlain says, "An Eh. courtier may be wise And never see the Louvre." In Span. Trag. i. the K. of Spain says, "Portingale may deign to bear our yoke When it by little E. hath been yoked." In Cromwell iii. 3, Cromwell boasts, "No Court with E. may compare Neither for state nor civil government." In Dekker's Fortunatus v. 2, Fortune declares, "E. shall ne'er be poor, if E. strive Rather by virtue than by wealth to thrive." In Massinger's Maid Hon. i. 1, Bertoldo says, "Look on E., The empress of the European isles And unto whom alone ours [i.e. Sicily] yields precedence: When did she flourish so, as when she was The mistress of the ocean, her navies Putting a circle round about the world?" In Chapman's Consp. Byron iv. 1, Byron is quoted as having said to Elizabeth, "Your empire is so amply absolute That even your theatres show more comely rule, True noblesse, royalty, and happiness, Than others' courts; you make all state before Utterly obsolete; all to come, twice sod." Later he says, "Treason was never guide to Eh. conquests." In T. Heywood's Captives iii. 2, Ashburne says, "I tell thee, peasant, E.'s no brood for slaves." In S. Rowley's When You E. 4, Henry VIII, sending Brandon to tilt in the tournaments in France, commands him, "Bear thee like thyself, an Eman, dreadless of the proudest." In Lawyer v. 1, the Abbot says, "Oh, happy Emen., if your sore eyes Did not look squint on your felicities." In T. Heywood's Maid of West B. iii., Mullisheg says, "These Eh. are in all things honourable, Nor can we tax their ways in anything, Unless we blame their virtues." In Day's Travails (Bullen, p. 31), Robert Sherley says, "'Tis the nature of our Eh. coast, Whate'er we do for honour, not to boast." In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus i. 2, 208, Cullen says, "I know an Eman., Being flattered, is a lamb; threatened, a lion." In ii. 2, 68, Edward says, "We say in E. that he is a man That like a man dare meet his enemy." In Smith's Hector i. 1. 9, the Palsgrave says, "No martial tutor fits a prince But he that is a trueborn Eman." In iii. 2, 757, the Bastard says, "Of all nations in the world I hate To deal with Emen., they conquer so."

Especially are the English praised for their valour. In K.J. ii. 1, 274, John says, "I bring you witnesses, Twice 15,000 hearts of E.'s breed, TO verify our title with our fives." In H5 i. 2, 111, Canterbury, speaking of the battle of Crecy, says, "O noble Eh., that could entertain With half their forces the full pride of France, And let another half stand laughing by." In Hg iii. 1, 17, Henry says, "On, on, you noblest Eh., Whose blood is fet from fathers of war-prool. . . And you, good yeomen, Whose Limbs were made in E., show us here The mettle of your pasture." In iii. 6, 158, Henry says, "I thought upon one pair of Eh. legs Did march 3 Frenchmen." In H6 A. i. 2, 30, Alenšon confesses, "E. all Olivers and Rowlands bred During the time Edward III did reign. More truly now may this be verified, For none but Samsons and Goliases It sendeth forth to skirmish." In H6 A. iv. 7, 54, Lucy says, "Submission, Dauphin! 'tis a mere French word; We Eh. warriors know not what it means." In T. Heywood's Maid of West A. iv. 1, the Spanish Capt. admits, "These Emen., Nothing can daunt them: Even in misery They'll not regard their masters." In Kyd's Soliman i., Erastus speaks of "Eh. Archers, hardy men-at-arrns, I-cleped Lions of the Western world." In Devonshire i. 1, Fernando says, "The world cannot boast more resolution than the Eh. hearts seasoned for action." In T. Heywood's Maid of West B. iv., the D. of Florence confesses, "These bold Emen., I think, are all composed of spirit and fire: the element of earth hath no part in them." Per contra, the French estimate of the English is occasionally presented. In H5 iv. 2, 37, the Constable of France boasts, "Our approach shall so much dare the field That E. shall couch down in fear and yield." In Trouble. Reign (Haz., p. 238), Lewis asks, "Why are the Eh. peerless in compare? E. is E., yielding good and bad, And John of E. is as other Johns." The phrase "merry E." occurs as early as Cursor Mundi (14th cent.), where Brutus is called "first conqueror of Meri Ingland." In H6 B. iv. 2, 9, Holland says, "It was never merry world in E. since gentlemen came in." In Peele's Ed. 1, p. 24, the harper predicts "A Welchman shall be k. and govern merrie E." Spenser, F. Q. i. 10, 61, speaks of "St. George of merry E., the sign of victory." In Cartwright's Ordinary iv. 2, Moth says, "So did the Saxons Upon thylke plain of Sarum done to death The lords of merry E.": a curious misuse of the word for a professed antiquary like Moth, for these lords of merry E. were Britons and their murderers the Saxon ancestors of a part of the Eh. nation.

English characteristics. Heylyn (s.v. BRITTISH ILES) says, "The Eh. are commonly of comely feature, gracious countenance, for the most part gray-eyed, pleasant, bountiful, courteous, and much resembling the Italians in habit and pronunciation. In matters of war they are both able to endure and resolute to undertake, the hardiest enterprises; in peace, quiet and not quarrelsome; in advice or counsel, sound and speedy. Finally, they are active, hearty, and cheerful." Andrew Boorde, in Intro. of Knowledge (,542) i., describes the Eman. as fond of new fashions, and prefixes to the chapter a woodcut of an Eman. naked, and with a pair of huge scissors in his hand, unable to decide what he will wear: he boasts that all men fear him and that he lacks nothing, and that he will have his own way."Emen.," he adds, "are bold, strong, and mighty; the women be full of beauty and they be decked gaily. If they were true within themselves, they need not to fear, although all nations were set against them." Lyly, in Euphues England, p. 285, says, "I perceive in E. the women and men are in love constant, to strangers courteous, and bountiful in hospitality." Again, on p. 297, he says, "An Eman. hath 3 qualities: he can suffer no partner in his love, no stranger to be his equal, nor to be dared by any." In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius sings of the Eman., "Nothing so full of hazard dread, Nought lives above the centre, No fashion, health, no wine nor wench, On which he dare not venture." just above Scaevola speaks of "an Eman.–a strange people in the western islands–one that for variety in habit, humour, and gesture puts down all other nations whatsoever." In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus ii. 2, 113, Edward says that "Eh. courtship [i.e. courtliness of manner, chivalry] bears it from the world." I adopt Brereton's emendation–bears, for leaves. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. i. 1, Lodovico says, "There's a saying: the Irishman for his hand, the Welshman for a leg, the Eman. for a face." In Ford's Sacrifice i. 1, Fernando says of E., "I'll tell you what I found there: men as neat, As courtly as the French, but in condition Quite opposite. Put case that you, my lord, Could be more rare on horseback than you are, If there–as there are many–one excelled You in your art, as much as you do others, Yet will the Eh. think their own is nothing Compared with you, a stranger; in their habits They are not more fantastic than uncertain; In short, their fair abundance, manhood, beauty No nation can disparage but itself." In H4 B. i. 2, 241, Falstaff says, "It was alway yet the trick of our Eh. nation, if they have a good thing, to make it too common." In Merch. i. 2, 73, Portia, speaking of the young Baron of E., says, "He understands not me nor I him; he hath neither Latin, French, nor Italian; he is a proper man's picture, but alas! who can converse with a dumb show?"In Nash's Wilton i. 3, Jack says, "That which was [the Israelites'] curse, we Emen. count our chief blessedness: he is nobody that hath not travelled." Later on, i. 4, he says, "Our Emen. are the plainest dealing souls that ever God put life in. They are greedy of news and love to be fed in their humours and hear themselves flattered the best that may be." In Davenant's Rhodes A. 88, Villerius says, "The Eh. lion ever loves to change His walks, and in remoter forests range." In John Evangel. 356, Eugenio says, "The courtesy of E. is oft to kiss." In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus ii. 2, 94, when Edward shocks his bride by kissing her, Alphonsus explains, "Prince Edward used his country fashion." Erasmus was struck with this custom, and not unpleasantly, when he visited Sir Thomas More. In Ham. v. 1, 170, the gravedigger explains that Hamlet has been sent to E., because his madness "will not be seen in him there; there the men are as mad as he." In Marston's Malcontent iii. 1, Bilioso says, "Your lordship shall ever find amongst an hundred Emen. fourscore and ten madmen." In Fletcher's Pilgrim iv. 3, the Master of the Mad-house says of the Eh., "They are mad everywhere, Sir." In Middleton's Gipsy i. ii, Roderigo says, "It's as rare to see a Spaniard a drunkard as an Eman. to pay his debts." In Dekker's Match me i. 1, Bilbo says, "'Tis some Eman. has stolen her, I hold my life, for most thieves and bravest coneycatchers are amongst them." In Noble Soldier iii. 3, Baltasar says, "I can turn arrant thief with the Eh." In Chapman's Caesar ii. 1, 116, Ophioneus says, "Thou shalt. . . cheat with the Eman., brag with the Scot, and turn all this to religion." The Eh. thieves had, however, the reputation of avoiding murder. In Massinger's Guardian v. 3, Alphonso says, "Imitating the courteous Eh. thieves, they have not done one murder." In 13. & F. French Law iv. 5, a gentleman says, "We use you kindly In that, like Eh. thieves, we kill you not, But are contented with the spoil." In Massinger's Guardian ii. 1, Alphonso, deploring the practice of duelling, charges this sin upon "France, and in strange fashions her ape, E." In Glapthorne's Hollander ii. 1, Mrs. Mixum says, "I have tried some Emen., and they are meacocks verily; and cannot lawfully beget a child once in 7 years." In Milkmaids iii. 1, Raymond says, "I am not like your dull, cold Eman. That can attend his mistress a whole day. . . yet check his blood." In Marston's Malcontent v. 3, Malevole says that young married lords go to E., "because there are no brothel houses there, nor courtezans. Your whore went down with 'the stews, and your punk came up with the Puritans."

The position and character of the English women. In Jonson's Volpone i. 1,Volpone says, "I wonder at the desperate valour Of the bold Eh., that they dare let loose Their wives to all encounters." In Massinger's Guardian ii. 5, Calipso describes "The Eh. fair companion that learns something From every nation and will fly at all." In Glapthorne's Privilege iii. 1, Adorni says, "In E. Where public houses are prohibited There are the bravest lasses." Heylyn (s.v. BRITTISH ILES) says, "Our women questionless are the most choice work of nature, adorned with all beauteous perfection. As their beauty, so also their prerogatives are the greatest of any nation; neither so servilely submissive as the French, nor so jealously guarded as the Italian; but keeping so true a decorum that E., as it is termed the purgatory of servants and the hell of horses, so it is acknowledged the Paradise of women." Burton, A.M. iii. 3, 1, 2, says, "We will permit our wives and daughters to go to the tavern with a friend, and suspect nothing to kiss coming and going. E. is a paradise for women and hell for horses." Lyly, in Euphues England, p. 312, says, "The ladies in E. as far excell all other countries in virtue as Venus doth all other women in beauty."

