A ch. in the crypt of old St. Paul's Cathedral, Lond., under the choir. Stow says that it served for the stationers and others dwelling in Paul's Churchyard, Paternoster Row, and the places near adjoining. It dates from the middle of the 13th cent. and was destroyed in the Gt. Fire. In Dekker's Shoemaker's iv. 3, the servant reports that Master Hammond is to be married "at St. F. Ch. under Paul's." In B. & F. Kn. of the B. Pestle v. 1, Humphrey, having lost his mistress Luce, says, "In the dark I'll wear out my shoe-soles In passion in St. F. Ch. under Paul's": where it is to be noted that "Paul's" rhymes with "soles." In S. Rowley's When You D. 2, the Cobbler says, "Though I sit as low as St. F., I can look as high as Paules."


A booksellers' sign in London.
  1. It was the sign of what is now No. 32 Fleet St. on the S. side. The name is retained in F. Court. A doubtful tradition asserts that Wynkyn de Worde printed at the sign of the F. The 1st edition of Gorboduc was "Imprinted at Lond. in Flete strete at the sign of the Faucon by William Griffith"; the same imprint is found in Harman's Caveat 1567, and Pickering's Horestes was printed there the same year. It was here that John Murray started his publishing business.
  2. There was another F. in the Strand. Cockayne's Obstinate was "Printed by W. Godbid for Isaac Pridmore and are to be sold at his shop at the sign of the F. beyond the New Exchange in the Strand. 1657."

(Map J7)

A tavern sign. There was a F. Tavern on the Bankside a little E. of where the Blackfriars Bdge. Now stands, which is said to have been frequented by Shakespeare and the other playwrights of his time. Epps' cocoa factory now (in 1925) occupies its site. There was also a F. Inn in Stratford, just opposite New Place. Shakespeare's crest was "A falcon, his wings displayed urgent, standing on a wreath of his colours, supporting a spear of gold steeled."




Two of the 26 wards of the City of Lond. are F. Within and F. Without. Originally they were 1 ward, which covered roughly the dist. between Holborn and Cheapside on the N., and the Thames on the S. from Friday St. to Temple Bar. The ward took its name from one W. Farindon, who bought the Aldermanry in 1281. The division was made in 1391, the boundary between the 2 wards being the Fleet Ditch, now covered by F. St. In Dekker's Northward v. 1, Bellemont says, "Your conscionable greybeard of F. Within will keep himself to the ruins of one cast waiting woman an age."


A tavern in Lond., in Fleet St, near Shoe Lane. The sign was doubtless the Prince of Wales' F. In T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, Valerius, in his catalogue of taverns, mentions the F. as the one to which the ladies hie: "To the F. ladies, you."

(Map Q5–R5/S4)

(originally FANCHURCH ST.). Lond., running from the corner of Aldgate and Leadenhall St. to Gracechurch St, which it enters almost opposite to Lombard St. The name is derived from the fenny character of the ground, caused by the Langborne, which flowed through it. The church was St. Gabriel Fen Ch, which stood in the middle of the st.: it was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and never rebuilt. Other churches in the st. were St. Dionis Backchurch on the N. side, and St. Benet's Gracechurch at the S. side of the corner of F. and Gracechurch Sts. These have both been removed of late years. Famous taverns in the st. were the King's Head, the Mitre, and the Elephant. Ironmongers' Hall is on the N. side. In Good Wife iii. 3, Amminadab asks, "How many parsons are there?" And Ripkin answers: "The Parson of F., the Parson of Pancras." In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 1, Delion asks, "Wat be name dis st., and wish be de way to Croshe-friars?" Heigham answers: "Marry, this is F.-st., and the best way to Crutched-Friars is to follow your nose." To which Delion answers: "Vanshe st.! How shance me come to Vanshe st.?" The 2nd title of T. Heywood's Fair Maid of the Exchange is "the pleasant humours of the Cripple of Fanchurch."

(Map H4–5)

Lond., running S. from Holborn into Fleet St., which it enters about half way between Ludgate Circus and Temple Bar. The town hostel of the Bps. of Norwich was here. It was originally Faiteres-L., or Faitur L., and according to Stow was so called from the Fewters, or idle people, lying there. It is called Viter L. in the 13th cent. It was the most Westerly st. consumed in the Gt. Fire. Jonson and Dryden both lived for a time in F. L.; and so did Lemuel Gulliver, who tells of a long lease he had "of the Black Bull in F. L." At No. 32 was the Moravian Meeting House, where John Wesley held the first Watchnight service in England. In the 17th cent. it would appear to have been a haunt of pawnbrokers. In Barry's Ram iii. 4, Throate says, "Beard, take thou these books, go both to the brokers in F.-L., lay them in pawn for a velvet jerkin and a double ruff." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 1, Fungoso says, "40 shillings more I can borrow on my gown in F. L."


A piece of ground abt. 10 acres in extent, now known as Lincoln's Inn New Sq, in Lond. It belonged to the Priory of St. John of Jerusalem till the dissolution of the monasteries, and was also known as Templars F. In Oldcastle ii. 2, Acton says, "From Lond. issue out 40 odd thousands into Ficket F. Where we appoint our special randevous." "Where's that Ficket f.?" asks Murley. And Acton replies: "Behind saint Giles-in-the-f., near Holborn."

