The country of the Getae or Dacii, formed into a Roman province by Trajan A.D.
104. It lay along the N. bank of the Danube between the Black Sea, the r. Theiss,
and the Carpathian Mtns., thus including the modern Transylvania and Wallachia,
and parts of Hungary, Moldavia, and Galicia. The column of Trajan at Rome was
set up to celebrate his victory over this warlike tribe. In Massinger's Roman
Actor i. 1, Latinus says of Domitian, "'Tis frequent in the city He hath
subdued the Card and the Daci." This was at the beginning of Domitian's reign;
but his conquest was quite imaginary and led to nothing. In Locrine
ii. 1, 6, Humber boasts, "Nor could the barbarous Dn. Sovereign . . . Stay
us from cutting over to this isle." The whole story is purely legendary: In the
old Timon iii. 3, it is used in the
sense of a remote and barbarous diet. Pseudocheus says to Gelasimus, "If any thing
can help thee that doth grow upon the mtns. of Armenia, in D. or Tingitania .
. . it shall be had forthwith."
Vill. in Essex near the Thames, a few m. E. of Lond. In J. Heywood's Four
PP. i. 1, the Palmer has been "at the good rood of Dagnam."
The sign of a tavern and ordinary in Holborn, Lond. It was celebrated for its
pies, its ale, and its frumety. In Jonson's Devil
i. 1, Iniquity invites Pug to come to the Custom House and "see how the factors
and prentices play there False with their masters, and geld many a full pack,
To spend it in pies at the D. and the Woolsack." In the Alchemist
i. i. Face tells how he lighted on Dapper "last night, in Holborn, at the
D." In v. 2, Subtle informs Dapper that the Q. of Fairy "would have you eat no
more Woolsack pies, no D. frumety." In Gascoigne Diet. Dronkardes, we read, "We
must have March beer, double, double beer, D.-ale, Rhenish." In Dekker's Satiro.,
we have, "When shall we eat another D.-pie?" In i. 2, 367, Tucca says to Horace,
"I'll not take thy word for a D.-pie."
There was another D. Inn in Cheapside, also famous for its pies. In Penn.
Parl. 32, the writer essays to prove "that a mince-pie is better than a musquet;
and he that dare gainsay me, let him meet meat the D. in Cheap and I will answer
it." This D. was at the corner of Foster Lane. This is the tavern referred to
in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet
Life v. 1, where George says of his mistress, "Her sparing in housekeeping
has cost" [her husband] "somewhat; the D: pies can testify." He had to go there
for his meals! In T. Heywood's I.K.M.
B. 257, the Prentis says, "I must needs step to the D. in Chepe to send
a letter into the country to my father." In Cutlers,
Dagger says, "Go before to my house, to the D, in Cheap."
The S. part of Illyricum on the E. coast of the Adriatic Sea. The Romans first entered D. in 156 B.C., when it was made tributary to Rome. It revolted in 119 and again in 48 B.C.; but was finally made into an imperial province by Augustus 34 B.C. In 16 B.C. the inhabitants made an unsuccessful effort to free themselves, and in 11 B.C. joined the Pannonians in a dangerous revolt; and it was not till A.D. 9 that the country was reduced to subjection. The Emperor Diocletian was born in D., and on his resignation of the purple he retired to his native country, where he spent the last 9 years of his life in retirement at Salona. There he died A.D. 34. D., long part of the Hapsburg dominion, is now, as for a small part, in Italy, and for the rest in Jugo Slavia.
In Cym. iii, 1, 72, Cymbeline
reports, "I am perfect That the Pannonians and Dns. for Their liberties are
now in arms; "and in iii. 7, 3, a Senator announces that "the common men are
now in action 'Gainst the Pannonians and Dns." The reference is to the revolt
of 34 B.C., which is given by Holinshed as the reason why Augustus did not exact
the tribute withheld by the Britons in the 10th year after the death of Julius
Caesar. In B. & F. Prophetess,
the scene of which is laid at Rome at the end of the reign of the Emperor Carinus
A.D. 285, Aurelia in iii. 3, denounces Dioclesian as "a poor Dn. slave." In
Massinger's Virgin i. 1, Dioclesian
says to the Ks. of Epirus, Pontes, and Macedonia, "Your company I wish, confederate
princes, In our Do. wars." This is quite unhistorical, as there were no such
Ks., nor had Dioclesian any wars in D. The Dalmatic, a long tunic with sleeves,
partially open down the sides, and decorated with 2 stripes, which is the official
dress of the Deacons in the Roman Ch., and is also one of the coronation vestments
of the Ks. of England, is supposed to have been derived from the royal robe
of the Ks. of D. During the 16th cent. D. belonged partly to Hungary, partly
to Venice; and there were many fights between them about it. In Jonson's Ev.
Man I. ii. 2, the disguised Brainworm pretends to have served "in all the
hate wars in Bohemia, Hungaria, D., Poland, where not?"
(dk. = damask). One of the most ancient cities in the world, lying in a fertile
plain at the E. end of the Anti-Libanus range in N. Syria, 60 m. from the Mediterranean,
and abt. 150 m. N.E. of Jerusalem. It is watered by the Barada, the ancient Abana,
which runs through the city. The position is not a strong one, but it is the centre
of all the great eastern caravan routes, and that is the reason of its prosperity
and continuous existence. It is first mentioned in connection with the history
of Abraham (Gen. xiv. and iv.); it formed part of the kingdom of David, and subsequently
became the capital of the Syrian Ks. It passed successively under the domination
of the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans; after belonging for
centuries to the Turks it is now (since 1919) the capital of an independent Arab
kingdom. It has given its name to the dk. rose and the damson plum; in metal work
to.the process of damascening, and D. swords; to silk and linen dks.; and to dk.-powder,
a kind of scent. In H4 A. i. 3,
39, Winchester says to Gloucester, "This be D., be thou cursed Cain, To slay thy
brother Abel, if thou wilt." The reference is to the legend that Adam was created
at D. Sir John Maundeville xi. says, "In that place where Damasc was founded,
Kaym sloughe Abel his brother." Chaucer, C. T., B. 3 198, says, "Lo, Adam, in
the feeld of Damyssene With Goddes owne fynger wroght was he." Milton P. L. i.
468, says of Rimmon his "delightful seat Was fair D." In Greene's Friar
iv. 27, Elinor speaks of "Edward's courageous resolution Done at the Holy
Land `fore Damas' walls "; and in viii. 113, Edward soliloquises, "Edward, art
thou that famous Prince of Wales Who at Damasco beat the Saracens?" As a matter
of fact, however, Edward was never at D. Milton, P. L. i. 584, speaks of the knights
who jousted in "Damasco or Marocco or Trebisond"; referring to the time of the
Crusades. In Piers C. xviii. 261, the Pope is criticized for making prelates "that
bereth name of Neptalym, of Nynyve and of Damaske." The Pope used to appoint Bps.
in partibus infidelium, who never dreamt of visiting their supposed dioceses.
The siege and capture of D. by Tamburlaine in 1401 is described in Marlowe's Tamb.
A iv. 1.
The dk. rose was Rosa Gallica Damascena, and is described by
Lyte, Dodoens vi. 1, 654, as "of a mixed colour, betwixt red and white." In Sonn.
130, 5, Shakespeare says, "I have seen roses dked, red and white," and in As
iii. 5, 123, Phoebe describes the difference between Rosalind's lips and complexion
as "just the difference Betwixt the constant red and mingled dk." In L.
L. L v. 2, 296, Boyet punningly speaks of "Fair ladies . . . Dismasked, their
dk.'s sweet commixture shown." In W. T.
iv. 4, 222, Autolycus sings of "Gloves as sweet as dk. roses." In B. & F. Shepherdess
iv. 4, Amoret tells of "Those curled locks where I have often hung Ribbons and
dk. roses." The scent distilled from roses was called dk. water. In Elements
Dods. i. 44, we have "dk. water made so well That all the house thereof shall
smell As it were Paradise." In H6
B. ii. 1, 102, Simpson tells how his wife "desired one damsons," and made
him to get them. In The Squyr of Low Degree 36, we read of "the date, also the
damyse." In T. D.'s Banquet ii. 1,
Clown says, "5 of your silken gallants are swallowed [by a usurer] easier than
a dke. prune." In Dekker's Fortunatus
iv. 2, Andelocia and Shadow, disguised as Irish costermongers, cry, "Buy any apples,
feene apples of Tamasco, feene Tamasco peepins." In B. & F. Elder
B. v. 1, Cowsy describes his sword as "A Milan hilt and a Damasco blade."
In T. Heywood's Royal King iv., the
Clown says, "Now, farewell, gunpowder, I must change thee into dk.-powder; for
if I offer but to smell like a soldier the courtiers will stop their noses."
DAME ANNIS A CLEARE
See ANNIS A CLEARE.
(now DAMIETTA). The town at the most E. mouth of the Nile. It rose to importance under the Saracen rule in Egypt, and was frequently besieged during the Crusades. Milton, P. L. ii. 593, locates the Serbonian Bog "Betwixt D. and Mt. Casius old."
One of the tribes of Israel. They were at first settled on the Mediterranean coast
in a small dist. N. of the Philistine pentapolis; but finding themselves constrained
for room they sent out an expedition to the N., and captured the Phoenician town
of Laish at the source of the Jordan, and changed its name to D. It is the present
Tell-el-Qady, in the plain to the W. of Banias, abt. 20 m. N. of the N. end of
the Sea of Galilee. It was the most N. settlement of the Israelites, and the phrase
"from D. to Beersheba" was used for the whole of the Holy Land. The distance between
the two is about 170 m. In Peele's Bethsabe
iii. 2, Cusay advises Absalom to "gather men from D. to Bersabe" in order to fight
David. In Spenser's Shep. Cal., July 51, Morrell speaks of our Lord "Feeding the
blessed flock of D. Which did himself beget," where D. is used by synedoche for
the whole of Israel. Milton, P. L. i. 485, says that Jeroboam doubled the sin
of the ancient Israelites "in Bethel and in D., Likening his maker to the grazed
ox." See I. Kings xii. 29. In P. R. iii. 431, our Lord points out the danger of
Israel's relapsing "to their gods perhaps Of Bethel and of D." Samson belonged
to the tribe of D. Milton, P. L. ix. 1059, calls him "the Danite, strong Herculean
Samson." In S. A. 392, Manoah addresses the chorus as "men of D."; in 976 Dahlila
expects that her name will stand defamed "in D.," and in 1436 the chorus refers
to the Spirit that rushed on Samson "In the camp of D."
The sign of a tavern in St. Katharine's, Lond. In Jonson's Staple
iii. 1, Thomas reports, "The perpetual motion is here found out by an alewife
in St. Katharine's, at the sign of the D. B."
(probably TRESOOTH). In S. Cornwall, in the parish of Budock, 2 m. S. of Penryn. In Cornish M. P. iii. 377, Pilate gives to the soldier who has watched the tomb of our Lord "Gon D.," i.e. the plain of D.
An ancient spt. in W. Prussia near the mouth of the Vistula. From the 14th cent. it was held by the Teutonic Knights; but in 1454 it fell into the hands of the Poles, though it was treated by them as a free city. In 1793 it became (by the Second Partition) a part of the kingdom of Prussia, and is now again a free city.
In Chettle's Hoffman C. 1, it
is mentioned as the residence of the Duke of Prussia; Jerom says, "I'll practice
again at Dantzike, you say in the Duke's mead; I'll meet thee Mathias; there's
my glove." The D. freebooters interfered seriously with British trade in the
Baltic in the latter part of the 16th cent. In Dekker's If
it be (Pearson iii. 352), there is a scene in hell, in which many notorious
characters are introduced, such as Ravaillac, Moll Cutpurse, and Guy Fawkes.
Amongst them is one called "the Dantziker" and the "Dutch schellum" (i.e.
rascal); Rufman says, "He scoured the seas so well, Charon will make him ferryman
of hell." It has been mistakenly supposed that Danske means belonging to D.;
whereas it is equivalent to Danish.
The Baltic Sea, so-called from the important port of Dantzig, q.v. In Greene's
Friar vii., Mason speaks of "the W. ks.
That lie along the D. seas by E., N., by the clime of frosty Germany."
DANUBE, or DANOW
The 2nd longest r. in Europe, rising in the Black Forest and flowing eastward
into the Black Sea, after a course of nearly 2000 m. In Peele's Old
Wives, p. 212, Eumenides says to Delia, "Leaving fair Po, I sailed up Danuby,
As far as Saba, whose enhancing streams Cut twixt the Tartars and the Russians."
The Saba is the Save, which falls into the D. on its N. bank at Belgrade. The
lines are repeated verbatim in Greene's Orlando
i. 1, 67. In Marlowe's Tamb. B. i. 1,
Orcanes says, "On Danubius, banks Our warlike host in complete armour rest," and,
again, "Danubius, stream that runs to Trebizon, Shall carry . . . The slaughtered
bodies of these Christians," and again, "The Terrene Main, wherein Danubius falls,
Shall by this battle be the Bloody Sea." The geography is not quite accurate;
the D. falls into the Black Sea some 600 m. to the W. of Trebizond, and not into
the Terrene, or Mediterranean, at all. In Locrine
iv. 4, Humber asks, "O, what Danubius now may quench my thirst?" In Fisher's Fuimus
ii. 1, the Roman Empire is described as extending "from D.'s banks Unto Mt. Atlas
side." In v. 6, Caesar says, "So Danow, crawling from a mtn.'s side, Wider and
deeper grows, till his wide mouth On the Euxine sea-nymph gapes." In Tiberius
1142, etc., Germanicus describes his victory over the Germans as being "on Danubiaes
stream," where it "did meet the main." It was really near the mouths of the Ems
and the Weser, and nowhere near the D. Milton, P.L. i. 353, speaks of the hosts
which the N. poured "from her frozen loins to pass Rhene or the Danaw "referring
to the invasions of the Empire by the Goths, Huns, and Vandals. In P. R. iv. 79,
the Tempter points out to our Lord embassies coming to Rome: "Germans and Scythians
and Sarmatians N. Beyond Danubius to the Tauric pool."
A grove near Antioch in Syria, on the Orontes, sacred to Apollo. Milton, P. L. iv. 273, says that Eden far surpassed "that sweet grove of D. by Orontes."
(Dn. = Dardan). The dist. around Troy in the N.W. corner of Asia Minor; so called from the legendary Dardanus, the son of Zeus, who was said to have settled there before the foundation of Troy and built the ancient town of Dardanus on Mt. Ida.
In Lucrece 1436, "And from the strand of Dn., where they fought, To Simois,
reedy banks the red blood ran." In Troil.
prol. 13, "Now, on Dn. plains the Greeks do pitch Their brave pavilions." In
line 16, the 1st gate of Troy is called "Dn." In this Shakespeare follows Caxton,
who says, "In this city were 6 gates; the one was named Dne." In T. Heywood's
Iron Age B. ii., a Trojan says, "'Twas an alarum sure that frighted me In my dead sleep; 'twas near the Dn.
port." In Fisher's Fuimus ii. 1,
Nennius says that all the Britons are "edged with Dn. spirit." The Britons were
supposed to be descended from Brute and his Trojans, who came to Britain after
the Trojan war. In Merch. iii. 2,
58, Portia compares herself to Hesione, the daughter of Laomedon, K. of Troy,
who was sacrificed to a sea-monster, but delivered by Herakles."I stand for
sacrifice. The rest aloof Are the Dardanian wives, come forth to view The issue
of the exploit." In Marlowe's Faustus
xiii., Faust tells how Sir Paris carried off Helen "And brought the spoils to
rich D." In Jonson's Poetaster
v. 1, Vergil speaks of AEneas as "Venus, Dn. nephew." AEneas was, however, the
son, not the nephew of Venus.
The Isthmus of Panama, which unites N. and S. America, and separates the Atlantic from the Pacific Ocean. Milton P. L. ix. 81, describes Satan as seeking for Paradise "W. from Orontes to the ocean barred At D."
A corruption of Dornick, the Flemish name of Tournai; a town in Belgium, 160 m.
S.W. of Brussels, celebrated for its manufactures of textiles and carpets. In
B. & F. Gentleman v. 1, Jaques says,
"I have a fair D. carpet of my own, laid cross for the more state." Cotgrave has
"Huis Verd, a piece of tapestry or Darnix hanging before a door." In Sampson's
Vow iii. 4, 3, Ann says, "Look well
to the Darneicke hangings, that it play not the court page with us "i.e."See
that no one is hidden behind it to overhear us."
DAROTE (or DEIROUT)
A town in Egypt on the Rosetta branch of the Nile, near its mouth. In Marlowe's
Tamb. B. i. 2, Callapine says, "By Cairo
runs to Alexandria Bay D.'s streams."
The tower at Argos in which Acrisius confined Danae. According to Pausanias, the
subterranean chamber in which Danae was confined was still shown at the foot of
the ridge of Deiras, which lies on the N.E. of the Larissa, or main citadel, of
Argos. D. means "at Deiras," though the spelling is a little eccentric. In T.
Heywood's S. Age i. 1, Pretus says
to Acrisius, "Now, you that trusted to your D. strength, The brazen tower that
erst enclosed thy child, Stand'st at our grace."
A town in Kent, on the rd. to Canterbury from Lond., abt. 15 m. from the latter.
It was the end of the 1st stage of the pilgrims' way to the shrine of St. Thomas,
and here Chaucer's Pilgrims probably spent their 1st night. The scene of H6
B. v. 1, is laid in the fields between D. and Blackheath, somewhere near Deptford,
q.v. One of the earliest paper-mills in England was erected at D. about
1588 by one John Spillman, a German from Würtemburg.
Spt. in Devonsh. on the harbour formed by the mouth of the Dart, 202 m. S.W. of
Lond. Chaucer's Shipman (C. T. A. 389) "was of Dertemouthe" and "His barge ycleped
was the Maudelayne." A vessel with this name is actually mentioned as belonging
to D. in 1379 and 1386 Hycke, p.
88, mentions amongst the ships he saw going to Ireland the "Barbara of Darmouth."
