"A ghost character" in Jordan's Money is an Ass. Feminia suggests Felixina may favor Mr. Vain over Money.


Vain Delight is a character in "The Triumph of Time," the final play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He follows Anthropos until he is released from service.


A personified figure in Wilmot's Tancred and Gismunda. He accompanies Cupid when he arrives from the heavens to assert his power. Cupid has a blue twist of silk in his right hand, which is apparently held by or attached to Vain Hope and Brittle Joy.


Vainglory accompanies Pride in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.


Vainman is one of Jacinta's suitors in Shirley's The Example. He and Pumicestone agree that whichever of the two suitors wins Jacinta will pay one thousand pounds to the loser–to cover courting costs.


Val Cutting is a roarer in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. According to Edgworth, Cutting helps Captain Whit to roar. In addition, Cutting is a "circling boy," and his role is that of a thief's bully or decoy. At the Fair, Cutting is in the company of Wasp, Knockem, Northern, Puppy, and Whit. They play a game of "vapours," which is nonsense: every person has to oppose the last person that spoke, whether it concerned them or not. In fact, it is a confusion-generating activity enhanced by a large amount of drinking. During the commotion created by the drunken brawl, Edgworth steals the marriage license out of Wasp's box, while Knockem and Whit steal all the men's cloaks. Since the game of "vapours" invariably ends in a fight, all men draw their swords, taking off their cloaks. So, Knockem gathers all the cloaks and Whit takes them away. After the brawl, Cutting leaves with Quarlous.


Valarius is a friend of Collatine, but has no distinct political allegiances in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece. Initially, he is happy to serve Tarquin but quickly grow disenchanted and, possibly, a bit mad. He begins to answer his friends in Ophelia-like song. Horatius Cocles calls him "either mad or love-sicke." Collatine suspects that Valarius is merely mad-in-craft, biding his time before striking at Tarquin. He is ordered to join Sextus, Collatine, Brutus, and Mutius Scevola in Ardea, leaving Porsenna's forces in charge of Rome. He is present at the drunken banquet in which Sextus belligerently denies Collatine's claim to having the most virtuous wife. Collatine decides that is might be nice to visit Valarius', Horatius Cocles', Aruns', and Mutius Scevola's respective wives, and then Collatine's wife, Lucrece. Soon after their return, Pompie delivers a letter to Valarius, Brutus, Collatine, Horatius Cocles, and Mutius Scevola asking them to come quickly to Lucretius' house. When they arrive, Lucrece tells her story and then kills herself then kills herself. Once civil war breaks out, Valarius stops singing and fights bravely. The printed text, however, includes an appendix of yet more songs by Valarius, which Heywood admits were added by a stranger who "lately acted Valerius his part."


A don in Dekker's Noble Spanish Soldier. He is present when the contract is burned and sides with the King against Medina's faction. He attends the wedding of Onælia and Cockadillio.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Captain. Lelia's father notes that he was a Spanish lord and the prior inhabitant of the house that is now Angilo's. The "Don Valasco" referred to is probably based on the historical Don Luis de Velasco (the Younger) who was viceroy of "New Spain" from 1590-1595 and 1607-1611. He also reportedly was in the entourage of Philip II during his marriage to Mary Tudor (1554).


Valdemar is a near cousin to Reyner in Burnell's Landgartha. He fights with Reyner against Frollo. When Reyner becomes melancholic, he talks to Inguar about substituting Hubba or Cowsell for Reyner. Later, also in love with one of the Amazons, he proposes marriage to Scania who accepts him as her husband. He also prepares the masque in order to enhance the legitimate right to the throne by his king. He is successful in his purpose and, at the end of the masque, everybody dances and each couple goes to bed together. However, when Reyner wants to come back to Denmark, Valdemar tries to deter him from making such a mistake. Valdemar threatens to overthrow Reyner because Valdemar is now in favor of Landgartha. He is going to use Harrold, who also has a right to the throne of Denmark.

VALDES **1592

Faustus' pair of acquaintances Valdes and Cornelius in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, whom Faustus declares his "dearest friends," seduce him into learning magic "to canonize" all three together. See Cornelius for details.

VALDES **1596
A messenger for King Phillip of Spain in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley.

VALDES **1608

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Pericles. A great pirate to whom the pirates who abduct Marina are in service.


A "ghost character" in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon. According to Como, he leads the third squadron of the Babylonian Armada sent to attack Titania.


A "ghost character" in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon. According to Como, he is a "haughty" aristocrat who leads the fourth squadron of the Babylonian Armada sent to attack Titania. He is taken prisoner without resistance when the Armada is attacked.


A variant spelling of Valentinus, a "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure also sometimes spelled Valentius.


[Vectius or Urctius] Valens is a favourite of the Empress in Richards' Messalina. He helps lure Silius from his book. He is killed by Claudius' troops when they storm the wedding party.


A Roman tribune who is involved in the second Roman attempt at invading Britain in The Valiant Welshman. When Caradoc is captured, Manlius Valens takes him to Rome.


Montano's Venetian niece in the anonymous Costly Whore, she is the celebrated courtesan of Meath, where she gives her banished uncle hospitality. She inflames the heart of the Duke, who marries her against the wishes of his son and most of his subjects. When Frederick captures her in battle, she is saved from his fury by her husband's abject appeal, but seconds Montano in advising the Duke to mistrust his pardoned son. She bears the Duke's warrant to the jail, and offers to free Frederick if he will love her. When he remains steadfast in his condemnation, she gives him a cup of poison, and escorts his body to the Duke. The cup contains only a strong sleeping potion, however; when the Duke realizes what a tyrant he has been, she reveals her subterfuge, and takes advantage of the moment to call for justice on Alfrid and Hatto. She also urges her husband to hand over the government of Saxony to Frederick, and to repent their lustful ways and retire with her to a hermit's life of prayer and mortification.


Princess Valentia is the Duke of Mantua's only daughter in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. She is locked in a tower where she will be protected from any visitor. There, she is visited by Antonio, whose love she accepts. However, they are seen by Florence, Ferrara and Julio. Thus, she receives her father who has come to find out what has really happened. He will come back soon when Julio informs him about Antonio's second visit, but he will only find the young lady and the Duchess sleeping. On that occasion, she promises her father that he is the person she loves most. Nevertheless, she is to marry Prospero and attends the wedding disguised as a Spanish Lady.


Valentine is one of the two Veronese gentlemen for whom Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona is named. Convinced that being in love is profitless, Valentine promptly falls for the Duke's daughter Silvia at court. Banished when he tries to elope with Silvia, Valentine joins a band of outlaws that later capture Silvia while she searches their forest hideaway for Valentine. Valentine's honorable spirit wins over the Duke near the play's conclusion, and he gains permission to wed Silvia.


Valentine, a kinsman of Titus, helps Titus capture Demetrius and Chiron in Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus.


Possibly a "ghost character" and certainly a non-speaking part in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet; the brother of Mercutio, and one of the guests invited to the Capulet feast. Valentine could plausibly be one of the masquers who attend the party with Romeo, Mercutio and Benvolio.


Francisco Colonnia's man in Jonson's The Case is Altered. Becomes Onion's page, and makes up a colorful life story to win tips from the newly rich Onion and Juniper.


Valentine is an attendant to Orsino in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. He is the first one sent to see Olivia and returns, unsuccessful, to describe Olivia's plan to mourn her brother for seven years and refuse all male company during that time. He comments to the disguised Viola that after only three days Orsino is attached to her, and, after being dismissed by the entering Orsino, is seen no more.


Valentine is the elder brother of Francisco in Fletcher's Wit Without Money. He inherited his father's estate but has used up all his money in prodigal living. He thinks running an estate is too much bother and the world owes him a living. He thinks that if a person has wit he doesn't need money. Valentine uses his charisma to get money, clothes, horses, and the like from his admirers, which include the Widow's three suitors, Bellamore, Fountain, and Hairbrain. Valentine is contemptuous of his Uncle's concern for his estate, the ethics of landowners, and people who are motivated by money. He is uninterested in marriage, and unfeeling towards the Tenants he has displaced by neglecting his estate. While talking to the rich Widow on behalf of the three suitors, Valentine falls in love with her himself. When the three suitors grow angry with him and take back the clothes they have given him, Valentine remains arrogant and defiant, yet admits to himself when alone that he has a need–which is immediately satisfied by an anonymous gift of clothes and money from the Widow. Valentine ultimately succeeds in his attempt to live by his wits and other people's money.


Valentine is a trickster in S.S's Honest Lawyer who first masquerades as a physician to bilk Gripe out of money. Both Curfew and Vaster fight with him when he attempts to rob them, and then join with him to rob first Sagar, Bromley and Griffin and then Gripe. Later all three disguise themselves as fairies and terrify and rob Gripe in his house. The three give their money to Vaster's wife for safekeeping and when they find she has given it to Vaster they have her arrested. Valentine accuses her in the trial scene and when Vaster reveals himself, admits that Vaster's wife is cleared, but Valentine himself is not punished.


A wealthy, elderly merchant-traveler, given to long voyages in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas. Some years before the play begins he lost his young son in a sea battle; his wife died a few days later from grief. Encouraged by his sister Alice, he has reared his young ward, Cellide, to become his second wife. He arrives home, bringing with him a young protégé, Francis, with whom he offers to share all his goods (except Cellide). When he realizes that Cellide is the only thing Francis wants and that he will die for love of her, he reluctantly brings himself to ask her to shift her affections to his young friend. Terribly distressed when this turns her against him, he is thrilled when Francis nobly declines to enjoy her. Agonized again by Francis' disappearance and Cellide's flight into a nunnery, he asks Michael to retrieve Francis and mistakenly entreats 'Dorothy' (actually Thomas in disguise) to bring Cellide out of the convent. When he discovers that Francis is really his own lost son, he happily gives him Cellide's hand and goes off to celebrate the young people's nuptials.


Valentine is Dryground's son in Brome's The Damoiselle. To his marriage with Jane, he is to bring his father's 1,000 pounds plus 100 pounds that his father is to give him every year. But, he has to go through a test. He has to prove to his father-in-law that he is a good businessman by running half of his businesses. Meanwhile, he will bring a letter and money from Brookall's son to his father. He is scorned by an angry father and has to defend himself from his father's enemy's accusations. Later, he will be asked by Vermine and Sir Amphilus about Alice but he answers back vaguely. He takes advantage of such an opportunity to blame the usurer for trying to match his daughter and for rejecting his son. He will also go to the brothel where he meets Frances and finding noble features in her, he will pay ten pieces of gold to take her out of the house. Valentine tells Vermine where to find Alice and in case that she is not there he suggests that the usurer visit him and he will tell him about her. Later, he will come back to Brookall and give him his forty pounds and tell him that there is a boat waiting for him to escape. He asks Brookall to keep the money for one or two days. He will also help Wat once again when he is arrested because Valentine had defended from the justice in the past. It is only a game to make him learn a lesson.


Thorowgood’s friend and suitor to Grace in Glapthorne’s Wit in a Constable. He goes with Sir Timothy Shallowit to court the ladies and gives as tartly as he receives until Grace quite fancies him. Both Grace and Clare send word to meet them, and he agrees to help set Thorowgood’s witty device into motion with them. When he quickly wins Grace’s love he confesses that the plan was to dress him as Sir Timothy’s niece to allow him free access to court Grace supposedly for the knight but actually in his own name. Now, however, he intends to go through with it insofar as dressing like a woman will allow him and Grace to sneak away to be married. Almost at once, though, Knowell and Thorogood expose the disguise to Covet. He learns from “Luce" (Maudlin intended?) that Clare and Grace are secretly contracted to marry Sir Timothy and Jeremy. “Freewit," Jeremy, Clare, and Grace meet in the street and exchange insults bred of wounded feelings until the men realize that the women still love them. They offer marriage, but the women scorn them. Busie has overheard and assures them that the women love them. Both “Freewit" and Valentine are to get marriage licenses and meet at Busie’s house at nine. There he marries Grace.


Stepson to Captain Hardy and a wastrel gentleman in Brome's The New Academy. Denied money from his mother's estate by his stepfather, he has been supplied with money by his companion Erasmus and by London tradesmen's wives whom he seduces. At the beginning of the play, he and Erasmus have arrived for dinner at Old Matchil's house in hopes of securing a match with either Joyce or Gabriella. Upon learning that Matchil is mourning the news of his son's death, Valentine delights in the fact that Joyce has now become her father's sole heir. After learning that Joyce has been disinherited, he turns his attention to seducing Hannah Camelions and Rachel Maudlin. Hannah rejects his suggestions that they should steal away for a secret meeting, but she does give him money. Rachel, on the other hand, agrees to accept him as a "servant" and is receptive to his invitations to visit Hyde Park and the New Academy until she talks with Old Matchil. Valentine shrewdly surmises that she and Matchil have struck an agreement whereby he will be dominant in the public eye and she in private life. He is, thus, undaunted and slips away with her to the New Academy. While there, he flirts with Lady Nestlecock and asks Hannah for more money. Rafe overhears the latter exchange and flies into a jealous rage. Valentine refuses to reassure Rafe that he has not had sex with Hannah, so Hannah is forced to reveal that she is actually his half-sister. He is then left to pursue a match with Lady Nestlecock.


Valentine is the handsome son to Sir Plenteous, and lover of Sabina in Chamberlain's Swaggering Damsel. He is advised by his friend to renounce Sabina's love but as soon as she arrives in Act One, he kneels down to pay a compliment to her. In Act Two, Valentine is miserable because he does not have the love of his beloved Sabina, what makes his friend Sportlove cheer him up. Soon, Valentine receives a letter from Sabina who invites him to visit her. He is advised by Sportlove to get to sleep with the lady, which he does. After that, he does not want to see her again. Thus, Valentine disguises himself as a woman to go unnoticed. He is thought to have escaped to Lincoln, but he actually stays at Welt´s.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


A "ghost character" in Shirley's The School of Compliment. This gentleman has supposedly requested a speech from the Compliment School.


The tyrannous Emperor of Rome in Fletcher's Valentinian; effeminate, self-centered and of an almost infantile willfulness, he is also paranoically afraid of treason. At first impressed by Aëtius' virtuous honesty, he becomes suspicious of him when he receives a forged letter, circulated by Maximus, suggesting Aëtius' traitorous intentions, and hires the discontented soldier Pontius to kill him. Besotted with Lucina, Maximus' chaste and virtuous wife, whom he craves for her chastity and (moral and physical) health, Valentinian is able to lure her to the court with the aid of a ring won from her husband during a game of dice. Lucina resists his advances, and he ends by raping her. Although her death from shame soon afterwards sets off Maximus' vendetta against Valentinian, he is finally poisoned by Aretus, who thereby avenges Aëtius. Valentinian is succeeded briefly by Maximus and then by his widow Eudoxa.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure also sometimes spelled Valencius and Valentius. A lord of Vienna and friend to Duke Vincentio. When the Duke decides to "return" to Vienna in his own guise, he has Friar Peter deliver letters to Valentinus, Crassus, Flavio, and Rowland, telling them to meet with him.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Tybalt's cousin, who is invited to the Capulet feast.


Valentio is a religious man in Shirley's Grateful Servant whom Foscari calls upon for help in entering the priesthood. Valentio also knows that Leonora is masquerading as the page Dulcino. At the ceremony during which Foscari and Dulcino are to receive their monk's habits, Valentio shows the duke certain papers that reveal Dulcino as Leonora.


A variant spelling of Valentinus, a "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure also sometimes spelled Valencius.


Valentius is a gallant in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped. He is in love with Vanderman's wife, and with the aid of Lodowick disguises as a madman to get access to her at her husband's lunatic asylum. In the madhouse, Valentius professes his love to the Doctor's Wife, and she requites it. When the Doctor appears around, he beats him. But Fub warns the Doctor that Valentius is seeing his wife. Valentius writes a letter to his friends, telling them to come and rescue him; they arrive to collect him and he pretends to be "cured." In the final scene, the Duke orders Valentius to pay for Vanderman's cure for cuckoldry.

VALERIA **1589

Valeria is a servant to Aurelius, who, ordered by Aurelius and Polidor, disguises himself as a music teacher for Kate in the Anonymous The Taming of a Shrew. He is then sent to Alfonso's house by Polidor in order to distract Kate and give her sisters time to meet their lovers. He has a disastrous music lesson with Kate. He appears to flirt with her, and she threatens him with bodily harm before storming out. Later, he convinces the merchant Phylotus to pretend to be Aurelius' father and create a marriage contract with Alfonso. He then impersonates the Duke of Sesto's son and promises to provide yearly gifts to Alfonso to honor the marriage of his "friend" Aurelius to Phylema. He flees when his plot is discovered and the Duke threatens to have him arrested, but he appears again in the wager scene and is responsible for delivering the message to each wife that she is to come to her husband.

VALERIA **1608

An aristocratic Roman woman in Shakespeare's Coriolanus. Valeria has a reputation for chastity. She accompanies Virgilia and Volumnia in the effort to convince Coriolanus to spare Rome.

VALERIA **1615

A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas. Another of the sexual conquests Thomas claims in order to keep his father from marrying them.

VALERIA **1616

Valeria is the rich widow for whom Middleton's The Widow is named. She is the sister of Philippa. She intends to be extremely particular in her choice of a second husband, for she does not wish to wed anyone who pursues her solely for her money. Consequently, she plans to give a suitor a great trial before accepting him. Tricked by Ricardo into promising marriage, Valeria prosecutes her case legally and has him incarcerated. By the end of the play she feels that Ricardo is interested in her person and not her wealth, and the two plan to wed.

VALERIA **1633

Valeria is the daughter of Littlegood and Mistress Fondling, sister of Aemilia and Lackwit in Marmion's A Fine Companion. She loves Aurelio but cannot wed him because he has been disinherited. Courted by Spruse, she accidentally drops a ring given her by Aurelio. Spruse finds it and tries to convince Aurelio that she gave it him as a gift, but he is finally forced to confess the truth. Valeria pretends to be mad, and Aurelio-disguised as a doctor and now aided by Spruse-takes her away ostensibly for a cure and weds her.

VALERIA **1641

Valeria is the Duchess' second waiting woman in Shirley's The Cardinal . She at first admires D'Alverez of all men in court, but allows herself to be persuaded by Celinda to prefer Columbo. She later determines that Columbo, who has released her mistress from a promise of marriage, is not worthy of admiration.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas. Sebastian claims that he can marry Valeria because her husband is dying, but Thomas retorts that not only has he already slept with her, but that her husband is recovered.

VALERIO **1604

Valerio is the son of Gostanzo in Chapman's All Fools. He is a wastrel, in debt, interested only in gambling, drinking and women, but he has convinced his father that he is a dutiful hard working merchant who has never had a drink and is actually afraid of women. He is secretly married to Gratiana, but realizes his father will disown him if he reveals he has married without permission. He agrees to take part in Rinaldo's scheme and when Fortunio and Gratiana (pretending to be the married couple) arrive at Gostanzo's house, he pretends he cannot even look at Gratiana. However, his father later catches him kissing Gratiana. Rinaldo convinces Gostanzo to play a trick on Marc Antonio by pretending that it is Valerio and Gratiana who are married, and that he is enraged. Valerio plays the repentant son, even going so far as offering to divorce Gratiana and live with the sin of perjury to make his father happy. At this, Gostanzo forgives him and claims that the marriage is acceptable to him. Valerio is gulled himself when Cornelio and Dariotto trick him into believing he is a talented musician and then lack and mock him when he plays and sings. He vows revenge on them and makes Cornelio believe that Dariotto is having an affair with Cornelio's wife Gazetta, leading to Cornelio wounding Dariotto and attempting to divorce Gazetta. Valerio does not attempt to set any of this right, but in the end, all the tricks are revealed and Valerio reminds his father of his vow to accept the marriage, so Gostanzo has no choice but to do so. After Cornelio is lectured on his jealousy and claims that it has merely been a way to control his wife, Valerio stands on a chair and gives a very long and undramatic prose speech in praise of cuckolds.


A Country gentleman in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Coxcomb. He meets Viola after she has been tied up and robbed by Tinker and Dorothie. He helps her, but she refuses to reveal her true name. She tells him that she would be willing to work for his wife as a maid, but he tells her that his wife will not tolerate beautiful women in their house. He offers to set her up in a house where he can visit her—he can see by her hands that she is not used to working and is surely a gentlewoman. She refuses this offer and tells him that she wants no visits form a married man. At her request, Valerio leaves her on the side of the road and they part ways. Ricardo hears that Valerio knows of Viola's whereabouts and Valerio confesses that he left her in a field in the country. They find her with Nan and Madge who are reluctant to leave her with two men.


A "ghost character" in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort. The King of Sicily, he assists in re-installing Ferdinand to the throne of Thessaly and provides his daughter in marriage to Prince Sigismund.

VALERIO **1624

Valerio, described in the dramatis personae of Fletcher's A Wife for a Month as "a noble young Lord," is in love with Evanthe. Evanthe is also the object of desire of the wicked Frederick, usurping King of Naples. When Frederick learns that Evanthe returns Valerio's affections, he devises a curious punishment: Valerio will marry Evanthe but only for a month after which time he will be put to death. Initially, Valerio is thrilled with the King's sentence. He reckons that he will have the best of both worlds: being able to marry and enjoy the woman he loves without having to live long enough to see his love grow old. Sorano, Evanthe's ambitious brother, who is one of Frederick's creatures, devises a more punishing sentence: Valerio may do nothing more than kiss Evanthe; otherwise, he dies immediately, even before his month is out. Additionally, Valerio is not allowed to tell Evanthe about Sorano's new sentence; instead, he makes excuses (arguing for the benefits of the platonic mingling of souls; claiming to be impotent), and poor Evanthe is left confused, angry, and hurt. Valerio's "torture" ends when the rightful king, Alphonso, is restored to full health and to the throne. Alphonso blesses their union.