(Map Q5)

(now PHILPOT L). In Lond., running S. from Fenchurch St. to East Cheap. It was named from Sir John Filpot, once Lord Mayor, who in 1378 equipped 1000 soldiers at his own expense and with them captured John Mercer, a notorious pirate, and 15 Spanish ships laden with great riches. He lived in the L. and was the owner thereof, says Stow. In Jonson's Christmas' Christmas sings, "Kit cobler it is, I'm a father of his, And he dwells in the l. called F."

(Map P4)

(more properly FINKE'S L.). In Lond., running from Cornhill to Threadneedle St., to the E. of the Royal Exchange. It was named in honour of Robert Finke, who built the ch. of St. Bennet Fink in Threadneedle St. Deloney, in Craft ii. 10, mentions "Anthony Now-Now, the firkin fidler of Finchlane." He is said to have got his nickname from his singing of Dowland's lovely air, "Now, O now, we needs must part."


A dist. in Lond., N. of Cripplegate and Moorgate. The name is still preserved in F. Circus, F. Pavement, etc. It was during the Elizabethan times an open field, and was a favourite walk for the citizens and their wives. In H4 A. iii. 1, 257, Hotspur chaffs his wife for saying "in good sooth ": "Thou giv'st such sarcenet surety for thy oaths As if thou never walk'st further than F. . . . leave 'in sooth' To velvetguards and Sunday-citizen." In Goosecap iii. 1, Sir Gyles says, "I love day-light and run after it into F. Fields in the evening to see the windmills go." In Stucley 610, Blurt is described as "Sir Bailif of F."; and in 615 he says that Jack Dudley is "in F. Jail for hurting a man behind the Windmills last Saturday "(see WINDMILL). In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, Fortress says, "Our orders are such as the most envious Justice at F. shall not exclaim on." Duels were often fought there. In K.K.K. (Dods. vi. 591), Honesty says, "Bad-minded men stand in F. Fields near Lond. and there be shot to death." In Shirley's Wedding iv. 1, Landby says, "Rawbone has challenged Master Lodam; the place F."

The Fields were specially used for the practice of archery. Marks, both rovers and butts, were set up there, to the number of 160, and were distinguished by names such as "Dunstan's Darling," "Lee's Leopard ... "Mildmay's Rose," and the like. No obstructions were permitted that would obscure the archers' sight of the marks. The Ayme for Finsburie Archers, published in 1594, gives a list of the marks with their names and distances, which were reckoned as so many score, i.e. of yards. Some of the marks were in the shape of a Turk. In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 1, Hodge says, "If I stay I pray God I may be turned to a Turk and set in F. for boys to shoot at." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. i. 1, Stephen asks, "Because I dwell at Hogsden, shall I keep company with none but the archers of F.?" In Davenant's Wits i. 1, Young Palatine professes his conversion from his wild curses: "This deboshed whinyard I will reclaim to comely bow and arrows and shoot with haberdashers at F., and be thought the grandchild of Adam Bell." In Penn. Parl. 31, it is enacted "that there shall great contentions fall between soldiers and archers; for some shall maintain that a Turk can be hit at 12 score pricks (i.e. 240 yards) in F. Fields, ergo the bow and shafts won Bullen "(see BOULOGNE). In Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, Quarlous says to Overdo, "Nay, Sir, stand not you fixed here, like a stake in F, to be shot at." In Davenant's Playhouse i. 1, the Poet speaks of "that famous duel which in the fields of F. was fought whilom at Rovers with long bow and arrows; it began at day-break and ended at sun-setting." The Fields were naturally a haunt of beggars. In Middleton's Hubbard, p. 99, a wounded sower goes begging there on Sunday: "and I saw the tweering Constable of F. making towards me."

The Fields were also used for the drilling of the City Train-bands; and these citizen-soldiers came in for a good deal of fashionable ridicule tiff in the Civil War they proved their mettle. In Shirley's Fair One v. 1, Fowler speaks of "a spruce Capt. that never saw service beyond F. or the Artillery Garden." In Jonson's Devil iii. 1, Meercraft advises Gilthead to get his son "his posture book and 's leaden men To set upon a table 'gainst his mistress Chance to come by, that he may draw her in, And show her F. battles." In Shirley's Honoria (a.k.a. Honor and Riches) iv. 3, Fulbank boasts, "I was knocked down thrice and lost my beard At taking of a fort in F." In his Riches ii., the Soldier says to the Courtier, "Some fellows have beaten you into belief that they have seen the wars, that perhaps mustered at Mile-end or F." In Killigrew's Parson v. 4, Sad says, "You have missed that man of war, that knight of F." In Brome's Couple i. 1, Wat says, "He would ha' so beaten you, as never was citizen beaten since the great battle of F.-Field." In Nabbes' Bride ii. 6, one of the Blades, having been beaten by Theophilus, says, "There is more valour in some than what's only shown in a F. muster." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon iv. 2, Luce's Father says, "When I was young, I had my wards and foins and quarterblows, Tuttle, F., I knew them all." The City Hounds were kept in F. Peacham, in Worth of a Penny (1647), says that, rather than dine at a superior's table, "any noble spirit had rather dine with my Lord Mayor's hounds in F. Fields." The scene of Jonson's Tub is F. Hundred; and 4 of the characters, a knot of clowns, dub themselves "the Council of F."