English fashions in dress. In Merch. i. 2, 79, Portia says of the young Eh. baron: "How oddly he is suited! I think he bought his doublet in Italy, his round hose in France, his bonnet in Germany, and his behaviour everywhere." In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius sings, after ennumerating the fashions of many nations: "The Eman. is for them all, And for each fashion coasteth"; and again, after speaking of various kinds of cloth, "Oh, your Eman., he loves to deal in all things"; and again, "Of all felts that can be felt Give me your Eh. beaver." In Jonson's Volpone iii. 2, Lady Politick says, "What will the Italians say of me? The Eh. lady cannot dress herself." In B. & F. Fair Maid I. iv. 2, Forobosco says that the Man in the Moon is "An Eman. that stands there stark-naked, with a pair of shears in one hand and a great bundle of broadcloth in t'other, cutting out of new fashions." In Nash's Wilton H. 2, Jack says, "I being a youth of the Eh. cut ware my hair long, went apparelled in light colours, and imitated 4 or 5 sundry nations in my attire at once." In Shirley's Fair One ii. 1, the Tutor says, "Are not Italian heads, Spanish shoulders, Dutch bellies, and French legs the only notions of your reformed Eh. gentleman?" In Chapman's Bussy i. 1, Montsurry says that the Eh., when they travel, "Come home delivered of a fine French suit"; and Henri replies: "They much wrong their real worth In affectation of outlandish scum." In Glapthorne's Privilege iii. 1, Adorni says of the Eh., "They hate a cut domestic, but imitate the French precisely gallants, wear their long Parisian breeches with 5 points at knees; then they have their doublets so short in the waist, they seem as 'twere begot upon their doublets by their cloaks." In Devonshire iv. 1, Manuel says, "Other nations, especially the Eh., hold themselves no perfect gentlemen till frenchifyed." In Yarington's Two Trag. i. 1, the Neighbour says, "'Tis our Eh. manner to affect Strange things, and prize them at a greater rate Than home-made things of better consequence." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. iii.. 1, the Widow says, "We have no other proof in use that we are Eh., if we do not zany them," i.e. the French. She has just ordered her ruff to be hollowed in the French fashion. In Trag. Richd. II. iii. 2, 147, Wood stock exclaims, "Is 't possible that this fellow, that's all made of fashions, should be an Eman.?"Hall, in Satires iii. 1, 69, describes a fashionable man's dress: "A French head joined to neck Italian; Thy thighs from Germany and breast from Spain; An Eman. in none, a fool in all." Lyly, in Euphues Anat. Wit, p. 106, says, "Be not like the Eman. which preferreth every strange fashion before the use of his country." Drayton, in Ep. to Reynolds (1627) 93, says, "The Eh. apes and very zanies be Of every thing that they do hear and see." In Mac. ii. 3, 16, the Porter says, "Here's an Eh. tailor come hither, for stealing out of a French hose." In Webster's Malfi iv. 2, amongst the madmen is "an Eh. tailor crazed i' the brain with the study of new fashions."

English love of eating, drinking, and smoking. In Mac. v. 3, 8, Macbeth exclaims, "Fly, false thanes, And mingle with the Eh. epicures." In R2 i. 3, 67, Bolingbroke says, "Lo, as at Eh. feasts, so I regreet The daintiest last." In Fletcher's Pilgrim ii. 1, Alphonso says of the Porter, "He stinks of muscadel like an Eh. Christmas ": Christmas being celebrated in E. with feasting and banqueting. Compare Jonson's Christmas, Nash's Summers, where Christmas is introduced ordering dainties for his festival, and Herrick's Cer. of Christmas in Hesperides. The staple of the feasts was "the old Eh. roast beef." In H5 iii. 7, 160, the Constable says of the Eh., "Give them great meals of beef and iron and steel, they will eat like wolves and fight like devils." In H6 A. i. 2, 9, Alenšon says of the Eh., "They want their porridge and their fat bull-beeves; Either they must be dieted like mules And have their provender tied to their mouths Or piteous they will look, like drowned mice." In Davenant's Wits i. 1, Meager complains that he has had to "abstain flesh as if our Eh. beef Were all reserved for sacrifice." In Peele's Old Wives, p. 187, Sacrapant speaks of "A chine of Eh. beef, meat for a king and a king's followers." In Massinger's Guardian ii. 3, Carlo enumerates "the pith of an Eh. chine of beef "among the delicacies he has prepared for breakfast. In Stucley 842, Mackenner says, "These Eh. churls die if they lack their bed And bread and beer, porridge and powdered beef." In B. & F. Rule a Wife iii. 3, Cacafogo says he will "eat as I were in E., where the beef grows." In their Women Pleased iii. 2, Penurio can keep a secret if "wrapt up in beef, In good gross beef. The Eh. have that trick To keep intelligence." In their Fair Maid I. iv. 2, Forobosco says, "Provide a great and spacious Eh. ox, And roast him whole with a pudding in his belly." In their Pilgrimage i. 1, Incubo speaks of an Eh. cow as "a beast of quality." In Brome's New Academy iv. 2, Galliard says, "You shall not Outface the French man with your great bull-beef And mustard Eh. looks." In Sampson's Vow v. 1, 132, Clifton says, "Give me the Eh. chine, and that feeds men, And they that feed well certainly will fight." Mead was originally the national drink; but beer came into common use, being introduced from Holland in the 16th cent., and the Eh. gained the reputation of being the hardest drinkers in the world. Boorde, in Dietary (1542), speaks of beer as a natural drink for Dutchmen, which "of late is much used in E. to the detriment of many Eh. men." In Cromwell ii. 2, Hodge says, "Would I could find my master Thomas in this Dutch town! He might put some Eh. beer into my belly." In Massinger's Great Duke ii. 2, Petruchio says, "Such as eat store of beef may preserve their healths with that thin composition called small beer, as 'tis said they do in E." In B. & F. Beggars, iii. 1, one of the Boors cries out, "Come, Eh. beer, hostess, Eh. beer by the barrel!" In Webster's Weakest i. 2. Bunch says, "Well fares E, where the poor man may have a pot of ale for a penny"; and in ii. 3, he rejoices the heart of Jacob by telling him, "There's a tun of Eh. stark beer, new come to Newkirk this day at 2 stivers a stoup." In Middleton's No Wit i. 3, Savourwit says, "He's a little steeped in Eh. beer." In B. & F. Pestle iv. 2, Pompiona says, "My father oft will tell me of a drink In E. found and nipitato called Which driveth all the sorrow from your hearts." Nash, Summers (Dodsley, viii. 60), says, "Never cup of nipitaty in Lond. came near thy niggardly habitation." Nipitato was a kind of strong beer. In Oth. ii. 3, 78, Iago says that he learned his drinking song "in E., where indeed they are most potent in potting: your Dane, your German, and your swag-bellied Hollander are nothing to your Eman. He drinks you with facility your Dane dead-drunk; he sweats not to overthrow your Almain; he gives your Hollander a vomit ere the next pottle can be filled." In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius, after enumerating all sorts of national drinks, sings, "The Eh. none of these can scape, tut he with all makes merry." In B. & F. Beggars, iv. 4, Hjggen says the bowl must be "upsey-Eh., strong lusty Lond. beer." In their Pilgrim iii. 6, one of the Keepers says, "These Eh. are so maltmad, there's no meddling with 'em." In their Captain iii. 2, Piso says of the Eh., "Not a leak at sea can suck More liquor. You shall have their children christened in mulled sack, and at 5 years old able to knock a Dane down." In their Malta ii. 1, Norandine says that Eh. cloth has "A twang of its own country that spoils all; A man shall ne'er be sober in it." In v. 1, he says, "Do they think to bind me to live chaste, sober, and temperately? They may as soon tie an Eman. to live so." In Glapthome's Privilege iii. 1, Adorni says, "Your Eh. outdrinks the Dutch. The Dutchman drinks his buttons off, the Eh. doublet and all away." In Lyly's Sapho iii. 2, Molus sings, "O! that's a roaring Eman. Who in deep healths does so excell From Dutch and French he bears the bell." In Dekker's Wonder i. 1, Nicoletto says, "I'll drink as hard yet as an Eman. And they are now best drinkers; they put down The Dutchmen clean." Tobacco-smoking, or the drinking of tobacco, as it was commonly cared, was introduced into E. from America in the latter part of the 16th cent. and rapidly became popular, in spite of K. James's Counterblast. Baker, in Chron. Elizabeth 65, says, "Drake brings home with him Ralph Lane, who was the first that brought tobacco into E." Raleigh got his first tobacco from Lane, and his example had a good deal to do with making the practice of smoking fashionable. Harrison speaks of it as being "greatly taken up and used in E." in 1573. There are few comedies of Lond. life after 1585 that do not contain references to it. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 1, Shift says, "It pleases the world (as I am her excellent tabacconist) to give me the style of Signior Whiffe." He professes to teach "the most gentlemanlike use of tabacco," including such varieties of smoking as "the Cuban ebullition, Euripus, and Whiff." In Noble Soldier ii. 1, Baltasar says the K. takes sin "as the Eh. snuff tobacco and scornfully blow the smoke in the eyes of heaven." In B. & F. Pestle i. 2, the Citizen's wife, coming on the stage among the young gaflants, says, "Fie, this stinking tobacco kills me! Would there were none in E.-I "Burton, A. M. iii. 3, 1, 2, says, "Germany hath not so many drunkards, E. tobacconists. . . as Italy alone hath jealous husbands." Poor adulterated tobacco was known as Eh. tobacco. In B. & F. Wit Money iv. 5, Valentine says to Fountain and the rest that the taverns will allow them "but Eh. tobacco with half pipes."

The English Inns had a great reputation for comfort. Earle, in Microcos., says, "Them is no place in the world where passengers may so freely command as in the Eh. inns, and are attended for themselves and their horses as well as if they were at home, and perhaps better." Fynes Moryson, in Itinerary iii. 3, 151, says, "The world affords not such inns as E. hath"; and proceeds to commend the service, the food, the music, and the reasonableness of the reckoning."Lastly," he adds, "a man cannot more freely command at home in his own house than he may do in his inn." In H4 A. iii. 3, 94, Falstaff asks, "Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn?" The Eh. were fond of dancing, and had their own country dances, like the Roundel, the Trenchmore, the Morris, the Jig, and the Dump; but they also adopted from other nations dances like the Galliard, Lavolta, Pavin, etc. In B. & F. Princess i. 1, Riniero says that the people of Tidore "take as much delight in a baratto, a little scurvy boat, as the dancing Eh. in carrying a fair presence." In H5 iii. 5, 32, Bourbon says, "They [the Eh.] bid us to the Eh. dancing schools And teach lavoltas high and Sift corantos." Fencing was also widely cultivated, and the combats on the stage were carried out with professional skill. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. A. iv. 1, Matheo says of Lodovico, "It's more rare to see him in a woman's company than for a Spaniard to go into E. and to challenge the Eh. fencers there." Swords and tilting staffs were made in E., though the former had not the same reputation as the Toledos. In Webster's White Devil v. 6, Flaminio inquires, "O, what blade is 't? a Toledo or an Eh. fox? In B. & F. Friends i. 1, Marius says he has not spent his 5 years of travel "to bring home an Eh. tilting-staff." The Eh. are satirized for being fond of going to see strange monstrosities, such as were exhibited in fairs, etc. In Temp. ii. 229, Trinculo says of Caliban, "Were I in E. now and had but this fish painted, not a holiday fool there but would give a piece of silver; when they will not give a doit to relieve a lame beggar, they will lay out 10 to see a dead Indian." In B. & F. Fair Maid I. v.2, the Clown advises Forobosco to go to E.: "you will never get so much [he says] as in E." In Merlin v. 2, 52, Edol says, "Take her hence And stake her carcase in the burning sun Till it be parched and dry, and then flay off Her wicked skin and stuff the pelt with straw To be shown up and down at Fairs and Markets; Two pence a piece to see so foul a monster Will be a fair monopoly and worth the begging." In Mayne's s Match iii., 2, Timothy is "made up" as a sea-monster, and exhibited in Fish St., Lond.