In Middleton's Quarrel ii. 2, Chough puns
on the name: "I will part at D. with" (your daughter) "Sir." (Kisses her.)
A river in Lancs. which falls into the Ribble near Preston. It was in this neighbourhood that Cromwell defeated the Scots in the battle of Preston in 1648. In his description of the battle in a letter to Lenthall, dated Aug. 20, he says, "We possessed the bdge. over D. also, and a few houses there." Milton, in Sonn. to Cromwell 7, speaks of "D. stream with blood of Scots inbrued."
D. is a vill. in Bucks. on the Thames, over against Windsor; the rd. from Windsor
to D. was called D. L.; and the fields on the S. bank of the r., opposite to D.,
were called D. Mead. In M. W. W.
iii. 3, 15, Mrs. Ford directs her servants to take up the buck-basket when she
tells them, and to "carry it among the whitsters in D. Mead, and there empty it
in the muddy ditch by the Thames side." In line 141, Mrs. Page in Falstaffs hearing
advises her "to send him by your 2 men to D. Mead." In 151, Mrs. Ford commands
her men "Take up those clothes; carry them to the laundress in D. Mead quickly."
In iii. 5, 101, Falstaff tells the disguised Ford that "a couple of Ford's knaves
were called forth by their mistress to carry me in the name of foul clothes to
An ancient town in Phocis near the frontier of Boeotia in Greece. It was the residence of Tereus, the husband of Procne; and it was here that Procne was turned into a swallow and her sister Philomela into a nightingale. Hence the poets call the nightingale the Daulian bird. Herrick in Farewell Frost (1647), says, "The while the Daulian minstrel sweetly sings With warbling notes her Terean sufferings."
DAVENTRY, or DAINTRY
A borough in Northants., 72 m. N.W. of Lond. In H6
C. v. 1, 6, Warwick, encamped before Coventry, asks, "How far off is our brother
Montague" to which the messenger replies, "By this at Daintry, with a puissant
troop." This was just before the battle of Barnet, 1471. D. is abt. 18 m. from
Coventry on the main rd. from Lond. In H4
A. iv. 2, 50, Falstaff, having arrived with his tatter-demalions from Lond.
at Coventry, says, "There's but a shirt and a half in all my company . . . and
the shirt, to say the truth, stolen from my host at St. Albans, or the red-nose
innkeeper of D." Both places are on the rd. from Lond. to Coventry. Taylor's Scourge
of Baseness is dedicated "to Mr. Andrew Hilton at the sign of the Horseshoe at
Daintree," with whom, as he states later, he had stayed on one of his journeys.
Mr. Hilton may be the aforesaid "red-nose innkeeper," or possibly his successor.
A city in Pembrokesh., near St. David's Head, 265 m. W. of Lond. It was the Roman
Menevia, and after the Christianization of Britain it became one of the first
Episcopal sees. The name was afterwards changed to St. D. in honour of the Archbp.
and patron saint of Wales, whose tomb and shrine are in the cathedral. The fame
of the shrine was very widely known, and it was a great resort of pilgrims. In
J. Heywood's Four PP. i., the Palmer
says he has been "at Saynt Davys and at Saynt Denis." In Bale's Johan
1363, Private Wealth says that the Pope's Interdict shall be published in Wales
and Ireland by "The bp. of Landaffe, seynt Assys, and seynt Davy."
(see ASPHALTIC POOL). The sea into which the Jordan flows, in S. Palestine. Mortimer
in Drayton's Heroical Epp., says, "In the D. S. sink our houses, fate." In Scot.
Presb. iii. 1, Liturgy says that before he will recant, "Sodom's dead-lake (shall)
revive, and entertain Leviathan and Neptune's hungry train." In B. & F. Scornful
ii. 2, Savil says, "There's a d. s. of drink in the cellar in which goodly vessels
be wrecked." Bacon in Sylva viii. 773, says, "The d. s. which vomiteth up bitumen
is of that crassitude, as living bodies . . . cast into it have been borne up
and not sunk."
A spt. in Kent between the N. and S. Forelands, 74 m. S.E. of Lond. It is possible
that D. wine, which is often mentioned in the 17th cent., was so called because
it was imported at D.; though it hardly seems likely. In Jonson's Mercury we have
"white bread and d.-wine." In Shirley's Pleasure
v. 1, Bornwell says, "D. and backrag and what strange wine else They dare but
give a name to . . . Shall flow into our room." In Davenant's Wits
iv. Thwack complains, "Our French and D. wines are poisoned with brimstone by
the Hollander." In Brome's Moor
iv. 2, Quicksands talks of his wife and her gallant "at the Stillyard, sousing
their dryed tongues In Rhenish, D., and Backrag." In Glapthorne's Wit
v. 1, Mendwell tells how "'twixt D. and Dover, one fishing for flounders drew
a Spaniard's body up."
DEANERY of WINDSOR
The residence of the Dean of the Royal Chapel of St. George, on the S. side of
the court in which the Chapel stands. In M.
W. W. iv. 6, 27, Fenton tells how Mrs. Page has arranged that Caius is to
run off with Anne Page and be married to her "at the d." In v. 3, 3, the doctor
receives his instructions from Mrs. Page: "Away with her to the d., and dispatch
it quickly." In v. 5, 216, Mrs. Page informs her husband that "she is now with
the Dr. at the d., and there married," which, of course, was not the case.
Used for the whole of India S. of the Nerbudda. The original form is Dacshina, meaning the S. Milton, P. L. ix. 1103, says that Adam and Eve used the leaves of "The fig-treenot that kind for fruit renowned, But such as, at this day, to Indians known, In Malabar or D. spreads her arms, Branching so broad and long that in the ground The bended twigs take root." The Banyan is intended (Ficus Indica). But the idea that its leaves are specially large is a mistake, arising from a confusion between it and the banana.
A river rising in Merionethsh. in L. Bala, and flowing past Chester into the great
estuary which separates Chesh. and Flintsh. It was regarded by the Druids as a
holy r. In Munday's John Kent i.
1, Gosselen says, "7 score bowmen, wight and tall, have I lodged in the wood near
to the r. D." Spenser, F. Q., i. 9, 4, speaks of "the r. D. as silver clean" rising
under the foot of Rauran, i.e. Rauran-vaur in Merionethsh. In iv. 11, 39,
he mentions "D., which Britons long ygone Did call divine, that doth by Chester
tend." Milton, in Lycidas 55, speaks of Deva's "wisard stream." In Vacation Exercise
98, he calls it "ancient hallowed D." Drayton, in Idea (1594) xxxii. 5, says,
"Carlegion Chester vaunts her holy D."
The Scalae Gemoniae, a set of steps at the N.E. corner of the Forum
Romanum between the Carcer and the Temple of Concord, where the bodies of executed
criminals were exposed. In Massinger's Actor
iii. 2, Parthenius says to the Emperor, "'Twould relish more of policy to have
them [the Senators] made away in private, than to have them drawn to the D. in
pubic." (See GEMONIES.)
One of the oldest towns in Holland, 8 m. N.W. of Rotterdam. It was a considerable
trade centre, and gave its name to a species of earthenware. In Davenant's Wits
iv. 1, the Elder Palatine says sarcastically to his brother, "Why, sure you have
no factors, Sir, in Delph, Leghorn, Aleppo, or the Venetian Isles That by their
traffic can advance you thus." In his Plymouth
ii. 1, Cable says he lost his voice by eating butter "when I lay among the Dutch
ships at Delph." In W. Rowley's Match
Mid. ii., the Capt. says, "Our Flemish corporal was lately choked at Delph
with a flap-dragon." In Larum A.
3, Danila says of the reinforcements he is expecting, "From Aelft 2000 moe Follow
the conduct of Emanuell." Later on, B. 2, he spells it Alft. Probably the author
took D. to be D'Aelft. Fynes Moryson Itinerary i. 1, 47 (1593), says, "At Delph
are abt. 300 brewers, and their beer for the goodness is called Delphs-English."
(Dn. = Delian). The smallest of the Cyclades, a group of islands in the AEgean
Sea, lying between Rhenia and Myconus, 100 m. E. of the easternmost point of Argolis.
It is a rock abt. 5 m. in circumference, but was one of the most sacred places
in the Hellenic world. According to legend, it was pulled out of the sea by the
trident of Poseidon and, after floating about for a time, was fixed in its place
by Zeus, who anchored it with adamantine chains; hence it was supposed to be immune
from earthquakes. Here Leto, or Latona, found a resting-place, and brought forth
Apollo and Artemis (Diana), to whom, especially the former, the island was dedicated.
In the 2nd cent. B.C. it had an extensive trade, and was famous for its bronze.
In Jonson's Neptune the poet describes Albion, the scene of the Masque, as "a
D.; Such as, when fair Latona fell in travail, Great Neptune made emergent." Spenser,
F. Q. ii., 112, 13, says, "The isle of D. whilom, men report, Amid the AEgean
Sea long time did stray." Milton P. L. x. 296, says, "The aggregate soil Death
. . . . As with a trident smote and fixed as firm As D., floating once." In Fisher's
Fuimus iv. 3, Rollano says, "Nations
29 'gainst Troy built up A floating D. of 1000 ships." In T. Heywood's Mistress
v., Apollo addresses Proserpine, who is identified in the Greek Mythology with
Selene in heaven and Artemis on earth, "Welcome, fair sister; We two are twins
of fair Latona born, And were together nursed in D. isle." Hence Dn. means belonging
to Apollo. In Marlowe's Dido iii.,
when AEneas professes his love for her, Dido exclaims, "What more than Dn. music
do I hear?" Apollo was the God of Music and the inventor of the Lyre.
In Ford's Sun ii. 1, Spring says, "They [i.e. the Poets] shall invoke
none but thee as Dn. k." In Lyly's Midas
v. 3, a song ends, "Io Paeans let us sing To the glittering Dn. k." In prefatory
verses to Zephyria (1594), the author speaks of "The sweet-tuned accents of
your Dn. sonnetry Which to Apollo's violin ye sing." In Smith's Hector
ii. 3, 326, Floramell says, "The Dn. lute is not more musical Than thy sweet
voice." Dn. is also applied to Artemis or Diana. In Fisher's Fuimus
iii. 3, Lantonus, rejoicing in the British victory, says, "Thou, fair Phoebus,
sister, Nor Dn. dames nor the Ephesian towers Shall blazon more thy praise"
than the Britons do; Caesar's fleet having been destroyed by the rising tide,
which is under the influence of Diana, or Selene, the goddess of the Moon. Milton,
P.L. ix. 387, calls Diana Delia; he says, "Eve, like a woodnymph light, Oread
or Dryad, or of Delia's train, Betook her to the groves, but Delia's self In
gait surpassed." The author of Zephyria xxv. 9 says that Zephyria is matriculated
"'Mongst Dn. nymphs in Angels, University." In Jonson's Volpone
i. 1, Nana gives a list of the persons through whom the soul of Pythagoras passed
in the course of its metempsychosis, and says that "with one Pyrrhus of D. it
learned to go a-fishing." Pythagoras was born at Samos, and is known to have
visited D. during his life; but I have not been able to identify this Pyrrhus.
In Middleton's Chess v. 3, the
Black Knight says that feeding up hens for the table with milk and corn was
"a riot which the inhabitants of D. were first inventors of." Milton, P. L.
v. 265, describes how a "pilot, from amidst the Cyclades, D. or Samos first
appearing kens A cloudy spot." Samos is not, however, one of the Cyclades.
(Dn. = Delphian, Dc. = Delphic). The usual Elizabethan name for Delphi, taken
from the accusative plural of the Latin. It was a town in Greece, in Phocis, lying
in a great natural amphitheatre at the foot of Mt. Parnassus. It was the seat
of the world-famous oracle of Apollo, strictly called Pytho, Delphi being the
name of the town. The answers of the oracle were given through the medium of a
priestess who sat upon a tripod over a chasm in the middle of the temple, from
which vapours arose, which were supposed to inspire her. The oracles were usually
in hexameter verse, and were often very ambiguous, so that they could easily be
interpreted afterwards to suit the event. The temple was attacked in 480 B.C.
by Xerxes, but the god defended his shrine by rolling huge crags from the top
of Pamassus upon the Persians. A similar story was told of an attack by Brennus
and his Gauls in 279. The temple, which had been despoiled by Nero, was magnificently
restored by Hadrian; and in spite of the tradition that all the Greek oracles
became silent after the birth of our Lord answers continued to be given until
the reign of Theodosius, by whom the temple was finally closed. In W.
T. ii. 1, 183, Leontes says, "I have despatched in post To sacred D., to Apollo's
temple, Cleomenes and Dion." In ii. 3, 195 the envoys are reported to be "well
arrived from D."; and in iii. 1, 2, Cleomenes describes it: "The climate's delicate,
the air most sweet, Fertile the isle, the temple much surpassing The common praise
it bears." In iii. 2, 127, the envoys, "having been both at D.," deliver the oracle
they have obtained. In all this Shakespeare is simply following his authority,
Greene's Dorastus and Fawnia in which D. is called "an iland," and the chronological
impossibility of the embassy is disregarded. In Ford's Heart
iii. 1, Armostes brings a casket toTechnicus containing "the sum of what the oracle
delivered when last he visited the prophetic temple at D." In T. Heywood's Lucrece
ii. 2, the scene is in the temple of Apollo, who is addressed as "thou Dn. God";
and Brutus says "I shall shine as bright in Rome as Apollo himself in his temple
at D." In Thracian ii. 1, Phaeander
directs "Some post to D. to the oracle To know what shall ensue." In Marlowe's
Faustus i., Cornelius promises Faust that
if he studies Magic he shall "be renowned And more frequented for this mystery
Than heretofore the Dn. oracle." In Chaucer's C. T. F. 1077, Aurelius, in his
prayer to Apollo, says, "Thy temple in D. wol I barefoot seke." In Davenant's
Love Hon. iv. 2, the Duke says, "We
must to D. to untie these knots with an oracle." In Brome's Lovesick
Ct. i. 2, Philargus says, "D. is but a den of jugglers which profanely abuse
divinity and pretend a god their patron to authorize their delusions." In his
City Wit iii. 4, Toby says, to Sneakup,
"You are more dark than D." In Marston's Parasitaster
i. 2, Gonzago says, "Well-experienced age is the true D." In Greene's Alphonsus
iii. 2, Medea appeals to her "who wert wont To utter forth Apollo's oracles At
sacred D." In Seven Days vii., the Chorus says, "As true as the oracle at a place
called D. That unknown fortunes and dark dreams did tell folks, So stand I here."
Note the Browningesque rhyme "D." and "tell folks." Milton, in Nativ. Ode 178,
says, "Apollo from his shrine Can no more divine, With hollow shriek the steep
of D. leaving." In Tiberius 533,
Germanicus says that, in consequence of the rise of Christianity, "Vocal Boeotia
in deep miseries And Dn. glory in obscureness lies." In Milton P. R. 1, 458, our
Lord says to Satan, "Henceforth oracles are ceased And thou no more with pomp
and sacrifice Shalt be enquired at D. or elsewhere." In Massinger's Dowry
v. 2, Charalois speaks of "the fatal gold Which Brennus took from D., whose possession
Brought with it ruin to himself and army." The Gauls were almost all destroyed
in their retreat from D., and Brennus in his mortification committed suicide.
In Nabbes, Bride iv. 1, Horten professes
to have in his museum "a piece of D.' ruins."
In T. Heywood's Dialogues 6353, Apollo says, "D. is mine, Pharos, and Tenedos."
In Lyly's Maid's Meta. iii. 1,
Apollo, telling the story of the death of Hyacinthos, says, "Accursed be the
time When I from D. took my journey down To see the games in noble Sparta town."
Dn. or Dc. are usual epithets of Apollo; and are also used, in the sense of
"inspired," of poetry and music, of which he was the patron. Barry, in Ram
i. 3, refers to Apollo as "the Dc. God." In Shirley's Honoria
ii. 3, Alworth says, "Soul of my Muse! what active unknown fire Already doth
thy Dc. wrath inspire!" Milton, in Epitaph on Shakespeare 12, says, "Each heart
Hath from the leaves of thy unvalued book Those Dc. lines with deep impression
took." In Ford's Sun ii. 1, Spring says, "Touch thy lyre And fill my court with
brightest Dc. fire." In Middleton's Family
iv. 2, Gerardine says, "The Dn. archer, proud with Python's spoil, At Cupid's
hands was forced to take the foil." After Apollo had killed the Python at Delphi
his arrows were stolen from him by Eros (Cupid). The scene of Lyly's Midas
is laid in part at D.
The 4th letter of the Greek alphabet, which is shaped like a triangle. Hence the name is applied to the triangular dist. included between the extreme branches of the mouth of the Nile in Egypt. The adjective Deltic is used for Egyptian. See under Beltic, which in the passage there quoted I take to be a misprint for Deltic. In Tourneur's Transformed Metamorphosed, D. is used to mean Ireland; and the Earl of Essex is called "D.'s hope, the Muses, wonder," the allusion being to his well-known Irish expedition.
The country of the Dimetae or Demetae, a tribe of Britons living in Pembrokesh.
and Carmarthensh. In Fisher's Fuimus
ii. 1, "Britael, decked with the Dn. crown," comes to help Cassibelanus against
See ANNIS A CLEAR.
An ancient town in France, 5 m. N. of Paris. St. D., or Dionysius, the patron
saint of France, was archbp. of Paris, and perished in the Aurelian persecution
about A.D. 272. He was said to have carried his head, after his execution, from
Paris to St. D., where a chapel was erected over his tomb, replaced by a magnificent
ch. built by Dagobert I in 638. The present Abbey Ch. dates from 1130. It was
the usual place of burial for the French ks. Their tombs were desecrated and the
Abbey partially destroyed by the National Convention in 1793; but it was subsequently
restored with great splendour by Louis Philippe. The Palmer in J. Heywood's Four
PP. i. professes, "I was at Saynt Davys and at Saynt D." In Sampson's Vow
v. 3, 93, Elizabeth says that Clifton and Grey "Fought for our father, brother,
and sister, At Dennis, Roan, Bullen, and at Callice."