VALERIO **1626

A Roman Captain in the service of Vespatian and later Titus, paired with Nicanor through Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy.

VALERIO **1636

Valerio is one of a few courtiers who express sympathy for Euphemia, the neglected duchess in Shirley's The Duke's Mistress. On the other hand, Valerio also feels it is fine for the duke to have a mistress, for then the practice will become fashionable at court for all to imitate. It is Valerio who introduces Horatio to the ill-favored Fiametta and the ugly Scolopendra; it is also Valerio who falsely informs the duke that Bentivolio and Ardelia plot against the duke. Valerio propositions Ardelia, promising to withhold a secret he's really already told. Hiding behind hangings in Ardelia's chamber, Valerio is killed by Bentivolio.

VALERIO **1640

Valerio is a gentleman of France, an unrequited lover and a suitor to Aurelia in the anonymous Ghost. On his way to the wedding between Octavian and Aurelia, he meets Pinnario and Procus, and they decide to go together. Unaware of the fact that Octavian is already dead, he agrees with Procus and Pinnario to take revenge on him who has won the heart of their beloved Aurelia. Soon he learns from the Friar that Octavian has been murdered by Babilas, Aurelia's brother and Valerio's friend. Actually, Valerio thinks his friend Babilas killed Octavian to prevent Aurelia from marrying him, so that she could be Valerio's. When the latter considers his chances, he realizes Aurelia may now hate him. However, he is astonished and disappointed when he hears that Senio has agreed to marry his daughter to Philarchus. Incensed, he goes as far as to break into the newlyweds' chamber with Procus and Pinnario, at night, to bother Philarchus. But he and his friends are soon dismissed by Engin, her servant. Valerio receives a letter from Babilas, confessing the murder and encouraging him to win his sister's heart. But the former does not want to put his life at risk by covering up a man who killed another in a duel, since there are laws against that. Later, he goes to Erotia's with his friends. There, they meet Engin, and they decide to take revenge on him. But the latter tells him his mistress loves him, but Valerio suggests Engin and Aurelia are having an affair, and Eugin beats him up in order to defend his mistress's reputation. Afterwards, Valerio is visited by his friend Babilas, in disguise. Later, outside the cave, he is ready to enter, supposedly following Aurelia's call (being it really Erotia's voice), buy, suddenly, he hears noises, and, afraid, runs back to Babilas. Later, he and his friend will succumb to Octavian's (Engin disguised) ghost's call, and they will confess their sins. At the end, they will all be reconciled, and he will be one of the "bridesmen" on the day of the weddings of both Philarchus and Erotia, and Pinnario and Cunicula.


Valerius is one of the outlaws living in the forest outside of the royal court in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona. He and Moyses chase Sir Eglamour as others in the band capture Silvia.


Valerius is the brother of Martius in Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He aids Martius in his amorous pursuit of Dorigen by making it appear that the rocks have moved.


Valerius is a message bearer in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen who brings news to Palamon and Arcite in Thebes of Theseus' threat and Creon's summons to arms.


Valerius is a Roman soldier holding the rank of lieutenant under Virginius in John Webster's Appius and Virginia.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Gaius Valerius Flaccus was a Roman poet, who wrote under Vespasian and Titus. His model in language was Virgil, to whom he is far inferior in taste and lucidity. His tiresome display of learning, rhetorical exaggeration and ornamentation make him difficult to read, which no doubt accounts for his unpopularity in ancient times. At his house in London, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When Clerimont asks him about the classical poets, Daw refers to them in a deprecating manner, including Valerius Flaccus in the long list of unworthy poets.


Lucius Valerius Flaccus is a praetor in Rome in Jonson's Catiline. He is responsible with the law and order, together with Pomtinius. At Cicero's house, Cicero tells his brother to summon a number of senators and loyal officials, among whom he mentions Flaccus and Pomtinius. The praetors witness the scene in which Cornelius and Vargunteius are not admitted into Cicero's house, because he has been warned that they intend to murder him. However, Cicero does not charge the praetors to arrest the would-be murderers because he lacks evidence. At Cicero's house, the consul instructs the praetors on the strategy of war, following the Senate's decision to send an army against Catiline. Flaccus and Pomtinius renew their allegiance to Rome, telling Cicero they will fight under the command of Petreius. Actually, only Pomtinius speaks, while Flaccus acts accordingly. Sanga enters announcing that the conspirators have taken the bait and the Allobroges must be intercepted at the Milvian Bridge. Flaccus and Pomtinius exeunt to execute the orders. The praetors intercept Allobroges, telling them to surrender, which they do easily, despite Volturtius's protests. The praetors arrest the entire party taking them to Rome. After the conspirators are brought to trial before the Senate, the consul rules that the praetors should be given public thanks for their handling of the conspirators' arrest.


Valetta is the Grand Master of Malta and the brother to Oriana in Fletcher's The Knight of Malta. When Mountferrat presents forged proof that Oriana is a traitor, Valetta believes it immediately and sentences her to death the next day. However, he allows a trial by combat. When Gomera wins, Valetta orders the loser to be executed, but after it is revealed that Miranda fought in Mountferrat's place to ensure Gomera's victory, Valetta feels that both men deserve Oriana. He decides to give Oriana to Gomera in order to wed Miranda to the Order. In the final scene, after Mountferrat and Abdella's attempt to murder Oriana is revealed, Valetta has Mountferrat ceremoniously stripped of his knighthood, then orders him to marry Abdella and finally banishes them both. He then welcomes Miranda into the Order of Malta.


A character from the ill-defined subplot of the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune.


A character from the ill-defined subplot of the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune.


Valingford is an English courtier in [?]Wilson's Fair Em, the Miller's Daughter. He is a sworn friend of Moutney, but they are both in love with Em, whom they woo disguised as commoners (because they have absconded from accompanying King William to Denmark). They are annoyed to discover that they are both wooing Em, but they agree to abide by fortune's choice in the matter. Valingford offers Em a jewel, but she refuses it. He therefore assumes that she prefers Moutney and quarrels with him, but he learns that Moutney has also been spurned. They return to Em, but she pretends to be deaf and blind. Valingford appears to reject her, but in fact he suspects trickery. When he learns that Manvile has turned his attention to Elner, he warns Elner about Manvile's treatment of Em. Then he tells Em about Manvile's inconstancy. At this news, Em drops her pretence of blindness. In the conclusion, King William recommends that Em marry Valingford, and she accedes.


Valladaura is a Spanish naval hero who woos Petrocella, but he does not impress her in Heywood's A Challenge for Beauty. He tries to convince her of his valor by showing his wounds, but Petrocella says she'd rather meet the man who gave him the wounds. Valladaura slinks off, ashamed. He sees his enemy, Ferrars, in the slave market. He buys Ferrars and his friend Manhurst. He sends Manhurst back to England, dresses Ferrars as a gallant, and puts him through a bizarre test of his virtue. He orders Ferrars to woo Petrocella for him. When Ferrars reports that he has successfully persuaded Petrocella to marry Valladaura, Valladaura tells him to disguise as a priest, and perform the marriage. He will not explain why. After the 'wedding,' Valladaura orders Ferrars to sleep with Petrocella, but not to do anything carnal. Ferrars obeys. That night, Valladaura raises the house, shouting that Petrocella is cuckolding him. Then Petrocella enters with a bloody poniard, announcing that she has stabbed her husband. Valladaura is horrified, and explains that it was Ferrars in her bed, not he, and that he had ordered Ferrars to conduct their own wedding service, so that it would be null, and that she could then wed Ferrars. Petrocella then reveals that she knew it was Ferrars in her bed all along, and she hasn't really killed him. Valladaura is delighted and tells Ferrars and Petrocella to get married immediately. When, at the execution of Bonavida, Ferrars is unconvinced by his sister Hellena's protestation of virtue, Valladaura insists that she must be virtuous because she is the sister of Ferrars.


Family name of Ned and his parents Sir Eustace and Sara, who is deceased, in the Anonymous The Fair Maid of Bristow.


Only mentioned as an epithet in Jonson's The Alchemist. In his ironic humor, Face instructs Mammon to converse with the lady he was courting (Dol Common in disguise) about her noble origin. Eager to ingratiate himself with the lady, Mammon tells her she looks like the Valois noble family, while Face says in an aside that her father was an Irish costermonger.


Queen Isabella refers to her brother, the King of France, as Lord Valois in Marlowe's Edward II.


At the end of "The Triumph of Honor," the first play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One, Valor appears as a knight accompanying women who represent clemency, chastity, and constancy.


Valore is a count at Duke's court and Oriana's brother in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. He was Duke's privy-counselor. In an apartment at his house, Valore enters with Oriana, who asks permission to visit a lady at court. Though Valore denies her permission, Oriana does what she wants. Valore has a short interview with Lazarillo, whom he dispatches to the dining room, and then receives Intelligencer. Valore whispers instructions to Intelligencer and then orders a servant to let him out at the back door. Lazarillo re-enters and Valore says he intends to spend his time with fools all day. At Gondarino's house, Valore enters with Lazarillo and sees his sister and the Duke there. Valore suspects his sister has a tryst with Duke. At Mercer's house, Valore introduces Lazarillo but he receives a message summoning him to court and exits. In an antechamber at the palace, Valore enters following Duke, with whom he had been in secret conference. In a street before the brothel, Duke, Valore, Gondarino, and Arrigo enter disguised. Seeing Oriana at the window above, all except Valore seem to believe she is a whore. Valore demands that his sister should be given a chance to speak. When Oriana disambiguates the situation, she is ordered to come down. At the Palace, Valore enters with Gondarino and Arrigo following Duke. When Lazarillo is brought in as a traitor, Valore exposes the informers as people who live by treachery. Duke delegates the decision to Valore, who sets Lazarillo free and punishes the spies. In a room with a gallery in the palace, Duke, Valore and Gondarino enter above, while Oriana and Arrigo enter below. Valore witnesses the scene of his sister's refusal to relinquish her virginity to Arrigo under menace of death, thus offering ultimate proof of her chastity. When Duke asks Oriana to be his wife, Valore expresses his approval.


One of Doll Hornet's duped lovers in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho, a Belgian merchant, who only speaks Flemish. Doll presents one of her companions, Jack Hornet, as her father, and Hans is convinced that she is a gentlewoman. He gives her his gold watch. Captain Jenkins finds him and informs him about Doll's tricks. Together with Allam and Jenkins he follows her to Ware with a warrant, but her new husband Featherstone agrees to pay her debts.


A Dutch sea captain in Davenant's News From Plymouth. He drinks a toast with Warwell to the King of England, thus angering Furious Inland. The quarrel is quickly broken up, but Bumble vows vengeance and later sends Inland a challenge to combat at sea. The combat never takes place because Inland does not have a ship.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Van Dyke is mentioned by Master Silence when he is explaining Master Bead the nature of the relic he is giving him: "'tis a Tyburn martyr's blood upon a straw, where you shall see that holy martyr's face more exactly done than had Van Dyke with his rare pencil drawn it." Sir Anthony Van Dyke (1599-1641) was a painter, who was appointed principal painter in ordinary to their Majesties by Charles I, in 1632–and he held the office until mid 1640.


A treacherous Captain who appears initially with the Dutch forces in the anonymous A Larum for London. He agrees with the English Governor that the Prince of Orange's defensive offer should be valued. He predicts that suffering will follow the refusal of his troops. He tells Champaigne that the people will not want troops in the vicinity and that he should say the Spanish will be offended if he allows the troops to remain (even at d'Hauurye's expense). He argues that the Spanish mean no harm. In soliloquy, he looks forward to the defeat of the town. He participates in the battle, killing Champaigne and threatening Egmont. He makes the wife of a Burger reveal where her fortune is, but as he starts to retrieve it, she kills him.


A "ghost character" in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green. He is the governor of Amiens. Young Plainsey pretends that he has a letter Veleires wrote, promising a large reward to Mumford if he will surrender to the French, thus proving Mumford guilty of treason. In fact, the letter was created by the disguised Young Plainsey.


A "ghost character" in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. Peter van Hollock is one of the wealthy foreigners mentioned by the May Day rioters. He resides at the Green Gate in Cornhill.


Name given to the Burgomaster by Palsgrave in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk.


Jacob is the host of the disguised Lodowick, Duke of Bullen, his wife, daughter, and Bunch in the anonymous Weakest Goeth to the Wall. All are taking refuge from the fighting in France at his house in Flanders. Unknown to Lodowick, Jacob tries to seduce Lodowick's wife, Oriana. Bunch dislikes him because he can't understand his Flemish accent. When Lodowick falls behind in his payment, he asks for time to pay. Jacob refuses and demands that Lodowick leave the house, leaving behind his wife and daughter as surety. Lodowick leaves for London. Bunch takes Jacob down to an inn where a batch of English ale has just arrived. When they return Jacob is violently drunk. Bunch offers all his money to Oriana and Diana so they may escape. Diana urges her mother to do so. Soon after, Oriana announces to the drunk, fat, lustful Jacob that she and Diana are leaving him, now that their debt has been paid When Bunch returns, Jacob tells him that the women have left for London.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. Harman van Speult was the Dutch commander who massacred British sailors at Amboyna, in the East Indies; the workmen talk about these events (their discussion was deleted by the censor).


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the underlings of Harman van Speult, listed by Sheathing-Nail.


A fat Dutch merchant and suitor to Laurentia in Haughton's Englishmen for My Money. Frisco the clown mistakenly calls Vandalle Mendall. Like the other two merchant-suitors, his English is comic. Pisaro meets him at the Exchange and invites back to his house to meet Laurentia and to arrange their marriage. At Pisaro's house the girls ignore him and his colleagues, complaining that they cannot understand them. Laurentia mocks him to his face. Pisaro develops a plot for the foreigners to arrive that night instead of the Englishmen, adopting the names of the young men. Vandalle is to be Heighton (Ferdinand). On his way, Frisco tricks him out of his cloak, but the Dutchman perseveres. He arrives at Pisaro's house, proud of his imitation of Heighton. He calls out for Laurentia who tells him from the balcony to climb into a big basket and she and her sisters will pull him up. The daughters draw him half way up and leave him hanging, Laurentia warning him that if he tells their father she will cut the rope and let him fall. When Frisco, Delio and Alvaro arrive at Pisaro's, Pisaro asks Fresco where his son Vandalle is. Anthony points to the basket as he pleads in comic English to be let down. Pisaro offers to let Vandalle stay his house that night because he is so cold. Later Laurentia marries Ferdinand.


Only mentioned in Cokain's Trappolin. The Vandals are former enemies of Italy, whom Mattemores wishes to resurrect for the glory of battle.


Constantine's ambassador in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll. He visits Alfonso to ask why his marriage to Katherine is being delayed but is put off with a bizarre story.


Usually referred to as "Doctor" in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped, Vanderman is a curer of madmen, and runs a lunatic asylum. Valentius loves his wife, and disguises as a madman in order to meet with her. Vanderman is taken in by Valentius' pretence of madness. But he is warned by Fub that the madman and his Wife are together. He upbraids his wife, but when Valentius' friends turn up to collect him, and Valentius pretends to have been 'cured', Vanderman goes mad. Vanderman wails to the Duke, but to no avail, and ends up resigned to a being the subject of a skimmington; the Duke orders Valentius to pay for Vanderman's cure.


Valentia's door-keeper in the anonymous Costly Whore, he serves the courtesan for love, not money.


A "ghost character" in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Brother of a friend of Perecell's who recently died. Perecell uses the Portgrave's knowledge of Vandermast's death to allow the Duchess and her party's bogus funeral procession to pass Clunie's search party without suspicion. Vandermast's actual funeral procession enters just after the Duchess's false one exits.


Vandermast is a magician in service to the Emperor of Germany in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. He has defeated learned men all over Europe in disputations and magical contests. The Emperor has him engage the scholars at Oxford, and although he bests Friar Bungay by summoning the Spirit in the Shape of Hercules to destroy the golden tree and its fire-shooting dragon which Bungay has created, Vandermast concedes defeat to Friar Bacon when the latter makes both the tree and the Spirit disappear.
Conceives of a plan in ?Greene and Chettle's John of Bordeaux by which Ferdinand can seduce the chaste Rossalin, and convinces him to carry it out. Once she is banished, he attempts to conjure a nearly naked Rossalin. His attempt fails when Bacon intervenes and uses his own magic and connections in the underworld to block Vandermast's spell. He agrees to help the innkeeper get revenge on Perce and the young scholars.


A burgher in Fletcher and Massinger's Sir John Van Olden Barnavelt, whose name is listed in the MS but scored through. [According to Frijlinck, this name is a confusion for Van der Myle, who was Barnavelt's son-in-law.]

VANDOME **1604

A nobleman famous for his virtue in Chapman's Monsieur D'Olive. He is saddened to learn of the difficulties between Vaumont and his wife, Marcellina; he is all the more saddened to learn of the death of his sister and the frenzied grief of his brother-in-law. Nevertheless, he insists on seeing Marcellina and demands to know why she has shut herself up in darkness. At that meeting, he learns of Eurione's love for the Earl St. Anne and promises to help her win him. He tells St. Anne that he himself is in love with Eurione and that the Earl must speak to her on his behalf. When St. Anne agrees and does fall in love with Eurione, Vandome toys with him, calling him a traitor to both himself and his dead sister. Soon, however, Vandome relents, and blesses the new match. His next task is to reconcile Vaumont and Marcellina. To accomplish this objective, he invents a story that St. Anne is arranging an affair with Hieronime, which compels Marcellina to break her vow and accompany Eurione out into the world.

VANDOME **1614

Vandome is a murderous henchman in service to the Bastard and partnered with Vandome in Smith's The Hector of Germany. The Bastard reports that Vandome can "poison, stabs and lie in wait" expertly. Vandome agrees to travel to France to assist in a plot to assassinate King Edward of England and the Palsgrave. Vandome and Mendoza meet Artoise in France and bribe the French Lord to offer them a center for their treacherous operations. Artoise reports that Vandome and Mendoza are suspected of killing the last emperor. Vandome and Mendoza are paired with Artoise and Young Fitzwaters in the plot to assassinate King Edward and the Palsgrave. Vandome and Mendoza are double-crossed and killed by Artoise and Young Fitzwaters.


Vandona is a wealthy widow and sister of Nentis, Lucora's serving-woman in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady. She employs Jaques, and banters with him about his drinking. Jaques informs Lorece, a potential suitor of Vandona, that she spends all of her time reading plays and love poetry, and is no housewife. She is wooed by the wild Lorece, brother of Falorus, and plays hard to get, but is generally amenable to his suit and agrees to marry him in due time. Watches a masque performed by Jaques, Hymen, and Boy, after which she exchanges kisses with Lorece, and rewards Jaques and his companions with the keys to the wine cellar. Vandona and Lorece obtain a marriage license through Jaques, and begin to plan their wedding. They arrive at the house of Polidacre to make their wedding announcement. They are included with the others at the end of the play in the invitation to dine with Polidacre and plan the weddings.


A lord of the States in Fletcher and Massinger's Sir John Van Olden Barnavelt; favours Maurice.


Van-dunck is a merchant and the burgomaster of Bruges in Fletcher's Beggars' Bush. Married to Margaret, he is the supposed father of Gertrude (really Bertha, the heir to the throne of Brabant). His political sympathies are clearly with the group opposed to the Flemish usurper Wolfort.


Vangue, Syphax's Ethiopian slave in Marston's Sophonisba, is made drunk by Sophonisba and placed in her bed to fool Syphax. When Syphax discovers Vangue there, he kills him.

VANITY **1601

Vanitie is Fortune's chief servant in the anonymous The Contention Between Liberalitie and Prodigalitie. His nature is vain, inconstant, and he is dressed in feathers, which shows the lightness of his mind and his mutability. He has been sent to prepare Fortune's throne for her imminent arrival to hear men's desires. Vanitie meets Tenacitie, and learning that the latter is eager to find Fortune, then he devises a plan to mock Tenacitie. Actually, next time he meets him, he wants to know what Tenacitie would be ready to give him if he took him to Fortune, because he who best rewards him will be the first to see the goddess. Later, when he finds Tenacitie and Prodigalitie quarrelling, he tries to act as a mediator, urging them to stop the argument, and advising them to leave it to Fortune to decide whether she will give Money to one of them or to both. Fortune resolves to offer Money to Prodigalitie, but when she finds out that the latter had misused him, Fortune asks Vanity to help her to take revenge on Prodigalitie, and punish him for having offended her, a goddess.

VANITY **1612

Vanity is a character in "The Triumph of Time," the final play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He fails to serve Anthropos and is unmasked at the end.


Lady Vanity appears in the interlude The Marriage of Wit and Wisdom presented by the Lord Cardinal's men in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. Inclination the Vice attempts to pass her off as Wisdom to Wit. He also addresses her as Unknown Honesty when he urges her to accept Wit.


The Flemish merchant Van-lock is the father of Frances in Fletcher's Beggars' Bush and is generally sympathetic to Goswin (Florez in disguise). He is among the guests who arrive at Van-dunck's to celebrate Goswin's marriage to Gertrude (Bertha in disguise).