English trade, manufactures, and commerce. The most important commercial product of E. was wool, which was manufactured into various kinds of cloth in the eastern counties, in Kendal, and in the W. country around Bath, and was exported in large quantities to the Continent. Lead and tin were mined in Cornwall, and coal in Newcastle. Eh. beer was also exported, especially to the Netherlands. In Merch. i. 3,:20, Shylock tells us that one of Antonio's ventures was "for E." In H6 C. i. 4, 123, York says to Margaret of Anjou, "Thy father bears the type of k. of Naples Yet not so wealthy as an Eh. yeoman." In Wealth 292, Remedy says, "Many other realms For our great wealth would dare not be bold To strive again E. or any right withhold." Trading establishments, known as Factories, were set up in the most important foreign ports. The Eh. House in Antwerp was the famous Hop van Lyere, granted to the Eh. merchants in 1558. In Cromwell ii. 3, one of the characters is "The governor of the Eh. Factory "in Antwerp. In Larum D. 3, the "Governor of the Eh. House "in Antwerp appears; in part v. 3, he says, "This is the sum Of all the wealth at this time may be found Within the Eh.-house." In Meas. i. 2, 34, the 1st gentleman says to Lucio, "I had as lief be a list of an Eh. kersey as be piled for a French velvet." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. iv. 2, Lodovico says of Candido, "Would it not be a good fit of mirth, to make a piece of Eh. cloth of him, and to stretch him on the tenters?" In Stucley 1874, the ship-master describes his lading as "packs of Eh. cloth." In B. & F. Malta ii. 1, Norandine says of Eh. cloth, "That's a good wear indeed." In Trag. Richd. Il i. 1, 102, York says of Thomas of Woodstock, "Let others set in silk and gold (says he), A coat of Eh. frieze best pleaseth me." Drayton, in Polyolb. xi. 17, speaks of the men of Cheshire as "Clad in warm Eh. cloth." Hentzner, in his Travels, says, "Everybody knows that Eh. cloth is much approved of for the goodness of the materials, and imported into all the kingdoms and provinces of Europe." Further details will be found under the names of the great Eh. trade-centres.

The chief coins circulating in E. during our period were the silver penny, deeply marked with a cross, so that it could be easily broken into halfpennies and farthings–hence comes the constantly recurring pun about bearing crosses; the groat and half-groat; the silver crown and half-crown, first coined by Edward VI; the testoon, or shilling, first coined by Henry VII; the gold noble, originally worth 6/8, but now raised to 10/-; the angel, worth 6/8; and the rial, or sovereign, named after Henry VIII, and half-rial, or half-sovereign. The mark was not a coin, but was a term used for money reckonings, and was of the value Of 13/4. Foreign coins were also freely circulated, especially the French crown, the Dutch dollar, the portigo, and the Dutch doit (half a farthing). In Davenport's Nightcap i. 2, the Clown says, "If you dislike the penny, pray let me change it into Eh. half-pence." In Merch. ii. 7, 56, Morocco says, "They have in E. A coin that bears the image of an angel Stamped in gold." In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus i. 1, 145, Alphonsus, referring to the million pounds said to have been paid by Richd., Earl of Cornwall, to the D. of Brunswick for the ransom of the Archbp. of Mentz, says, "The Eh. angels took their wings and fled." In Trag. Richd. II. i. 190, Arondel says, "A tun of high prized wines of France Is hardly worth a mark of Eh. money." In Much Ado ii. 3, 32, Benedick says that the woman he marries must be "noble or not I for an angel."

Natural products of England. The crocus, or saffron, was largely used both in medicine and cookery. It was prepared from the stigmas of Crocus Sativus. In B. & F. Prize i. 2, Livia says, "Selling (which is a sin unpardonable) Of counterfeit cods or musty Eh. crocus, Sooner finds me than that drawn fox Moroso." In Jonson's Volpone iii. 2, Lady Politick, wanting a poultice for Volpone, asks for "Some Eh. saffron, half a dram would serve." In W.T. iv. 2, 48, the Clown says, "I must have saffron to colour the warden pies." The bur is the prickly seed-vessel of the Burdock (Arctium Lappa) and of the Goose-grass (Gallium Aparine). In Day's Humour ii. 2, Octavio says, "I am like an Irish beggar and an Eh. burr, will stick close where I find a good nap." In As You Like It i. 3, 13, Rosalind says, "They are but burs, Cousin, thrown upon thee in holiday foolery;. . . our very petticoats will catch them." The Red Deer or Stag, the Fallow Deer, and the Roe Deer were all common in E. in Tudor times, though the first-named is now found only in Scotland and in the N. of E. In H6 A. iv. 2, 48, Talbot says, "If we be Eh. deer, be then in blood, Not rascal-lke to fall down with a pinch." The Eh. Breed of Mastiffs had a great reputation. In H5 iii. 7, 150, Rambures says, "That island of E. breeds very valiant creatures; their mastiffs are of unmatchable courage." In H6 A. i. 5, 25, Talbot says, "They called us for our fierceness Eh. dogs." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. ii. 1, Orlando, abusing Bellafront's father, calls him "an Eh. mastiff." In Webster's Malfi iv. 1, Bosola refers to "Eh. mastiffs that grow fierce with tying." In Massinger's Renegado i. 3, Francisco speaks of "Eh. mastiffs that increase their fierceness By being chained up." In Davenant's Favourite i. 'I, Saladine says of Thorello, who has just returned to Italy from his travels, "He rides, and manages your Eh. mastiff, Sir." In Goosecap v., Momford says, "3 things there be that should your anger swage, An Eh. mastiff and a fine French page." In Devonshire iv. 1, Manuel says the French "are lovers of short nags and Eh. mastives." In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus v. 1, 475, Saxon says, "There let the Judas, on a Jewish gallows, Hang by the heels between 2 Eh. mastiffs." The Wolf was formerly plentiful in E.: Edgar tried to extirpate them by exacting an annual tribute Of 300 skins from the kings of Wales, but it was not till the reign of Henry VII that the wolf became extinct S. of the Tweed. In Webster's White Devil iii. 2, Francisco refers to the "tribute of wolves paid in E." In Middleton's R.G. iii. 3, Sir Davy says to the catchpols, "Look to your prey, my true Eh. wolves." Hall, in Satires iv. 3, says, "An Eh. wolf, an Irish toad to see, Were as a chaste man nursed in Italy," i.e. there is no such thing.

Capital punishment was the penalty for many offences, and the gallows was a familiar object in the Eh. landscape. In Jeronimo (A. B. D., p. 470), the hero says to Balthasar, "Thou art full as tall as an Eh. gallows, upper beam and all." Gipsies wandered through the country, telling fortunes and stealing poultry. In Middleton's Gipsy ii. 1, Alvarez says that his fellows are "no red-ochre rascals, umbered with soot and bacon, as the Eh. gipsies are, that sally out upon pullen, lie in ambuscade for a rope of onions" (see under EGYPTIANS). The religion of E. was Protestant, and the mass of the population were in hearty sympathy with the principles of the Reformation, and hated the Pope and the Jesuits with whole-hearted vigour. For proof, see under BABYLON and Rom. In B. & F. Chances iii. 1, Peter says, "The Pope's Bulls are broke loose too, and 'tis suspected They shall be baited in E." In their Pilgrim iv. 3, the Spanish parson addresses the Eh. madman as "Thou Eh. heretic!" In True Trag. iii. (Haz., p. 128), the Messenger says that Edward VI "brought the Eh. service first in use," i.e. the Book of Common Prayer.

English language, literature, and art. The language is called Eh., and sometimes "the King's Eh." In H5 v. 2, 103, the French Princess says, "I cannot speak your E."; and in 126 Henry says, "I am glad thou canst speak no better Eh." In 265 he begs her, "Break thy mind to me in broken Eh." In M.W.W. ii. 1, 142, the Page says of Nym, "Here's a fellow frights Eh. out of his wits." In ii. 3, 62, the Host says, "Mock-water, in our Eh. tongue, is valour." In iii. 1, 80, the Host says, "Let Caius and Evans keep their limbs whole and hack our Eh." In v. 5, 150, Falstaff says of Evans, "Have I lived to stand at the taunt of one that makes-fritters of the Eh. tongue?" In Merch. i. 2, 77, Portia swears that she has "a poor pennyworth in the Eh." In R2 i. 3, 160, the banished Mowbray complains, "The language I have learned these 40 years, My native Eh., now I must forego." In H4 A. iii. 1, 193, Mortimer laments, "My wife can speak no Eh." In Lupton's All for Money D. 4, Sir Laurence Livingless, a Romish priest, says, "Had not they [St. Paul's Epistles] been, and the New Testament, in Eh., I had not lacked living." In Histrio ii., Gulch says of the prologue to the play, "Here's no new luxury or blandishment, But plenty of Old E.'s mother words." In Elements 24, the Messenger exhorts clerks to write "in our Englysshe tongue," because there are many, "As well of noble men as of mean estate, Which nothing but Englysshe can understand." He advises that Latin words should be translated into Eh., so that "All subtle science in Englysshe might be learned." In M.W.W. i. 4, 5, Quickly says, when Dr. Caius comes, "Here will be an old abusing of God's patience and the K.'s Eh." In Haughton's Englishmen i. 2, Frisco calls Delon "a clipper of the K.'s Eh." In Satiro. iv. 3, 128, Tucca quotes Horace as saying of Sir Vaughan, "Thou clipst the K.'s Eh." The metaphor is taken from the clippers of the K.'s coin. Eh., or plain Eh, is used for the simple, straightforward meaning of anything. In M.W.W. i. 3, 54, Pistol says that Sir John "has translated Mrs. Ford's will out of honesty into Eh." In Shirley's Pleasure iv. 2, Littleworth says, "A man would think that creeping on one's knees Were Eh. to a lady." In B. & F. Prize iv. 3, Bianca says, "I speak good honest Eh. and good meaning." In juggler 37, Dame Coy opines, "No tale can be told but that some Eh. may be picked thereof out." In Underwit v. 1, Courtwell says, "To love or to be loved is to be gulled; that's the plain Eh. of Cupid's Latin." In Wise Men vii. 2, Insatiato says, "This is a riddle, yet this Eh. I pick out of it, that you may have a husband." In Day's B. Beggar v., Strowd says, "It's an arrant le, my lord, that's the plain Eh. of it." Nash, in Lenten (Harl. Misc., vol. ii, p. 316), says, "Many of you have read these stories, and could never pick out any such Eh," i.e. any such meaning. The verb "to Eh." means to translate into Eh. In W. Rowley's Shoemaker ii. 3, 77, Leodice says of her conduct, "Thus 'tis eh't.; I cannot be without his company."

Eh. players not infrequently visited Germany and France. In All's Well iv. 3, 298, Parolles says of Capt. Dumain, "He has led the drum before the Eh. tragedians." In the 16th cent. E. was really a musical nation; every man of education could sing his part at sight, and play the lute; and the names of Tye, Tallis, Gibbons, Morley, and many others stand high amongst those of the world's great composers. Fynes Moryson, in Itinerary iii. 3, 151, says that in Eh. inns the traveller "shaft be offered music, while he eats. . . and if he be solitary, the musicians will give him the good day with music in the morning." Milton, in Sonn. to Lawes, says that he "First taught our Eh. music how to span Words with just note and accent."


An establishment for E. Romanists at Rome. In Tomkis' Albumazar i. 13, Ronca says, "Have at Rome! I see the Pope, his cardinals, and his mule, The E. C. and the Jesuits."


(used for VIRGINIA, q.v.). In Massinger's Madam iii. 3, Lacy says of the pretended Indians, "They have lived long In the E. c. and speak our language." In Eastward iii. 3, Seagul says of Virginia, "A whole country of E. is there, man; bred of those that were left there in '79. They have married with the Indians and make 'em bring forth as beautiful faces as any we have in England."


The dist. in Ireland over which E. control was established. It lay around Dublin, but its exact boundaries varied from time to time. The same name was given to the E, dist. round Calais. Boorde, in Intro. of Knowledge (1547) iii. 132, says, ",Island, is divided in 2 parts, one is the Englysh p., and the other the wild Irysh." In Marlowe's Ed. 1I ii. 2, Lancaster says, "The wild Oneyl with swarms of Irish kerns Lives uncontrolled within the E. p." In Stucley 934, Herbart speaks of a body of troops as "some company of the E. P." In Fair Women i. 106, Browne, speaking of Dublin, says that the people are "As civil in the E. p. as here." In S. Rowley's When You C. 3, the K. says, "Now in Ireland The Burkes rebel and makes hourly roads To burn the borders of the E. P." The reference is to the Irish rebellion of 1535.