DENIS (RUE SAINT)
One of the oldest sts. in Paris, running N. from the Pont au Change to the Port de St. D. In Davenant's Rutland, p. 223, the Londoner says, "Lae Rue St. Antoine, St. Honoré, and St. D. are large enough for the vista." Fynes Moryson, in Itinerary i. 2, 188, says of the sts. of Paris "among them the fairest is that of St. Dennis."
(De. = Dane, Dh. = Danish). A kingdom of N. Europe, including the peninsula of Jutland and the group of islands adjacent to it at the entrance to the Baltic. On Zealand, the largest of these, is the capital, Copenhagen, and the old royal city and castle of Elsinore. The Des. were a Teutonic race, and we first hear of D. (in Beowulf) as an island kingdom, Jutland being then inhabited by a distinct race, the Jutes. Christianity carne to D. in A.D. 823, but its progress was slow, and it was long before it was established throughout the country. During the 9th and 10th cents. the Des. made constant attacks on the E. coast of England, and in the beginning of the 11th they effected a permanent settlement, and from 1016 to 1043 a Dh. dynasty ruled the whole country. During the brilliant reign of Valdemar II (12021241) D. became an important factor in European politics. From 1397 to 1523 D., Sweden, and Norway were united under one crown. In 1490 a commercial treaty was made between England and D., by which the English agreed to pay the Sound dues on all vessels entering the Baltic. The Protestant Reformation was accepted in D. in the early part of the 16th cent., and in the religious wars of the 17th, Christian IV of D. was one of the principal champions of the Protestant cause.
- Historical references. The scene of Hamlet
is laid in D. It is based on Belleforest's Hystorie of Hamblet,
while a more primitive version of the story is found in Saxo-Grammaticus.
Hamlet was the son of Horvendille, who was K. of D."long time before it received
the faith of Jesus Christ." The supposed date is further indicated by the
mention of Collere as the contemporary K. of Norway. He was, according to
Heylyn, the 4th K. of Norway, and 10 ks. intervened between him and Osmundus
II circ. A.D. 800. Shakespeare, however, deviates from his authority in making
D. a Christian country, as witness the funeral obsequies of Ophelia, and the
eschatological views indicated by the Ghost. The whole picture, indeed, is
of a 16th cent. court: the young nobles go to Wittenberg for University training
and to Paris to acquire the polish of men of the world; and the Court is in
diplomatic relationship with England. The Fortinbras episodes have no counterpart
in real history. There is a touch of verisimilitude in the statement of Polonius
in i. 3, 28, that Hamlet can go no further in the way of his marriage than
"the main voice of D. goes withall," for up to 1660 the monarchy was elective.
The general impression given of the condition of D. is unfavourable; Marcellus,
in i. 4, 90, opines that "Something is rotten in the state of D."; and Hamlet,
in ii. 2, 252, thinks that it is one of the worst of the dungeons in the prison-house
of the world; while Horatio, in v. 2, 352, boasts that he is "more an antique
Roman than a De." In Hughes' Misfort.
Arth. iv. 2, amongst those fighting on Arthur's side are "Islandians,
Goths, Norwegians, Albans, Des." In Clyomon
the hero is the son of the K. of D., but the fact that Alexander the Gt. is
one of the characters shows that the historical basis is wildly impossible.
In Grim i. 1, Dunstan says, "Had
I lived, the Des. had never Boasted their then beginning conquest of this
land," i.e. England.
In Edmond Ironside Canutus
says, "All my Des. are braggadocios And I accursed to be the general Of
such a stock." Drayton, in Idea (1594) xxxii. 12, says, "The old Lea brags
of the Dh. blood." The reference is to the defeat of the Des. by Alfred
in A.D. 896. Brewer's Lovesick
King is Canute; and the main action of the play is concerned with the
defeat of the Des. by Alured or Alfred; of course, Alfred was not contemporary
with Canute, and the whole story of Canute's infatuation for the Nun of
Winchester is fabulous. Moreover, the Thornton of Newcastle who is represented
as coming to the help of Alured lived in the 14th cent. In Lyly's Gallathea
i. 1, Tyterus, speaking of Lincolnsh., says, "The land (was) oppressed by
Des. who, instead of sacrifice, committed sacrilege." Spenser, F. Q. iii.
3, 47, speaks of the Lion of Neustria (William the Conqueror) rending the
usurped crown of England from "the Daniske tyrant's head." In Fair
Em, iv. 2, an ambassador comes from the K. of D. to William the Conqueror
to complain that he "Has stolen away his only daughter Blanche," and to
demand her restoration. The story is taken from Wotton's Controversie of
Cupid's Cautels (1578). In Marlowe's Ed.
II ii. 2, young Mortimer complains, "The haughty De. commands the narrow
seas." In Ed. III iii. 1, John
of France announces, "The stern Polonian and the warlike De. are become
confederates with us." In Fam.
Vict., Haz., p. 358, the French K. orders the Des. to be sent for to
help him against Henry. In Marlowe's Tamb.
B. i. 1, Uribassa declares that Sigismund "hath brought from Christendom
Sclavonians, Almain rutters, Muffes, and Des." In B. & F. Malta,
Norandine, "a valiant, merry De.," is commander-in-chief of the galleys
of Malta in their war against the Turks. In Kyd's Soliman
i., Erastus speaks of "the big-boned De." who has come to the tournament.
In Glapthorne's Wallenstein
i. 1, Leslie says that Wallenstein has "sent the health-carousing De. Drunk
with his own blood home." The reference is to the campaigns of Wallenstein
against Christian IV of D. from 1624 to 1629. In Killigrew's Parson
iii. 5, Jolly tells of "the Dh. packet which they took from a foolish fellow
who, presuming upon the law of nations, came upon an embassy to the K. without
an order or pass from both Houses." Bacon, in Observ. on Libel (1592), says,
"The Kingdom of D. hath had good times, especially by the good government
of the late K., who maintained the profession of the Gospel; but yet greatly
giveth place to the kingdom of England, in climate, wealth, fertility, and
many other points both of honour and strength." There is record of a play
entitled Evoradanus, Prince of D., registered in 1605.
Manners, Customs, and Appearance of the Des. Nash, in Pierce C. 1, gives a long description of the Des. He satirizes their "unwieldy burlibound soldiery"; their "flabberkin face" and sagging cheeks; their stuffed and beribboned clothes; and concludes, "They are an arrogant, ass-headed people, that naturally hate learning." A page or two later he says, "The Des. are bursten-bellied sots that are to be confuted with nothing but tankards or quart-pots." Fynes Moryson, in Itinerary iii. 2, 4, says, "The Des. pass (if it be possible) their neighbour Saxons in the excess of their drinking." In Ham. i. 2, 125, the K. promises", No jocund health that D. drinks to-day But the great cannon to the clouds shaft tell "; and in i. 4, 8, when the promise is carried out and the boom of the cannon is heard, Hamlet deplores to Horatio the custom which enjoins it: '° It is a custom More honoured in the breach than the observance. This heavy-headed revel E. and W. Makes us traduced and taxed of other nations; They clepe us drunkards, and with swinish phrase 'Soil our addition." In i. 2, 175, Hamlet sarcastically promises Horatio, "We'll teach you to drink deep ere you depart." So, in Oth. ii. 3, 80, Iago says that in drinking "your De., your German, and your swag-bellied Hollander are nothing to your English . . . . Your Englishman drinks you with facility your De. dead-drunk." In Massinger's Great Duke ii. 2, Caponi says that the Italians "drink more in 2 hours than the Dutchman or the De." in 24 an unusual accusation to make against the Italians. In Nash's Wilton K. 1, Jack says, "With the De. and the Dutchman I will not encounter that with Danaus, daughters do nothing but fill bottomless tubs and win be drunk and snort in the midst of dinner." In Davenant's Platonic i. 1, Arnoldo says, "The cellars [are] so filled that they would make a Dh. army drunk." Jonson, 'm his Ode Allegorice, speaks of "The Des. that drench their cares in wine." In B. & F. Malta v. 1, Norandine, who is about to take the vows of knighthood, which included temperance, says, "I shall be a sweet De . . . . go up and down drinking small beer!" i.e. instead of more potent beverages. In Marston's Malcontent v. 1, a ballad is sung: "The Dutchman for a drunkard, The De. for golden locks, The Irishman for usquebaugh, The Frenchman for the pox." In B. & F. Custom iii. 3, Jaques nicknames the De." goldylocks." Dekker, in Hornbook, chap. i., speaks of "the Dh. sleeve sagging down like a Welch wallet." In Spenser F. Q. iv. 10, 31, Scudamour describes a lady wearing a crown "much like unto a Danisk hood." In Webster's White Devil ii. 1, Giovanni says that a general need not fight, provided "he make a noise when he's o, horseback like a Dansk drummer." In Dekker's King's Entertainment (1603), we read, "To delight the Q. with her own country music, 9 trumpets and a kettle-drum did very sprightly and actively sound the Dh. march." James's Q. was Anne of D. In Ham. i. 4, 11, Hamlet says that at the royal banquets in D. "The kettle-drum and trumpet thus bray out The triumph of his pledge." Cleaveland, in Fuscara, says, "Tuning his draughts with drowsy hums As Des. carouse by kettle-drums." The kettledrum was introduced into England by Anne of D.
- The Language of the Danes belongs to the Scandinavian group of the Teutonic languages. The people are called Des., or Danskers. In All's Well iv. 1, 78, Parolles prays, "If there be here German or De, Low Dutch, Italian or French, let him speak to me." In Ham. ii. 1, 7, Polonius says, "Inquire me first what Danskers are in Paris."
- Miscellaneous Allusions. Heylyn quotes from Da Bartas (p. 12), "From D. come amber, cordage, firs, and flax." Nash, in Prognostication, speaks of the "Danske crows "gathering on the sands against a storm. In Jonson's Volpone ii. 2, a song speaks of "the Dh. Gonswart." He was, from the context, a of some sort; but I cannot identify him further.
The name given to Somerset House by James I on Shrove Tuesday, 1616, in honour of his Q., Anne of D., who had made it her palace. T. Heywood's Mistress was performed here in 1633. In Middleton's Tennis, D. H. is described as "A stately palace and majestical, Of late built up into a royal height Of state." See SOMERSET HOUSE.
Originally Depe-ford, from the ford over the Ravensborne, which here flows into the Thames. On the S. bank of the Thames, 4 m. E. of Lond., the seat of the Royal Dockyard founded by Henry VIII. Here The Golden Hind, the ship in which Drake circumnavigated the world, was long preserved, and its cabin used as a sort of refreshment room for excursionists. D. lay N. of the Old Kent Rd. along which the pilgrims went to Canterbury. In Chaucer C. T. A. 3906, the Host points out Greenwich and D. to the company: "Lo, Depeford and it is half way pryme; Lo, Grenewich ther many a shrewe is inne." In Fam. Vict. i. 1, Jockey brings word to prince Hal: "The town of Detfort is risen with hue and cry after your man which has set upon and hath robbed a poor carrier." In Prodigal ii. 4, Lancelot, being at his house in Kent, says, "We'll ride to Lond.or it shall not need; We'll cross to Detford-strand and take a boat." He then gives his cloak to his servant, saying," I'll have a walk to Dedford." In Ford's Warbeck iii. 1, Dawbeny tells the K. of his victory over Warbeck's supporters at "D.strand bdge," i.e. the bdge. over the Ravensbourne. Harman, in Caveat 24, tells of a notable haunt of prigs between Detforde and Rothered (Rotherhithe). In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B., Hobson goes to D., where he finds and relieves Tawniecoat. In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 2, Knowell says, "Go not about it; Drake's old ship at D. may sooner circle the world again." In Eastward iii. 3, Sir Petronel says, "We'll have our provided supper brought aboard Sir Francis Drake's ship that hath compassed the world." In Verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities on the Sights of Lond., Peacham mentions "Drake's ship at Detford." Marlowe was killed in a tavern brawl at D. at the age Of 29.
Usually pronounced and often spelt Darby; though this is not the local, but a S. pronunciation. The capital of the county of Derby, on the Derwent, 110 m. N. of Lond. It is a very ancient town, and is close to the site of the Roman station of Derventio. It was called Northworthige by the Saxons, and received its modem name, Deoraby, from the Danes. The Earldom of D. was in the Ferrers family from the reign of Stephen till that of Henry III, when it was transferred to the powerful family of Lancaster. It was bestowed by Henry VII on Lord Thomas Stanley, brother of Sir William Stanley, who crowned Henry on the field of Bosworth, and still continues in the Stanley family. In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 1, Lancaster (Thomas, cousin to the K.) says, "4 earldoms have I besides Lancaster-D., Salisbury, Lincoln, Leicester." In Ed. III i. 1, the K. says, "D., be thou ambassador for us Unto the Earl of Hainault." This was Henry, Duke of Lancaster, whom John of Gaunt succeeded in the title. In R2 i. 3, 35, Bolingbroke announces himself as "Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and D." In Acts I & II of R3, in the folios and quartos Thomas Stanley is proleptically called D.; in Acts III and IV he receives his proper name, Lord Stanley, though Shakespeare appears to have confused the 2 brothers, William and Thomas; in act V in the 1st folio he is again spoken of as D., and it is he who puts the crown on Henry's head. Both the Stanleys were present at Bosworth Field, and their betrayal of Richd. was the main cause of Henry's victory; though which of them actually crowned the new K. is not quite clear. Thomas was made Earl of D. in 1485; William was beheaded, ostensibly for complicity in Warbeck's rebellion, in 1495. In Ford's Warbeck ii. 2, when Sir William is being led to execution, he says, "My next suit is, my Lords, To be remembered to my noble brother D., my much-grieved brother." William, Earl of D. in the latter part of the 16th cent., is said to have written plays "for the common players."
In Jonson's New World the Factor speaks of the witches bidding the devil to dinner at D." According to Bacon, Works i. 9, the whole county of D. was wild, uncivilized, and superstitious, and much given over to Popery. D. ale had a great reputation which has now passed to the liquor brewed at Burton-on-Trent. In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 556, Sir Lionel says, "I have sent my daughter as far as Pimlico, to fetch a draught of D. ale." In Jonson's Gipsies the 3rd Gipsy says, "You have in draughts of D. drifted your men "; and again: "He then did for a full draught of D. call." In his Love's Welcome Philalethes speaks of "D.-shire, the region of ale." In Cobler of Canterburie (1590), the author says, "There must be admitted no compare between a cup of Darby ale and a dish of dirty water." D. was a great cockfighting centre, and Cockpit Lane still remains to show where the sport was carried on. In Davenant's Wits i. 2, Palatine speaks Of "3 motley cocks of the right D. strain." In B. & F. Thomas ii. 3, Sebastian says, "The cocking holds at D., and there will be Jack Wildoats and Will Purser."
A house near Baynard's Castle, Lond., on the site of the present Heralds, College, next to Peter's Hill on the N. side of Q. Victoria St. It was built by Thomas Stanley, Earl of D., who married Margaret, the mother of Henry VII. In 1552 it passed into the hands of Edward VI, and in 1555 Mary made it into the Heralds, College. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire, and rebuilt about 1669. The scene of R3 iv. 5 is located by the modem editors as "a room in Lord Stanley's house "; this would be D. H. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. ii. 2, Fungoso says, "If anybody ask for Sogliardo, they shall ha, him at the Herald's Office yonder by Paul's." D. H. is abt. 200 yards S. of the Cathedral.
One of the Midland counties of England. The N.W. part is one of the most rugged and picturesque parts of England and is known as the Peak, famous for its wonderful limestone caverns and its mineral springs. In Trag. Richd. II. iv. 1, 217, the K. gives amongst other counties, "Darbiesheire "to Sir Thomas Scroope. The people were regarded as wild rustical, and superstitious. In Dekker's Northward iii. 2, Squirrel says, "I will discover it, not as a D. woman discovers her great teeth, in laughter." In Middleton's Chaste Maid ii. 1, the country girl mentions "Ellen, my poor cousin in D," as having been seduced by Touchwood. In Brome's Antipodes i. 1, Blaze says, "He spends £500 a year now as merrily as any gentleman in D." In Jonson's Love's Welcome, performed at Welbeck, Accidence says, "Fetch the fiddles out of France To wonder at the hornpipes here Of Nottingham and D." The Peak was a great haunt of gipsies, as is emphasized in Jonson's Gipsies; Jackman sings: "From the famous Peak of D. And the Devil's Arse there hard by The AEgyptians throng." This oddly named place was a deep chasm in the Peak. In his Devil i. 2, Pug, the imp, claims to be a countryman "of D. abt. the Peak "; his reason being that this place is there. Lead-mining was carried on in the Peak. In Underwit iii. 3, the Capt., answering the fool Engine according to his folly, says, "Yes, and the lead mines in Darbyshire hold still for the alum business." Hall, in Satires (1597) iii. 3, 11, says, "Two words for money, Darbyshirian-wise. That's one too many, is a naughty guise." I suppose the reference is to the 2 pronunciations, D. and Darbyshire.
A Roman settlement in England, 15 m. N.E. of Lond.; identified probably with Romford in Essex. In Locrine iv. 3, Locrine tells of a secret cavern he has constructed in which to hide Estrild "Nigh D., by the pleasant Lee." Romford is, however, 10 m. E. of the Lee.
An old form (Duveline, Divelin, Develin) of Dublin. Duveline occurs, eg., in the French prose version of the Roman de Tristan (Anc. Textes Franç., vol. 1, pp. 90, 93); Devilling in Barbour's Bruce xv. 107; xvi. 213, 262; and in the 15th cent. manuscripts of The English Conquest of Ireland (a translation of the Expugnatio Hibernia of Giraldus Cambrensis) Develyn 2nd Dyvelyn occur again and again. Instances might be indefinitely multiplied. In B. & F. Fair Maid I. iv. 2, Forabosco, pretending to be a magician, threatens the Clown: "Then will I convey thee stark naked to D. to beg a pair of brogs, to hide thy mountainous buttocks." In Middleton's Quiet Life v. 3, Water-Camlet says that if his wife goes to Ireland "she will be heard from Hell Bree to Divelin," i.e. right across St. George's Channel; the play on the words is obvious.