(Map Q6)

(now called FISH ST. HILL). In Lond., running S. from East Cheap to Lower Thames St. It was the main thoroughfare to Lond. Bdge. before the new approach by K. William St. was made. Here the Monument was erected in memory of the Gt. Fire of 1666, and over against it was the Black Bell Inn, which stood on the site of the Lond. house of Edward the Black Prince. At the S. end of the Hill is the Ch. of St. Magnus. In H6 B. iv. 8, 1, Cade cries to his rabble, "Up F. St.! Down St. Magnus corner! Kill and knock down! Throw them into Thames!" In Middleton's No Wit ii. 1, Weatherwise, the Astrologer, says, "Sol in Pisces! The sun's in N. F. St." In his Black Book (1604), p. 17, he says, "There was an house upon F.-st, hill burnt to the ground once." In News Barthol. Fair, in the list of taverns, we have "Kings Head in N. F.-st. where roysters do range." In Prodigal ii. 4, Lancelot says to Oliver, "Let's meet at the King's Head in F. St." The site of the tavern is marked by King's Head Court, near the Monument.

(Map M5)

Lond., which used to run W. from Bread St. to Old Change. The E. end of it disappeared to make room for Q. Victoria St., and the W. end was absorbed in Knightrider St. The Ch. of St. Nicholas on the S. side of Knightrider St. used to be in O. F. St. It was the original fish-market of Lond., and is mentioned in the Statute 8, Edward 1, as Elde-fis-strate. There were many taverns in it, at which fishdinners were served with good wine to wash them down. Curiosities from the sea, such as huge or strange fish and alleged mermaids, were exhibited in the st. In Chaucer's C. T. C. 564, the Pardoner warns the company to keep them from wine, "And namelly fro the white wyn of Lepe That is to selle in Fysshstrete or in Chepe." In Penn. Parl. 41, it is enacted that "salmon shall be better sold in F.-st. than the beer shall be at Billingsgate." In Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, Littlewit, explaining his puppet-show, says, "I make . . . Hero a wench o' the Bankside who, going over one morning to O. F.St., Leander spies her land at Trig Stairs." Later on, Leatherhead says, "Hero of the Bankside Is come over into F.-st. to eat some fresh herring." In Brome's City Wit i. 1, Josina sends Bridget "to Mrs. Parmisan the cheesemonger's wife in o. F.-st." In Davenant's Rutland, p. 215, the Parisian says, "Oh, the goodly landskip of O. F. St. which, had it not the ill luck to be crooked, was narrow enough to have been your founder's perspective i.e. telescope. In Mayne's s Match iii. 2, Timothy is disguised and exhibited as a sea-monster, "Just like a salmon upon a stall in F.-st."; and in iii. 3, he complains, "Within this fortnight I had been converted Into some pike; you might ha' cheapened me In F.-st." In Temp. ii. 2, 20, Trinculo says, "Were I in England now, as once I was, and had but this fish [Caliban] painted, not a holiday fool there but would give a piece of silver." Doubtless he would have exhibited him in F.-st. In B. & F. Wife ii. 1, Tony tells, "There was a drunken sailor that got a mermaid with child; the infant monster is brought up in F.-st." In the list of taverns in News Barthol. Fair, we find "the Bores Head in O. F.-st."; and "0. F.-st. at the Swan." Tokens of both these taverns may be seen in the Beaufoy collection. In the dedication of Day's Humour to Signior Nobody, he says, "Till I meet you next at your great Castle in F. St. I'll neither taste of your bounty nor be drunk to your health." Evidently there was an Inn in F.-st. with the popular sign of a man with a head and legs, but no body. In Middleton's Inner Temple 22, Fasting Day says, "F. St. loves me e'en but from teeth outward," i.e. because on fast days more fish was sold. T. Heywood's Traveller was "Printed by Robert Raworth dwelling in O. F.-st. near St. Mary Maudlins Ch. 1633." This ch. was near to Dolittle Lane. In Jonson's Christmas, when Gambol announces, "Here's one out of Friday st. would come in," Christmas replies, "By no means, nor out of neither of the F.-sts. admit not a man; they are not Christmas creatures; fish and fasting days! Foh!" Gambol consequently gives orders, "Nobody out o' Friday St., nor the 2 F. sts., there, do you hear?" In B. & F. Prize v. 2, Jacques says that if Maria, the shrew, is thrown into the sea she would spoil all the fishing: "the a F. sts. would sing a woeful misereri." Dekker, in Bellman, speaks of "both Fishstreetes" as haunts of foysts, or pickpockets.

