Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher



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Arane is the queen mother of Arbaces and Panthea of Iberia. In Act two, Arane is brought before Arbaces, charged with plotting his assassination. Arbaces pardons his mother. In act three, when she meets Arbaces, Arane expresses no motherly love for the king and announces that she feels guilt only as a royal subject. At the end of the play, Arane returns. She tells the story of Arbaces origins. Arane confirms that she was the young wife of an old king and that the court feared the king's death without an heir. Arane refused to seek pregnancy by another man. She instead faked a pregnancy and made a deal to raise Gobrias's son, Arbaces, as the heir. Soon after, against the odds, Arane was impregnated by her elderly husband, resulting in the birth of the princess Panthea. Arane's anger at having another woman's child rule as king caused her to plot his death. After revealing Arbaces's parentage, Arane is silent onstage and silent for the remainder of the play.


Arbaces is the king, but at the same time not the king, of Iberia. We hear of Arbaces before he enters the stage. Arbaces is described by his most competent counselor Mardonius as "vain-glorious and humble, angry and patient, merry and dull, joyful and sorrowful." Arbaces comes onto the stage for the first time in the company of Tigranes, King of Armenia. Arbaces's forces have defeated the Armenians and Tigranes is a prisoner. Arbaces wants Tigranes to feel grateful for losing to such a worthy foe. Arbaces also plans to cement a union between nations by marrying Tigranes to Arbaces's sister Panthea. While Tigranes considers his options, Arbaces is scolded by Mardonius for his ill behavior as king. Arbaces initially rejects Mardonius's advice, but accepts the idea that his, Arbaces's temper must be controlled, not eliminated. Arbaces acts nobly when confronted by his mother's assassination plot. Arbaces announces that he will never wash away danger with his mother's blood. He pardons her with no strings attached. Arbaces continues to insist that Tigranes marry Panthea, even after Gobrias suggests that Panthea should be given leave to approve the match before it is settled. Arbaces humiliates Tigranes by presenting him before the Iberian people as a trophy. In act three, Arbaces shows respect for Arane and forgives her for plotting his assassination. Immediately following Arane's exit from the stage, Arbaces is dumbfounded by Panthea's entrance. The brother and sister had not met in years and Arbaces is overcome by attraction. The comic highpoint of the play comes when Arbaces stubbornly refuses to acknowledge Panthea as his sister. He vacillates between jailing her for bewitching her and releasing her to gain her favor. After meeting Panthea, Arbaces decided that she must not marry Tigranes and prevents the two to speak to one another by throwing Tigranes in prison. Arbaces then temporarily gains his senses, acknowledges Panthea as his sister, offers her a brotherly conciliatory kiss, becomes aroused and throws her into prison, too. Arbaces tells the audience he has been poisoned with incestuous thoughts. Arbaces confesses his desires to Mardonius and nearly loses his best counselor. Mardonius agrees to stay if Arbaces mends himself. Arbaces sends Mardonius away and recruits the coward Bessus to send Panthea a ring as a love token. Arbaces changes his mind when he sees how quickly Bessus agrees to the sin. In act four Arbaces releases Tigranes and tries to mend diplomatic fences, until Arbaces sees one of Panthea's servants speaking to Tigranes. He mistakenly assumes Tigranes is still pursuing Panthea and arrests Tigranes, along with Tigranes' secret lover Spaconia, again. After this outburst, Mardonius again scolds Arbaces. Arbaces agrees to Gobrias's request that the king speak with Panthea. When Arbaces sees Panthea, he explains that she is imprisoned to keep her from himself. He offers to grant her freedom if she will agree to be his mistress. He is surprised when Panthea rejects his offer, but expresses a desire for him. Arbaces and Panthea kiss and begin to plot an escape from their kingdom so that they can pursue their passion together. Just before Arbaces begins to murder his friends to free himself of their disapproval, Mardonius and Gobrias confront him. Arbaces first blames Gobrias for planting the seeds of incestuous desire in Arbaces's mind. Arbaces is surprised when Gobrias admits to the charge. Arbaces is overjoyed to learn from Gobrias and Arane that he, Arbaces, is not really Arane's son. In fact, Arbaces is Gobrias's son, taken secretly by Arane to serve as heir to Iberia's elderly childless king. Happily, the play ends with Arbaces free to pursue a marriage with Panthea.