The Florentine aristocrat Lord Nicoletto Vanni is Dariene's husband in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom. He is also father of their daughter Alisandra, an old friend of the Duke, and the uncle of the prodigal Signior Torrenti. Like Tibaldo Neri, he is a secret lover. His and Tibaldo's schemes to gain access to the women they love drives much of the play's plot. In Act IV, Vanni's final attempt to seduce Alphonsina provokes the resolution of the two secret lovers' pursuits. Vanni appears extremely energetic in spite of his age. After the initial meeting at court, he intervenes in Angelo Lotti and Piero's swordfight, and parts them immediately. He questions Angelo about his presence in Florence, and reminds him that he has been officially banished. After Angelo's subsequent departure, Lord Vanni commands his servant Cargo to deliver a jewel and love letter to Fiammeta, who had mockingly rejected his earlier advances. Cargo returns with Alphonsina's reply, and Vanni immediately leaves for the Florentine court. There, at a procession led by Signior Torrenti, Vanni's nephew, he rebukes his nephew for his profligacy. Lord Vanni admonishes him to be careful with his inherited riches, or he will find himself bankrupt. The next time Lord Vanni appears on stage, he takes leave from his wife under the pretence of having to read an important document for the Duke, but steals away to Alphonsina's chamber, where he attempts to seduce her. This is interrupted when his son Trebatio, enters, playing a flute. Alphonsina seems to dismiss Trebatio, assuring Lord Vanni that he has won her. However, Cargo suddenly storms on stage to tell his master that Dariene has found out her husband's adulterous intentions. She enters and explains that she knew all along and that she, Alphonsina and Trebatio had deliberately played this trick on Vanni. She informs him that his son and Alphonsina are engaged. Vanni gives them his blessing, and asks his wife for forgiveness.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Beggars' Bush, Van-noke does not appear directly, but he is the ship's captain released from prison at the generous request of Goswin (Florez in disguise). The Sailor reports that Van-noke has returned the favor by rescuing one of Goswin's ships from the Turks.


A Grobian in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. He is inconvenienced by the call to the Grobian feast and cannot make his candles. He acts as judge after Tantoblin hits Ursin with his staff. He says that, as Tantoblin admitted to doing it, Ursin should be satisfied and go happily to the wedding.


Vapour provides the tobacco in the Roaring School in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel.


Julio is the Count of Camerino in Ford's The Fancies Chaste and Noble. He is the nobleman who has bought Flavia from her former husband Fabricio. He has married her and dotes on her.


A devil in Barnes's The Devil's Charter that appears with Astoreth and Belchar to escort Alexander's soul to hell and begin the eternal torture. Varca brags that he will stretch Alexander's limbs "till he stretch an acre length."


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


Lieutenant of Byron's guard in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron. In IV, he warns Byron that he is undone.


Lucius Vargunteius is a patrician of senatorial rank and a member of Catiline's conspiracy in Jonson's Catiline. According to Catiline, he is ambitious and is among those to whom Catiline had promised a rich province. At Catiline's house, Vargunteius enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot was exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. Vargunteius is charged with murdering Cicero in his house, while pretending to be his friend. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. Before Cicero's house, Vargunteius and Cornelius require to be admitted, apparently as the consul's friends, but actually intending to assassinate Cicero. When they are denied entrance in front of witnesses, the conspirators pretend to be angry, but they steal away furtively when Cicero addresses them from above, inviting them to repent. Vargunteius and Cornelius intend to deny everything if accused. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, Allobroges testify that the agent recruiting them for Catiline's conspiracy has named Vargunteius among the confederates. When the conspirators are sentenced to death, it is understood that Vargunteius is executed with the others.


A barber, servant to Philocles in Brome's Love-Sick Court. He is in love with Doris. After Eudyna faints, he is sent to learn of her health from Doris. Doris agrees to marry him if Eudyna marries Philocles. When Philargus wins at drawing lots for Eudyna, Varillus slips a drug (that he believes to be poison) into his wine. Fortunately, the drug that Doris gave him turns out to be a sleeping potion.


Servant to Divine Correction in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates. He announces his master's approach to King Humanity's court.


German favorite of Marianus in the anonymous The Wasp. He has used his position to enrich himself with Gilbert's titles and annuity. He convinces Marianus to agree to allow him to divorce his wife, Katherine, and marry Marianus' sister, Honoria. Instead, Marianus banishes him. When Gerald come to try to entrap him in a charge of treason, Varletti allows his wife, Katherine, to turn tables on Gerald. Once he receives Gerald's written pact to dethrone Marianus, he plans to use Gerald's help and then use the document as proof of Gerald's treachery in order to dethrone him and take the throne for himself. He and Gerald, disguised, attempt to assassinate Marianus in the forest, pretending to act in Archibald's name, but Archibald intervenes and prevents them. He then sends a message to Marianus convincing him that Archibald stage-managed the rescue to curry favor. Varletti is taken back into Marianus' favor and becomes Marshall and General of the Roman garrison, high admiral of the royal navy, and lord of Devon. He welcomes Archibald, disguised as Percy, into the conspiracy against Marianus. When Marianus is deposed, Varletti jeers and revels at a banquet until suddenly the banquet table turns to reveal snakes, toads, and newts. When the loyal barons intercede, he renounces his designs upon the throne.

VARRIUS **1604

A lord of Vienna and friend to Duke Vincentio in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. When the Duke decides to "return" to Vienna in his own guise, he sends for Varrius, who comes to meet with him. The consummate "walk-on" rôle, Varrius enters at the end of IV.v only to have Vincentio welcome him and then immediately exit with him. He has no lines.

VARRIUS **1607

Varrius is a follower of Pompey in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. He reports to Pompey that Antony is expected momentarily in Rome and may already be there.

VARRO **1599

Varro is Brutus' servant in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. He is asked to sleep in his master's tent after Brutus sees the ghost of Caesar.

VARRO **1601

Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Marcus Terentius Varro (116–27 BC) was a Roman historian and soldier, one of the most learned Romans. Among his major works are Antiquitates, Disciplinae, an encyclopedia of the liberal arts, De ora maritima, a work on geography, Res rusticae, a work on agriculture, and Saturae Menippae, a satire in verse intermingled with prose. When Ovid praises the immortality of poetry, he says that Varro will live forever through his work, as long as people will hear of the great legends of old, such as Jason's Argus and the fleece of gold.

VARRO **1603

Varro, consul, cohort of Sejanus in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall. He conspires with Sejanus and Afer to trump up charges against the general, Silius, who is a friend of Agrippina.

VARRO **1604

Only mentioned by Macros in Verney’s Antipoe.

VARRO **1607

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens. He is a usurer to whom Timon owes money. He sends two of his servants who appear as besiegers of Timon's house in II.ii. and III.iv.

VASCO **1602

‘Page to Amadour’ in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. He tells Florimel that he may not be her Cupid but will at least prove a Hermes in her nuptial flight with Amadour. He sings for them. He offers crude witticisms to Amadour concerning Florimel and thus provides this play’s version of comic relief. He attends Amadour at the secret nuptial spot. At the wedding feast, Vasco is sent for the citron (lemon) that Clodio gave Amadour to furnish a wedding treat for Florimel.

VASCO **1624

Does not appear in the play. Fellow servant of Lorenzo in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife.

VASCO **1628

A captain in the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace. None of his actions are recounted in the surviving plot.

VASCO **1634

Vasco is a colonel in the army, and captures an extremely old Widow as his prisoner in Davenant's Love and Honor. He also captures Leonell, but sells his ransom to Prospero. Vasco decides to marry the Widow, believing that she will die (or he will be able to kill her) and he will then become rich. He and his friends make fun of the Widow in her presence, but are not heard since the Widow is mostly deaf. She has the last laugh however, when, after the wedding, she does not die, but instead makes his life miserable. Vasco is present when Melora appears before the Duke, claiming to be Evandra. Altesto recognizes her as his prisoner, but Vasco tells him to be quiet, and wishes his Widow would sacrifice herself so nobly. When the Duke tells Vasco to have a group of soldiers guard Melora and Evandra, he deputizes Altesto to gather the men, while commenting that it is hardly necessary. After all is revealed and all are reconciled, Vasco tells Calladine that he now believes in the munificent power of the stars and will study astrology from now on.


See "VESPASIAN." A variant spelling.


Vasques is the witty servant in Ford's 'Tis Pity She's a Whore. A Spaniard. He is devoted to his master, Soranzo, to the point of refusing the widow Hippolita's enticements and bribes to kill him. Instead, he contrives to assassinate her and thus save his master. When Soranzo discovers that he has been cuckolded, it is Vasques who secretly discovers the Giovanni is sleeping with Annabella. And it is Vasques who arranges the punishments for Giovanni in furtherance of his master's revenge. Vasques is introduced in the play honorably fighting against Grimaldi, his master's rival.


Family name of old Vaster, Anne and Robin in S.S's Honest Lawyer.


As S.S's Honest Lawyer opens, Vaster is viciously accusing his wife of infidelity. Despite her pleas he refuses to believe she is innocent, and demands that she enter a brothel. When Benjamin enters, Vaster immediately insults both him and his father until Benjamin is pushed into a fight. When Vaster is wounded, he pretends to be dying and bids Benjamin look after his wife and children, then, when Benjamin rushes off to find help, reveals that he is only slightly hurt. He next appears in disguise as a yeoman, and is robbed by Valentine and Curfew; when he has no money they ask him to join them instead. The three waylay Griffin, Bromely and Sagar, and then Gripe and rob them. Later, they disguise themselves as fairies and rob Gripe's house, telling him that they have sent all his diseases as punishment for being a miser. The three leave the money with Vaster's wife, and Vaster returns to try her virtue, first attempting to seduce her, then threatening to kill her if she does not give in. She tells him she has the pox and he reveals himself, but rejects her, still believing she is unfaithful and citing her claim to have the pox as truth. He tells her to take the blame for Gripe's stolen money and, loyal still, she does so at the trial. This finally convinces him of her faithfulness and he reveals himself to his family and promises to love his wife forever.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. François Vatablus (1485–1547), also called Watebled, was an important biblical scholar. He taught at the Collège de France in Paris. Since he did not publish anything, only postscripts of his lectures exist. Vatablus's translations are, for that time, an unusual example of precision and attention to the literal sense. At his house in London, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When the discussion is diverted towards the biblical scholars, Daw refers to them in a deprecating manner, including Vatablus in his list of unworthy scholars.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry V. He is reported among the French dead on the Agincourt battlefield.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. An English soldier at Leith. Arguile says he mans the trenches bravely.


A Welsh knight whose malapropisms and butchery of the English language was no doubt a great source of topical humor in Dekker's Satiromastix. Sir Vaughan is a wedding guest at the marriage celebrations of Cælestine and Sir Walter Terill and one of the suitors pursuing the widow Mistris Miniver. Having perceived the bald-pated Sir Adam Prickshaft to be his most formidable rival for Mistris Miniver's affections, Sir Vaughan invites her and other ladies to a party at his home under the pretense of further celebrating Cælestine and Sir Walter's wedding. He hires the poet Horace to deliver an argument against baldness in order persuade Mistris Miniver to prefer him to Sir Adam. Sir Adam responds in kind by holding another party at which he hires a rival poet, Crispinus, to defend baldness. In the meantime, Sir Vaughan decides to challenge Tucca to a duel over his mishandling of a monetary love token meant for Mistris Miniver. Tucca and Sir Vaughan reconcile their differences verbally, however, and Tucca tells Sir Vaughan of Sir Adam's plan to present to the widow a poetic counter-argument on baldness. Sir Vaughan and Horace, with the aid of Tucca, crash Sir Adam's party in order to disrupt Crispinus' defense of baldness, but the baldness debate is soon forgotten as Tucca turns the company against Horace instead by revealing Horace's hypocrisy. The party determines to subject Horace to a mock trial before the court. In it, Sir Vaughan plays the role of the court prosecutor, reading off the list of offences. When Tucca reveals in the final moments of the play that he is to be married to Mistris Miniver, Sir Vaughan seems to take the disappointing news in a fairly good-natured way.


Better known in the anonymous A Larum for London as Stump. He lost his leg in the cause of Antwerp, but the city neither recognized his sacrifice nor recompensed him for his loss. Although embittered against his city, he is nevertheless noble minded. He valiantly defends the besieged city against the Spanish, and Lady Champaigne against her Spanish rapists. Despite his valiant efforts, he is at last killed by the invaders. See STUMP.


A non-speaking character in Peele's Edward I. Vaughn is one of the Welsh Barons present when the infant Edward of Caernarvon is presented the "mantle of frieze," symbolizing the child's role as Prince of Wales.


Although he is listed as Sir Rees ap Vaughan in the dramatis personae of Dekker's Satiromastix and also so designated in some of the stage directions, Sir Vaughan introduces himself as "Sir Vaughan ap Rees" in II.i. He is also called Sir Vaughan ap Rees by Sir Quintilian, "Ap Rees" by Tucca, and is usually only addressed as "Sir Vaughan" elsewhere in the play. This discrepancy is present in the quarto versions of the play, and it is unclear which name order is most appropriate, the order of Welsh names being often interchangeable. Because the character would be known as "Sir Vaughan ap Rees" by an audience listening to the play, Sir Vaughan's full entry has been listed under "VAUGHAN AP REES, SIR."


Sir Thomas Vaughan attends the young King Edward V at his stronghold in Northampton at the beginning of the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. Vaughan is arrested by Gloucester, charged with high treason and condemned to death.
Friend of Edward IV's queen Elizabeth's family, and enemy of the Yorks and Lord Hastings in Shakespeare's Richard III. Vaughan is arrested with Rivers and Gray, and executed in Pomfret castle, where Richard II had been murdered. His ghost visits Richard and Richmond the night before the Battle of Bosworth, cursing Richard and blessing Richmond.

VAUMOND **1602

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's All's Well. A commander in the Florentine army.

VAUMONT **1604

A count in Chapman's Monsieur D'Olive. He jealously suspects his wife of an affair with Vandome. He is struck by remorse when she confines herself to her chamber. In the end, through the aid of Vandome, a reconciliation becomes possible.

VAUX **1591

Vaux reports in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI that Cardinal Beaufort has been seized by a sudden, mysterious illness that seems likely to result in his death. The symptoms include seeing Gloucester's ghost, blaspheming, and confessing his misdeeds to his pillow, a fitting punishment for helping Suffolk orchestrate Gloucester's murder.

VAUX **1599

Vaux is a keeper at Marshalsea Prison in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV.


Vaux is in attendance in Shakespeare's Henry VIII as the Duke of Buckingham is led to execution at the water's edge.


Peter Vecchio is believed to be a conjurer but actually teaches grammar and music to children in Fletcher's The Chances. He prepares a "summoning," later revealed to be a simple dramatic performance, for the Duke, Petruccio, John, and Frederic, to reveal where Constantia is. His knowledge of the situation and ability to produce Constantia, Gillian, and the Baby come from the fact that he is a relative of Gillian's and she brought Constantia and the Baby to him. He prepares a second "summoning" for Antonio regarding Second Constantia.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Catiline. Lucius Vectius is a lesser member of Catiline's conspiracy. After the conspirators have been tried and condemned in the Senate, word comes that one Lucius Vectius has been arrested. According to Flaccus, Lucius Vectius confessed that Caesar was implicated in Catiline's plot. Cicero instructs the praetor to throw him out of the court, because he knows that Caesar is noble and would not be involved in such an affair. Caesar implies that such a false witness might have been paid to accuse him, expressing the veiled suspicion that Cicero could have done that, in order to have Caesar under control. Eventually, however, Caesar promises to be silent and the situation is concluded with a tacit understanding between Caesar and Cicero.

VEIA **1617

One of three witches in Goffe’s Orestes along with Erictho and Sagana called up by Canidia to tell who murdered Agamemnon.

VELASCO **1626

Velasco desires Berinthia in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge and is sorely upset when she and Antonio seem attracted to one another. His jealousy urges him to take part in Catalina's plot to kidnap Berinthia. Velasco is unaware that Catalina's plan involves his ultimate demise as well. Velasco shows his cowardice at Elvas Castle when he illegally attacks another's opponent. Antonio slays him.

VELASCO **1628

Renowned and virtuous general to the Queen of Arragon in ?Ford's The Queen, he puts down Alphonso's rebellion against the Queen but then mercifully begs the Queen to spare his enemy's life. His kindness should inspire his foe with gratitude, but instead leads the chronically malcontented Alphonso, who soon becomes King, to feel insulted and to conspire against him. Meanwhile, Velasco is also suffering from the scorn of his beloved, the widow Salassa. Finally convinced to give him an audience, Salassa appears kind but then assures Velasco that she will only receive him as a servant if he vows to renounce all forms of violence and aggression. Velasco reluctantly agrees. He is almost immediately put to the test when Alphonso's follower, Bufo, attacks and beats him at Alphonso's behest. Staying true to his vow, Velasco accepts the beating without fighting back and is universally condemned as the most craven of cowards. Neither the pleas of his friend Lodovico nor the danger suffered by his Queen can convince Velasco to abandon his vow. Attracted by the prospect of the reward offered to anyone who will champion the Queen, Salassa offers to release Velasco from his oath. He insists that this would kill his soul, and repudiates her for her lightness and greed. When she is condemned to death, he attends her execution on the grounds that it may comfort him, but cannot stand to see her die. He rescues Salassa by agreeing to stand as the Queen's champion, but rejects her efforts at reconciliation. Velasco appears in armour at the Queen's trial by combat and is ready to fight Alphonso for the Queen's honour, but the intercessions of Petruchi and Muretto prevent the duel from taking place and the Queen is saved without violence. When a penitent Salassa appears to bid him farewell, Velasco is initially obdurate but eventually confesses his enduring love for her. The two join the other couples in the play's comic ending.

VELASCO **1640

The proud Castilian general Velasco in Habington's The Queen of Aragon. He serves under Florentio, scorns the suggestion that Ascanio is any braver than any other Castilian, and encourages Florentio to challenge Ascanio to a duel.


A "ghost character" in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green. He is the governor of Amiens. Young Plainsey pretends that he has a letter Veleires wrote, promising a large reward to Mumford if he will surrender to the French, thus proving Mumford guilty of treason. In fact, the letter was created by the disguised Young Plainsey.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Mathlai, Tarmiel, Barborat, Rael, Velel, and Thiel are the names of spirits taken from Elementa Magica by Pietro d'Albano. Subtle recommends to the gullible Drugger the best solutions for the location of his shop. He suggests that Drugger should write the names of Mathlai, Tarmiel, and Barborat on the eastern side of his shop, and Rael, Velel, and Thiel on the northern part. Subtle claims these are the names of the Mercurial spirits, meant to frighten flies from the boxes of tobacco. Implicitly, the god of commerce, Mercury, was supposed to protect the shop.


Velleda is one of Oriana's waiting women after she marries Gomera in Fletcher's The Knight of Malta. She praises Gomera to Oriana and then, when Gomera becomes jealous, Velleda defends Oriana. When Oriana faints, Velleda is convinced she is dead.


A Sicilian citizen in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. He has hired Prate to present a suit to the King to obtain the royal grant for trade with Spain; he is enraged when Prate fails to attend to this business. After the King has resolved his differences with the Queen, he grants the suit.


Velure is a merchant in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. In the Reign of Plenty he plans to become wealthy through booming trade. Along with the other characters, he follows the cycle that begins with the reign of Plenty and ends with Poverty.


A “ghost character" in Hausted’s Rival Friends. Mongrel saw this racehorse run in Stamford at Sara’s Hole.


Venelia, the beloved of Erestus, has been charmed by the sorcerer Sacrapant and appears mad in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale. Because she has been betrothed to Erestus, but they have not yet been formally wed, she is technically neither maid, nor wife, nor widow. She thus fulfills the requirements for one capable of extinguishing the magic lamp which maintains Sacrapant's spells. At the end of the action, the Ghost of Jack summons Venelia with a horn, she breaks the glass and blows out the light, and the sorcerer's spells are all broken. This frees Venelia, Erestus, Delia, Calypha, and Thelea.


Veneria is a bawd in Richards' Messalina. She helps kill the three ladies who have fled to Lepida for rescue, for which Lepida imprisons her and orders her to be fed to the dogs.


An alderman in Sharpham's Cupid's Whirligig. He is the father of Nan whose marriage to Young Lord Nonsuch Venter negotiates with his friend Old Lord Nonsuch. He accompanies Old Lord Nonsuch to the banquet at which there is a masque of four newly married couples, one of whom is revealed to be Nan and Young Lord Nonsuch.


Ventero is the pseudonym of Veronte when he is impersonating a writing master in the anonymous Wit of a Woman.


Ventidius is a follower of Antony in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. He is present at the first reconciliation of Antony and Caesar, although he does not speak. Ventidius then fights in Parthia and kills the son of Orodes, Pacorus, because Orodes treacherously killed Marcus Crassus. However, when Silius suggests that Ventidius should follow up this victory with further attacks, Ventidius disagrees, pointing out that captains who exceed their generals lose rather than gain favor.


He declares his desire for Carol in Shirley's Hyde Park, and boasts that he has received a ring from her. But he is angered when he realizes that the ring was actually given to Carol by his rival for her hand, Rider. And he learns that the pearl necklace that he gave to Carol has been passed onto Rider. He suffers some verbal abuse from Carol. He wishes that she was a whore, so that he could prosecute her–but she is chaste. He makes a bet with Bonavent about the foot race. He loses, but does not pay up, causing a fight. He declares that he will ride his own Mare in the horse race. He worries when he hears the Cuckoo, fearing bad luck. But he gees himself up with bravado and confidence. He sings a song, celebrating great race horses of the period. His singing is praised (with possible sarcasm) by the company. He does, in fact, lose the race, ignominiously falling from his Mare (offstage). He returns crestfallen and humiliated–he may have been slightly injured, as Lord Bonville later asks him about his shoulder. He realizes that he is again a loser, when he sees that Carol and Fairfield are betrothed. A willow garland is placed on his head by Bonavent.