The famous tavern No. 2 Fleet St., adjoining Temple Bar. It was close to St. Dunstan's Ch., and the original sign was "the D. and St. Dunstan," and represented the saint pulling the D.'s nose with his pincers. Here were held the meetings of Ben Jonson's Apollo Club (see APOLLO). The landlord's name in Jonson's time was Simon Wadloe, in whose honour Squire Western's favourite song, "Old Sir Simon the K.," was written or adapted. It was pulled down in 1787 to make room for Child's Bank. In Jonson's Memoranda he says, "The 1st speech in my Catiline, spoken by Sylla's ghost, was writ after I parted with my friend at the D. Tavern; I had drunk well that night and had brave notions." In T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, in the list of Roman (Lond.) taverns given by Valerius, we have "The usurer to the D. and the townsman to the Horn." Jonson's Staple iv. 1, is laid at "The D. Tavern. The Apollo." In ii. 1, Pennyboy Canter says, "Dine in Apollo with Pecunia at brave Duke Wadloe's . . . Simon the K. will bid us welcome." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i., Bloodhound says to Tim, "As you come by Temple Bar, make a step to the D." "To the D., father?" asks Tim; to which Sim replies, "My master means the sign of the D. And he cannot hurt you, fool; there's a saint holds him by the nose." In v. Tim says, "I was never sober since you sent me to the D. yesterday." In Shirley's Wedding ii. 1, Cardona bids Isaac "Run to the D. and bid the vintner make haste with the runlets of claret." In B. & F. Thomas iii. 1, Thomas says, "Say the d. were sick now of a calenture, taken by a surfeit of stinking souls at his nephew's at St. Dunstan's," where evidently the d. of the D. tavern is meant. In Killigrew's Parson iii. 2, the Capt. says, "Go you before to the D. and I'll make haste after," to which Careless replies, "Agreed. We shaft be sure of good wine there." Accordingly, the next scene but one is "at the D." In Underwit ii. 2, Thomas says, "They gave me some hope I might find "(Capt. Sackburie) "at the Divell, where indeed I fetched him out of the fire." In iv. 1, is a song with the lines," The Still-yard's Reanish wine and Divell's white, Who doth not in them sometimes take delight?" In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] i. 6, Worm says that Cutter was "Cromwell's agent for all the taverns between King's-St. and the D. at Temple Bar." Fuller, Church Hist. (1656) ii. 10, 15, says of the story of the D. and St. Dunstan, "None need doubt of the truth thereof, finding it in a sign painted in Fleet St. near Temple ]Bar.'
A cavern near Castleton, in the Peak of Derbyshire; known as the 6th wonder of the Peak. In Champions iii., the Clown laments his magnanimous master" whom I lost in the D. ao' Peak." In Jonson's Devil i. 2, Pug claims to be "of Derbyshire about the Peak "; Fitzdottrel asks, "That hole belonged to your ancestors?""Yes," says Pug, "D. A., Sir." In Gipsies, Jack sings, "From the famous Peak of Darby And the I). A. there hard by." Later on Puppy asks him why the name was given, and he tells the story in a ballad. In Val. Welsh. ii. 1, Morgan says, "I will make Caesars with all her Romans run to the Tevils A.-a-peak, I warrant her."
A county in S.W. England with coasts on the Bristol Channel and the English Channel. The capital is Exeter. In the S.-centre of the county is the great plateau of Dartmoor; the rest of the land is most fertile, and the cast scenery is amongst the finest in the island. It was usually pronounced De'nshire. In R3 iv. 4, 500, a messenger informs Richd., "Now in D. Sir Edward Courtney and the haughty prelate, Bp. of Exeter . . . are in arms." Sir E. was created Earl of Devon in 1485, and the title is still in his family. In Ford's Warbeck v. 1, Dalyell reports, "All the Cornish At Exeter were by the citizens Repulsed, encountered by the Earl of D." This was Sir E. Courtney. In Nobody 206, the Duke of Cornwall proclaims, "All Cornwall's at my beck; D. our neighbour is one with us," and in Middleton's Queenborough, D. is one of the British Lords who oppose the Saxons under Hengist. D., like Cornwall, has rich mines of tin and copper; hence in Jonson's Alchemist ii. 1, Mammon, expecting to gain the philosopher's stone, says, "I'll purchase D. and Cornwall And make them perfect Indies." Again, like Cornwall, D. is famous for its pies; in Davenant's Wits iv., the elder Pallatine, shut up in a chest, says, "I am coffined up like a salmon pie new sent from D. for a token." In Peele's Old Wives i. 1, when Madge offers to drive away the time with an old wives tale, Fantastic exclaims, "No better hay in D.!" i.e. nothing could be better. Devonshire tells of the exploits of one Richd. Pike of Tavistock, in the Earl of Essex's expedition to Cadiz in 1625. The date is given in i. 1 as 38 years after the Spanish Armada. Spenser, F. Q. ii. 10, 12, says "Debon's share was that is D." Debon was one of the captains brought over by the legendary Brute. John Ford and Jasper Mayne were D. men. Robert Herrick was Vicar of Dean Prior in D. from 1629 to 1647. In Discontents in Devon (x647), he calls it "this dull Di"; in Epig. on Lusk he says, "In D. kersey Lusk, when he was dead, Would shrouded be and therewith buried."
A fountain in Athens; possibly the fountain Callirhoe or Enneakrounos is meant, which was S. of the Ceramicus (the High St.), near the old Odeium. It was the only source of drinking-water in the city. Near to it was the Temple of Artemis Eucleia. In Davenant's Platonic ii. 4, Buonateste says, "In the High st. at Athens, just by the corner as you pass to D. C., Plato kept a wench."
The T. of Artemis at Ephesus, the largest t. in the Greek world. It was built first in the time of Croesus and subsequently enlarged, but was burnt down by Herostratus on the night on which Alexander the Gt. was born. It was ,bult on the same site. An account of its remains will be found in Wood's Discoveries at Ephesus. It was accounted one of the 7 wonders of the world. In Per. iii. 4, 13, Cerimon says to Thaisa, "D. T. is not distant far, Where you may abide till your date expire." Thaisa accordingly enters the t. and becomes High-Priestess of the Goddess. Act V, Sc. ii & iii take place in the t. In B. & F. Corinth iv. 1, the Uncle of Onos tells how "Of late he did enquire at Ephesus for his age, but, the ch.-book being burnt with Dian's T., he lost his aim." The authors were thinking of the English parish registers. In Tiberius 1708, Sejanus speaks of "Asiaes immortal workmanship, Dianaes t." Spenser, F. Q. iv. 10, 30, mentions "that same famous t. of Diane Whose height all Ephesus did oversee . . . . One of the world's 7 wonders said to be." In Deloney's Newberie (1597) iii., Wolsey speaks of "Herostratus the shoemaker, that burned the T. of Diana, only to get himself a name."
In M.N.D. i. 1, 89, Theseus informs Hermia that she must either wed Demetrius or "on D. altar to protest For aye virginity." There was a T. of Artemis on the Acropolis at Athens between the Propylaea and the Parthenon. In Cor. v. 3, 67, Coriolanus speaks of Valeria as "chaste as the icicle That . . . hangs on Dian's t." The T. of Diana at Rome stood on the Aventine near the present ch. of St. Prisca. It was built by K. Servius Tullius as a common t. for the Latin League.
A mountain in Crete S.E. of Gnossus, where it was said that Zeus was brought up and where his tomb was shown by the Cretans. Milton, P. L. x. 584, speaks of the age "ere yet Dictaean Jove was born."
(pronounced by the Elizabethans and often spelt DEEPE). A town in France on the English Channel, 125 m. N.W. of Paris. The ancient walls are still standing, and in the neighbourhood are the ruins of the Castle of Arques. In Dekker's Shoemaker's i. 1, the date of which is in the reign of Henry VI, Lovell says to Lincoln, "'Tis his Highness, will That presently your cousin ship for France With all his powers; he would not for a million But they should land at D. within 4 days." In Marlowe's Massacre, p. 234, after the Massacre of St. Bartholomew has taken place, Guise orders Retes to post "to D. And spare not one that you suspect of heresy." In Chapman's Consp. Bvron v. 1, Byron boasts "that none but 1, and my renowned Sire, Be said to win the memorable fields Of Arques and D." The reference is to the battle of Arques in 1589, in which Henri IV defeated the Duke of Mayence. In Davenant's Rutland, p. 222, the Londoner goes to Paris by way of D., and rides thence on his Norman nag. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 261, young Gresham, sent by Hobson to France, says, "I'll ha, that I go for, or I'll make half the hot-houses in Deepe smoke for this trick." Nash, in Pierce B. 2, says, "You shall see a dapper Jack that hath been but once at Deepe wring his face round about and talk English through the teeth like Jaques Scabbed-Hams."
A city of France, on the Ouche, 162 m. S.E. of Paris, It was the capital of the Duchy of Burgundy, and was surrounded by walls, the course of which is now marked by broad avenues. The Cathedral of St. Benigne dates from 1291: the castle was commenced by Louis XI in 1478 and finished in 1512 by Louis XII. The old ducal palace, rebuilt during the 18th cent., is used as a Museum and School of Arts. In Chapman's Consp. Byron ii. 1, Savoy reminds the K. that Byron "chased away Viscount Tavannes, troops before D., And puts himself in, and there that was won." This was in 1594. The scene of Massinger's Dowry is laid in D. towards the end of the 15th cent.
DIMMINGS DALE (or DIMSDALE)
There are 2 Dimsdales, one in Yorks. the other in Durham; and there is a Dimon's or Demon's Dale in the valley of the Wye 'm Derbysh. Probably this last is intended in the following quotation from Thersites (A. P. i. 220), where Mater invokes "all other witches that walk in D. D."
A city in Roumelia on the Maritza, 20 m. S. of Adrianople. Its citadel was used as a palace by the Sultans before the capture of Constantinople in 1453. After Bajazeth's deposition by Selim I "n 1512 he set out for Dimoticum, but died on the way. In Selimus 1666, Baiazet says to Aga, "Aga and I win to D. And live in peace the remnant of our days." DIPOLIS. In Chapman's Widow's Tears iv. 1, Lycus says, "I'll presently to D., where Lysander stays." Apparently some place in Cyprus is intended, and as Paphos on the W. coast was a double city, including Old and New Paphos, it may probably be the place so named. See PAPHOS.
A st. in Lond. running S. from Cannon St. to Old Fish St., between Old Change and Friday St. It was also called Maiden L., from a sign at its corner. According to Stow it was properly Distar L., and Cordwainers, Hall was on its N. side. It has been absorbed into Cannon St., where Cordwainers, Hall is now at No. 7. The name is preserved in D. L. running from Cannon St., between 6 and 8, to Knightrider St.: this was formerly Little D. L. In Jonson's Christmas, Christmas sings, "Next in the trace, Comes Gambol in place; And, to make my tale the shorter, My son Hercules, tane Out of D.-l., But an active man and a porter." The old story of Hercules being dressed in woman's clothes and exchanging his club for a d. no doubt suggested the line.
Possibly Datchett F. at Windsor is meant, where there would be a good deal of traffic between the Court and the other side of the Thames (see DATCHETT). Dekker, in News from Hell (1606), says of Charon's boat: "The gains of it are greater in a quarter than 10 Western barges get in a year; D. F. comes nothing near it."
Formerly Mountjoy House, at the corner of St. Bennet's Hill and Knightrider St. Lond. It was purchased for the accommodation of the College of the Doctors of the Law in the early part of the reign of Elizabeth. These learned gentlemen had previously been housed in a small building in Paternoster Row, afterwards the Queen's Head Tavern. It included a dining-hall and library, a hall for the hearing of cases and chambers for the doctors. 5 Courts sat here, viz. the Court of the Arches, the Prerogative Court (which dealt with Wills), the Court of Faculties and Dispensations, the Consistory Court of the Bp. of Lond., and the Court of the Admiralty. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire, but at once rebuilt. It was finally cleared away in 1867, and Q. Victoria St. passes over what was its garden. In Dekker's Shoemaker's ii. 1, Sybil brings greetings to Rose from many of her Lond. friends, including "Mrs. Frigbottom by D. C."
The seat of an ancient oracle of Zeus in Greece. The site is matter of dispute, but the most probable view is that it was on the E. frontier of Epirus, near the Pindus Range. One of the most notable objects in the precincts of the temple was a brazen cauldron, beside which stood a statue of a boy holding a brazen whip. When the wind blew the boy struck the cauldron with his whip and a loud booming noise was produced. In Nabbes, Hannibal ii., when Scipio arrives, Syphax says, "Let Dodonean brass be beaten deaf Whilst it proclaims his welcome." Tourneur, in Transformed Metamorphosed, says, "Let Dodon's grove be lavish in expence And scaffoldize her oaks for my defence; Forgive me, God, for help doth not consist In Dodon grove nor a Dodonian fist." Milton, P. L. i. 5z8, speaks of the old Greek gods as ruling "or on the Delphian cliff Or in D." Dodonian is used as a stock epithet for the oak. Hall, in Satires iii. 1, 7, says, "Time was . . . Our hungry sires gaped for the falling mast Of the Dodonian oaks."
The sign of a tavern in Lond.: perhaps the Talbot in Ludgate St., afterwards known as the Sun, and, later still, as the Queen's Arms. Herrick, in Ode to Jonson, speaks of "those lyric feasts Made at the Sun, The Dog, the Triple Tun."
A contemptuous name for Houndsditch, Lond. This was originally the ditch or moat outside the city wall from Bishopsgate to Aldgate. Stow tells us that the ditch was a filthy receptacle for dead dogs and all kinds of rubbish, but that in his time it was covered over and enclosed by a mud wall. In the field belonging to the Priory of the Holy Trinity, after the dissolution of the monasteries, sellers of old clothes seem to have congregated. In B. & F. Prize ii. 2, Bianca says that Moroso is full "of more knavery and usury and foolery and brokery than D. D."
DOG'S HEAD IN THE POT
The sign of a Lond. shop, somewhere near the N. end of Lombard St. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 282, Tawnie Coat says, "Sure, this is the lane; there's the Windmill; there's the D. H. i. t. P." Such a sign is mentioned by Wynkyn de Worde is Cocke Lorell's Bote; a similar sign is, or was until recently, to be seen over an ironmonger's shop at the corner of Little Charlotte St. and Blackfriars Rd. Angelo, in B. & F. Captain iv. 4, alludes to this sign when he says, "They should be to be sold At the sign of the Whore's Head 1, th, Pottage-pot." In their Cure ii. 2, Bobadilla says, "Cannot . . . the maids make pottage, except your dog's head be in the pot?"
DOGS, ISLE OF
The peninsula in the Thames between the Limehouse, Greenwich, and Blackwall Reaches, now occupied by the West India and Millwall Docks. The name is said to have been given to it because the K.'s hounds were formerly kept there. In Dekker's [sic] Eastward iv. 2, Sir Petronel is wrecked on the Thames and is informed, "You're 1, the I. of D., I tell you." Most of the references are punning ones. In his Satiro. iv. 1, 166, Tucca says to Horace (Jonson), "when the stagerites banished thee into the I. o. D., thou turn'st ban-dog (villainous Guy) and ever since bitest." In the Ret. Pernass. v. 4, Ingenioso says, "Our voyage is to the Ile o. D., there where the blatant beast doth rule and reign, renting the credit of whom it please ": the dogs being the critics. In Middleton's R.G. v. 1, Moll says of Trapdoor, "He hath been brought up in the I. o. D. and can both fawn like a spaniel and bite like a mastiff, as he finds occasion." In B. & F. Thierry iii. 2, Bawdber says, "Where could I wish myself now? In the I. o. D., so I might 'scape scratching." Nash wrote a play called the Isle of Dogs in 1598, for which he was imprisoned in the Fleet. In his Lenten, he says, "The strange turning of the I. o. D. from a comedy to a tragedy 2 summers past is a general rumour that hath filled all England, and such a heavy cross laid upon me as had well near confounded me."
Lond., running N. from Knightrider St. to Carter Lane. It is now called Knightrider Court, and is next to 47 Knightrider St. It was so called because there were no shops in it. In Jonson's Christmas, Venus says of Cupid, "I had him by my 1st husband: he was a smith, forsooth, we dwelt in D.-l. L. then." In Jonson's Magnetic v. 4, Polish says of Alderman Parrot's widow", She dwelt in D.-l.-l.'a-top o' the hill there." In Middleton's Family v. 3, Dryfat says, "The wise woman in Pissing Alley nor she in D.-l. L. are more famous for good deeds than he."
A tavern in Lond. on the E. side of Bishopsgate St. Without, near the end of Houndsditch, where the Friends, Meeting House now stands. In Dekker's Northward iv. 3, Bellamont says, "Stay, yonder's the D. without Bishopsgate." Dekker, in Armourers, says, "O neither the Mermaid nor the D. nor he at Mile-end-green can when he list be in good temper, when he lacks his mistress (that is to say, Money)."
A city on the S.E. coast of the island of Hayti, in the W. Indies. It was founded in 1502, and may claim td be the oldest European city in the New World. In Milkmaids i. 3, Ranoff says, "I saw the Adlantatho [i.e. Adalantado, or Governor] of D. mounted upon such another [jennet]." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 333, the Chorus tells how Drake and Carlisle set on fire "the towns of S. Anthony and S. Dominick." This was in the famous Island Voyage Of 1585, when S. D. was ravaged. In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 5, Cash says of Bobadil, who is smoking and has asked him for a match, "Would his match and he and pipe and all were at Sancto D."