Bacurius is an Iberian lord. Bacurius's function in the play is to torment Bessus. In act three, Bacurius challenges Bessus to a fight for the sole purpose of exposing the latter as a coward. Bacurius refuses to accept Bessus's excuses for postponement. Bacurius coerces Bessus into proclaiming himself a coward. Bacurius also takes Bessus's sword. In act five, it is Bacurius who brings Licones to see Spaconia. When Bacurius is confronted by the two loony swordsmen hired by Bessus, Bacurius easily beats the two men into submission. Bacurius even has his own servant beat the swordsmen and Bessus.


Bessus is an Iberian captain, a coward and the primary source of comic relief in the play. Bessus and Mardonius open the play on stage together. From the beginning, Mardonius labels Bessus a coward. It is learned that Bessus was an orphaned thief regularly beaten by his intended victims. While in the army, Bessus gains unintended fame in battle by retreating in the wrong direction. Instead of fleeing the enemy, he leads a group of soldiers straight into the jaws of the enemy. Instead of enjoying his glory, Bessus wishes to return to the low expectations of the cowardly life. Bessus helps Tigranes find a position for his lover Spaconia in Panthea's court. Bessus returns to court before the rest of the army and talks endlessly about himself when Panthea inquires about Arbaces's health. It is obvious that Bessus is lying about his brave acts since his account of battle contain no verifiable details. Bessus is puzzled that Mardonius does not expose Bessus as a coward. When Arbaces tries to claim that Panthea is not his sister, Bessus is the only person to agree. When Bessus is challenged to fight by three gentlemen, he avoids conflict by claiming to have a long list of men to fight. Bacurius challenges Bessus and refuses to accept the false story. Bacurius compels Bessus to admit cowardice. Bacurius also demands and receives Bessus's sword. After Mardonius refuses to help Arbaces woo his sister, Bessus readily agrees to the heinous task. In fact, it is Bessus's lack of scruples that temporarily snaps Arbaces back into sanity. Bessus is confronted by Spaconia's father Ligoces and blamed for the young woman's fall into whoredom. Bessus hires two swordsmen to restore his good name by confronting Bacurius. Bacurius easily beats Bessus and his hired help into submission. In fact, Bacurius's servant beats the three men as well. At the conclusion of the play, Bessus provides the final comic moment when he reminds Arbaces that he, Bessus, had been the only man to agree that Panthea was not the king's sister.


The boy accompanies Bessus and the two swordsmen hired by Bessus to confront Bacurius.


The citizens' wives accompany Philip in act two. The group is confronted by three men and a woman. Philip and the men exchange fighting words. The wives speak about life in the country.


A number of gentlemen accompany Arbaces and Tigranes on stage at near the beginning of the play. A number of gentlemen appear on stage at various times near the ending of the play as companions.


Gobrias is an Iberian lord. At the beginning of the play it is learned that Gobrias foiled a plot against Arbaces's life. Gobrias implores Arbaces, to no avail, to allow Panthea to choose her own husband. When Arane is accused on stage of conspiring to kill her son Arbaces, she looks at Gobrias as she claims to have good reason for her crime. It is eventually revealed that Gobrias is Arbaces's true father. When the Iberian kingdom found itself dangerously close to a disaster involving succession, Arane faked a pregnancy and made a deal with Gobrias to raise his son Arbaces as the true heir. Once Arane had a natural child of her own in Panthea, Gobrias devoted himself to saving his son's life by foiling assassination plots and conspiring to marry Arbaces off to Panthea.


Ligoces is an Armenian lord and Spaconia's father. He tracks his runaway daughter to Iberia and accuses her of becoming Tigranes's whore. He also condemns Bessus for helping Spaconia find a place in Panthea's service. When Tigranes suggests that he wishes to marry Spaconia, Ligoces claims to be thrilled as a father but disappointed as a loyal counselor and subject. Thankfully, Ligoces is made to accept the match.


Mandane is a waiting woman seemingly in Arane's service.


Mardonius is a brave honest soldier and chief counselor to Arbaces. Throughout the play, Mardonius repeatedly upbraids Arbaces for the latter's immature actions. In this way, Mardonius is a true father figure to the young distempered king. Mardonius sees through Bessus's alleged bravery, recognizing him as a coward. Instead of revealing Bessus's weakness, as Bacurius longs to do, Mardonius tortures Bessus by forcing him to deal with the obligations and burdens of a glorious reputation. When Arbaces confesses his incestuous desires to Mardonius, the honest counselor condemns the passions and threatens to leave Arbaces. Mardonius is the voice of reason and the moral center of the play. He repeatedly risks his own life by giving his master the frank advice he needs.