One of the principal rivers of Thessaly, flowing from Mt. Othrys through the Pharsalian plain, into the Peneus. In T. Heywood's Dialogues 5244, 10, describing the rivers of Thessaly, says, "Next poplar, shadowed E. glides." In Lyly's Woman in Moon iv. 1, Pandora invites Iphicles, "Meet me on Enepeus' sedgy banks." In Antonie ii. 610, Charmion says, "Frame there Pharsaly and discoloured streams Of deep E."


A town in Arcadia, mentioned by Homer in the Catalogue of the Greek ships. Its exact site is not known. In Shirley's Arcadia iii. 2, one of the Rebels says, "The new frisk we danced at E. to-day will serve rarely as the prologue."


An ancient city in the centre of Sicily, 60 m. N.W. of Syracuse. 5 m. S. of the city was the lake and glade, with a grotto, supposed to lead down to the infernal regions, where Proserpina was carried off by Pluto. Milton, P. L., iv. 269, speaks of "that fair field of E., where Proserpin gathering flowers. . . by gloomy Dim Was gathered."




Identified by Pedler with the peninsula on which Pendennis Castle stands, on the W. side of the entrance to Falmouth Harbour. In Cornish M. P. i. 2592, Solomon gives to the Carpenter "An E. hag Arwennek," i.e. E. and Arwennek.


Dist. on W. coast of Greece between the Acro-Ceraunian Promontory and the Ambraciot Gulf. It now forms the S. part of Albania. It became a Roman Province, and Augustus founded its capital, Nicopolis, now Arta. At the break-up of the Greek Empire in A.D. 1204, Michael, of the house of Angeli, got possession of Durazzo and founded a strong principality in E., AEtolia, and Thessaly. The Elizabethans projected these Kings or Dukes of E. into the past; thus we find, in Machin's Dumb Knight i. 1, a D. of Epire appearing in the lists against the K. of Cyprus. In Massinger's Virgin i. 1, the "kings of Epire, Pontus, and Macedon "are taken prisoners by Diocletian. In his Emperor ii. 1, "Cleanthe, daughter to the k. of Epire," is one of the candidates for the hand of the Emperor Theodosius. In Chapman's Caesar ii. 4, 126, the K. of E. comes to offer his services to Pompey at Dyrrachium. There was no such K. at this time. In Gascoigne's Government ii. 1, Gnomaticus says, "History accuseth Nilo for selling of E." The reference appears to be to Milo (not Nilo), an officer of Perseus, K. of E., who after the battle of Pydna in 166 B.C. surrendered Beroea to the Romans. In T. Heywood's Gold. Age i., Vesta commits the infant Jupiter to the care of "the K. of Epire's daughters." In Act II, "Jupiter and the Epyriens "conquer Lycaon. The commoner legend made Crete the home of the god's infancy. Milton, Son. to Vane 4, speaks of the time "when gowns, not arms, repelled The fierce Epirot and the African bold." Pyrrhus, K. of E., was a formidable enemy of the Romans 280–272 B.C. Burton, A. M. i. 2, 4, 7, says of the death of Prince Henry, "Scanderbeg's death was not so much Lamented in P,."; for Scanderbeg, see s.v. ALBANIA. In Florio's Montaigne i. 1, he is called "Scanderberg Prince of E." The scene of Massinger's [ed. note: Middleton's] Old Law and Shirley's Coronation is laid in E. Neither of these plays has any historical foundation.


(belonging to Ephyra, the old name of CORINTH, q.v.). In Mason's Mulleasses 1867, Timodea says to Mulleasses, "kings shall not come to Corinth where thou mayst, not with a common E. trull, Purchase a minute's pleasure; but with me. . . Spend years of sweet content."


(En. = Ephesian). A city near the W. coast of Asia Minor on the Cayster. It was famous for the great temple of Artemis (Diana), which was burnt down by Herostratus on the night of the birth of Alexander the Gt. and rebuilt with extraordinary magnificence. The inhabitants were notorious for their luxury, wealth, and devotion to the black arts. By the 15th cent. it had become a wretched village named Ayasaluk, and it 'so continues. Shakespeare makes E. the scene of the Comedy of Errors instead of the obscure Epidamnum, the scene of his original, the Menaechmi of Plautus. The supposed date is the 3rd cent. B.C. In i. 1, 17, the D. says, "If a any born at E. be seen At any Syracusan marts and fairs; Again, if any Syracusian born Come to the bay of E., he dies ": E. being an Ionian and Syracuse a Dorian city, this enmity is natural enough. In i. 2, 96, Antipholus of Syracuse says, "They say this town is full of cozenage, As, nimble jugglers that deceive the eye, Dark-working sorcerers that change the mind, Soul-killing witches that deform the body, Disguised cheaters, prating mountebanks." In Per., iii. 2 and 4 and v. 2 and 3 are laid at E., the last scene being in the temple of Diana, where Thaisa is High Priestess: the time is during the reign of Antiochus the Gt., in the early part of the 2nd cent. B.C. In Nabbes' Hannibal v. 1, Hannibal says, "Antiochus being already vanquished And Bed to r,." This was after the battle of Magnesia, 190 B.C. In Tiberius 2152, we are told that Germanicus went to Armenia by way of E. In Cartwright's Slave v. 1, Cratander says to Atossa, "The Ens. Shall know a goddess greater than their own, And you depose our magnified Diana." In Fisher's Fuimus iii. 3, Lantonus celebrates the praise of Diana, the goddess of the moon, and says, "Thou, fair Phmbus' sister [i.e. Diana], Nor Delian dames nor the En. towers Shall blazen more thy praise," i.e. neither Delos nor E., though famous seats of Diana's worship, shall praise her more than Britain. The burning of the temple is alluded to in B. & F. Corinth iv. 1, where the Uncle of Onos says, "He did enquire at E. for his age, But, the church-book being burnt with Dian's temple, He lost his aim." Jonson, in his Execration upon Vulcan, speaks of "our fireworks had at E." In T. Heywood's Maid of West 13. iv., the D. of Ferara says, "Herostratus was so hated through out E. they held it death to name him." In Davenport's Matilda iii. 2, John apostrophises the Q., "O ye cruel one, Crueller than the flame that turned to cinders The fair En. temple." Spenser, F. Q. iv. 10, 30, speaks of "the famous temple of Diana Whose height all E. did oversee." In Jonson's Catiline i. 1, Catiline enuinerates "En. pictures "among the articles of luxury bought by the Roman aristocrats. En. is used like Corinthian (q.v.), in the sense of a jolly boon companion. In M.W.W. iv. 5, 15, the Host calls to Falstaff, "Art thou there? It is thine Host, thine En., calls." In Hg B. ii. 2, 163, the Page describes Falstaffs companions as "Ens. of the old ch.," i.e. of the old heathen ch. before the founding of the Christian ch. there. In Middleton's Family i. 3, Mrs. Purge, a Puritan, says, "I cannot find that either plays or players were allowed in the prime ch. of E. by the elders." The allusion is to the primitive ch. of E. founded by St. Paul, who addressed the elders of E. at Miletus (Acts xx. 17). In Davenant's U. Lovers v. 4, Ascolm promises to set up a statue "in lasting gold, by old En. art designed." Probably he is thinking of Demetrius, the maker of silver shrines for Artemis (Acts xix. 24). In Gascoigne's Government ii. 1, Gnomaticus says, "St. Paul in the 6th chapter of his Epistle to the Ens. saith: Children, obey your parents in the Lord." In Juventus, p. 123, Good Counsel says, "St. Paul unto the Ens. giveth good exhortation, saying, Walk circumspectly, redeeming the time" (Eph. v. 15)


The 2nd son of Joseph, and the ancestor of the tribe of Ephraim, which was settled in the centre of Palestine and became the most powerful of the northern tribes, so that E. is often used for the name of the N. Kingdom. The Forest of E., where Absalom was killed, was East of the Jordan, near Mahanaim, but has not been definitely identified. In Peele's Bethsabe iii. 5, Joab says of Absalom, "This shady thicket of dark E. Shall ever lower on his cursed grave." Milton, S. A. 28.2, recalls "how ingrateful E. Had dealt with Jephtha." (see Judges xii. 1). In 988, Dalila predicts that she will be "Not less renowned than in Mt. E. Jael who. . . Smote Sisera sleeping." In Trans. Ps. lxxx. 9, he says, "In E.'s view and Benjamin's And in Manasseh's sight Awake thy strength."


The FL reading in Err. for the name of the birth-place of the twin brothers (i. 1, 42, etc.). No doubt Shakespeare wrote Epidamnum as W. W. does in his translation of the Menaechmi; but the name of the place was actually Epidamnus. The scene of the Menachmi is laid there, but Shakespeare shifts it to Ephesus. It was a city on the coast of Illyricum on the Adriatic Sea. The Roman writers always call it Dyrrhachium: it is now Durazzo.


There were 3 ports of this name in ancient Greece, one abt. too m. N. of Epidamnus on the coast of Illyricum, now Ragusa Vecchio; a 2nd on the East coast of the Peloponnesus in Argolis; and a 3rd, E. Limera, on the east coast of Laconia. In the .2nd there was a famous temple of Asclepis or Msculapius, and it was alleged that it produced a special breed of serpents, sacred to him, and endowed with extreme keenness of sight. In Jonson's Barthol. ii. 1, Overdo, in his disguise, says, "Fain would I meet the Linceus now, that eagle's eye, that piercing Epidaurian serpent, as my Quintus Horace calls him, that could discover a Justice of the Peace under this covering" (see Horace, Sat. i. 3, 27). In Randolph's Muses, i. 4, Mime says, "We can spy forth The least of faults with eyes as sharp as eagles Or the Epidaurian serpent." Milton, P. L. ix. 507, says that Satan in the form of a serpent was lovelier than "the god in E." The Ff. in Err. i. 1, 95, read: "2 ships from far making amain to us, Of Corinth this, of E. that." Most modem editors read "E," but it seems clear from v. 1, 349 that the right reading is Epidamnum; the Abbess says, "By men of Epidamnum he and I And the twin Dromio all were taken up."




A mkt. town in Essex, at the N. extremity of Epping Forest, 16 m. N.-East of Lond. Londoners went out there for picnics, as they do still. In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Holdfast declares that he is "Sir Gefferies son of E." In Nabbes' Bride iii. 1, Raven says, "I have a little country house near E.; Thither I would convey you." In Long Meg xiv., the story is told of Meg and some others going to make merry "at E. Mill."


In Surrey, 15 m. S.W. of Land. Famous for its mineral springs containing magnesium sulphate, or E. salts. In Killigrew's Parson v. 4, Sad speaks of people travelling to "the Es., Burbons, and the Spaws to cure those travelled diseases these Knights-errant have sought out for you," to wit, the venereal disease.


(now usually ARKKEKO). A port on the W. shore of the Red Sea, at the most N. point of Abyssinia. Milton, P. L. xi. 398, describes Adam viewing "The empire of Negus to his utmost-port E." Negus being the K. of Abyssinia.