Referred to as "Merchant" in the dramatis personae in Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. He is a merchant in the intended play entitled The London Merchant. He objects to Jasper's love for his daughter, Luce. He discharges Jasper, preferring Humphrey for Luce. When Humphrey returns with news that he has lost Luce to Jasper in Waltham Forest, Venturewell goes to speak with Jasper's father, Old Merrythought. He gets no satisfaction there, however, and swears to kill Jasper. He and Humphrey reclaim Luce as Jasper is pretending to threaten her with his sword. He has Luce locked in her room and plans to have Humphrey marry her in three days. He refuses to help Mistress Merrythought and Michael because Old Merrythought laughed at his own distress over Luce. When he learns that Jasper has died, though, he forgives him. He allows Jasper's coffin into Luce's room and, not realizing it is a trick and that Luce has crept in, orders the coffin taken to Old Merrythought in order to torment him with his son's death. When "Jasper's ghost" arrives, he repents. He agrees to recompense Old Merrythought and beats Humphrey out of doors in penance for his treatment of Jasper. Old Merrythought makes him sing before forgiving him. He forgives Jasper before learning that Jasper and Luce are still alive. When they are revealed to him, he agrees to their marriage.

VENUS **1561

Makes her son Cupid cause Cambyses to fall in love with his cousin in Preston's Cambises.
A "ghost character" in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta. In the second choral ode, Venus is urged to distract her lover Mars from his bloody work at Thebes; later, her vengeful blinding of Tyresias is recalled.
Debates with Fortune as to who is stronger in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune. Takes responsibility for the events of the third act, in which Bomelio is reunited with his son Hermione. At the bidding of Jupiter, agrees to end her argument with Fortune and, with the help of Fortune, saves the lovers and aids them in marriage. Announces that Hermione is of royal blood. With Fortune, gives a blessing to all the characters.
After bemoaning the lack of poetic talent in the present age, and calling upon the nine muses for aid, she agrees to become a student of Calliope's in Greene's Alphonsus, King of Arragon. Serves as a chorus throughout the play, summarizing the action at the beginning of each act.
Along with the goddesses Juno and Pallas, Venus, the goddess of love, claims the golden apple that Ate delivers because it is inscribed as meant for the "fairest one" in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris. She offers the Trojan prince Paris the most beautiful woman in the world if he gives her the prize, and she does arrange his meeting with Helen, already married to King Menelaus of Sparta. Helen's running away with the young Trojan is the immediate cause of the Trojan War.
Mother of Aeneas in Marlowe's Dido, Queen of Carthage. She uses her wiles to both accommodate Juno's plans for him to fall in love with Dido and remain in Carthage, and to pursue her own support of his destiny to end his journey in Italy and found what will become the Roman empire.
The goddess of love in Lyly's Gallathea. Concerned about Cupid's whereabouts, she arrives and threatens Diana, who has taken Cupid prisoner. Neptune makes peace between them. Venus then solves Gallathea and Phyllida's problem by offering to turn one of them into a boy, but she does not say which one and says that they will only find out which will be turned at the church door. The audience, therefore, remains ignorant of the conclusion to their love match.
Venus, the goddess, travels on a ferry to Syracuse, accompanied by her son Cupid in Lyly's Sapho and Phao. She makes the ferryman Phao beautiful but incapable of love and she persuades Cupid to fire an arrow deep into Sapho, whom Venus regards as a rival. Sapho falls in love with Phao. When Venus also falls in love with Phao, the goddess persuades Vulcan to make new arrows for Cupid's bow, so that Sapho will stop loving Phao and Phao will be able to love Venus. Cupid carries out his task but then decides to leave Venus and stay with Sapho.
Venus is the goddess of love in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. In the opening dumbshow she crosses the stage with Mars. Venus has seduced Mars, causing him to eschew war and live in her court as an effeminate lovelorn fool. But she is having an affair with Contempt under his nose. Raph's prophecy awakens Mars's suspicions, but Venus calms him and sends him to sleep with a lullaby. Once he is asleep she runs away with Contempt, and has a child by him, Ruina. But the synod of gods is outraged and demotes her from her status as goddess. And Contempt spurns her once he has had his way, calling her a strumpet.
A "ghost character" in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. Venus is the Goddess of Love. Juno mentions her to Iris, using her title 'Imperial Quen of Love', and explains that she is playing with the love of Ascanio and Eurymine, thus blaming her for their misfortune.
Venus figures twice in Jonson's Poetaster.
  • Chloë is disguised as Venus at the masquerade banquet at court. Venus/Chloë enters with Ovid's party and she takes part in the revelry presided by Ovid/Jupiter, in which Albius plays Vulcan and Tucca is Mars. Chloë's vanity makes her feel ashamed of her homely husband and fall in admiration to Tucca's pomposity, so there is a similarity of symbolism to the mythological character Chloë embodies. Like Chloë, Venus did not like her crippled but skilled husband Vulcan, and admired the pugnacious god of war, Mars. During the party at court, Chloë/Venus does not speak, but Tucca/Mars is courting her insistently. At the same time, Ovid/Jupiter pretends to court Chloë/Venus only to make Julia/Juno jealous. When Caesar enters railing against the debauched banquet, Chloë introduces herself meekly and exits with her husband.
  • The goddess is only mentioned. Venus is the Roman name of the Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite. When Tucca enters Albius's house as his guest, he names Albius after several noble celebrities of classical antiquity, and he gives Chloë the names of mythological goddesses. Among others, he calls Chloë a Venus, thus anticipating the disguise Chloë is going to take at the masquerade banquet at court, where she appears as Venus.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In Roman mythology, Venus was the goddess of love, mother to Cupid. When Cupid enumerates Mercury's famous actions of legerdemain, he says that Mercury stole Venus's girdle when she stooped to embrace him. Reporting that Mercury stole Venus's most symbolic possession Cupid emphasizes his cousin's ability as a deceiver.
Only mentioned in the Anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. When he sees the almost naked courtesans, the lecherous Lazarillo invokes Venus, the goddess of love, to let him suck of her dugs, so that he may perform adequately in his expected sexual encounters. Imperia also swears "by the panting pulse of Venus" when she receives Fontinel's kisses. In her love-song to Fontinel, the lyrics say that, should Venus take a sip of her lover's cherry lips, the love goddess would sell her doves and team of sparrows.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. In Roman mythology, Venus is the goddess of love. When he wants to regain the favors of his discontented mistress, Fulvia, Curius compares her to Venus. Inviting her to yield to his love, Curius appeals to Fulvia's qualities as a Venus. Curius says that Fulvia has too much of Venus's need for sexual gratification not to accept his passionate advances, though he is unable to lavish her with rich gifts.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Venus is mentioned by Sir Cupid Phantsy when he is describing the lady he is in love with to Doctor Clyster. He explains she is "beautiful like Venus, chaste as Diana, witty as ..." She is also mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he is talking to Master Algebra about the planets. When the latter states that, as for Venus–referring to the planet–"her changes and horns can plainly be seen," the former–ironically changing subject to the Roman goddess–replies that "Venus did change indeed! Mars knew that." According to Roman mythology, Venus was the goddess of love and beauty. Married to the ugly and lame blacksmith god Vulcan, she fell in love with Mars, the god of war. By the latter she had a son, Cupid, the god of love.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. Tyresias mentions "Venus girdle" and "Venus mount" when he is reading the lines in Narcissus's hand to tell him his fortune. Later, Clinias mentions the goddess when, praising Narcissus's beauty, he says "To passe from braunch to barke, from rine to roote, Venus her husband hath not such a foote." Afterwards, Florida and Clois mention her when they see Narcissus, because his beauty makes them identify him with the goddess. According to Roman mythology Venus was born when Gaia, Goddes of Mother Earth, angrily sliced off her husband's–Uranus's–genitals and threw them into the sea. There, they mixed with the foam and formed Venus, a goddess unconcerned with maternal issues and devoted to pleasure and sensuality. Even though she married, she was mainly concerned with her fair appearance and her extramarital affairs.
Only mentioned by the Fairies invoked by the Magician in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant during the creation of a love potion that Antigonus intends to use to make Celia fall in love with him. In classical mythology, Venus is the goddess of love.
The Roman goddess of love in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. She appears to Calis in the temple and tells her that, because she has been stern and coy, she will have a dead love, but adds that Calis will be pleased with the dead. Later, when Memnon drops his suit for the princess, the seemingly dead Polidor will rise up and be united with her.
Venus is the goddess of love and the wife of Vulcan in Heywood's Brazen Age. At the beginning of the play, Venus is chasing Adonis. She mourns Adonis when he is killed by the Caledonian boar, yet she soon after embarks on an adulterous affair with Mars. After Vulcan finds out about the affair and exposes the pair to all the gods, Venus expresses relief. She refuses to return to Vulcan now that there is nothing to hide.
The goddess of love in Heywood's Love's Mistress. She summons the other gods to hear her complain that she is no longer worshiped as widely and eagerly as before, because her former votaries now worship Psiche instead. She asks Apollo and Pan to help her get revenge; in particular, she asks Cupid to shoot Psiche with a leaden arrow that will make her love something ugly. Having just been afflicted by the death of Adonis she confronts the fallen Psiche, beats her, and sets her a series of three seemingly impossible tasks. Cupid's charm and determination, Psiche's success, and the girl's support by the other gods finally cause her to relent.
Only mentioned in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Venus is the goddess of love to whom Paris had awarded the golden apple. During the discussion about sending a force to Greece to rescue Hesione, Paris observes that Venus might aid him in this effort because Greece is the home of Helen, the most beautiful woman in the world and thus the one promised to him by the goddess. Upon meeting Helen in Sparta, Paris prays to Venus, asking that the goddess live up to her promise.
A mute character in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. Venus, the Roman goddess of love, appears in Lala Schahin's first masque and dances with the war god Mars.
Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Venus is mentioned by Slightall when he is instructing his friends on how to love any creature, even if it is the "loathed'st", by taking no notice of their imperfections. He illustrates his point with the following words: "or if she lookt a squint / As I am true / So Venus looked." According to Roman mythology, Venus is the goddess of love. A symbol of feminity, she cultivated and admired her beauty.
Only mentioned in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Castiliano, who is being cuckolded, has a picture in his gallery of Vulcan taking Mars and Venus is his net.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Ghost. Procus mentions Venus when he metaphorically addresses to Aurelia, the lady he loves. Philarchus also mentions Venus when he addresses to Pinnario and Procus, in the belief that they are women.

VENUS **1617

Only mentioned in Goffe’s Orestes. Aegystheus calls upon Venus and the Eumenides to support his vengeance.

VENUS **1632

“being Phosphorus as well as Vesper" in Hausted’s Rival Friends, she sings one of the two treble parts in the Introduction. She lures Phoebus from Thetis’s lap to bring in Valentine’s Day.

VENUS **1593

Venus is one of the planets who, jealous of Pandora's beauty, take it in turn to rule her behavior in Lyly's The Woman in the Moon. With the help of Joculus and Cupid, Venus makes Pandora fall in love with each of the shepherds in turn.

VENUS **1623

Goddess of love; the role performed by Florimell in the play-within-the-play in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill.

VENUS **1632

A character portrayed by an unnamed player in the Masque to Shirley's The Ball.

VENUS **1632

An informal disguise, or persona, or impersonation adopted in jest by Phryne in Randolph's Jealous Lovers while roaring at Ballio's house with Asotus, Hyperbolus, Thrasymachus, Bomolochus, and Charylus.

VENUS **1633

Venus is a character in the masque performed in Cokain's Trappolin to celebrate the nuptials of Lavinio and Isabella.

VENUS **1634

A fictitious character within the story of Paris and Enone which the Chorus intends to perform before the king in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday.

VENUS **1640

The role played by Philomel in the masque in Brome's Court Beggar. Venus comes to England with her five champions when she sees "How faintly Hymen did his office here."


Venusius is Duke of York in The Valiant Welshman. He is a friend of Rome, but when Caradoc begs him for help he regrets aiding Rome. He leaves to prepare his forces and arrives in Wales not knowing that his wife Cartamanda has betrayed Caradoc.


One of Timon's false friends in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens. At the beginning of the play he is in prison for a debt of five talents. Timon hears this and sends the money to relieve him. In the second scene Ventidius comes to thank him. His father has died and left him a fortune, and he now wants to return these talents, but Timon declines. When Timon himself is in need of money, Flavius is sent to him to ask for a loan, but Ventidius refuses to help.


A "ghost character" in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta. Ver, the goddess of spring, is celebrated in the fourth choral ode.


She comes with Lust as her captive before Justice in the anonymous Pathomachia. She rehearses the litany of evil Lust has worked on the world, and Justice sends Lust to prison.


Montaigne's page in Fletcher's The Honest Man's Fortune. Veramour displays great loyalty and devotion to his master, even in his straitened circumstances. Veramour accompanies Lady Orleans to Lamira's estate. Laverdure believes that Veramour is a gentlewoman disguised as a page despite Veramour's denials. In the end, Veramour dresses as a woman and says that Laverdure is right; when Montaigne expresses disbelief, however, Veramour proves that he is in fact a boy and states that he dressed as a woman because it was the only way to silence Laverdure.

VERDON **1619

Captain of Rollo’s faction in Fletcher’s Bloody Brother. When Rollo and Otto pledge mutual amity, Grandpree, Verdon, Trevile, and Duprete realize that their own ambitions will falter and form an unholy alliance to undo the union. He does not appear again after the first act.


Champernell's nephew and Beaupre's friend and second in Fletcher and Massinger's The Little French Lawyer. Verdoone attends Lamira's wedding and witnesses Dinant's public humiliation of the bride and groom. Verdoone delivers the challenge to Cleremont and arrives to serve as Beaupre's second at the duel with Dinant who has been tricked out of dueling by Lamira. Verdoone is disarmed by Dinant's substitute, La-writ, and later verifies Beaupre's account of the duel to Champernell. Verdoone witnesses Lamira's humiliation of Dinant, and is among those kidnapped on the way to the summerhouse as Dinant takes his revenge on her. With Beaupre, bound and with halters around their necks, Verdoone is paraded before Lamira and Anabell in the vault. He returns to the vault a free man after Dinant reveals the whole plot, and joins the other kidnap victims when they appear to Champernell and Vertaigne in the play's final moments.

VERDUGO **1600

A Spanish Courtier in the Anonymous Lust's Dominion.

VERDUGO **1621

Apparently the deputy or other officer to the Governor of Segonia in Fletcher's The Pilgrim, he is charged with apprehending Roderigo, but fears it will be a difficult task. He is present with the Governor at the King's birthday celebrations when the play reaches its happy conclusion.


Early in the anonymous A Larum for London, Verdugo appears with a Spanish group. He participates in the battle, killing Champaigne and threatening Egmont. He advises Dalua to arrange for dividing the resources of the town before he takes retribution on the citizens. He tries to obtain ransom from Factor and hangs him when convinced that he has no money.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock. The Duke of Ireland. Late favorite of Richard II. His wife, the Duchess of Ireland, is a friend of the Queen, Anne o'Beame. De Vere does not appear in the play. [Historically, de Vere was the favorite defeated by the King's uncles; see general historical note for the playwright's contraction of historical sequence.]


The name taken by Pulcheria in her disguise as the page of Contarini in Shirley's The Sisters.


Verges, a headborough (petty constable) in Messina in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, is Dogberry's right-hand man. He assists in the interrogation of Borachio and Conrade. His name might suggest the acid, sour verjuice squeezed from unripe crab apples, grapes, and similar fruits.


See also VIRGIL.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Publius Vergilius Maro (70–19 BC) was the greatest of the classical Roman poets. Following Theocritus as a model, he wrote his Eclogues. These are pastoral poems describing the beauty of Italian scenes. At the suggestion of Maecenas, he wrote a more serious work on the art of farming and the charms of country life called the Georgics. This established his fame as the foremost poet of his age. At his house, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When Clerimont asks him about the classical poets, Daw refers to them in a deprecating manner. Daw calls Vergil a tedious ass, a poet who talks only of dunging of land and bees. The allusion is to Vergil's Georgics.


Sir William Vergir is a knight in Armin's The Two Maids of More–Clacke. Sir William is the Lady's second husband. He offers 3,000 pounds a year to the Lady to marry his son, Humil, with his eldest daughter, but the Lady does not accept the offer and she tells Sir William that they will not sleep together. Sir William has two daughters: Mary and Tabisha. He is going to give the weight of his eldest daughter in gold and the weight of his second daughter in silver to their respective husbands. Being answered by Sir Rafe that honor is more important, he confesses that he has money, honor and beauty. He makes strange promises to his daughter's suitors: Toures will marry Mary when she dies, and Filbon will marry Tabisha when Filbon is a woman. Later, in a party, he does not like the song that the Tinker boy sings in front of the court nor that the singer is drunk, but he does not recognize him. After the performance, he does not like the fact that Filbon sends a letter to Tabisha through Tutch and he tells the clown not to come back to his house. He is also told that Mary has eloped with Toures and he is to look for his daughter. He asks Humil, some Lords, the Earl of Tumult and two of his men to go with him in his quest. They arrive at night with torches to a place where they decide to rest to continue in the morning. There, he is given Humil's letter and, catching his wife sleeping with her former husband, he is dishonored. He pretends to forgive them, but he decides to take revenge poisoning his wife with the help of Humil, who is disguised as an Apothecary in the party that he organizes. There, Sir William blames Toures for the death of his daughter. However, the accusations come back to him when it is found out that he has killed the Lady, and later when his daughter appears alive with his brother.


Veritas in Bale's King Johan, Part 2 redeems King Johan's memory and makes the three estates (Nobylyte, Clergye and Cyvyle Order) repent having betrayed their King.

VERITAS **1607

A “ghost character" in Tomkis’ Lingua though listed in the dramatis personae. A lady that Lingua has imprisoned. Her imprisonment is one of the reasons the five senses claim Lingua is not fit to be considered a sense. She is thereafter forgotten in the play.

VERITY **1540

A Puritan maid in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates. She carries the Holy Bible with her, she expects her usual welcome at King Humanity's court, but is accused of Heresy by the three Vices and put in the stocks. She is released by Divine Correction and joins King Humanity's court. In the Second Part, she (along with Chastity) begs the Parliament to chastise the Spirituality for rejecting her.

VERITY **1550

Veryte stands for Protestant doctrine in the anonymous Somebody, Avarice, and Minister. As Mynister complains to Avaryce that she contrasts his dissolute conduct, Veryte is replaced by Simony, Avaryce's sister, as Mynister's mistress, and is despoiled and cast into a pit, her garments being assumed by Simony. Veryte, however, foresees her eventual restoration after "many yeres".

VERITY **1553

Also known as Truth, Veritee and Veritas, she is the daughter of Time in Udall's? Respublica. Both father and daughter tell everything they see. She tells Respublica that Policy, Reformation, Authority and Honesty of her court are not good government but ravening wolves. The four sisters (Verity, Justice, Peace and Mercy) promise to deliver Respublica from woe to prosperity. Verity announces that Nemesis will come to punish the four vices.


Vermandero is commander of the castle of Alicante in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling. He plans to marry his daughter, Beatrice-Joanna, to a nobleman, Alonzo de Piracquo. But he meets Alsemero and invites him to stay in the castle, not realizing that Beatrice prefers him to Alonzo. When Alonzo disappears, Vermandero initially assumes that he has run away, and selects Alsemero as Beatrice's new fiancé. When it transpires that Alonzo has been murdered, Vermandero assumes that the murderers are Antonio and Franciscus, who have been discovered in disguise in Alibius's lunatic asylum. But the truth is revealed when Alsemero forces Beatrice and DeFlores to confess their crimes. Vermandero is devastated when Beatrice dies, and his only consolation is to embrace Alsemero as a new son.


Vermillion is one of the Widow's several suitors in Thomas Middleton's The Widow. He is one she no longer wishes to entertain. He is given to putting on airs and affecting tricks of fashion that annoy everyone. Ricardo always knows when Vermillion has paid a call upon the Widow because the strong aroma of his scented oils hangs in the air long after Vermillion has gone.


Vermine is an old usurer in Brome's The Damoiselle. He gives 1,000 pounds to Dryground for the mortgage of his state. Being interested in his partner's business, he asks Dryground about his project and defends himself from blame by reminding him that Dryground had promised marriage to Brookall's sister and that later he had thrown himself back, thereby dishonoring her. He does not accept the proposal of marrying his daughter to Brookall's son. Instead, he tells his daughter to save money to protect herself from society. Vermine also has a son, Wat, but he does not consider him part of his family because he has wasted all the money his father gave him. Vermine wants to marry her with Sir Amphilus. Expecting to be visited by Sir Amphilus, he is told that the knight is not to come by his servant and he decides to pay him a visit as Vermine is interested in joining his property with Sir Amphilus's wealth. He asks the "disguised servant" to stay in his place while he is out of town. He finds out the trick when he meets Sir Amphilus and his "real" servant. From then on, he begins a search for his daughter with his Servant. He is the target of most of the gentlemen who enjoy his disgrace. He has to deal with their scorn and the begging of whores like Phillis. Later, he goes to visit Bumpsey looking for advice. But, once there, Magdalen laughs at him and he is only saved by the arrival of Sir Amphilus who asks him about his daughter. He will repeat the same questions when Valentine arrives. He will suffer from the scorn of Bumpsey and Valentine until Brookall tells him to go to the bawd house where he finds his daughter.