In act two, three men confront Philip and two citizens' wives. They challenge Philip to a fight.


A messenger brings greetings and a letter to Arbaces from Gobrias near the beginning of the play.


Panthea is an Iberian princess, Arane's daughter and thought for much of the play to be Arbaces's sister. For some reason, Panthea and her brother Arbaces were kept separate from one another through most of their childhoods. At the beginning of the play Arbaces announces his intention that Panthea wed the captured Armenian king Tigranes. Bessus presents Spaconia, disguised as a servant named Thalectris, to Panthea. Panthea accepts the girl and soon wing her confidence. Spaconia confesses her true identity to Panthea and the Iberian princess promises to help her new friend however possible. Panthea presents herself to Arbaces as a loving sister and loyal subject. Her beauty arouses incestuous urges in her brother. Arbaces accuses his sister of witchcraft and places her under house arrest. He goes so far as to deny their kinship. Arbaces soon regrets his actions and kisses Panthea to make amends. The kiss further arouses him and he again arrests Panthea. When Arbaces offers Panthea her freedom in exchange for sexual favors, she refuses the offer but admits to sharing her brother's forbidden desire. The two Iberian royals kiss again and surrender to their passion. It is luckily revealed soon after that Arbaces is not really Arane's son; consequently, Arbaces and Panthea are not brother and sister. Panthea is thus free to marry Arbaces.


Philip accompanies two citizens' wives in act two. When three men and a woman walk by and rustle one of the wives who is pregnant, Philip challenges the men to a fight. It is learned that Philip frequently fights and frequently loses.


Bacurius's servant fetched a stick with which his master beats Bessus and two goofy swordsmen. The servant gets the chance to beat the three fools a bit himself.


Spaconia is an Armenian maid and Tigrane's true love. She covertly infiltrates the Iberian court by accepting a position (assuming the name Thalectris) in Panthea's service. Spaconia is genuinely concerned that her love Tigranes will forsake her for Panthea. In fact, Tigranes does temporarily favor the Iberian princess. Spaconia wins Tigranes back due to her supreme devotion to him. After gaining access to the imprisoned Tigranes by presenting an official token of Panthea's, Spaconia scolds Tigranes impressively for his lack of rectitude. When Ligoces tracks Spaconia down in Iberia, he accuses his daughter of being a whore. Happily, it is demonstrated that Spaconia is a true maid and she wins the hand of Tigranes as her just reward.


Two swordsmen are hired by Bessus to confront Bacurius. The swordsmen have a strange philosophy concerning valor: it is their contention that men can acquire valor by suffering beatings. When the swordsmen meet Bacurius, they gain a great deal of such valor by absorbing a sound beating by the Armenian lord and his servant.


Tigranes is the king of Armenia. Before Tigranes enters the stage, it is learned that he has been captured by Arbaces, king of Iberia. Tigranes does not appreciate the way Arbaces constantly brags about his victory over the Armenian. Tigranes initially refuses to marry Arbaces's sister Panthea because he is secretly devoted to Spaconia; however, as soon as Tigranes sees Panthea, he forsakes Spaconia and falls for the Iberian princess. Tigranes is arrested by Arbaces for speaking to Panthea on account of Arbaces's incestuous passion. Tigranes finds himself in an awkward position, since before meeting Panthea he had covertly found a position for his lover Spaconia in the Iberian court. Tigranes soon regrets his fickle actions and devotes himself once again to Spaconia. Tigranes is abused further by Arbaces when the latter suspects the Armenian king is secretly pursuing Panthea. Tigranes is also confronted by Spaconia's father Ligoces and accused of whoring the Armenian maid. Finally, Tigranes is freed by Arbaces and accepted as a son-in-law by Ligoces.


Thalectris is the name assumed by Spaconia as she enters Panthea's service. Spaconia does not keep her true identity a secret from Panthea for very long.


A woman accompanies the three men in act two who confront Philip and the citizens' wives.


I.i: Mardonius and Bessus are speaking. The King of Iberia (Arbaces) has just defeated the king of Armenia (Tigranes) in single combat and thus ended a long war between the countries. Mardonius is an old soldier, Bessus is younger, greener, and courtlier.

We learn from their conversation that Bessus is a devout coward who accidentally won the main battle by retreating into the enemy and disrupting them. Mardonius tells us that Arbaces is a man of extreme emotions who can be turned from one end of the emotional spectrum to the other in a moment. Arbaces enters and boasts of his victory. Tigranes is unimpressed by the bragging. His king's pretentious crowing sickens Mardonius. Arbaces swears he will marry Tigraces off to his sister, Panthaea, whom he hasn't seen since she was nine years old, but whom the Lord Protector of Iberia (good old Gobrius) reports as beautiful. Tigranes is not made happy by news of the marriage.

When Mardonius gently rebukes Arbaces for boasting, the King rants at him, claiming that he has earned the right to boast-that he says nothing that he did not first accomplish in feats of arms. Mardonius replies that Arbaces is the best of men, that where he not king Mardonius would choose him to be king, but that the boasting is too extreme. At last Arbaces checks himself a little.

Arbaces learns in a letter from Gobrius that the Queen Mother, Arane, has been caught in a plot to poison her son the king. We learn that this is not the first attempt she has made upon Arbace's life. But-contrary to his earlier anger-Arbaces grants Arane a full pardon. This act is in keeping with Arbaces' reputation of vacillating between the extremes of emotion. He has pardoned his mother on every occasion in the past. On every occasion, it was Gobrius who discovered plots and saved Arbaces.

I.ii: Tigranes has his fiancée, Spaconia, given to Panthaea as a waiting woman. Spaconia is to try to talk Panthaea out of marrying Tigranes. She is sent under the escort of Bessus.

II.i: In Iberia, Gobrius and Bacurius are not pleased at having to hold the Queen Mother prisoner. Panthaea is saddened by her mother's imprisonment, but also happy to have her brother return. There is a hint between Arane and Gobrius that they share some secret and each understands why Arane tries to kill the king.

Acarius is amazed to hear that Bessus has been a hero in the war. Bessus' reputation was that of a coward. Bessus had wronged many men under protection of being a mere fool. Bacurius was one of the men he wronged. Bacurius had considered it beneath his dignity to challenge Bessus. But now that Bessus is a war hero, he may be challenged and made to answer for his earlier wrongs to all of these gentlemen.

Bessus enters. He carries Arane's pardon, and he gives Spaconia to Panthaea. He is called upon to relate the story of the king's single combat, but when he insists upon relating his own important role in the battle he is dismissed as wearisome.

Panthaea longs to see her heroic brother about whom she has heard so much. Spaconia asks her not to accept Tigranes for her husband because Spaconia and he are in love. Panthaea promises to honor her request.

II.ii: In a mob scene the people of Iberia witness the return of Arbaces from the wars. It is a funny scene full of foolish city rustics.

III.i: Gobrius tells Arbaces what a fine sister he has, how lovely and virtuous. He almost encourages Arbaces into an incestuous relationship with her. He tells Arbaces how she has wept at the news of Arbaces's injuries and rejoiced at his victories.

When Panthaea meets Arbaces in court for the first time in years, she is immediately smitten with him. He feels the guilty pangs of incestuous love for her and at first refuses to believe that she is his sister. But when Tigranes is also smitten by her and begs to be introduced to his bride, Arbaces becomes jealous. Panthaea fears that she does not please her brother and that he wishes to renounce his relationship to her. Spaconia is upset that Tigranes has fallen so easily for the woman. Arbaces sends Tigranes to prison in his jealousy, though he masks it by saying that it is because Tigranes will not rule his tongue in court. When Arbaces kisses Panthaea, he feels the rush of incestuous lust and, to distance himself from sin, sends her to be kept close in her room.

III.ii: Bessus is in real trouble. Two hundred thirteen challenges have come to him, the last being Becarius' demand. He became captain when an Aunt died and left a fortune to a cousin who bought him an army of men. He decides to make all his challengers aware that he is a coward to avoid fighting. He confesses himself a coward to Becarius and gives him his sword to prove it.

III.iii: Arbaces asks Mardonius to be his bawd and acquire Panthaea for him. Mardonius flatly refuses and tries to talk Arbaces out of the sinful liaison. Arbaces is momentarily convinced to avoid incest. But when Bessus enters, Arbaces asks him to be his bawd and obtain Panthaea for him. Bessus is all too willing, offering to obtain his mother for him too. The willingness of the foolish Bessus brings Arbaces again to his senses. He beats Bessus out of the room and swears to avoid sinning with his sister.

IV.i: Gobrius has advised Panthaea to write a letter of contrition to Arbaces requesting to know why she should be imprisoned. He takes the letter himself to Arbaces. Spaconia asks Panthaea to help her to see Tigranes in prison. Panthaea gives her a ring as token to allow her to pass the guards and see her love.

IV.ii: Tigranes in prison laments his own inconsistency. He feels remorse at having behaved so badly in court in front of Spaconia. He feels his imprisonment is justified by his infidelity alone. Spaconia enters and upbraids him but, seeing him contrite, accepts his love again. Arbaces comes to the prison to ease Tigranes's imprisonment, but when he sees Panthaea's maid there with Panthaea's ring as token he grows jealous again. He sends Tigranes and Spaconia to be imprisoned together, which is fine with Spaconia.

Gobrius enters with the letter from Panthaea. He assures Arbaces that Panthaea does not love Tigranes. He entreats Arbaces to send to Panthaea and let her know why she is imprisoned. Arbaces agrees.

IV.iii: Bessus confers with two swordsmen about his plight. They assure him that being beaten is a sign of true valor. They go off with Bessus to hear him tell Bacurius that the beating he has received from Bacurius has made him valorous.

IV.iv: Arbaces tells Panthaea privately that he lusts after her. He begs her both to yield and to resist him in a speech that offers a well-balanced insight into his own inner conflict. To make matters worse, she says she also could love him as a wife. They determine to fight their sinful passions and live as brother and sister. Siblings hold hands, and so they do. Siblings kiss, and so they do. But the kiss changes from compassion to passion, and they avoid each other in shock and disgust.

V.i: Ligones, Spaconia's father, enters with an offer of ransom for Tigranes. He wishes it to be presented to Arbaces. He confesses to Mardonius that he is upset that Spaconia has run off with a cowardly Iberian named Bessus. When Bessus enters with the swordsmen, Ligones beats him for stealing Spaconia. Bessus is soundly thrashed before he can explain that he only brought her to Iberia at Tigranes' bidding. Ligones apologizes, which keeps Bessus' honor intact. Ligones fears that his daughter has turned whore to his king.

V.ii: Ligones visits Tigranes and Spaconia in their cell. He bemoans the loss of his daughter to whoredom, but Tigranes tells him that Spaconia will be his Queen. Ligones is overjoyed.

V.iii: Bessus and the swordsmen find Bacurius and tell him that Bessus will accept his apology for beating him. Instead, Baconius beats the swordsmen, who prove greater cowards than Bessus. They give up their swords to Bacurius. Bessus and the swordsmen retire to drink their valiant beating.

V.iv: Arbaces is at the brink of insanity. His sword drawn, he is determined to kill Gobrius, ravish Panthaea, and commit suicide. Mardonius temporarily talks him out of it. Gobrius enters determined to expose his secret to Arbaces.

Arbaces accuses Gobrius of being a subtle bawd who has praised Panthaea to him in letters and in person until Arbaces can love none but her. Gobrius agrees that it is true. Arbaces then offers to kill Gobrius, who informs him that he would be committing patricide. Arane enters. Arbaces accuses her of cuckolding the king with Gobrius and making Arbaces a bastard king. Threatened with death, Arane confirms Gobrius' story. She had married an old king, could not get a child by him, so offered to make Gobrius' child king if Gobrius would pretend it was her child. The plan worked until the old king succeeded in making Arane pregnant with Panthaea.

Arane is not Arbaces's mother nor is Panthaea his sister. Arbaces is overjoyed to learn that he is not king. He calls together the court. He gives Tigranes back to Ligones without collecting a ransom and promises to send both him and Spaconia home with riches and in high style. Panthaea enters and learns that she is Queen. She immediately determines to make Arbaces her consort. All ends happily.


Arbaces is immediately identified as a man of passionate extremes. These extremes make him at once a perfect character for a play that depends so much on the rule of passion and which needs to make Arbaces something less than a perfect king (thus there is no trouble accepting his removal from the throne in Act V). His passions ricochet from incest to virtuous forbearance to near insanity and are the main driving conflict of the action of the plot.

Tigranes is a more stable king, although he does slip when he first sees Panthaea. His infidelity is momentary, however, and his slip at seeing Panthaea is made more to underscore her beauty and attractions than his vacillation or Spaconia's inability to hold her man.

Gobrius is a small part with a great deal of importance to the happy resolution. He is a staid minister of the people who appears to have a nasty secret, which makes him interesting, but who ultimately has only a pristine secret that reaffirms him as a staid minister of the people. Neatly constructed.

Bacurius is a soldier of conscience. He does not like his first role in the play as jailer to the Queen Mother. He has reservations about imprisoning Tigranes and without reservation allows visits from Spaconia. He also will not suffer fools and beats Bessus and the two swordsmen when they step upon his honor.

Mardonius is an older soldier and apparently Arbaces's best friend and counselor. He is the solid backbone of judgment, a commodity which Arbaces lacks. Arbaces in his passionate fits ultimately listens to Mardonius to his benefit.

Bessus is the fool in Arbaces's court. Although he-like Osric or Polonius in Claudius' court-might be used to demonstrate that Iberia is a state in decline and that Arbaces is luxurious, he is the only member of the court whom Arbaces rejects outright, going so far as to beat him out of doors. Arbaces, then, can be seen as a man of enough judgment to be a good king. His judgement rises only so far, and he desperately needs his three strong counselors-Mardonius, Gobrius, and Bacurius.

Arane is almost no character at all. Her main importance is in trying to poison the king (thus leaving the audience to wonder what is wrong with her son) and confirming Gobrius' story, which leads to the happy resolution.

Spaconia is the typical ingenue. She has little interest outside of following her man and loving him.

Panthaea is more interesting. She is also made in the pattern of the typical ingenue-ingenuous, virtuous, beautiful-but she succumbs to a sinful temptation. She cannot resist the sexual allure of Arbaces anymore than he can resist hers.

The mob depicted in act two is written along the lines of City Comedy characters. They strongly resemble the apprentice characters found in Dekker and Thomas Heywood as well as in Beaumont's The Knight of the Burning Pestle.

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Notes of Interest:

This, along with Philaster, is considered the best of Beaumont & Fletcher's tragi-comedies.

There seems to be little reason for setting the play in Iberia / Armenia. The characters barely refer to their settings at all, and the places have no direct relation to the play itself.

The mob scene in act two acts mainly as an opportunity for large spectacle. The number of actors on the stage may or may not have been large, but the anticipation they build for the parade and Royal speech indicates that the pomp must have been remarkable.

Arbaces's habit of extremes seems to dwindle in III.iii. At first he lusts after Panthaea and requests the stout Mardonius to be bawd. Mardonius's rebuke corrects him. Still, he requests Bessus to be his bawd. Bessus' eagerness disgusts Arbaces and galvanizes him to virtue, at least for the moment. We see in Arbaces, then, a man whose passions may lead but whose judgment controls. That he would lust incestuously and request bawdry from his friends indicates his passion's influence, but his ability twice to choose virtue indicates his self control. He is neither as staid as Mardonius nor as libertine as Bessus. Therefore, Arbaces's real problem is not the extremes of his emotions, but the vacillation and the struggle to choose between passion and judgment. The tension nearly drives him insane by V.iv.

Bessus, on another level, is an apt foil to Arbaces. Both men have distinguished themselves in the war: Arbaces intentionally through bravery, Bessus unintentionally through cowardice. Both men brag about their achievements early in the play: Arbaces truthfully though vaingloriously, Bessus untruthfully. Both men have reason to repent their braggadocio: Arbaces for making himself a fool to his court and Tigranes, Bessus for making himself a target for the men he has wronged. Arbaces's beating of Bessus in III.iii foreshadows his own resolve to commit suicide in V.iv; in both instances Arbaces is trying to overcome his inner turmoil regarding the incest.

Plays to be compared:

Middleton's The Second Maid's Tragedy (for the action of a defeating monarch sending the defeated monarch to prison with the woman he loves);

Marlowe's Tamburlaine 1 & 2 (for the image of the Miles Gloriosus figure in Renaissance drama. Compare also the magnanimity Tamburlaine shows to the Sultan of Egypt and Arbaces shows to both Arane and Gobrius-all three parental figures who are spared their lives only because of their familial ties to the main character);

Shakespeare's Measure for Measure, Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy (for the problem of a woman's purity creating a lustful man);

Webster's The Duchess of Malfi, Chapman's The Gentleman Usher, and Shakespeare's Measure for Measure (for a comparison of the de praesenti-type marriage, hinted at between Spaconia and Tigranes in Spaconia's lines at II.i.293-95).

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