(Map J5)

One of the 4 bdges. across the Fleet Ditch, Lond. It connected Ludgate Hill with F. St. There was a bdge. at this point as early as the reign of Richd. I. A stone bdge. was built in 1431 by the Mayor, John Wels, which had a stone coping with iron pikes and provision for lights on the S. side. This was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and replaced by a stone structure of the same width as the st. and high enough to allow barges to get under it. After the Ditch had been covered in to the N. of F. St., the S. coping was left. The bdge. was finally taken down in 1765. In Barry's Ram iii., Shortshanks' wife has gone "down toward F. B."; Thomas says later that she went in by the Greyhound (q.v.), and so struck into Bridewell. Beard, on the contrary, thinks she went along Shoe Lane. In Mayne's s Match i. 4, Newcut asks, "Didst look to hear such language beyond Ludgate?"and Bright answers, "I thought all wit had ended at F. B., but wit that goes by the score; that may extend, if 't be a courtier's wit, into Cheapside." The idea is that wit was to be found amongst the lawyers in the Temple, W. of F. B., and courtiers (who went on tick with the citizens), and did not extend into the city. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. ii. i. Sogliardo says, "There's a new motion of the city of Nineveh with Jonas and the whale to be seen at F.-b." In Chaunticleers v., Welcome says of Bung: "He has tricks enou' to furnish all the tapsters between Charing Cross and F. B.," i.e. in the Strand and F. St. F. St. was amply suppled with taverns: for a list, see under FLEET ST.

(Map H2–3/J3–6)

The Fleet was a stream rising in the Hampstead and Highgate Hills, N. of Lond., and flowing through Kentish Town, Camden Town, and St. Pancras to Battle Bdge.; thence to Holborn Bdge., and so into the Thames at Blackfriars. Above Holborn it was known as the Hole-bourn; and it was also called the River of Wells, from the many wells or springs that fed it, like Clerkenwell, Skinnerswell, Fagswell, Todswell, Loderswell, and Radswell. Near Holborn it was called Turnmill Brook, from the mills on its banks. In the I 13th cent. it was easily navigable up to Holborn Bdge., and was 10 ft. in breadth. Already in 1356 we find that it was choked up by the filth that was constantly thrown into it from the tanneries and lay-stalls on its banks. I. the 16th cent. it had become a common sewer and was called F. D. In 1652 it is reported quite impassable for boats on account of the garbage thrown in from the butchers' shops and cook-shops. The Gt. Fire cleared off all the crazy buildings on the d.-side, and it was widened to 40 ft. and the channel deepened so that barges could once more go up to Holborn. Bdges. spanned it at the bottom of Ludgate Hill–the F. Bdge.–at Bridewell, at F. Lane, and at Holborn. But it soon reverted to its old filthiness, and in 1733 it was covered in from Holborn to F. Bdge. and the F. Market was established over its course. In 1766 the rest of the d. was covered in from F. Bdge. to Blackfriars. It now flows under Farringdon St. and New Bridge St., and empties itself into the low-level sewer, though provision is made for diverting it, if necessary, into the Thames. In Jonson's Famous Voyage there is an amusing account of how Sir Ralph Shelton and Sir Christopher Heyden rowed up the D. from Bridewell to Holborn, in which the filthy condition of it is described with malodorous minuteness. In W. Rowley's Match Mid. iv. 2, Jarvis speaks of "one of my aunts (videlicet bawds), a widow by F.-d." In Davenant's Wits i. 2, Thwack says, "I have a strong mind to re-edify The decays of F.-D.; from whence I hear The roaring vestals late are fled through heat Of persecution." In Davenant's Plymouth v. 1, Cable speaks of "the distressed daughters of old Eve, that lie wind-bound about F.-D." In Epilogue to Ev. Man O., Jonson calls it "our city's torrent, bent to infect The hallowed bowels of the silver Thames." In B. & F. Pestle, the Prologue proposes as the subject of a play in honour of the City: "The Life and Death of fat Drake, or the Repairing of F.-privies."

(Map J4–5)

A st. in Lond. running W. from Old Bailey, a little S. of the prison, to the F. Ditch (now Farringdon St.). It was chiefly occupied by taverns and cook-shops, and was the boundary of the F. liberties northward. John Felton was lodging in F. Lane before he set out for Portsmouth to murder the D. of Buckingham, and one of the witnesses at his trial was Elizabeth Josselyn, who kept a circulating library in F. L. In Massinger's Madam i. 1, Anne reviles the cooks hired by Holdfast, "Fie on them! They smell of F.-l. and Pie-corner." Jonson, in Famous Voyage, speaks of the banks of the F. Ditch, "on whose banks Your F.-l. Furies and hot cooks do dwell." Tourneur's [ed note: anonymous, probably Middleton's] Revenger was "Printed by G. Eldand and are to be sold at his house in F.-L. at the sign of the Printer's Press. 1607."

(Map J4)