A town in W. Riding Yorks., on the Don, 162 m. N. of Lond. on the North Road. It was originally a Roman settlement. The scene of many of Robin Hood's exploits is in the neighbourhood. In the Lytell Geste of Robin Hood 1, we are told how Robin was bled to death by the Prioress of Kyrkesley incited by "Sir Roger of Donkestre." Henry of Lancaster stayed here for a time on his way from Ravenspur. In H4 A. v. 1, 42, Worcester reminds the K., "You swore to us, And you did swear that oath at D., That you did nothing purpose 'gains the State." In Greene's George i. 4, Bonfield tries to persuade Bettris to "love the lord of D.," Sir Gilbert Armstrong. In Dekker's Northward, Kate is the daughter of a D. innkeeper; and she declares (ii. 2), "We have notable valiant fellows about D." In Skelton's Magnificence fol. iv., Fancy says, "I set not by the world 2 Dauncaster cuttys," i.e. Geldings. In a letter of Latimer's to Lord Cromwell (1538), he speaks of a famous image of the Virgin at D, which he calls a younger sister of the image at Walsingham. One of the Tales in Tarlton's News is of a painter of D., who, having painted an ugly figure of our Lord for the ch., changed it into the Devil by putting a pair of horns on it.
(apparently THE HAGUE, or GRAVENHAGE, is intended). The name is used for the sake of the pun, between H. and Hag. In T. Heywood's Challenge ii. 1, the Clown, in a punning list of towns in the Netherlands, says, "D. is full of witches." See HAGUE.
The county town of Dorsetsh., on the site of the Roman Durnovaria. It stands on the Frome, 120 m. S.W. of Lond. The Roman amphitheatre at D. was used for dramatic performances in the 16th cent.
A department in S.W. France, E. of the mouth of the Garonne. Its capital, Perigueux, is abt. 260 m. S.W. of Paris. It has its name from the river D., which runs across it from E. to W. Peele, in Polyhymnia 176, speaks of "old Duke Aymon's glory, D.'s pride." The four sons of Aymon are the subject of a well-known mediaeval romance.
(apparently a mistake for DODONA, q.v.). In T. Heywood's S. Age iii., Juno speaks of the Erymanthean boar as devastating "the fertile plains of Thessaly," and he "in his course o'erturns the Dordan oaks." The more usual form of the legend places the hunting of the boar in Peloponnesus, but some variants make it in Thessaly.
(Dc. = Doric, Dn. = Dorian). One of the chief branches of the Hellenic people. Their chief cities were Corinth, Syracuse, Agrigentum, Megara, and Byzantium; and Sparta was recognized as their leader against the Ionian branch with Athens at its head. They gave their name to the little dist. of Doris in Central Greece. In music the Greeks distinguished the Dn., Phrygian, Lydian, Mixo-Lydian, and Locrian modes; of these the Dn. was severe and grave, and opposed alike to the wildness of the Phrygian and the softness and effeminacy of the Lydian modes. In Middleton's Quarrel i. 1, Russell says, "most unpleasing shows to the beholder A Lydian ditty to a Dc. note." Milton, P. L. 1550, speaks of the armies of Satan moving "In perfect phalanx to the Dn. mood Of flutes and soft recorders." Dc. is used in the sense of plain, simple, rustic. Milton, Lycidas 18q, speaks of "warbling his Dc. lay." In P. R. iv. 257, he speaks of "variousmeasured verse, AEolian charms and Dn. lyric odes." Linche, in Diella xxii., speaks of "Thamiras, Reviving death with Dc. melodies." Thamiras, or Thamyris, was a Thracian musician. Spenser, F. Q. iv. 10, 6, speaks of "stately pillars framed after the Dcke. guize." The Dc. is the 1st of the 3 styles of Greek architecture, and is distinguished from the Ionic and Corinthian by the severely plain character of the capitals of its columns. The finest example is the Parthenon at Athens. Milton, P. L. i. 714, speaks of "Dck. pillars overlaid With golden architrave "in Pandemonium. Hall, in Satires v. 2, 35, says, "There findest thou some stately Dc. frame Or neat Ionic work."
A small vill. in Bucks. In Jonson's Gipsies, Christian o, D. is one of the maids from the neighbourhood of Windsor, who come in to dance country dances, the others being Pre o, the Park, Frances o, the Castle, and Long Meg of Eaton.
A county on the S.W. coast of England. It is traversed by Icknield St., which connects its capital, Dorchester, with Exeter. It contains abundant traces of the Roman occupation, including the amphitheatre near Dorchester railway station. It was afterwards a part of the kingdom of Wessex under the name of Dorsaeta. Its chief harbour is Poole, on the estuary of the Frome. In 1484 Richmond attempted to land at Poole, but became alarmed and put back to Brittany. In R3 iv. 4, 524, a messenger informs Richd., "Richmond in D., sent out a boat Unto the shore . . . Hoised sail, and made away for Brittany." This news is a little belated, for in 433 it is said that Richmond is on the W. cast with a puissant navy; and in 535 his landing at Milford Haven is announced, which took place in August 1485. The Marquess of Dorset, who is one of the characters in R3 and in T. Heywood's Ed. IV, was the son of Q. Elizabeth by her 1st marriage with Sir John Grey. He is present in i. 3, and is charged by Margaret with having been a stander-by when Edward her son "was stabbed with bloody daggers "(210) and is mocked for "his fire-new stamp of honour; "he was made Marquess of Dorset in 1475, and this scene takes place in 1478. His marriage with Cicely, the daughter of Lord Bonville, is referred to in H6 C. iv. 1, 56. In R3 ii.1, he becomes reconciled to Buckingham at the request of K. Edward, and like the rest turns pale at the news of the death of Clarence. He is present with Q. Elizabeth in ii. 2. In iv. i. the Q. and Stanley urge him to flee and take refuge with Richmond; and in iv. 2, Stanley announces that "the Marquess Dorset's fled beyond the seas To Richmond." In iv. 4, Richd. cajoles Elizabeth into summoning Dorset back from foreign soil; but before the end of the scene we are told he is in arms in Yorks. for Richmond. This was before he went to Brittany, as a matter of fact; and having fled thither in 1483 he was left behind in Paris when Richmond made his successful attack on Richd. In H8 iv. J, 38 the Marquess of Dorset is mentioned as bearing the sceptre at the coronation of Anne Boleyn: this was Henry, 3rd Marquess, the father of Lady Jane Grey, afterwards Duke of Suffolk. His mother, the dowager Marchioness, was one of the god-mothers of the Princess Elizabeth (H8 v. 3, 170).
(more properly DORDRECHT). A city of S. Holland on the Maas, 11 m. S.E. of Rotterdam. It was the former residence of the Counts of Holland. The independence of the United Provinces was declared at D. in 1572; and it was the Synod of D. in 1618 and 1619 that condemned the doctrines of Arminius and sentenced Barnavelt to death. In Barnavelt iv. 3, Orange says, "I have sent for Col. Veres from D." The Trial Scene iv. 5 took place at D.
A town in Central Palestine, now Tell D., 10 m. N. of Samaria. It was here that the K. of Syria came with an army to capture Elisha as recorded II Kings vi. Y2, and where the prophet showed his servant the vision of the hosts of Jehovah around the town. Milton, P. L. xi. 217, speaks of "D., covered with a camp of fire Against the Syrian k."
(the Roman DUAGIUM). An ancient tows in N. France, on the Scarpe, 149 m. N. of Paris. It belonged to the Counts of Flanders and then passed into the hands of Spain, who held it till 1667, when it was taken by Louis XIV, but it was not finally united to France till 1714. Philip II of Spain founded a university here in 1562; and in 1569 Cardinal Allen founded a college for English priests, from which issued in 1582 the translation of the Bible into English known as the D., or Rheims Bible. In Chapman's Consp. Byron v. i. Byron clams to have peopled "Artois, Douay, Picardy "with the triumphant issue of Victory. The reference is to his exploits in the wars of the League. In Marlowe's Massacre, p. 242, Henry says of the Duke of Guise, "Did he not draw a sort of English priests From Douay to the seminary at Rheims, To hatch forth treason 'gainst their natural Q.?" The college was temporarily removed to Rheims in 1578 on account of the disturbed state of the country. In Middleton's Chess iii. 1, the Fat. Bp. (Antonio of Spalato) says, "Expect my books against you printed at Douay, Brussels, or Spalato." In Gascoigne's Government, Philomusus and Philotimus are sent to the University of D., where they make great profiting. In ii. 2, Phylautus describes it as "a proper city and well replenished with courteous people and fair women." In iii. 5, Gnomaticus says, "I do know very learned and faithful men there and herewithall it is but a little town and the University but lately erected."
A river rising in the Peak of Derbysh., and, after forming the boundary between Derbysh. and Staffs., falling into the Trent below Burton. The scenery of Dovedale is amongst the finest of its kind in England. Drayton, in Idea (1594) xxxii. 7, says, "The Peak [boasts of] her D., whose banks so fertile be."
The chief of the Cinque Ports, on the English Channel, just W. of the S. Foreland in Kent; 72 m. S.E. of Lond. and about 25 from Calais. It is on the site of the ancient Roman Dubris. On the E. of the town is the castle, which contains a unique RomanoBritish ch. and the Roman Pharos. The keep and defences date from Norman times. The W. heights are also fortified, and the modern town lies in the valley between the E. and W. heights., It has always been the chief port of arrival and departure for the Continent, and in older times was regarded as the key to England. The white chalk cliffs command a splendid view of the Channel, and the one on the S.W. of the town is known as Shakespeare's cliff, and is generally supposed to be the scene of Gloster's attempted suicide in Lear. In iv. 1, 76, Gloster asks Edgar, "Dost thou know D.? . . . There is a cliff whose high and bending head Looks fearfully in the confined deep." In iv. 6, 11, Edgar describes it: "How fearful And dizzy 'tis to cast one's eyes so low; The crows and choughs that wing the midway air Show scarce so gross as beetles; half way down Hangs one that gathers samphiredreadful trade! Methinks he seems no bigger than his head; The fishermen that walk upon the beach Appear like mice; and yon tall anchoring bark, Diminished to her cock; her cock, a buoy Almost too small for sight; the murmuring surge That on the unnumbered idle pebbles chafes Cannot be heard so high." Gerarde, Herbal 428, says, "Rock Sampier groweth on the rocky cliffs at D." Drayton, in Polyolb xviii. 763, speaks of the sea-gods robbing "D.'s neighbouring cleaves of Sampyre." Though the poet has somewhat exaggerated the height of the cliff, it is mere pedantry to question the identification on that ground. The actual heightis about 350 ft. In Lear, the French K. and Cordelia land at D. In iii. 1, 36, Kent sends a gentleman to make his speed to D. to bring to Cordelia the report of Lear's condition. In iii. 690, Gloucester bids Kent lay the K. in a litter "and drive toward D." In iii. 7, 18, Oswald reports that the K.'s knights "are gone with him toward D."; and in line 50 Gloucester admits, in answer to Regan, that he has sent Lear to D.; and, having tom out his eyes, Regan commands, "Go, thrust him out at gates and let him smell His way to D." In iv. 1, 44, Gloucester asks the old man to overtake him "hence a mile or twain 1, the way toward D."; iv. 3, 4, and 7, and v. take place in the opposing camps at D., and iv. 6 is in the fields near D.
In K.J. v. 31, 3 1, the Bastard announces, "All Kent hath yielded; nothing there holds out But D. Castle." It was, in fact, Hubert de Burgh's determined defence of D. Castle against the Dauphin that proved the turning point in his enterprise and forced him to return to France. In H5 iii. prol. 4, the K. is described as embarking "at D. pier "; but this is a slip: the actual embarkation was at Southampton, and most editors accordingly correct the line and read "at Hampton pier." In H6 A. v. 1, 49, the K. directs Gloucester to see the French ambassadors "guarded And safely brought to D.; where inshipped Commit them to the fortune of the sea." In Peele's Ed. I. i. 1, the Q. Mother announces, "Lo! at last arrived in D. road Longshank, your k.": where road, of curse, means roadstead. In Trouble. Reign (Haz., v. 203),a messenger brings word in regard to the French, "Thy land is theirs and not a foot holds out But D. Castle." In Dekker's Shoemaker's i. 1, Lacy directs Askew to haste "to D." on the way to France. In Massinger's Madam iii. 2, Lacy says of Frugal, "I saw him take post to D. and, the wind Sitting so fair, by this he's safe at Calais." In B. & F. Scornful i. 1, the lady describes a trip to France: "The thing by her commanded is, to see D.'s dreadful cliff, passing in a poor water-house; the dangers of the merciless Channel 'twixt that and Calais, 5 long hours, said." In Three Ladies ii., Simony says that Friar Austin, when he came to christianize England, "landed about Rye, Sandwich, or D." Bede, however, fixes his landing in the Isle of Thanet. In Jonson's Tub i. 2, Pan boasts that his ancestor To-Pan "came in with the conqueror, mad Julius Caesar, who built D. Castle, and beat the first kettle-drum avore 'hun, here vrom D. on the march." It is true that Caesar thought of landing at D., but he was deterred by the height of the cliffs, and actually landed between Walmer and Deal. Needless to say, he neither built D. Castle nor marched upon Lond. In Val. Welsh. ii. 1, Octavian says, "Great Julius Caesar Suffered 3 base repulses from the cliffs Of chalky D." In Davenport's Matilda v. 3, news is brought that "Lewis the Dolphin with 600 sail is let in at D." He actually landed at Stonor: D. held out for John. In Wilson's Pedler 374, the Pedler describes a huge monster "From D. to Wayd [i.e. probably St. Nicholas at Wade, a vill. at the W. end of the Isle of Thanet, due N. of Dover, so that the monster would stretch the whole breadth of Kent] we esteem him to be larger in length." In Tomkis, Albumazar i. 3, Pandolfo, looking into the magic mirror, cries, "I see D. Pier, a man now landing, attended by 2 porters, that seem to groan under the burden of 2 loads of paper." Ronca explains, "That's Coriatus Persicus." The allusion is to Coryat, the eccentric traveller and author of Coryat's Crudities. In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611) on various curiosities to be seen in England, Peacham mentions "Caesar's wine yet in D." A cask of wine was shown in the Castle which was said to have been brought there by Julius Caesar. In W. Rowley's Shoemaker iv. 1, 274, the shoemaker's wife says, "Thou shalt hire some friend to fire a tree upon the coast at D., as near the beacons as can be possible." A beacon was kept constantly ready at D. to signal the approach of an enemy from the sea. In Greene's Friar ii., Bacon boasts that he will build a brazen waft to ring "the English strand From D. to the market-place of Rye." In Jonson's Alchemist iii. 2, Face speaks of his accomplice Doll as "our castle, our Cinque-port, our D. Pier, our what thou wilt." Nash, in his Prognostication, describes himself as "sitting upon D. cliffs to quaint myself with the art of Navigation." In Three Ladies ii., Lucre mentions D. as one of the resorts of foreign traders who "great rents upon little room do bestow." Archbp. Parker, writing to Sir William Cecil in 1563, laments that "D. Castle, Walmer and Deal Castles, Queenborough Castle, be forsaken and unregarded for any provision "; and in 1565 he urges that money should be spent on "the repairing and maintaining of D. haven."
In Piers B. iv. 131, the author recommends that all persons taking money out of England to Rome should forfeit it "who so fynt hym at D." The law at the time was "that no pilgrim should pass out of the realm to parts beyond the seas but only at D." In Chaucer's C. T. A. 4347, the Host twits the Cook: "Many a Jacke of D. hast thou sold That hath been twies hot and twies cold." It seems to mean a pie that has been. cooked more than once; and hence an old, hashed-up story, a chestnut. An old jest-book was published in 1604 with the title A Jack of Dover. Presumably these stale pies were sold by the purveyors of refreshments to the travellers who passed through D.: a jack of D. would thus be the equivalent of the modern refreshment room sandwich. In Glapthorne's Wit v. 1, Mendwell relates how "'Twixt Deal and D., one fishing for flounders drew a Spaniard's body up, slain in the late sea-fight." In Shirley's Honoria (a.k.a. Honor and Riches) iv. 2, Maslin anticipates more modem projects: "I'll build a bridge from D. cliff to Calais "; to which one of the countrymen replies, "This may be done; but I am of opinion We shall not live to see it." In Chivalry, Bowyer says of a sentinel in France, "The mongrel snorted, you might hear him to D." In Brome's Moor v. 1, Meanwell tells how he and Rashly pretended a quarrel at bowls upon Blackheath; took horse and "forecast to meet at D., and in one barque passed over into France." Nash, in Pierce G. 1, says, "A man standing upon Callis sands may see men walking on D. cliffs."
DOVERCOT (or DOVERCOURT)
Vill. in Essex near Harwich. There was a famous cross in the ch. which was reputed to have spoken; a rumour was also spread, according to Foxe, Book of Martyrs ii. 302, that the door of the ch. could not be shut, and crowds were attracted to see the miracle. Fulke, in his Rejoinder x., says, "Who went a pilgrimage to the Roods of Boston, D., and Chester! Were they not Papists?" Bale, Image of Both Churches xiii., speaks Of 3 poor young men of Suffolk who were hanged "for the rotten rood of D." This was probably for being concerned in the burning of it in 1533. In Grim i. 2, Forrest asks, "Have you not heard how the rood of D. did speak, confirming his [Dunstan's] opinion to be true?" In Ray's Proverbs, there is one "D., all speakers and no hearers "; and in an inscription at St. Peter's belfry, Shrewsbury, we have: But when they clam, the harsh sound spoils the sport, And 'tis like women keeping D." Possibly, as Nares suggests, the phrase may have arisen from the noise made by the throng of pilgrims.
The road from D. to Lond.; or it may mean the roadstead, or harbour, of D. In Histrio iii. 100, Mavortius says to his serving-men, "The Calliscormorants from D. R. Are not so chargeable as you to feed." The reference is to the soldiers who have served in France and return by the D. R. to England, begging their way and enforcing their demands doubtless by the strong hand.
One of the old water-gates of the City of Lond., W. of Lond. Bdge., at the bottom of D. Hill. Stow thinks it was originally called Downe-gate, from the steepness of the hill; but it is more probably from the Celtic Dwr-gate or Water-pte. It gave its name to the D. ward, which was bounded by Swan Lane to the E. and D. Hill to the W., and extended N. not quite as far as Cannon St. From D. Wharf ran the ferry across to St. Saviour's Dock, which, according to legend, was managed in the 10th cent. by one John Overy, whose effigy is still to be seen in St. Saviour's Ch. He was a famous miser, and on one occasion feigned to be dead in order to cheat his men out of a day's meals. He had himself duly laid out, but when he heard the rejoicing of his servants over his death he rose from his bier in a rage, and one of them, thinking it was the devil, knocked his brains out with an oar. There is perhaps a reference to this story in Beguiled (Dods. ix.235), where the Nurse says, "He does strut before her in a pair of Polonian legs, as if he were a gentleman usher to the grand Turk or to the Devil of D." In Dekker's Satiro. iii. 1, 243, Tucca says to Miniver, "My little Devil a D., I'll dam thee." There was an old Ballad called The Devil of D. and his son, on which a play was based, produced in 1623, but now lost. The steepness of D. Hill caused it to be flooded when there was heavy rain: Stow tells of a boy who was carried away by such a rush of water and drowned. In Jonson's Epigram to Inigo Marquis Would-be, he says, "Thy canvas giant at some channel aims, Or D. torrents falling into Thames; And straddling shows the boys, brown paper fleet Yearlv set out there, to sail down the street." In More ii. 1, Harry the prentice praises "George Philpots at D." as the "best backswordsman in England." In Davenant's Wits iii. 1, Mrs. Snore taunts Queasey: "Remember thy first calling; thou set'st up with a peck of damsons and a new sieve; when thou brok'st at D. corner, 'cause the boys flung down thy ware." In the list of taverns in News Barthol. Fair, we find "The Swan at D.; a tavern wellknown." It was visited by Pepys, who describes it as "a poor house and ill-dressed, but very good fish and plenty." Robert Greene died at the house of a shoemaker in D. in 1592.
A famous roadstead off the E. coast of Kent between the N. and S. Forelands, so called because it lies opposite to the E. end of the N. Downs of Kent. In H6 B. iv. 1, 9, the Capt., after the sea-fight, says, "Whilst our pinnace anchors in the D., Here shall they [the prisoners] make their ransom on the sand."
A vill. in Staffs., 9 m. S.E. of Lichfield. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 41, Howard says that the X." is hunting here, at D. B."
The capital of Saxony on the Elbe, 116 m. S. of Berlin. It contains a magnificent palace with a court adjoining called the Zwinger. In the picture gallery is the famous Sistine Madonna of Raffael. Its stables were the finest in the world: Fynes Moryson cannot praise them enough. In Glapthorne's Wallenstein i. 1, Wallenstein invites the Marquess Brandenburg and others to a personal meeting at D. This was in 1633, and his object was to secure for himself the kingdom of Bohemia.
An ancient town in France (the Roman Durocasses) on the Blaise, 41 m. W. of Paris. In 1593 it was taken by Henri IV from the nobles of the League, after a determined resistance of 18 days, as the result of the battle of Ivry. In Chapman's Consp. Byron ii. 1, Savoy says of Byron, "How served he at your famous siege of D.?" and proceeds to give a vivid description of the assault on the city. In v. 1, Byron says, "None but myself; that won the day at D.; A day of holy name and needs no night." Byron was in charge of the investment of the town, but it was Sully, if we may believe his own account (Memoirs v.), who must have the chief credit of taking the citadel.
In Wilson's Pedler 378, the Pedler tells of a huge monster: "He hath devoured all the old women in Affricke and now he hasteth into D. with all speed; merchant men can tell you that use there to traffic." I conjecture a misprint for Dieppe, q.v.
The name of a tavern in Lond. There was a D. Alley on the N. side of Drury Lane, near Princes St., which may indicate its position. In T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, in the list of Roman (Lond.) taverns given by Valerius, we have "The gardener hies him to the Rose, to the D. the tnan of war."
A street in Lond. running from Broad St., Bloomsbury, to Wych St.; it debouches into Aldwych, in which the S. end of it has been absorbed. It took its name from D. Place, a mansion built by Sir Roger D., who died in 1495, which was afterwards called Craven House: it was taken down in 1800 and Astley's Olympic Pavilion built on its site. A portion of it became the Craven Head Tavern, but the new Aldwych has removed the last traces of it. The old name of the st. was Via de Aldwych, which has been happily preserved in the recent improvements; and part of it was called Prince's St. during the reign of James I. The Cockpit, or Phoenix, Theatre was on the E. side of the Lane, and its name was long preserved in Cockpit Pi., later known as Pitt Court. The present Theatre Royal was founded in 1663, and the Cockpit ceased to be used as a theatre. In St. Hilary's Tears (1642), the author speaks of "Covent Garden, Long-Acre, and D. L., where those doves of Venus [the wanton ladies] do build their nests." In Middleton's Chess ii. 1, the Black Knight, exhibiting a sheaf of letters from various women of bad character, says, "These from the nunnery in D. L." In Brome's Covent G. iii. 1, Clotpoll asks, "Art not acquainted with My 2 poetical D.-L. writers, the cobler and the tapster 4 "References to D. L. are common in the 18th cent., and its reputation as a haunt of vice was well maintained. Glapthorne's Hollander was "acted at the Cock-pit in D. L."
Probably the author means the road running through the arch of Drusus at Rome. The arch spans the Via Appia inside the Aurelian wall, at the extreme S. point of the city. In Tiberius 2662, Tiberius orders, "Watch well the sts., the D. sts.": where I think we should read st. in the 2nd case.
The capital of Ireland, on the E. coast, on Dublin Bay. In Fair Women i. 100, Browne claims that he is no better known in Lond. than he is in Ireland, "chiefly in D., where are as great feasts as this we had to-day." In Webster's White Devil ii. 1, Flamineo says of the Dr.," He was once minded, because Ireland breeds no poison, to have prepared a deadly vapour in a Spaniard's fart, that should have poisoned all D." In the long list of topers in Bacchus, "The 15th was one Maudlen Moonface, a merry gentlewoman of D.; with her she brought a glass full, nose high, of Aquavitae." Dekker, in Lanthorn, says, "Look what difference: there is between a civil citizen of D. and a wild Irish Kerne." James Shirley was in D. from 1636 to 1640, and wrote half a dozen of his plays there, including the absurd St. Patrick. See also DEVELING.
The sport of ducking or duckhunting with dogs was a favourite one with the citizens of Lond. The principal D. Ps. were on Islington Green, in the Back Rd. near White Conduit House, and in East Lane; but the sport was also pursued at the Dog and Duck in Hertford St., Mayfair, at Jenny's Whim in Pimlico, at the Dog and Duck in Rotherhithe, near the present entrance to the Commercial Docks, at the Dog and Duck in St. George's Fields, Lambeth, and elsewhere. In Brome's New Academy ii. 1, Camelion tells his wife, "I have a match to play at the d.-p."; and he makes many references in the play to his devotion to this sport. In his Damoiselle ii. 1, Amphilus says, "If I can but purchase him [a certain dog] and my own whelp prove right, I will be Duke of the D.-P."
A lane in Lond. running N. from Little Britain into W. Smithfield. It was rechristened Duke St. later, and is now included in Little Britain. Strype says in his edition of Stow's Survey of London (1720), "It is generally inhabited by Booksellers that sell second-hand books." But there were also publishers of new books there. Friar Bacon was printed "for W. Thackery at the Angel in D. L." Other booksellers in the Lane were J. Hardesty, J. Huntington, T. Jackson, and W. Whitewood. T. Heywood's Dialogues "are to be sold by Thomas Slater at the Swan in D.-l. 1637." In Brome's Covent G. ii., Mihiel says, "Go, borrow me a gown and some 4 or 5 law-books, for, I protest, mine are in D.-l.," i.e. sold to the booksellers there. Alexander Gill, in his rhymes on Ben Jonson's Magnetic Lady, says of that play, "From Buckler's Bury let it not be barred, But think not of D. L. or Paul's Churchyard ": which shows that D. L. publishers were regarded as quite respectable. In Whetstone's Promos B. i. 5, the Merchant Tailors ask for a place to present their pageant; Phallax asks: "How say you to the end of D. Alley?" to which the Bedell objects, "There all the beggars in the town will be." In iv. 1, Gresco, a good substantial officer, orders his 2 blue-coated beadels, "Search Ducke Alley, Cocke Lane, and Scouldes Corner "for idle vagabonds. In Davenant's Wits v., Mrs. Snore says to Thrift, "Remember the warrant thou sent'st for me into D. L., cause I called thy maid Trot."
DUKE HUMPHREY'S WALK
Applied to a part of St. Paul's Ch., Lond., on the S. side of the nave, where there was a monument supposed to be that of the good D. Humphrey of Gloucester; he was, however, buried at 'St. Albans, and the monument in question belonged to John Beauchamp, constable of Dover, who died in .1358. From the custom of fellows in want of a dinner betaking themselves to St. Paul's to see if they could meet with someone who would invite them arose the phrase "to dine with D. Humfrey ": which meant to do without dinner. Dekker, in Hornbook, chap. iv., says, "All the diseased Horses in a tedious siege cannot shew so many fashions as are to be seen for nothing every day in D. Humfryes walk." The point of the joke is that "fashions" was commonly used for "farcy," a disease of horses. See Shrew iii.2, 53. Nash, in Pierce A. 3, says, "I retired me to St. Paul's, to seek my dinner with D. Humfrey." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. ii. 1, Jarvis says of Alexander and ancient Young, "Are they none of D. Humfrey's furies, do you think, that they devised this plot in Paul's to get a dinner?" In Mayne's s Match iii. 3, Plotwell calls Seathrift "your penurious father who was wont to walk his dinner out in Paul's," and Timothy adds: "Yes, he was there as constant as D. Humphrey." This may be the explanation of the difficult passage in R3 iv. 4, 176, where his mother asks Richd. " What comfortable hour canst thou name That ever graced me in thy company?" To which he answers: "Faith, none but Humphrey hour, that called your Grace To breakfast once forth of my company." It is suggested that "Humphrey hour "means the hour of hunger; but the explanation may be questioned. See also under PAUL's (ST.).
Lond., at the N. part of what is now Duke St, Aldgate. It was called after Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, beheaded 1572. It was the seat of a priory of the Holy Trinity, founded by Matilda, Q. of Henry Beauclerc; and in 1622 a new ch., dedicated to St. James, was built in the priory precinct, which became notorious for the celebration of irregular marriages. It was taken down in 1874, but St. James Pl. retains the name. In Reasons in a Hollow Tree, we are told of the funeral sermon preached over "an old man that died in the parish of St. James, near D. P., Aldgate," which held the record for brevity: "Ashes to ashes, dust to dust, Here's the hole, and in thou must."
A theatre in Portugal Row, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Lond., opened by Davenant in 1660: it was originally Lisle's Tennis Court. The company left it in 1671. Davenant's Playhouse deals with this theatre.
One of the Echinades, a group of islands in the Ionian Sea between Ithaca and the mainland of Acarnania. It is not certainly identified, but it formed part of the dominions of Odysseus (Ulysses). In, T. Heywood's Iron Age v., Menelaus says, "I ever thought the son of Telamon Did better merit the Achillean arms Than the Dulichian k.," i.e. Ulysses.
An ancient town in Scotland in Haddingtonshire, 29 m. E. of Edinburgh. In Bacchus, one of the topers is "Alexander Addlehead, from Dun Baur, a Scot, who offered to his god a dozen 6f red herrings." In Greene's James IV v. 1, Sir Cuthbert brings word: "The K. of England hath besieged D. With mighty force." This is supposed to be just before the battle of Flodden, but it is quite imaginary. In Sampson's Vow i. 3, 6, Grey says to Argyle, "D. can witness where we skirmished last." The reference is to a slight skirmish between the English and French on 31 March, 1560. Milton, in Son. to Cromwell 8, says that Cromwell pursued his work "while . . . D. field resounds thy praises loud." Cromwell defeated the Scots under Leslie at D. on 3 Sept., 1650.
A vill. in Co. Meath, Ireland, 10 m. N.W. of Dublin. It gave its name to an Irish country-dance. In Jonson's Irish, Dermock says, "Tey musht eene come and daunsh in teyre mantles now; and show fee how teye can foot te fading and te fadow, and te phip a, D., I trowe."
A spt. in Ireland, the capital of Co. Louth, on the Castleton, 50 m. N. of Dublin. Shane O'Neill besieged it in 1566, when, according to Stucley, it was defended by Stucley. In line 972, Gainsford says, "Brave Capt. Stukley, welcome to D."
An ancient city of Scotland, in Forfarsh., at the mouth of the Tay some 8 m. from the open sea. It was originally walled, and was made a Royal Burgh by William the Lion. It was called the second Geneva, on account of the zeal of the inhabitants for the Reformation. In Sampson's Vow ii. 1, 67, Miles says, "Instead of nutmegs and ginger, I will send her the 3 bawbees I got at D."
A name invented by Greene, who in his Never too Late makes his pair of lovers fly from Caerbranck (Brancaster in Norfolk) to D. Probably he means Doncaster, q.v., though its Roman name was Danum.
Obviously a fictitious name. In Brome's M. Beggars v. 1, Randal says, "Were you ever at D., where I was born?"
(i.e. DUNKERQUE; Du. DUYN KERCHE, or Ch. of the Dunes). A town in France on the Straits of Dover, 22 m. E. of Calais and 174 N. of Paris. As the name shows, it was originally a Flemish town; it was said to have been founded by St. Eloi. Lying on the boundary between the Spanish Provinces and France, and close to England, it was held from time to time by each of these powers. In 1558 the English were expelled from it by the French; and in 1559 it was handed over to the Spaniards. The French captured it again in 1646, but it was soon recovered by Spain. The French, under Turenne, took it in 1658, but at once, in virtue of an agreement between Mazarin and Cromwell, handed it over to the English, who held it till 1662, when Charles II sold it to Louis XIV. During the wars many privateers were fitted up there, and were known as Ds. or Ders. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. A. i. 7, Hipolito says, "A harlot is like D., true to none: Swallows both English, Spanish, fulsome Dutch, Back-doored Italian; last of all, the French." In Massinger's New Way v. 1, Marrall charges Overreach with having ruined "An army of whole families who, yet alive, And but enrolled for soldiers, were able To take in D." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. i. 1, Ludovico says, "This villain would fight more desperately than 16 Dunkerkes." In his 1f it be 339, Bartervile, beset by his creditors, says, "To raise this De. siege thus cast I about." In his Satiro. i. 2, 364, Tucca says to Horace, "I'll march through thy des. guts for shooting jests at me." In Marmion's Leaguer iv. 2, the Bawd says, "Well, they may talk of D. or of Callis Enriched with foreign booties." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 336, a Spaniard brings word to Medina: "We have discovered riding along the coasts of France and Dunkerke an English navy." In Brome's Moor v. 1, the Host says to Winloss, "You have been 6 years gone, And all of them in prison, saving one In Dunkerk, as I ween." In B. & F. Beggars, iii. 1, one of the Boors swears, "Devil a D.! What a rogue's this juggler!" A lost play entitled The Siege of D., with Alleyn the Pirate, is recorded by Henslowe 1603. There are many references to the privateers; and the name is applied also to sergeants and loose women. In Dekker's Northward i. 3, a servant reports, "Mr. Philip is taken prisoner."" By the Ds.?" asks Bellamont."Worse," says the servant, "by catchpoles." In Nash's Lenten,;td fin., he prays for the Yarmouth fishermen: "God keep you from the Ders.!" In B. & F. Hon. Man v. 3, Montague, addressing La-Poof and his sailors, says, "Oh, ye dog-bolts, That fear no hell but D.!" In Shirley's Bird iv. 1, Bonamico, exhibiting his birds, says, "This was a rail, which being sent unto an English lady was ta'en at sea by Ders." In Glapthorne's Hollander i. 1, Sconce says, "The villainous Ders. at sea met with the herring-busses and made stockfish of them", i.e. thrashed them soundly. In Middleton's No Wit i. 1, Savourwit tells us that Lady Twilight, "crossing to Guernsey, was taken by the Ds.", In Underwit iii. 3, Engine tells of a man who "went to sea in a Hollander and was taken by the De." Dekker, in News from Hell (1606), tells how the Devil, leaving Gravesend, "struck in among the Dunkerks, Where he encountered such a number of all nations, with the dregs of all kingdoms, vices dropping upon them, that he had almost thought himself at home." In Massinger's Milan iii. 2, Julio says of Gracco, "He looks . . . as if he came from a close fight at sea under the hatches with a she-D.," i.e. a courtesan. In B. & F. Elder B. iv. 2, Andrew says, "They look ruefully . . . As if they had been quite shot through 'tween wind and water By a she-D." Dekker, in Bellman 164, speaking of certain swindlers, says, "When they have wellfreighted, these Des. hoist sail and to sea they go." A D. cloak was used in the sense of a walking-stick or staff; just as was a Plymouth cloak. In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, Mixum asks, "What is a D. cloak?" And Pirke replies: "Behold this cane, this staff of office!"
A town in Essex, 38 m. N.E. of Lond. There was an ancient priory there, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It was said that K. John having persecuted with his unlawful passion the daughter of Robert Fitzwater, the Castellan of Baynard's Castle (q.v.), she fled to the nunnery at Dunmow and was there poisoned by the K.'s order. In Downfall Huntington v. 1, Skelton records, "Matilda, shunning John's pursuit, became A nun at D. Abbey." The whole story is told in Davenport's Matilda v. 1 and 2. Burton, A. M. iii. 2, 3, says that for love "Kings will leave their crowns, as K. John for Matilda, the nun at D." D. is chiefly famous for the flitch of bacon which was on offer from the prior to "any pair that after a twelve-month of matrimony could make oath that they had never had a quarrel, and never regretted their marriage." It is recorded that it was successfully claimed 88 times between 1244 and 1772. In Piers C. xi. 276, we read, "Thie don hem to Donemowe; bote the devel hem helpe To folwen for the flicche, feccheth thei hit nevere; Bote thei bothe be forswore, that bacon thei tyne." In Chaucer C. T. D. 218, the wife of Bath says of her husbands, "The bacoun was nat for hem, I trowe, That som men han in Essexe at D." In Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, Leatherhead says of Hero, "She will not be taken, After sack and fresh herring, with your D. bacon." In Tom Tyler (Anon. Plays ii. 295), Strife says of Tyler: "I will teach him to know The way to D.," i.e. how to live at peace with his wife; and on p. 316, Tailor says, "You may now go for bacon to D." In Sampson's Vow i. 1, 68, Ursula says to the newly-married couple, "If either of you repent your bargain within a twelve-month, then you shall fetch no bacon at Dunmowe."