He announces the arrival of Wat, who is disguised as a countryman in Act I of Brome's The Damoiselle. In II.i, he is blamed by his lord because he has let his daughter run away.

VERNON **1592

Vernon is in Richard Plantagenet's service and a supporter of the Yorkist faction which favors Richard's claim to the throne in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI. Shakespeare imagines a fictitious debate in which the Yorkist and Lancastrian factions choose the symbols of their quarrel, the white and the red roses. Suffolk sides with Somerset and the Lancastrians, plucking a red rose from a nearby bush, while Warwick and Vernon choose a white rose to show their support for Richard Plantagenet's Yorkist side. Later, Vernon quarrels with Bassett, Somerset's servant, who is a Lancastian supporter. He was probably modeled on Sir Richard Vernon, speaker of the House of Commons in the Leicester Parliament.

VERNON **1596
As the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley opens, Vernon is the favored suitor of Nell, daughter of Sir Thomas Curtis, a wealthy London alderman. Beginning a pattern that will be repeated again and again throughout the play, he is outwitted by Stukeley who, despite his reputation as a gallant, wins Nell's hand. Vernon then travels to Ireland to participate in the Irish campaign, and contributes significantly to the English victory at Dundalk, but Stukeley, who arrives later, wins the glory. Following Stukeley, he entreats the master of the Pelican, a merchant ship, to take him to Spain. When that ship is wrecked he and the master are the only survivors and are taken prisoner by the Spanish officer Lantado, but are released when the are greeted by Stukeley. He meets his final end at the Battle of Alcazar fighting alongside his old nemesis, Vernon.


Part of the Percy rebel faction in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV, Sir Richard Vernon carries news to Hotspur concerning the number of the king's troops and the delay in help from Glendower for the Percys. He purposely withholds from the Percys the king's offer of grace. Captured at the battle of Shrewsbury, Vernon is ordered executed along with Worcester for his treachery. He was Sir Richard Vernon of Shipbrook, Cheshire.
Sir Richard Vernon is connected with Percy's plot against Henry IV in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. He joins the plot rather late and frequently speaks of Prince Hal in glowing terms. Vernon is obviously not as devious as Worcester or as cowardly as Northumberland. When Henry IV offers amnesty to the rebels if they surrender, Vernon advises reporting the option to Hotspur. Worcester overrules Vernon and Percy never learns of the offer.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Pericles. A French syphilitic who longs for Marina while she is in the hands of the bawds.


A "ghost character" in Chapman's The Widow's Tears. An apothecary mentioned by Ero as she eats and drinks the provisions of the disguised Lysander in the family tomb.


The tavern keeper in Chapman's An Humourous Day's Mirth. He is the host to the gallants and (unknowingly) to the secret party of the King, Florilla, Martia, and Moren. He assists the gallants in the gulling of Labesha, and presents the pageant at the end of the play.


The tavern keeper's son in Chapman's An Humourous Day's Mirth. He assists his father and gives the opening speech in Verone's pageant in the final scene during which he complains of being interrupted.


Veronte is one of the Gallants in the anonymous Wit of a Woman. He is son to Bario and brother to Erinta. He disguises himself as a schoolmaster, under the name Ventero, and is invited to teach Balia's students. As a schoolmaster Veronte is seen courting Erinta, who according to the dramatis personae is his sister: however, he also mentions that he receives a letter from Gianetta, and therefore presumably ends the play married to her. N.b. the four gallants are Filenio, Gerillo, Rinaldo, and Veronte.


Small character who is to play a role in the trick in the last act of Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. He will talk about Clarence's illness to help him to win Eugenia's love. He says that it is love what is killing the gentleman.


A Scottish noble in Peele's Edward I. Lord Versses carries Baliol's defiance of the English to Edward, wearing a halter to remind him that he should perform this task with speed and with energy. Edward hears the challenge, gives him the royal chain to replace the halter, and orders Versses to tell the Scottish king that the halter will be his fate. When Baliol hears Edward's rebuke, he becomes enraged and orders that Versses be hanged with the chain the English king has given him.


A nobleman and judge in Fletcher and Massinger's The Little French Lawyer. Vertaine arranges for the marriage of his daughter Lamira to Champernell, an elderly gentleman. At the wedding, Vertaigne witnesses Dinant's humiliation of the bride and groom. After La-writ becomes a fighter, the lawyer challenges Vertaigne to a duel because the judge has dismissed some of La-writ's cases. Vertaigne sends his nephew Sampson in his stead. Vertaigne is among those kidnapped in Dinant's elaborate revenge plot, but, after chastising the kidnappers, he, along with Champernell, is set free. When Sampson and La-writ encounter the two elderly men, Vertaigne is amused to see the lawyers' distressed condition. Vertaigne and Champernell summon the Provost and return with him to search the forest for the kidnap victims. He is delighted to be reunited with them when they return safely.


A French tailor in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill who is owed money by the showy courtiers. The lords flatter him so much that he starts acting like a lord, and when Franio enters to present his petition to King Philippo, he thinks Vertigo is the King and is embarrassed when the real King enters. At the end of the play, Vertigo provides aristocratic clothes for Florimell and Bustofa.


Vescy is named as one of the conspirators against John in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John.


A "ghost character" in the Anonymous Tragedy of Nero. Reported by Tigellinus to Nero for sleeping through his performance as Orestes. The future emperor escapes punishment however.
Nero's heroic General and afterwards Emperor in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy, where is name is spelled Vespatian. He returns to Rome with the news of his victories in Persia, Spain, Gallia and Britain and is sent to pacify Judea, accompanied by his son Titus. He conquers Jotapata and Galilee. On Nero's death he is proclaimed Emperor and crowned. He remains in Rome and delegates the campaign for Jerusalem to his son, assisted by Josephus.
A "ghost character" in Massinger's The Roman Actor, Vespasian is the former Roman Emperor and deceased father of the Emperor Domitian.
Only mentioned in the Anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave. "Rome's rich emperor", King Edgar compares himself with him in the first scene; Philarchus' father mentions him as an example for Edgar: "Who for a blowe his sonne did giue a Swaine, / Did straight commaund that he should loose his hand." (See also Titus).


Vespucci attends on Flavia, along with Camillo, with whom he conspires to win her favors in Ford's The Fancies Chaste and Noble. When this plan is revealed to Romanello, Vespucci is penitent, and at the end of the play he, along with Camillo and Romanello, is invited to court either Floria or Silvia.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. In Roman mythology, Vesta was the goddess of heath and home. Her Greek counterpart is Hestia. Vesta was a revered goddess in Rome and her priestesses were sworn to virginity. When Tucca enters Albius's house as his guest, he names Albius after several noble celebrities of classical antiquity, and he gives Chloë the names of mythological goddesses. Among others, he calls Chloë a Vesta. Since Chloë is far from being an innocent virgin maid, as a Vestal priestess, the allusion to Chloë as Vesta is ironic.
Only mentioned in Armin's The Two Maids of More–Clacke. She was a minor goddess in Mount Olympus. She was the goddess of the hearth and due to her minor role she was substituted by Dionysus. In the play, she is distinguished from the Lady because she has lost her virginity in opposition to the goddess who kept her purity.
Wife of Uranus, mother of Saturn and Titan in Heywood's The Golden Age. She prefers her younger son Saturn as heir over his brother Titan. She informs the elder that, although he is older in age, he is "youngest in brain." Like Sybilla, she is an important female character because of what Homer calls "women's wits."


"Ghost characters" in Richards' Messalina. An unspecified number of vestal virgins are rescued by Lepida when Saufellus, Stitch, and Hem attempt to abduct and rape them.


"Ghost characters," a cant term for prostitutes in Jonson's The Alchemist. When Mammon boasts to Surly that he can make a magic potion that would give a decrepit old man potency, Surly remarks ironically that the decayed vestals of Pickt-hatch would be grateful for it. If he were able to provide such men, they would keep the fire alive in that place. Pickt-hatch was a low district of London frequented by whores and pickpockets. Surly makes an ironic parallel between the whores populating the red-lantern district and the Roman virgin priestesses of Vesta, the deity of fire and the home in classical Roman mythology.


Lord of Padua in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies. Enters from the hunt with the Duke, Turqualo, Alberto, and attendants just after Pertillo's murder. They discover Allenso wandering lost in the woods and he asks them to direct him back to Padua. They then discover the bodies of Pertillo and the first Ruffian, along with the wounded second Ruffian. Vesuvio exits with the Duke and his party to pursue Fallerio. At the end of the play, along with the other lords, Vesuvio brings the disguised Allenso to the Duke and observes as both Allenso and then Fallerio remove their disguises and are ordered hanged by the Duke.


A "ghost character" never appearing in the play, this is the supposed great-grandfather of Veterano the Antiquary in Marmion's The Antiquary.


A collector and dealer in antiquities in Marmion's The Antiquary. Veterano plans to disinherit his nephew Lionell. Obsessed with his profession, throughout the play Veterano is repeatedly laughable and eventually chooses not to disinherit his nephew.


A constable in Brome's The Northern Lass, known as a scourge of prostitutes, induced by Anvil to bring Constance Holdup before Sir Paul Squelch. Sir Paul takes a fancy to Holdup and roundly abuses Vexhem for 'mistaking' her for a whore. Vexhem later gets his revenge by accusing the disguised Sir Paul of being a dangerous Spaniard.


Vi is a young woman in Barry's Ram Alley who helps Adriana to strew herbs before the planned wedding of Changeable Taffeta and Sir Oliver Smallshanks.


A servant to Glister in Middleton's The Family of Love.


Vibidia or Vibidea is the Matron of Vestals in Richards' Messalina. Having been rescued by Lepida, she repays the favor by going as ambassador to ask Claudius to see Messalina after her arrest.


A Roman noble, loyal to Pompey in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey; he brings Caesar's early offer of capitulation to Pompey, who rejects it.

VICAR **1632

A “ghost character" in Hausted’s Rival Friends. Lively has Neander and Constantina contract marriage before a vicar who dropped by his home at a fortunate moment.


‘A vicar with long staffe, short cloak and habit’ in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. In the first version, he is listed as a Parson. Amadour promises Florimel that the vicar will be waiting to marry them at once before they sneak into their bridal chamber. In act four, he attends Amadour at the secret nuptial spot, promising to tie a proper ‘Gordian’ of their wedding vows.

VICE **1567

He is the named central character of the title in Pickering's Horestes (an Interlude of Vice). He calls himself Patience (which Rusticus mishears as Past Shame), Courage, and Revenge. He opens the play, entering through the audience, warning random individuals of their danger. He fights with the rustic Hodge over an imagined insult, and although he patches it up, is determined to get his revenge. He tells Rusticus, Hodge's rural neighbor, that Hodge's dog had worried his pig to death and encourages him to get his revenge by fighting. As the two fight, Vice beats them both and runs off. He next appears having overheard Horestes asking the gods whether he should avenge his father's murder by his mother. He tells Horestes that his name is Courage and that Mars has sent him to guide Horestes in his revenge. Using folk sayings he encourages Horestes to act quickly. He next appears after Horestes's invasion of Mycenae, disclosing to the audience that he is now to be called Revenge. He sings of how he kills soldiers and points out that he is the only one to gain fame in war. He comments with pleasure on the soldiers' eagerness for revenge, and on Horestes's treatment of his mother. To the audience he mocks Horestes who is troubled by what he has done. As Revenge he acts for Horestes in supervising Clytemnestra's death. Later, he returns singing another song announcing that he has a new master now that Horestes regrets his actions. He has a lengthy discussion with Fame, treating Fame as a trollop. When he finds out that the Greek kings are meeting in Athens he announces he must go there quickly. Dressed as a beggar, Vice arrives too late: the friendship between the kings is sealed. He blames Amity, his direst foe, for the peaceful outcome. He claims that at Horestes's wedding Amity and Duty thwart Vice's plans to disrupt the accord. Though poor and beggarly, he leaves optimistically, looking for a new master, and pointing out that if all else fails he can work with women; they are always looking for revenge.

VICE **1599

Sworn enemy of Virtue in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. He decides to put horns on the heads of any person who eats from the newly planted tree of Vice.

VICE **1599

A fictitious character in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. Vice is a character in a play staged by Sir Oliver Owlet's Men.

VICEROY **1610

The Governor of Tunis is listed thus in the original Dramatis Personae of Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk; his status in the text could cover both descriptions, but he is never seen to invoke the terms of his higher office.

VICEROY **1636

A "ghost character" in Wilde's Love's Hospital. Lysander claims that the law strictly forbidding duels which is observed by the Viceroy is the reason why he cannot fight with Comastes when the son of Caecilius challenges him to a duel for attempting to marry his father to Nigella (who is actually Olimpa in disguise). Furthermore, Surdato promises to reward Nigella for her apparent furtherance of his suit to Facetia with a jewel which the Viceroy promised him and which he claims "lyes in [his] christall Cabinnet."


Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. He is at first persuaded that his son, Balthazar, was murdered by Alexandro on the battlefield, but discovers that the allegation is merely Villupo's lie. He commits Villupo to death.


Does not appear in the play. Responsible for freeing Forobosco and the Clown from the galleys before the play's action begins in Fletcher, Ford, Massinger and Webster's The Fair Maid of the Inn.


The Viceroy is the father of Almira and Pedro in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman. The Duke accuses him of helping Antonio escape justice, but the charge is baseless. He is happy to reward Antonio for saving his daughter from the pirates, but is outraged that his daughter would choose this same slave for a husband. He insists that Antonio must have used witchcraft to gain his daughter's love. He orders Antonio to be tortured and executed. When his daughter says that she too will die with Antonio, he is only too happy to add, "Let her perish." He also orders the removal of the alcoholic Borachia when she defends Antonio. Once Antonio's princely identity is revealed, however, the Viceroy is pleased with the match, promising to raise Almira's fortunes to meet his own.


Facertes’s viceroy in Killigrew’s The Princess. He falls from wounds suffered at the place where Nigro falls and Cicilia’s is taken by the soldiers. The soldiers that take Cicilia away drag his and Nigro’s bodies into the woods for later burial.


Vicinia is the supposed mother of Mæstius and Serena, but the actual mother of Accius and Silena, the supposed children of Memphio and Stellio respectively in Lyly's Mother Bombie. Eighteen years previously, Vicinia had been the nurse to both Memphio's and Stellio's households, and had switched their children for hers shortly after birth. Vicinia does not appear until V where, having heard rumors of the impending marriage between Accius and Silena that would result in an incestuous union, she consults Mother Bombie about whether she should make her secret public. Mother Bombie's cryptic prophecy encourages her to come forward, and in the final scene she prevents the marriage of the dim-witted couple, Accius and Silena, and restores Mæstius and Serena to their proper birthright, which allows them to marry.


Patrick's 'angelic guardian' in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland. He carries a banner with a cross. He assures Patrick that the treachery of the King and Milcho cannot harm him, and that further martyrdom, even if it does happen, can only increase the numbers of people converting to Christianity. Accompanied by other Angels, he warns a slumbering Patrick about Archimagus' plot to have him killed by means of poisonous snakes.


She loves Fortunio, although she once loved Fedele in ?Munday's Fedele and Fortunio. Along with Medusa and Attilia, all disguised as nuns, she enters the temple in order to conjure Fortunio's love. After the failure of the spell, she calls for Fortunio so she can declare her love for him. In the meantime, she tells Fedele that she never really stopped loving him, but is now very confused. In the hopes of gaining advice, she sends for Crackstone, who later claims that she hired him to kill Fedele, a charge she denies. Once she learns that Fortunio has agreed to marry Virginia, she agrees to marry Fedele.


Victoria is the wife of Bellizarius in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier. When he is imprisoned for his conversion to Christianity, Victoria visits him in prison, and he converts her. She pleads to King Henrick for his pardon, but he refuses to grant it unless she persuade Bellizarius to recant Christianity. Victoria persuades him instead to recant life in favor of Christian martyrdom. As a punishment, Henrick orders Victoria to be raped by lower-class men. But the Camel-Drivers and Slaves that he hires for the job are all struck mad or blind, so Henrick orders Victoria to be locked up instead. She is tortured in the dungeon, but emerges from it all in white. At this point, Henrick begins to lust after her, and decides to rape her. But two Angels appear at her bed, and freeze her to death in order to preserve her virtue and make her a martyr.


She loves Fabritio and travels from Rome to Venice after him in Brome's The Novella. To facilitate her travels, she disguises herself as the Novella (a new prostitute) but sets the price of her maidenhead too high for anyone to afford–2,000 ducats for one month. Pantaloni bargains her into a corner, and she substitutes her Moorish eunuch Jacomo (disguised as Jacquenetta) in a "bed trick." The trick so infuriates Pantaloni that he vows revenge (a revenge foiled by Nicolo). She makes arrangements with the Peddler to cross the marriage of Fabritio and Flavia. When Francisco becomes aware of these plans, he brings Flavia to her lodgings where she arranges to have the lovers secretly married. When Swatzenburgh appears as and English Factor with 2,000 ducats to test her honesty, she produces a knife and announces that she will kill herself rather than stain her honor. Fabritio (with the aid of Nicolo) reveals himself to her at the end, and the two are married by her brother, the priest Paulo.


Duchess of Florence in Dekker's(?) Telltale. Enters to the Duke with the court party and the Venetian princes, and explains the Valentine game; she is chosen by Picentio (her suspected lover), after which the Duke halts the game. Victoria asks the Duke if he is offended at Picentio's choice and when he tells her that he will favor Picentio by leaving him in charge of the state, she tries to discover why the Duke must suddenly leave. Later, Picentio meets privately with Victoria, who tells him that the gem he chose was not hers but belonged to Isabella instead. Victoria also tells him that Isabella loves him while she does not. Picentio then whispers a message for Isabella to Victoria and also gives her a ring (this exchange is secretly observed by Aspero, Gismond, and Cosmo). When Aspero, Gismond, and Cosmo step forward to arrest them, Victoria scolds them for their impudence and denies any improper relationship between herself and Picentio. She denies the charge of treason against her and Picentio in the Duke's warrant and agrees to Aspero's suggestion of a public trial. Victoria and Picentio exit in the custody of Julio, disguised as Corbino, to be held as prisoners until their trial. With Julio's assistance the Duchess escapes confinement and travels to Fidelio in Castle Angelo. Julio disguises the Duchess's identity by darkening her face with umber. Julio and the Duchess are both captured and brought to the military camp by two Soldiers. Julio resists both Soldiers' attempts to offer him money to hire the Duchess as camp prostitute. She accepts the Captain's offer that she work as his cook and laundress. She later enters after the disguised Duke has been trimmed and costumed and recognizes him. He asks her to make any complaints she may have against the Duke to him. Victoria blames the Duke for destroying her reputation and attempting to murder her. The remainder of this scene is missing from the manuscript. At the end of the play, the Duchess returns to court with the Duke, Julio, the Captain, Lieutenant, and Ancient, all impersonating their spirits. Picentio, disguised as the French Doctor, commands them to indicate their approval or disapproval of Aspero. After showing signs of approval the spirits perform a dance, during which the Duke takes the crown and the Duchess the scepter. They witness the Duke resume his authority, listen to Bentivoli's tale, witness the purged Garullo's return, and exit with the court to the weddings of Picentio and Isabella and Hortensio and Elinor.


Nephew of La Fin in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron. He attends the King in the opening scene and reports that his uncle will soon arrive back at the court. He also appears in IV.ii and V.iii.


The queen in Sackville and Norton's Gorboduc. When her younger son, Porrex kills her favorite, Ferrex she vows to kill Porrex. After she murdrers her youngest son, she is murdered by the mob.


Vilarezo is father to Sebastiano, Catalina, and Berinthia in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge. He insists that Berinthia entertain no love interest until her older sister Catalina is wed. When Berinthia is taken away by Antonio, Vilarezo insists that Sebastiano kill Antonio. The end of the play finds Vilarezo mourning the deaths of all three of his children.

VILLAIN **1600

A member of the Italian bandits and partner, in both crime and saucy banter, to the Clown in Thomas Heywood's The Four Prentices of London. Assigned to guide the Earl of Boulogne through the mountains, the Villain steals the Earl's gold; his dastardly plan to murder the Earl is thwarted by the arrival of Eustace.

VILLAIN **1627

A "ghost character" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving Ludio informs Thuriger as well as the crowd at the sentencing of disobedient characters at the play's end that his "sachell" was stolen by a Villain while he was making his case in Apollo's Court. With its loss, he claims, lies "the Shipwracke of all [his] best houshold-stuffe, and tooles of [his] trade."


At least two Villains accompany the disguised Francisco to kill Lysander and carry off Gloriana in Tatham's Love Crowns the End. The Second Villain, at least, joins Francisco in stabbing the unarmed Lysander.


As Antonio's kinsman in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge, Villandras helps Diego and Antonio carry Berinthia away from Avero and to Antonio's Elvas Castle home. Villandras serves as Antonio's second in the challenge from Sebastiano, and he is slain by Sebastiano.


Officer under Brennoralt in Suckling's Brennoralt. He is friend of Grainevert, Marinell, and Stratheman.