This famous prison lay on the E. side of the F. Ditch, Lond., a little N. of the junction of Ludgate Hill and F. St. The site is supposed by Mr. Roach Smith to have been originally a Roman amphitheatre. The 1st mention of its use as a p. occurs in the reign of Richd. I, when Nathanael de Leveland was appointed to keep the K.'s gaol of F. Bdge. The prisoners were taken by boat along the F. Ditch and entered by a water-gate. It was long used as the p. of the Star Chamber and Chancery Courts, but when the former was abolished in 1642 it was made a p. for debtors, bankrupts, and persons guilty of contempt of court. The chief officer was named the Warden of the F. The original p. was burnt down by Wat Tyler's rabble and rebuilt. It was again burnt down in the Gt. Fire, and once more by the Gordon rioters. It was re-erected on the E. side of Farringdon St., which runs along the course of the F. Ditch, now entirely covered in; it was finally abolished in 1846, and its site is now occupied partly by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway and partly by the Farringdon St. Memorial Hall,. Prisoners were allowed to live anywhere within the liberties of the F., which were bounded by Ludgate Hill, Old Bailey, F. Lane, and F. Ditch. In the p. and the Liberties marriages were permitted to be celebrated by members of the clergy who lived there. No questions were asked and no formalities insisted on. These F. marriages were abolished in 1774. Among the notable prisoners who have been confined in the F. may be mentioned the poet Surrey, Bp. Hooper, and many of the Marian martyrs: Wycherley; William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke; Prynne, and Lilburne. In Hg B. v. 4, 98, the Chief Justice commands, "Go, carry Sir John Falstaff to the F.; Take all his company along with him." In Skelton's Colin Clout I 158, we have: "Take him, Warden of the F., Set him fast by the feet." In Look about iii., the K. says, "Warden of the F., Take you the charge of Gloster." In Fam. Vict. (Hazlitt, 336), the Judge says to Prince Henry, "I commit you to the F. until we have spoken with your father." In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 1, Gaveston says of the Bp. of Coventry: "He shall to prison and there die in bolts." To which the K. replies: "Ay, to the Tower, the F., or where thou wilt." In Eastward iii. 2, Quicksilver says to Sir Petronel, whose creditors have laid to arrest him, "Let 'em take their choice; either the K.'s Bench, or the F., or which of the 2 Counters they like best." Jonson, in Famous Voyage, tells of the "outcries of the damned in the Fleet." Bradford, in his paraphrase of Ps. lxxix., says, "How miserable they handle Thy bondservants, the prisons of the K.'s Bench, Marshalsea, F., Newgate, and in many other places doth to all the world cry out." In Massinger's Madam iv. 3, Hoist says, "I'll be removed to the F. and drink and drab there In spite of your teeth." In Shirley's C. Maid ii. 2, Hornet says, "I see my chattels seized and I am already marching to the F." In Middleton's R.G. iv. 1, Moll sings, "She lay with one of the navy, Her husband lying i' the F." In Field's Amends iv. 1, there is a reference to the F. marriages. Bold tries to persuade Lady Brightwell to yield to his unlawful passion, and says, "Newness of the trick, if nothing else, might stir ye." To which she replies: "'Tis a stale one, and was done in the F. 10 years ago."

(Map G5–H5)

Lond., running W. from the bottom of Ludgate Hill to Temple Bar, the site of which is now marked by the Griffin. It was originally a mere path along the river bank: its existence as a road dates from the 12th cent., when the Knights Templars took: up their abode on the river side and built the Temple Ch. It took its name from the F. river, which it crossed at its E. end. At first it extended up what is now Ludgate Hill, as far as Old Bailey. In Elizabethan times the lawyers occupied the Temple, which they had held since the middle of the 14th cent. At the W. end of the st. was Temple Bar, which came into existence some time about the end of the 13th cent. At the other end was Ludgate, which stood just W. of St. Martin's at the end of Old Bailey. Just west of Shoe Lane stood The Conduit, originally erected in 1388 and rebuilt with great magnificence in 1478: it had a stone tower with St. Christopher on the top and angels lower down, and a chime of bells worked by "an Engine placed in the tower." Starting from Ludgate on the N. side of the st., and going W., Shakespeare would pass in succession the Belle Savage Inn, The Rose Inn, F. Bdge., Shoe Lane, Peterborough Court, Fetter Lane, St. Dunstan's Ch., and Chancery Lane; turning back and going E. on the S. side, the great gate of the Temple, the Queen's Head, the Hand, the Falcon, the Star and Ram, from which Ram Alley got its name, the entrance to the White Friars, the Bolt-in-Tun, the Boar's Head, the Cock and Key, Hanging Sword Alley, Salisbury House, St. Bride's Ch., and F. Bdge., with a view, down the stream, of Bridewell on the W. and Blackfriars on the E. bank; while, looking N., he would see on the E. bank the frowning pile of the F. Prison. The Inns of Court, and the great houses of the nobles stretching along the Strand, made F. St. a fashionable suburb. In Mayne's s Match i. 4, Bright and Newcut, the Templars, cannot conceive that wit can extend further E. than F. Bdge. In Shirley's Love Maze iii. 3, I.ady Bird's steward "lies in F. St." In B. & F. Wit S. W. i. 1, Oldcraft says of his niece: "at first snap she's a Countess drawn with 6 mares through F. St." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. ii. 1, Downright avers, "If I swallow this, Ill ne'er draw my sword in the sight of F. St. again." The lawyers, or Templars, were familiar figures in the st. In Stucley 152, Newton tells old Stucley, whose son is in the Temple, "Th' other day I saw him come up F.-st. with the Lord Windsor and Lord Aburganny." In Mayne's s Match i. 3, Plotwell greets Bright and Newcut, the Templars, "What, my F.-st. friends?" In Dekker's Northward i. 2, Doll says, "I'm as melancholy now as F.-st. in a long vacation." There was quarrelling enough, but much of it was done for effect. In Dekker's Northward ii. 2, Featherhead says, "Your husband is as tame as a fray in F.-st. when there are nobody to part them." The lawyers were not, however, reckoned as quite equal in gentility to men of title. Dekker, in Hornbook vi., says, "By sitting on the stage, if you be a knight, you may happily get you a Mistress; if a mere F.-st. Gentleman, a wife." Here is the premonition of the "bad baronet "of later fiction.