One of the Sidlaw Hills in Scotland, 7 m. N.E. of Perth and 15 S.E. of Birnam Wood. It is over 1,000 ft. high and commands an extensive view. On its summit are still to be seen the lines of circumvallation of a castle, which is said to have been the castle of Macbeth. In Mac. iv. 1, 93, the Apparition declares, "Macbeth shall never vanquished be until Great Birnam wood to high D. hill Shall come against him." Note that in this passage the accent is on the 2nd syllable. The whole of Act V takes place in D. Castle and its neighbourhood. In v. 2, 12, Caithness says of Macbeth: "Great D. he strongly fortifies." In v. 3,2, Macbeth says, "Till Birnam wood remove to D. I cannot taint with fear "; and again, in line 60, "I will not be afraid of death and bane Till Birnam forest come to D." In v. 4, 9, he "keeps still in D." In v. 5, 45, he says, "And now a wood comes toward D."; and in v. 8, 30, vows, "I will not yield, Though Birnam wood be come to D."
A heath on the N.W. road between Coventry and Daventry, abt. 10 m. from each. In H6 C. v. 1, 3, Warwick, lying in Coventry, asks where the Earl of Oxford is, and is told "By this at D., marching hitherward." A full account of the situation will be found s.v. COVENTRY. Heylyn, s.v. PALESTINE, says, "Our citizens of Coventrie and Warwicke show the bones of the dun-cow of Dunsmeare heath, and the bones of I know not what giants, slain by Earl Guy." Drayton, in Polyolb. xiii. 311, describes D. as lying "Where those 2 mighty ways, the Watling and the Fosse, Our centre seem to cut."
A town in S. Beds., at the intersection of Icknield and Watling Sts., 33 m. N.W. of Lond. One of the Elinor Crosses was erected here, but was pulled down by the Puritans. In H8 iv. 1, 27, a gentleman says, "The Archbp. of Canterbury Held a late court at D., 6 m. off From Ampthill where the princess [Catharine of Arragon] lay; to which She was often cited by them but appeared not." Cranmer held his court in the priory of the Black Canons, founded by Henry I in 113 "and the divorce was pronounced in the Lady Chapel on May 23rd, 1533. In Oldcastle ii. 2, Murley says, "No Master 1, but plain William Murley, the brewer of D." In Dekker's Northward i. 1, the Chamberlain says, "Your captains were wont to take their leave of their Lond pole-cats at D.; the next morning, when they had I broken their fast together, the wenches brought them in Hockley i' th, Hole; and so the one for Lond., the other for Westchester." In Jonson's Gipsies, when it was performed at Bever Castle, the lines were added, "Make it a jolly night, For 'tis a holy night, Spight of the Constable Or Dean of D." In Latimer's Sermon on Rom. xv. 4, he says, "There were some good walkers among them that walked in the k.'s highway ordinarily, uprightly, plain D. way." Fuller quotes as a Beds. proverb, "As plain as D. way," as descriptive of anything plain and simple without either welt or guard to adorn it. This verb also occurs in the Cobler of Canterburie. The , reference is to the long, straight stretches of Watling St. on both sides of D., particularly to the northwards, after its descent into the plain at D. itself. So Jonson, in his Intro. to Coryat's Crudities, says, "Here up the Alps, not so plain as to D., he's carried like a cripple." Nash, in Almond for a Parrot 19, speaks of "a good old d. doctor here in Lond." And Florio defines Carlona as "plainly, d. way, homely fashion." In Nash's Wilton, Jack says, "I was stepping to her with a D. tale made up my market. A holy requiem to their souls that think to woo women with riddles." In Phillip's Grissill 154, Politick Persuasion says, "I am plain D., I may say to you." This proverbial use of the name is found at least as late as Richardson's Clarissa (1748). In Wise Men i. 1, Proberio jestingly apostrophises Simplo a plain, honest fellow, as "Thou D. breed." In Nabbes, C. Garden v. 6, Warrant says, "For Latin, I have less than the Dean of D." In Dekker's Northward i. 1, Greenshield says, "This honest knave is called Innocence; he dwelt at D. not long since." One of the characters in Trag. Richd. II. is Symon Ignorance, the Baylie of D.: his mark is "a sheephook with a tar-box at end on 't." Keller thinks that there is some connection between this usage of D. and the word Dunce; but he is clearly wrong. A play on St. Catharine was performed by the boys of the monastery school at D. in 1110, the costumes being borrowed from the abbey of St. Albans.
There were 2 churches dedicated to St. Dunstan in Lond. The best known was St. D. in the W., in Fleet St. on the N. ride, between Fetter Lane and Chancery Lane. It was built in 1237; it escaped the Gt. Fire, and stood till 1831, when it was replaced by the present building. The projecting clock, or "Diall," was there in Shakespeare's time, but the 2 figures that struck the hours were not set up till 1667, though Scott, in the Fortunes of Nigel, makes Moniplies speak of "The two Iron Carls yonder, at the Kirk beside the Port, banging out sax o, the clock." The church ran lengthwise along the st., and at the E. and W. ends were a number of booksellers, shops. The 2nd quarto of Hamlet was "Printed by I. R. for N. D. and are to be sold at his shop under St. Dunstons Ch. in Fleet St. 1604." Another edition was "Printed by W. S. for John Smethwicke and are to be sold at his shop in St. D. Churchyard is Fleet-st., under the Diall." The Qq. of 1611 and 1636 were published at the same place. Smethwick also published 3 Qq. of Romeo and Juliet, the 1st dated 1609. Other St. D. printers and booksellers were Thomas Marsh, the publisher of Stow's Chronicles; William Griffith, who issued the 1st (unauthorized) edition of Gorboduc; Richard Marriott, Matthias Walker, and John. Browne. In Middleton's Five Gallants, Frippery has clients in St. D. parish (i. 1). Nearly opposite to the ch. at No. a Fleet St. was the Tavern of St. D. and the Devil, commonly known as The Devil Tavern (q.v.). In Dekker's Edmonton iv. 1, Cuddy says, "The Devil in St. D. will as soon drink with this poor cur as with any Temple-Bar laundress that washes and wrings lawyers." In Jonson's Staple, prol., the author says, "What is it to his scene, to know If D. or the Phoenix best wine has?" In B. & F. Thomas iii. 1, Thomas speaks of the devil being "sick of a calenture, taken by a surfeit of stinking souls, at his nephew's at St. D." He means the Devil of the Devil Tavern, opposite the ch.
St. D., in the E. is on St. D. HM, close to the corner of Gt. Tower St. It was reduced to bare walls by the Gt. Fire and restored by Wren, who modelled the tower on that of St. Nicholas at Newcastle-on-Tyne. It was rebuilt in 1817. In Fair Women i. 273, Browne asks Mrs. Drury where Mrs. Saunders lived. She answers: "Against St. D. Ch." Browne asks: "St. D. in Fleet st.?""No," says the lady, "neat Billingsgate St. D. in the E.; That's in the W."
Spt. town in Suffolk, 28 m. N.E. of Ipswich. It was formerly the seat of the Bishopric of E. Anglia, and had several important buildings; but the encroachments of the sea have reduced it to insignificance. In Bale's Johan 272, Verity says, of the K., "Great monuments are in Ipswich, D. and Bury which noteth him to be a man of notable mercy." John granted the town a charter of incorporation because of the assistance it had rendered him in the civil war. In Wilson's Pedler 276, the Pedler describes a huge monster as being "in breadth from swish to Porchmouth."
The capital of Co. Durham, 258 M. N. of Lond. It is the seat of a bishopric, and the Cathedral and castle stand magnificently on the heights overlooking the Wear. In B. & F. Scornful i. 1, Sir Roger says to Welford, "I knew a worshipful and a religious gentleman of your name in the bishopric of D." In Brome's Northern ii. 1, Fitchow says of Constance, "She is northern; her uncle sent for her to make her his child out of the bishoprick of D." Fox, Bp. of D., is one of the characters in Ford's Warbeck. In iv. 3, Warwick says of the R., "His Fox of D. would not fail at last." He was Richd. Fox, one of Henry's trusted advisers, and was made bp., 1st of Exeter, then of Bath and Wells (1491), then of D. (1494), and finally of Winchester (1500). He founded Corpus Christi College, Oxford; and died in 1528.
The Lond. house of the Bps. of D., built by Anthony de Beck, bp. in the reign of Edward 1, and rebuilt by Thomas Hatfield in 1345. It stood on the S. side of the Strand, just W. of Ivy Bridge Lane, and was "high, stately, and supported by lofty marble pillars." Cuthbert Tunstall conveyed it to Henry VIII, and it remained in the hands of the Crown until Elizabeth bestowed it on Raleigh. James I built his New Exchange on the site of its stables; and in 1768 the brothers Adam bought the house itself and rebuilt upon its site the block of buildings known as the Adelphi (brothers): the names of the 4 brothers being perpetuated in John, Robert, James, and William Sts. D. St. preserves the ancient name. In More v. 1, when Sir Thos. is arrested, a warder asks, "From whence is he committed? Who can tell?" And is answered, "From D. H., I hear."
It was first used of all those who spoke some kind of German speech, including both High and Low Germans. After the beginning of the 17th cent., when the United Provinces had become independent, the word was gradually restricted in English to the in habitants of the Netherlands, particularly those of Holland. Before that it is often synonymous with German. Hence Dland. is used for Germany. Fynes Moryson, in Itiner. (1605) iii. 2, 4, says of the Netherlands, "The people for language and manners hath great affinity with the Germans, both being called Dmen. by a common name." Boorde, in Intro. of Knowledge (1547) xv. 163, says, "In Denmark . . . their speech is Douche." Heylyn, Microcosmographie, p. 29, says, "D. [is spoken) though with different dialects in Germany, Belgium, Denmarke, Swethland, and Norway." In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus ii. 2, 125, Edward asks, "Good aunt, teach me so much D. to ask her pardon." To which the Empress responds, "Say so: Gnediges Frawlin, vergebet mirs." In i. 2, 23, Collen speaks of "the brave Duke of Saxon, Dland's greatest hope." In Middleton's R.G. v. 1, Tearcat says, "Ick bin dorick all Dlant. gereisen ": i.e." I have travelled through all Germany." Dekker, in Lanthorn 188, says that before the confusion of tongues "there was no Germaine to thunder out the high and rattling D." In Much Ado iii. 2, 33, Don Pedro speaks of Benedick as having a fancy to strange disguises "as to be a Dman. to-day, a Frenchman to-morrow." In Glapthorne's Wit i. 1, Tristram says that Holdfast, the Cambridge student, has "spoiled his eyes with prying on small D. characters," i.e. German print. For distinction's sake High D. is used for what we should call German, and Low D. for Flemish. In Jonson's Alchemist ii. 1, Mammon speaks of "a treatise penned by Adam on the Philosopher's stone, and in High D." Surly asks: "bid Adam write, Sir, in High D.?""He did," says Mammon, "which proves it was the primitive tongue." In Jack Drum v. 233, Sir Edward says, "M. Ellis, pray you let us hear your high D. son "In B. & F. Fair Maid I. ii. 2, Forobosco asks What language shall's conjure in? High-D., I think, that's full in the mouth." In Davenant's Albovine iv. 1, Gondibert says, "He'll pray in no language but the High D." In Kyd's Cornelia i., Cicero says, "Neither could the flaxen-haired High D. Once dare to assault it," i.e. the Roman Empire: the reference being to the tribes of inland Germany. In Brome's Novella iv. 2, Horatio says of the disguised Fabritio, "There he stands, translated out of sober Italian into high D." In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus iii. 1, 52, Brandenburg says to Prince Edward, "When you have drunk a dozen of these bowls So can your majesty with a full mouth Troll out high D." In Hercules iv. 1, 1890, Dromio, with audacious anachronism, for the scene is in ancient Thebes, asks, "What wilt thou give me, if I flout yonder slave now in?" and then proceeds, "Hear you, mein Herr, ich bringe euch unndt heng euch selbes, I think I have dt. him!" In B. & F. Elder B. ii. 4, Andrew says that Eustace "speaks high D.," though he can't talk Greek, i.e. he is drunk. In All's Well iv. 1, 78, Parolles appeals to his captors: "If there be here German or Dane, Low. D., Italian, or French, let him speak to me." German not being known to ordinary Englishmen, D. is used for any unintelligible speech; as in the modern phrase "double D." In Marlowe's Faustus iv., Wagner speaks a few words of Latin, and the Clown exclaims, "God forgive us, he speaks D. fustian ": fustian, like bombast, being used for high-flown, inflated language. The D. or German pronunciation of English is the subject of frequent jest, and Dmen. are introduced for comic effect in many of the plays. In L.L.L. v. 2, 247, Katharine says to Longaville, "Veal, quoth the Dman. Is not veal a calf?" This somewhat obscure joke is explained by a passage in Dodypoll ii. 2, where the Dr. says, "Hans, fait and trot me be right glad to see you veale." To which Hans replies: "What, do you make a calf of me, M. Dr.?" In Haughton's Englishmen there is a Dman., Vandal, amongst the suitors who talks a kind of broken English, as thus (iv. 2): "Oh de skellum Frisco, ic weit niet waer ic be, ic go and hit my nose up dit post, and ic go and hit my nose up dandern post. Oh, de villain! Well, waer ben ic now?" There is a D. Nurse in Middleton's Quarrel, who talks a similar kind of lingo. When asked whose child this is, she answers, "Dis gentleman's so he to me readen." In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 1, the D. skipper says, "Ic heb veale gedrunck ": on which Firk comments, "They may well be called butter-boxes, when they drink fat veal and thick beer too." There is a drunken Dman. (Hans) in Wealth, and a comic D. sea captain (Bumble) in Davenant's Plymouth.
Personal appearance, character, and dress of the Dutch. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. i. 1, Lodovico says, "There is a saying when they commend nations; it goes: the Irishman for his hand . . . the Dman. for beard." In Massinger's Guardian ii. 5, Calipso, speaking of the charms of the women of different countries,. mentions "the plump D. frow." In Heywood's Lucrece iii. 3;, Valerius sings, "The thrifty Frenchman wears small waist, The D. his belly boasteth." In Shirley's Fair One ii. 1, the Tutor asks, "Are not Italian heads, Spanish shoulders, D. bellies, and French legs the only notions of your reformed English gentleman!" In Glapthorne's Wit i. 1, Tristram says that Holdfast has learned at Cambridge to prove by logic that "the moon's made of a Holland cheese; and the man in 't a swagbellied D. burger." In M.W.W. iii. 5, 121, Falstaff speaks of himself in the buck-basket: "I was more than half stewed in grease, like a D. dish." In Jonson's Volpone i. 1, Moschus says, "You shall have some will swallow A melting heir as glibly as your D. Will pills of butter." In Haughton's Englishmen i. 1, Frisco claims that he can speak perfect D.; but, he says, "I must have my mouth full of meat first." In Ford's Trial ii. 1, when Fulgoso says, "I know upon which side my bread is buttered," Guzman replies: "Buttered? D. again!" In Dekker's Westward iii. 4, Honeysuckle speaks of "a D. supper, butter and onions." In Marston's Insatiate iv, Zucco says, "The Dman. shall loathe salt-butter, before I re-love thee." In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, Sconce speaks of "this D. blood of mine, Guilty of bacon-grease and potted butter." In Davenant's Plymouth ii. 1, Cable says that he has ruined his singing-voice "with eating butter when I lay among the D. ships at Delph." In Chaunticleers v., Welcome says you must bait a trap for "a D. mouse with butter or bacon." In Middleton's No Wit i. 3, Savourwit says, "A Dman. will work butter out of a thistle." Nash, in Pierce C. 3, speaks of a proverb as being "as hoary [i.e. mouldy] as D. butter." In B. & F. Malta iv. 2, Norandine, hearing the hoarse cries of Oriana from her tomb, says it is "The spirit of a Dman. choked with butter." Indeed, Butter-box was a common nickname for a Dman. In Davenant's Plymouth iii. 1, when Seawit says that Bumble is a Dman., Inland exclaims, "How? A butter-box?" Deloney, in Gentle Craft i.21, says, "We have not men enow, but we must entertain every butter-box.." In Massinger's Renegado ii. 5, Grimaldi talks of "being trussed up at the mainyard By some Low Country butter-box.."
The D. (and the Germans also) were heavy drinkers. Heylyn (s.v. BELGIUM) says that "they are much given to our English beer." In T. Heywood's Lucrece iii. 5, Valerius sings, "The Russ drinks quass; D., Lubeck beer." In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Iniquity promises Pug that he shall go "to St. Kathern's to drink with the D. there ": it was at St. Katharine's wharf that the D. boats mostly came in. In Wealth B. 4, Hance, a drunken Dman., says, "Gut naught ic mot watt, to sent Cafrin, to mi laman store": apparently he means "Good night! I must go to St. Katharine's to my countryman's [or my mistress] door." In Davenant's Wits ii. 1, young Palatine says he has told Lady Ample, "She must die, and her velvet hood be sold to some D. brewer of Ratcliffe." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. iv. 3, Lodovico says, "We'll trouble your house, Matheo, but as Dmen. do in taverns, drink, be merry, and be gone." To which Orlando replies: "Indeed, if you be right Dmen., if you fall to drinking, you must be gone." In Barry's Ram ii. 1, Will Smallshanks says, "My brother swallows it with more ease than a Dman. does flap-dragons ": a flap-dragon being a raisin or other small article steeped in spirits and then set on fire; to swallow it was a common feat with hard drinkers. In Marston's Malcontent iii. 1, Bilioso says, "Your lordship shall ever find Amongst an hundred Dmen. fourscore drunkards." In v. 1, a ballad is sung, "The Dman. for a drunkard, The Dane for golden locks." In Dekker's Hon. Wh. A. i. 2, Fustigo says, "Our drunken ship reeled like a Dman." In Jonson's Cynthia v. 2, Anaides says of the "accost "of Amorphus, "O 'tis too D., He reels too much.." In Middleton's Trick to Catch v. 2, Witgood abjures, amongst other things that are the cause of youth's undoing, "D. flap-dragons." In Ed. III iii. 1, K. John speaks of "those ever bibbing Epicures, Those frothy Dmen., puffed with double beer, That drink and swill in every place they come." In Shirley's Pleasure v. 1, Bornwell proposes to "whirl in coaches to the D. magazine of sauce, the Steelyard, where deal and backrag and what strange wines else shall flow into our room and drown Westphalias, tongues, and anchovies." The Steelyard was a well-known drinking house in Lond. In Tourneur's [ed note: anonymous, probably Middleton's] Revenger i. 3, Vendice speaks of "D. lust, fulsome lust, drunken procreation, which begets so many drunkards." In B. & F. Span. Cur. i. 1, Leandro tells of a courtesan who "ended in the D. [way]; for to cool herself she kissed him drunk 1, th, morning." In Massinger's Great Duke ii. 2, Caponi says, "They [the Italians] drink more in 2 hours than the Dman. or the Dane in four-and-twenty." In Jack Drum v. 233, Sir Edward says, "M. Ellis, pray you let us hear your high D. song"; and Ellis responds with a drinking song, "Give us once a drink, for an the black bowl," etc. In Dekker's Shoemaker's ii. 3, Lacy enters disguised as a D. shoemaker, and sings, "Der was een bore van Gelderland, Frolick sie byen; He was als drunk he cold niet stand, Upsolce sie byen; Tap eens de canneken; Drincke, schone mannekin," i.e." There was a boor from Gelderland, Jolly they be; He was so drunk he could not stand; That's what they be; Clink then the cannakin; Drink, pretty mannikin." In Marston's Insatiate v., Gonzago says, "When we were young, we could 'a drunk down a Dman." In Nash's Wilton K. 1, Jack says, "With the Dane and the Dman. I will not encounter; for they are simple honest men, that with Danaus, daughters do nothing but fill bottomless tubs and will be drunk and snort in the midst of dinner." In Glapthorne's Privilege iii. 1, Adorni says, "The Dman. drinks his buttons off, the English doublet and all away." In Noble Soldier iii. 3, Baltasar says, "I can be drunk with the D." In Ev. Wom I. v. 1, Acutus says of Philautus, "He will drink down a Dman." Nash, in Pierce F. 1, says, "He is crafty drunk, as many of the Dmen. be that will never bargain but when they are drunk." In Chapman's Caesar ii. 1, 115, Ophioneus advises: "Thou shalt drink with the Dman., cheat with the Englishman, brag with the Scot, and turn all this to religion." Burton, A. M. i. 2, 2, 2, says, "Our Dmen. invite all comers with a pail and a dish, making barrels of their bellies." The phrase "to drink upsey freeze "apparently means to drink in D. or Frisian fashion, and we find sometimes "upsey D." in the same sense. In Jack Drum ii. 364, Sir Edward says, "Drink D., like gallants; let's drink upsey freeze." In Jonson's Alchemist iv. 4, Subtle says, "1 do not like the dulness of your eye; It hath a heavy cast, 'tis upsee D." In Chapman's [Peele's?] Alphonsus iii. 1, 30, Alphonsus says "Schinck bowls of Rheinpfalz and the purest wine; We'll spend this evening lusty upsy D." In B. & F. Beggars, iii. 1, one of the boors says, "Sit down, lads, and drink we upsey D." Dekker in Bellman, p. 26, says, "Teach me . . . how to take the German's upsy-freeze, the Danish rouse." In Seven Sins he speaks of "all the learned rules of drunkenness, as upsy freeze." crambo, Parmezant, etc."
The D. are represented as dull, phlegmatic, and too lazy to be jealous. In Goosecap i. 2, Fowle Wether says, "Would I might never excell a D. skipper in courtship, if I did not put distaste into my carriage of purpose." In Shirley's Ball iv. 3, Lucina speaks of the "phlegmatic D." In Jonson's Volpone ii. 3, the jealous Corvino says to his wife, "I'm a Dman., I; for if you thought me an Italian, You would be damned ere you did this." In Massinger's Milan iv. 3, Mariana, after giving some instances of the misbehaviour of the Duchess, says, "To a Dman. This were enough; but to a right Italian A hundred thousand witnesses." In B. & F. French Law. iii. 1, Champernal says, "I am no Italian To lock her up; nor would I be a Dman. To have my wife my sovereign, to command me." At the same time the men were uxorious. In Glapthorne's Hollander ii. 1, Mrs. Mixum says, "If you will marry your daughter to the most complete man, let him be D. They are the rarest men at multiplication."
The D. women were good managers and capable in business, but not too precise in their morals, which was probably true of those whom our soldiers met in the camps in the Netherlands. In Webster's Law Case iii. 1, Ariosto says, "Your Dwomen. in the Low Countries take all and pay all, and do keep their husbands silly [i.e. ignorant] of their own estates." In Middleton's Trick to Catch iii. 3, Mrs. Florence is described as "a D. widow; that's an English drab." Marston has a play entitled The D. Courtesan: in i. 1, Frevile says of her, "1 will shew thee a pretty nimble-eyed D. tanakin," ix. a girl: a diminutive formed from Ann. In Armin's Moreclacke A. 4, Mary says to Tabitha, "He that shall marry thee is matched 1, faith to a D. snaphaunce, you will strike fire with words." The "snaphaunce "is a musket with a flint-lock; and is used for an impulsive woman who goes off easily. It appears to have been of Dutch origin. In Lawyer i., Vaster says to his wife, "Be petulant, you whore, sprightly, frolick, as a D. tanakin." In iv., Thirsty says, "Now could I dance like a D. froe [woman]; my heels are as light as my head."
The D. are represented as mean in their treatment of their mercenaries, and brutally cruel in the hour of victory. The massacre of the English at Amboyna (q.v.) intensified this feeling. In Webster's Appius & Virginia ii. 2, one of the Roman soldiers complains, "We dine to-day as Dmen. feed their soldiers," i.e. very meagrely. In B.&F. Fair Maid I. ii. 1, Alberto says, "I am apt for mischief, apt as a Dman. after a sea-fight, when his enemy kneels afore him." In Glapthorne's Hollander iv. 1, Sconce cries, "As if there could be any mercy in a Dman.!" In Lady Mother ii. 1, Grimes says, "The Capt. fell on like a tyrannical D. man-of-war that shows no mercy to the yielding enemy."
Holland was the home of some of the most pronounced sects of the Puritans, which especially flourished in Amsterdam, q.v. In Mayne's s Match v. 6, Mrs. Scruple says of Salewit, "Surely I take this to be some D. elder." In Brome's Covent G. iii. 2, Lucie says that Mihil "carried himself as civilly for a gentleman that should not look like one o, th, fathers of the D. church at five-and-twenty." In Cartwright's Ordinary iii. 5, Sir Christopher says, "Kit's as hungry now as a besieged city, and as dryas a D. commentator." In Strode's Float. Isl. v. 7, Hilario says, "He never was at the University . . . And yet lectures as good divinity As commonly we find in most D. systems Or City conventicles."
The D. dressed in baggy slops or breeches, short doublets, and large felt hats. In Middleton's R.G. ii. 2, the Tailor says to Moll, "You say you'll have the great D. slop, Mrs. Mary; your breeches then will take up a yard more." In his No Wit i. 3, the stage direction is: "Enter a little D. boy in great slops." In Dekker's Northward iii. 1, the tailor recommends "a short D. waist with a round Catherine wheel fardingale." In Gascoigne's Steel Glass, epil. 31, he speaks of "Women masking in men's weeds With dkin. doublets and with jerkins jagged." In T. Heywood's Challenge iii., the Maid says, "Your D. cassock is a comely wear." To which Manhurst retorts, "It hath been, but now adays it grows shorter and shorter." In Webster's White Devil i. 2, Flamineo, speaking of Camillo, says, "Like a D. doublet, all his back Is shrunk into his breeches." In Glapthorne's Hollander iv. 1, Sconce says, "When this old cap was new, 'twas a D. felt." In his Wit ii. 1, Valentine says, "A haberdasher would have shaked his block-head as if he had been trying a D. felt out." In Underwit i. 1, Underwit orders "a Lond. D. felt without a band, with a feather in 't." Lily, in Euphues Anat. Wit, p. 140, speaks of "the D. hat "as an article of fashionable attire.
The Dutch were famous navigators; and their ships were not above making free-booting attacks on merchants in the North Sea. They were also largely engaged in fisheries, and there was considerable rivalry between them and the English. In Tw. N. iii. 2, 29, Fabian says to Sir Andrew, "You are now sailed into the North of my lady's opinion; where you will hang, like an icicle on a Dman.'s beard." There is probably a reference here to the Arctic expedition of the Dman., Wiliam Barendsz which set out in 1596 and had to spend the winter in the Arctic Circle. In Jonson's Alchemist iii. 2, Face tells how a Spaniard has come in "in 6 great slops Bigger than 3 D. hoys ": the "hoy "being a D. vessel rigged like a sloop and built round in the bottom to accommodate as much merchandise as possible. Nash, in Saffron Walden F. 2, says, ','Tis an unconscionable gorbellied volume, bigger bulked than a D. hoy." In Davenant's Wits iii. 1, the Elder Palatine says, "If Morglay hear 't, he'll think me as dull as a D. mariner." In B. & F. Prize iii. 2, Jaques describes how a lady's hood fell in the posset, "and there rid like a D. hoy." In Jonson's Augurs the Groom says to Notch, "Hey-day! what's this? a hogshead of beer broke out of the King's buttery, or some D. hulk?" In Tuke's Five Hours 1, Geraldo thinks the Spanish k." should have more money than these D. swabbers." In Middleton's R.G. ii. 1, Laxton says, "She slips from one company to another, like a fat eel between a Dman.'s fingers." In Nabbes, Spring, Lent says, "I have 1,000 herrings despight of the Dman.'s wasteful theft, let them rob the q seas never so often." Dekker, in Catchpol (16l3), says that the drumsticks in the Masque "were the shinbones of 2 D. free-booters." There was much trade between England and Holland. and the D. or Zealand dollar, a silver coin of the value Of 3/-, was familiar. In Jonson's Alchemist iii. 2, Subtle promises Tribulation, "You shall . . . with a tincture make you as good D. dollars As any are in Holland." In Jonson's Volpone iv. 1, Sir Politick enters in his diary that he had "a discourse With a D. merchant 'bout ragion del stato." In Davenant's Plymouth iii. 1, Inland says, "These carrot-eating D. have filched already most of the bullion out of the land; they exhaust our gold and send us pickled herrings."
The D. were reputed to be excellent shoemakers. In Dekker's Shoemaker's, Lacy disguises himself as a D. shoemaker and takes service with Simon Eyre. In Greene's QUIP, p. 246, Cloth-Breeches protests, "The drunken Dman., this shoemaker, abuseth our commonwealth; for our new upstart fools like no shoe so well as a Dman. maketh, when our Englishmen pass them far." In Beguiled, we are told of "a D. cobler."
Miscellaneous references to articles produced in Holland.
In the 17th cent. the cultivation of hops on an extensive scale was introduced into England by the example of the D. Ale was brewed from malt and could not be kept long; beer, brewed from malt and hops, kept much better. In Nabbes, Totenham iii. 2, Changelove says, "I love beer best, The planting of hops was a rare projection in the D." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. v. 4, Carlo says of Puntarvolo, "His face is like a D. purse with the mouth downward, his beard the tassels." The purse was a bag with the mouth gathered up by a string ending in 2 tassels. The D. or Flanders mares were highly esteemed as coach-horses. In Tomkins, Albumazar iii. 5, Trinculo says, "I will go to this astrologer, and hire him to turn my 4 jades to 2 pair of D. mares." In Davenport's New Trick i. 1, Anne, receiving an offer of marriage from Lord Scales, anticipates, amongst other advantages of the match, "a caroach with 4, 4 great D. mares." In B. & F. Prize iii. 2, Maria says, "Tell the Dman. That brought the mares, he must with all speed send me Another suit of horses." Windmills are still a characteristic feature in D. landscapes. In Randolph's Muses, iii. 1, Banausus says, "I have a rare device to set D. windmills upon Newmarket Heath and Salisbury Plain, to drain the fens." D. tapestries were famous from the 14th cent. onwards; and in the reign of James I tapestry looms were set up at Mortlake and weavers imported from Holland. In Mayne's s Match ii. 3, Aurelia compares Timothy to "a mute in the hangings." To which he replies: "Why, Lady, do you think me wrought in a loom? some D. piece weaved at Mortlake?" Heylyn says that the D. invented clocks; and Huyghens, who died at The Hague in 1695, laid downthe theory of the pendulum as applied to clocks. In B. & F. Wit Money iii. 1, Lady Heartwell says sarcastically to the gentlemen, "You are not daily mending, like D. watches." In Lawyer iii., Curfew asks Nice whether his watch is" French or D." The author of Old Meg, p. 12, disparages women "that like D. watches have larums in their mouths." In Ford's Trial ii. 1, Fulgoso, being challenged to fight with swords, says", My weapon is a D. iron truncheon." In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says to Judith, "Will you steal forth and taste of a D. bun?" In Ford's Queen iii., Pynto says, "The good man was made drunk at the Stillyard at a beaver of D. bread and Rhenish wine." In Glapthorne's Hollander i. 1, Urinal says that Sconce looks "like a dry D. pudding." In Killigrew's Parson v. 4, Jolly speaks of men "with horns as big as D. cows", i.e. manifest cuckolds. Taylor says that coaches were first introduced into England by a Dman., one William Boonen, in 1584.
The Flemish portrait-painters, especially Antonio Moro, Rubens, and Vandyke, were well known in England; these 3, indeed, resided in Lond. for some time. The D. genre pictures of drinking scenes and the like were also familiar. In Shirley's Pleasure i. 1, Bornwell reproaches his lady with her extravagance, which included "Pictures of this Italian master and that Dman." In Middleton's Quiet Life i. 1, Lady Cressingham says, "I have got a D. painter to draw patterns "for her silks. In Dekker's Bellman 87, he says, describing a drunken scene, "The whole room showed afar off like a D. piece of Drollery; a painter's prentice could not draw worse than they themselves made."
Misrellaneous references. In Webster's White Devil iii. 1, Brachiano says, "An unbidden guest should travel as Dwomen. go to church, bear their stools with them." In B. & F. Gentleman iii. 4, the Lady says, "What a style is this! methinks it goes like a Duchy lope-man", i.e. a D. runner, at full speed. In Dekker's Hornbook Proem, we have, "Sound an allarum and like a D. cryer make proclamation with the drum." The D. used a drum where in England the town-crier employed a bell. In Dekker's Westward iii. 3, Justiniano speaks of one "looking as pitifully as Dmen., first made drunk, then carried to beheading." The D. made condemned criminals drunk before executing them; probably founding the practice on Proverbs xxxi. 6. In Marston's Insatiate ii. 1, Zucco says, "My wife is grown like a D. crest, always rampant." A lion rampant appears in the coats of arms of most of the D. provinces. Armin, in Ninnies, speaks of "a D. tannakin sliding to market on the ice." The canals in Holland are often frozen in winter and are used as highways by skaters.
References to individual Dutchmen. In Dekker's Fortunatus i. 1, Fortune speaks of "This D. botcher wearing Munster's crown, John Leyden, born in Holland poor and base." He was the leader of the Anabaptists (15101536) who took Munster and reigned there for a short time. In Mayne's s Match ii., Aurelia says, "Do ye think I'm the D. virgin that could live by the scent of flowers?" This was a certain Eve Fleigen, who was said to have lived for 14 years, from 1597 to 1611, without food; in the account of her life printed in 1611, under her portrait, it is said: "Exigui se oblectat floribus horti," i.e." She delights herself in the flowers of a scanty garden." In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), on the Sights of London, Peacham mentions, "The great long Dman." In B. & F. Pestle iii. 2, the Citizen says of Ralph, "I saw him wrestle with the great Dman. and hurl him." This was a huge German fencer who lived for a time in Lond., and is often referred to. An account of him is given s.v. GERMANY.
Reference should be made also to the articles on BELGIUM, FLANDERS, HOLLAND, Low COUNTRIES, and NETHERLANDS.
The ch. of Austin Friars, Lond., q.v. It was granted to the D. by Edward VI for their religious services. In Wapull's Tarrieth B. 4, Helpe says, "To sell a lease dear, whoever that will, At the French or D. ch. let him set up his bill. What an Englishman bids they will give as much more."
DUTCH HOUSE OF MEETING
Used for the Stillyard, q.v. In Dekker's Westward v. 2, Birdlime wishes to speak "with the gentlewomen here that drunk with your Worship at the D. house of meeting." See ii. 3, where the incident is described.
See under EXCHANGE.
A cant name for prison. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 72, Hobs says, "My son's in D. here, in Caperdochy, 1, the gaol."
(the Latin name for EPIDAMNUS, the modem DURAZZO). It lay on the E. coast of the Adriatic Sea, in Illyricum, abt. 65 m. N. of the Acroceraunian promontory. About the beginning of the 3rd cent. B.C. it placed itself under the protection of Rome, in order to escape the inroads of the Illyrian pirates. It was the scene of the contest between Pompeius and Cmsar during the winter of 4948 B.C., in which Caesar was unable to dislodge his rival from his entrenchments, but ultimately succeeded in enticing him to Pharsalia, where the decisive battle was fought resulting in Caesar's victory. The scene of Chapman's Caesar ii (except sc. 1) and iii. is laid in and about D. In B. & F. False One i. 1, Achillas says of Pompey and his men, "They at Dirachium Fought with success; but knew not to make use of Fortune's fair offer."