A region of darkness supposed in the Greek mythology to lie between the earth and Hades. It is used vaguely by the Elizabethans for Hell. In Merch. v. 1, 87, Lorenzo says of the man that hath no music in himself: "The motions of his spirit are dull as night, And his affections dark as E." In H4 B. ii. 4, 171, Pistol says of Doff: "I'll see her damned first. . . With E. and tortures vile also." In J.C. ii. 1, 84, Brutus says of Conspiracy: "Not E. itself were dim enough To hide thee from prevention." In Marlowe, Tamb. A. v. 1, Zabina speaks of "A hell as hopeless and as full of fear As are the blasted banks of E." In Span. Trag. (A.B. D. iv., p. 507), the ghost prays, "Solicit Pluto, gentle Proserpine, To combat Acheron and E. In hell "whatever that may mean! In B. & F. Thomas iv. 2, Launcelot, describing how he and his friends painted the town red, says, "Windows and signs we sent to E." In Barnes' Charter i. 5, Lucretia Borgia, about to murder her husband Gismond, appeals to "You grisly daughters of grim E. Which spit out vengeance from your viperous hairs," i.e. the Furies. In Milton's Comus 804, Comus says, "The wrath of Jove Speaks thunder and the chains of E. To some of Saturn's crew." In Peele's Alcazar ii., the presenter describes the shrieks of Abdilmunen's ghost as rousing "these nymphs of E," i.e. the Furies. In Jonson's Poetaster iii. 1, the 2nd Pyrgus, in true Pistol vein, exclaims, "Damned be thy guts unto K. Pluto's hell And princely E." In Locrine i. X, 244, Corineus says, "Wert thou as strong as mighty Hercules. . Thou couldst not move the judge of E." Milton, P. L. ii. 883, describes the opening of the gates of Hell, "which on their hinges grate Harsh thunder, that the lowest bottom shook Of E." Percy, in Coelia (1594) xix. 2, says, "Then quick, thou grisly man of E., Transport me hence unto Proserpina," i.e. Charon. The author of Zepheria (,594) v. 7, speaks of Passion "Christening the heavens and E. anew." In B. & F. Mad Lover i. 1, the Fool says, "The Iron Age [is] returned to E.": meaning that the war is over.


(= Mt. Eryx in W. Sicily, 2 m. from the coast and 6 from Drepana; now MONTE S. GIULIANO). It rises, an isolated peak, from a low plain: on its summit was a temple to Venus, said to have been founded by AEneas; hence she is often called Venus Erycina. In T. Heywood's Dialogues 62N, Venus says to Cupid, "Here on the top of the Mount E. Ambush thyself, a place sacred tome." In his S. Age v., Juno says, "I met him [Jupiter] on the mtn. Erecine And took him for the young Hyppolitus." The context seems to require a mtn. in Boeotia, but I can find none of this name, unless it is a mistake for Mt. Helicon, on the borders of Boeotia and Attica. But in B. Age ii., Heywood seems to regard Eryx and E. as different; for Venus complains that Adonis has made her leave "Paphos, Gnidon, Eryx, Erecine, and Amathon." In Greene's Orlando iii. 3, 968, Orlando calls Venus "fair Erythea"; which seems to be a compound of Eryx and Thea (goddess). In his Orpharion (Wks. xx. 12), he describes Erycinus and the temple of Venus there. In B. & F. Woman Hater i. 1, the D. apostrophizes Venus as "Thou laughing Erecina." In Cowley's Riddle v., Aphron says, "Clariana Is pure and white as Erycina's doves." Marlowe, in Hero and Leander (Sest. II), says, "And them, like Mars and Erycine, display," alluding to the frisk played by Vulcan on Mars and Venus.


The Greek name for the Padus or Po, the great river of N. Italy, q.v. In Nabbes' Hannibal v. 3, Hannibal, burned up by the poison he has taken, cries "My heart! my heart! Quench it, E.! but it would dry Thy waters up." There Ls some appropriateness in making Hannibal speak of this river, which he had crossed when he invaded Italy.




In Dodypoll iii. 4, Alberdure, in. his mad fit, says to a peasant, "Thou art he that in the top of E. h. Danced with the moon and eat up all the stars." This hill probably existed only in the madman's imagination.


Range of mtns. on the N.W. boundary of Arcadia, in Greece. It was the haunt of the boar slain by Herakles. In Milton's Arcades 100, the song begins , "Nymphs and shepherds. . . Trip no more in twilight ranks, Though Erymanth your loss deplore." In Brome's Ct. Beggar iv. 2, the mad Frederick cries, "Perhaps she [Diana] hunts to-day I' the woods of Merathon or E." According to another form of the legend, the forest haunted by the Boar was in Thessaly. So in T. Heywood's S. Age 132, the boar of "the Eremanthian forest Devasts the fertile plains of Thessaly." Barnes, in Parthenophil, Elegy Id7, asks: "Was it concluded. . . That underneath the Erymanthian Bear Beneath the Lycaonian axletree. . . should remain my fear?" Apparently he means the Gt. Bear; but he has probably mistaken the boar for a bear and then transferred him to the sky.


(the RED SEA). The name is used by Herodotus: eruthros being Greek for red. Milton, in Ps. cxxxvi. 46, says, "The ruddy waves he cleft in twain Of the E. main."




The famous monastery and palace of the Kings of Spain, built by Philip II in 1584 at the town of Escurial, 27 m. N.W. of Madrid. Its full title is El real Sitio de San Lorenzo el real del Escorial. It is a vast building of grey granite in the form of a rectangular parallelogram. The ground plan is in the shape of a gridiron, in memory of the martyrdom of St. Lawrence. In Noble Soldier iv. 2, the K. speaks of "our rich E." This would seem to indicate that the K. of Spain intended is Philip II; though the story is quite imaginary. Hall, in Satires v. 2, 37, calls it "The vain bubble of Iberian pride That over-croweth all the world beside: Which, reared to raise the crazy monarch's fame, Strives for a court and for a college name." Burton, A. M. ii. 2, 3, says, "In the king's palace in E. the air is most temperate." Donne, Anatomy of World. Funeral Elegy (1611), says that no tomb would be worthy of his mistress, "Though every inch were 10 Es."


A town in the tribe of Dan, now Eshua. It lies 13 m. due W. of Jerusalem, close to Zorah, in a fertile basin. In Milton's S. A. 181, the chorus say to Samson, "We come, thy friends and neighbours not unknown, From E. and Zara's fruitful vale."


The largest of the 7 hills of Rome, lying on the East side of the city, S. of the Viminal. In Nash's Summers, Christmas says, "The Romans dedicated a temple to Ill Fortune in Esquilius, a mtn. of Rome." This was the Ara Malae Fortunae mentioned by Cicero, De Nat. Deorum iii. 25. Its exact site has not been determined. In Fisher's Fuimus v. 1, Hulacus says to Caesar, "Throw Palatine on AEsquiline, on both Heap Aventine, to raise one pyramid For a chair of estate; but shun the Senate-house." The E. was the plebeian quarter of Rome, and was regarded as a kind of slum area. The burial-place for slaves and malefactors was just outside the E. Gate or Porta Esquilina, and rubbish of all sorts was flung out there. Spenser, in Ruines of Rome iv., pictures Rome as lying on her back under her 7 hills, and says, "On her left hand [lay] the noisome E." In Histrio iii., Chrisogonus calls the plays, of the time "Such rotten stuffs, More ft to fill the paunch of E. Than feed the hearing of judicious ears." In Tiberius 2661, Tiberius says, "Post, post away some to the Capitoll, Some to port E., mt. Pallatine." Hall, in Satires iv. 1, 58, says that Crispus murdered his guest, "And in thy dung-cart didst the carcass shrine, And deep entomb it in Port-e." Spenser, F. Q. ii. 9, 32, says that the back-door of the house of Temperance out of which the rubbish and offal of the kitchen were thrown "cleped was Port E." Cf. Hor. Ep. xvii. 58, and v. 100. Hence Port E. is used for the outlet of the bowel. In B. & F. Thomas iii. 1, Hylas asks the physicians, if a man has indigestion "Are we therefore to open the port vein [i.e. the Vena Porta] Or the port e.!" In their Prophetess iii. 1, when a suitor asks Geta, the ignorant AEdile, for piles, he answers: "Remove me those piles to Port E., Fitter the place, my friend."


A county on the East coast of England, N. of the estuary of the Thames. It gave their title to the Earls of E. The people were mostly engaged in agricultural pursuits, and their Lond. neighbours were never tired of laughing at their rusticity of manners and their alleged slowness of intelligence: they were nicknamed E. calves, also known, like the Cotswold sheep, as E. lions. E. cheese was well known and highly esteemed. The E. men, like their Kentish neighbours, were not indisposed to rebellion against the Government, and took an active part in Jack Straw's rising in 1381. The Earl of E. who appears in K.J. was Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, Chief Justice of England, who died in 1213. In Trouble. Reign (Haz., p. 233), John says to him, "E., thou shalt be ruler of my realm." In H6 C. i. 1, 156, Northumberland says to Warwick, "'Tis not thy S. power Of E., Norfolk, Suffolk, nor of Kent, Can set the D. up in despite of me." The county gave his title to Walter Devereux, who was created Earl of E. in 1572. His son Robert succeeded to the title in 1576. He was the prime favourite of Elizabeth for many years, but was executed for high treason in 1601. In Chapman's Trag. Byron iv. 1, Byron says, "The matchless Earl of E. . . . Had one horse likewise that the very hour He suffered death. . . died in his pasture." In v. 1, Byron says, "The Q. of England Told me that if the wilful Earl of E. Had used submission, and but asked her mercy, She would have given it, past resumption." In Jonson's Alchemist iv. 1, Mammon tells the disguised Doll that she is no longer to learn physic and surgery "for the constable's wife Of some odd hundred in E.; but come forth And taste the air of palaces." Nash, in Prognostication, says, "If the parson of Hornchurch in E. take not heed, there may hap to prove this year some cuckolds in his parish." Hornchurch is a vill. 19 m. S. of Chelmsford"; the point of the joke is the perennial Elizabethan jest on the Horn, the symbol of a cuckold. In Killigrew's Parson iii. 5, Jolly asks the Capt., "Have you no friends in the close committee?" To which he replies: "Yes, yes, I'm an E. man," i.e. a simpleton, and therefore have many like me on the committee. In Middleton's Michaelmas i. 1, Cockstone says, "One Mr. Easy has good land in E.; He is yet fresh and wants the city powdering." Easy is made a butt for the jokes of the city men. In ii. 3, Quomodo says, "We shall have some E. logs yet to keep Christmas with ": meaning that they will make money out of the E. clodpole. In Goosecap i. 1, Bullaker says of Sir Gyles, the fool of the play, "His chief house is in E." In Vox Borealis (1641), it is said of Sir J. Suckling, the Governor of Berwick, and his followers: "Away they did creep Like so many sheep, And he like an E. calf-a." In Eastward i. 2, Quicksilver says, "These women are like E. calves, you must wriggle 'em on by the tail still, or they will never drive orderly." In Dekker's Northward i. 3, Philip says, "The E. man loves a calf." In Alimony v. 5, Medler says, "You would wish that his puny baker-legs had more E. growth in them," i.e. more calf. In Haughton's English men i. 1, Frisco speaks of the paint dropping from a lady's face "like a piece of dry E. cheese toasted at the fire." In Elinor Rummyng v., we read of "a cantle of E. cheese full of maggots quick." Taylor, in Poems iii. 26 says, "I saw a rat upon an E. cheese." In Piers B. v. 93, Invidia says, "I wolde be gladder, bi God, that Gybbe had meschaunce, Than though I had this woke ywonne a weye of E. cheese." In Davenant's Plymouth i. 2, Carrack speaks of the diet of sailors as "fulsome butter, E. cheese, dried stockfish." E. men took part in Jack Straw's rebellion in 1381. In Jack Straw i., Hob Carter says, "I have brought a company of E. men for –my train." In Trag. Richd. II. i. 3, 235, Cheney says, "The men of Kent and E. do rebel"; and in ii. 2, r86, Woodstock (Gloucester) says, "I'll to Plashy, brothers; If ye ride through E., call and see me." Plashy is in E. According to Old Meg, p. 1, E.-men were famous "for the Hey," i.e. a kind of country dance.


A palace on the site of the Outer Temple, Lond., on the S. side of the Strand, at its East end, where E. St. and Devereux St. are now. Originally the town h. of the Bps. of Exeter, it passed successively through the hands of Lord Paget, the Earl of Leicester, and the Earl of E. It is the "stately place wherein doth lodge a noble peer, great England's glory and the world's wide wonder," of Spenser's Prothalamion. The last bit of the old h. disappeared in 1777. Swetnam was "Printed for Richard Meighen and are to be sold at his shops at St. Clements Ch. over-against E. H., and at Westminster Hall. 1620."


The part of N. America between Baffin's Bay and Hudson's Bay. Milton, P. L. x. 686, points out that but for the inclination of the axis of the earth the heat of the sun "had forbid the snow From cold E."


A rock in which Samson took refuge from the Philistines. It has been probably identified with Bei Atab, near Zorah, abt. 10 m. S.W. of Jerusalem, where there is a cavern suitable for Samson's purpose. See Judges xv. 8. In Milton's S. A. 253, Samson describes how he was retired "Safe to the rock of E."


(AE. = AEthiopia, Ep. = Ethiop, Ee. = Ethiope). Is used vaguely for the whole of Africa S. of Egypt and the Sahara desert. Heylyn divides it into AE. Superior, which is practically Nubia and Abyssinia, and AE. Inferior, which stretched from the Red Sea to the Atlantic and from the S. of Abyssinia to the Cape of Good Hope. AS. Superior was under the sway of a series of monarchs, all called Prester John and included 70 minor kingdoms. The point that most impressed the Elizabethans was the blackness of the Ens., skins; and, as Elizabeth was a blond, to have a dark complexion and hair was regarded as a blemish in a woman, and to call , one an Ep. was!a distinct insult In Locrine ii., prol. 7, Ate says, "When Perseus married fair Andromeda. . . Lo, proud Phineus with a band of men, Contrived of sunburnt AEns., By force of arms the bride he took from him." Andromeda was the daughter of Cepheus, K. of M.; and Phineus, his brother, tried to prevent her marriage to Perseus, but was turned to stone by the Gorgon's head. Ate is therefore inaccurate. In iv. 1, 3 "Corineus boasts, "If all the coal-black AEns. Should dare to enter this our little world Soon should they rue." Milton, in Trans. Ps. lxxxvii. 15, says, "I mention Babel to my friends, Philistia full of scorn, And Tyre, with Ep.'s utmost ends; Lo, this man there was born." E. is one of the characters in Darius. In Hester (A.P. ii. 285), a proclamation is headed, "We Assuerus k. and high regent From India to En. plain." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 3, Techelles says he has marched to Zanzibar, "where I viewed the En. Sea," i.e. the sea off the East coast of Africa. In Shirley's Pleasure iii. i. Scent thinks it would be cooler to travel "through E." than to move amongst ladies. In Chapman's Blind Beggar, "Black Porus, the En. k.," is one of the enemies of Ptolemy. The name was probably suggested by that of the Indian K. who was defeated by Alexander the Gt., but there is nothing historical in Chapman's play. Milton, P. L. iv. 282, uses "Ep line" for the Equator; and says that Mt. Amara is "under the Ep. line." It is really about half way between the tropic of Cancer and the Equator. In Two Gent. ii. 6, 26, Proteus says, "Silvia Shows Julia but a swarthy Ee." In Much Ado v. 4, 38, Claudio will hold his mind to marry Leonato's niece "were she an Ee."

L.L.L. iv. 3, 118, Dumain apostrophizes his lady: "Thou for whom Jove would swear Juno but an Ee. were"; and in iv. 3, 268, the K., chaffing Biron about his dark lady, Rosalind, says, "Since her time. . . Ees. of their sweet complexion crack." In M.N.D. iii. 2, 257, Lysander cries to Hermia, "Away, you Ee.!" Bacon, in Sylva iv. 399, says, "The heat of the sun maketh men black in some countries, as in M. and Guiney." In Per. ii. 2, 20, Thaisa describes the device of the knight of Sparta as "a black Ee. reaching at the sun." In Rom. i. 5, 48, Romeo says of Juliet: "She hangs upon the cheek of night Like a rich jewel in an Ee.'s ear." The whiteness by contrast of the teeth black folk is referred to in W.T. iv. 4, 375, "This hand as white as. . . En.'s tooth." In As You Like It iv. 3, 35, Rosalind speaks of Phebe's letter as "Ee. words, blacker in their effect Than in their countenance." In Abington iv. i. Philip says, "The sky that was so fair 3 hours ago Is in 3 hours become an Ep." The proverb that it is lost labour to try to wash an Ee. white is often referred to; doubtless with an allusion to Jeremiah xiii. 23, "Can the En. change his skin, or the leopard his spots?" In Marston's Malcontent iv. 3, Jacmo complains, "I washed an Ee. who, for recompense, Sullied my name." In B. & F. Prize iii. 2, Petruchio says, "I sweat for 't' so I did; but to no end: I washed an Ep." In Webster's White Devil v. 3, Zanche says of the 100,000 crowns she promises to Lodovico, "It is a dowry, Methinks, should make the sunburnt proverb false And wash the Ep. white": Zanche herself being a Moor. In Glapthorne's Privilege iv. i. Trivulci says, "An Ep. cannot be washed white." In his Lady Mother i. 3, Bonville says, "There's that within renders her as foul as the deformed'st Ee." In v. 2, Thorowgood says, "I question thy wit that dares to hang this matchless diamond in the ear of Ee. Death." In Mariam v. i. Herod speaks of "AEn. dowdy." In Day's Law Tricks v. 1, Horatio exclaims, "Midnight, thou Ee., Empress of black souls!" In Brome's Moor iii. i. Quicksands asks, "Is not an Ee.'s face his [i.e. God's] workmanship, As well as the fairest ladie's?"Chaucer, C. T. 1. 353, says of St. Jerome, "His flessh was blak as an Ethiopeen for heete." Jonson, in Darkness, on the authority of Pliny, Nat. Hist. v. 3, tells us that "The AEps. never dream." In Marston's Malcontent ii. 4, Maquerelle mentions "En. dates "among the ingredients of her cordial. In Nabbes' Bride v. 7, one of the treasures in Horten's museum is "the horn of an AEn. rhinoceros." In M.W.W. ii. 3, 28, the Host jocularly addresses Caius, "Is he dead, my AEn. s!"


Originally the part of the Indian Ocean washing the eastern shore of Africa, but transferred about the beginning of the 17th cent. to the S. Atlantic on the W. side of Africa. Milton apparently uses it in the former sense when, in P. L. ii. 641, he describes a fleet coming from Bengala or Ternata and Tidore, "Through the wide E. to the Cape." Heylyn, however (s.v. AETHIOPIA INFERIOR), says that "it hath on the East the Red Sea, on the W. the AEthiopian O."


A town in Bucks. on the left bank of the Thames, just opposite to Windsor. The famous college was founded by Henry VI in 1440. In M.W.W. iv. 4, 75, Page plans that "in that time shall Mr. Slender steal My Nan away and marry her at E,. In iv. 5, 68, Bardolph complains that "so soon as I came beyond E." one of the Germans who had hired the Host's horses threw him off into a slough of mire. In iv. 6, 24, Fenton informs the Host of Page's plan that Nan is "to slip away with Slender and with him at E. Immediately to marry." In v. 5, 194, Slender says, "I came yonder at E. to marry Mrs. Anne Page, and she's a great lubberly boy." In Jonson's Gipsies", Long Meg of Eaton" is one of the "good wenches of Windsor "who came in to dance. In Middleton's Chaste Maid iv. i. Allwit says that Sir Walter has one son "Can make a verse and now's at E. College." Drayton, in Polyolb xv. 319, after speaking of Windsor, says, "Eaton is at hand to nurse that learned brood, To keep the Muses still near to this princely flood." Nicholas Udall was head master of E. from 1534 to 1541: in 1538 the E. boys acted before Thomas Cromwell, and the custom of performing both Latin and English plays was well established before 1560.


Dist. on W. coast of Italy, N. of Latium: the modern Tuscany. The spelling Hetruria is often found, but is incorrect. Catiline fixed the headquarters of his forces At Faesulae in E., in 63 B.C., and he was defeated and killed early in the next year at Pistoria. Jonson, in Catiline iv. 2, makes Cicero say, "Their camp's in Italy, pitched in the jaws Here of Hetruria." In May's Agrippina iv. 335, Petronius speaks of the good old times when "Fabritius. . . in earthen pots Drunk small En. wine." Milton, P. L. i. 303, speaks of "Vallombrosa, where the En. shades High over-arched embower."


The islands off the W. coast of Scotland, now called the Hebrides. Pliny, Nat. Hist. iv. 30, calls them the Hebudes, and says that they were 30 in number. Drayton, Polyolb. B. ix., speaks of 'the scattered E." as being in the Albanian seas, near the Arrans.


The largest island in the AEgean Sea, lying off the coasts of Attica, Boeotia, and Thessaly. From the latter it was separated by the Euboeic Sea. Like the neighbouring Bmotians, the inhabitants had the reputation of bucolic stupidity. In Marmion's Antiquary v., Bravo relates how Hercules seized Lychas by the heels and "shot him 3 furlongs length into the Euboick Sea." Milton, P. L. ii. 546, tells how Alcides threw Lichas from the top of OEta "Into the Euboic Sea." Lodge, in his Answer to Gosson, p. 8, says, "It is reported that the sheep of Euboia want their gall. Men hope that Scholars should have wit, brought up in the University, but your sweet self, with the cattle of Euboia, since you left your College, have lost your learning." The channel between E. and the mainland was called the Euripus, and was famous for its rapid and variable currents. In Selimus 2375, the Q. of Amasia, when suminoned by Selim to yield, says, "First shall the overflowing Euripus Of swift E. stop his restless course." Spenser, F. Q. ii. 7, 54, calls Hippomenes, who won Atalanta by defeating her in a foot-race, "The En. young man." He really came from Onchestos, a city of Boeotia on the mainland adjoining E. In his Virgil's Gnat 586, he says of the Greeks returning from the siege of Troy: "Some on the rocks of Caphareus are thrown, Some on th' Euboick cliffs in pieces rent."


A river in Asia rising near Diadin and flowing in a S.E. direction to the Persian Gulf. Its total length is 1600 m. According to the Bible account, it had its source in the Garden of Eden. Babylon stood upon its batiks. In Antony i. 2, 105, the Messenger says, "Labienus Hath with his Parthian force extended [i.e. taken possession of] Asia From E." The accent is on the 1st syllable, as it usually is in the 16th cent. In Greene's Orlando i. 1, Rodamant speaks of "that wealth Paradise From whence floweth Gyhon and swift 9" Constable, in Diana (1594) vii. 8, 5, says of Paradise: "This on the banks of E. did stand." In Nero iv. 4, Nimphidius says, "If we have any war, it's beyond Rhine and E.," which were practically the W. and Eastern boundaries of the Roman Empire at that time. In B. & F. Lover's Prog. iv. 4, Lisander exclaims, "Can all the winds of mis.chief from all quarters, E., Ganges, Tigris, Volga, Po, Paying at once their tribute to this ocean Make it swell higher?" In Greene's Orlando iv. 2, Orlando says, "Else would I set my mouth to Tygres streams And drink up overflowing E." In Casar's Rev. iii. 4, Caesar says of the flame of his ambition: "Nor E. nor sweet Tyber's stream Can quench or slack this fervent boiling heat." In Cyrus, D. 3, Dinon says, "No, are we at the banks of E.": the word is often used in this play, and always with the accent on the 1st syllable. In Kyd's Cornelia iv., Caesar says "Henceforth Tiber shall salute the seas, More famed than Tiger or fair E." Milton, P. L. i. 419 makes "the bordering flood Of old E." the N. limit 2 the worship of Baalim and Ashtaroth. In P. L. xii. 114, Michael, who is in Eden, speaks of Abraham before his call as "on this side E. still residing," i.e. in Ur of the Chaldees. In P. R. iii. 272, the Tempter points out to our Lord the countries "As far as Indus east, E. west." In 384 he predicts that our Lord, if he will worship him, shaft reign "From Egypt to E. and beyond." Milton always accents E. on the 2nd syllable. In Wilson's Pedler 1440, the Pedler speaks of "a tale of the Prophecy of Jeremy when God bad hide by the river E." (see Jeremiah xiii. 4).


The channel between Euboea (q.v.) and the mainland, on the East coast of Greece. It is remarkable for its rapid and frequently changing current. Hence it became the name for a gentlemanlike way of smoking tobacco, by holding it for some time in the lungs and then emitting it. In Locrine iv. 4, Humber says, "What Euphrates, what light-foot E., May now allay the fury of that heat Which, raging in my entrails, eats me up?" In Caesar's Rev. v. 1, Cassius says, "Why died I not in those Emathian plains Where great Domitius fell by Caesar's hand, And swift E. down his bloody stream Bare shields and helms and trains of slaughtered men?" The reference is to the battle of Pharsalia, where Domitius Calvinus was slain. Pharsalia is 35 m. from the E., so that there is considerable poetic licence in the phrase. Possibly E. is a misprint for Enipeus, the river which flows past Pharsalia. Burton, A. M. iii. 4, 1, 1, says, "I will show you a sea full of shelves and rocks, sands, gulfs, euripes, and contrary tides." In Jonson's Hymenaei, Opinion says of the troubles of the married: "E. that. . . ebbs and flows 7 times in every day Toils not more turbulent or fierce than they." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 1, Puntarvolo speaks of "the practice of the Cuban ebullition, E., and Whiff" in the smoking of tobacco.


(Ea. = Europa, Ean. = European). The Western quarter of the Old World, from the Urals to the Atlantic. The name is due to the Greeks: they connected it with the legend of the abduction of Ea., the daughter of Agenor, or Phoenix, by Zeus, who took the form of a bull in order to effect his purpose. In Much Ado v. 4, 45, Claudio says to Benedict, "We'll tip thy horns with gold And all Ea. shall rejoice at thee As once Ea. did at lusty Jove." In M.W.W. v. 5, 3, Falstaff says, "Remember, Jove, thou wast a bull for thy Ea." In Temp. ii. 1, 124, Sebastian blames the K."That would not bless our E. with thy daughter, But rather lose her to an African." In W.T. ii. 2, 3, Paulina says of Hermione: "No court in E. is top good for thee." In H4 A. iii. 3, 52, Falstaff says to Bardolph, "The sack thou hast drunk we would have bought me lights as good cheap at the dearest chandler's in E." In H4 B. ii. 2, 146, Falstaff signs himself, "Sir John with all E." In iv. 3, 24, he speaks of himself as "simply the most active fellow in E." In Hg ii. 4, 133, Exeter tells the Dauphin, "He'll make your Paris Louvre shake for it, Were it the mistress-court of mighty E." In iii. 7, 5, the Constable says of the horse of Orleans, "It is the best horse of E." In H6 A. i. 1, 156, Bedford says that the bloody deeds of his soldiers "shall make all E. quake." In H6 C. ii. 1, 71, Edward speaks of Clifford as "The flower of E. for his chivalry." In Cym. ii. 3, 149, Imogen protests she would not have lost her bracelet "for a revenue of any king's in E." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv 2, Sogliardo expresses his opinion that Shift is "the tallest man living within the walls of E." In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 1, Orcanes boasts that he will "make fair E., mounted on her bull, Alight, and wear a woeful mourning weed." In Greene & Lodge's Looking Glass i. 1, Marsilius speaks of "Tanais, whose swift-declining floods Invirons rich Ea. to the N." In Good Wife v. 3, Arthur says, "The wealth of E. could not hire her tongue To be offensive." In Hughes' Misfort. Arth. iii. 1, Arthur says, "To-day all E. rings with Arthur's praise." In Massinger's Maid Hon. i. 1, Bertoldo speaks of "England, The Empress of the Ean. isles." In his Madam iii. 3, Luke says to the supposed Indians, "You are learned Eans. and we worse Than ignorant Americans." In W. Rowley's All's Lost i. 1, 25, Medina speaks of the streights of Gibraltar which divide Africa "from our Christian E." Milton, P. L. 1310, tells how Xerxes, "over Hellespont Bridging his way, E. with Asia joined." In Son. to Fairfax 1, he addresses him: "Fairfax, whose name in arms through E. rings." In Son. to Sicinner 12, he speaks of his work in defence of liberty: "my noble task, Of which all E. rings from side to side." Davies, in Nosce, says that the sun makes "the Ean. white." In Hymns of Astraea (z599) viii. 1, he apostrophizes "E. I the earth's sweet Paradise: "In Mason's Mulleasses 667, Borgias says, "Should there depend all S. and the states Christened thereon, I'd sink them all," i.e. all Christendom.


(now the BASILI–POTAMO). The only river of any size in Laconia. It rises on the borders of Arcadia, and flows S.-East into the Laconian Gulf, after a course of abt. 45 m. Sparta lay on its right bank, 25 m. from its mouth. In Chapman's Caesar ii. 4, 133, Pompey says, "But as the Spartans say the Paphian q., The flood E. passing, laid aside Her glass, her ceston, and her amorous graces, And in Lycurgus' favour armed her beauties With shield and javelin: so may Fortune now." The legend is taken from Plutarch, De Fortuna Romanorum 4. Spenser, F. Q. ii. 3, 31, compares Belphoebe to "Diana by the sandy shore Of swift E." Artemis (Diana) was specially honoured in Arcadia and Sparta. Milton, Ode on Death of Fair Infant 25, speaks of 1, Young Hyacinth born on E., strand, Young Hyacinth the pride of Spartan land." He was the son of Amyclas of Laconia, and was accidentally killed by Apollo on the banks of the E. Davies, in Orchestra (1594) 7 1, says that Castor and Pollux "taught the!Spartans dancing on the sands Of swift E."


(the Greek name for the BLACK SEA). It was originally called Axeinos, or inhospitable, from the dangers which its navigation presented, but the name was changed to Euxeinos, or hospitable-either euphemistically, as the Greeks called the Furies the Eumenidae, or gentle goddesses, or because by fuller acquaintance with it the sea lost its terrors. In Marlowe's Tamb. A. i. 1, Ortygius crowns Cosroe "Chief Lord of all the wide, vast E. sea." In Chapman's Bussy v. 1, Monsieur exclaims, "Not so the surges of the E. sea Swell, being enraged. . . As Fortune swings about the restless state Of virtue." Spenser, F. Q. ii. 12, 44, speaks of "The wondred Argo which in venturous peace First through the E. seas bore all the flower of Greece." In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, Caesar boasts, "I displayed The Eagle on the Euxin Sea." The reference is to Caesar's campaign against Phamaces 47 B.C. In Fisher's Fuimus ii. 7, the Ghost of Camillus reminds Caesar that "This nation led the Gauls In triumph thorough Greece to fix their tents Beside Euxinus' gulf." The reference is to the Gallic incursions of Brennus in 279 B.C., when, after being repulsed from Delphi, numbers of the Gauls settled near Byzantium. In Kyd's Corndia iv., Caesar enumerates amongst his conquests "The earth that the E. Sea Makes sometimes marsh." See also BLACK SEA.


(the modem FIDHARO). R. of AEtolia, rising in Mt. OEta and flowing to the Gulf of Corinth. It was proverbial for the violence of its current. Here Hercules slew the centaur Nessus, who attacked him as he was carrying Deianeira over the stream. In T. Heywood's B. Age i., Nessus says, "This is E. flood, A dangerous current full of whirlpools deep And yet unsounded."


A tavern in Hyde Park, Lond., more properly named the Maurice H., from the famous Prince Maurice of Orange, who died in 1625. In Shirley's Hyde Park iv. 3, Mrs. Carol asks, "Is the wine good?" and the milk-maid answers: "It comes from H. E. H."


(C. = Change). The first E. in Lond. was in the st. running S.-from the W. end of Cheapside, which still retains the name of Old Change. It was established for the receipt of bullion, the changing of foreign coin, and the distribution of new coinage. Later a 2nd E. was established in Lombard St. In 1566 Sir Thomas Gresham laid the 1st stone of a new E. in Cornhill, which was completed in the following year. It was a four-storied building with a bell-tower; the piazzas round it were supported by marble pillars, and were allocated to small shops, 100 in number. They were chiefly taken up by milliners, but all sorts of goods likely to attract fashionable ladies were sold there. In 1570 Elizabeth paid a state visit to the building and caused it to be proclaimed "The Royal E." Samuel Rolle says of it: "Was it not the great storehouse whence the nobility and gentry of England were furnished with most of those costly things wherewith they did adorn either their closets or themselves? Here, if anywhere, might a man have seen the glory of the world in a moment." Sidney, in Remedy for Love, calls it "Cornhill's Square E." It was destroyed by fire in 1838. It was rebuilt and opened by Q. Victoria in 1844. Another E. was built on the site of Durham House on the S. side of the Strand, where Coutts' Bank now stands, and opened by James I in 1609. He gave it the title of "Britain's Burse," but it is commonly spoken of as the New E. The upper story was occupied by milliners' shops, and it gradually came to rival The Royal or Old E. as a fashionable resort for ladies. The Exeter C. on the site of the old Exeter House on the N. side of the Strand was not built till the reign of William and Mary.

  1. The Exchange as a place of business.
    In the Three Ladies (Haz., vi. 364), Diligence testifies that "Usury was seen at the E. very lately." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. ii. 1, Kitely sends word to Lucar: "He shall ha' the grograns, at the rate I told him, And I will meet him on the E. anon." In iii. 2, he speaks of himself as "Lost i' my fame for ever, talk for th' E." In B. & F. Pestle, Ind., the Citizen speaks of a play entitled "The Life and Death of Sir Thomas Gresham, with the building of the Royal E." In Haughton's Englishmen i. 2, Laurentia bids Harvey "Go to th' E.; crave gold as you intend." In Mayne's s Match i. 3, Warehouse asks his nephew, who is choosing his profession, "Which place prefer you? the Temple or E.?" i.e. Law or Commerce. In Field's Weathercock i. 2, Pouts says to Abraham, "Sirrah, I'll beat you with a pudding on the C." In Dekker's Hornbook vi., he says, "The Theater is your poet's Royal E., upon which their Muses (that are now turned to Merchants) meeting, barter away that light commodity of words for a lighter ware than words, Plaudites." Scene I of Good Wife takes place "upon the E." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 565, Staines says, "I dined this day in the E. amongst the merchants." In Tomkis' Albumazar iv. 2, Cricca says to Antonio'." The E. hath given you lost, And all your friends worn mourning 3 months past." S. R., in Letting of Humours Blood (1611) Sat i., says, "Sometimes into the Reall E. he'll drop. . . And there his tongue runs byass on affairs, No talk but of commodities and wares." In Davenant's Plymouth iv. 1, Trifle says, "I have writ to a merchant and I know it will be published on the E." In his Favourite iv., Thorello says, "After ev'ry raging storm Merchants and mariners flock to th' E. To hear what mischief's done at sea." The building of the E. by Gresham is the subject of the later part of T. Heywood's I. K. M., B."It is," says a Lord, "the goodliest thing that I have seen; England affords none:such." The Q. says, "Proclaim this place to be no longer called the Burse, but be it for ever called the Royal E." In Middleton's Five Gallants iv. 7, Mrs. Newcut says, "Upon 12 of the clock, and not the cloth laid yet? Must we needs keep E. time still?" Mrs. Newcut wants to be a fine lady now that her husband has made money. The meaning of the passage is explained by what Harrison says in his Description of England (1587): "The nobility, gentry, and students do ordinarily go to dinner at ii before noon. The Merchants dine seldom before 12 at noon." E. time being from ix to 12, the merchants could not dine before 12. In Middleton's Black Book (1604), p. 28, the devil says, "Being upon E. time, I crowded myself among merchants." In Marmion's Leaguer i. 5, Agurtes says, "Some design is now on foot and this is my E. time." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 2, Kitely asks, "What's o'clock?" and Cash replies: "E. time, Sir." In Dekker's Northward v. 1, Featherstone defines Exchange time as "12 at noon." In Webster's Law Case i. 1, Leonora complains, "The E. bell makes us dine so late."
  2. The Exchange as a place for shopping and a fashionable resort.
    In Cooke's Greene's Quoque i. 1, Longfield says of Spendall the Mercer" who is badgering him to buy: "This fellow has an excellent tongue; sure he was brought up in the H." In Mayne's s Match iii. 2, Plotwell speaks of "One Mrs. Holland, the great seamstress on the E." Jonson, in Underwoods lx., says, "Oh, what strange Variety of silks were on the E." In Penn. Parl. 36, it is predicted that "Sempsters in the E. shall become so conscionable that a man without offence may buy a falling band for 12 pence." In Shirley's Fair One iv. 2, Violetta says, "I want some trifles, the E. will furnish me." In Shirley's Hyde Park i. 2, Mrs. Carol begs Fairfield to heap insults on her: "The more the merrier, I'll take 't as kindly As if thou hadst given me the E."; and in iii. 2, she says to him, "Would I had art enough to draw your picture; It would show rarely at the E." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon i. 1, Chartley says, "I'll unto the E. to buy her some pretty novelty"; and in iii. 2, he says, "There are brave things to be bought in the City; Cheapside and the E. afford variety and rarity." In Jonson's Epicoene i. 1, Clerimont says of La-Foole: "He has a lodging in the Strand. . . to watch when ladies are gone to the china-houses or the E., that he may meet them there by chance, and give them presents, some 200 or 300 pounds worth of toys." In iv. 2, Lady Haughty tells Epicoene that when she is married she shall "go with us to Bedlam, to the chinahouses, and to the E." In the Alchemist iv. 2, Subtle promises Dame Pliant that she shall have "6 mares To hurry her through Lond., to the E., Bethlem, the chinahouses." In Barthol. i. 1, Littlewit, praising his wife's habit, says, "I challenge all Cheapside to show such another; Moorfields, Pimlico Path, or the E." In Marmion's Leaguer ii. 1, Trimalchio announces, "I am to meet the Countess at th' E. within the hour." In Gamester iv., Mrs. Wilding says to Leonora, "You are sad stir, Leonora; Remove these thoughts; come, I'll wait on you now To the E.: some toys may there strike ,off Their sad remembrance." In Shirley's Riches iii., Gettings swears "By our Royal C. which yields gentle ware." In Chaunticleers viii., when the tinker and the ballad-seller have persuaded Gum to hold their wares for them, he says, "Now do I look like one of the pillars of the E." on which goods were hung for display. In Killigrew's Parson iv. 7, Jolly says, "When the ribands and points come from the E, pray see the fiddlers have some." In Brome's Couple ii. 1, Lady says, "Will you go with me, Nephew, to the E.? I am to buy there some toys for the country." The subject of one of Heywood's plays is The Fair Maid of the E. In Nabbes' Totenham ii. 6, Franke promises Cicely, "The E. shall be thy wardrobe to supply Thy will with choice of dressings." In Cockayne's Obstinate iii. 2, Lorece promises Vandona, "You shall go to the E. when you will, and have as much money as you please, to lay out." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Brisk talks of "an Italian cut-work band I wore, cost me 3 pounds in the E." There was a portico called the Dutch Walk. In W. Rowley's Match Mid. iii. 1, the Widow makes an appointment to meet Randall "on the C. in the Dutch Walk." Scoloker, in preface to Daiphantus (1604), says, "His lineaments may be as Royal as the E. with ascending steps, promising new but costly devices and fashions." The women in charge of the shops seem to have been of doubtful reputation. In B. & F. Wit S. W. i. 1, Oldcraft boasts that in his youth he could give "a true certificate Of all the maidenheads extant: how many lay 'Mongst chambermaids, how many 'mongst E. wenches, Though never many there, I must confess, They have a trick to utter ware so fast." In Massinger's Madam iv. 4, Mary speaks contemptuously of "E. wenches, Coming from eating pudding-pies on Sunday At Pimlico or Islington." In Greene's Quip (Harl. Misc., vol. II, p. 246), Clothbreeches defends them in comparison with the Frenchwomen: "Our English women of the E. are both better workwomen and will afford a better pennyworth." In Glapthorne's Hollander ii. 1, Mrs. Artless says of her daughter: "'Ere I would make her a lady, she should be a New E. wench." In Dekker's Westward i. 2, Mrs. Honeysuckle talks of a girl being "as stale as an E. sempster or a court laundress."
  3. The Exchange as a haunt of thieves and bad characters.
    In Awdeley's Fraternity of Vagabonds, it is said of the Cheater or Fingerer: "Their trade is to walk in such places where as gentlemen and other worshipfull Citizens do resort, as at Paul's or at Christ's Hospital, and sometime at the Royal E." In Greene's Thieves Falling Out, Stephen says, "The gentleman Foist must, as the cat, watch for the mouse, and walk Paul's, Westminster, the E., and such common haunted places."
  4. The Old and New Exchanges distinguished.
    In Massinger's Madam i. 1, Luke complains of being sent to buy things for the ladies "from the Old E." In iii. 1, Shavem says, "I know not what a coach is To hurry me to the Burse or old E.": the Burse being the new E. In B. & F. Wit S. W. v. 1, Gregory says of his promised wife: "I'll not change her for both the Es., New or the Old." In Davenant's Wits iv., Thwack promises, "You shall, if my projections thrive, Stable your horses in the New E. And graze them in the Old." In Barclay's Lost Lady iii. 1, Phillida, forgetting that she is a Thessalian of ancient times, says, "If they be divulged, we shall be defamed on the Es." In Webster's Law Case i. 1, Contarino says that the women "have a kind of E. among them too. Marry, unless it be to hear of news, I take it theirs is, like the New Burse, thinly furnished with tires and new fashions." I suspect "thinly "is wrong: it should be "mainly "or "finely "or something of the kind. Lust's Dominion was "to be sold by Robert Pollard at the sign of the Ben Jonson's Head on the back-side of the Old-E." Killigrew's Parson was "Printed by J. M. for Henry Herringman and are to be sold at his shop at the sign of the Blew Anchor in the Lower Walk of the New E. 1663." In Brome's Antipodes i. 6, the Dr. says that foreign travel is not near so difficult as for some man in debt and unprotected to walk "from Charing Cross to th' Old E." Donne, Elegy xv. (1609), asks, "Whether the Britain Burse did fill apace And likely were to give the E. disgrace." In Brome's New Academy, the subtitle of which is The New Exchange, a school for courtly manners, dancing, and other elegant accomplishments is conducted at the New E. In ii. 1, a letter is brought in, addressed to "Mrs. Hannah Camelion at her shop or house in or near the New B." In Jonson's Magnetic iv. 6, Compass says, .. Stay you with us at his ch. Behind the Old E.,– i.e. St. Bartholomew's, E., q.v.
  5. Local References.
    In W. Rowley's Match Mid. iv. 2, Moll, being surprised with Randall by the watch at the corner of Gracechurch St. and Cornhill, says to him "Go you back through Cornhill; I'll run round about the C., by the ch. corner, down Cateaton St., and meet you at Bartholomew Lane End." In News Barthol. Fair, in the list of taverns we find "the Ship at the E." The Spanish Tragedy (1602) was printed by "T. Pavier at the sign of the Cat and Parrots near the E." Romeo and Juliet was "Printed by Thomas Creede for Cuthbert Busby and are to be sold at his shop near the E. 1599." See also BURSE, BRITAIN'S BURSE.


The department of State concerned with the collection and administration of the royal revenues in England. It was controlled from the time of Henry III by the Chancellor of the E., as permanent deputy of the Chancellor, and had its local habitation at Westminster. In Webster's Wyat viii., the Sheriff:says to Homes, "Here is a hundred marks; Come to the E., you shall have the rest."


On the left bank of the Thames, just below Wapping New Stairs. Here pirates were hanged. In Cooke's Gram's Quoque i. 2, Bubble says to Staines, "O Master, have the grace of Wapping before your eyes, remember a high tide; give not your friends cause to wear their handkerchiefs." Taylor, in his Descriptions of Tyburn, says, "There's a kind of waterish Tree at Wapping Whereas sea-thiefes or Pirates are catched napping." See also WAPPING.


The county town of Devonsh., on the left bank of the Exe, 164 m. from Lond. It is on the site of the Roman Isca Dunoviorum. On the N. side of the city are the ruins of the old castle called Rougemont, which was dismantled during the Civil War. The cathedral was founded in 1049, and is remarkable for its richly decorated W. front. In R3 iv. 2, 106, Richard says "When last I was at E. The Mayor in courtesy showed me the castle And called it Rougemont." In R2 ii. 1, 28 1, Northumberland enumerates among the adherents of Hereford "Rainold Lord Cobham, That late broke from the Duke of E." The real name of the runaway, as we learn from Holnshed, was Thomas (son of Richard, Earl of Arundel), and the D. of E. in question was John Holland, the son of Joan, the fair maid of Kent, and her 1st husband, Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent. She afterwards became the wife of the Black Prince and mother of Richd. II, who was consequently the D. of E.'s half-brother. The D. of E. who appears in H5 and H6 was Thomas Beaufort, 3rd son of John of Gaunt, so called from his birthplace, the castle of Beaufort in Anjou. He was Lord Chancellor under Henry IV, who created him Earl of Dorset. In 1416 Henry V made him D. of E. In H5 ii. 2, 39, Henry commands: "Uncle of E., enlarge the man Committed yesterday"; and in iii. 3, 5 1, he is ordered to "go and enter Harfleur; there remain." But, in defiance of this, he is represented in later scenes as present at Agincourt, which he was not. In iii. 6, 6, Fluellen says, "The Duke of E. is as valiant as Agamemnon; and a man that I honour with my soul and my heart and my duty and my life and my living and my uttermost power." And in line 95, he tells the K. that "The D. of E. has very gallantly maintained the bridge." In v. 2, 83, he is made one of the commissioners to draw up the treaty with the French K. He died in 1426, and therefore was not, as represented in H6 A. iii. 1, at the coronation of Henry VI in 1431. The D. of E. in H6 C. was Henry Holland, created D. in 1443. He way faithful to the Lancastrian cause, and was wounded badly at Barnet. After the battle of Towton, in H6 C. ii. 5, 137, he urges the K: to flee, who replies: Nay, take me with thee, good sweet E." He is with K. Henry when he is taken prisoner in iv. 8. He was kept in custody by Edward IV for a while, and was ultimately found dead in the sea between Dover and Calais in 1446; how he came there no one knows. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV B. 135, the Keeper speaks of the "D. of E. found dead And naked, floating up and down the sea, 'Twixt Calice and our coast." The Marquisate of E. is now in the elder branch of the Cecil family. Thomas Cecil, eldest son of the famous Lord Burghley, was created Earl of E. r605. The title was raised to Marquess in 1801. In R3 iv. 4, 503, "The haughty prelate, Bp. of E.," brother of Sir Edward Courtney, is reported as being in arms against Richd. This was Peter Courtney, who was the cousin, not the brother, of Sir Edward. The Lond. house of the Bps. of E. was called E. House, and lay on the S. side of the Strand on the site of Essex St. It passed at the Reformation into the hands of Lord Paget; then to the Earl of Leicester; and finally to the Earl of Essex, from whom it was called Essex House. It must not be confounded with the E. House on the N. side of the Strand, called after the 1st Earl of E., which was on the site of Burleigh St. and E. St., and was pulled down in 1676. In T. Heywood's Fortune iii. 4, 2 pirates are charged that they "have of Late spoiled a ship of E." In Ford's Warbeck iv. 5, Astley says to the supporters of Warbeck, "E. is appointed for the rendezvous." In v. 1, Dalyell reports: "All the Cornish At E. were by the citizens repulsed." This was in 1499. There is evidence that plays were performed in E. by the members of the Trade Guilds as early as 1332. There was a regular playhouse there in the reign of Henry VI II.


Founded by Walter de Stapledon, Bp. of E., in 1314. It stands on the East side of Turl St., above Lincoln and opposite to Jesus. John Ford appears to have been entered at E. in 1601.


An ancient city in the S. of Edom at the head of the Gulf of Akabah. In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Thorowgood, in the disguise of a university scholar, says to Grace, "I'll read the dialect of the Alanits or E. G. which the people use 5 leagues beyond the sunrising." It is hardly necessary to say that the gentleman is talking through his hat.