There were many taverns in F. St. In Nobody i. 1139, Nobody tells how, "coming through Fst., there at a tavern door 2 swaggerers were fighting." In Massinger's Trick to Catch iv. 5, Audrey sings, "Let the usurer cram him, in interest that excel, There's pits enough to damn him before he comes to hell; In Holborn some, in F. st. some ": where I suppose she means taverns and houses of ill-fame. In Stucley 564, Sparing demands,C.30 from Stucley "for tavern suppers and for quarts of wine at the Greyhound in F. St." In Barry's Ram iii., Thomas says that Will's wife "went in by the Greyhound and so struck into Bridewell." I fail to find this tavern in Bell's monograph on F. St., but it is clear from the Ram Alley passage that it was close to the F. Bdge. on the S. side of the st. In Barry's Ram ii., Throate says, "Meet me straight at the Mitre-door in F. st." This famous inn occupied the site of Hoare's Bank on the. S. side of the st., near Mitre Court, but it is not the same as the present Mitre in Mitre Court. In 1603 the jury presented the Mitre, because it had a back door into Ram Alley by which persons wanted by the police could convey themselves into the sanctuary of Whitefriars. Its balcony was burnt in the Gt. Fire. In a volume of poems by Richard Jackson, published 1625 or thereabout, the first is entitled Shakespeare's Rime which he made at the Myter in Flete Strete. It was Dr. Johnson's favourite tavern. In T. Heywood's Witches ii., Generous praises the wine he drank "at the Myter in Fst." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i. 3, the Capt. asks, "How shall we keep our word with Saunder Bloodhound in F. st. after dinner at the Fountain?" This was the building next to Inner Temple Gate, now No. 17. The upper part was a chamber belonging to the Crown, and it was successively known as the Hand, the K.'s Arms, and the Prince's Arms; and later as the Fountain. The building has been happily preserved and in part excellently restored. Other F. St. taverns were the Devil, opposite to St. Dunstan's; the King's Head at the corner of Chancery L.; the Boar's Head by Whitefriars St.; the Bolt-in-Tun just W. of it; the Horn, now [circa 1925] Anderton's Hotel; the Cock, of Tennysonian fame, near the corner of Chancery Lane; the Rainbow on the opposite side, and many more.

Tobacconists' shops speedily sprang up in F. St., or, at all events, tobacco was added to the commodities sold in other shops. The St. Dunstan's Register tells of several shopkeepers who were summoned for selling tobacco without licence, or annoying the judges with the smell of the weed, or keeping open at unlawful hours. Dekker's Lanthorn tells how rogues lie in wait for the Gull, "to note in what tobacco-shop in F.-st. he takes a pipe of smoke in the afternoon." Other businesses were carried on in F. St. It was the headquarters of the "cappers," or hat-makers, from the 13th cent. onward. In Dekker's Shoemaker's i. 1, Eyre speaks of "the courageous cordwainers; the flower of St. Martin's, the mad knaves of Bedlam, F. St., Tower St., and Whitechapel." Deloney, in Craft ii. 5, tells the story of "Peachey, the famous shoemaker of F.-st . . . . as good a shoemaker as any is in F.-st." Akin to the cordwainers were the saddlers.. one of whom had a sign of a man on horseback over his shop; in Jonson's Epicoene iv. 1, Dauphine says he saw Morose sitting over a crossbeam of the roof, "like him on the saddler's horse in F. St." In Stucley 363, Spring introduces us to" Sharp, the cutler of F.-st." S. R., in Letting of Humours Blood (1611), speaks of "Rapiers and daggers . . . As good as any F. St. hath in shop." The printers and booksellers, who in the kind of Journalism have now taken possession of the st., entered it in 1500 in the person of Caxton's partner, Wynkyn de Worde. His sign was the Sun, opposite Shoe Lane. The Ordinarye of crysten men was "Emprynted in the Cyte of Lond. in the Flete stret in the syne of the sonne by Wynken de Worde the yere of our lorde Mcccccii." William de Machlinia had a press even earlier than de Worde, "by Flete-brigge." Richard Pynson came in 1503 to the George, next St. Dunstan's Churchyard, and was succeeded there by Robert Redman. Thomas Berthelet had the sign of the Lucretia Romana in F. St., near to the conduit. Other printers of the 16th cent. were John Wayland at the Blue Garland; John Butler at the St. John Evangelist; and Robert Copeland at the Rose Garland. Richard Tottel, publisher of the famous Miscellany, was at the Hand and Star, between the 2 gates of the Temple, now No. 7. Darius was "Imprinted at London in Fleete-street beneath the Conduite at the sign of S. John Evangelist MDLXV." The 2nd quarto of Hamlet was "Printed by I. R. for N. L. and are to be sold at his shop under St. Dunstan's Ch. in F. St. 1604." Another edition was "Printed by W. S. for John Smethwicke and are to be sold at his shop in St. Dunstan's Churchyard in F.-st., under the Diall." Other St. Dunstan's printers were William Griffith, Richard Marriott, Matthias Walker, and John Browne. The 1st quarto of Midsummer Night's Dream was "sold at the shop of Thomas Fisher," at the Signe of the White Hart in Fleete-streete. 1600." John Hodgets published many plays of Dekker, Day, Webster, and Heywood at the sign of the Flower-de-Luce at the corner of Fetter Lane and F. St. Henry Wykes published at the Black Elephant, Lawrence Andrewe at the Golden Cross, Thomas at the King's Arms (No. 17), Anthony Clarke at the White Hart, and Richard Bankes next the White Hart. Phillip's Grissil was "Imprinted at London in Fleete-streat beneath the Conduit at the signe of St. John Evangelist by Thomas Colwell."

A disreputable business in irregular marriages was carried on within the liberties of the F. Prison (q.v.). In Barry's Ram iv., Thomas Smallshanks says to his friends, "Huffy the wench to F.-street; there my father and I will this morning be married "; and in the next scene one of them says to Thomas, "Away with her to F.-st.; go, the curate stays for you."

F. St. was a usual place for the exhibition of puppetplays, or "motions" as they were called. In Middleton's Trick to Catch i. 4, Dampit speaks of "motions of F.St, visions of Holborn." In Jonson's Volpone v. 2, the 1st Merchant says of the trick that has been played on Sir Politick: "'Twere a rare motion to be seen in F.-st." See also under F. BDGE. In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Peacham mentions amongst other curiosities "The F.-st. mandrakes." In Webster's Wyat, sc. xii, Arundel says, "Wyat is marched down F. St., after him!" In 1554 Wyat attacked Lond. and marched up F. St. as far as Ludgate, which was closed against him; and in the mle that followed he was taken prisoner. In Brome's Moor iv. 5, Quicksands says of the Inductor of the Masque: "He made the speeches last year before my Lord Marquess of F. Conduit."


The sign of a bookseller's shop in Lond. It was no doubt a representation of Pegasus. Davenant's Britannia was "Printed by John Haviland for Thomas Walkley and are to be sold at his shop at the F. H. near York House. 1637." Agrippina was published at the same place in 1639.


A tavern in Lond. I have not been able to locate it exactly. In T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, Valerius, in his song of the taverns, says, "The fool to the F. hie."


(Map M2)

A theatre in Lond., erected by Henslowe and Alleyn between Golding (now Golden) Lane and White Cross St., at the point now indicated by Playhouse Yard. The contract for the building with Peter Street is still preserved. It was 80 ft. square and cost 520. It was opened by the Admiral's men in November or December 1600, destroyed by fire in 1621, and rebuilt 2 years later in the more usual round form, with a figure of F. over the door. It was finally dismantled by the Puritans in 1649, and pulled down in 1662. In Middleton's R.G. v. 1, Moll says, "One of them is a nip; I took him once in the two-penny gallery at the F." In Tomkis, Albumazar ii. 1, Trincalo says, "Then will I confound her with compliments drawn from the plays I see at the F. and Red Bull." In Field's Amends ii. 1, Lord Fee-simple says, "Faith, I have a great mind to see Long Meg and the Ship at the F." Long Meg was performed first in 1594, and evidently retained its popularity; of The Ship nothing is known. In iii. 4, the Drawer says, "All the gentlewomen went to see a play at the F. and are not come in yet, and she believes they sup with the players." In Jonson's Poetaster iii. 1, Tucca says to Histrio (the actor), "You grow rich, do you? and purchase, you twopenny tear-mouth? you have F. and the good year on your side, you stinkard?" The above references are to the original theatre. Jonson, in his Execration upon Vulcan, refers to its destruction. "F., for being a whore, Scaped not his justice any jot the more; He burnt that idol of the Revels too." In Randolph's Muses, i. 1, Alm. Flowerdew, the Puritan, imprecating vengeance on the theatres, prays that "The F. [may be] whipt for a blind whore." In T. Heywood's Traveller iv. 6, Reignald says, "I'll rather stand here like a statue in the fore-front of your house, for ever, like the picture of Dame F. before the F. playhouse." In Vox Borealis (1641), we read of "a lamentable tragedy, acted by the prelacy against the poor players of the F. play-house." The players had staged a play, The Cardinal's Conspiracy, and were arrested for introducing altars, images, and crucifixes on the stage. Middleton's R.G. was "acted on the F.-stage "; and in the prologue the poet predicts "A Roaring Girl Shall fill with laughter our vast Theater." Melton, in The Astrologaster, speaks of men going "to the F. in Golding Lane, to see the tragedy of Doctor Faustus."

(Map L4)

St. in Lond., running N. from Cheapside to Gresham St. past the General Post Office. It was originally Fauster L., and got its name from the Ch. of St. Vaast, or Vedastus, which was built there early in the 16th cent. on the site of an older ch. It was partially destroyed in the Gt. Fire, and was taken down and rebuilt in 1694, with a particularly fine spire. Here John Manningham heard a sermon on 19 Dec. 1602, by "one Clappam, a black fellow with a sour look but a good spirit." At the Cheapside corner was the Dagger Tavern, noted for its pies. F. L. was chiefly occupied by goldsmiths and jewellers, and there were also some booksellers' shops. The W. side was almost all cleared away for the Post Office, and many houses on the E. side to make room for the Goldsmiths' Hall. One edition of Skelton's Colin Clout, about 1550, was "Imprynted at Lond. by Jhon Wallye dwelling in F. l." John Evangel. was "Imprinted at Lond. in F. L. by John Waley." Youth was "Imprinted by John Waley dwelling in F. L."


In As You Like It iv. 1, 155, Rosalind says, "I will weep for nothing like Diana in the f." The reference is probably to the Cross in Cheapside. Stow says, "On the E. side of the same Cross was then [1595] set up a curiously wrought tabernacle of grey marble and in the same an image alabaster of Diana, and water conveyed from the Thames trilling from her naked breast for a time, but now [1603] decayed." As the date of the play was 1600, the allusion would be well understood by the audience. For reference to Fountain Tavern, see under FLEET ST.


The sign of a bookseller's shop in St. Paul's Churchyard. The 1604 quarto of H4 A. was" Printed by Valentine Simmes for Matthew Law and are to be solde at his shop in Paules Churchyard at the signe of the Fox. 1604." The 1605 quarto of R3 was "Printed by Thomas Creede and are to be solde by Mathew Lawe dwelling in Paules Churchyard at the signe of the Foxe neare St. Austin's gate. 1605." Yarington's Two Tragedies was published at the same place by Lawe, 1601.

(Map P4)
(area only; site unmarked

Ch. of St. Anthony's Hospital in Threadneedle St., Lond., granted to the French Protestant refugees by Edward VI. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt, but the building of the New Royal Exchange required an approach in Threadneedle St., and it was pulled down. See under ST. ANTHONY'S HOSPITAL. In Mayne's s Match iv. 5, Baneswright says to Warehouse, "You must be married, Sir, at the F. Ch; I have bespoke the priest, one that will join you i' the right Geneva form without a licence." In Wapull's Tarrieth, B. 4, Helpe says, "To sell a lease dear, whoever that will, At the F. or Dutch ch. let him set up his bill; What an Englishman bids they will give as much more."


A Lond. house-sign near the Stocks Market, q.v. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B..282, Tawnie-Coat says, "Sure this is the lane; there's the Windmill there's the Dog's Head in the Pot; and here's the Fryer.,'


An abbreviated name for Blackfriars, q.v. Friar, formerly F., St., running from Carter Lane to Ireland Yard, preserves the name. In Jonson's Alchemist i. 1, Subtle mocks Face as "an Honest, plain, livery- three-pound-thrum, that kept Your master's worship's house here in the Friers ": it is in this house that the scene of the play is laid; in iv. 1, Mammon says of Doll: "This nook here of the Friers is no climate For her to live obscurely in." Lord Cobham had his house in the F., and writes to Mellersh in 1605 to let him know if his house at the F. is seized. In Killigrew's Parson v. 1, the Capt. says, "There's a new play at the Fryers to-day" i.e. the Blackfriars Playhouse.


A b. at Greenwich by the Convent of the Grey Friars, founded by Edward IV, and finally suppressed by Elizabeth. In Oldcastle iii. 4; the K. (Henry V) orders Butler, "Go down by Greenwich and command a boat, At the F. B. attend my coming down." The b. was over a small brook flowing into the Thames.

(Map M5)

Lond, running S. from Cheapside to Cannon St., between Old Change and Bread St. It gained its name from the fishmongers who sold fish there for consumption on Friday, the fast day in the Roman Catholic Ch. At the Cheapside corner was the Nag's Head Inn. The White Horse was at the end of the st. on the W. side. St. Matthew's Ch. stood on the W. side, but has now been pulled down. In Jonson's Christmas, Gambol announces: "Here's one o' F.-st. would come in." Christmas answers: "By no means, nor out of either of the Fish sts. admit not a man; they are not Christmas creatures; fish and fasting days! foh!" Gambol consequently announces: "No body out o' F. st. nor the 2 Fish sts. there, do you hear?" In Nabbes' Spring, Shrovetide calls Lent "This lean thingut starveling, begot by a Spaniard, and nursed at the lower end of F. st." One of Thos. Weelkes' Ayres (1608) begins: "The Ape, the Monkey, and Baboon did meet, And breaking of their fast in F. st. Two of them sware together, etc." In Peele's jests (1627), we read that "George was invited to supper one night at the White Horse in F. St."


In Worcester Place, which ran S. from Upper Thames St. The Mystery of F. in Lond. was incorporated in 1606 with a master, wardens, and assistants, and it was their custom to present the Lord Mayor every year with 12 bushels of apples. In Ford's Sun iv. 1, Folly calls Autumn "This apple-john Kent and warden of F. H."

(Map G4)
(area only; site unmarked)

(more properly FULWOOD'S RENTS). A court in Lond., opposite the end of Chancery Lane, leading from Holborn into Gray's Inn Walks. It was chiefly occupied by taverns and ale-houses, and had the privileges of sanctuary for debtors and other fugitives from justice. In Brome's Couple ii. 1, Careless, having got hold of some money, says, "I need no more insconsing now in the forts of F.-R. and Milford-lane, whose walls are daily battered with the curses of bawling creditors." In his Damoiselle i. 2, Bumpsey reproaches Dryground with his poverty, which makes him "live confined in Milford Lane or F. R. or who knows where."

(Map H4)

An Inn of Court in Lond., formerly an Inn of Chancery, and afterwards attached to Lincoln's Inn. It stood on the N. side of Holborn between Leather Lane and Brooke St., where F. I. Buildings now are. The Society ceased to exist in 1817, and the whole I. was rebuilt in 1818. Shirley's Bird was "Printed by B. Alsop and T. Fawcet for William Cooke, and are to be sold at his shop near F. I. Gate in Holborne. 1633."