A "ghost character" in Wilde's Love's Hospital. Villanus is presumably one of Caecilius's tenants. His name is offered to Comastes by Caecilius as an example of "a countrye Swayne" whose identity Comastes may take on as he disguises himself for the purpose of wooing Facetia for the blind man.


Villiers is a Norman Lord and a prisoner of Salisbury in the Anonymous King Edward III. He is offered his freedom, without ransom, if he will go to Prince Charles and procure a safe-conduct pass for Salisbury. When he first asks Charles, Charles refuses and suggests that Villiers simply not return to his captivity. However, Villiers rejects this, stating that he is honor bound to deliver the passport as ransom or remain a prisoner. Charles is impressed with Villiers' sense of honor and redeems him by giving him the safe-conduct for Salisbury.


He is a merchant of La Rochelle whom Oriana and Diana meet in the anonymous Weakest Goeth to the Wall. He looks after them and promises to marry Oriana and to share all his property with her, if her husband is dead. Diana announces that she will be pleased to call him father. In the final scene Lodowick finds that his lost son Frederick is Ferdinand, the hero of the recent battle, and Brabant is reconciled to his daughter and Ferdinand. Villiers then enters bringing Oriana and Diana with him, with a suit for Lodowick. Villiers describes how Oriana's boat was blown back to La Rochelle, where he lived, when she and Diana were sailing for England. He looked after them well, and Oriana agreed to marry him when she was a widow. Although he has a document in which she declares she is a widow, she has refused to marry him. She describes to Lodowick how she had lived in the house of the Duke of Bulloigne, but now, a weak person, she has gone to the wall. Lodowick declares who he is and explains that Oriana and Diana now have recovered their son and brother, Frederick. Villiers is delighted.


Ferrand's witty fool in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage. Villio attempts to keep Castruchio out of trouble. When the two fools argue about the value of kingship, Villio asserts that royalty is a burden, while Castruchio praises its luxurious glories. Villio offers a witty and bitter commentary on Castruchio's royal excesses.


Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. Villupo attempts to rid himself of his rival, Alexandro, by telling the Viceroy that Alexandro murdered the Viceroy's son, Balthazar, and used the battle with Spain as a cover. Villupo's lie is discovered when Portugal makes peace with Spain, and he is executed.

VINCENT **1637

A young rake in Brome's The English Moor who plots with Nathaniel and Edmond to cuckold Quicksands. Disguised as a mummer, he appears with Nathaniel, Edmond, and others at Quicksands' house in a profane marriage-masque. Invited to Quicksands' feast "celebrating" the death of Millicent, he and the others plan to bring Buzzard, disguised as Quicksands' idiot bastard, to disrupt the event. During the masque, he is exposed as penniless; however, in Testy's court, he and Edmond get Quicksands to forgive their debts in return for freeing him of his "bastard."

VINCENT **1641

Vincent is a young gentleman and a childhood sweetheart to one of Oldrents' daughters, Meriel and Rachel in Brome's A Jovial Crew. Along with Hilliard, he agrees to accompany Meriel and Rachel in their adventure as beggars. He and Hilliard try to conceal their misery during this adventure from Meriel and Rachel, who conceal theirs in turn. In the course of his begging, Hilliard is insulted by Oliver and challenges him via Vincent, to a duel, which goes unfought. When Sentwell arrives and breaks up the festivities of the beggar wedding, Vincent, along with Hilliard, Meriel, and Rachel, gives himself up and reveals his identity. Brought by Sentwell to Clack's house, he plays himself in the inset play before Oldrents.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Vincent was mentioned by Master Silence when he is offering Master Ominous a solution to put an end to his misfortunes: "For heraldry, so far as Vincent against York, there is no hurt in that." Augustine Vincent (c. 1584-), Rouge Croix, Pursuivant of Arms, later appointed Windsor Herald and Custodian of the Tower Archive published A discoverie of errours in the first edition of the catalogue of nobility, published by Raphe Brooke, Yorke Herald (1622).


A wealthy gentleman of Pisa in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Vincentio is the father of Lucentio. While travelling to Padua to visit his son, whom he believes is attending university there, Vincentio is met by Petruchio, Katherine, and their entourage on their way to Baptista's house, Katherine's father. Deciding to travel with them, he is outraged to arrive at Baptista's to find that Tranio, his son's servant, is impersonating Lucentio and the Pedant impersonating himself. Thinking that Tranio has murdered his son, Vincentio calls for Tranio to be arrested. Baptista, believing Vincentio to be insane, calls for him to be arrested. Finally, Lucentio and Bianca, returning from their elopement, appear and sort out the confusion.


Serving-man to Count Ferneze in Jonson's The Case is Altered.


Son of Duke Alphonso, in love with Margaret in Chapman's The Gentleman Usher. At Lasso's house, he approaches Bassiolo and begins to cultivate his friendship. He tells the gentleman usher to call him Vince. After the masque, he seals the friendship and begs Bassiolo to carry a letter to Margaret. The next day, he slips away from his father's hunting party. Bassiolo brings him Margaret's letter, then brings Margaret herself, and the two of them exchange vows of eternal love. When Poggio arrives and tells him of Strozza's grievous state, he leaves to see his friend. He returns to Lasso's to meet again with Margaret. When their elders come to confront them, he flees and is seriously wounded in flight by Medice. When he is brought back to Lasso's he declares he will wed Margaret despite her damaged beauty.


The governor of Vienna in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. The Duke wishes to have the city's laws against fornication enforced but not by himself. Instead, he appoints Angelo to govern in his place while he secretly disguises himself as Friar Lodowick in order to observe what occurs. Thus disguised, the Duke visits the prison, where he becomes acquainted with Claudio and Isabella. He eavesdrops on them and overhears Isabella relate Angelo's proposition to her: Angelo has promised to pardon Claudio in return for her yielding her virginity to him. The Duke confronts Isabella and tells her that Angelo was once betrothed to Mariana, whom he forsook when her brother Frederick drowned at sea with her dowry. The Duke directs Isabella to agree to Angelo's demands, but to perform a "bed trick, " substituting Mariana for herself. Angelo, thinking he has bedded Isabella, orders Claudio executed anyway to hide his misdeed. The Duke then conspires with the Provost to execute Barnardine in Claudio's place and show Angelo his head as proof of Claudio's execution. When the prisoner Ragusine, who more resembles Claudio than does Barnardine, dies of a fever they decide to use his head instead. Plotting to ensnare Angelo, the still-disguised Duke tells Isabella that Claudio is dead and directs her and Mariana to reveal everything to the Duke when he "returns" to Vienna. In the end, the Duke publicly disgraces Angelo and forces him to marry Mariana, reveals that Claudio is still alive and pardons both him and Barnardine, orders Lucio to marry the prostitute Kate Keepdown as punishment for slandering him and impregnating her, and declares that he will marry Isabella.


A senator of Thessaly in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort. He along with his three counterparts is entrusted to "determine the affairs of state" by King Ferdinand while the monarch attempts to cure his son, Prince Sigismund, of his melancholic temperament. When Gisbert seeks judicial remedy in the senate for the wrongs done to him and his daughter by Lucius, the four senators sympathize with the shepherd but are unable to provide redress, feeling that sorrow and hardship are the poor man's lot.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's More Dissemblers Besides Women. Aurelia's alter ego is a gentleman in credit with Lord Vincentio.


Vincenzo is a "ghost character" in Shirley's The Sisters. He is named as the father of Angellina and Paulina.


A "ghost character" in the Anonymous Tragedy of Nero. Leader of the first rebellion against Nero in Gaul. Nero complacently dismisses news of his uprising.


A disguise that Gazetto adopts in Seville whilst looking for Tormiella in Dekker’s Match Me in London. Thus diguised, he finds Tormiella, who does not recognize him. After the king has made Tormiella his concubine, “Lupo" offers himself to the king as a “turne broach" advisor. The king accepts him and gives him five hundred pistolets.


"The revenger," Vindice carries the skull of his love, Gloriana, to kindle his vengeance in [?]Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy. Angered by the ruling Duke, who has caused the deaths of his father and sweetheart, Gloriana, Vindice sets upon a quest to murder him. Disguising himself as Piato, a panderer, he uses his brother Hippolito's influence to win preferment with the Duke's son, Lussurioso. He is hired to act as go-between for Lussurioso and a young country virgin of his liking. The virgin turns out to be Vindice's own sister, Castiza. Vindice uses the opportunity to test his sister's honor only to discover that his mother, Gratiana, is willing to prostitute Castiza to Lussurioso. Vindice learns that the Duke's bastard, Spurio, intends to cuckold the Duke with his new, young wife. When he leads Lussurioso into the bedchamber, he is surprised to find the Duke in bed with his young Duchess. Although Vindice escapes, Lussurioso is captured and imprisoned for the apparent assassination attempt. He lures the Duke to a country inn and tricks him into kissing the poisoned skull of Gloriana. He then stakes the Duke's tongue to the balcony floor and forces him to watch secretly as Spurio and the Duchess cuckold him. Lussurioso, newly released from prison, sets out to punish "Pieto" for betraying him. Vindice learns of this when Hippolito hires him in Lussurioso's name to murder his own alter ego, "Pieto." He dresses the dead Duke in Pieto's clothes and lays him on a couch. As Lussurioso watches, Vindice (now in his own clothes) falls upon "Pieto" and stabs him. When they discover it is the dead Duke, Lussurioso concludes that "Pieto" murdered him. Vindice then plot with his brother, Hippolito, a nobleman named Piero and a fourth lord to dance in a masque at the celebration of Lussurioso becoming Duke. There, they unmask and murder Lussurioso and several of his nobles at a banquet table. When Vindice later boasts to Antonio, the new ruler, that he is responsible for ridding the land of the old ducal family, both he and Hippolito are sentenced to be executed for their crimes. Vindice goes to death happily, knowing that his acts have created a better world.


A "ghost character" in [?]Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy. Before the play begins, he died in disgrace and discontent brought about by the Duke.


Vindicta Dei, or the wrath of God, comes to avenge the maltreatment of God's messengers in Bale's Three Laws. He confronts Infidelity with his misdeeds. He attempts to banish Infidelity with floods and then with a sword, but Infidelity is able to withstand both of these attacks. However, when he threatens Infidelity with destruction by fire, Infidelity is forced to retreat to hell.

VINTER **1592

In the B-text only of Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, the Vinter demands payment from Robin for a silver goblet that Robin stole and handed to Rafe. After Robin's gibberish incantations fail to satisfy the Vinter, Rafe returns the goblet.

VINTNER **1597

The Vintner is the unnamed wine master at the Boar's Head Tavern in Eastcheap in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. He chides Francis for inactivity when the latter is summoned simultaneously by several clients, including Prince Hal.

VINTNER **1605

In a brief conversation with Witgood, he attests to the fictional identity of the Courtesan, alias Jane Medler in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. He informs him that she is a "Stratfordshire gentlewoman."

VINTNER **1617

An obsequious vintner or "host" attends on Crates and Conon in Fletcher's Queen of Corinth when they drink at an inn, serving them wine with his own hands and commanding the Drawer to wait upon them.

VINTNER **1632

Employed at the Goat Tavern in Covent Garden in Brome's The Weeding of Covent Garden.

VIOLA **1600

Viola is the twin sister of Sebastian in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. After the shipwreck that she believes has killed her brother, she dresses in his clothes and presents herself as the page Cesario to Orsino. She quickly falls in love with him, and so is saddened to be sent on a mission to woo Olivia for Orsino. Nevertheless, she does her best, and is so determined that she is admitted to Olivia's presence, despite the latter's vow not to see any man for seven years. Olivia tells Viola that she cannot love Orsino, and when Malvolio appears to give her a ring Olivia claims Viola left behind, Viola realizes that Olivia has in fact fallen in love with her. Despite this tangle, she continues to woo Olivia for Orsino, rousing the jealous of Sir Andrew, who is also a suitor for Olivia. Sir Toby, who has borrowed a great deal of money from Sir Andrew, forces a duel between the two obviously unwilling participants, but it is broken up when Antonio appears and believes Viola to be her brother. Viola declares she does not know Antonio, a claim that infuriates Antonio. When Antonio is brought before Orsino on charges of piracy, Viola asks for mercy, but Antonio is still furious at his supposed friend's refusal to acknowledge him. Olivia enters and, seeing Viola, declares that they are married. Despite Viola's rejection of Olivia, Orsino, outraged at this betrayal, plans to kill his page, and Viola is so in love with Orsino that she agrees to go with him. The mystery is solved when Sebastian enters to apologize to Olivia his new wife) for beating her kinsman Sir Toby. Viola is revealed to be a woman, and Orsino agrees to marry her once she is in woman's clothing again.

VIOLA **1604

Viola is the wife of Candido in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore. She finds that she is desperate to make her phlegmatic husband lose his temper. She meets with her brother, Fustigo, and asks him to come to her shop. There he is to swagger, be overly familiar with her and snatch her jewelry away (but to be sure to return it later). When Castruchio, Fluello and Pioratto come to the shop to try to make Candido lose his temper, Viola is furious that he calmly cuts a pennyworth of lawn from the middle of the cloth and allows their silver and gilt beaker to be taken. When Fustigo's ploy fails, her next attempt to try her husband's patience is to refuse George the key to the cabinet thereby denying Candido his senate gown. When this fails, she persuades George to dress himself in Candido's clothes so as to provide a mirror for his actions. This also fails, and Viola then declares to the Officers that Candido is mad and has him arrested. However, once he is taken, she has a change of heart and, with George, appears before the Duke to request a warrant to have him freed. The Duke is on the verge of giving it to her when he learns of Infelice's elopement to the Monastery and orders Viola to leave. She and George travel to the Monastery and there persuade the Duke to free Candido. Viola begs Candido's forgiveness on her knees and promises to vex him no more.


Daughter to Andrugio in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Coxcomb. Viola loves Ricardo and agrees to elope with him. She plans to meet him on the street, but when she arrives, all of the men, with the exception of Drawer, are drunk and fighting. They mistake her for a whore, and she is frightened and flees. She tries to find shelter in Antonio's house, but he sends her back into the street—not believing that she, a gentlewoman, would be out alone at night. As she makes her way in the darkness, she meets Tinker and Dorothie who tie her up and steal her belongings. Valerio comes to Viola's rescue but she is afraid to reveal her true identity to him. She tells him that she can work as a lady's maid, perhaps for his wife, but Valerio dismisses that idea, telling Viola that his wife is jealous of beautiful women. He promises that he will try to get her employment in his kinsman's household—where he can visit her. Viola tells him that she will not accept visits from a married man and she will find her own employment. They part. Soon after, Viola meets Madge and Nan, the milkmaids. They offer her some milk and she gives them each a jewel that she took from her father's house when she ran away intending to marry Ricardo. She asks them if they know of a place where she can earn her keep. They lead her to the Country-woman, Mercurie's mother. Viola tells them that her name is Melvia. When Mercurie brings her to his mother, she is taken in and cared for. When Ricardo discovers her whereabouts, she is at first reluctant to forgive him, but after she talks to him, she believes him to be sincerely repentant and forgives him.

VIOLA **1618

Viola is Archas's younger daughter in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject. Archas instructs his two daughters Honora and Viola to prepare a banquet for the Duke and dress elegantly. The Duke admires their beauty and invites them to court as Olimpia's ladies in waiting. Viola prefers to stay at home because they have been educated against pride and love of riches. While Honora tells her to brave the challenge of the court, testing her virtue in the process, Viola is more fearful. Finally, Viola agrees to go to the court, hoping she will emulate her sister. At court, Theodor makes a vulgar introduction of Honora and Viola to Boroskie and two philandering Gentlemen. Showing them off like prize horses, Theodor describes Viola as not so strongly built as her sister is, but of an ardent temper. In Olimpia's quarters, Alinda receives Viola and Honora, posing as the experienced courtesan and giving them a set of rules on the art of seduction. After Alinda's departure, Viola is outraged at the vulgarity of Alinda's courtly advice. When the Duke propositions them, Viola goes along with her sister's scheme of acting aggressively towards the Duke. Though Viola is not so forceful as her sister is, she responds to Honora's invitation to kiss the Duke. In the final reconciliation, when Olimpia is given to young Archas and the Duke to Honora, the Duke asks Viola if she would love Burris, and she accepts him. The three marriages are to be celebrated instantly.


Violanta is a character in "The Triumph of Love," the second play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. Her lover is Gerrard; they conceive a child out of wedlock, marry, and she secretly gives birth. Her father, Benvoglio, plans to marry Violanta to Ferdinand; when Benvoglio discovers the relationship between Violanta and Gerrard, he send her poison so that she can avoid the shame of public execution. However, Dorothea, Violanta's maid, has secretly replaced the poison with opium. Violanta drinks the opium and awakens to find herself before the Rinaldo, the newly reinstated Duke of Milan, who affirms her marriage to Gerrard.


Supposed wife of Henrique in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. She agrees with him to do whatever is necessary to keep Jamie from his inheritance. When Henrique claims Ascanio as his son and legitimate heir, Violante refuses out of jealousy to allow the illegitimate son inside her home. Henrique follows her will. Violante then arranges a meeting with Jamie and plots the death of Henrique, promising to share the estate and her bed with him when the deed is done. Jamie pretends to go along with the plan, but he creates a ruse with which to draw out Violante, tricking her into revealing her rancor to Henrique. The Assistant sentences her to build an abbey with her fortune and to live in it for the remainder of her life.


Together with her friend, Leonora, she is grieved by reports about Delamore's death by the sword of Beaumont in Shirley's The Gamester. She resolves to visit her lover, Beaumont, in gaol. There, she bribes the gaoler to let her overhear Sir Francis Hurry's conversation with the stricken young man. Thrilled by his declared constancy to her, she reaffirms her love for the man who would die rather than be untrue to her. She is overjoyed when Beaumont again shows himself to be true to her, this time while under immense pressure when on "trial" at Sir Francis' house. His faithfulness is rewarded, as Sir Francis gives his blessing to her union with the steadfast Beaumont.


Violeta is a princess of Trebizond in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. She and her maid, Carintha, are attracted to the Saints Andrew and Anthony, and are horrified when the Emperor orders them to be executed for failing to recant their Christianity. The Emperor allows the saints to choose their executioners, and they choose Violeta and Carintha, who refuse, saying they'd rather kill themselves. So Andrew and Anthony offer to kill each other. The Emperor releases them and provides swords, whereupon Andrew and Anthony frighten them all away.


Violetta is a Venetian lady and Hipolito's sister in the Anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. At a banquet in Camillo's house she listens to her brother's bragging about his war exploits. She dismisses the violent discussion, suggesting a more suitable topic for ladies. The discussion is changed from war and sex to beauty and honor, and Camillo announces he has taken a French gentleman as his prisoner in Violetta's name. Violetta asks to see the prisoner, and Fontinel is introduced to her. While he dances, Violetta admires Fontinel's beauty and stature, confessing she has fallen in love with him. Revealing her intention to win Fontinel's love, Violetta leaves Camillo's party. Camillo orders a serenade to be played under Violetta's window, but Violetta dismisses Camillo's romantic declaration. Truepenny brings Violetta a letter, which he says is from Fontinel via Frisco. Violetta wonders why Fontinel would employ Imperia's groom as his messenger, but she reads the letter. The message is an invitation to meet Fontinel at midnight at the old chapel and bring a Friar with her. In the street before the old chapel, Violetta comes in the company of a Friar and they proceed with the secret marriage ceremony. At Imperia's house, Violetta seeks entrance by pretending to be Camillo. Flattering Imperia, Violetta begs the courtesan to allow her to spend the night in her bedroom with Fontinel. This ploy sounds similar to the popular bed-trick, but the crucial difference is that Fontinel, in hiding, hears Violetta's request, as Violetta herself realizes. In the street before Imperia's house, Blurt brings Fontinel under arrest, in the company of a masked lady. Violetta unmasks and reveals that she has devised the courtesan plot in an attempt to save Fontinel from Camillo's jealousy. They have paid Imperia to pretend to be in love with Fontinel and arrange the bed-trick so Violetta was found in the courtesan's bed with her husband.


Violetta is the daughter of Basilius and Gynetia and the sister of Hippolita in Day's Isle of Gulls. Basilius has become tired with the disruption caused by suitors to Hippolita and Violetta, and has retreated to a fortified desert island. He issues a challenge that any princes who can steal the princesses away will inherit his lands. Basilius keeps Violetta close by him, and puts Hippolita under the charge of Dametas, Miso, and Mopsa. While they are hunting, Hippolita and Violetta are abducted by Julio and Aminter, but they are rescued by Lisander (disguised as an Amazon, Zelmane) and Demetrius (disguised as a woodsman, Dorus). Lisander uses the fact that both Basilius and Gynetia are in love with him to get close to Violetta, and she agrees to elope with him while they are playing bowls. However, Demetrius and Lisander make the mistake of trusting the princesses to Julio and Aminter, who are disguised as Lacedemonian intelligencers. Julio and Aminter steal the princesses from Demetrius and Lisander, and Basilius agrees that they have won the challenge.


Violetta serves as maid to Philippa in Brandino's house in Thomas Middleton's The Widow. She aids her mistress in testing Francisco's wit. She is privy to all of her mistress' secrets and endeavors.


Violetta is Sir Richley's daughter and also the disguise adopted by Sensible in Shirley's The Witty Fair One. Betrothed to Treedle, a man she has scarcely met, Violetta falls in love with Frank Aimwell. Guarded by Brains, who partly interferes with her correspondence with Aimwell, Violetta escapes by exchanging identities with the chambermaid Sensible. Sensible ends up married to Treedle while Violetta succeeds in marrying Aimwell.


A "Shepherdess," "sister to Rhodon," and Iris's friend in Knevet's Rhodon and Iris. Violetta sends a letter to her brother in which she "complaines of wrongs / late suffer'd" at the hands of Martagon. Her case is taken up by Rhodon, Acanthus, and Anthophotus and, when the conference set up to redress Martagon's treatment of Violetta fails, Rhodon and Acanthus assure the "Tyrant" that they will have revenge upon him "arm'd with a scourge of steele." Panace is entrusted with delivering Violetta's "token of [. . .] love" to Rhodon before his battle against Martagon's army–a "precious herbe" which "frustrates quite the divellish force / Of strongest poysons or enchantments." This antidote saves Rhodon's life, and, along with Iris, Violetta "haste[s]" to "Floras fane" in order to "importune" the "Queen" to bring an end to the "troublous broiles." At the play's end, Flora orders Martagon to "make an ample restitution" to the "wrong'd" Violetta.


Violinda is a court lady attendant upon Olivia in Shirley's The Doubtful Heir. To keep Olivia safe from Ferdinand's accusation that the queen is entertaining a man in her chamber, Violinda dresses Tiberio, who is really Rosania in disguise, in the queen's own clothing.


A disguise in Heywood's The Golden Age assumed by Jupiter in order to trick, and ultimately rape, Calisto.


See also VERGIL.


Virgilius Maro (Virgil) is a court poet in Rome, friend of Maecenas and Horace and honored by Caesar in Jonson's Poetaster. In an apartment in the palace, Caesar holds court. When Virgil is announced, Caesar orders a seat to be placed at his right side, informing the others that Virgil has just returned from Campania, where he had been working on his Aeneid. In order to test the other poets' virtue, Caesar asks Horace if he feels envy at his colleague's success, and Horace responds generously. When he is asked to express his opinion about Virgil, Horace says his fellow poet has a bright reason and a refined spirit, showing sobriety and self-righteousness. Gallus adds his own laudatory comments about Virgil, saying that he is modest and does not like his merits to be praised grandiloquently. Tibullus says that Virgil's verses are distilled by observation and infused with practical spirit, and therefore fit for pedagogical purposes. As for his learning, Horace says that Virgil does not display blatant glossy scholarship, but an efficient analytic form of erudition, which infiltrates his poetry with life. When Virgil enters, Caesar greets him as his peer and asks him about the Aeneid. Virgil answers modestly that the poem is not worthy of Caesar's eye and expectation. At Caesar's request, Virgil reads from his Aeneid the passage describing the monster Envy bearing numberless eyes on its plumed body. The reading is interrupted by Lupus's sudden entrance, announcing a suspected plot against Caesar's life. When Lupus's spiteful accusations have been refuted and the fools punished, Virgil applauds Caesar's justice. When Crispinus and Demetrius are charged with calumny and plagiarism, Virgil concludes that, where there is true merit, there can be no dejection. Virgil is the judge at the poetasters' arraignment. When justice is served, Vergil joins the chorus of the court poets, praising Caesar's justice and generosity, and he exits with the court.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Lovel praises the noble education he received from Lord Beaufort, he distinguishes between the teaching of frivolous courtly manners and the profound righteousness inherited from the great classical epitomes of morality. Lovel illustrates the two types of education with examples from chivalric romance and classical antiquity. In contrast with the superficial courtly manners disseminated by the contacts with chivalric romance, Lovel says that his master taught him the moral strength of the classical heroes, and he mentions Vergil. Lovel presents Vergil as the master of the epic poem, who fashioned his hero Aeneas as a model of virtue and piety. Publius Vergilius Maro (70-19 BC) was a Latin poet, author of the great epic, the Aeneid. He took as his hero the Trojan Aeneas, supposed to be the founder of the Roman nation. The poem exercised great influence upon Latin and later Christian literature.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Carion tells Clodpole, Lackland, and Stiff to cease jesting and restores them to their "old metamorphosis" as in "the first leaf of Virgil's Bucolics."


Virgilia is Coriolanus's wife in Shakespeare's Coriolanus. When she is undemonstrative during the public welcome of the hero from the battle at Corioles. He chides her gently, referring to her as his "gracious silence." With their son, she accompanies Volumnia and Valeria on the embassy to beg Coriolanus to spare Rome.


Virgilianus is a senator in Richards' Messalina who abets Messalina in marrying Silius and urges him to seize the empire. Virgilianus is captured by Pallas and sentenced to death by Claudius.


Virgilio is a Venetian gentleman in the Anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. At the banquet in Camillo's house, Virgilio confirms Hipolito's exaggerations before the ladies, maintaining he witnessed some of them. At Camillo's house, Camillo incites the Venetian gentlemen Hipolito, Virgilio, Asorino, Baptista, and Bentivolio to take revenge against Fontinel. Claiming that the Frenchman has dishonored Violetta by doting on a courtesan, Camillo sends them to Imperia's house to kill Fontinel. Incensed by the others, Virgilio rushes to kill Fontinel, telling Camillo not to delay action by talking too much. Virgilio seems to be the only one among the Venetian pugnacious youths who keeps his head and asks Camillo where they should go first. When Camillo tells them they should go first to Imperia's house to find and kill Fontinel, Virgilio conjures a gory image of revenge. Virgilio suggests they should hang Fontinel's reeking body at his harlot's window, while Camillo adds the image of Imperia's dead body by Fontinel's, and Hipolito visualizes his sister's dead body beside the two. Concluding that only by such bloody but exemplary action the tragedy is "just," Virgilio gives the signal to begin the assault.


Julius Caesar’s son and Sophia’s brother in Killigrew’s The Princess. Before the start of the play, he spared Nigro’s life once in battle and, for that charity, Facertes spared Virgilius’s life in a later battle. When Facertes was later captured, Virgilius sent letters to Caesar to spare Facertes’s life for having once spared his. The letters were useless and only Sophia’s entreaties with Caesar spared Facertes. He has fallen in love with Cicilia through the reports he has heard of her and befriended Facertes. He returns to Sicily with the freed Facertes in hopes of winning Cicilia’s love. He sees her being sold at the slave market, not knowing who she is, and falls in love with her at first sight. He sends his servant to fetch two thousand sestertia to free her rather than own her. He jostles with Bragadine at the slave market and does not like the look of him. Before his servant can return, Bragadine buys Cicilia and claims her. Virgilius kills Bragadine’s servant when he grabs Cicilia and must flee from Bragadine’s soldiers. He is rescued by Facertes and agrees to wear a disguise as they go to save the girl. Paulina sends Olympia to offer him sanctuary in her house, but he unwittingly earns Olympia’s wrath when he calls her Mother. He learns from Facertes that the slave girl is none other than the famed Cicilia, and he momentarily despairs that she can never love him as he is the conqueror of her country. Overhearing Cicilia and Facertes, his fears are realized. Even though she loves Virgilius, she better loves her country and would have revenge upon him. When he speaks to her, though, her love for him causes her to forgive him. Attempting to rescue Cicilia, Virgilius is shot and falls into Facertes’s arms. Only wounded, Virgilius kills Olympia, the second bravo, and Bragadine. Facertes, Virgilius, Cicilia, and Pauline escape to the waiting galley to flee Naples. Shipwrecked, he fights and wounds the lieutenant and seriously wounds Terresius but is wounded in return. Virgilius burns the galleys. Virgilius meets and fights Cilius, and they wound one another before Terresius and Nigro find and part them. They learn then that Cilius is Prince Lucius and Virgilius the beloved of Lucius’s sister Cicilia. He and Cicilia are reunited and all ends happily.


Alternate name for Virgil in Jonson's Poetaster.


Four virgins of Damascus with laurel branches figure in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1:
  • The first virgin scolds the Governor of Damascus because he waited until Tamburlaine flew his remorseless black colors before taking action. Apparently the women had earlier, when Tamburlaine flew the white of amity, advised the Governor to surrender. She goes to Tamburlaine and pleads for clemency, but is summarily denied.
  • The second virgin resolves before the Governor to do her best to sway Tamburlaine, but is in fact mute in the meeting with him.
  • The third and fourth virgins are non-speaking roles.
Tamburlaine orders Techelles to take the virgins and put them to death, which he does offstage. Their corpses are then reportedly hoisted up on Damascus's walls.


Daughter of Virginius and Mater in [?]Bower's Apius and Virginia. As she heads to the temple with Mater, she promises to resist lust and only marry with parental consent. After Virginius appears and praises her sense of familial duty, she joins with him and Mater in a song praising family harmony. Her next appearance occurs after Virginius has been ordered to bring her into Apius' custody; she attempts to sooth Virginius' grief, and then, after Virginius explains how Apius plans to rape her, she asks Virginius to kill her and send her head to Apius on Virginius' knife rather than allow her honor to be stained. After some hesitation Virginius ties a handkerchief around Virginia's eyes and then strikes off her head. Virginius brings Virginia's head to Apius, who is enraged by the deception. At the end of the play, Fame, Doctrina, Memory and Virginius, who celebrate her funeral and sing her fame, bring in the tomb of Virginia.
Virginia is the daughter of the Roman soldier Virginius and niece of Numitorius in John Webster's Appius and Virginia. She is also the beloved of Icilius. Virginia begins to receive visits from Marcus Clodius, who bears love letters supposedly written by Appius. Virginia scorns these advances, not fully realizing the evil intent of both Clodius and Appius. When no other means work to charm Virginia, she is accused of being a bondwoman masquerading as a free citizen of Rome, and she is brought to trial before Appius. The case against her is contrived but strong. Virginia asks her father to kill her rather than allow her to be disgraced, declared a bondwoman, and made a strumpet. Virginius does kill his daughter and flees Rome immediately thereafter to bring the troops into the city. Virginia's pedigree is read out and her name and honor are cleared by the Advocate's words at play's end.


She loves Fedele in ?Munday's Fedele and Fortunio. She sends for Fedele, who tells her that now he loves her like a sister, but truly loves Victoria. She sends for Medusa for help in gaining the love of Fedele, but before she can gain his love, she is forced, by the plotting of Attilia, to marry Fortunio.


Virginity accompanies Astraea in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.


Father of Virginia and husband of Mater in [?]Bower's Apius and Virginia. After thanking the gods for providing him with a just and loving spouse and a sober, meek, modest, and virtuous daughter, he plans to go to the temple to give further thanks. As he is about to leave he sees Mater and Virginia also headed to the temple and decides to hide himself and eavesdrop on their conversation. Pleased by what he hears, he steps forward and praises his good fortune in having such a wife and daughter; he then joins Mater and Virginia in a song praising family harmony. Later, summoned before Apius, Virginius wonders how his loyal service has led to this summons and what mishap several portents foretell. After Claudius accuses Virginius of kidnapping Virginia from him as a child, Virginius is ordered by Apius to bring Virginia to be kept in his custody until the issue is resolved; Virginius defends Virginia's legitimacy and returns home. At home, having heard Rumour's news, Virginius reveals Apius' order to Virginia and wishes that he could die rather than see his daughter raped by Apius. Virginius realizes that his death will not save Virginia's honor, so he consents to her request to kill her. He ties a handkerchief around her eyes, and strikes off her head. Virginius is comforted by Comfort, who tells Virginius to take Virginia's head to Apius and to look forward to seeing Apius' punishment. Virginius takes Virginia's head to Apius and, instead of facing death, is given custody of Apius by Reward. Virginius takes Apius to prison and then reports Apius' suicide to Justice and pleads for Claudius' life. Justice grants Virginius' request, and Reward then gives him custody of Haphazard, who is to be taken and hanged. Virginius returns at the end of the play along with Fame, Doctrina, and Memory to take part in Virginia's funeral.
Virginius is a Roman soldier and citizen, brother to Numitorius and father to Virginia in John Webster's Appius and Virginia. He comes to Appius to plead for troop sustenance only to be rebuffed and put off. He therefore begins selling his own goods and properties for monies to feed the troops. When his daughter Virginia is falsely accused, arrested, and brought to trial, Virginius recognizes that the case will be lost. Acceding to his daughter's wish, he kills Virginia and escapes back to the soldiers' encampment. Virginius nearly forgives Appius until Icilius arrives with Virginia's bleeding body and restates the evil perpetrated upon Virginia. Virginius offers a sword for Appius' use in committing suicide, and he accepts the position of power offered to him by the Senate.


The poor young virgins for whom Dame Purecraft plays the matchmaker are "ghost characters" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. When Dame Purecraft wants to prove her love for the madman Trouble-all (Quarlous in disguise), she makes a complete confession of her transgressions. Besides telling him she is a rich widow, Dame Purecraft says she is a special maker of marriages between the poor young virgins and the wealthy bachelors or widowers of the congregation. After the marriage, Dame Purecraft persuades the young wives to steal from their husbands and transfer the money into their accounts. It is inferred that a large sum is going into Dame Purecraft's purse for her counseling.

VIRGINS **1615

“Ghost characters" in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Trincalo opines there aren’t a dozen in all of London.


When St. Andrew and St. Anthony meet the Emperor of Trebizond after killing the dragon, three virgins are present on the stage in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. They are presumably the virgins whose wrongs Andrew and Anthony plan to revenge, but nothing more is made of this, and it is not explained why the virgins carry bows, arrows and quivers.


Virmine is one of the tailors of Spain seen onstage regularly with the Old Tailor in Rawlins's The Rebellion. Virmine expresses an interest in eating food and avoiding war. Virmine appears at the end of the play onstage wearing a cloak for the prologue. He is told by the old tailor that he will not be performing for the king after all.


A noble gentleman in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage. Virolet plots with his friends Brissonet and Camillo to overthrow the tyrant King Ferrand of Naples. When Ferrand uncovers the plot, Virolet hides in a secret cave in his house until he is persuaded by his fellow conspirators and Ferrand to attempt to rescue Ascanio, Ferrand's beloved nephew, who has been captured by the pirate Sesse. After a fierce battle aboard the pirate's ship, Virolet is captured and threatened with death. Virolet behaves with stoicism and valor, and, after Martia's intervention, Sesse confines him rather than executing him. Martia falls in love with Virolet and provides him with a disguise, extracts a promise of marriage from him, and helps him escape from the ship. Returning with Ascanio to Ferrand's court, Virolet is pardoned and collects the 40,000 ducats in reward money Ferrand has offered, giving the money to Ronvere in order to arrange a divorce from his loyal wife Juliana. Disgusted with himself, Virolet at first refuses to come out of the house to greet his wife when she returns from having been tortured by Ferrand. When he does appear, Virolet excoriates himself for his disloyalty, compliments Juliana, and explains that he has promised to marry Martia in exchange for her assistance with his escape from Sesse's ship. Re-entering with a lawyer and Martia, Virolet explains why he must marry Martia; the lawyer suggests they use barrenness as grounds for divorce since the tortures Juliana has endured will prevent her from having children. Juliana consents, and after she leaves the stage, Martia is triumphant as she imagines her life with Virolet. Virolet then explains that he has kept his word and married Martia, and will give her his fortune, but he will not consummate the marriage, offering his chastity up to the wronged Juliana. This infuriates Martia who seeks revenge. When Juliana comes to visit him, Virolet proclaims his love for her and attempts, unsuccessfully, to persuade her to live with him as his lover. In order to help depose Ferrand, Virolet disguises himself as Ronvere; Juliana fails to see through the disguise and mistakenly stabs her husband. As he dies, he praises and forgives Juliana and forbids her suicide. Virolet's pitiful corpse is displayed alongside Juliana's (who dies of grief) to motivate the coup against Ferrand and to make Martia aware of the extent of her sins.


A rich and avaricious Count, said to be near to fifty in May's The Heir. Virro is Polymetes' favored suitor to marry his daughter Leucothoë. He is also the prime target of Polymetes's fraudulent claim that his son, Eugenio is dead, and that his daughter is therefore a most eligible heiress. Virro promptly pursues the heiress. Polymetes's assurances of success combined with his own vanity outweigh Leucothoë's discouragement. He gloats over his prospects. When he learns from 'Irus' that Eugenio, the true heir, still lives, Virro persuades 'Irus' to murder him for five hundred crowns. 'Irus' agrees to do so on receipt of a written contract, which Virro foolishly provides. Virro accompanies Polymetes to court after the arrest of Philocles, confident that his influence with the King will ensure Philocles' execution. At the trial Virro is horrified by the interruption by the Constable, who brings in the self-confessed murderer, 'Irus', who exposes Virro's plot. Virro is condemned by his own written contract. He is sentenced to death for the murder of Eugenio and denounced by Polymetes before Eugenio reveals the true facts that give the play its happy ending. Virro does not speak again, but he is at least punished by the loss of a lucrative match.

VIRTUE **1577

Virtue is, with Charity and Humility, an "especial gift of God" in Lupton's All For Money. In the conclusion of the play, she reminds the audience of the importance of leading a virtuous life.

VIRTUE **1599

Sworn enemy of Vice in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. She vows to cure those who eat fruit from the tree of Vice.

VIRTUE **1601

Vertue is Fortune's enemy in the anonymous The Contention Between Liberalitie and Prodigalitie. She laments because men are always seeking Fortune, and she warns them against Fortune's double face, falsity, fickleness and treachery. She regrets than men prefer Fortune to Vertue. Then she goes on moralizing about men's behavior, and she explains that, when reason rules, men are safe, but when men yield to fancies and pleasure, they run headlong into vice. On hearing the accusations of the Sheriff against Prodigalitie, she asks Equity to proceed to the examination of the case.


Though mute in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass, these daughters of Mediocrity appear and dance toward play's end.


Viscount Rochford is a title held by Sir Thomas Bullen, father of Anne Bullen in Shakespeare's Henry VIII.


A “ghost character,” William Visor of Woncot is an acquaintance of Davy's in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.

VISUS **1607

One of the five senses in Tomkis’ Lingua. Sight. All that Common Sense may learn through sight he learns through Visus. Lingua complains that the five senses have a monopoly and have barred the way to Common Sense. He wears a garland of bays mixed with white and red roses, a light colored taffeta mantle striped with silver and fringed upon green silk bases and buskins. Upon learning that Tactus has the plague, he reluctantly leaves him. Soon, Mendatio lies to Gustus and Visus telling them that Mercury left the robe and crown that in truth Lingua left to trap them, and they realize Tactus lied to them about having plague. He discovers that the crown has an inscription in it that the best of the five senses should own it. He fights with the other senses over ownership of the crown, believing himself the best of the five. Auditus joins forces with Visus against Tactus and Gustus, each team agreeing that, should they win, the better fighter shall wear the crown whilst the other wears the robe. His army consists of birds of prey. When called to display his objects before Common Sense, he makes a grand entrance in carrying a fan of peacock feathers and accompanied by pages, heralds, a boy, Lumen, Coelum, Terra, and Color. He thus shows his objects, those items which sight unfolds, to prove his worthiness to wear the crown. He is awarded the crown while Tactus gets the robe. At the banquet, he drinks Lingua’s wine, becomes blind drunk, believes himself Polyphemous, and rails against Outis for blinding him. Somnus puts him to sleep and he is thus cured.

VITELLI **1624

Vitelli, a Venetian gentleman disguised as a merchant, falls in love with Donusa and takes her virginity in Massinger's The Renegado. He is in Tunis to rescue his kidnapped sister, Paulina, and to exact revenge on the kidnapper, Grimaldi, but is arrested after he beds Donusa. He is thrown in jail. Both he and Donusa stand trial, and he is offered freedom if he converts to paganism. Instead, he converts the Turkish Donusa to the Christian faith. In the end, he escapes with Donusa and his sister on Grimaldi's ship.

VITELLI **1625

Vitelli, a young gentleman, has a score to settle against Alvarez for some unspecified family affront in Fletcher, Beaumont, and Massinger's, Love's Cure. He frequents the company of a whore named Malroda, but then falls in love with Clara, the daughter of the Alvarez family. At one point, he returns his love-letters to Clara in order to pursue Malroda. He even offers Malroda marriage. When she refuses him, he returns his affections to Clara. In a final duel between himself and Alvarez, he refuses to listen to Clara, who wants him to stop fighting with Alvarez, her father.


Vitelli is the best friend of Doria and loves Eurione in Glapthorne's Ladie's Privilege. However, when Doria begs him to love Chrisea, Vitelli agrees because he owes his life to Doria. When Doria is sentenced to death, Vitelli, along with Eurione, begs Chrisea to marry him to save his life, but Chrisea refuses, claiming his nobility just makes her love Vitelli more. After Chrisea reveals her change of heart was a test of both Doria and Vitelli, Vitelli and Eurione are reunited


Vitellius is a Senator and an agent of Pallas in May's Julia Agrippina.


Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Vitellius is mentioned by Slightall when he asks Roger to get him a company of fiddlers and supper "equal with that which old Vitellius made, / When Art would exceed Nature." Vitellius was a Roman Emperor who had a very brief reign (69 A.D.), and was famous for his gluttony as well as for his gormandizing. His period in power was reported in Life of Vitellius, written by Suetonius. He was the son of the Vitellius seen in Julia Agrippina.


The Vitler, with the other workers in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green, comes to collect his debt from Mumford. Mumford gives the Armorer, the Carter and the Vitler 30 pounds to divide among themselves.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet who is invited to the Capulet feast.


A "ghost character" from the original version of A Tale of A Tub, replaced in the 1633 revision of the play by the character of In-and-In Medlay, apparently because Inigo Jones felt that Vitruvius Hoop was too harsh a satirical portrait. His name is invoked only once in the 1633 revision.


A Captain of the Guard in Chapman's The Conspiracy of Charles, Duke of Byron.
The Captain of the guard in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron; supporter of the King. Following Byron's refusal to acknowledge his treachery after the King's final request, he enters with others and arrests Byron. Following Byron's confrontation with King Henry, Vitry escorts him to prison, and is present at his execution.


A Neapolitan noble and son of Alphonso in Shirley's The Young Admiral, Vittori is the young admiral for whom the play is named. His battle commission originated with prince Cesario, who sent Vittori to battle in hopes that the admiral would die. Instead returning victorious, Vittori finds himself accused of treason and banished, along with his father and his beloved Cassandra. Ending up in the Sicilian camp, Vittory finds that the Sicilian king threatens to kill Cassandra if Vittori refuses to general the Sicilian troops. In Naples, word is that Vittori's father-newly returned-will be executed if Vittori attacks Naples. Caught in the middle, Vittori accompanies Rosinda as she offers herself as a prisoner in Naples and as pledge for Cesario, whom the Sicilians hold captive. As the two cities embrace peace in the forthcoming union of Rosinda and Cesario, Vittori also plans to wed his mistress Cassandra.


Vittoria Corombona, like Brachiano, is a White Devil in Webster's The White Devil. She is first married to Camillo and later to Brachiano. Although she is culpable of much wrong, she appears to be spotless. She is less spotless, though, than she appears as she is a convicted whore. Lodovico and his co-conspirators murder her after she attempts to shoot Flamineo with a pistol that turns out to be loaded with blank cartridges.


Counsellor to Acomat in ?Greene's Selimus I. Approves of Acomat's plan to give up luxury and puruse arms, but warns that Bajazet might misinterpret Acomat's actions as a challenge to his authority. Later, when Acomat vows to take up arms against Bajazet, the Vizir counsels him to go to Amasia to raise a stronger force. Acomat will not delay, though. Joins Acomat and his soldiers as they conquer Natolia, killing Mahomet and Zonara in the process. After Acomat's forces have conquered Natolia, the Vizir introduces Aga, the messenger from Bajazet. Later, joins Acomat and Tonombey as they march for Amasia to break Selimus' siege. The Vizir is involved in the battle that ensues between Acomat's and Selimus' forces.

VOADA **1612

Voada is daughter of Cadallan and brother of Caradoc in The Valiant Welshman. When Codigun usurps the Welsh throne, Voada is imprisoned, but Caradoc sets her free when he defeats Codigun. Caradoc gives her to Gald as a bride. She is later abducted by Marcus Gallicus but rescued by Gald and Bluso.

VOADA **1617

A Turkish lady in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk, sister to Crosman, captain of the Janissaries and to Agar, wife of Benwash. She embodies sexual incontinence, depravity and dissimulation, and Ward's passion for her is the source of his downfall. Appears to live with her sister, or to be a frequent visitor to their house, the popular resort of all pirates. She first admires Dansiker of all the pirates currently in Tunis, and, as an unmarried woman, immodestly joins in the bawdy gossip of her sister and servant. She desires the captive Fidelio (Alizia) at first sight. Despite this new attraction, she is prepared to flirt with Dansiker, showing early signs of her promiscuity and deviousness. She advises her sister of the best way to succeed in committing adultery. Ward and Dansiker come to blows in rivalry over her and are parted by her brother. Ward's reputation has impressed her brother as being 'half a Turk already', and Crosman uses Voada's sexuality, and the promise of marriage to her, to persuade Ward to a formal conversion when all other enticements have failed. It is not made clear whether brother or sister originally conceived the plot. When Ward confesses his torment of love to her she makes his conversion the condition of her acquiescence. Her dishonesty is made obvious–she acts out a passionate scene of desperate devotion to him but secretly is scheming for his fortune. When Ward decides to turn Turk, Francisco/Alizia [see notes at head of play listing, ed.] pleads with him to reconsider and undoing Voada's hard work. His/her eloquence troubles Ward's conscience and he briefly recants his decision, before being quickly turned again by Voada, furious at the intervention and forcing Francisco/Alizia from the room. After Ward's conversion, it seems likely that they soon marry: during the fire at Benwash's house, she is already hard-hearted with Ward, proclaiming her hatred for him and her love for his page, 'Fidelio' to the audience. Her relationship with Alizia is developed offstage: Fidelio agrees to sleep with Voada on condition that his 'brother' (really, her fiancé, Raymond) is ransomed. Voada declares her deepening hatred of Ward, despising him as a 'false runnagate'. Voada is somehow to be tricked into shooting Fidelio to punish her, but kills Raymond by mistake. (This entire plot sequence is inferred from the plans laid by Ward and their result; the on-stage rationale behind the action is sketchy at best.) Voada is furious to discover Fidelio also dead and refuses to accept that she is not really a boy. She determines to blame Ward for Fidelio's murder (really Alizia's suicide) and attacks him with her own dagger. In the struggle, she is wounded, and summons the watch with cries of murder. The officers who arrive do not care about the alleged murder of an infidel servant, but arrest Ward for the wounding of his wife, a true Turk. She later demands justice before the Governor of Tunis and the Muffty for Ward's alleged crimes against her. During the private interview granted to Ward by the Governor, she derides his profession of faith. She admits that her wound is slight and that she is exploiting the law in revenge for the death of Fidelio, and prepared to ruin him with her lies. Ward kills her.


When the Usurer is overcome by guilt for his evil acts in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England, he contemplates suicide, and the Evil Angel encourages him by producing a rope and a knife. When the Voice from Heaven then bids the Usurer to repent sincerely and assures him that forgiveness will be forthcoming, he decides not to kill himself.


Numerous offstage voices in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy call for Charon's boat, signifying the crowded nature of Hell. These voices include a 'Small Voice' (a woman), a 'Great Voice' (a great man), and the Ghost of a Grey Friar.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina. He is one of the two Princes of Armenia from whom Nero receives ambassadors in the Senate.


The fox in Jonson's Volpone. A greedy, crafty, cozening miser of Venice. Volpone feigns illness and makes it known that he seeks an heir to his fortune. This ruse draws other greedy men and women who give Volpone lavish gifts in the hope of being named in his will. When Volpone hears of the beauty of Corvino's wife, Celia, he is intrigued and disguises himself as a mountebank, Scoto of Mantua, putting on a display outside her window. When he sees her, he is immediately enamored of her and employs Mosca to find a way for him to seduce her. When Celia is brought to him he attempts to win her over. Failing in that, he threatens to rape her, but is prevented by Bonario. When called to testify in court, Volpone convincingly pretends to be ill, discrediting his accusers. Soon after this victory Volpone spreads the false rumour that he has died and instructs Mosca to pretend that he has inherited–all so that Volpone can observe the suffering of the other potential heirs. Still not satisfied, Volpone disguises himself again to hear more. But when Voltore breaks down and confesses the truth to the court, and when Mosca will not confirm that he is really alive, Volpone removes his disguise and denounces nearly everyone. For his crimes, Volpone is imprisoned and his money donated to a hospital.


Voltemand is one of the ambassadors dispatched to Norway to deal with the threat of Fortinbras in Shakespeare's Hamlet. He and Cornelius return with news that Norway has put a stop to Fortinbras' planned invasion and instead has sent him and his army to fight in Poland. They also report that Norway has asked for passage through Denmark for Fortinbras.


Volterino serves Ferrara as colonel in Shirley's The Imposture. Having fought in the battle to save Mantua, he knows of Bertoldi's cowardice. Nevertheless, he agrees to tell Bertoldi's mother Florelia that her son is and has been a valiant man. When co-colonel Hortensio weds Florelia near the play's end, Volterino is appointed guardian of Bertoldi and Bertoldi's estate.


Volterre is a young lord in the Mantuan court in Shirley's The Humorous Courtier. To his credit he counsels Orseolo to be less outspoken against women, but Volterre's judgment in other areas leaves a lot to be desired. He feels the duchess will select him as her husband, and he learns from her at the play's end just how ridiculous she finds both his vanity and his use of a mixture of unknown languages in every day speech.


Voltimar is the man commissioned by the king to murder the king's brothers and Penda in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador. Instead Voltimar warns them and accompanies them back to England, taking them via Wales, where they secure letters of credence from the Welsh king, Hywel Dda. He reproaches the king for the death of Penda but agrees to spy on Armante for him. To test her, he offers to kill the king; when she refuses, he encourages her to send the prince to court. He suggests to the king that he should marry Armante to the Welsh ambassador and escorts the prince to court. When the king begins to repent, Voltimar reveals that Edmond, Eldred and Penda are in fact still alive.


An advocate gulled by Volpone in Jonson's Volpone. His name means vulture. When Volpone is accused in court, Voltore speaks for him and successfully accuses the guiltless Celia of committing adultery, and the equally guiltless Bonario of adultery and plotting to murder his father. Later, believing Volpone has died and left his fortune to Mosca, Voltore goes before the judges and exposes Mosca's machinations. But during the hearing, Voltore learns that Volpone is still alive. To hide the truth, Voltore pretends to have been possessed and recants his confession. When all are exposed, Voltore is exiled for his crimes.


Titus Volturtius, a native of Crotona, is a member of Catiline's conspiracy and a mediator between the conspirators and the Allobroges in Jonson's Catiline. At Sempronia's house, Volturtius enters with the other conspirators, expecting Allobroges. When Cethegus announces their arrival, Volturtius exits, and then he informs Lentulus that Allobroges desire to speak with him in private. After the discussion, Lentulus reports that Allobroges required letters describing the conspirators' plans, which they were going to provide, together with sealed letters to Catiline, whom Allobroges were expected to see on their way to their country. Volturtius is to accompany Allobroges to Catiline. Volturtius exits with Allobroges. At the Milvian Bridge, the praetors intercept the party, and Allobroges surrender easily, despite Volturtius's protestations. Seeing that all is lost, Volturtius tries to strike a bargain, promising to give all the names of the conspirators if his life is spared. When the conspirators are tried in the Senate, Volturtius incriminates each of them by name. After his testimonial, Volturtius is granted his life and some money. Cato adds that money would help Volturtius, because want had made him join Catiline's conspiracy.


Voluble is something of a profeminist in Cavendish's The Variety. She has established an academy in which various women characters offer lectures. Sir William contemptuously says to Newman, "You may live to see another University built, and only women commence Doctors." Voluble, herself, delivers a long lecture, which deals mostly with clothing and other sorts of finery. She is reputed to be something of a witch and Sir William says, "She is for more than Artificiall White and Red; some think her guilty of the Black-Art." She is the landlady of Simpleton and a helper in his suit with Lucy. Accordingly, Voluble frightens Newman away from Lucy by warning him that love may cause him to commit suicide. It is made known that she predicted the deaths of two husbands, and this information recalls the contemporary sensation Lady Eleanor Davies, who correctly predicted the death of her own husband (Sir John Davies). Voluble confesses at the end of the play that she "has no skill in stares nor fortune telling," that she has only masterminded a series of plots—some of which have had pleasing outcomes.


Coriolanus's mother in Shakespeare's Coriolanus. Volumnia is largely responsible for the hero's absolute acceptance of the most rigid code of Roman martial discipline. Her later counsel to temporize with the tribunes until he is granted the consulship strikes him as hypocritical, but he does make an abortive attempt to oblige. In the mission to beg for Rome, she is accompanied by the hero's wife, Virgilia, his son, and the highly regarded Roman gentlewoman, Valeria. They have been preceded by Cominius and Menenius, who failed to sway Coriolanus. It is Volumnia herself who finally wins Coriolanus's submission. When he acquiesces, he does so while holding her hand (and after one of the most telling moments of silence in all of Shakespeare's plays). Coriolanus's immediate observation that she has prevailed upon him, but in a way likely to prove "most mortal to him," indicates a recognition of the reality of his situation, just as his addition of "But let it come," reveals the hero's acceptance of the fatal consequences of his actions.


Volumnius is a friend of Brutus and Cassius in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Brutus tells him that Caesar's ghost has appeared twice to him. Later, he refuses to hold a sword for Brutus to run upon when Brutus would avoid capture.


One of the soldiers in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon who marches to Beria under Truth's colors, he declares that he scorns to run from the Babylonian enemy. He is probably the same Volunteer who later tells Titania that her soldiers will fight "to the last least man's little finger."


A Portuguese Lord in the Anonymous First Part of Jeronimo. Before it comes to the battle, the two parties attack each other verbally, and then they agree who is going to fight whom. Vollupo should fight with Rogero.


An officer in Caesar's camp in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. Also spelled Uolusenus. He has to go to Britain as an ambassador and spy. He brings Caesar's letter to Cassibelane, in which Caesar asks the Britains to pay tribute for having helped the Gauls, and to submit ladies as hostages. When he comes back to Caesar, he says he has seen a paradise. The letter he brings back to Caesar says that the Britons refuse to follow his demands, as both Romans and Britons were descendents of Troy.


Full name of the emperor's evil provost Aper in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess.


Vonones, leader of the Armenians in the anonymous Tragedy of Tiberius. He revolts against Roman rule in Armenia. He is valiant in his struggle against Rome and honorable in seeing Germanicus as his "enemy friend." He fights the Romans and loses. He offers a challenge of single combat and is defeated and slain at the hands of Germanicus.


Vonones' son, a non-speaking part in the anonymous Tragedy of Tiberius. He engages the Romans during the war in Armenia, fighting alongside his father. We learn from Germanicus that he was killed while defending the keep.


The King of 'Welsh Britain' lives in exile for the murder of Aurelius' predecessor on the throne in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father. He is deluded by Proximus into thinking that Merlin's blood will make his castle impregnable, but when Merlin demonstrates superior magical powers, Vortiger believes Merlin's prophecy that he will be defeated in battle. Nonetheless, he fights the Britons when they attack, although he spares Uter's life in order to atone for the murder of his brother. He is defeated by the Britons.
Vortiger is a lord who seeks to become king in Middleton's Hengist. He has Constantius, King of Britain, killed; Constantius's brothers flee; Vortiger assumes the throne and marries Castiza. When the Britons rebel against Vortiger, he hires Hengist and the Saxons to fight on his behalf. In return he offers Hengist as much land as a hide will cover. Hengist stretches the hide so that it covers the entire earldom of Kent. Vortiger falls in love with Hengist's daughter Roxena; with the help of Horsus, he frames Castiza with adultery and marries Roxena. Because she is a pagan, the Britons rebel again and place Vortiger's son, Vortiner, on the throne, but when Roxena has Vortiner killed, Vortiger reassumes kingship. When Uther and Aurelius return to reclaim Britain, Vortiger plans his defense, but before they can arrive, he fights with Horsus, and both men die.
Only mentioned in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. Jarbus relates how the king of Britain’s noble barons were killed by Vortiger in the year 575.


Vortiner is Vortiger's son by Castiza in Middleton's Hengist. When his father marries the pagan Roxena, the Britons rise up and place Vortiner on the throne. Roxena hires two Saxons to kill Vortiner, after which Vortiger is restored to the throne.


"Ghost characters" in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. The Emperor of Trebizond orders them to pray for Niger, Palemon and Antigonus.


Votarius is the resident friend of Anselmus, a fanatically jealous husband in [?]Middleton's The Second Maiden's Tragedy. Anselmus persuades Votarius to test his wife's constancy by attempting to seduce her. Votarius' first, reluctant attempt fails to convince Anselmus, who decides to leave the house for a few days to provide a greater temptation. Votarius tries again to seduce the Wife, and they fall in love. Anselmus returns and reconciles with his wife when Votarius insists on her innocence. But Votarius becomes suspicious of the furtive Bellarius, and wonders whether he is sleeping with the Wife. He relays these suspicions to Anselmus, in the hope of hiding his own lust for the Wife. In so doing, he lets slip that the Wife was beginning to yield when he seduced her. Meeting the Wife, he apologizes for his lack of circumspection. She suggests a plot to put Anselmus off the scent: they will play-act a scene in which she fights off Votarius' advances, while Anselmus watches from a closet. But when the Wife decides to make the scene more dramatic by stabbing him with a sword, Leonella does not relay the Wife's warning to Votarius to wear armor under his shirt; and she also poisons the blade. So when the Wife stabs Votarius, he dies.


The high priest of the Shepherd's Paradise in Montague's The Shepherd's Paradise, he recounts the history of the place to Basilino and Agenor.


Voucher is a lawyer in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. He plans to become wealthy through lawsuits during the Reign of Envy. Along with the other characters, he follows the cycle that begins with the reign of Plenty and ends with Poverty.


Vraca is Frollo's daughter in Burnell's Landgartha. She is Reyner's second wife. Later, she is abandoned by Reyner when Landgartha leaves the king.

VULCAN **1584

Vulcan is one of the gods in Lyly's Sapho and Phao. He is persuaded by Venus to make new arrows for Cupid's bow.
Comments crudely on the dumb shows in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune.
Vulcan is described as the god of fire and the husband of Venus in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris. He serves as a member of the Olympian panel that charges the young prince Paris with "partiality" for having granted the golden apple to Venus.
The god of fire, husband of Venus in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. The cuckolded Vulcan limps across the stage in the opening dumbshow after Mars and Venus.
Only mentioned in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Castiliano, who is being cuckolded, has a picture in his gallery of Vulcan taking Mars and Venus is his net.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Asper announces that the play exposing vice is about to begin, he invites the audience to judge the comedy. The author rails against the would-be poets of his time, who strive to fling their ulcerous bodies into the Thespian spring and leap forth as lame as Vulcan. Asper refers here to the inept poets' lame verses, but the allusion is to the Roman god of fire and metal, identified with the Greek Hephaestus. Hephaestus was the son of Zeus and Hera, who was crippled by being hurled to Earth by Zeus.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In Roman mythology, Vulcan was the god of forge and metalwork, his Greek counterpart being Hephaestus. He was skilled in craftsmanship and forged the armor of the gods. Vulcan was the patron of handicrafts and the protector of blacksmiths. When Cupid enumerates Mercury's famous actions of legerdemain, he says that Mercury passed by Vulcan's forge one day and stole a pair of his new tongs. Reporting that Mercury stole Vulcan's most symbolic possession Cupid emphasizes his cousin's ability as a deceiver.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Vulcan is mentioned by Bill Bond, in reply to Doctor Clyster's ironic remark about the changes experienced by Venus: "And Vulcan knew she had horns for him." According to Roman mythology, Vulcan–the ugly and lame blacksmith god–was married to Venus, the goddess of love and beauty. But his wife fell in love with Mars, the god of war.
Vulcan is the son of Jove and husband to Venus in Heywood's Brazen Age. He ended up beneath the earth after his father dropped him as a child. Vulcan learns from Apollo that Venus has been cheating on him. He sets a trap for Venus and Mars and catches them in the act. Yet after Vulcan exposes the pair to the shame of public exposure, he learns that Venus had only been staying with him to preserve her reputation. With her good name gone, Venus feels free to leave Vulcan for her lover.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Ghost. Procus mentions Vulcan when he calls old Philarchus a "crooked Vulcan."
Only mentioned in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. Vulcan is the god of the forge. Ajax remarks that the armor of Achilles, for which he is in competition with Ulysses, was made from steel and shaped by Vulcan with Cyclopean hammers.
Only mentioned by Julio in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped. Julio accuses Fransiscus, who is unconcerned about Antonio's desires for his wife, of winking like Vulcan.
Delighted in Heywood's Love's Mistress by the news of his wife Venus's loss of her paramour Adonis, the lame god sets his Ciclops to work in an episode that likens Vulcan's forge to a Caroline workshop. When Cupid appears, in the shackles of love, he is moved by his son's appeal and strikes them off. He joins Apollo and Pan in urging Venus to allay her wrath at Psiche.

VULCAN **1601

Albius is disguised as Vulcan at the masquerade banquet at court in Jonson's Poetaster. In Roman mythology, Vulcan was the god of fire and metalworking, identified with the Greek god Hephaestus. He was the son of Jupiter and Juno, crippled by being hurled to earth by Jupiter. In some stories, he married Venus, the goddess of love. According to legend, since Venus was too proud and rejected all the gods' love, to punish her, Jupiter gave Venus to Vulcan, the lame and ugly god of forge. Venus soon left him for Mars, the handsome god of war. Since Chloë is disguised as Venus and Tucca as Mars, the mythological associations parallel the real or fictional love couples in the revelry. When Ovid/Jupiter announces the order of the licentious festival, Albius/Vulcan is the first to play the fool and be cuckolded in the game. Thus, Tucca/Mars starts courting Chloë/Venus openly. Even in his role as Vulcan, Albius preserves his tendency towards kindness and discretion. While Tucca/Mars is making him a cuckold, all that Albius/Vulcan says is that the slave boy does not fill enough wine to make people kind enough to one another. While wine/nectar has a totally opposite effect on Tucca/Mars, inciting him to aggressiveness, Albius/Vulcan sees how wine has a drowsy effect on everyone at the party. As the spirits are high, Albius/Vulcan sings about the dangers of being drowsy, in a futile attempt to wake the revelers. When the angry Caesar interrupts the party, Albius/Vulcan responds to the emperor that he merely plays Vulcan, but he is a citizen and a jeweler. Albius/Vulcan exits with Chloë/Venus.


A comic smith, choleric, and a notable malaprop in the Anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. He is a neighbor of Rustico, with whom he agrees as to the deleterious effect of the observance of religious holidays on workplace productivity.


Saxon, follower of Ironside in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside.


An alternative form for Vskata in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside.


(Vskataulf, Vskataulfe, Vska) Dane, follower of Canute in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside.


An alternative form for Vskata in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside.