A fictional character in Jonson's Poetaster. Sabella is a prophetess. When Horace wants to disentangle himself from Crispinus's irritating conversation, he alludes to tedious talkers. Horace invents a cunning woman called Sabella (probably a corruption of Sybil), who cast his fortune when he was a child. According to Horace, Sabella prophesied that he would not perish by famine, poison, or sword, but by a strong and tiresome talker, whose conversation will affect Horace so badly that he would develop consumption and die. In ancient legend, a woman who could predict the future was called Sybil. These prophetesses were believed to be inspired by the gods and were found primarily in the famous oracle centers, particularly those of Apollo, the Greek god of prophecy. Horace's deliberate corruption of Sybil into Sabella is an irony directed at Crispinus.


Sabelli is the young servant of Doria in Glapthorne's Ladie's Privilege. When he learns that Doria is condemned to death, he asks to be allowed to kill himself so that he can continue to serve Doria in the afterlife. When Doria refuses to allow this, Sabelli dresses as a woman and appears at the trial, since a virgin can free a condemned man if he agrees to marry her. Doria refuses at first, until Sabelli attempts to kill himself. After their marriage, when Chrisea reveals she does love Doria, Sabelli throws off his disguise, proving that the marriage was a fake


A "ghost character" in Montague's The Shepherd's Paradise. Princess of Castile and founder of the Shepherd's Paradise. She was courted by both the Dauphin of France and the Prince of Navarre, whom she loved in return. In order to induce the Dauphin to return Navarre's lands, she promised never to marry him, and subsequently asked her father's permission to found the Shepherd's Paradise, an aristocratic kingdom within a kingdom, composed of members who take a vow of chastity and are ruled by a queen. Her tomb is honored during the course of the play.


Mistress Sabina is daughter to Sir Timothy in Chamberlain's Swaggering Damsel. On her arrival in Act One, her suitor comes to flatter her and she turns out to have a lot of personality by confessing him that she decides whom she will marry. Thus, she invites Valentine to stay with her in her chamber. She looks very gloomy and she cannot wait to be with her lover so she listens to the wise advices of her maid. Later, she welcomes Valentine and sleeps with him. But, when he leaves her, Sabina also takes a disguise to restore her reputation. The disguise is a veil, or mask, that Sabina takes to take revenge for being dishonored. She uses a mask that helps her to go unnoticed. She wants to marry Valentine, whom she recognizes under the disguise. She asks him to choose between marrying her or dying, which finally convinces him. Sabina will keep the veil until the last scene where she discovers herself in front of everybody showing her husband whom he wedded and sorting out the problem.

SABINUS **1603

Titius Sabinus, a gentleman and friend to Agrippina in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall. He is the second victim of Sejanus and Tiberius after Silius.


Titius Sabinus, a senator (and consul number 2 in the first scene) in the anonymous Tragedy of Tiberius. He advises Tiberius to take the crown. Later Germanicus entrusts his children and wife to Sabinus, Nerva and Asinius should he die in Armenia. Sabinus is reported poisoned by Sejanus.


The eponymous leader of the Sabine revolt in the anonymous The Faithful Friends, Sabinus appears full of courage and resolve, but when the Roman army under Tullius' valiant and astute leadership gains the advantage, the Sabine is willing to join in Rufinus' treacherous plot. He pretends to be ready to surrender, and when Marius, disguised as Tullius, comes undefended to confirm the peace, orders a murderous assault. Believing Tullius dead, he feels remorse, and travels to Rome in time to rejoice in Marius' survival, reveal Rufinus' duplicity, and restore the Sabines to their tributary status.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Tragedy of Nero. Listed by Melichus as one of the conspirators against Nero.


Estrild's and Locrine's daughter in the anonymous Locrine. She finds her mother and father dead and wants to kill herself too, but she is too weak. Gwendoline finds her and wants to kill her, but Sabren drowns herself in the river that now bears her name (Severn).


Mythical figure mentioned by Doll Hornet in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho: "Looke how Sabrina sunck ith' riuer Seuerne, / So will we foure be drunke ith' ship-wrack Tauerne."


A "ghost character" in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. Sabrina is a Moroccan princess. According to the Chorus, she was to be George's prize for defeating the dragon. But her father, Pomil, reneged on his promise and threw George into prison instead.


Beloved of Samorat, sister to Philatell and Torcular in Suckling's The Goblins. Despite her brothers' efforts to marry her to the Prince, Sabrina stays loyal to her lover–though at one point she mistakes Orsabrin for him, when he sneaks into her house in the dark–and at the end, after Samorat and Orsabrin's trial has ended with the revelation of Orsabrin's identity, her opponents capitulate and agree to the marriage. The Prince, though, asks her not to "give away her selfe forever" until the next day, so that he can maintain his hopes through the evening of festive reunions; and Sabrina and Samorat confidently and graciously agree.


This Theban priest of Bacchus sacrifices a goat with all due ceremony in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta.


The Latin term for priests, sometimes used by Dekker in The Whore of Babylon to designate the Jesuit Priests sent back to Fairyland (England) by Como.


Captain Sackbury is a former drinking buddy of Underwit in Cavendish & Shirley's Country Captain. Underwit invites him to the country retreat to teach him military skills. Captain chides Courtwell for his serious and studious nature. Underwit and the Captain spend a good deal of time drinking together and a very little time practicing military commands. Captain is instrumental in getting Engine locked up for insanity, and sending him back to London.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


Sacrapant is the sorcerer who abducts Delia, the daughter of the king of Thessaly, and deprives her of her identity in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale. Similarly, he casts a spell upon Venelia, making her to appear mad, and another upon Venelia's fiancé Erestus, transforming him into an old man who speaks in riddles during the day and turning him into a white bear at night. The sorcerer is the cause that Huanebango is struck deaf and Corebus made blind. Finally, Sacrapant enchants and enslaves Delia's brothers Calypha and Thelea when they try to rescue her. His magic may only be undone by one is neither maid, nor wife, nor widow.


A simoniacal patron in Hausted’s Rival Friends. He cheated Bully Lively’s brother out of the parsonage and will gain possession of it at Lively’s death. He is using the property to gain a promising husband for Ursely and extorts presents from suitors who would have it. Ursely begs him to get her Anteros, and Sacrilege Hook promises to go to Terpander, Anteros’s father, and set the match. Terpander’s is behind in paying Hook for his lands, and Hook threatens him with forfeiture if the old man doesn’t persuade Anteros. The marriage contract costs him dearly, for Anteros tears up the mortgage papers and demands the parsonage before agreeing to marry. When it is discovered that Anteros and Ursely are siblings, Hook is undone. Nevertheless, Terpander, in good conscience, offers to pay half of the money, and Endymion takes Pandora without her portion, and Hook is satisfied.


After being passed over by Angelica for Orlando in Greene's Orlando Furioso, Sacripant vows to first steal Angelica and then to poison Orlando in order to insure that he is the future King of France, a position he believes is rightfully his. Pleads with Angelica for her to change her mind, which she refuses to do; instead she reaffirms her love for Orlando. Sacripant vows to trick Oralando into thinking that Angelica is in love with her confidant, Medor, by strewing love notes in a garden frequented by Orlando. Crowns himself king and then pursues Marsilius and Mandricard, attempting to kill them. Fights a disguised Orlando, who enters as a mercenary soldier, and is killed by him.


Sadd is Lady Wild's current suitor at the beginning of Killigrew's Parson's Wedding. Lady Wild grows tired of him being depressing all the time. She predicts in act one that Sadd's successful run will soon end: "he cannot last above another Fall." Along with Jack Constant and Secret, Sadd makes up a story that Lady Wild's house has been infested by the plague, in the hopes that she and Mistress Pleasant will leave London and not fall under the spell of Careless and Wild. The scheme fails when the Captain devises a plane to trick the ladies into marrying Wild and Careless.


The Sadducee, with the Pharisee, questions John Baptist because they fear he does not recognize their authority in Bale's John Baptist's Preaching in the Wilderness. He suggests that they will need to be crafty in their approach in order to defeat John, although the Pharisee does not agree. The Sadducee first attempts to seem friendly, but when John rejects his overtures, he asks how John can fault the Sadducees, who follow every one of God's precepts. When John says that they are all outward show, with no understanding of forgiveness, the Sadducee says John does not understand their laws, and asks on whose authority John preaches new ones. John's claim that both the Pharisees and the Sadducees are full of sin is met by the Sadducee's claim that he is descended directly from Abraham, and is thus holy. When John rejects the split between the tribe of Abraham and the Gentiles, the Sadducee has had enough, and leaves.


Although he speaks several times during Cromwell's execution scene in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell, his entry is not indicated. It seems the name is a misprint for Sir Richard Ratcliffe who does not speak in this scene but whose entry is announced.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. English nobleman. Cross names him as one of the commissioners at the peace negotiations in Edinburgh who have ordered the English forces to cease hostilities in Leith until talks are concluded.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. A royal preacher. One among the "true religious" men and "holy women" whom Hick Scorner was glad to see drown in the Irish Sea at the Race of Ireland when their thirteen ships foundered and sank.

SADNESS **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the nine inferior Affections. An agent of Grief who attended the Parliament during Grief’s absence. He is kin to Grief.


Sadoc is a high priest and the father of Ahimaas in Peele's David and Bethsabe. When David responds with tears to the news of Absalon's rebellion, Sadoc insists that he remember God's promises to him. When David regains his composure, he sends Sadoc with the Ark of the Covenant into Jerusalem. There he, the priest Abiathar, and their sons Ahimaas and Jonathan, seek information of use to David. After Cusay is accepted into Absalon's service and recommends that the usurper gather more men before attacking David (thus giving the king the opportunity for a sudden attack upon his son), Sadoc sends Ahimaas and Jonathan to David with this information.


A "ghost character" in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. As evidence of More's kindness to the common people, Doll Williamson remarks that, as Sheriff of London, More had arranged a position with Sergeant Safe for her brother Arthur Watchins.

SAGANA **1617

The chief of three witches in Goffe’s Orestes along with Veia and Erictho called up by Canidia to tell who murdered Agamemnon.


Sagar is a poor but honest man whose entire fortune is mortgaged to Bromley in S.S's Honest Lawyer. Despite that, he offers aid to Anne and Robin Vaster when they ask. When he, Bromley and Griffin are robbed by the disguised Vaster, Valentine and Curfew, Vaster returns Sagar's purse to him because he is poor. Warned by Benjamin, Sagar avoids Bromely's attempt to kill him, and disguises himself as a priest. After Bromley confesses his crime and promises to give back the lands to Sagar's wife and children, Sagar reveals that he is still alive.


Gazetto calls one of the officers Sagitarius in Dekker’s Match Me in London. Probably not his name but rather a cant term referring to the advice he gives being ‘well shot.’


A Spanish general, hired by Isabella to kill Massino in John Marston's The Insatiate Countess. Enthralled by her, as are most men in Venice, he is eager to satisfy her demand and so shoots Massino. But he is discovered. His emotional confession, which leads to the arrest of Isabella, so moves the otherwise harsh Duke of Medina that he pardons Sago and makes him a "colonel of his horse."


A shipwrecked sailor enters at the wedding to tell Timon that all his ships are sunk in the anonymous Timon of Athens.


A "ghost character" in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. Mentioned by Cinna's Slave as the one who directed him where to find Young Marius.


When the Ship's Captain in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England assures the Merchant of Tharsus that his crewmen are skilled mariners, the Sailor expresses his pleasure that the captain would say so, and he adds that, although he and his fellows may not have much book learning, one would be glad to have them aboard once the vessel leaves port. After Jonas's sacrifice quells the storm, the Sailor joins the Merchant and the Ship's Captain in accepting the Hebrew God.


The Sailor gives Horatio a letter from Hamlet in Shakespeare's Hamlet. He also states that he has letters for Claudius and Horatio promises to take him to Claudius, but the letters are instead given to Claudius by the Messenger. The Messenger reports he received the letters from one Claudio, which may be a mistake for Horatio.


The Third King's Man in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon appears disguised as a Sailor to conduct Campeius on his voyage to Babylon, and returns in the same guise to help the Third King into his disguise as a courtier.


Discusses with the Captain the mutiny against Thomas Sherley Jr in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers.


Brings Old Harding the news that the Merchant's ship has been taken by pirates in Heywood and Rowley's Fortune by Land and Sea.


The Sailor thanks Norandine in Fletcher's The Knight of Malta after the latter awards him part of the treasure won during the battle with the Turks.


The Sailor arrives in IV with the welcome news that all of Goswin's merchant ventures have succeeded after all in Fletcher's Beggars' Bush. He recounts how Captain Van-noke, the man Goswin earlier arranged to have released from prison, had happened along while one of Goswin's ships was being attacked by Turks, had driven them off, and sent the vessel and its cargo safely back to Bruges.


One of the disguises Paulo adopts to cure Don Martino of his melancholy in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman.

SAILOR **1637

Disguise adopted by Cypher in Mayne’s City Match. He tells Warehouse that two of his ships are lost at sea. After Warehouse signs away three quarters of the ships’ worth in assurances, he unmasks and reveals that the ships are safe.


During the storm, two sailors appear in Shakespeare's Pericles.
  • The First Sailor insists the body of Thaisa be thrown overboard.
  • The Second Sailor assists in preparations for the burial of Thaisa at sea.
Their preparations of the body inadvertently assure her survival.


There are two Sailors in Fletcher, Ford, Massinger and Webster's The Fair Maid of the Inn:
  1. The First Sailor relates the news of Alberto's death to his family.
  2. The Second Sailor tells Caesario that his father, Alberto, is not dead.


A sailor who serves Helicanus onboard Pericles' ship in Shakespeare's Pericles.


Two sailors on Albert's ship figure in Fletcher and Massinger's The Sea Voyage:
  1. The First Sailor on Albert's ship is pessimistic during the storm, fearing for their safety. After the shipwreck he is involved in the fight over the Portuguese treasure. The sailors help Tibalt and the Master to rescue Aminta from the cannibalistic attentions of Lamure, Franville, Morillat and the Surgeon. The first sailor is among the sailors captured by the amazons, and is finally released when Sebastian returns to prevent Rosellia from sacrificing the prisoners.
  2. The Second Sailor on Albert's ship has the first sight of land during the storm. After the shipwreck he is involved in the fight over the jewels revealed by the Portuguese shipwrecks Sebastian and Nicusa. He helps Tibalt and the master to rescue Aminta from the cannibalistic attentions of Lamure, Franville, Morillat and the Surgeon. The sailors are captured by the amazons, and are finally released when Sebastian returns to prevent Rosellia from sacrificing the prisoners.


Two sailors on Raymond's ship figure in Fletcher and Massinger's The Sea Voyage:
  1. The First Sailor on Raymond's ship had previously served with Albert, and recognizes the description of him given by Sebastian and Nicusa. He urges Raymond to leave them on the island again.
  2. The Second Sailor on Raymond's ship questions Sebastian and Nicusa about their contact with Albert and his crew.


There are two sailors in Armin's The Two Maids of More–Clacke. They talk about a trunk that they think somebody has left in the street. It is actually where Mary is hidden.

SAILORS **1610

One unnamed sailor brings Francisco's challenge to Ward in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk. Other unnamed sailors in the employ of all the captains supply random curses and agreements in large-scale on board scenes. Two further unnamed Sailors burgle Benwash's house while Agar and Gallop are having sex, making off with both Gallop's gold and his breeches. As Benwash subsequently discovers the stolen property, they must fail to make a successful getaway, possibly because the house is on fire.


A group of sailors in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas appears singing, ready to depart, when Francis is seeking a boat in order to escape Valentine's house. One of them offers to take Francis aboard, but then helps manacle him when Michael arrives to 'arrest' him.

SAILORS **1620

Loyal crew to the pirate the Duke of Sesse, with whom they have been at sea for fourteen years in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage. The sailors fight valiantly when Virolet attempts to take their ship. After the capture of Virolet, one of the sailors follows Martia's orders to unbolt the prisoner and leave a rich cap and mantle for him to help his escape; six sailors are reported to have accompanied Martia in the long boat by which she escapes Sesse's ship.


In the service of Leopold, sea captain and, frankly, pirate in Fletcher and Massinger's Custom of the Country. Only one old salt speaks, to fill in details of the desperate but unsuccessful fight by Arnoldo and Rutillio to save their small boat, and with it Zenocia, from capture.

SAILORS **1635

Although this designation exists in the dramatis personae for Killigrew’s The Prisoners, it the text these characters are referred to as soldiers. See SOLDIERS.


Marginal characters in Carlell's 2 Passionate Lovers that come in Act Five to tell everybody that the boat is on fire and that they have to abandon it for another one. Later, they released Clarimant and Selina, who had been tied up to die.


A group of English sailors in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part One informs Goodlack as he is leaving Fayal for England to visit Bess that a bell he hears tolling in the distance is for one "Spencer" who has died. He mistakenly concludes that they refer to his wounded friend by that name. Later, the sailors find themselves at the Windmill tavern in Foy, and they inform Bess of the death in the Azores of one named Spencer. Like Goodlack, Bess assumes that the individual who has died is her beloved.


St. Andrew is one of the six champions of Christendom imprisoned in the cave of Calib the witch in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. George releases the champions, and they make him their seventh member. They vow to travel the world, doing battle with unbelievers. Andrew and Anthony arrive in Trebizond and slay the dragon that is terrorizing the countryside. But the Emperor of Trebizond, when he learns that they are Christians, orders them to convert to the Greek gods or die. Andrew and Anthony bravely choose death, and the Emperor allows them to choose their executioners. They choose the princess Violeta and her maid Carintha, who refuse, saying they'd rather kill themselves. So Andrew and Anthony offer to kill each other. The Emperor releases them and provides swords, whereupon Andrew and Anthony frighten them all away. Later, they join with St. Patrick, St. Denis, St. James and St. David in an attempt to slay Brandron the giant and rescue the King of Macedon's daughters. But they are betrayed by Suckabus, who tricks them into disarming and then imprisons them. They are forced to support Brandron or die, and so, when St. George arrives, they are obliged to fight him. George defeats all six of them. When Brandron commits suicide, the champions are free to join with George again. At the end of the play, they perform a dance to celebrate the marriage of the Daughters of the King of Macedon to Patrick, Denis, and James.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Brun, the Scots soldier, swears by St. Andrew.


An earl in Chapman's Monsieur D'Olive. Though his wife has died, he preserves her body and sits with it in inconsolable grief. When Vandome asks him to woo Eurione on his behalf, he reluctantly agrees, and, as Vandome intended, St. Anne falls in love with her. For this St. Anne is wracked with guilt as he believes he is betraying both his friend and the memory of his dead wife. When Vandome blesses the match, however, he is relieved and vows to bury his late wife properly before wedding his new beloved.


St. Anthony is one of the six champions of Christendom imprisoned in the cave of Calib the witch in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. George releases the champions, and they make him their seventh member. They vow to travel the world, doing battle with unbelievers. Anthony and Andrew arrive in Trebizond and slay the dragon that is terrorizing the countryside. But the Emperor of Trebizond, when he learns that they are Christians, orders them to convert to the Greek gods or die. Anthony and Andrew bravely choose death, and the Emperor allows them to choose their executioners. They choose the princess Violeta and her maid Carintha, who refuse, saying they'd rather kill themselves. So Anthony and Andrew offer to kill each other. The Emperor releases them and provides swords, whereupon Anthony and Andrew frighten them all away. Later, they join with St. Patrick, St. Denis, St. James and St. David in an attempt to slay Brandron the giant and rescue the King of Macedon's daughters. But they are betrayed by Suckabus, who tricks them into disarming and then imprisons them. They are forced to support Brandron or die, and so, when St. George arrives, they are obliged to fight him. George defeats all six of them. When Brandron commits suicide, the champions are free to join with George again. At the end of the play, they perform a dance to celebrate the marriage of the Daughters of the King of Macedon to Patrick, Denis, and James.


St. David is one of the six champions of Christendom imprisoned in the cave of Calib the witch in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. George releases the champions, and they make him their seventh member. They vow to travel the world, doing battle with unbelievers. St. David helps the Tartarians in their wars against the Persians, but then accidentally kills Arbasto, the heir to the throne, in a joust. The King wants to kill him. When David protests his innocence, the King of Tartary sends him on a mission to slay the enchanter Ormandine, believing that he will fail. David fights off Ormandine's sprits, but is unable to defeat Ormandine's wand. Ormandine then sends spirits to tempt David with pleasures, and he succumbs. He is rescued when St. George defeats Ormandine. Later, he joins with St. Andrew, St. Anthony, St. Denis, St. James and St. Patrick, in an attempt to slay Brandron the giant and rescue the King of Macedon's daughters. But they are betrayed by Suckabus, who tricks them into disarming and then imprisons them. They are forced to support Brandron or die, and so, when St. George arrives, they are obliged to fight him. George defeats all six of them. When Brandron commits suicide, the champions are free to join with George again. At the end of the play, they perform a dance to celebrate the marriage of the Daughters of the King of Macedon to Patrick, Denis, and James.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Caradoc, the Welsh soldier, swears by "St. Taffie."
Only mentioned in Fletcher's The Knight of Malta. Norandine asks if the Surgeon think he is like St. Davey, to drop dead from seeing his nose bleed.


St. Denis is one of the six champions of Christendom imprisoned in the cave of Calib the witch in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. George releases the champions, and they make him their seventh member. They vow to travel the world, doing battle with unbelievers. St. Denis, St. James and St. Patrick try to slay the enchanter Argalio, but he escapes from them on an ascending throne. Nonetheless, they are satisfied to have rid the land of him. Later, they join with St. Andrew, St Anthony, and St. David, in an attempt to slay Brandron the giant and rescue the King of Macedon's daughters. But they are betrayed by Suckabus, who tricks them into disarming and then imprisons them. They are forced to support Brandron or die, and so, when St. George arrives, they are obliged to fight him. George defeats all six of them. When Brandron commits suicide, the champions are free to join with George again. When the King of Macedon's daughters (who had been transformed into swans) are changed back into women, James, Denis and Patrick marry them, and the champions perform a dance to celebrate.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. When Camillo and Fontinel are about to fight over Violetta's love, the Frenchman Fontinel swears by Saint Dennis, the patron saint of France, to knock Camillo down. Hipolito is revolted that Fontinel dares to use the name of Saint Dennis. Learning from Frisco that Imperia seems to be in love with Fontinel's picture, Hipolito prays to Saint Dennis to make Fontinel become Imperia's slave.


Saint Dunston (also Dunstan, c. 924-88) was Abbot of Glastonbury and later Archbishop of Canterbury, reputed something of a necromancer during his life. In Haughton's The Devil and his Dame, a dream of St. Dunston's provides the frame within which the rest of the action takes place. In the opening soliloquy St. Dunstan recounts his origins and story. Then "he layeth him down to sleep" and dreams of an arraignment in the court of Hell where Pluto king of the devils and his judges have decided to send a devil into the world to marry a human woman. Dunston awakens suddenly and issues a warning to women everywhere that the devil is come to earth. When the devil Belphagor, in the guise of Castiliano the Spanish doctor, first arrives in the world he finds St. Dunston about to attempt the cure of Honorea, the mute daughter of Morgan Earl of London. The devil silences St. Dunston's magic harp and performs the cure himself. In III.ii St. Dunston may be responsible for summoning another devil, who impersonates Musgrave and jilts Honorea. Then St. Dunstan brings the elderly Earl Lacy to where he can see his wife Honorea importuned by her former lover Musgrave, and see her rebuff him. Later St. Dunston brings the news of Earl Lacy's seeming death, watches as the earth swallows Belphagor when his allowed term on earth expires, and welcomes the reawakened Earl Lacy. Finally, he gives a summing speech to the audience in which he declares Earl Lacy's house to be full of joy, and "jars all ended." He invites the audience to watch the "infernal synod" in the next scene, and asks them to "judge if we deserve to name/ this play of ours The Devil and his Dame."


When the Farmer hears Friar Hugh ap David say he owes Saint Francis a gambling debt in Peele's Edward I, he claims to be "Saint Francis' receiver" and takes the friar's money.


George is a young man who was stolen from his parents by Calib the witch at a tender age in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. Calib dotes on him, and has brought him up with her son, Suckabus. George is keen to know his true parentage, so Calib tells him that she rescued him from his murderous mother. She then shows him the six champions of Christendom, whom she has imprisoned in her cave, and gives him her magic wand. But when George waves the wand, he sees the ghosts of his father and mother and learns that his parents were virtuous. He attacks Calib, and uses the wand to imprison her in a rock. Then he releases the six champions, who accept him into their number and name him St. George of England. They all ride off on separate adventures, and St. George allows Suckabus to be his servant. The Chorus relates how St. George killed a dragon to win the hand of the fair Sabrina, but her father, Pomil, reneged on his promise and threw George in prison. After seven years, George escaped by breaking the jailer's neck. George is reunited with Suckabus in Tartary. There, George captures Ormandine, and releases the bewitched St. David. Later, George arrives at the castle of Brandron the giant, who, aided by the treacherous Suckabus, has captured the other six champions. George is forced to fight each of the champions but he beats them all, and Brandron kills himself rather than fight George. At the end of the play, George and the other champions dance to celebrate the marriages of the daughters of the King of Macedon.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. St George is mentioned by Master Bead when he is telling Master Silence about his religious scruples: "I firmly believe St George and his dragon." Later, he is mentioned by Sir Conquest Shadow when, reporting one of his imaginary duels to Doctor Clyster, he explains where it actually took place: "Here, sir, in Saint George's Fields." According to Nelson (1975: 245, note to line 60), "that was a resort of Londoners on the Surrey side of the Thames between Southwark and Lambeth where duels were often fought." The best known of the stories related to St George is that of the dragon: A dragon lived in a lake near Silena, Libya, who had defeated all the armies that had charged against him. The creature ate two sheep a day, but, should mutton be scarce, it would be substituted for young maidens. When Saint George visited that country, and heard that a princess was to be eaten, he charged against the dragon and killed him with his lance. He then offered the locals a magnificent sermon and converted them. The king gave him a large reward which he distributed to the poor. Devotion to Saint George became popular in Europe after the tenth century.
Only mentioned in ?Rastell's Calisto and Melebea. According to Celestina, Calisto armed is like St. George.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Higgen, the English soldier, swears by St. George.


Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. Joan uses his name as an exclamation. The character A uses it thrice thereafter.


St. James is one of the six champions of Christendom imprisoned in the cave of Calib the witch in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. George releases the champions, and they make him their seventh member. They vow to travel the world, doing battle with unbelievers. St. James, St. Denis and St. Patrick try to slay the enchanter Argalio but he escapes from them on an ascending throne. Nonetheless, they are satisfied to have rid the land of him. Later, they join with St. Andrew, St Anthony, and St. David, in an attempt to slay Brandron the giant and rescue the King of Macedon's daughters. But they are betrayed by Suckabus, who tricks them into disarming and then imprisons them. They are forced to support Brandron or die, and so, when St. George arrives, they are obliged to fight him. George defeats all six of them. When Brandron commits suicide, the champions are free to join with George again. When the King of Macedon's daughters (who had been transformed into swans) are changed back into women, Denis, James and Patrick marry them, and the champions perform a dance to celebrate.


Having fallen to Imperia's trick in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable, the confused Lazarillo invokes Saint Jaques, or Saint James, or Saint Iago in Spanish to pardon him for his sins. In the same phrase, however, Lazarillo invokes the seven deadly sins next to the saint's name.


Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. The character called B uses her name as an exclamation.


Enters after initial exchange between Irisdision and Eugenio in the anonymous Johan The Evangelist and delivers a sermon-like speech, referring to the audience as "this congregacyon." Blesses the congregation and introduces himself, then offers to teach about Christ's passion. His role, he states, is to preach Christ's laws and to offer heaven to all who follow those laws, even though most now pursue worldly wealth. Returns at the end of the interlude to tell a parable of the Pharisee and the Publican, in which the Publican's meek piety is contrasted with the Pharisee's hypocrisy and pride. He ends by reminding the audience that pride is a sin and all those who do not repent of their sins will go to hell. St. Johan then ends the interlude by telling the audience that those who think they are good share the Pharisee's pride, while those who see themselves as sinful share the Publican's divine blessing, and encouraging them to be steadfast and true.


Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. Publius Cornelius uses his name as an exclamation.


Only mentioned in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!. The Butcher, Slitgut's master, sends his apprentice to Cuckold's Haven with a pair of ox's horns to do homage to Saint Luke. In art, Saint Luke's evangelistic emblem is an ox and this has led to his patronage of butchers.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. When Camillo and Fontinel are about to start a fight over Violetta's love, Camillo the Venetian swears by Saint Mark, the patron saint of Venice, that Fontinel is a villain. Many Venetian bellicose youths swear by Saint Mark. When Hipolito wants to prove to Camillo that he fought for Venice in the wars, he shows him the scars of his wounds and says Saint Mark has put these signs on his body. Imperia's brothel is in the middle of Saint Mark's Street, and most of the important events in the play happen in front of Imperia's house. Hipolito and Imperia swear frequently by Saint Mark, showing that they are patriotic citizens of Venice.


Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. The character called A uses her name as an exclamation.


A servant to Lady Plus and Sir Godfrey in Middleton's(?) Puritan. She attempts to convince Pyeboard and Nicholas not to steal nor cheat, citing the ten commandments as her authority for all prohibitions


St Patrick is one of the six champions of Christendom imprisoned in the cave of Calib the witch in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. George releases the champions, and they make him their seventh member. They vow to travel the world, doing battle with unbelievers. St. Patrick, St. James and St. Denis try to slay the enchanter Argalio but he escapes from them on an ascending throne. Nonetheless, they are satisfied to have rid the land of him. Later, they join with St. Andrew, St Anthony, and St. David, in an attempt to slay Brandron the giant and rescue the King of Macedon's daughters. But they are betrayed by Suckabus, who tricks them into disarming and then imprisons them. They are forced to support Brandron or die, and so, when St. George arrives, they are obliged to fight him. George defeats all six of them. When Brandron commits suicide, the champions are free to join with George again. When the King of Macedon's daughters (who had been transformed into swans) are changed back into women, Patrick, Denis and James marry them, and the champions perform a dance to celebrate.
Introduces himself to the Irish King as a servant of heaven in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland. He urges the King and his subjects to eschew the 'painted gods' of Paganism. He accepts Dichu who instantly converts to Christianity when in the middle of attacking Patrick with a weapon. With good grace, he accepts the 'hospitality' of the King who tries to kill him through the poisoned wine plot–because of 'duty' to his host, he insists on drinking the wine. He suffers no ill-effects, even though the poisoned wine should have killed a man with the 'constitution of an elephant'. His request that a small chapel be built in the court goes unanswered, because of the King's distracted behaviour. He comes to see the Queen, who is imprisoned in Milcho's house–he brings a letter to Milcho, not realising that it contains an order for Milcho to kill him. He comforts the Queen, staying calm even when the house burns ferociously. He speaks continually about the joys of a Christian faith, and regrets, briefly, the crazed suicide of Milcho. He tries, unsuccessfully, to win the Bard over to a Christian lifestyle, and pities the earthly-obsessed poet. He gets referred to as 'Bishop Patrick' by his new supporter, Conallus. He brings his band to the cell of the hiding Dichu, and meets up with Dichu's newly-converted sons, Ferochus and Endarius. Having been warned of Archimagus' snake plot by his guardian Angel, Victor, he easily wards off the snakes into the sea, ensuring that poisonous reptiles will never appear on Irish soil again. He observes the descent into hell of Archimagus, and is skeptical about the professed regrets of the King. He ends the play talking about the centrality of martyrdom and suffering to the Christian way of life.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Termock, the Irish soldier, swears by St. Patrick.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Paul is mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he is about to offer Signor Jealousy a remedy for his jealousy, and he brings up "Paul's Latin". He is referring to Saint Paul, but, specifically, to a Latin remark that can be overheard in Paul's walk–which is the middle aisle of Saint Paul's cathedral and a common meeting-place for lawyers. Paul is also mentioned by Narrowit when he is telling Master Silence about his religious scruples: "And, God forgive me, I have given money towards the repair of Paul's, and I fear it may help to the setting up of Dagon or some antique saint." According to Cathryn Anne Nelson (1975, p. 215, note 287), in her critical edition of The Wits Triumvirate, or the Philosopher, "in 1631 Charles I ordered money to be collected for the reparation of St Paul's Church; work began in April, 1633, under the supervision of Iñigo Jones." According to the Bible, St Paul of Tarsus–originally, Saul of Tarsus–was an Israelite (born in Tarsus of Cilicia) of the tribe of Benjamin and a Pharisee. He had actually persecuted the first Christians, but he stopped doing it after having a vision of Jesus on his way to Damascus. He converted and he was appointed to be an apostle of Jesus. He devoted the rest of his life to spread Christianity among the gentiles, and he is considered one of the most important figures in the development of Christianity.


Only mentioned in Shirley's Contention for Honor and Riches. Catholic church founder and Biblical apostle, St. Peter is mentioned in passing by Gettings as he denigrates Clod.


Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. Lucrece uses his name as an exclamation.


Only mentioned in Hausted’s Rival Friends. Stipes invokes St. Swithin to protect him from the devil when he believes Geoffrey has miraculously transformed into Anteros on fairy ground.


A fictional character in Peele's Edward I. When the Farmer, assuming Friar Hugh ap David is mad, decides that speaking nonsense will not matter, he calls himself Saint Thomas a Watering. Actually, he is playing with the name of a well-known watering stop on the road from London to Canterbury, one mentioned in the General Prologue to The Canterbury Tales.


Only mentioned in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. John a Kent, disguised as an old Hermit, pretends to read Marian's and Sydanen's palms. He prophesies fatal disasters unless the ladies wash their hands at the sacred spring of Saint Winifride. During the night, Marian, Sydanen, and the Countess go to a secret meeting with the false Hermit, apparently to be taken to the saint's sacred spring in the woods. The name probably refers to Saint Boniface, christened Wynfrith. He was an Anglo-Saxon peasant who attended the Benedictine school and wrote the first Latin Grammar ever produced in England. He is known for his missionary and monastic activities in Germany and his contemporaries believe he was a special patron of England.


"Ghost characters" in Jonson's The Alchemist. Tribulation calls his Brethren Anabaptists "Saints." When he explains to Ananias the reason for seeking Subtle's alchemical services, Tribulation mentions that the Philosopher's Stone is the only means of restoring the silenced Saints to their rights, thus hastening the general acceptance of the Anabaptist sect.


A courtier in Davenant's The Fair Favorite. He tells Thorello who is who in the court and who flirts with the court ladies. He is rebuffed by the third court lady, but the reason remains unclear.


After entering Sir Vaughn ap Rees' service in Dekker's Satiromastix, Peter Flash acquires the name Peter Salamander from his employer and is called by that name for the remainder of the play.


Salassa is a beautiful and sharp-tongued young Arragonian widow in ?Ford's The Queen, adored by General Velasco although she is far beneath him in social status. He declares himself near death because of her refusal to entertain his suit. However, when both Mopas and Lodovico remonstrate with her about this refusal, she protests that she is sympathetic to Velasco and invites him to visit her. When he does so, she promises to take him as a servant and to grant him a kiss if he will vow to do one thing she asks. He assents, whereupon Salassa demands that he swear to give up all forms of violence and fighting, even under dire provocation. Although he knows that this vow will undo him in the eyes of Arragonian society, Velasco assents to his mistress' "cruelty" and duly becomes a laughing-stock for his apparent cowardice. When the Queen is accused of adultery and condemned to trial by combat, Mopas and Lodovico convince Salassa to release Velasco from his vow and to reap the reward offered to those who will champion the Queen's cause. Salassa admits that she had simply enjoyed the power inherent in commanding a great general to forswear fighting; she is confident of her victory. To her shock, however, Velasco curses her and refuses to renounce his vow, insisting that he would lose his soul should he do so. Since she has put the Queen's only viable champion out of commission and then failed to win him back, Salassa is condemned to a traitor's death by Collumello and Almada. Disgusted with her own "crimes," she declares herself willing to die if only Velasco will forgive her. Lodovico tells her that Velasco has done so, and she mounts the scaffold cheerfully. At the last moment, however, Velasco cannot bear to see her die. He saves her life by agreeing to act as the Queen's champion, but breaks her heart by condemning her as the destroyer of his soul. After the Queen is saved, Salassa reappears in penitential white, followed by two or three money-bearers. She returns the gold she had received as a reward, repents her sins and is about to depart for a convent. At the last moment, Lodovico and the other characters convince Velasco to forgive her on the grounds that her repentance will make her an excellent wife. With both male and female faults suitably corrected, the play can end in multiple weddings.


Salerio is a friend of Antonio's in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. With Solanio, he tries to cheer up Antonio, and then passes the task on to Bassanio when he arrives. Salerio is there when Lorenzo and Jessica elope. Solanio and Salerio discuss together the outcry raised by Shylock when he daughter elopes, and worry that the report of a wrecked ship refers to Antonio's ship. However, when they next meet Solanio reveals that the ship was Antonio's. They encounter Shylock and taunt him about his daughter, provoking the "Hath not a Jew eyes?" speech. Salerio travels to Belmont to give Bassanio a letter from Antonio, describing his peril and asking for help. He is at the trial scene and tells the Duke that a messenger from Doctor Bellario waits outside, then escorts the disguised Portia in.


Thomas Saleware is a citizen and a cuckold in Brome's A Mad Couple. In fact, he has always thought that one of his kids was not his. His wife, Alicia, works in his shop. In Act One, he comes to see how much she has sold. There, he discovers that she has not made much money. They decide to be friends from now on. Later, in Act Four, he shares his doubts with Bellamy because he thinks that his wife has been sleeping with someone, and then he is planning his revenge. In Act Five, he goes to Lord Lovely's with Alicia to complain about Bellamy, who has slept with his wife and who has been seen to go to Lord Thrivewell. Then, he is informed that everything was his wife's plan to make him jealous.

SALEWIT **1637

A poet and friend of Quarterfield in Mayne’s City Match. He tells Roseclap that persons without money are privileged and may eat without paying. He dresses as a trumpeter to lead in Mrs. Seathrift and Mrs. Holland to show them to the wonderful fish. The fish turns out to be Timothy, drunken and asleep, dressed up. He plays the part of a French Deacon in Frank’s stratagem. See also DEACON, FRENCH.


Along with his fellows Cockstone and Rearage, Salewood is a London gallant in Middleton's Michaelmas Term. Although he does not play a major role in the play's plot aside from his loyalty to Rearage in his suit for Susan, Salewood nevertheless represents the typical behavior of London gallants, fawning to Easy and Quomodo and unduly impressed with the Lethe's courtesan, the country wench.


The Earl of Salisbury is the husband of the Countess of Salisbury in the anonymous King Edward III. He helps Mountford, the Duke of Brittany, to regain his lands from Charles of Blois, and in return the Duke swears allegiance to Edward. Salisbury obtains a safe-conduct from Charles as the ransom for his prisoner Villiers. He is captured at Poitiers and is threatened by King John with death, but his safe-conduct holds. Instead, John sends him to tell Edward the outcome of the battle of Poitiers. Salisbury leaves before the battle is over and arrives outside of Calais to deliver to Edward and the others the mistaken report that the French have won and Prince Edward has been killed. However, his wrong report is almost immediately corrected by the arrival of the English Herald with the news of Prince Edward's victory.


The Earl of Salisbury supports the Duke of York's claim to the throne in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. Nonetheless, he continues to serve King Henry, conveying the message that the commoners are calling for Suffolk's death or banishment in retribution for the murder of Gloucester and warning that Suffolk is a threat to Henry as well. Historically, his name was Richard Neville. He became the earl of Salisbury through marriage to Alice Montacute, only daughter of Thomas Montacute (the Salisbury of Henry V and 1 Henry VI).


A supporter of King Richard who has been in charge of his army in Wales in Shakespeare's Richard II. He is later beheaded for his involvement in a conspiracy against Bolingbroke (now King Henry IV), along with Spencer, Blunt and Kent. Historically, he was John de Montacute.


Salisbury enters with John after John has had himself crowned in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. When John first brings up the idea of becoming king, Salisbury supports him, claiming that England has been without a king for too long, and wins over Chester. He supports John in his condemnation of Ely and argues against Leicester when the latter arrives and expresses his shock that he would support John's usurpation. However, when Richmond arrives and announces that Richard has returned, Salisbury immediately makes plans to seek out Richard and beg for a pardon.
Salisbury is with King Richard during the opening hunt in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington and claims three bucks. When Doncaster is dragged in after poisoning Robin, Salisbury reveals that he knew of Doncaster and would have saved Robin since he knew Doncaster was a monster. He accuses Doncaster of killing his infant son and two maids, and raping the child's nurse, all of which Doncaster freely admits. Salisbury's character after the death of Robin becomes murky; it appears that the playwrights planned to replace Salisbury with Oxford, but the revisions to the earlier scenes with John were not completed. Salisbury is noted as entering with John in the first scene after Robin's death, but he is addressed as Old de Vere/Oxford. His role as a supporter of Queen Isabel is also later taken over by Oxford and Salisbury disappears after the first battle between John and the rebels. While he remains Salisbury, he functions to support Queen Isabel and to try to reconcile John to his marriage to her. He mistakes John's words of praise for Matilda for praise of the Queen, and hurries to tell her that John has changed his tone. John takes advantage of this and asks Isabel and Salisbury to go to Guildford and visit Lady Bruce, using their visit as a way to slip Hubert in to take the Lady and her son hostage. When this happens, Salisbury is appalled at being tricked, but remains loyal and goes with Isabel to arrest Matilda. When Matilda is taken and physically abused by the Queen, Salisbury defends her. When John finds out that Matilda was hurt, he is furious and thus reveals that he is still in love with her. Salisbury, disgusted, asks to leave the camp, and John tells him to take Isabel and leave. This is his last appearance, when Isabel returns, Oxford takes over his part with no real change in the character. (See also OXFORD).
The Earl of Salisbury is present in the first scene, but does not speak, and is not listed as one of those who appears with John before the gates of Angers in Shakespeare's King John. When John orders someone to inform Constance of the marriage of the Dauphin and Blanche, it is apparently Salisbury, because in the next scene she appears with him, complaining bitterly about the news he has brought. He next appears as one of the lords at John second coronation, protesting with the others that the action was unnecessary. He emerges as the leading lord after Arthur is declared dead; he is the first to declare that he is leaving John and, in the next scene, is the one who has made contact with Melun. When they find the body of Arthur, Salisbury is not convinced that Hubert is innocent and leaves. When the lords join the Dauphin, Salisbury speaks at length justifying his apparent treason, and when Melun reveals that the Dauphin plans to kill the English lords after the battle, Salisbury is the one who decides they should return to the English. In the final scene he is restored to John's side and delivers the news that Pandolf has brought the Dauphin to peace.


When the English leaders discuss the disproportion of fresh French soldiers to exhausted English ones in Shakespeare's Henry V, Salisbury admits that the odds are "fearful" but remains committed to the battle. He bids adieu to Bedford, Gloucester and Exeter, acknowledging that their next meeting could be in heaven. Historically, his name was Thomas Montacute, who became one of the most famous captains under Henry VI.
The Earl of Salisbury is killed by the French early in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, shot by the Master Gunner's son with the same ordinance that also kills Gargrave. Talbot vows to avenge him and makes good on this promise at Orleans. Historically, he was Thomas Montacute. His death was a deep moral blow to the English forces.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned by Agrippina as having written about Lucius Sylla.


King of Macedon in the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace. He learns of Articles' valor, and honors him before the army. But when the king and Philander meet and conclude a treaty of peace, they agree to banish Aristocles from both countries. Salohcin falls in love with Suavina, and takes advantage of her jealousy at Corintha's apparent conquest of Aristocles to win from her a promise of love. First, however, he must get rid of his wife, Ascania, and suborns Phonops to murder her, and also to dispose of his rival Aristocles.


See also SOLOMON, SOLIMAN, SOLYMON, and related spellings.


Salomon is the son born to David and Bethsabe after their marriage in Peele's David and Bethsabe. Although he is not the oldest of David's surviving sons, Salomon is chosen as his successor because Nathan says it is God's command that Salomon rule after his father. Prompted by both Nathan and Bethsabe in the final scene, David publicly states his decision to bestow the throne on Salomon and gives his son instructions in right rule, including a special prayer to be used to solicit God's aid.
Only mentioned in Markham's Herod and Antipater. The biblical King Solomon constructed the original Temple. Herod had in the past defaced the rebuilt Temple and has now commissioned a restoration.


The sexton of Enfield in the anonymous The Merry Devil of Edmonton. He hears the poachers in the dark and becomes fearful, believing that the ghost of his dead friend Theophilus is haunting the churchyard.


A "ghost character" in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies. Employer of Salter's man.


The disguise in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel adopted by the two sergeants hired by Russell to arrest Fitzallen.


A "ghost character" in Sharpham's The Fleire. A physician named by Antifront as one of the many customers of the prostitutes Felecia and Florida.


Salumith is the wife of Joseph and sister to King Herod in Markham's Herod and Antipater. In league with Herod's bastard son Antipater in potting the downfall of Herod, Salumith tells Herod that his wife Marriam has been unfaithful and lain with Joseph. Salumith assists Antipater's schemes at every step, hiring common laborers to swear falsely that they had been asked by Herod's younger sons, Alexander and Aristobulus, to murder the king. What Salumith never realizes is that Antipater plans to have her out of the way as well in his campaign to sit upon the throne of Judah.


A murderer and centurion in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. He is responsible with Achillas and Septimius for the murder of Pompey.


In the first scene of A Yorkshire Tragedy, the servant Sam comes back from London, where he has made purchases for the Wife's household. He hears from his colleagues that his mistress (the Wife) has not seen her Husband for a long time. During the rest of the play the servants appear without a name.


The first waterman in Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside. He and his fellows accept a French crown from Touchwood Junior in return for rowing Moll to Barn Elms.


With Hylas, one of the "bouncing boys" who are Thomas' boon companions in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas. He is present at the drunken evening when Thomas serenades Mary and Hylas gets his head broken. He later discourages Hylas from fighting Thomas. He is wise enough to be doubtful of Hylas' plan to marry 'Dorothy,' although he does not know that his friend's paramour is really Thomas in disguise.


A gentleman of the Inns of Court in Nabbes' Tottenham Court, friend of James and brother of Bellamie. He recognizes Bellamie in her disguise, but she denies her identity to him; later, when she and Cicely are pretending to be prostitutes, Sam recognizes her and pretends to purchase her services, whereupon Bellamie tearfully admits her identity. He flies into a rage, causing Bellamie to swoon, and in the ensuing commotion Worthgood arrives and is finally reunited with Bellamie. Sam ends up engaged to marry Cicely, who had earlier expressed to Bellamie her love for Sam.


The stepson of Pecunius Lucre in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. A clown, he is one of the suitors to Joyce, Hoard's niece, along with Moneylove. Sam is out-maneuvered when Witgood marries her instead.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Locrine, father of Gogmagog.


A beautiful young Egyptian woman, vowed sister to Elimine and Martia in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. She consults Irus the fortune teller, who predicts she will marry the richest man of Alexandria, who will die shortly thereafter. She follows his suggestions and weds Leon (Irus in disguise), who later apparently dies, reputedly a suicide. In the final scene, as a widow with a child, she is wooed by Kings Rhesus and Bion and chooses the latter as her second husband.


Samia is Alcon's wife and the mother of Radagon and Clesiphon in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England. Early in the play, her husband makes jokes about her three "faults": her sharp tongue, her propensity to strike him, and her seemingly uncontrollable flatulence. After the loss of the family cow to the Usurer, she accompanies her husband to seek relief from their older son Radagon, and when the proud and ungrateful young man rejects them because they are base-born, Samia leaves cursing him. Within seconds of her departure, Radagon is engulfed in a pillar of flames and dies.


Page to Endymion in Lyly's Endymion. With his master in love, there is nothing left for him to do but devise mischief. He and Dares seek out Sir Tophas. They first tease him with two young women, Scintilla and Favilla, but when they discover he has fallen in love with the enchantress, Dipsas, they agree to help him in his wooing for their sport.


Samles accompanies the King of England on his invasion of Scotland in Greene's James IV.


Lover of Sabrina, but opposed by her brothers, Philatell and Torcular, who want to marry her to the Prince in Suckling's The Goblins. The play begins with the two brothers forcing Samorat to fight a duel; at first he has no second, but the stranger Orsabrin arrives just in time, and takes on Torcular, apparently killing him. This supposed death leads to many further complications: Samorat and Orsabrin both find themselves on the run, chivalrously trying to protect each other from the penalty, and finally stand trial together, as neither will back down. They are saved when Tamoren reveals that Torcular is still alive and Orsabrin is really the Prince's brother, taken from Francelia in infancy, whereupon the brothers give up their opposition to the Samorat-Sabrina marriage and the Prince (rather reluctantly) gives his consent. Samorat is supported in his adventures by Nashorat and Pellegrin, two comic "cavaliers" who take every opportunity to drink and sing; they have no desire for a heroic death, but are nonetheless prepared to endure it in his company.


Only mentioned in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. The Israelite strong man Sampson is yet another of the heroes Merrygreek pretends women have to think of when they behold Roister Doister.


Vertaigne's fiery nephew in Fletcher and Massinger's The Little French Lawyer. Sampson is a lawyer who is eager to take La-Writ's client after the little French lawyer's conversion to a duelist. When La-writ challenges Vertaigne to a duel for having ruled against him, the judge sends Sampson in his place. When the two men meet for their duel, they are tricked by Cleremont into stripping down to their shirts and handing over their swords; abandoned by their seconds, they beat each other to stay warm and with many complaints about the cold weather, seek shelter. In the woods, they meet Champernell and Vertaigne, who have been released by the ruffians who kidnapped the rest of their party; the older men assume the lawyers have been robbed by the same gang. When Champernell beats La-writ to transform him back to a lawyer, Sampson leaves as ordered. La-writ later tells Sampson to mend his ways.


A "ghost character," Stockfish does not appear on stage in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. Sampson Stockfish is a fruiterer with whom Shallow says he fought in his youth.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David as an example of an upright, virtuous man.


A servant to the Capulets in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Together with Gregory, Samson provokes a brawl with the Montagues.


An elderly London justice, father to Samuel in Brome's The Sparagus Garden. He is gentle when calm but an "uncharitable wretch" when angry. His age-old feud with his neighbor, Will Striker, is notorious. He welcomes Gilbert and Walter, the sons of his late friends Goldwire and Chamlet, but soon spurns them when he realizes that they wish to encourage him to favor a match between his son, Samuel, and Striker's granddaughter, Annabel; so incensed is he by this idea that he threatens to disinherit and curse his son unless the latter not only renounces Annabel but perpetrates an active mischief against her family. When Walter and Gilbert convince him that Sam has done so by impregnating and abandoning Annabel, Touchwood gives his son a hundred pieces to go to France until the situation calms down. He then gets pleasure by taunting Striker with his 'knowledge.' When Striker seems near to death with grief over the situation, he arrives to gloat over his enemy and to refuse any idea of marriage between Samuel and Annabel on the grounds that "my son shall not ride in his old boots upon his marriage night." Unfortunately for him, the anger he provokes purges Striker's choler and returns him to health. Frustrated, he determines to ruin the proposed match between Annabel and Sir Arnold in order to drive Striker into the grave, or even to make 'friends' with him if this will allow him to kill his enemy with kindness. He has no sooner attempted to put this plan into action than the Hoyden brothers appear on the scene, and he realizes that Tim Hoyden is actually his son by Striker's sister, Audrey, whose pre-marital relationship with Touchwood was the source of the Striker/Touchwood feud. In memory of poor Audrey, he recants his objections to Samuel's match with Annabel and makes friends with Striker, thus gaining a daughter-in-law and a new son all in one day.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David as an example of an upright, virtuous man.


Samuell Brainsicke is a licentious young gentleman in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen who is in prison when the play starts. He sends his boy, Fewtricks, to see Undermine with a letter in which he asks the wealthy man for money to be able to pay his bail (or to bribe someone–that is not too clear) to leave prison, since his old father is dying. Undermine is actually moved by what the boy reports and gives the money to him. Later, when Brainsicke is reminded by Clutch of the fact that he has to write to his father, the young gentleman plans to write a threatening letter in order to shock and kill the old man. But he is soon dissuaded by Clutch and Fewtricks, who argue that in the event that his father should not die when reading the letter, he would remember its contents and wish to take revenge on his son. However, if he lets the old man live long enough to write his will–considering that he will most certainly disinherit his son and leave his property to his servants–on his death, his son could argue he was a lunatic, which would make the will void before the law, and, thus, everything would go to him. Once out of prison, Brainsicke goes to visit Undermine with the intention of making him drunk–offering him wine and telling him stories about Greek gods. On a second visit to the wealthy man, he meets a Creditor's servant who has been cheated by Undermine. Suddenly he sees Miniona, and notices that she is extremely kind to him. But he soon realizes that her intention is to dissuade him from giving her father away to his creditors. Thus, he decides to see how far she can go. Then, Hodge brings him a letter from the country with the news that his old father has passed away, and Brainsicke seems to be pleased to hear it. He explains to Miniona that, being the elder brother (he has another brother and two sisters) he will be the administrator of the fortune. Afterwards, he asks her to marry him, but he has to overcome her reluctance, based on her awareness of the licentious life he has been leading. When she finally accepts him, he then makes it a condition that they will not give any money to her father, not even if he asks for it. Later, when the girl meets her father, although she is eager to break the news of her betrothal to him, Brainsicke advises her not to do it yet, because he wants to prolong his suffering–since Undermine is being prosecuted by his creditors–to see if, in the meantime, her father dies. In the end, he marries Miniona, and he goes to visit his father-in-law. The latter–on learning that his son-in-law's father has passed away, and in the belief that the young man has been bequeathed a fortune–asks Brainsicke to pay his debts. But the youth then shows him the letter his father had sent him, which reveals that the only property he has inherited from his father is a bull.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus. According to Ingenioso, the poet Samuel Daniel is one of the writers pillaged by Gullio.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Purchas is mentioned by Master Fright when, on his second visit to Doctor Clyster, he tells him about more episodes of fear of darkness he suffered. He describes the monsters he sees are those which appear "in Purchas' Pilgrimages or Sir John Mandeville." Later, he is mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he is listening to Sir Conquest Shadow tell him about his imaginary bravery and his real cowardice: "And did not Hakluyt and Purchas's Pilgrimages put you into the humor of sea voyages?" Samuel Purchas (1575?-1626) was an English travel writer–the author of Pilgrimage (1613) and Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas his Pilgrims (1625). The former work was often confused with the latter, but the latter–partly based on manuscripts left by Hakluyt–was a continuation of his Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation (1589).


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. A "worthy knight of fame" whom Clyomon defeated in a contest before Alexander the Great. This victory won Clyomon the golden shield that has also become his epithet, "Knight of the Golden Shield."


Son to Samson Touchwood in Brome's The Sparagus Garden. According to Walter, Samuel is as sweet as his father is crabbed, but Gilbert notes that the son can be as fiery as his father when moved. In love with Annabel, granddaughter to his father's enemy Striker, Samuel contemplates whether to betray his parent or his love, but when he hears that his father has demanded he do some mischief upon her family in order to regain his good graces he joins Walter and Gilbert in an effort to hit upon a plan that will resolve the Touchwood/Striker feud. He gives Annabel a letter in which he describes this plan, which, as it turns out, involves claiming that he has impregnated and then abandoned her. Duped, his father is delighted by this report and gives Samuel a hundred pieces to go abroad; but Samuel next appears at the Asparagus Garden in disguise as the soldier-poet Bounce, accompanied by Gilbert and Walter. As Bounce, he attacks Sir Arnold Cautious and thus helps to bring about Sir Arnold's courtship of Annabel (first on Walter's behalf, then on his own). Still in disguise, he attends Annabel's nuptials with Sir Arnold, and is thus on hand when all is revealed and his beloved is finally restored to him as his future bride.


Sanazarro, the Duke's principle advisor in Massinger's The Great Duke of Florence, promised to Fiorinda, but in love with Lidia.


Sanchio is the father of Leocadia in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. He is confined to a chair, and matches Alphonso for choler. He is with Leonardo when Alphonso arrives looking for Mark-Antonio and Theodosia. He mocks Alphonso for his concern and hot-headedness. However, the tables are turned when he finds his own daughter missing. He arrives at Leonardo's house to confront Mark-Antonio for abusing his daughter after Leonardo has gone to Barcelona. When he is finally convinced that Leonardo is gone, Sanchio, with Alphonso, sets out for Barcelona as well. He and Alphonso continue their arguing even after they find their daughters, and Sanchio insists that he desires a duel, based on the rules of Caranza. Eugenia settles the fight by setting the two men in chairs and giving them pistols, but then placing their daughters between them and telling them to fire through their children.


Sanchio is a lord of Milan in Davenport's The City Night Cap. In Act Five, he accompanies his lord in search of Antonio.


A captain, and an admirer of Margarita, who associates with the other soldiers in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife. He has little function in the play beyond plot exposition.


Sancho, also known as Don Tomazo Portacareco, is a foolish gentleman in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy. He gives his clothes to the band of supposed gypsies and later joins them. He is a ward of Don Pedro, who has matched him to Clara. Sancho plays Lollio in the prodigal son play staged by the gypsies.

SANCHO **1631

Sancho is a quiet and reserved man in Shirley's The Humorous Courtier. He serves Orseolo the woman-hater.

SANCHO **1637

He is in love with Cimena in Rutter’s The Cid. He speaks for Gormas before the king, reminding the king that soldiers are quick to temper and Gormas should be valued for his anger, but the king will not hear of it. When Roderigo kills Gormas in the duel, the king send Sancho to wait upon Cimena at her home while the council deliberates whether Roderigo is to be punished. Sancho offers to avenge Cimena with his sword if she asks it. When Cimena calls upon the ancient law that whosoever kills Roderigo may marry her, the king modifies it by allowing her only one champion and whoever wins Cimena must marry. Sancho volunteers and is accepted as Cimena’s champion. When Sancho appears before Cimena, offering her his sword, she upbraids him and scolds him for murdering her love and will not let him speak. In fact, Roderigo disarmed and defeated him but refused to spill blood that fought on the side of Cimena.

Attendant of King Phillip of Spain in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley, he, along with Alva, advises his sovereign to pursue the Portuguese throne "either by force or corrupting gold."


Leader of the Spanish conspirators in the anonymous A Larum for London. He orders the Captain to open the castle to any forces that come. He sanctimoniously plans, with Cornelius, to overthrow Antwerp for her riches. He denigrates the preparedness of Antwerp's citizenry and predicts that they will hide when the 5,000 Spaniards come to take the city. He has planned that Don Alonzo de Verdugo, Julian de Romero, Emanuel, and Dalua (the Lord of Alua, who is playing dead) will join them with various forces. He plans to initiate conflict by firing on the castle under the pretense that Antwerp is giving the Prince of Orange's ships safe harbor. He orders the Gunner to fire the cannon through the statehouse where the Dutch are banqueting. He is quite irritated that the Gunner has prepared ineffective weapons but orders firing. While the Gunner leaves to shoot, Danila expresses his desire that every particle of shot be murderous to the Burgers. He explains that the attack is motivated by the insult of having the Prince of Orange's ships anchored at Antwerp. He is annoyed that they are doing commerce openly. He is also piqued that they deride Danila's power as evidenced by their failure to react to the supposed death of Prince Dalua. He welcomes Dalua and his forces, Alonzo Verdugo and his soldiers, and Julian Romero and his regiment to the castle. He celebrates the fact that all the conspirators have arrived, even Don Emanuel who does not enter on stage. He fights with the Marques d'Hauurye and Count Egmont and later brags that his combined forces defeated Antwerp in four hours. He threatens the Old Citizen to force him to reveal existence and then location of his daughter, whom he intends to rape. He confronts the agent of the London Merchant and takes the money the Factor has collected. He orders soldiers to take the Old Citizen and his daughter to his house while he goes to fight Stump and kills the daughter when he hears that the soldiers are doubtful about getting her to a safe house. He orders that her father also be killed. It is Danila that announces the Spanish forces have finally won though as much through the immorality of the Dutch as through the skill of the Spanish. He plans to leave most of the Dutch unburied, but will give an honored burial to the Captain and Lieutenant Vaughan (a.k.a. Stump) for their noble actions in defense of Antwerp.




The fool character in the anonymous The Taming of a Shrew. He is Ferando's servant in the play-within-the-play and is beaten for bringing burnt meat. Sly is particularly amused by Sander and interrupts the play to ask if he will return.


Family name of Anne (Nan), George, "Son," a daughter, and Young Sanders in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women.


‘A civilian’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. He comes with Periman to unravel Pearle’s ‘riddle’ and behold his ‘monster’ that Wright has made. When the ‘standing Bull’ is found replaced by a hare, he attempts to assuage Pearle’s anger. Christian mistakes him for Nim in disguise and he must convince Pearle that he did not receive the ‘Bolle’ in exchange for a hare. He and Periman run away when Pearle threatens to beat Christian.


Lover to Jane in Middleton's No Wit, No Help Like a Woman's. He regularly commiserates with Philip. When, through the manipulation of Savorwit, Weatherwise's suit to Jane is blocked, Sandfield becomes the most eligible suitor to Sunset's supposed daughter, Jane, because he will accept her hand in marriage without a portion or dowry. These nuptials are celebrated at the home of the wealthy widow, Elizabeth Goldenfleece, who informs the assembled guests that Jane is, in fact, the daughter of Sir Oliver Twilight, a revelation that greatly improves the new couple's fortunes


Duchess of Suffolk's chaplain in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Joins Duchess and company as Gardner and Bonner are being led to prison. Escapes from custody after his arrest under the new Catholic regime of Queen Mary and flees. Later, being pursued by Clunie and the watch, discovers a ladder and tiles left by Hugh Tiler and Jenkin; disguising himself as a tiler, he misdirects Clunie and the watch and escapes. Later Sands joins the Duchess who is disguised as Mistress White, the Nurse, Susan, and Cranwell at Goseling's home to wait for transport to Europe. He boards ship with the Duchess and her party and avoids capture by Bonner and Clunie when Foxe knocks Bonner into a well for a distraction. Arrives in Europe with the Duchess and her party and attends her on the way to Santon. When thieves attack the Duchess' party, Dr. Sands flees. Sands reappears at Perecell's home, where he agrees to take part in Perecell's plot to smuggle the Duchess and her son out of town in a coffin by dressing as a mourner. Later he appears at Palsgrave's court with Cranwell fleeing Brunswick and the English Captain. He is given the position of chaplain to Palsgrave as further protection against Bonner, Clunie and their allies. After Queen Elizabeth assumes power, Sands returns to London with the Duchess, Bertie, Cranwell and Foxe, and is met by Lord Hunsdon, the Lord Admiral, and Lord Clinton, who inform Sands that Queen Elizabeth has appointed him Archbiship of York.

SANDS, LADY **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Blepsidemus would rather fight Mall Cutpurse and Lady Sands at quarterstaff than keep company with Penia-Penniless.


Sir Walter Sands' participation in Shakespeare's Henry VIII is limited to being in attendance at Buckingham's execution.


A former tenant of Sir Charles Mountford, who refuses Susan's plea for financial help in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness.


Quintus Fabius Sanga is a senator in the Roman republic in Jonson's Catiline. The nation of the Allobroges was under his patronage. Therefore, when they hear of Catiline's conspiracy, Allobroges inform Sanga first. In his turn, Sanga informs Cicero. At the Senate, Sanga enters announcing the Allobroges. He informs Cicero of the conspirators' plot to attract Allobroges to their side. Sanga attends the discussion between Cicero and Allobroges, making side comments on the personality of Sempronia, wife of Decius Brutus, at whose house the conspirators planned to meet the ambassadors secretly. After the Allobroges have obtained the incriminating letters from the conspirators, Sanga enters Cicero's house while the consul was holding a council of war. Sanga informs Cicero that the conspirators have taken the bait and Cicero must send his troupes at once to the Milvian Bridge to intercept Allobroges. In addition, Sanga asks Cicero what he would do with Sempronia, and the consul says that his anger is not vented on fools and women, so she will be spared. After the conspirators have been tried in the Senate, the consul rules that Sanga should be given public thanks for his good services to the nation.


One of the "four humors" characters in Holiday's Technogamia, the servant of Medicus. He fights with Choler and is beaten. With Musica, the four humor characters act out a Morris entertainment in one scene of act four.


A law clerk in Webster's The Devil's Law Case.


Sanmartino is a foolish courtier in Habington's The Queen of Aragon. He, despite being already married, courts Cleantha (and other women too) until his behavior is finally exposed to his wife. He is master to the dwarf, Browfilldora.


Sanquinius, a senator of Sejanus' faction in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall.


Sapho is the Princess of Syracuse in Lyly's Sapho and Phao. She is one of the most beautiful women in the world. The goddess Venus makes Cupid fire one of his arrows into Sapho, making her fall in love with Phao, a ferryman whom Venus had made beautiful but incapable of love. Venus also falls in love with Phao, so she makes Cupid take away Sapho's love. In revenge, Sapho entices Cupid away from Venus and sets herself up as a rival goddess of love–only from now on, she says, women will only fall in love with other women.


A poetical Shepherdess in Glapthorne's Argalus and Parthenia, friend of the nymphs Aminta, Florida and Castalia. She is clearly the artistic literary talent in this Arcadia and is responsible for writing the songs and verses performed throughout the play. She introduces Aminta to the swain, Strephon, but expresses healthy contempt for his vulgar doggerel verses. When Florida brings news that the assembled rustics are to welcome Demagoras with a pastoral interlude, she complains that she has had no warning to prepare and must fall back on the entertainment she has devised for Argalus. As this satirizes Demagoras, the performance is a disaster and he redoubles his lust for revenge on Parthenia. In the second rustic scene, Sapho caps Strephon's verses and mocks him again, resulting in a flirtatious squabble between all the nymphs and swains, where all the girls snub all the boys. Although she and the other women are absent from the scene where Clitophon makes the most offensive verses against women, they learn of his offence. She is next seen, together with Aminta and Strephon, rounding on him for his misogyny, and persuading him to a semblance of remorse. Alexis brings news of Parthenia's return, her happy reunion with Argalus and their immediate plans to marry. Sapho is to write verses for the wedding and leads the ensuing celebrations. The verses are later discussed by the rustics as a great success, and Clitophon makes a point of continuing his grovelling apologies to her. Sapho next orchestrates a revenge on Strephon's vanity, hinting that she loves him and objects to his giving her to Clitophon. She denounces his arrogance and leaves him cursing all at "shee-furies." With the nymphs she accompanies Parthenia to her duel with Amphialus, witnesses her death and pronounces her elegy.


The false name assumed by Falset while disguised as a monk in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates.


One of the four worthy knights of Tartar in Verney’s Antipoe. He conspires with Liperus and Dabon to kill Dramurgon and agrees to take noble Macros into their conspiracy; the conspirators see Macros lying in his prophetic stupor and elect to leave him there for the time being. Upon catching Drupon about to murder the sleeping Macros, he along with Liperus and Dabon capture Drupon and lead him away to torture. He agrees with his friends Liperus, Macros and Dabon that Dramurgon has dishonoured them by refusing to fight the kings of Bohemia, Corinth and Thrace and believes that he will find some trick to avoid the fight on Thursday next. He agrees along with Dabon, Liperus, and Macros to woo the daughters of Bohemia, Clapa, Marba, Nama and Reba. Fearing Antipoe dead by execution, he is delighted to see that Macros has rescued the hero and goes to fulfill his promised love with the king of Bohemia’s daughters. He stands beside Antipoe to kill the men Dramurgon sends to compel the fallen Bohemia from him. He and the other three knights appear before the President of Tartar identifying the four daughters of Bohemia as their ‘contracted wives’ and all go in to supper. He later objects to passing judgement upon Macros for the murder of Dramurgon. He is last to commit suicide after Liperus commits suicide after Drabon commits suicide after Macros commits suicide after Antipoe commits suicide for his failure to avenge Dramurgon’s murder. He is later seen as a ghost, clad in white, ascending to the throne with the others at the behest of Brutus.


Sapritius, Governor of Caesarea in Massinger and Dekker's The Virgin Martyr, is the father Antoninus. He tries to persuade his son to marry the Emporer's daughter, Artemia.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Moses as an example of God's mercy and guidance.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous The Fair Maid of Bristow. Sara is the late wife of Sir Eustace Vallenger and mother of Vallenger.


Legendary Assyrian king in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appears in the second playlet. Arbactus discovers that he is a cross-dressing hedonist and leads a revolt against him. He flees with "as many Jewels robes and Gold as he can carry."


Captain in Danseker's employ in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk. May be one of the unnamed sailors who agree to accept the King's amnesty in Dansiker's first scene. Appears as a named character at the house of Benwash, when Gismund and Gallop arrive to sell their French captives. Compliments Benwash on his hospitality, notably the freedom of his women to socialize and flirt with visitors. Overhears the quarrel between Gallop and Gismund over the division of their profits and remarks that, having instantly taken Gallop for a fool, he had underestimated the man, who is both a fool and a cheat. He is shocked by Ward's treatment of the Raymond family, condemning his greed and inhumanity. Later brings Dansiker eyewitness testimony of the full horror of Ward's conversion, although he expresses an opinion that Ward faked his circumcision. Returns to Tunis with Dansiker as part of their agreed penance. Present, in disguise, when Dansiker kills Benwash and then himself. His subsequent fate is uncertain.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Trial Of Chivalry, the name of an enemy whom Bowyer has previously killed with his sword.


Friend of Mildew in Heywood's The Captives. Accompanies Mildew to conclude the offer with Raphael. After Raphael and Treadway exit, he suggests to Mildew that they simply take Raphael's money and all of the women and relocate Mildew's brothel to a new city, rather than complete the exchange. Joins Mildew to leave Marseille by sea and is involved in the wreck that sinks Mildew's ship. Later Mildew and Sarleboys reappear in the town and nearly encounter Scribonia as she waits for Godfrey to bring her water. Mildew begins to argue with Sarleboys, as each blames the other for their losses at sea. They stop arguing and overhear Godfrey, returning from the monastery, discussing two young girls whom they suspect might be Palestra and Scribonia. Sarleboys begins to ask Godfrey where he can find food and shelter and, receiving no answer, follows Mildew to the monastery, where he hopes to find food and shelter. Mildew and Sarleboys capture Palestra and Scribonia in the monastery and as they are taking them through the village they are confronted by John Ashburne, Godfrey, and the assembled villagers. Mildew claims the women as his property, but Ashburne and the villagers threaten violence against Mildew and Sarleboys if they attempt to go any further with the women. Later, after a judge determines that Mildew and Sarleboys have no claim to Palestra but only to Scribonia, the two men complain about the verdict. They then overhear Gripus the Fisherman announcing his capture of Mildew's bag in his fishing net; Mildew negotiates the return of the bag in exchange for a thousand crowns.


An alternate name for Otho, or Prince Charles–abbreviated in some stage directions as "Sarl" in Chettle's Hoffman.


A pedant in Chapman's The Gentleman Usher. He writes a poem to woo Margaret on Duke Alphonso's behalf.


Sarpego is a schoolmaster and a pedant in Brome's The City Wit. He owes Crasy a small amount of money but refuses to repay it. He is robbed by Crasy, disguised as a crippled soldier. Sarpego wants to marry Bridget but, having lost his money, cannot afford to and loses her to Crack.


Satan enters in Bale's The Temptation of Our Lord and announces himself as everywhere at once, who seeks to destroy men by tempting them to lose their souls. He disguises himself somewhat anachronistically as a Religious Christian, and engages Jesus in conversation. His first temptation is to suggest that since Jesus is the Son of God, he can turn the stones to bread and feed himself. When that fails, he suggests that the Scriptures promise that Jesus can throw himself off a mountain and be protected from falling by angels. Further, he suggests that should Jesus test this Scripture and come to any harm, it proves God is not true. However, when Jesus quotes further biblical verse to show that God is not to be tested, and that the serpent should be crushed underfoot, Satan is forced into admitting he did not quote fully because it did not serve his purpose. He seems angry, but continues to walk with Jesus, suggesting they head for a mountain. Once there, he shows Jesus the world and tells him that all the cities are his to give, and he will give them all to Jesus if Jesus will only worship him. Jesus, of course, is outraged, and Satan declares that he sees no reason to continue there, since his temptations will be bound to fail. However, he promises to send Jesus to his Father within four years, and to work to own the priests and even the vicar of Rome, and win the world in that fashion.
A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David as overcome by God.
Satan is a comic figure in Lupton's All For Money. He is a friend of Sin who, however, offends him and threatens to desert him. Satan is desperate because his kingdom would decay without Sin and Damnation. Two devils, Gluttony and Pride, convince Sin to stay and Satan regains his merriness.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When he speaks about Macilente's malignity ironically to Puntavorlo, Carlo Buffone says he cannot stand the envious villain. He describes Macilente as a malevolent person with limbs of satin, or Satan indeed, who would walk like a child of darkness all day, looking melancholy and ready to swallow up many unfortunate sinners. The description connects Satan's evil with Macilente's maliciousness.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. When Blurts sees Lazarillo armed to his teeth, he thinks he looks like the devil, saying that Satan is very busy when he finds one like himself. Lazarillo falls to Imperia's trick and falls through a trapdoor into the sewers of Venice. In his perplexity, Lazarillo hears Spanish music and thinks it comes from the "tawny" Satan, though he thought the devil could not understand Spanish. However, since the devil proves to be his countryman, Lazarillo promises Satan to dance after his music. There is a visible association of the Catholic Spanish with the devil.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Satan is mentioned by Master Silence when Master Ominous is telling him about one of his superstitions which came true: he had seen a flaming sword in the air, and then the war first began in Germany. To that, Master Silence replies: "Verily, then it was Satan his two-hand sword of the air, for he can take a body upon him or assume a two-handed sword of air if it please him. Later, Satan is also mentioned by Master Ominous when, reporting his ill luck and his superstition to Silence, he explains "so if a dog do clap his tail between his legs, something of Satan is then waking." Master Silence mentions Satan when, replying to Master Fright's inquiries regarding his fears, he affirms: "now it plainly appeareth to be the stratagem of Satan by the choize of the time, as also of those lewd fiddles for his instruments." Satan is another name for the Devil, as well as Lucifer, the Great Deceiver, the Old Juggler or Satanas.
The Lord of Darkness in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass. He is petitioned by Pug for a month on earth in which to do evil, but doubts Pug's abilities and grants him only a day. He visits Pug in prison at the end of the day and berates him for accomplishing far less evil than any of the mortals he has encountered. He takes Pug back to Hell in disgrace.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Satanas is mentioned by Master Silence when Master Ominous is telling him about one of his superstitions, whose effect was that his pocket was picked of "twenty pounds in good old gold." Hearing this, Master Silence replies: "That was a thief did it, I can tell you that, but set on Satanas." Satanas is another name for the Devil, as well as Lucifer, the Great Deceiver, the Old Juggler or Satan.


Sateros is a valiant soldier who balefully seeks preferment in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. But the land has become idle and indolent in peacetime. 'Content' tries to seduce Sateros into doing homage to him, and introduces him to his converts: Emnius the Courtier, the Scholar and the Country Gentleman. Sateros decides not to join 'Content,' and determines to remain a soldier. He travels with Raph to meet with Mars. He encounters the Muses, and the Porter and Herald of Mars, who inform him that Mars now resides at the court of Venus. He delivers a petition to Mars, but Mars will not help and sends him to the Duke of Boetia. The Duke cannot employ Sateros in peacetime, and prefers the Scholar. However, when war breaks out, the Duke begs Sateros for help, and Sateros obliges. Sateros triumphs in battle. In the final scene he enters with Mars and Mercury, is honored by the Duke and embraces the Scholar.


Fowler derides Clare in Shirley's The Witty Fair One by calling him Satire.

SATIRE **1630

Attendant to Tragedy in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. He asserts his superiority over Mime by virtue of his ability to lash shame into men. He is given charge to prepare the "masque" that Comedy, Tragedy, Mime, and Satire intend to present. When Flowerdew misunderstands "mass" for "masque" and wishes to flee such popery on the stage, Roscius explains that the "masque" is "a rude dance presented by the seven deadly sins."


Satrius Secundus, follower of Sejanus in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall.

SATURN **1528

A 'ghost character' in John Heywood's The Play of the Wether, mentioned in Jupiter's opening soliloquy. By quarrelling with Eolus, Phebus, and Phebe, Saturne has caused great inconvenience to humanity. The other gods and goddesses turn to Jupiter to redress the balance between the elements.
Mute character in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune.
A "ghost character" in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. He is the father of Mago. Saturne "begot" his son "on a sea-borne witch."
Saturn is described as the god of time, and he appears as a member of the Olympian court that attends to the arraignment of Paris in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris.
Son of Uranus and Vesta in Heywood's The Golden Age. At the beginning of the play, there is a struggle between him and his older brother, Titan. The people want Saturn to rule because Titan (the rightful heir) is proud and insolent. In order to avoid war and bloodshed, a covenant is made between the two brothers: after Saturn's death, the kingdom of Crete should be given to Titan's heirs, and, in order to ensure this, Titan requires Saturn to kill all his infant boys in their cradles, a condition to which Saturn agrees. As a king, Saturn's inventions and knowledge make Crete prosper: he teaches his people sowing, plowing and reaping corn, he invents the bow and arrow, and he is even knowledgeable in the fields of medicine and architecture. However, there is a melancholic side to Saturn's character, caused by his constant indecision. For After the murder of his first infant boy, Ops, another boy is born that Saturn, according to his agreement with Titan, should kill. He is reluctant to do this until he is informed of an oracle that foretells that his sons will eventually kill him and drive him to Hell. Melancholy and confusion consistently distort Saturn's reason: he claims that "mortality fails me, and I am wrapped in millions of confusions."
The morose god in Heywood's The Silver Age comments sourly during the adjudication of Pluto's and Ceres' dispute over which shall have the company of Proserpine.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. Clinias mentions Saturne when, praising Narcissus's beauty, he affirms that his veins are "blewer than Saturne shine." According to Greek mythology, Chronos (Roman Saturn), was Zeus's father, thence his "blue blood." Also, Saturn was associated with one of the four humours of ancient medicine, melancholy, by Medieval and Renaissance scholars.


Saturn is one of the planets who, jealous of her beauty, take it in turn to rule Pandora's behavior in Lyly's The Woman in the Moon. Saturn makes her melancholy.


Saturn is a character in the masque performed in Cokain's Trappolin to celebrate the nuptials of Lavinio and Isabella.


Saturninus is the eldest son of the recently deceased Emperor of Rome and becomes Emperor himself after he receives the support of Titus in Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus. Saturninus fears Titus's popularity, however, and aids Tamora in her revenge against him. He unjustly sentences Martius and Quintus to death for the murder of Bassianus, and has the Clown hanged after he delivers to Saturninus a letter wrapped around a dagger from Titus along with some pigeons. At the end of the play he kills Titus, and is killed by Lucius.


The Satyr in Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess is a servant of Pan, the god of the shepherds. He is enraptured by Clorin, and vows to serve her. The Satyr rescues Alexis and Amoret, bringing them to Clorin to be healed. He performs Clorin's chastity test on the shepherds and on the Priest of Pan. After the shepherds return to the village he promises to continue to patrol the woods for Clorin.


The satyr in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter belongs (rather surprisingly) among the followers of the virgin goddess Diana, whose number Callisto is anxious to join. He speaks only one line, urging the women forward in their hunting expedition.

SATYR **1632

Frank Barker dons the guise of a Satyr in Shirley's The Ball and dances at the request of Honoria.


A fictitious character in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday. Thyrsis invents the story of a "horrid satyr, Bred in these woods, and furious in his lusts" who has captured Sylvia, in order to explain her disappearance at the play's beginning.


A "ghost character" the Satyr does not appear on stage in [?]Queen Henrietta's Florimène. He is named as the character who stole Lycoris from her father, Tytire.


Probably Peromett, though never made clear in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. He observes the bringing in of the captive Philaritus, Lariscus, Cleobulus, and Bachus. He also delivers the Epilogue.


A name sometimes given the Machiavellian Third King in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon by his nefarious Babylonian associates. (See under "KINGS, THREE").


A "ghost character" in Holiday's Technogamia. Satyrico is one of Poeta's future children, described as being born with teeth in his head.


They appear in the ill-defined subplot of the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune. Their action is unclear.


At the biding of Melissa in Greene's Orlando Furioso, they dance around a sleeping Orlando.


They take away Fortunatus's body after his death in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. Later, they perform music for Fortune, Vice, and Virtue.


They accompany Diana, queen of the virgins, and sing for her in Heywood's The Golden Age.


Non-speaking characters in Wilde's Love's Hospital. Himen introduces 4 Satyrs which dance with the 4 beasts and 4 "little boyes" in the antimasque near the play's end.


They appear in a short scene in the anonymous Wily Beguiled where they sing a song for Sophos as he sleeps in the woods.


The third satyr warns the others away from Arismena, whom he loves in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. While the first three dance, the fourth drags in Graculus. They threaten and frighten him into bringing them Arismena. The satyr attempts to ravish her, but Philaritus stabs him and he falls as if dead. He rises again and swears to be revenged on them both. Graculus comes upon the wounded satyr and glories over him, threatening to take the wretch home and have him beaten daily. The satyr, however, turns the tables, picks Graculus up and carries him away to be hanged. Later, Cleobulus, Bacheus and their servants disguise as satyrs to pretend to steal Arismena and Castarina. Afterwards, actual satyrs kidnap the women. The satyrs then seize the men and bring them before the Grand Satyr. There, they play upon hoboys, disguised to look like boughs, in ‘a distracted way.’ One satyr tells the men that Arismena and Castarina are dead and offers to let them grieve over their hearses, for they died in honor and unstained.


During the Bohemian sheep-shearing feast in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, three carters, three shepherds, three neat-herds and three swine-herds perform a dance dressed as twelve satyrs.


Although nobly born, Saufellus acts as a pander for Messalina in Richards' Messalina, procuring Menester for her. The earth swallows up him, Hem and Stitch when they try to abduct the vestals.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David as an example of sinful man who should nevertheless not sway God away from his love of the Israelites.


Saunder is steward to Sir Francis Cressingham in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. When Lady Cressingham tries to persuade her husband to give up his hobby as an alchemist, Saunder supports her arguments by observing that the smoke from the experiments is worse than tobacco and that the quicksilver is very dangerous to the health. Observing how Lady Cressingham manipulates her gullible husband into doing what she wants, Saunder concludes that she has him totally under her control. Later, he is sent with the papers for the sale of the land to be signed by Sir Francis and his heir, George Cressingham. Saunder brings along a message from Lady Cressingham that she will to leave England unless her husband agrees to the sale. When Sir Francis asks Saunder how a father could persuade his son to give up his inheritance, Saunder tells him to use his logic, like he did when he spoke in the Parliament against deer poaching. Seeing that Sir Francis is having second thoughts, Saunder whispers to Lady Cressingham that she should do something about it. Saunder witnesses Lady Cressingham's artful persuasion, seasoned with tears and threats of withholding sex, and judges her performance excellent. Flattering Lady Cressingham, Saunder observes Sir Francis is like wax in her hands. After the sale of the lands, when Sir Francis enters complaining he has been reduced to a state of financial misery and must now live on his wife's allowance, Saunder suggests the money is enough for a gentleman. Hearing from Sir Francis that Lady Cressingham is never satisfied with all the money she has, Saunder confirms that her coffers are full, thus implying that he has access to Lady Cressingham's private fortune. In the final reconciliation scene, when Lady Cressingham reforms and submits to her husband, Saunder does not accompany her.


Posing as a blind man whose vision has been restored by some miracle in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, Simpcox is quickly detected by Gloucester's shrewd questioning. Gloucester orders Simpcox and Simpcox's wife publicly whipped all the way from St. Albon to their home village of Berwick.


Saveall is Sir Thrivewell's demure steward and friend in Brome's A Mad Couple. In Act One, he is begged by Carelesse to intercede with his uncle for him. Later, in Act Three, he takes a letter to Phoebe on behalf of Carelesse, but he has gotten the wrong document: a letter written to Mistress Crostill. Afterwards, he catches Bellamy and Lady Thrivewell red-handed, whom he threatens if they do not pay him 500 ponds. However, he keeps silence as they know about his flings. He is to be Lady Thrivewell's servant from now on.


Savill is the steward of the Elder Loveless in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady. When Elder Loveless departs to go travelling, Savill is left to attend to Young Loveless and is ordered to restrain his behaviour. Savill tries to fulfil this order, criticising Young Loveless's comrades, the Captain, the Poet, the Traveller and the Tobacco Man. However, when Elder Loveless comes in disguise and announces his own death, Savill sees no alternative but to go along with Young Loveless, and allows himself to be made drunk. Savill is appalled by Young Loveless's decision to sell the estates, fearing for his own farm with the usurer Morecraft as a landlord, and is relieved when Elder Loveless returns. Elder Loveless, however, is annoyed that Savill failed to restrain Young Loveless, and punishes him by taking away his post as steward. Eventually, Young Loveless promises to help Savill to regain his post (though without admitting any blame for its loss), and this is effected at the end of the play.


Saviolina is a frivolous and light-minded court lady in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. In Italian, sávio means wise, and the name is a deprecating diminutive, suggesting a person of little wisdom. Fastidious Brisk boasts to everybody that he enjoys the favors of an excellent court lady. In an apartment at court, Fastidious Brisk enters with Macilente, apparently to show off Saviolina's famed wit. When Saviolina enters, however, she does not shine by her intelligence, but she misses no opportunity of ridiculing Fastidious Brisk. Saviolina misinterprets his insipid compliments, despises his clumsy performance at the viol, and derides his smoking habit. Finally, she exits leaving Fastidious Brisk in difficult humiliation. Later, at Puntavorlo's house, Macilente reports that he thinks Saviolina is too self-conceited. At court, Saviolina enters followed by Puntavorlo, Fastidious Brisk, and Fungoso. She pretends to show her sagacity, while Puntavorlo and the others intend to ridicule her. They praise a gentleman, Sogliardo, and Saviolina boasts she can recognize a gentleman as soon as she sees him. When Sogliardo enters with Macilente, Saviolina says he seems to be an impostor, adding that if they had not told her he was a gentleman, she would have thought he was a clown. Ultimately, the men make Saviolina behave out of her pretended ingenious humor. Saviolina observes she has been gulled and exits furiously.


The meddling servant of Sir Oliver Twilight in Middleton's No Wit, No Help Like a Woman's. Savorwit attempts to conceal the fact that his master's wife is, in fact, alive when the evidence of her death is refuted by a Dutch Merchant and by Lady Twilight's actual appearance later in the play. Clearly privy to the facts of Grace and Jane's parentage, Savorwit advises their two suitors, Philip and Sandfield, respectively, to be careful as they woo. Savorwit watches and comments with satirical amusement when the Twilights debate the parentage of their supposed daughter, Grace. He also, paradoxically, reassures Philip when the Dutch Merchant reveals (falsely) that Grace is Twilight's daughter and that Philip has incestuously married his sister. Savorwit's positive outlook, however, proves justified when Goldenfleece reveals at the wedding ceremony that Grace is, in fact, Sunset's daughter and Jane is Twilight's child.


The Duke of Savoy is the rightful heir to Germany's throne in Smith's The Hector of Germany. Savoy is supported by the Palsgrave, the King of Bohemia and King Edward of England; the Bastard, Saxon and the King of France oppose him. After the ill Palsgrave is moved to safety, Savoy joins the King of Bohemia in battle against the Bastard and Saxon. Savoy is defeated and imprisoned for the virtual remainder of the play. At the very end of the action, Savoy is rescued by Old Fitzwaters and Clinton and crowned Emperor of Germany.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's A Game at Chess. A woman of low reputation, whom the Black Knight recalls gulling.


An old fiddler, whose fiddle is bewitched into silence by the Dog in Rowley, Dekker and Ford's The Witch of Edmonton.


Dick the butcher, John Holland, Smith the weaver, Michael and a sawyer are all followers of the rebel Jack Cade in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI.


Saxon is enemy to all Englishmen and rebellious partner of the Bastard in Smith's The Hector of Germany. He supports the Bastard in battle against Savoy, Cullen, Brandenburgh and Bohemia. Saxon and the Bastard carry the day and Saxon has the Bastard crowned Emperor of Germany. It is Saxon's belief that he is the kingmaker and should therefore rule the king. The Bastard disagrees and bloodies Saxon's nose to regain his obedience. After the skirmish, Saxon ceases challenging the Bastard's authority. When the Bastard is captured in battle against the Palsgrave, Cullen and the King of Spain, Saxon flees a duel with the Palsgrave and rescues the Bastard. Knowing that the Palsgrave will seek King Edward's assistance, Saxon suggests that the rebels recruit the help of King John of France. Saxon accompanies a group of emissaries sent by King John to warn King Edward off interfering with the battle between Savoy and the Bastard. The French name Saxon assumes as a disguise is Poyctriers. It is an utterly unconvincing disguise, seen through instantly by all. When the Palsgrave unmasks Saxon, he challenges Saxon to a duel. Saxon promises to meet him in battle. While traveling to France, Saxon comes upon the castaway Young Fitzwaters. Although Saxon hates all English people, he agrees to rescue Young Fitzwaters so long as the young man promises to serve the Bastard's purposes. Saxon and the rest of the rebels are betrayed by the French Queen, who allows Palsgrave and his men to enter the rebel stronghold disguised as dancers for a masque. He is called to duel by the Palsgrave and is slain.


Duke of Saxon-Weymar in Glapthorne's Albertus Wallenstein. He agrees that the Emperor has treated Wallenstein unjustly and ungratefully and supports the league against him. To seal their alliance, he betroths his daughter Emilia to Wallenstein's son, Fredericke. He is reported to have put his new son-in-law in charge of his forces, whose success is devastating to the Emperor.

SAXONY **1592

In the B-text only of Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, Saxony, in Emperor Charles' entourage, warns Benvolio that he is speaking to the Emperor.


The Duke of Saxony is father to Lodowick and Mathias in Chettle's Hoffman. Austria accuses Saxony's sons of having ravished his daughter, Lucybel. Saxony swears the matter will be resolved honorably. After the death of Lodowick and the near-fatal wounding of Lucybel, he again has words with Austria. At first, he recognizes that Hoffman is not Otho but is convinced by his son, Mathias, that he is mistaken. (Mathias has never met Otho, but knows his servant Lorrique. Hence, Hoffman is initially accepted as Otho on Lorrique's word alone.) Saxony may have killed Austria, who falls dead under mysterious circumstances in the third act. (As the text has no stage directions for his death, it is unclear exactly what happens.) For reasons probably to do with textual corruption, he soon after addresses Lucybel as his "Daughter" (at 1461), though she was not yet married to Lodowick.


Augustus, Duke of Saxony is one of the seven Electors of Germany, and arch-Marshal to the Emperor in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. Alphonsus has previously tried, unuccessfully, to banish him, and he is a supporter of Richard's claim to the Empire at the start of the play. The decision to elect Bohemia instead causes Saxony and Palatine to leave the court in disgust, so that he is not present to be allotted a role in Fortune's Revels. In his absence, Isabella arranges a match between his daughter Hedewick and Prince Edward. Saxony returns to the court disguised as one of the murdered boors, and leaves again with Richard and Collen via Isabella's chamber window. When his daughter is raped, Saxony treats Edward's denials that he was responsible as indicating that Edward is attempting to escape from the marriage, and is so enraged that he abandons Richard's cause and sides again with Alphonsus. Months later he kills, first the baby, and then Hedewick, in front of Edward's eyes. Saxony fights for Alphonsus in the battle, but sees the error of his actions on hearing Alexander's confession, and is the first to ask Richard to be the new Emperor.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. According to Bohemia, Saxony has invited Prince Edward to Germany in the hope of arranging a match between him and Saxony's sister. However, Edward states he has travelled here to marry Saxony's daughter, which he does, and Bohemia's statement is presumably an error.


Lord Say in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI is a chief target of Jack Cade's rebels, who accuse him being an enemy of the people for, among other things, relinquishing Maine and Normandy to France. Cade confesses that he is moved by Say's pleas, but in the end orders his execution.


Sayavedra is chosen by Alvarez and Eugenia to be Clara's husband, but he is rejected in Fletcher, Beaumont, and Massinger's, Love's Cure.


Captain of the watch in ?Munday's Fedele and Fortunio. Along with his watchmen, he captures Attilia and Crackstone and reveals their plan against Victoria.

SCAB **1632

A “ghost character" in Hausted’s Rival Friends. Stipes’s sheepdog. The best cur that ever mumbled crust.


Scaeva is one of Caesar's captains in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. He is rough and outspoken, moved by little except victory. When Caesar weeps over the head of Pompey, Scaeva wonders privately what Caesar would do if Pompey were suddenly alive again, and then offers to punish those responsible. He is the one who actually brings the packet bearing Cleopatra to Caesar. When he opens it and finds a woman, he declares she is a bawd who hopes to destroy Caesar's honor, and pulls out his sword to kill her. When Caesar declares her a goddess, Scaeva is appalled that a soldier, especially Caesar, should speak so, and he remains of that mindset until the masque, when he cannot help admiring her beauty. However, when Caesar is dazzled by the wealth displayed, Scaeva, along with Antony and Dolabella, celebrates Caesar's apparent turn from Cleopatra. When Septimus enters, Scaeva mocks him, along with Antony and Dolabella, and then leaves. But he returns to see Septimus try to win over three poor soldiers with money, and tells them who their benefactor is, at which point they throw the money back at him. Scaeva is the one who tells Caesar that while he was trying to win back Cleopatra, the palace has been besieged. When he enters with Caesar to rescue Cleopatra from Photinus, he tells Caesar not to take even a kiss until the traitors are caught and dealt with, and Caesar obeys.


Lord Scales helps to defend London against Jack Cade's rebellion in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. He sends Matthew Goffe to lead the citizens against Jack Cade's rebellion. Historically, Thomas, seventh Baron Scales, fought with Henry V in France and then with Talbot in France.


Scales is a British nobleman in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV who does not believe that the French Duke of Burgundy will come to support Edward's invasion of France. Scales is shot down outside S. Quintius, where Edward was supposed to meet with Count S. Paul to discuss support for Edward's French campaign.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484–1558) was a French humanist who attacked Erasmus in his works. He defended the perfection of Cicero's style and denounced Erasmus as a mere parasite. The general principles of his works are derived from Aristotle. Like Aristotle, he makes imitation the basis of all poetry. Clove wants to impress the group of gentlemen at St. Paul's and he tells Orange to pretend they are two learned scholars. In order to be more persuasive, Clove launches into a sophisticated but incongruous exposition about various philosophers and their writings, so that it might seem they are having a learned conversation. In fact, it is a one-sided monologue produced by Clove, since Orange only approves intermittently. Clove says that Aristotle, in his Daemonologia, approves that Scaliger is the best navigator in his time. Actually, Aristotle cannot have mentioned Scaliger, because he drew on Aristotle, and Scaliger was not a navigator, but a scholar.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484-1558) was a French humanist who attacked Erasmus in his works. He defended the perfection of Cicero's style and denounced Erasmus as a mere parasite. In a discussion on fencing between Fly and Tipto, Fly shows some confused knowledge, while Tipto's competence in this matter is extensive but circumscribed. Fly says ironically that Stevinus challenged Euclid and Archimedes to a fencing game. Being completely ignorant in matters other than fencing, Tipto replies that Euclid put down Scaliger. By confusing the names of mathematicians and humanists with those of the fencing masters, Tipto shows his limited intellect. Beaufort explains that Scaliger was a great master, but not of the fence.


A "ghost character" in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. He is named as an ancestor of the Duke of Epire.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Higgen compares himself favorably to Scanderbeg and Tamberlain.


Nicanor's servant in the anonymous Swetnam, he is aware of all his master's plots to gain the throne of Sicily. He is also the suitor of Loretta, Leonida's maid, although Swetnam, whom he respects as a tutor in fencing and the other ways of the world, encourages him to abandon her as a mere false woman. Before he does so, he learns from Loretta of Leonida's meetings with the disguised Lisandro. He betrays Loretta's confidence to Nicanor, bringing about the trial of Leonida and Lisandro. He is one of Swetnam's supporters at and after the trial, vowing to protect him from the wrath of Sicily's women.


Scania is Landgartha's sister in Burnell's Landgartha. Hasmond asks for her to be the leader of his troops, and later Valdemar will ask her to be his wife and she will accept. In Act Five, she tells Reyner that Landgartha's departure is a test that he has to go through and that he has to show that he deserves her.


Scapethrift is a rascal associate to Captain Seagull and Spendall in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!. Petronel has hired the three adventurers to sail his ship to Virginia after he gets hold of Gertrude's money. At the Blue Anchor tavern, Seagull, Spendall, and Scapethrift wait for Sir Petronel on appointment. Scapethrift expresses skepticism about the masses of gold awaiting adventurers in Virginia. When Sir Petronel announces to them that a masked lady will join them on their voyage, Scapethrift and Spendall welcome her on the ship. After much drinking and dancing, the drunken party composed of Sir Petronel and his crew, Winifred and Quicksilver embark on a boat to go to the ship, despite the storm warning. It is not clear what happens to Scapethrift after the boat wreck.


The constable Master Bayley's servant in [?]Stevenson's Gammer Gurton's Needle. Dr. Rat, who has had his broken head and wants Dame Chat to be arrested for it, calls for him.


A whore, mother of Blanda in Heywood's The English Traveler. Scapha scolds her daughter for loving only one man, telling her that there is more profit in "loving" many men. She sees men as things to be used, telling Blanda not to trust in her lover, Young Lionell, who becomes angry when he hears this and vows retribution against Scapha.


Ostorius Scapula is a Roman lieutenant who leads the second attempt to invade Britain in The Valiant Welshman. He promises to restore Codigun to his throne and attacks the kingdom of Wales. He defeats Caradoc in battle, and abducts Guinever and Helena. Then he captures Caradoc with the aid of Cartamanda and sends him to Rome.
A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned by Claudius as having sent prisoners from Britain.


Scarabeo is Sharkino's servant in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge. He assists the doctor in his apothecary.


Family name of Sir William, William, Thomas, John, and an otherwise unnamed Sister in Wilkins's The Miseries of Enforced Marriage.


The sister to William Scarborrow is unnamed in Wilkins's The Miseries of Enforced Marriage. She (along with her brothers John and Thomas) desires her share of the inheritance that her oldest brother William is intent on squandering. She is complicit in the Butler's plan to marry Sir Francis Ilford since Ilford and his companions have been very successful in relieving William of his money.


An informer used by Trifle in Davenant's News From Plymouth to disseminate fallacious news.


A "ghost character" in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho. Clare Tenterhook boasts of humiliating him in front of her husband and "Master Parenthesis."


Scarlet agrees to go with Robin Hood in search of George, labeling himself second only to Little John in Greene's George a Greene. He takes Friar Tuck's staff with him. He fights with George first, and is beaten.
Scarlet is one of two brother outlaws, the other being Scathlock who, after seven years, were captured by Sir Doncaster and condemned to death in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. They are rescued by Robin Hood, with the help of Little John, Much and Friar Tuck. They are briefly reunited with their mother, before Robin sends her home to safety. Scarlet describes their outlaw life and the people who supported them. When Much complains about promising to stay away from women, Scarlet shushes him and tells Robin to go on. Scarlet is with Tuck and Little John when Much brings Ely to them, and appears to accept that Ely is a countryman from Oxon. He leaves Tuck alone with Ely when asked. Scarlet enters with Little John to announce that they have met with Richard and that he is coming to find Robin.
Although Scarlet appears in two scenes of Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington, he speaks only once, in concert with his brother. He is mentioned by Robin as the one who finally brings down the deer King Richard has been chasing, and he and his brother are rewarded by Richard with twelvepence a day if they promise to live as honest men. The brothers promise to be honest.


A stock villain in [?]Heywood's The Fair Maid of the Exchange. Scarlet aids Bobbington in the attack upon Phillis and Ursula at Mile-End Green. It is Scarlet who suggests raping the women in addition to robbing them.


General of Antonius in May's Cleopatra. He defects to Caesar after the Battle of Actium. Historically, this was Lucius Pinnarius Scarpus.


After the first battle in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra, Scarus reports to Enobarbas that Cleopatra's ships fled the battle and that Antony followed. During the second battle, Scarus is wounded, but pleased at the way Antony has fought. However, once again, he declares that the battle is not going well because of Cleopatra.


Scathlock is one of two brother outlaws, the other being Scarlet, who, after seven years, were captured by Sir Doncaster and condemned to death in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. They are rescued by Robin Hood, with the help of Little John, Much and Friar Tuck. They are briefly reunited with their mother before Robin sends her home to safety. Scathlock then tells the story of how they were captured at a wrestling tournament. When Warman later enters the forest in despair and tries to hang himself, Scathlock mocks him before Robin arrives and forgives him. Scathlock then meets with the disguised John. He does not believe that Woodnet (as John calls himself) serves Robin Hood and asks if he was given the oath by Friar Tuck. John tries to flee when Tuck enters, but is stopped by Scathlock's threat to shoot him. Scathlock and John then fight, and Scathlock is beaten. Tuck takes over, and when Marian enters, she recognizes John and sends Scathlock to find Robin. There is no entrance marked for Scathlock, but he must return with Robin because he is noted as being there when Richard arrives.
Scathlock hunts with King Richard, providing information such as the whereabouts of Much in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. With his brother, he is granted twelvepence a day by Richard if they promise to as honestly, which they do.


Scathlock's Mother enters with Robin Hood after her sons are rescued by him in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Robin asks her to go home where she will be safe. Much asks her to send Jenny to them and she promises to do so.


A gentleman in Cooke's Greene's Tu Quoque. As his name implies, this arriviste gentleman and compatriot to Bartholemew Bubbles satirizes the absurd codes of newly wealthy London gallants, especially their outlandish dress, ridiculous behavior about town, and their indecipherable speech heavily reliant on the improper use of phrases (like Bubbles' favorite "tu quoque"). Scattergood pursues marriage to Gartred, daughter of Sir Lionell, but is outsmarted by Geraldine, who wins her hand despite the protestations of her father.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as a noble Roman of old.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. A perfumer once served by Quick.


Scentwell is a foppish suitor to Celestina in Shirley's The Lady of Pleasure . He tricks his rival, Haircut, into revealing that he is merely a serving man to Lord. To pay for the trick, Scentwell is made to stand for half an hour without his wig.


An outspoken critic of the Emperor and one of the leaders of the conspiracy to remove him in the anonymous Tragedy of Nero. A republican by temperament, he recalls Nero's previous bloody deeds and current shamelessness in his many laughable attempts at artistic and sporting glory. The fire prompts his change from future plotting to immediate action. When his freedman, Melichus, betrays the conspiracy, he is arrested by Nimphidius and lectures him at length on his idealistic political philosophy. He defends his loyalty to the state and suggests that his opposition to Nero and his cronies is an example of pure patriotism. He is sentenced to death. (The historical character's full name was Flavius Scaevinus. It seems likely that the playwright has derived the sketchy character of "Flavius" from this; the more probable given the combination of circumstances that Scevinus is not seen again after his arrest, and that Flavius's defiance of the Emperor to his face, leading to his death sentence, is uncharacteristically eloquent of the minor character, typical of Scevinus.)


Mutius Scevola is a supporter of King Servius in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece. After the king's death, he instantly switches allegiances to Tarquin. Soon after, he voices dissatisfaction with Tarquin, whom he finds to be too proud and too tyrannous. He is ordered to join Sextus, Collatine, Brutus, Valarius in Ardea, leaving Porsenna's forces in charge of Rome. He is part of a drunken banquet in which Sextus belligerently denies Collatine's claim to having the most virtuous wife. Collatine decides to bet horse and armor that his wife is the most virtuous and the most beautiful. They decide to visit Mutius Scevola's, Horatius Cocles', Aruns', and Valarius' respective wives, and then Collatine's wife, Lucrece. Soon after the visit, Pompie delivers a letter to Mutius Scevola, Brutus, Collatine, Horatius Cocles, Valarius, asking them to come again to Lucretius' house. When they arrive, Lucrece explains that Sextus raped her. Lucrece then kills herself. In the civil war, Mutius Scevola enters Porsenna's camp in disguise, hoping to kill the King of Tuscan but kills his secretary. He is discovered and is about to kill himself but Porsenna pardons him.


A self-described scholar and soldier in Goffe's The Courageous Turk, Lala Schahin servers as tutor or principal adviser to Amurath, and he is the catalyst for much of the play's action. Early on, he decides to cure Amurath of his love for the captive Eumorphe and devises the masque in which the figure of Alexander the Great rejects fleshly pursuits and pleasures in favor of a career on the battlefield. Later, he disguises himself as the Ghost of Orchanes, Amurath's father, to urge rejection of Eumorphe and a renewal of the wars against the Christians. After appearing in several of the battle sequences, Lala Schahin is present when the Christian captain Cobelitz stabs Amurath to death, and he remains to counsel Amurath's son Baiazet, urging him to follow the Turkish custom and kill his younger brother Jacup so there will be no rivals for the throne.


The schismatic is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. He is teaching a scrivener to avoid the punishment of having his ears cut off.


The Scholar in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy is an acolyte of 'Content' even though he sees through his pseudonym and knows him to be Contempt. He defends the role of the scholar before Sateros, Emnius and the Country Gentleman, but Raph puts him down by prophesying the death of learning. The Duke of Boetia employs him in preference to Sateros the soldier because it is peacetime. But when war breaks out, he has to defer to Sateros and eat humble pie. At the end of the play, he and Sateros embrace.

SCHOLAR **1600

A "ghost character" in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus. According to the Taylor and the Draper, when they went to collect their debts from Philomusus and Studioso, a "lean faced Scholler" called them names and sent them away empty-handed. It is possible that the reference is to Consiliodorus.


Like the Soldier and the Seafarer, the Scholar comes to the Neapolitan court to entertain the King in Dekker's If It Be Not Good. He brings his students with him and offers to perform a show in Latin; however, he is mocked by the courtiers and turned away. The Scholar sides with the Duke of Calabria when he attacks Naples.


A "ghost character" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Slug claims that he once gave "learn'd counsaile" to a "young schollar" who "told [Slugge] that his Master chid him for keeping his bed." Slugge supplied the boy with a saucy answer.


The scholar in Shirley's The Sisters is sent by Antonio to his niece Angellina in his attempt to make her more worldly. He presents her with a flattering description of herself, which she rejects at some length, greatly to his admiration.


Two scholars figure in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay.
  • The First Scholar is the son of Lambert of Crackfield (Cratfield), one of the squires in pursuit of Margaret. A student at Broadgates Hall, Oxford, he and the Second Scholar (his best friend and the son of Serlsby of Laxfield) ask to use Friar Bacon's "glass prospective" to check on their fathers. In the magic glass, they witness the duel over Margaret in which both Lambert and Serlsby die, and the two young men then stab one another in a vain attempt to vindicate their fathers.
  • The Second Scholar is the son of Serlsby of Laxfield, one of the squires in pursuit of Margaret. A student at Broadgates Hall, Oxford, he and the First Scholar (his best friend and the son of Lambert of Crackfield) ask to use Friar Bacon's "glass prospective" to check on their fathers. In the magic glass, they witness the duel over Margaret in which both Lambert and Serlsby die, and the two young men then stab one another in a vain attempt to vindicate their fathers.


The Scholars, students of Dr. Faustus at Wittenberg in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, endeavor to dissuade their mentor from turning from classical studies to necromancy and magic. Failing that, they later successfully urge him to produce for them the spirit of the beautiful Helen of Troy. In his final hours they pray to heaven for mercy for Faustus, and they return the next morning, after the devil had claimed his soul, to give his torn body a proper burial.


Four pupils of Master Correction's in Sharpham's Cupid's Whirligig. They recite their Latin lesson and misbehave while Wages asks Master Correction to perform the upcoming weddings.


Two unnamed Schollers [sic], already committed disciples of Aristippus as Randolph's Aristippus begins. They welcome Simplicius to the Dolphin tavern, cheerfully singing the praises of Bacchus. In answer to his questions they extol Aristippus's reputation–his popularity, his powerful influence, his ready availability, merriment and good company. They bring Aristippus to his new disciple and matriculate Simplicius with many oaths, sealed by draughts of wine. With him, they attend Aristippus's lecture on the evils of beer and virtues of wine. On Aristippus's instructions, they contribute by reading poetry. The first reads a translation of Ennius denouncing ale, the second a translation of Virgil in praise of wine (both in rhyming couplets). The lecture over, they drink more and together with Simplicius sing a cheerful Philosophers' Song in praise of Aristippus. They are beaten off stage together by Wildeman and two Brewers. The scholars carry Aristippus back in a chair, where they find a repentant Wildeman and the Medico who cures their master. All exit to drink healths while Simplicius speaks an epilogue.
[Note: There is a textual anomaly here—2 Schollers are noted as entering, but a single line is attributed to '3'. The third scholar in later scenes is Simplicius himself.]


Two Yound Scolars ask for help from Perce in obtaining food in ?Greene and Chettle's John of Bordeaux. Perce shows them how to use their learning to cheat innkeepers out of meals.


In Wild’s The Benefice, he tells Invention and Furor Poeticus that Pedanto is writing a play and has stolen conceits from all the other plays written. He is vexed because he hasn’t a part in the play.


Along with the Serving-Man in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock, the Schoolmaster is a victim of the spying and legalized robbery organized by Tresilian and carried out by Nimble and Ignorance. The Schoolmaster, too clever for his own good, is heard performing a little satirical song, in which he complains about the extortions of the times but keeps on the safe side, as he thinks, by the refrain: "God bless my Lord Tresilian"; this does not stop Nimble from arresting him and planning a public humiliation by way of punishment.


Used in stage directions to indicate Ventero in the anonymous Wit of a Woman.


Non-speaking characters in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris who serve the King of Navarre. The schoolmasters are murdered by Guise.


Cokes' foolish schoolmasters are "ghost characters" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Wasp thinks he is indispensable to his young master and he disapproves of the education Cokes has been given. According to Wasp, Cokes' foolish schoolmasters had done nothing but run up and down the country with their pupil to beg sausages and cake-bread of his tenants. They almost spoiled him, and taught him nothing else but to sing foolish songs. Wasp seems to believe that Cokes is a simpleton because of his education.


Sciarrha is the hot-headed brother of the virtuous Amidea and Florio in Shirley's The Traitor. Lorenzo attempts to lure him into murdering the Duke when the Duke seeks to bed Amidea. Amidea converts the Duke, however, and so makes him friends with her brothers. When Sciarrha learns that Pisano has recanted his betrothal to Amidea, he murders Pisano at the church where he is planning to wed Oriana. Amidea tricks him into killing her to avoid facing dishonor and the Duke's lust. Sciarrha succeeds in killing the villain, Lorenzo, who in turn kills him.


Daughter of Reason and Experience, beloved of Wit in the anonymous Marriage of Wit and Science. She has great renown but has grown weary of the many suitors who have tried to win her, failed, and now blame her for their inadequacy. She despairs of marriage. She like the message and picture Wit sends her via Will. She tells Wit that he must defeat her adversary not by force but by flight. She sends Wit into the wood to fight the giant, Tediousness. When she later comes upon Wit dressed in Ignorance's coat, she at first does not recognize him. When, however, she does (and Wit is overcome by Shame), Science asks Reason to pity Wit's youth. Later, she watches Wit, now reformed, defeat Tediousness and leads Wit in to marry her.


Science complains in Lupton's All For Money that, at present, Science is only studied for money and not for helping the needy.

SCIENCE **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the intellectual Virtues whom King Love wishes would join him in his war. Unhappily those Virtues are at war with some of their ‘home-bred’ enemies.


A "ghost character" in Zouche's The Sophister. Scientia is the daughter of Lady Truth and the sister of Opinion who is to wed Demonstration. Fallacy attempts to prevent this marriage and Judicium claims that "this Morning from Verona come the Ladies, / Whose presence onely is attended here." Fallacy informs Opposition and Contradiction that he has "surpriz'd the Lady Truth, / With her two famous Daughters" and is "now in doubt / How [he] might best captive their constant thoughts," at which time his followers present suggestions until Fallacy decides to use "glozing words, and kind intreaties" to win them over. Fallacy sends Ignoratio with a letter to Scientia in an attempt to "win her," but Ambiguity meddles in the affair. He tries to convince the fool that Fallacy's employment of him is "base" and encourages Ignoratio to proclaim himself "Ambassadour" and woo Scientia for himself rather than for Fallacy. Ignoratio claims that he "affect[s]" Scientia and will do so, and sets out to make himself "most richly fine." Ambiguity later convinces Ignoratio to "counterfeit" himself as a "captive" for Scientia, has him practice reading Fallacy's letters, and leaves him gagged and blindfolded for Contradiction to find. Because Fallacy is confident in his new position and thinks that he can "stand alone," he contrives the ruin of both Contradiction and Opposition. Fallacy (separately) informs each of his two "sworne supporters" that that Scientia–"notwithstanding all her promises / To Demonstration"–has promised to "place her best affections" upon him if Judicium is killed, and that Judicium has, "for his noble friend," bid Fallacy to "combate." On receiving this information each of the men vows to fight on Fallacy's behalf. He bids them each (separately) to disguise themselves, to keep the plan a secret from the other, and to meet at a certain place and time where each will apparently meet Judicium. However, unbeknownst to Opposition and Contradiction, Fallacy plans for them to meet and kill each other instead. Judicium learns that "Truth and her daughters" have been "expelled" and Distinction describes to Proposition and Judicium the way he came upon the closet in which was locked "Lord Intellect in one roome, the Lady Truth and her daughters in others" whom he "thence delivered." Fallacy is informed of his captives' escape and calls both Opinion and Scientia "hated," and Ambiguity recites to his Master the accusations which he has contrived against Truth and her daughters at Fallacy's command. Amongst them is the claim that Scientia "is become the only patronesse / Of idlenes, and selfe consuming sloath." Ambiguity is arrested of Capital Treason, in part for "those vilde designes" which he and Fallacy have contrived against "those distressed Ladyes / Of poore Verona." At the play's end, Discourse seeks to "make recompence / For those injurious wrongs which harmlesse Truth / And her distressed daughters have sustain'd" and, thus, announces that the marriage of his two sons to Truth's two daughters will soon be celebrated.


Scilicet (also spelled Scillicet) is one of three dandies in Machin's(?) Every Woman in Her Humour. One of his supposed vices is that he thinks himself a wit: upon his first entrance he calls for a writing tablet. After Acutus starts a tavern brawl with the dandies, Servulus is ready to forgive him, saying that Acutus must have been mad. Scilicet, on the other hand, whom Acutus has called a fool, vows revenge. During one encounter with Acutus and Graccus at a bowling green, Scilicet is badly beaten, yet he does not learn his lesson. Together with his fellow victim Servulus, Scilicet spins the story of their encounter into a tale of Falstaffian proportions: there were seven–no, eight–attackers, not two. After this, Scilicet turns his attentions to Getica, to whom he has evidently proposed marriage offstage. Much to his frustration, however, Getica would rather search for her lost dog than make wedding plans. When Acutus (in disguise) offends Getica, Scilicet comes to her aid. Acutus removes his disguise and, at the suggestion of Servulus, the three men unite in a peaceful embrace. But Acutus is not finished with Scilicet. He encourages Scilicet to wear an ass's head in the wedding masque in order to ridicule him in front of the Emperor and Getica. Acutus's intent, he says, is to induce Scilicet to stop being jealously possessive of Getica.


Scilla is one of the two former generals vying for control of Rome in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. During the initial debate, he enters with soldiers and announces that he is too proud to follow Marius. He tells the Senators to choose sides, which they do. Anthony tries to persuade Scilla not to go to war, but Scilla will not listen, and leaves with his faction. During a battle, Scilla approaches some soldiers and convinces them that he is their true general, and the soldiers agree to follow him, which leads to Scilla's success. Scilla has Granius killed for refusing to accept his rule, but promises Anthony, who again uses his oratory skills, that he will take no vengeance immediately. However, he does threaten that any traitorous behavior will be punished. He does have many prisoners executed for supporting Marius, and sends Lucullus after Marius. When Scilla retakes Rome, he has Marius' officers—Carbo, Norbanus, and Carinna—executed and sends Metellus to kill Sertorius of Iberia. He also sends Lucretius to kill Young Marius. When Lucretius returns with news that Young Marius committed suicide, Scilla is moved by the story to wonder why he wishes to be king and live in fear of treachery. He decides to give up his post, and will not be swayed, despite the pleas of both his men and the questions of Poppey and Curtall. Genius enters, telling Scilla that his death is at hand and that he will live in Elysium. Scilla says goodbye to his wife and daughter and dies.


A waiting maid in Lyly's Endymion. One of the young women that Dares and Samias persuade into teasing Sir Tophas with feigned love. Favilla is the other.


Sciolto is a Florentine and a libertine in Davenant's The Just Italian. Alteza approaches him to be her lover after she rejects Altamont, a fact that Sciolto taunts Altamont with. He boasts of the number of women he has impregnated and describes how he will do the same to Alteza. However, when they are alone, she rejects his advances, saying she is worth waiting for. Sciolto is approached by Altamont and Mervolle, who do not believe his claim that he has not yet slept with Alteza. Altamont challenges him, but Sciolto refuses to fight, saying if he kills Altamont, he might have to raise his own children. Like Alteza, his character undergoes a dramatic change half way through the play, motivated, in his case, by the discovery that Scoperta has only been pretending to be a concubine, but is actually Altamont's virgin sister. Instead of trying to seduce her, Sciolto falls in love with her and she with him and they plan to run away together. When Alteza finally decides to sleep with Sciolto, he insults her and her beauty rather than betray Scoperta. He is taken by Altamont and Mervolle when he comes to Scoperta's window. Altamont challenge him to a duel and promises if Sciolto can disarm him, he is free to go. Instead, Sciolto is wounded, but Altamont has his wounds tended so that he will not die without time to repent. After Altamont's death, Mervolle tells Alteza that she is responsible for executing them, as Altamont wished. Alteza agrees that Sciolto should die since he killed Altamont, but decides to take Scoperia's place since it is her disdain that caused all the trouble. Both Sciolto and Scoperia protest not dying together, and then Altamont reveals himself and all the couples are united happily.


A testy but likeable old lord in Davenant's The Platonic Lovers; friend to Theander and father to Gridonell. Sciolto, has no patience with the intellectual or the romantic life, and had his son brought up in an army camp specifically to avoid those pitfalls. When the scholarly Buonateste arrives at the request of Fredeline to drug Theander into a less platonic frame of mind, Sciolto mocks him. Buonateste's success, however, and Gridonell's difficulties at Theander's court with meeting women for the first time, change Sciolto's mind, and he finally offers to find his son a wife and have him taught to read and write.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Just Italian. Sciolto's uncle is a senator who conveniently dies at the climax of the play, leaving his entire fortune to Sciolto, so that he may marry Charintha.


A mute character in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. Scipio is a supporter of Marius, but Scilla allows him to go free because of their previous friendship.



Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. Publius Cornelius refers to ‘Scipio of Afric’, who subdued Carthage, as his great-grandsire.
Scipio, the Roman general in Marston's Sophonisba, attacks Carthage in an attempt to weaken the power base of Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, who is making war in Italy. He allies first with Syphax and afterwards with Massinissa, but when they have finally won he sends Laelius to tell Massinissa that he must sacrifice Sophonisba.
A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as a great Roman of the past.
Roman general in Nabbes' Hannibal and Scipio, enemy and opposite of the Carthaginian general Hannibal. Scipio represents continence and restraint, in direct opposition to the hedonism and passion represented by Hannibal and his men. He initially makes an alliance with Syphax, who betrays him over the love of a woman, Sophonisba. Then Massanissa defeats Syphax and marries Sophonisba, but Scipio upbraids him for being driven by sensual desires, and disowns him when Massanissa refuses to give up Sophonisba to the Roman authorities. In act four, Scipio arrives in Carthage after Hannibal has fled, and demonstrates his magnanimity as a conqueror by giving the Young Lady back to her Spanish lover, Lucius. Later he follows Hannibal to the court of Prusias in Bythinia, where his noble and restrained bearing contrasts with the uncontrolled passions which lead Hannibal to commit suicide. Over the dead body of Hannibal, Scipio rebukes Carthage for its ingratitude to their general and announces that he will retire to his country villa at Linturnum. Played by Michael Bowyer in the original production.

SCIPIO **1633

Only mentioned in Shirley's The Young Admiral. Scipio was a Roman opportunist shortly after the time of the murder of Julius Caesar. Cesario mentions Scipio in discussing how honored men of the past sometimes sought their own advancement; Cesario feels Vittori is such a self-interested person.


Cornelia's father in Kyd's Cornelia; Scipio becomes the rebel Commander after Pompey's assassination. Scipio reassembles the army and occupies Northern Africa where he allies himself with Juba, the Numidian King. Scipio's legions fight Caesar's troops at Numidia, but they are roundly defeated. Scipio tries to follow Pompey's legions to Spain, but his ships are stopped by a storm at sea and he is driven back to Africa. There he stabs himself and throws himself into the sea rather than submit to surrender and capture.


Listed in the dramatis personae of the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace. Characteristics and actions not given in the surviving plot.


One of the women in the anonymous Swetnam who join with Atlanta to punish Swetnam for his insolence to women.


A "gorgon" by Shirley's own note in Shirley's The Duke's Mistress. Scolopendra is introduced to Horatio by Valerio. She is truly uglier than Horatio's current love Fiametta, and she ends up wedding Horatio.


A gallant naturalized Dutchman and a “Twibill Knight" in Glapthorne’s Hollander. He speaks in a comic stage accent and claims he has an itch picked up whilst fighting in the Low Countries for Artless to cure. He is possessed of a thousand pounds per annum. He takes lodgings at Artless’ house. He wants Urinal to procure for him Artless’ salve for curing wounds without surgery. He addresses Lady Yellow and Mistress Know-worth in French. He kisses them in the Dutch manner, as a compliment, only to have the jealous Sir Martin Yellow stab him in the arm. Far from being angry, Sconce is delighted to have a chance to test Artless’ weapon salve and takes Yellow’s sword with him as the salve requires him to treat the weapon rather than his arm. He woos Dalinea at her parents’ urging and imagines himself soon to be wed. Drunken from celebrating with the Twibill Knights, he marries ‘Mr. Lovering’ whilst Dalinea marries the disguised Popingay. He discovers that Mr. Lovering is actually now his wife, Martha.


A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Hollander. Sconce’s cousin german once removed. He was taken by the enemy last summer by a stratagem of hay boats set a fire.


"The Sexton's boy" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Scopas appears late in the play. He and Thuriger ready Apollo's "Judgement Seate" for the sentencing of all disobedient characters at the play's end. He is sent by the Sexton to "see how forward" the crowd is and to "bring away the Frankinsence." After Scopas returns with frankincense and informs Thuriger that "they are comming hard by," the Sexton finishes his tasks and the two stay to hear Museus pronounce Apollo's judgements.


Scoperta is Altamont's sister in Davenant's The Just Italian. She pretends to be his concubine in order to make Alteza jealous, a ruse that fails miserably. While she is staying at his house, Sciolto falls in love with her and she with him. They agree to run away together, but are overheard by Altamont. He first confronts Scoperta and accuses her of taking Sciolto as her lover. She protests, but he does not believe her and locks her in her room, with her hands bound with lute strings. When Sciolto arrives at the garden, Scoperta calls to him from her window and tries to warn him, but it is too late and Altamont forces a fight on Sciolto. After Altamont is declared dead, Mervolle presents Alteza with the two lovers and claims that she must execute them as Altamont wished. Both Sciolto and Scoperta are willing to die together and Mervolle frees them from their bonds so that they can share a final embrace. Alteza agrees that Sciolto should die since he killed Altamont, but decides to take Scoperia's place since it is her disdain that caused all the trouble. At this, Altamont reveals himself and all the couples are happily united.


A ship's master in the anonymous Hick Scorner. When asked what country he has returned from, he lists thirty-three places including "three miles out of hell" and "the land of women." He proceeds next to name thirteen ships he has seen sink and drown all the holy persons in the Irish Sea, which has pleased him. He has arrived home with a shipload of sinners. His ship, The Envy, is out of London, and he keeps it as a floating brothel. He encourages Imagination to bear false witness against Pity and then helps to fetter and bind Pity. He then leads Imagination and Free Will to Shooter's Hill to engage in highway robbery. He disappears from the play after that.


English reformer jailed during Queen Mary's rule in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. At the end of the play after Queen Elizabeth has assumed the English throne, Scory, along with Grindall and Cox, are released from prison just as Bonner arrives for imprisonment; they refuse to celebrate his fall from power.


Master Scott is a friend of Roger Oatley's in Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday. He becomes witness to Rose Oatley's rejection of Master Hammon and serves to summarize Simon Eyre's successful business venture in a conversation with his friend.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. He is one of the first group of Portia's suitors, described by Nerissa, who leaves without attempting to find the correct casket.


A disguise assumed by Volpone in Jonson's Volpone. Scoto is a famous mountebank. In disguise Volpone uses the variation Scoto Mantuano to describe himself.


The Scout in Greene's James IV advises the Merchant, the Lawyer and the Divine to break off their debate because the English army is advancing.


At Anjou in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, the French Scout brings news to the Dauphin that the English army, which had been split in two, has combined and is about to attack.


The Scout announces the arrival of the enemy to Reyner in Burnell's Landgartha.


A farmer and country swain as well as Dull-pate's father in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. He lives in Islington and was kin and neighbor to Pinchback Truepenny, Plutus' usurer father. He calls Plutus "uncle" and takes him to be his house guest. Later, he tells Anus how to find Plutus' house.


An old, covetous, rich knight in May's The Old Couple. Said by his neighbors to be ninety-five years old at least, too crippled with age to walk. He and his betrothed, Lady Covet, are the Old Couple of the title. He is uncle and heir presumptive to the fugitive, Eugeny, who believes that only Sir Argent's intervention can clear his name of murder. Sir Argent is first believed to be working to arrange a pardon for his nephew- extenuating circumstances for the crime are frequently hinted at but never clarified- but Theodore discovers the truth and reports to the despairing Eugeny. Sir Argent is greedy for the additional £1500 per year he will gain if he ensures his nephew is captured and executed and is laying plots and offering bribes to ensure a miscarriage of justice enriches him. His corruption is confirmed when he explains his strategy to Lady Covet in a private conversation overheard by Euphues and Barnet. It is also clear that their forthcoming marriage is entirely mercenary on both sides. Each hopes to outlive the other and inherit everything. In a long soliloquy Sir Argent passionately declares that the anticipated riches of his marriage, gold and power, are restoring his youthful vigor. His gloating is interrupted by "Fruitful" who enrages him with the news of Lady Covet's pre-nuptial conveyance of her estates to trustees, safely out of his hands. He immediately plans to cancel the wedding and leave. The couple meet and have a furious quarrel in front of their guests. Freeman persuades Sir Argent not to leave. Meanwhile, Sir Argent's anonymous agent betrays Eugeny's hiding-place to Officers, who arrest him. Euphues reports an offstage incident: the satisfying spectacle of the reformed Earthworm denouncing Sir Argent for his own avarice in general, his disgraceful betrayal of a kinsman in particular. Sir Argent returns to take his leave, but before he can depart is confronted by the arrival of the captive Eugeny. He reproaches Sir Argent and warns him of the shame he has earned by his betrayal. Instead of fraudulently increasing his wealth at the expense of his kinsman's life, at his age he should be using his existing fortune to do good works in the community. This fierce denunciation causes Sir Argent to repent. When Scudmore reveals his true identity and releases Eugeny from the threat of execution, Sir Argent is given no lines to reveal his reaction. Nor is it clear whether his marriage to Lady Covet will proceed, in the concluding celebrations of the betrothals of the two younger couples to be reunited.


The Scriba in the anonymous Godly Queen Hester reads the letter that will disclose the treachery of Aman to the people and will rehabilitate the Jews.


Also Beggar 1 in Brome's A Jovial Crew, Scribble is a decayed poet who has joined the crew of beggars staying on Oldrents' estate. He serves as the master of revels at the beggars' wedding.


Records the proceedings of the Parliament in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates and participates in interrogating the Spirituality.

Scribe is another name for the Clerk of the Venetian Court in the anonymous Knack To Know An Honest Man. He reads out the charges and sentence at Lelio's trial.


A "celebrated" writer and a Constable along with Clench, Medlay, and To-Pan in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub. One of the "Council of Finsbury" that serves as a kind of Chorus to the fortunes of High Constable Tobie Turfe, he is commissioned to write Squire Tripoly Tub's masque in honor of Audrey's wedding. (Listed in d.p. as "D'oge: Scriben")


One of Mildew's prostitutes and companion to Palestra in Heywood's The Captives. Her real name is Winifred and it is eventually revealed that she is Thomas Ashburne's long-lost daughter. First appears in the play after the shipwreck witnessed by John Ashburne and Godfrey. Initially fears that Palestra has been lost but quickly discovers that she has also survived the shipwreck. They agree to seek shelter in the nearby monastery, where their questions regarding charity are cynically answered by an echo (which turns out to be Friar John). Along with Palestra pleads for and receives charity from the Abbot, who offers them food, clothing, and shelter. Scribonia is sent into the village to fetch water, where she ecounters the Clown. She is glad to see him, asks after Raphael, and then informs the Clown about their shipwreck and recovery. After the Clown exits, she knocks at the gate and Godfrey answers. He initially tries to get her to kiss him in exchange for water, but when she refuses he agrees to fill her pail with water. As she is waiting for Godfrey she spies Mildew and Sarleboys, who have also survived the shipwreck, and flees back to the monastery to tell Palestra. Palestra and Scribonia are later taken captive in the monastery by Mildew and Sarleboys, on the grounds that the women are Mildew's property. When they arrive in the village, Palestra and Scribonia appeal for help from John Ashburne and the assembled villagers. After the argument amongst Mildew, John Ashburne, and Raphael over possession of the women, Palestra and Scribonia take shelter with John Ashburne until a trial can determine their fates as well as the fates of Mildew and Sarleboys. Later, after John Ashburne and his wife argue about the presence of Palestra and Scribonia in the Ashburne home, Godfrey takes Palestra and Scribonia back to the monastery for safety. Godfrey shortly returns to fetch Palestra and Scibonia back to John Ashburne's, where the women identify the bag the Clown and the Fisherman Gripus are arguing over as Mildew's. Scribonia watches as Palestra's true identity as Ashburne's daughter Mirabel is revealed and as Palestra/Mirabel is reunited with her mother; Scribonia joins Palestra/Mirabel and goes into the Ashburne house. Later she joins Ashburne's wife and Palestra/Mirabel in meeting Ashburne, Treadway and Raphael, and she accepts Treadway's marriage proposal. She then hears Mildew announce that she is the daughter of Thomas Ashburne and that her true name is Winifred. As John Ashburne is about to give her to Treadway in marriage, Thomas Ashburne steps forward and is reunited with his daughter. She agrees to join Treadway and the others in returning to London. The departure of the Ashburne brothers, Raphael, Mirabel, Treadway, and Winifred is delayed, however, by the resolution of Friar John's murder amongst the Sherrif, the Abbot, Friar Richard, the Duke of Averne and Dennis.


Roister Doister commissions the Scrivener in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister to create a love letter for Dame Custance. Because the braggart confuses the punctuation while recopying it, the prankish Merrygreek can read it to the widow in such a way that the intended flattery is changed to insults. Roister Doister blusters that he will have satisfaction from the Scrivener, but when the writer appears and is clearly ready to defend himself physically if necessary, the cowardly Roister Doister is forced to accept some of the blame for the fiasco.


A gull in Lyly's Mother Bombie. The scrivener is called upon to draw up a bond between the Hackneyman and the four witty servants (Dromio, Riscio, Lucio and Halfpenny). The servants cozen him into drawing up a useless contract upon which the Hackneyman will never be able to collect.


A scribe of London in Shakespeare's Richard III. The scrivener is ordered to write up the declaration for Lord Hastings' execution. He observes that the order was given after Hastings has already been executed.


Attends Pandino and Armenia on their deathbeds, finalizing Pandino's will in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies. He is paid for his services by Fallerio after Pandino and Armenia die.


Assists Tenterhook in his bonds in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho.


The Scrivener in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho! attends Gertrude's signing of the papers by which she unknowingly approves the sale of her land.


This character has a functional use befitting his name in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. He assists with the paperwork in the many transactions among the various usurers and their debtors.


Two scriveners figure in the course of Jonson's Bartholomew Fair.
  • The Scrivener is a character in the Induction. When the book-holder announces that his mission is to draw up a contract between Author and the spectators, he invites the Scrivener to read the articles of the contract. The Scrivener reads the articles of Agreement between the spectators at Hope on the Bankside and the Author of Bartholomew Fair. The contract stipulates a series of obligations derived from the positions of Author and the spectators. After reading the lengthy articles of the contract, the Scrivener exits with the book-holder.
  • The scrivener in whose office Justice Overdo writes his blank deed to Quarlous/Trouble-all is a "ghost character." Justice Overdo, disguised as a Porter, wants to help the madman whom he thinks to be Trouble-all (actually Quarlous in disguise). Overdo/Porter promises Quarlous/Trouble-all to give him a warrant from Justice Overdo. Overdo steps into a scrivener's office nearby and draws a blank deed on which he lays his seal.


Two different Scriveners figure in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil.
  • The Scrivener is a mean man who works for the Usurer. He offers the latter some gossip about a gentleman (Slightall) whose money they could easily get. He explains he has "dealt closely with a man of his to undermine him." That man is Geffrey. The Usurer is so happy to hear that he even offers the Scrivener a share in the gain. He soon gets writings from Slightall "sign'd, seal'd, and delivered," and he gives them to the Usurer. He then agrees to do the same with Slightall's lands, but when he reminds the Usurer of the fact that he wants his share in the money, the Usurer replies that he will not have money from him, but that his writings are paid for from Master Slightall's purse. Still, he asks for his brokage, but it seems that all he will get from the Usurer is a pint of beer in the "Taverne." Later, he will have to assure Slightall and the Divell (Master Changeable in disguise) that the former does not owe anything to him anymore, and he runs afraid when he realizes that Slightall's companion is actually the devil.
  • An 'anticke' dancer "habited in Parchment Indentures." He appears before Slightall wearing "I am a Scrivener" on his breast. He carries "Bills, Bonds, Waxe, Seales, and Pen, and Inkhornes."


Unnamed in Shirley's The Example, the Scrivener is responsible for Peregrine's arrest. He then brings a letter to Peregrine, freeing the prisoner and announcing that all debts are paid.


The scrivener is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. From the schismatic he is learning to avoid the punishment of having his ears cut off.


Scrocca is the "Master at Sea" in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. He, along with Cancrone, is one of the "two foolish Fishers" and "servants to old Tyrinthus" and Perindus who get lost at sea and arrive at "Circe's rocke" instead of "home." When Conchylio learns that Cancrone and Scrocca are afraid of the Orke and are not aware that Atyches has killed him, he decides to frighten them. He agrees to "ridde" them of their fears if they worship him, and then delivers to them a foolish prophecy from the Oracle, tricking them into hiding under their boats. He shares liquor with Cancrone and takes undeserved credit, along with Cancrone, for "vanquish[ing] the Orke." Scrocca leaves to retrieve his fishing nets and is accused on his return by Cancrone of ruining "the goodest verse." When Scrocca departs for the boat, Cancrone vows to follow him but remains, only to be tricked by Conchylio at length. After helping to save Perindus from drowning by assisting in conveying him safely to a "shippe That rides in the havene" after Tyrinthus's son had "fallen from the rocke" in an attempt to offer his life in exchange for Glaucilla's, Scrocca (along with Cancrone) is arrested, "manacled," and led to the "hils [. . .] to the greedy Cyclops" to meet "the death of slaves," during which time he is reunited with Tyrinthus. After Cosma confesses to her initial "foule offence," Pas convinces Nomicus to "pardon"the two fishers.


A "ghost character" in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. Bishop Scroop leads a rebellion against Henry IV with Hastings after the Percies' defeat at Shrewsbury. Prince John puts down the rebellion. Scroop never appears on stage.


Henry, Lord Scroop of Masham, is a traitor to England in Shakespeare's Henry V. Along with Richard, Earl of Cambridge and Sir Thomas Grey, Scroop works to promote French interests. Scroop's betrayal is felt the most keenly because he has been Henry's close companion. After asking the men for their advice regarding the punishment of a petty traitor, Henry reveals that he has discovered their plot, and that he plans to punish them with as little mercy as they have advised for the other traitor. The three traitors are executed on Henry's orders.


He agrees with Cambridge in his claim to the throne in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle and vows to persuade Oldcastle to join their cause. He plans to poison the King, but his plans are overheard by the King.


Richard Scroop holds the title of Archbishop or Lord of York in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. He is part of the Percy faction opposing King Henry and feels his faction is too weak to defeat the king. He also fears the length of King Henry's vengeance should the Percys lose at Shrewsbury.


A favorite of Richard II in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock, along with Bagot, Bushy, and Greene Scroop, like the others, fosters the King's hatred of his uncle, Woodstock, and encourages him to hand over power to the favorites instead; when Richard divides up the country between them, Scroop receives the northern area, between the rivers Trent and Tweed. With Greene, he prevents the King from saving Woodstock's life at the last minute. He fights in the final battle and is last seen as a prisoner of the King's opponents.


A loyal supporter of King Richard in Shakespeare's Richard II. Upon Richard's return from Ireland, he brings the news of Bolingbroke's invasion.


Appearing in the woods from time to time looking for his master in Tatham's Love Crowns the End, Scrub on one occasion encounters the Lustful Shepherd and runs him off. As the play comes to a close, Scrub finds all the principals assembled and asks whether any of them have met Pisander, Leon, or Francisco. He declares that the duke is dead and that Leon's lands have been restored. The three identify themselves, explain why they have settled in the rural place, and tie the play's loose ends together.

SCRUPLE **1637

A Puritan schoolmaster in Mayne’s City Match. He lost his charge, Penelope Plotwell, when she disappeared with her father.

SCRUPLE, MRS. **1637

Scruple’s wife in Mayne’s City Match. She earns the Seathrifts’ ire when their daughter Susan runs away from her school.


Scudamore is in love with Bellafront in Field's A Woman is a Weathercock. He is distraught when Nevill brings him news that she is to marry Count Frederick. He remonstrates with her outside the church, but she rejects him. Scudamore attends the wedding banquet, disguised as a servingman. He again confronts Bellafront; she claims that, in addition to her father's threats, she was provoked by Scudamore's public claims about their intimacy. Ranting, Scudamore dismisses her protests and rejects her plea to him to preserve her from her wedding night with Count Frederick. Nevill, however, advises Scudamore to accept Bellafront's repentance, promising to deliver Bellafront to Scudamore that night. Scudamore agrees to follow his lead. He disguises himself as a vizard-maker, and he and Nevill swap places. Scudamore takes Nevill's place in the masque and partners Bellafront. During the second strain they leave together. After the third strain they reappear, Scudamore now unmasked and armed, accompanied by the real Parson. Scudamore and Bellafront declare that they are married, and Nevill entering in his parson's clothes, confesses that it was he who "married" Bellafront and Count Frederick.


A young gentleman supposed to have been slain by Eugeny in May's The Old Couple. But, disguised under the name Fruitful, he is living as Chaplain to the Lady Covet. The circumstances of his supposed murder are never adequately explained. He first appears with Lady Covet's steward, Trusty, discussing Covet's wedding preparations, which include the signing of certain legal papers. Freeman, Euphues and Barnet later discuss Lady Covet's fraudulent deed in confiscating Scudmore's entire estate (£500 pounds per year), which he was too poor to prosecute in law before his "unfortunate" death. "Fruitful" has persuaded Lady Covet of the wisdom of securing her estates to herself, from her new husband, by a pre-nuptial deed of conveyance to trustees ("feoffees"). The deed is sealed and witnessed. The problem still remains that Sir Argent will be rich enough to contest the deed and sue for the restoration of her estates to himself: "Fruitful" plans to prevent this by preventing the marriage at the last minute by revealing to the groom the bride's own determination to defraud him. To Sir Argent he professes not disloyalty to Lady Covet, but a religious duty to tell the truth to prevent injustice. Lady Covet is furious with him on discovering his betrayal. All the visiting neighbors witness the outcome: "Fruitful" assures her and them that she will be made an adequate allowance from her sequestered funds to live the better without luxuries for her spiritual health. He departs, promising Lady Covet to bring her trustees to a meeting where she will be reassured. Trusty meanwhile convinces her that her fortune is lost to untrustworthy trustees. After she has repented in her panic and despair, "Fruitful" returns to reassure her after all. All her estates are to be returned to her, with the exception of the manor wrongfully taken from Scudmore. When Lady Covet confesses her guilt in this, Scudmore reveals his true identity to general delight and the express admiration of his friend Euphues. Scudmore glosses over the circumstances of his presumed death, miraculous cure and strange concealment, in order for the company to celebrate the happy outcome without delay. Scudmore is reunited with Matilda; together with Eugeny and Artemia, they will be married together and entertained with great hospitality at Earthworm's expense.


Scuffle is a ruffian who demands entry to Shave'em's brothel in Massinger's The City Madam. When at first denied, he and his fellow ruffian Ramble threaten to break windows and harass the neighbors. Secret, a bawd, lets Ramble and Scuffle in, pleading with them to be gentle with her. Shave'em, however, has no intentions of accepting either men as customers and draws a knife to defend herself. Ramble draws his sword and there are words exchanged between them over a previous encounter, when Young Goldwire enters with Ding'em, pretending to be a Justice of the Peace and a constable, respectively. Scuffle and Ramble are forced to kiss Young Goldwire's shoes and leave their cloaks.

SCULLER **1607

A "ghost character" in Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. Apparently a sculler saved the grocer George and Nell's child when it wandered off to Puddle Wharf.


Scumbroth is the cook at the Neapolitan priory in Dekker's If It Be Not Good. When the devil Shacklesoule falsely accuses Scumbroth of kissing a woman in the priory orchard, Scumbroth vows revenge. He becomes sidetracked when the Subprior gives him the gold that comes from the well Shacklesoule has tainted with the sweat of the devil Glitterbacke. Rather than give the money to charity as he has promised, Scumbroth spends it on himself. In Naples grove, he witnesses the devils' progress report meeting, hearing their stories of how they have corrupted the court, the city, and the priory. He reports to the Subprior that the Prior has choked to death on a grapeseed while attempting to drink wine.


A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the twenty-five vices that are the extremes of the eleven virtues. Rusticity and Scurrility are the extremes of Urbanity.


This woman in Shirley's The Ball attends Lucina and allows Colonel Winfield to be hidden and overhear Lucina's plans to trick her suitors.


A New English basket maker in Wild’s The Benefice. He has left New England and hopes to bribe Marchurch for the living. Fantastes and Scuttle squabble, Puritain to Papist, and strive together for the living. Tinker is disgusted when Marchurch requests money in exchange for the benefice. Fantastes meantime pays Tinker twelve pence to beat Scuttle. Tinker does so and finds a book of characters in Scuttle’s pockets that he pins to the Puritan’s back before leading him through town.


A "ghost character" in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. Scylla was once the lover of Glaucus whose feelings for him "coole[d]." In order to "eas[e]" Glaucus's "griefe" over her, Circe "quenche[d]" Scylla's "beautie" (making her "a proofe of jealous spite" and a "loath'd" creature).
A "ghost character" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Museus punishes Siren (at the sentencing of disobedient characters at the play's end) by stating that she shall be "tossed, and doussed, together with Scylla, that monstrous shame of nature" in the sea.


Early in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part One, two English Sea Captains describe Bess's combination of beauty, modesty, affability, and virtue to Carrol, thereby provoking the bully to visit the Castle pub where he will insult Bess and be killed by Spencer. Later in the Azores, the Captains reappear arguing with each other. Attempting to end the altercation before they harm themselves, Spencer intervenes and is accidentally wounded. Because this occurs at the same time as the death of another man named Spencer, the confusion begins over the alleged death of Bess's Spencer.


Three Sea Captains, in the navy of the young Malefort in Massinger's Unnatural Combat.


A pregnant Sea Nymph appears at the end of the Masque of Melancholy presented to Palador by Corax in Ford's The Lover's Melancholy. Although her behaviour as she sings and dances seems far from melancholic, Corax notes that hers is "the wanton melancholy" typical of pregnant women. She invites the court into a dance to end the masque.


The name of the second watchman in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. When Dogberry asks the watchmen to nominate a constable, the first watchman recommends Hugh Oatcake and George Seacole because both can read and write. Dogberry accepts his nomination, and after a foolish charge, names him constable of the watch and gives him the latern.


Like the Soldier and the Scholar, the Seafarer comes to the Neapolitan court to entertain the King in Dekker's If It Be Not Good. Rather than offer his entertainment, however, he raves in sailors' jargon, predicting the downfall of the court because of what he recognizes as the devilish influence among them. Octavio alone recognizes the Seafarer as a man who has served Naples in battles at sea. When the Duke of Calabria attacks Naples, the Seafarer sides with him.


Seagull is the captain of the ship arranged by Petronel to sail away to Virginia with all his possessions in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!. At the Blue Anchor tavern, Seagull, Spendall, and Scapethrift wait for Sir Petronel on appointment. The Captain tells his mates metaphorically that Virginia longs for them to share the rest of her maidenhood. He informs everybody that a whole country of Englishmen is there and most of them have married Indian women. Seagull says the Indians love the Englishmen so much that they lay all their treasures at their feet. Despite Scapethrift's skepticism about the masses of gold awaiting adventurers in Virginia, Seagull says Gold is more plentiful there than copper is in England. Seagull's creates a utopian image of America, where the chamber pots are of gold, prisoners are fettered in gold, and children gather rubies and diamonds on the beach. Seagull's utopia expands from plentiful foods to matters of freedom. After giving his favorable picture of life to come in Virginia, Seagull gets to the practical details. He tells his mates it takes six weeks to sail to America. When Sir Petronel announces to them that a masked lady will join them on their voyage, Seagull welcomes her on the ship. After much drinking and dancing, the drunken party embark on a boat to go to the ship, despite the storm warning. Following the boat wreck, Seagull is cast ashore on the Isle of Dogs and he meets Sir Petronel and Quicksilver, who are in the same lamentable situation. Seagull exits with his mates but it is not clear what happens to him after that. It may be inferred that he was shipped to the Low Countries.


Two Searchers figure in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England:
  • The First Searcher and his colleague the Second Searcher are employed by Rasni to ensure that the citizens of Nineveh are abiding by his orders that they fast and pray for forgiveness. The rigors of the fast, however, provoke the Clown to hide food and drink in his slops, and when the Searchers approach him, he pretends to be absorbed in prayer. When the First Searcher smells food, he insists upon looking for it on the Clown's person, thereby discovering the contraband. As they lead the Clown away, the First Searcher assures him that he will surely hang even though there are only five days remaining in the fasting period.
  • Along with the First Searcher, the Second Searcher is responsible for enforcing Rasni's order that everyone in Nineveh fast for forty days. When the First Searcher smells food near the Clown, the Second Searcher agrees that the Clown must be searched carefully, and it is he who discovers the beer, bread, and beef that the Clown has hidden in his clothing.


Seare is summoned by Simpleton to attend to his wounds in Cavendish's The Variety. He states that Simpleton's wounds are not serious. He is a "chirurgion" (sometimes spelled surgeon).


Family name of Mr. and Mrs. Seathrift and their children, Timothy and Susan, in Mayne’s City Match.


A merchant in Mayne’s City Match. He ruined Frank Plotwell’s father. He and Warehouse go to sea together leaving Frank and Timothy behind in charge to test their reformation from being Temple roarers. He returns a few hours later, not having gone to sea, to discover that Timothy went with Frank to Roseclap’s Ordinary. He sends Cypher to tell the boy that Seathrift has died. He hears his son weep at the news only because his mother didn’t also die. He unmasks and disowns the boy. He accuses the Scruples of letting his daughter Susan escape. He is delighted, however, to learn that she has been disguised as Dorcas and has married Frank Plotwell to whom she was betrothed years earlier.


Seathrift’s wife in Mayne’s City Match. She accompanies Mrs. Holland to see the captain’s wonderful fish. The captain tells the onlookers that the fish can speak and, when caught, already knew to say Drake and Hawkins, undoubtedly learning those names when the men sailed around the world. She is shocked that her daughter has planned to elope, but tries to mediate between her husband and Scruple. She is delighted, later, to learn that Susan has been disguised as Dorcas and has married Frank Plotwell to whom she was betrothed years earlier.


A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. She petitions the king to pardon her son who is accused of murder.


One of three young spendthrifts turned sea captains passing time in Plymouth waiting for the wind to change in Davenant's News From Plymouth. The other two are Cable and Topsail. Lady Loveright invites him and his friends to Carrack's house. To add to the entertainment, he convinces Furious Inland to court Loveright. Jointure invites him to walk through the orchard with her. At first he is receptive to a romantic encounter with her, but when she begins to talk of marriage, he fears that she is mocking him and defends the life of a sailor against that of a married man. When Loveright confronts him about his relationship with Jointure, he rejects both women. Warwell overhears this exchange and challenges him to a duel. The duel is prevented by Loveright, who announces her intentions of marrying Warwell. Seawit then agrees to marry Jointure.


Sebastian is the male name and role assumed by the disguised Julia as she journeys to visit Proteus at court in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona. Discovering her lover to be besotted with Silvia, Sebastian/Julia assists Proteus in finding the captive lady Silvia among the forest thieves. S/he wins back Proteus' love through her faithful devotion.


Appears in scenes 3, 6, 8, 9, 11, 16, 18 of the anonymous plot of Frederick and Basilea; played by Edward Alleyn, the main actor of the Admiral's Men, Philip Henslowe's son-in-law.


Serving-man to Count Ferneze in Jonson's The Case is Altered.


A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Eltham describes how he has been looking at maps to the Indies, where Sebastian, most likely King Sebastian of Portugal, has asked King Ferdinand to establish a colony.


Sebastian is the twin brother of Viola in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. He is rescued (separately from his sister) from the shipwreck by Antonio. Although at first Sebastian gives himself the false name Roderigo, he quickly reveals himself to Antonio and describes his history, and the loss of his sister. He decides to travel to the court of Orsino, and is followed there by Antonio. Once in Illyria, Antonio gives Sebastian all his money so the latter can amuse himself at the market while Antonio goes to get rooms at the local inn. Sebastian is found by Feste, who thinks he is Cesario and will not be persuaded otherwise. While they are arguing, Sir Andrew and Sir Toby enter and Sir Andrew, also mistaken, strikes Sebastian. He is unpleasantly surprised to find the meek youth he had previously insulted has turned into a fighter. Sir Toby and Sebastian draw their swords, but are stopped by Olivia, who, in turn, is thrilled to find a much more amiable Cesario. Sebastian is completely confused by Olivia's apparent relationship with him, but cannot persuade himself that she is mad. When Olivia enters with the Priest, he agrees to go ahead with the marriage. Shortly after the wedding, he gets into an offstage fight with Sir Andrew and Sir Toby and beats them both. He follows them on stage to apologize to his new wife for beating her kinsman, and discovers a second self, which he recognizes, with some help from her, as his sister in male clothing. He is then able to understand Olivia's apparently instant love for him and explain it.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's All's Well. A commander in the Florentine army.


Younger son of D'Amville in Tourneur's The Atheist's Tragedy. Sebastian objects to the enforced marriage of his sickly elder brother Rousard to Castabella, going so far as to term it "rape." When his cousin Charlemont returns from the war and is imprisoned by D'Amville, Sebastian uses the money his father has given him as his annual allowance to set Charlemont free. When Belforest, Levidulcia's husband, learns that his wife is attempting an affair with Sebastian, the two men confront one another at Cataplasma's house, and each kills the other.


The brother of Alonso, the King of Naples in Shakespeare's The Tempest. Sebastian accompanies his brother back from the wedding of Claribel, Alonso's daughter, to the King of Tunis, when they are stranded on Prospero's island. Alonso, thinking his son and heir Ferdinand has drowned, becomes depressed, guilt-ridden and inconsolable; seeing this, Antonio persuades Sebastian to depose Alonso, and together they plot to murder him. Ariel, however, prevents the murder.


A gentleman in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas. Father to he twins, Thomas and Dorothy, he is described by Hylas as a "mad worm." He is angry when he supposes that Thomas' travels have diminished his son's wild streak, and threatens to disinherit him and remarry to produce a new, roaring son if this proves true. He is somewhat mollified when Thomas claims already to have bedded every woman that his father might consider as a second wife. His inability to tell the difference between his son and his daughter when the former dresses in the latter's clothes leads to a number of comic scenes. In the end, he accepts the laudably lusty Hylas as a worthy husband for Dorothy and, realizing the truth of all Thomas' tricks, welcomes his son back to the paternal bosom.


On returning from the war, Sebastian learns that his wife by precontract has (through the machinations of the false Antonio) bigamously married Antonio in Thomas Middleton's The Witch. Sebastian vows to gain her back by sowing strife between her and her husband. He uses a charm procured from Hecate as well as the help of Florida, Antonio's long-time courtesan, to separate the couple. Finally, disguised as Celio, he becomes Isabella's confidant, exposing her husband's deception and, having disclosed his true identity after Antonio has died in an accident, is reconciled with her.


The Portuguese Sebastian is the husband of Rosellia, the father of Clarinda and the uncle of Nicusa in Fletcher and Massinger's The Sea Voyage. Pirates attacked the Portuguese settlers and pursued their ships when they fled, marooning them on the islands. Sebastian and Nicusa were the only male survivors after fights broke out between the survivors over the treasure. They offer to pay Albert for their passage from the island, but they instead take the opportunity to steal the ship when the Frenchmen begin to fight over the treasure. They encounter another storm and are rescued by Raymond. Raymond takes Sebastian and Nicusa back to the island in search of Albert and Aminta, and when he finds nobody there he leaves them there with four days' supplies, vowing to return only if he finds evidence of the Frenchmen having been on the island. Sebastian and Nicusa are rescued by Crocale and Tibalt and are brought to Rosellia just in time to prevent the sacrifice of Albert and Raymond. Sebastian is reunited with Rosellia and Clarinda; he betroths Clarinda to Raymond and endorses the marriage of Albert and Aminta.


Son to Onælia and the King in Dekker's Noble Spanish Soldier. For his safety, he is sent to the monastery of St. Paul. He returns as a Friar in the final scene to reassure his poisoned father and claim the throne.


Father of Eubella in Shirley's Love's Cruelty. Sebastian owes his sudden rise–from private gentleman through knighthood to privy counsellor–to the passion that the duke entertains for Eubella. Becoming inebriated in the company of Bovaldo, Sebastian then speaks disrespectfully to the duke and is imprisoned; his release and reprieve come only when the duke later becomes self-analytical and repentant.


Sebastian is Petruchio's son and Aurelia's brother in Rawlins's The Rebellion. Sebastian assumes the disguise of Giovanno, a tailor, in order to gain access to Evadne. It is revealed that Sebastian and Evadne's houses are enemies. In order to maintain access to Evadne, Sebastian (as Giovanno) must pretend to woo Evadne's nurse. Sebastian is caught kissing Evadne in his disguise by Antonio. After Antonio is arrested for the murder of the Governor, Sebastian and his tailor band free Antonio. Sebastian goes temporarily insane after the banished Evadne eludes his search. He finds Evadne's scarf and arrives just in the nick of time to save his love from a band of ruffians. Once Sebastian sleeps off his madness, he and Evadne meet Antonio and Aurelia. The young gentlemen agree to cease the hostilities between their houses and thereafter refer to one another as brothers. Sebastian serves the cause of Spain's Philip by disguising as Philippa's tailor in order to infiltrate the enemy court. At the conclusion of the play, Sebastian and Evadne are engaged.


Sebastian is a nephew of Queen Elinor in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot. He arrives at the camp of the rebel Scots with the English ambassadors. He is impressed by Wallace, but Wallace has him beheaded.


Sebastian in Baylie's The Wizard is a suitor for Caelia and a friend of Clerimont, who at first offers to help him win Caelia. When Antonio disguises himself as a conjurer, Sebastian asks him if he will have Caelia and Antonio promises that he will have her. Sebastian is joyful until he overhears the supposed conjurer promise his next visitor, Sir Oliver, that he will marry the virgin Caelia in the morning if she live that long. Antonio escapes Sebastian's anger by promising that he will spend the night with Caelia, and by Antonio's apparent ability to conjure spirits (really Caelia and Penelope behind a screen). Sebastian arrives at Caelia's bedroom and believes the woman who speaks to him in the darkness is Caelia. In the morning, he surprises Sir Oliver by emerging from Caelia's bedroom, but is himself surprised when Penelope unveils herself. He is enraged at first, but then agrees to love and marry her.

The King of Portugal in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley, he enlists the aid of Stukeley and King Phillip of Spain at the Battle of Alcazar. Phillip and his advisor, Don Antonio agree, but use the alliance as an opportunity to gain power in Portugal. Sebastian view this alliance as a "second life" and adopts Don Antonio as his heir in gratitude. Sebastian is slain during the battle, but Antonio is unable to claim the throne since he is captured and sold into slavery while disguised as a priest at the battle.


Sebastian in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar aids the barbarous Moor in the Battle of Alcazar–an attempt for the Moor to gain a throne that was never rightly his. The king of Portugal sent a promise to aid Muly Mahamet and his cause after the Moor begged the king to aid him in exchange for the kingdom of Morocco after victory. Sebastian and his four battalions travel to the crusade, where the king believes he will win the kingdom over for Christ. During the bloody battle, Sebastian dies "with many a mortal wound" and his corpse is brought to the new ruler Muly Mahamet Seth by two of his own Portuguese soldiers.


King Sebastian of Portugal marries Queen Isabella of Spain in Heywood's A Challenge for Beauty. He accedes to his proud wife's demand that Lord Bonavida be challenged to find a woman as beautiful and virtuous as her. He is a minor character, who agrees with his wife about everything, although he becomes more assertive in the final scene.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. Sebastian of Messaline is the father of Sebastian and Viola. He died when they were thirteen and had a mole on his forehead.


The beloved of Mary Fitzallard in Middleton and Dekker's Moll Cutpurse, The Roaring Girl. Sebastian and Mary had been betrothed to each other, but their fathers Sir Alexander Wengrave and Sir Guy Fitzallard had a disagreement, and Sir Alexander forbade Sebastian from marrying her. Sebastian and Mary still love each other, though, and when Mary goes to Sebastian disguised as a seamstress, he explains his plan to force his father into allowing their marriage. Sebastian intends to let his father think he's in love with Moll Cutpurse and plans to marry her. Because Moll Cutpurse is so undesirable, Sebastian feels, Sir Alexander would be relieved for him to wed Mary. In the end, Sebastian and Mary do wed, and his father is relieved and happy to take her as his daughter-in-law.


Sebastiano is the son of Vilarezo and brother to Berinthia and Catalina in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge. He brings friend Antonio home to meet his sisters, and both sisters fall in love with Antonio. When Berinthia is taken by Antonio to his castle, Sebastiano must in honor fight his friend, for even though Sebastiano knows Antonio is innocent of wrongdoing, Sebastiano cannot disobey his father's demand to kill Antonio. He slays his friend and brings Berinthia home. He is himself stabbed to death in his bed by the distraught and vengeful maid, Berinthia.


In Act Four of Davenport's The City Night Cap, he meets Antonio at the bawd house. He is a gentleman of Milan and then he goes with the Duke of Milan seeking for Antonio.


A friend to Alphonso in Fletcher's The Pilgrim who tries along with Curio to convince the old man to show more kindness to his daughter Alinda. He admires Alinda's charity to the poor, and is present when Alphonso discovers Alinda's escape. After a futile attempt to calm Alphonso's rage, he joins Curio in the search for her. Although he and Curio do encounter Alinda in her boyish disguise, they fail to recognize her and are consistently frustrated both in their search for her and in their efforts to rejoin Alphonso. Eventually, they arrive in Segonia in time to rescue Alphonso from his incarceration in the madhouse. They are with Alphonso at the King's birthday celebrations when Alinda finally reappears, and they applaud the play's happy ending.


Secco is a barber whom Octavio, the Marquis, marries to Morosa in Ford's The Fancies Chaste and Noble. When Spadone persuades him that Morosa is having an affair with Nitido, Secco demands a divorce and bitterly abuses Morosa; however, at the Marquis's order he is reconciled with her, and when he discovers that Spadone has tricked him he holds his barber's razor at Spadone's throat until the latter confesses that he is not really a eunuch.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's A Game at Chess. Referred to as representing the Pope, but he does not appear on stage.


A Black pawn in Middleton's A Game at Chess. He catches a White Pawn between himself and the Black Jesting Pawn. They move off, sandwiched together. The Second Black Pawn kicks the White Pawn, who kicks the Jesting Pawn in turn.


A clever, rich, and attractive maid in Thomas Heywood's The Wise Woman of Hogsdon. Second Luce has traveled to London disguised as a page to track down her wayward fiancé Young Chartley, who fled to London the night before their wedding. She arrives in London in time to overhear Young Chartley propose marriage to Luce and their plan to have the wedding conducted secretly at the Wise-Woman of Hogsdon's lodgings. Second Luce resolves to go to the Wise-Woman's herself, and she insinuates herself into the Wise-Woman's service as a boy servant named Jack in order to prevent the marriage. In addition to learning all of the Wise-Woman's cozening practices, she participates in the disguised double marriage plot: as "Jack" Second Luce marries Young Chartley, who believes he is marrying Luce. No sooner has Second Luce secretly thwarted Young Chartley's marriage plans, however, than she discovers that Young Chartley intends a bigamous marriage to Gratiana. Conspiring with the Wise-Woman and all those whom Young Chartley has wronged, she helps to arrange for these characters to confront Young Chartley with his misdeeds. Rejected by both Luce and Gratiana, and discovering that he has been duped into "marrying" a boy, Young Chartley is humbled. In the final moments of the play Second Luce reveals her true identity as the woman Young Chartley was to have married and that she is now truly his wife. The ceremony is binding because her name is also Luce. This revelation provides a happy ending for all but the Wise-Woman, who is horrified to discover that she has been duped into revealing her cozening secrets to Second Luce.


Secret is Shave'em's bawd in Massinger's The City Madam. She opens the door out of fear to Ramble and Scuffle and pleads with them to be gentle to Shave'em. Secret and Shave'em are saved when Shave'em's client, Goldwire, and their pimp, Ding'em, arrive, pretending to be the police. She is later with Shave'em and Ding'em at the lavish party thrown for Luke, and is arrested by Luke. She makes a final appearance in V.iii to plead for mercy from Luke.


Secret is Mistress Pleasant's waiting woman in Killigrew's Parson's Wedding. She is inclined to bawdy, sexual innuendo. She goes along with Will Sadd and Jack Constant in their story that Lady Wild's house has been infested by the plague.


These two functional characters in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V are employed by the Kings of England and France, respectively.


The "Secretarie" speaks very cautiously to the Lord Archbishop and Lord Treasorer about the benefit of listening to the opinions of the people in the anonymous Jack Straw. After hearing that the commoners are in revolt against King Richard II, the Secretary observes that the danger must and will be overcome but at some cost to the country. He compares the King to the sun that may be eclipsed with clouds but cannot be outshone by lesser lights, i.e. stars. Like others of the nobles who appear early in the play, this character, too, is named but has no lines later and disappears without direct explanation when the scene shifts to London.


Lucio's rather inefficient Secretary in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater has been with his master for seven years but had forgotten to write. At Lucio's house, Secretary enters to receive instructions. Lucio orders him to fetch the gown he uses to read petitions in and the pen he answers French letters with. Secretary is then instructed to call the Gentleman in. Secretary exits and enters with Gentleman, attending the conversation. At one moment, Lucio sends Secretary to keep the door and he returns to announce there are some people who require access about weighty affairs of state, apparently treason. Secretary introduces the two Intelligencers with Lazarillo in custody, while Lucio is hiding behind the curtain. Then, Secretary draws the curtain revealing Lucio, who listens to the accusation. Secretary looks more like a butler than a clerk.


The Secretary writes a letter for Lord Falconbridge in Wilkins's The Miseries of Enforced Marriage informing Sir John Harcop that William Scarborrow is to be married to Katherine and not Harcop's daughter.


Witnesses the reconciliation of Chabot and Montmorency in the opening scene of Chapman's The Tragedy of Chabot, Admiral of France. After Chabot and the King leave, however, he (along with the Chancellor and Treasurer) urges Montmorency to do whatever he can to displace Chabot in the King's favor. He is present at Chabot's trial, and expresses his dismay at the judges' initial recalcitrance to find the admiral guilty of high treason. He goes, with the Treasurer, to see the King after the Chancellor has told him of the verdict. Despite his own involvement in the plotting against Chabot, he escapes any consequences.


An honor that the King of Naples bestows upon Philomusus in Sharpe’s Noble Stranger.


Secundus is another choir boy in the anonymous Narcissus. He complains because the Porter intends to keep their earnings for himself. When he hears that the Porter wants them to perform a play, he explains that they have nails in their shoes, and that it would be better to have something laid on the ground, so that they will not damage it. Then they exeunt, to enter later as actors in the play Narcissus.


A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. An allegorical figure named as the nurse of Ruina.


Security is an old usurer in London in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!, a pander and a usurer, who guards his young wife Winifred jealously. He readily agrees to help Sir Petronel defraud Gertrude of her land. When Sir Petronel tells him in confidence that he intends to elope with the attorney, Bramble's wife to Virginia, Security is malicious enough to agree to help Sir Petronel in the deceit. Security is unaware that he is the intended cuckold, not of the lawyer. In his spite, Security invents a disguise for the runaway lady by offering Sir Petronel his own wife's gown. Thus, Security claims, Bramble will be deceived into thinking that the woman is Security's wife, while at the same time Winifred will be safely at home in her old gown. In fact, Security's suggestion causes Winifred to be disguised in her own clothes, while her husband believes she is Bramble's wife. At the Blue Anchor tavern, Security delivers Sir Petronel's money from the sale of Gertrude's land. He brings Bramble along, apparently to take his leave of Sir Petronel. Since Security thinks Sir Petronel is taking Bramble's wife away, he considers it fun to have the cuckolded husband in attendance. After alluding scornfully to cuckolds, Security takes his leave of Sir Petronel and exits with Bramble. At his house, Security notices Winifred's absence, he realizes the deceit and exits crying in despair: "A boat, a boat, a boat, full hundred marks for a boat!" Following the wreck of his boat in the storm, Security is cast ashore at Cuckold's Haven. He is placed in prison for fraud, and Wolf reports that the prisoner has gone almost mad. When Bramble visits him, Security will not see him and speaks of nothing but his horns. In the final reconciliation scene, when Security is still haunted by the idea of having been cuckolded, Winifred denies it energetically. Touchstone intervenes with a speech. According to Touchstone, being a cuckold should be a comfort, as this is an argument that he has a beautiful wife. In Touchstone's special logic, Security is a usurer and therefore bound to go to Hell anyway. Security accepts his situation and welcomes Winifred back.


One of the sixteen banished Affections not otherwise listed in the dramatis personae but included in Madame Curiosity’s list of banditti in the anonymous Pathomachia. He is to be placed before Pride in Pride’s army charge because he is negligent if danger is not eminent. He disguises himself as Boldness, but Justice sees through the disguise at once.


One of the two wise men (along with Hermito) of the Anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. Securus is a country gentleman that has been asked by the nameless monarch to help adjudicate civil controversies. He sits in a chair at one side of the stage and observes the various disputes, together with the machinations of Antonio and Noverindo, occasionally passing judgment on the follies on display.


The sedanman is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. He exchanges various refined pleasantries with the carman and the waterman. His courtly behavior and refinement are a comic contrast to the coarse vulgarity of the courtiers Will and Jack.


Sedicyon is the chief villain and an example of "the Vice" in Bale's King Johan, Part 1. Sedicyon is a supporter of the Pope and is aided by Dissymulacyon, Privat Welth and Usurpid Power. Sedicyon is also Stephen Langton, the Archbishop of Canterbury.
The chief villain and an example of "the Vice" in Bale's King Johan, Part 2. He is a supporter of the Pope and, together with Privat Welth, he carries out the plot to destroy King Johan. He is hanged by Cyvyle Order at Smithfield. He is also Good Perfeccyon and Stevyn Langton, the Archbishop of Canterbury.


She and her husband are humble inn keepers in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell. They arrive to watch Cromwell passing by, discussing how they had helped Cromwell when he was young, and provided him with the cheese cakes he loved do much. Hodge who is clearing the way for Cromwell's grand procession makes them move. Cromwell recognizes them in the crowd, remembers he owes them money, repays it there, promises the amount of the former debt every year and invites them to dinner that day. They are delighted calling him Old Tom, and my good Lord Tom. At the banquet Cromwell again thanks him.


The family name of Old Seely, Gregory, Joan, and Winny in Heywood and Brome's The Late Lancashire Witches.

Mentioned as being executed by Bolingbroke (now King Henry IV) along with Brocas for his part in an attempted rebellion at Oxford in Shakespeare's Richard II.


He and his wife, Joan, humble inn keepers in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell, arrive to watch Cromwell passing by, discussing how they had helped Cromwell when he was young, and provided him with the cheese cakes he loved do much. Hodge who is clearing the way for Cromwell's grand procession makes then move. Cromwell recognizes them in the crowd, remembers he owes them money, repays it there, promises the amount of the former debt every year and invites them to dinner that day. They are delighted calling him Old Tom, and my good Lord Tom. At the banquet Cromwell again thanks him.


A Scythian military leader and Humber's counselor in the anonymous Locrine. He knows that Albanact approaches with "millions of men," and he warns Humber in III that the "Britains" come.


Lord Segasto, Amadine's suitor, is a coward who fails to protect her when they are attacked by a bear in the anonymous Mucedorus. After Mucedorus slays the bear and seems likely to displace him in Amadine's affections, Segasto asks Tremelio to kill Mucedorus. The plot fails and Mucedorus kills Tremelio, although Segasto eventually manages to rid himself of Mucedorus by having him banished. Later, when Mucedorus has rescued Amadine from Bremo and revealed his true identity as the Prince of Valencia, Segasto relinquishes his claim to Amadine, thus eliminating her father's only objection to a match between Mucedorus and Amadine. Segasto's capitulation allows the play to end happily with the marriage of Mucedorus and Amadine.


A West Saxon Lord in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. Segebert was commanded by Kenwalcus to protect the West Saxon laws when Bertha became Queen by not allowing her to marry anyone who would compromise them. Bertha banishes Segebert when he attempts to prevent her marriage to Osriick the King of Northumbria, who would be too harsh. Before leaving the Kingdom, Segebert entrusts his estate to his youngest son Offa, the wicked flatterer, and advises his daughter Mildred to reject the affection shown her by Theodrick. Although Segebert does not trust his eldest son Anthynus, who will not flatter him, he takes him with him into banishment as a servant. In this way he hopes to prevent Anthynus from challenging Offa for control of the estate. He sets out for Northumbria in an attempt to convince Osriick not to marry Bertha. En route, he is set upon by outlaws hired by Offa to kill him. After escaping them once, he is wounded in the head by Offa himself. Recognizing the sword that he had given Offa, Segebert realizes that he had misjudged his sons. While Anthynus is searching for a remedy for his wounds, Segebert is taken in by Alberto the Hermit, who nurses him back to health. Jeffrey finds Segebert in the woods and brings him to Anthynus with Offa's sword as evidence against him. After his own banishment is reversed, he entreats Bertha to reverse Alberto the Hermit's as well. Segebert is extremely pious and expresses faith that anyone who is penitent may be forgiven. These positive qualities, however, are counterbalanced by his susceptibility to Offa's flattery.


Petty King in Kent in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. The "four Kings of Kent" (Cingetorix, Carvilius, Taximagulus and Segonax) are followers of Cassibelane.


Sejanus, a senator in the anonymous Tragedy of Tiberius, is from the beginning in league with Tiberius. Julia sent him to Rhodes to free Tiberius from exile on the death of Augustus. He counsels the Emperor in his affairs but is actually planning to take the throne for himself. He begins an affair with Livia, the Emperor's daughter-in-law as a prelude to usurpation. He assists Tiberius in the poisonings of Julia Augusta, Asinius, and Sabinus. He causes a cave-in at Spelunca cave in order to save Tiberius and further strengthen the Emperor's trust in him. He tricks Tiberius into believing that his own son, Drusus Tiberius, is a traitor, thus causing Tiberius to poison the young man. He is discovered when Tiberius finds letters from Sejanus to Julia Augusta betraying his treachery. Tiberius kills him by placing a flaming crown upon his head.
Sejanus (Lucius Aelius), favorite to the Emperor Tiberius in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall. At first Sejanus pretends friendship and loyalty to the Emperor. In fact he is attempting to take the throne for himself. He plots with Livia, the Emperor's daughter-in-law, to murder her husband, Drusus Senior. He proceeds to seduce Livia and request her hand in marriage from Tiberius. The request reveals to the Emperor that Sejanus is ambitious for the throne. Tiberius in concert with Macro makes Sejanus believe he is to be given great powers. Instead, he is accused of treason and beheaded. His followers are also arrested and killed. His children are executed, his young daughter first having to be raped to avoid the Roman prohibition against executing virgins.


Sejeius is one of the conspirators in Massinger's The Roman Actor who join the final plot against Domitian.


An English commissioner who rules Scotland, with Haslerig and Thorne in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot. The commissioners humiliate Old Wallace, forcing him to give up his lands, and they refuse to help Sir John Graham when Young Selby abducts his daughter Peggie. Wallace saves Peggie by killing Young Selby. The commissioners capture Peggie and order her to be executed unless Wallace gives himself up. Wallace does so, and Peggie is duly exchanged for him, but Wallace is then released by Grimsby, who defects to the Scots. After the massacre at Lavercke, Selby captures Old Wallace and Peggie as they seek a cave for shelter, and stabs Old Wallace in revenge for the death of his son. Later, after a long period of revolution, Selby is "miserably poor" and suicidal. Wallace meets him and is merciful, but then Haslerig, also wretched, kills him in a fight over some food.


Young Selby abducts Peggie Graham with the aim of forcing her to marry him in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot. Wallace kills him.


A "ghost character" in Sharpham's Cupid's Whirligig. A preacher and Mistress Correction's first husband.


Seldom is a citizen and the husband of Grace Seldom in Field's Amends for Ladies. He is also the landlord of Lady Honour. He delivers gloves to Lady Honour, Lady Perfect and Lady Bright from Ingen. Seldom is confident in his wife's chastity, and hopes to gain by her conversation with men such as Lord Proudly. Lady Honour goes to Seldom and asks him to arrest Lord Proudly on a debt. Seldom agrees to help her, more worried about the duel than solely about his money. With the Sergeants, Pitts and Donner they encounter Lord Proudly and take him away. Seldom and Grace attend the eventual marriages of Lady Honour to Ingen and Lady Bright to Bold.


Grace Seldom is the wife of Seldom, a citizen, and assists him in his shop in Field's Amends for Ladies. She is sent a propositioning letter by the Husband via Moll Cutpurse, which she rejects. She also rejects the advances of Lord Proudly, who tries to woo her in her husband's shop. Seldom is confident in his wife's chastity, and hopes to gain by her conversation with men such as Lord Proudly. Seldom and Grace attend the eventual marriages of Lady Honour to Ingen and Lady Bright to Bold.


Selenger is the disguise name of Mistress Cressingham, wife to George Cressingham in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. Selenger is Lord Beaufort's page. As Selenger, Mistress Cressingham receives Sib at Beaufort's house. Having arrived there on an amorous assignation, Sib attempts to seduce the page. By pretending to be in love with the page, Sib hopes to escape both Beaufort's amorous propositions and her husband's pandering. Beaufort announces that, after Sib's revelation that she is in love with Selenger, the page has left his house forever. Knavesbee complains to Beaufort that his wife has locked herself with Selenger in the lawyer's house and would not let him in. According to Knavesbee, Sib admitted to having slept with Selenger. In the final scene, Selenger appears in woman's dress as Mistress Cressingham, but she has no speaking part as a woman.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Selenium is a character in Plautus' comedy Cistellaria. Cordatus mentions Plautus when he speaks of the device of inserting elements of violence in the comedy. After the episode of Sordido's suicide attempt, Cordatus gives the example of Plautus' comedy Cistellaria, in which such a violent incident happens. The character, Alcesimarchus, tries to commit suicide and is saved by Selenium and the Bawd. Cordatus considers the example from Plautus as the highest authority.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Seleucos was one of Alexander the Great's generals, who became the satrap of Babylon and founded the dynasty of the Seleucides. Dol Common disguised as the "mad" lady pretends to have fallen into a nonsensical fit of talking. Her gibberish incorporates scattered phrases from Hugh Broughton's Concent of Scriptures. Among other things, she speaks about something that happened to Seleucos, a fragment probably taken from the historical section referring to the state of the empire after Alexander's death.


A mute character in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus, one of Antiochus' courtiers.


Seleucus is Cleopatra's treasurer in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. When she asks him to confirm that the list she has given to Caesar contains a true account of all her wealth, he instead reveals that she has reported less than half.


A king in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. Along with Ptolomie and Lysimachus, he opposes Antigonus. Seleucus shows his compassion in battle by releasing the captured men of Demetrius. While visiting the court of Antigonus after the conflict is resolved, he encounters Celia and recognizes her as his daughter Enanthe.


There are two characters names Seleucus in May's Cleopatra.
  • The first is a Servant of Cleopatra. He appears in a couple of early scenes with Glaucus, discussing the forthcoming hostilities between Antonius and Caesar.
  • The second is a "ghost character". He is a lieutenant of Cleopatra; after Actium, she promises Thyreus that she will order Seleucus to surrender the town of Pelusium to Caesar.


Seleucus is a soothsayer in May's Julia Agrippina who prophesies that Poppaea will become Empress and Otho Emperor.


Leonatus, known throughout his life as Seleucus in Shirley's Coronation, is the supposed son of Eubulus. He suggests a battle of honor to end the "bad blood" between his family and that of Macarius; only the reconciliation of Eubulus and Macarius stops a duel between Leonatus and Macarius' supposed nephew Arcadius. When Arcadius is proclaimed king, Cassander and Eubulus work to place Leonatus unrightfully on the throne. By the play's end, however, the Bishop has testified that Leonatus is truly the elder son of the dead king Theodosius and is the throne's rightful heir.


A lord and favorite to the king, in love with Claricilla in Killigrew’s Claricilla. Seleucus and Appius overtake Melintus (disguised) wooing Claricilla, and Seleucus takes her from him saying that he is unworthy such a reward. He is angered when Claricilla shows the man favors and argues with the disguised Melintus until Appius intercedes and insists they be friends. He secretly considers ambushing the wounded man, but the approach of Timillus prevents him. When Claricilla lies to him so she can see Melintus alone, he begins to hope she is dishonest and will lie with him as well as for other men. He barges into their conference and challenges Melintus to a duel. He privately renounces love of her and aims only at winning her to gain the crown. He learns that Claricilla loves the stranger and that Appius is helping them. He hopes to ruin them by revealing all to the king. He confesses in soliloquy that he frankly intends to be a villain. Learning that Appius will reveal his plots to the king, he prepares a counter plan to win he king to his side again. When the king arrests him, he freely admits that he offered love to Claricilla. He offers to stab himself if he has been disloyal and tells the king of a “true" threat that he is seeking to disarm. He takes the king to catch Claricilla with the stranger at their rendezvous in the garden and glories in his revenge. When the stranger Melintus challenges him, they go to the haven by the town to duel. He falls In the duel, defeated by the stranger, before the king comes and has him taken to be tended in the town. Later, Manlius gives Melintus and Philemon the news he is not badly injured. He learns from a surgeon that Carillus will succumb to and Timillus survive his wounds. He vows vengeance upon Timillus. When the king tells Seleucus that he has learned that the stranger is Melintus and that Philemon is alive, they conspire to capture and kill the two men. He advises the king to send Claricilla the letter to discover whether she means to accept Melintus or not. If she means to accept him, he dies. Manlius secretly tells Seleucus that he can win him both the crown and Claricilla if Seleucus will trust him, and Seleucus agrees. Buoyed by Manlius’s plan, Seleucus plans to kill Melintus, Philemon, and the king in the garden before forcing Appius to second him in his taking of Claricilla. He also plans to kill Olinda to stop her talking. When Appius and Claricilla appear to be captured, he boasts that he will marry Claricilla on the spot and despoil her in front of Melintus before killing him. He has a priest standing by, but when the tables are turned, he draws a dagger to kill himself. When Claricilla tries to stay his hand by forgiving him, he is overwhelmed by her angelic nature and stabs himself vowing hatred to all but the heavenly Claricilla.

SELF–LOVE **1617

One of the twenty-five vices that are the extremes of the eleven virtues in the anonymous Pathomachia. Malice, Self-Love, and Jealousy are extremes of Charity. Older than Pride but more inward and weak. He agrees to aid Pride in the war so long as he may have half the spoils. He assumes the disguise of Charity but Justice sees through him at once and sends him to prison.


This is an alternate, and more complete, name for Calymath, which is used indifferently by characters in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. See also CALYMATH.


See also SELLIMUS.


Son of Bajazet and Soldan of Trebizond in ?Greene's Selimus I. Begins his first scene with a long monologue in which he voices his disdain for the claims of morality, religion, or family, viewing them all as "bugbears to keep the world in fear, / And make man quietly a yoke to bear." Without these obstacles, he sees no reason to delay any longer his ambition for his father's crown. He sends Occhiali to request a meeting with Bajazet and then discusses options for gaining the crown with Sinam Bassa. Selimus rejects Sinam's worries about the Bashaws' loyalty and the threats Acomat and Corcut might pose; he also rejects Sinams reminder about punishments after death. When Selimus learns from Occhiali that Bajazet refuses to see him but has given him the territory of Samandria to govern, he rejects the gift as an attempt to buy him off and orders Sinam to prepare his forces to march on Byzantium. Selimus, leading his army, encounters Bajazet at the head of his army and is chastised by him for his disloyalty. Selimus rejects Bajazet's charge and claims that his army is mobilized to fight the Christians and regain territory Bajazet has lost. He also claims that Bajazet has been disloyal to him by willing the crown to Acomat. In the ensuing battle, Selimus is beaten in by Mustaffa. Later, alone, Selimus laments his defeat in battle and vows to continue fighting Bajazet with an even stronger force. After Acomat's conquest of Natolia, Selimus receives a message from Bajazet asking him to lead the Janissaries against Acomat. He initially likes the idea, since he could also use the same army against Bajazet, but is suspicious of a trap. When he sees Mustaffa's seal on the letter, though, he is reassured because Mustaffa's honesty would not allow him to agree to any treachery. Selimus appears before Bajazet and proclaims his loyalty and asks for pardon. When Bajazet appoints him head of the Janissaries and orders him to march against Acomat, Selimus thanks him but in an aside rejoices that he now has the power to force Bajazet to resign the crown to him. Selimus exits and shortly thereafter offstage voices hail him as Emperor of the Turks. Selmus, along with Hali, Cali, Sinam, and the Janissaries, return and compel Bajazet to surrender the crown to Selimus. Selimus then plots to have Abraham poison Bajazet and Aga. He sends Hali and Cali with an army against Corcut, whom he orders them to strangle. He plans to then kill Acomat; his sons Amurath and Aladin; and Solima, Bajazeth's daughter and Mustaffa's wife. When Abraham arrives, Selimus orders him to poison Bajazeth before he leaves Byzantium. After Abraham has carried out Selimus' order, Selimus, along with Sinam, Mustaffa, and the Janissaries, presides over the internment of Bajazet's and Aga's corpses in the Temple of Mahomet. He vows, once they have ceased mourning, to fight against Acomat. Later, Selimus, along with Mustaffa, Sinam, and the Janissaries, discuss Acomat's flight and his alliance with Ishmael and the Soldan of Egypt. Hali and Cali along with the Page bring in Corcut as prisoner. Selimus orders the Page, who has betrayed his master, to be starved to death, and allows Corcut to speak before he dies. After Corcut delivers a speech detailing his conversion to Christianity and the punishments God has in store for Selimus, Selimus strangles him. Selimus then orders Sinam to lay siege to Amasia, where Acomat's wife and his sons Amurath and Aladin reside. He then tells Mustaffa to govern Byzantium while he accompanies Sinam. Later Selimus receives word from Hali that Aladin and Amurath have fled after being warned by Mustaffa. He orders Hali to fetch Mustaffa and Solima and when they arrive he asks Mustaffa why he has betrayed him. Despite Mustaffa's explanation, Selimus orders Sinam to strangle him. Solima accuses Selimus of cruelty and he orders Sinam to strangle her as well. He then orders his force to continue on to Amasia. When they arrive, Selimus has a parley with the Queen of Amasia, who refuses to surrender to him. After storming the walls of Amasia, Selimus captures the Queen and orders Hali to strangle her. Selimus, along with Sinam, Hali, Cali, and the Janissaries, then encounter Acomat and his forces. Selimus mocks Acomat and challenges him to single combat and also defies Tonombey. After battling and defeating Acomat's forces, Selimus triumphs. He rewards Sinam for capturing Acomat and asks Acomat to kneel to him. When Acomat refuses and scorns Selimus, Selimus orders Sinam to strangle him. Recounting his path to success, Selimus ends the play vowing to lead a force against Egypt and Persia.

SELINA **1625

Selina is sister to Felice and Antonio in Shirley's The School of Compliment; the three are children of Cornelio. Selina has repulsed the flowery advances of Infortunio and, in a moment of undue piety, promised to wed old Rufaldo. Ruing her promise, Selina installs Antonio as her substitute and dons shepherd dress in the country. At the shepherd's festival she appears as Antonio, proving that Bubulcus truly did not murder Antonio as he had once claimed. Revealing her identity she finally accepts the love of Infortunio.


Clephis' daughter in Wilson's The Swisser. Selina is in love with Alcidonus, the son of Antharis, her father's mortal enemy. Antharis is opposed to their relationship, and Alcidonus is afraid of telling him that they are already married. He wants Selina to remain silent about their marriage, too, although her father is less opposed to their love. Alcidonus dares not speak to her in the presence of his father, but he goes to sing in front of her balcony and makes an appointment with her in the garden grove. When they meet there, they are surprised by Antharis, who comes with a guard looking for quarrelers. Antharis has his guards arrest his son and take him home. Antharis then tells Alcidonus that he is Selina's brother by the same mother. Alcidonus decides to kill himself together with his beloved Selina. They take what they think to be a deadly poison, but Clephis has foreseen their plans and exchanged it for a strong sleeping drug. Antharis discovers the couple once again just before they seem to die, he confesses his lie and turns mad.


Selina is Clorinda's maid in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers. In Act One, she is courted by Clindor, but she does not accept him. In Act Three, Selina is given a letter for Clarimant that she does not want to show to Cleon to be loyal to her lady. Later, in Act Four, she comes to Neustrea with Clorinda and Cleon, disguised as his sister.
Selina is Clorinda's maid in Carlell's 2 Passionate Lovers. She has come to Neustrea with Clorinda and Cleon, disguised as his sister. Being discovered, Selina tries to help Clorinda and suggests her visiting the druid. It is a trap to help Cleon to kidnap her. Selina still loves Cleon and wants to marry him. Thus, when she is told that Cleon has to marry Clorinda to be crowned king of Burgony, she mistrusts Cleon. In spite of being promised that he will marry her first and then his marriage to Clorinda would be void, she does not think that he would favor her after being crowned. Thus, she asks him to do it right there in front of a priest, but Cleon does not agree. In Act Five, Selina is depressed as she realizes all the evil deeds she has carried out. She wants to die but before she wants to take revenge on Clorinda, whom she hates. When the boat is set on fire, Selina is saved by a sailor and then she goes to release Cleander, who promises that he will marry her. But, Selina does not trust him again and stabs him to see what he has written in his heart. She dies with her love as she cannot swim.


An honest, merry court Lord, kinsman to the Captains, Gaselles and Osman in Glapthorne's Revenge for Honor. In comparison to his brusque cousins, Selinthus is urbane and satirical, preferring court life, with its luxuries, flirtations and gossip, to military service. He is loyal to Abilqualit, concerned over the prince's melancholy but facetious in his comments on it. He is indifferent to the irritation his flippant manner provokes in the stern Mura, giving a long, witty lecture on hypochondria to tease the truth from Abilqualit, but without gaining any insight from the prince. He later chats with the treacherous Mesithes, making plain his opinion that eunuchs are 'pimps royal', although by his own standards this may be high praise. The Caliph's sudden order for the army to depart for Persia, and Abilqualit's reluctance to be made its new general suggests to Selinthus the true cause of the prince's unhappiness: his passion for Caropia. Selinthus, unaware of Abrahen's disloyalty, mentions this to the younger prince, who grasps at the idea of telling Mura of his wife's likely adultery. Selinthus invites his cousins, Gaselles and Osman, to a party to celebrate the campaign. It is unclear from the text who sings the drinking songs mentioned in stage directions, but Selinthus is likely to be the chief merry-maker. Their celebrations are interrupted by news of the arrest of Abilqualit. Selinthus is next seen after the supposed death of Abilqualit, the death of the Caliph and acclamation of Abrahen. He brings the urgent news that soldiers are pursuing Mura for revenge. He does not name his cousins, who, in fact, are leading the reprisal. With his cousins, Abilqualit later trusts him with the secret of his survival and planned revenge on his brother. He is sent to inform Tarifa of developments. Although not further mentioned in stage directions, it is likely that he accompanies Abilqualit, with his loyal cousins, to the final showdown: the orders given by the dying Abilqualit, as Caliph, include instructions for a promotion to reward Selinthus for his loyal service.


Like the other gamesters in Shirley's The Gamester, he decides that drinking in the tavern is more agreeable that attempting a violent rescue of Beaumont. He drinks at the tavern and later gambles at the ordinary, losing heavily. He stimulates more nonsense talk from Young Barnacle, by asking him to elaborate on his discourse about the realm of Lubberland. Together with the other gamesters, he beats Young Barnacle to humiliate and reform him. After performing this service, he helps out with a romantic project–he co-witnesses the marriage of Hazard and Penelope.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. Probably Hilarius's client. Bond goes to see him wondering aloud what "juice" he may yield. His first name could be Tim, but the reference is obscure.


Amurath's son in ?Greene and Chettle's John of Bordeaux, he enters the play claiming to be only survivor of a raid on the Turkish camp by the Germans, and that he will die unless his father ransoms him. It turns out, however, once his father has given up his crown and robes, that his son was merely an apparition conjured by Friar Bacon, and that his real son is, in fact, safe.


A courtier and good companion to King Edward in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV, Sellinger urges the king not to be worried or swayed by the remarks of the Duchess of York concerning the king's recent marriage to John Gray's widow. Calling himself Tom Twist he accompanies the disguised king to dinner at the home of Hobs the Tanner.
Traveling with Edward during the French campaign in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV, Sellinger is assigned to spy upon the French Duke of Burgundy.


A "ghost character" in Barry's Ram Alley. Mistress Sell-smock is a bawd who formerly represented Francis; William Smallshanks introduced Francis to her. She brings a suit against Francis claiming that she owes £8 in recompense for six weeks" board and five weeks" loan of a red taffeta gown bound with a silver lace.

SELYMUS **1618

One of Baiazet's seven sons in Goffe's Raging Turk, Selymus shares with five of the others resentment that his youngest brother Corcutus has been made emperor. When Corcutus resigns the throne to Baiazet, Selymus shifts his antagonism to his father, and undertakes a Machiavellian plot to gain power for himself. At Isaack's suggestion, he wins the support of Mesithes, Mustapha, and Asmehemides by giving them gifts. Although he helps Baiazet murder Mahomet, Trizham, and Achmetes, he is further enraged when his father declines to give him a province to rule because he is too young. He resolves to flee from the court, but to return to overthrow his father. With the support of the Tartarian King, he conquers Thrace. Baiazet sends Cherseogles to rebuke him, and he pretends to be submissive, but actually continues to move on the capitol surreptitiously, and sets an ambush for the emperor outside Constantinople. In the battle, the two come face to face, but Baiazet puts Selymus and his Tartar supporters to flight. Selymus refreshes his army, and is again marching to attack when he learns of Baiazet's wish that he confront Achometes. He again pretends submission, and leaves, followed by the bassas, but almost at once returns with a cheering crowd, demanding that his father abdicate. Emperor now, he moves to confront Achometes, and is beguiled by Cherseogles in disguise to a midnight rendezvous, where the bassas kill him.


A lady much given to Platonic love in Suckling's Aglaura (first version), she was in love with Zorannes and is now in love with "Ziriff" (Zorannes in disguise), possibly because she subconsciously recognizes the similarity. She rejects Jolas's advances and weeps over "Ziriff" at the end of the play.
In the "happy ending" second version, the character engages in much the same action. A lady much given to Platonic love in Suckling's Aglaura (second version), she was in love with Zorannes and is now in love with "Ziriff," possibly because she subconsciously recognizes the similarity. She rejects Jolas's advances.


Semei, called by David the son of Jemini in Peele's David and Bethsabe, confronts David shortly before the battle with Absalon. Cursing David and repeatedly throwing dirt and stones at him, Semei charges him with various evil acts (including murder and adultery) and maintains that Absalon's rebellion is God's way of punishing David. When Joab and Abisai wonder why David accepts such abuse, the king responds that Semei may well be inspired by God to remind David of his shortcomings.


Loved by Eumenides in Lyly's Endymion. Her sauciness causes Cynthia to command her not to speak for a year on pain of losing her tongue. Cynthia deems her "the very wasp of all women, whose tongue stingeth as much as an adder's tooth." When Cynthia learns of Eumenides' honorable love of Semele, she asks if Semele will have him. Semele, still under orders not to speak, remains silent, and Endymion reminds all that silence is consent. She is therefore given to Eumenides. She chooses, however, to lose her tongue and says she will not have him. Cynthia orders her head cut off, but Semele protests that Eumenides is not faithful for he never asked her for her love. Geron insists that the trial at the magic well proved his faithfulness as a lover. Eumenides offers to have his tongue cut out instead of Semele's, and, so proving his love, Semele accepts him gladly.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Golden Age. She is mentioned as among Jupiter's panoply of mistresses.
Daughter of Cadmus and princess of Thebes in Heywood's The Silver Age, she is seduced and impregnated by Jupiter disguised as a huntsman. Her vanity makes it easy for Juno, disguised as the nurse Beroe, to persuade her that in order to prove that he is really the god and not just a human imposter, Jupiter must make love to her in the same form in which he goes to bed with Juno. Her mortal frame cannot withstand the god's full power, and she is consumed, though the god manages to rescue their child, Bacchus, from the flames.
Daughter of King Cadmus of Thebes in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter; third of the four mistresses of Jupiter in the play. Unlike the others, Semele is presented in the middle of her love-affair, and, unlike them, she glories in it with a Marlovian pride that leads directly to her downfall. She is already considering a request to Jupiter for Hebe and Ganymede to wait on her when the jealous Juno begins her plot. Disguising herself as Beroe, Semele's old nurse, Juno induces the girl to ask her lover for proof of his identity: he is to come to her in his full glory, holding the thunder and the lightning. Semele, "ffyred", as she says, by this idea, tricks the reluctantJupiter into promising to do it; the result, of course, is that she is burned to ashes. Afterwards, Jupiter announces that he will preserve her unborn child–the god Bacchus–and warns his human audience to learn from Semele's example not to enquire into the secrets of the gods.
Only mentioned in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. Semele is mentioned by Sir Wittworth as he laments after finding out that his beloved Modestina has been raped and abused, because now she is too ashamed to go back to him. According to Greek mythology, Semele was the daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia and one of the many love interests of Zeus. Semele requested that she be granted whatever she asked of him. Zeus reluctantly agreed to make the rash promise. Thus, Semele told Zeus to reveal himself in all of his divine glory. Zeus tried to resist, but he had made a promise. The moment the god showed himself to the woman, Semele, who was pregnant at the time, was incinerated by the heat of his thunderbolts. But Zeus rescued the unborn child and placed him in his thigh. That is how the immortal Dionysos came to life.


Semiramis appears in dumbshow in the additional Chorus that follows Act I in the quarto of Greene's James IV.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Semiramis was a mythical queen of Assyria, and the wife of Ninus. She was the daughter of the Syrian fish-goddess Derceto, and was married to Onnes. Onnes slew himself after Ninus resolved to marry Semiramis, and she then married him. After the death of Ninus Semiramis ruled alone, reputedly building Babylon and conquering Egypt and Lybia before resigning the throne after forty-two years and ascending to heaven as a dove. When Morose is confronted with his wife's termagant nature, while he thought her a silent and compliant woman, he compares Epicoene's aggressiveness to that of the famous commanding women of the classical world. Morose says that Epicoene is his regent already and is amazed that he has married a Semiramis.
Only mentioned in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. Semiramis is another name for Queen Sammu-remat of Assyria. Trimalchio refers to the false ladies Milliscent and Margery jointly as a Semiramis.


Sempronia is a patrician Roman matron, wife of Decius Brutus in Jonson's Catiline. While her husband is away, she gets involved in Catiline's plot and uses her house as a secret meeting place for the conspirators. According to Galla, Sempronia is skilled in Greek and Roman literature, can sing, play, dance, and compose verses. Catiline hopes to attract her to his cause because she is in debt and leads an extravagant life. At Fulvia's house, Sempronia informs Fulvia about her involvement in the political maneuver intended to have Catiline elected as consul. According to Sempronia, Catiline and Antonius will be elected because the other senators will give way. Discussing Fulvia's favorite, Curius, Sempronia implies that Fulvia can have her lover, Caius Caesar, if she wishes. In addition, Sempronia alludes to Fulvia's joining the conspiracy and attending a women's meeting at Catiline's house, presided by Aurelia. When Curius is announced, Sempronia exits. At Catiline's house, Sempronia enters with Aurelia and Fulvia, after having completed their feminine conspiratorial conference, to meet the men, who finished theirs. After a final statement of confidence, the conspirators of both sexes depart. At her husband's house, Sempronia receives the conspirators, expecting the Allobroges. Much as she wants to, Sempronia does not get involved in direct negotiation with the ambassadors. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, it is understood that Sempronia and the other women involved in the plot are not punished.


Calisto's witty servant in ?Rastell's Calisto and Melebea. Sempronio, although he sometimes mocks his master, agrees to the reward of a gold chain if he can help Calisto to achieve Melebea's love, and brings in Celestina to lead the campaign.


Sempronio is a gentleman of Venice in the anonymous Knack To Know An Honest Man. He is apparently killed in a duel by Lelio for attempting to seduce the latter's wife. The hermit Phillip cures him and he returns to Venice in disguise, as a cynic, having rejected pomp and lust. When he hears Fortunio and Marchetto exclaiming on the pleasures of beauty and money, he tells them that neither has any lasting value. He then asks to be Fortunio's servant and Fortunio agrees. As Fortunio and Marchetto are forcing themselves on Annetta, Lelio's wife, and on Lucida, his daughter, Sempronio talks about a knack to know an honest lady and an arrant knave, and warns Fortunio that he will be ashamed. He then speaks to Servio, asking him the cause of all the activity. Servio explains that Sempronio is dead, that he (Servio) is a lot richer for it, that he is willing to lose a kinsman a year if this is the result, and that anyone who forgets God for a dozen years will become rich. Sempronio directs him to his conscience. When Marchetto and Fortunio come to seize Brishio's goods, after Brishio has been found guilty of helping Lelio escape Venice, Brishio tells Sempronio that his goods and two sons are nothing compared with helping his honorable son-in-law, leading Sempronio to say "here's a knack to know an honest man." Later Fortunio sends Sempronio to seduce Lucida with money, an attempt Lucida rejects with Sempronio's full and explicit support. Sempronio tells Annetta and Lucida how he honors Lelio, offering his life to Annetta and a book tracing Lelio's family tree to Lucida, as rewards for their rejecting Fortunio. When Orphinio and Zepherius, Brishio's sons, vainly ask the senators for help, Sempronio gives them jewels and comments on the selfishness of the age. He also warns them, because he has heard Fortunio and Marchetto talking, that their sister and niece will be attacked that night, so they agree to protect them. When the sons wound Fortunio, Sempronio speaks up at their trial to say the old men (the senators, of whom Marchetto is one?) are the ones who ought to be punished, not the brothers, since they prefer gold to God. He explains to the court that Fortunio and Marchetto had tried to ravish Lucida and Annetta and that the brothers had simply been defending the women. Fortunio admits his crime and his father, the Duke, to forgive him. At Lelio's trial, Sempronio acts as a court official and as a moral observer. When Lelio, Orphinio, and Zepherius are all sentenced to death, and Brishio steps forward to offer himself up, the Duke suspends proceedings to ask the senate to decide the right procedure. Sempronio as Penitent Experience, then steps forward observing that if Sempronio could be discovered, the situation would be that of a comedy. The Duke agrees it would be. All are forgiven except Lelio, and Penitent Experience, commenting once again on the knack to know an honest man, asks permission to execute Lelio himself. The Duke gives him permission and Penitent Experience points out that only experience has the right cut off the head of nobleness. Consequently Lelio ought not to be executed. The hermit Phillip steps up to explain how Sempronio is still alive, and Sempronio uncovers himself, removing the legal reason for executing Lelio. He wants all to forgive each other, pointing out that he, Lelio, and Annetta are knacks to know honest men. At the end of the play Sempronio moralizes on the characteristics of the good man and the thief.


Sempronius, a kinsman of Titus in Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus, shoots arrows with messages to the gods at Titus's request.


Posted along with Achillas to murder Pompey in the anonymous Caesar and Pompey, Sempronius reflects that he has served Pompey in the past, but has no qualms about changing sides. He is the first to stab Pompey. Caesar has him killed.


One of Timon's false friends in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens, a flattering lord. He refuses to help him when one of Timon's servants comes to ask him for a loan of fifty talents. He says he would have helped if Timon had asked him first.


One of the senators in Fletcher's Valentinian who aid and legitimize the ascent of Maximus to the throne.


Sempronius is captain of Sapritius's guards in Massinger and Dekker's The Virgin Martyr.


Sempronius, a Captain in Massinger's Believe As You List. He is in the employ of Metellus. He is one of the men behind the plan involving the courtezan and Antiochus in the prison.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


Careless brings in this unnamed Sempster in Marmion's A Fine Companion to help in fashioning a new and elegant suit.


Senator is a member of the Roman senate in the last days of the republic in Jonson's Catiline. He directs the proceeding of the meeting in which the conspirators are indicted, and evidence is brought against them. Senator asks the elderly members of the Senate to open the letters captured from the Allobroges. At the same time, he asks the praetor if he has brought the weapons from Cethegus's house. Senator attends the rest of the meeting that ends in the conspirators' being placed in private custody. When the Senate is summoned urgently to take a final decision regarding the punishment of the conspirators, Senator wonders why they have been called so urgently. The praetor gives his report on further seditious actions of the conspirators. When Syllanus expresses the extreme position that the conspirators should be sentenced to death, Senator agrees. However, when Caesar gives a more lenient opinion, Senator says that Caesar has spoken honorably. Finally, the Senate rules on the death sentence for the members of Catiline's conspiracy.


At the end of John Webster's Appius and Virginia, this unnamed Roman Senator urges the Advocate to read Virginia's pedigree publicly and clear her name of the charges brought against her by Marcus Clodius.


The First Senator reprimands Servio for using tears to try to persuade the Duke to support his cause against Lelio in the anonymous Knack To Know An Honest Man. The Second Senator asks for evidence that Lelio is in fact guilty of murder before any sentence is pronounced against him. Later he persuades the Duke to lessen the sentence against Lelio, since no law allows Lelio's house to be taken from his wife and daughter. When Brishio's sons ask the senators for help in their poverty the senators ignore them. One of the senators receives news that Brishio is fighting successfully with the Duke of Milan and with the Duke of Florence. He tells the sons that they should be soldiers rather than beggars. At the trial, The Second Senator points out that a hundred crown fine, not death, is the proper punishment for Brishio.


In a dumb show in Marston's Antonio's Revenge, senators are seen hearing testimony by Galeatzo charging Piero with a number of his crimes. They mime their loathing and shake their fists at him. Two senators are present at the masque when Piero is killed.


The Penates or Senators are supporters of Brutus and fight on his behalf in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece.


The Roman senators and tribunes in Shakespeare's Cymbeline discuss their emperor's decision to make Caius Lucius the general in charge of invading Britain.


Mute characters, unless they serve an unmarked choral role as do the soldiers in the same scene of ?Ford's The Laws of Candy. A stage direction calls for three Senators in addition to Porphicio and Possenne to judge the contest between Cassilane and Antinous.


Two Roman Senators witness the trial of Aper and name Diocles emperor after Diocles executes the corrupt provost in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess. After the Persian attack on Rome, the Senators express the country's support for Diocles and his efforts to rescue Charinus, Aurelia, and Maximinian.


Two Senators in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped sit with the Duke over the trial of Fransiscus.


Except for Caphis, the senators of Athens have no individual names in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens. They are shown as flattering, greedy, heartless and cowardly old men.
  • At the beginning they appear as flatterers at Timon's reception.
  • The senator in II.i is a moneylender and usurer. He sends his servant, also named Caphis, to get his money back from Timon.
  • Timon expects the senators to give him a loan of a thousand talents (II.ii.) for his merits, but Flavius has asked them already, and they have declined.
  • Alcibiades asks the senators to show mercy towards a friend of his that has been sentenced to death, but the senators remain hard and cruel, and when he insists, he is banished.
  • As Alcibiades' army approaches, the senators ask Timon to come back to Athens and defend their city against Alcibiades, but Timon declines and tells them to hang themselves.
  • In the end the senators have to surrender their city to Alcibiades.


Along with the Duke, they assess the threat of a Turkish invasion against Cyprus and decide to send Othello there in Shakespeare's Othello.


Described as a "conceited gentleman" in the dramatis personae, Sencer is a gallant in love with Gratiana in Thomas Heywood's The Wise Woman of Hogsdon. After gaming with Young Chartley and Boyster, Sencer goes to Sir Harry's house to woo Gratiana, accompanied by his friend Haringfield. However, his attempt to ingratiate himself with Sir Harry fails miserably, even with Haringfield's testimonial on his behalf. Sir Harry recalls Sencer's reputation as a roisterer and bans him from his house, vowing that the day he bids Sencer welcome and invites him to enjoy his hospitality is the day he will give consent for Sencer to marry Gratiana. Sencer disguises himself as "Sir Timothy," and as a rival scholar to Sir Boniface insinuates himself into Sir Harry's household by outwitting Sir Boniface in a display of learning and making Sir Harry believe that Sir Boniface's Latin is obscene. When Young Chartley arrives and begins to woo Gratiana, Sencer reveals his true identity and lays claim to Gratiana for himself. He claims to have satisfied the conditions of Sir Harry's oath by being welcomed into the household, but Sir Harry declares the claim invalid because trickery was used. Vowing to be revenged of the smug Young Chartley and prevent his wedding to Gratiana, Sencer disguises himself again as a servingman and seeks the aid of the Wise-Woman of Hogsdon. As the servingman, Sencer arranges for those who have been wronged by Young Chartley to rendezvous at the Wise-Woman's lodgings, where they confront him with his misdeeds. When Sencer's role in saving Gratiana from a disastrous marriage is revealed, Sencer wins the loving approval of both Gratiana and Sir Harry, and Sir Harry welcomes him as his future son-in-law.


A "ghost character" in Richards' Messalina. He is the brother of the virtuous Annaus Mela.


Seneca, Nero's former tutor, is appointed to the Senate at Agrippina's instigation in May's Julia Agrippina. He persuades them to accept Nero as Emperor, but subsequently conspires with Burrhus Afranius to induce Nero to marginalize Agrippina because he thinks women should have no role in affairs of state.
Statesman and stoic philosopher, formerly Nero's tutor in the anonymous Tragedy of Nero. He recalls the better days of Nero's youth and laments the decline of his character into tyranny. Not directly involved in the conspirators' plotting initially, he is sympathetic to their political ideals. Implicated in the conspiracy only after its defeat, he is an exemplary figure of stoic resignation in his death.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. For almost a decade Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4? BC–AD 65) was one of the most powerful men in the Roman Empire. An adviser to Emperor Nero, Seneca also wrote philosophical works and dramas. Most of Seneca's philosophical writings are essays on practical ethics, based on modified Stoicism. His dramas were slavish and generally uninteresting imitations of the Greek tragedies. Seneca's writings were very influential in the Renaissance. At his house, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw pronounces one of his sententious maxims, saying that, when he praises sweet modesty, he praises sweet beauty's eyes. Promptly, Dauphine pretends to identify the dictum as originating from Seneca. Daw denies it, saying that these are his own creations, and he shows his contempt for Seneca and Plutarch, calling them grave asses and mere essayists. Daw adds that he utters wise aphorisms every hour and, if only they were collected, he would become equally famous. When La-Foole recommends reading from Raynard the Fox as a possible cure for Morose's madness, Daw retorts that Morose must have Seneca read to him. According to Daw, the ancient moral philosophers and their sober teachings are appropriate reading for melancholic persons.


Two unnamed friends lament Seneca's fate in the anonymous Tragedy of Nero. They are true disciples of his stoicism, mourning their loss of him while agreeing with him that his death will take him to greater enlightenment.


Senio is a gentleman of France in the anonymous Ghost. He is father of a son and a daughter: Babilas and Aurelia. Once he learns about Octavian's death, he turns his daughter's young suitors down, and, instead, chooses his rich friend Philarchus for her. He actually manages to convince his daughter to marry on the very day her fiancée has died, since everything was prepared for a wedding. He also asks Engin to help Philarchus to win the heart of Aurelia. Later, just before Octavian's funeral rites, in the cave, Senio manifests his astonishment when he sees Philarchus there. In fact, his amazement grows when he sees Octavian is alive. But he is actually happy to learn that his daughter had married Octavian before her fake wedding to Philarchus, after he has seen that the latter is a lecherous old man.


At the beginning of Shakespeare's As You Like It, Duke Senior has been overthrown and banished by his brother, Duke Frederick. With his loyal courtiers, Duke Senior sets up a kind of court-in-exile in the forest of Arden. There Duke Senior finds a new sort of contentment–far from the intrigues of court–where there are "sermons in stones, books in the running brooks, and good in every thing." Duke Senior's daughter Rosalind is later exiled and arrives in the forest disguised as the young man Ganymede. Near the end of the play, all of the characters reunite in the forest, Jaques de Boys arrives to announce that Duke Frederick has repented, and Duke Senior is restored to power with an improved sense of his duties as ruler.


Sennois the weaver in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen is a friend of the Second Country Person and plans to participate in the Duke's games.


Senon is a lord disaffected from the Prince Agenor in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers. In Act One, talking to Stremon, he mentions some insolent commanders that should be punished by the prince. Later, he meets Clindor, with Lucidor, who asks him for money. He humiliates the borrower, what causes him a problem with Lucidor. They are to fight a duel, which turns out to be a pulling of his nose.


Sensible is a chambermaid and also the disguise adopted by Violetta in Shirley's The Witty Fair One. The chambermaid is heavily involved in the passage of correspondence between Aimwell and Violetta. Richley dismisses her when he learns of her complicity in allowing the correspondence. Sensible continues, however, to aid her mistress. The two exchange identities. Serving as Violetta's double in a successful ruse to unite Violetta and Aimwell, Sensible manages to wed Treedle, who mistakes her for Violetta. She is allowed to keep that position because Treedle, advised by Brains, will not admit to having made the mistake.


A rowdy drunk in Rastell's Four Elements who tries to distract Humanity from his studies. He brings Humanity to a Tavern and arranges for food, drink, and women; he becomes angry, however, when Humanity chooses to talk with Experience rather than continue their feasting. He rejoins Humanity and gets into a tavern brawl with him, then leaves Humanity with Ignorance to arrange a musical interlude, which he with performs with dancers.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Johan The Evangelist. Mentioned as Idleness' brother.


A noblewoman attended by Hameliness, Danger, and Fund-Jonet in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates. She becomes King Humanity's paramour. Catching sight of Chastity near the court, she asks the King to banish her. When she (Sensuality) is in turn banished by Divine Correction, she cheerfully takes her place among "Rome," or the Spirituality. She attends the Spirituality in the Second Part and, when the Three Vices are put in the stocks, she is chased away and sits with the Poor People. When the despoiled prelates come to her for protection, she rejects them.


An imaginary character in the anonymous Trial Of Chivalry. Rodoricke claims, falsely, that a sentinel has reported hearing the sounds of Katharine being raped by Ferdinand.


The Sentinel, a servant of Cornelia in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. He announces the arrival at Lesbos of two men in disguise; they turn out to be Pompey and Demetrius.


The Danish "Centinel" is taken prisoner in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. He informs the Messenger to both Philicia and Artemia that Arviragus is "taken by the Danes" and "design'd for sacrifice," and that Guiderius "strives with Arviragus which should dye."


Two French Sentinels at Orleans in II.i of Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI are instructed by their Sergeant to be vigilent. They raise the alarm when they see the English approach.


A mute character in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Sir Sentloe is present at the dinner where Robin Hood is outlawed. Robin threatens him, as well as Lacy and Warman, stating that if they do not avoid him, he will execute them all for treachery against him. At this Sentloe and the others run away.


Sentloe is in love with the courtesan Florence in the anonymous The Fair Maid of Bristow and disregards the warnings against her offered by his friend Harbert. He takes her away to Bristow, but there finds himself discarded when Florence chooses Vallenger instead. Sentloe is given a sleeping draught by Harbert and is thereby thought murdered by Vallenger. In the last scene he appears disguised as a friar until Harbert eventually reveals that he is alive.


Sir William Sentlow is sent to the Tower by Queen Mary in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me for urging the Queen's grace toward Elizabeth.


The Sentry enters with the Watch in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. When Enobarbas enters, the Sentry suggests they overhear his words rather than interfere. He is also the one who realizes Enobarbas is dead.


Sentwell is a friend of Master Clack in Brome's A Jovial Crew. He aids in the search for Clack's niece, Amie. Accompanied by the Constable, he interrupts the reception of the beggar wedding and apprehends Amie, along with Springlove, Oldrents' daughters, their sweethearts, and various beggars. Sentwell brings the crew to Master Clack's house, where Oldrents is reunited with his daughters and his steward, Springlove.


A Roman soldier in Kyd's Cornelia, faithful to Caesar, who, along with Achillas, assassinates Pompey. Septimius is allied with Achillas and Photis.


Septimius is a soldier enlisted in Catiline's conspiracy in Jonson's Catiline. During the secret nightly meeting in which the conspirators devise their strategy of retaliation, Catiline informs his fellows of his plans. He says he has already sent Septimius into the Picene territory to raise an army to help the conspirators on the fated day, when they intend to set Rome on fire and kill Catiline's enemies at once.


Septimus is a Roman soldier in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. He once served Pompey but now follows Ptolemy. He agrees to assassinate Pompey and enters with the head, boasting, but is sharply reproved by Achillas for turning against his former leader. Septimus defends himself, saying that he was obeying his king's orders. He complains that men seem to have turned against him for the deed, but when Photinus offers him money for future deeds, Septimus is quick to claim that enough money will make him honorable and brave to others. He enters next richly dressed, but is quickly disabused of the notion that his new clothes and wealth will win him friends. First he is mocked by Antony, Donabella and Scaeva, who tell him he reeks of betrayal, no matter how finely he dresses. He is then rejected by Eros, who tells him that she might be a wanton, but she will not kiss a murderer. Finally, he tries to give money to three lame soldiers, who praise him for his kindness until they discover his name. Then they throw the money in his face and curse his parents. Rejected by everyone, Septimus realizes his crimes and repents. He is next seen dressed in black, telling the three soldiers his sins and asking for their prayers. However, he is quickly persuaded back to his old ways by Photinus and Achillas, who tell him that Caesar has done as bloody deeds and gained fame for them. He agrees to kill Caesar, justifying it by claiming that Rome itself was founded in blood through the murder of Remus by Romulus. However, he changes his mind, realizing that Photinus will not protect him after he has served his purpose. He therefore approaches Caesar and offers to conceal Caesar in a secret cave and that night help him kill Photinus and Achillas. Caesar, not surprisingly, does not agree to be trapped underground on Septimus' word, and instead orders Septimus hanged for treason. Septimus attempts to bribe the soldiers, but is dragged off to his death.
A murderer in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. Once a tribune of Pompey's, Septimus is responsible–with Achillas and Salvius–for the murder of Pompey.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One.Three soldiers talk about the dramatic change in Septimus, and the Third Soldier says that it is amazing to see Septimus cry, since when his mother died he laughed and sang. The First Soldier adds that his mother dreamed, during her pregnancy, that she would give birth to a buzzard, and therefore hated her son.


Balthazar's servant, Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. Along with Pedringano, Serberine is co-opted into helping his master murder Horatio. He is himself murdered when Lorenzo convinces Pedringano that Serberine means to betray them to the authorities.


A "ghost character" in Lyly's Gallathea. She is referred to as having been afflicted by the love plague. She falls in love but does not appear on stage.


Serena is the actual daughter of Stellio, the supposed daughter of Vicinia and supposed sister of Mæstius in Lyly's Mother Bombie. Disturbed by the incestuous desires she feels for her brother Mæstius, Serena and Mæstius agree that they must not act on their love. Together they consult the cunning woman Mother Bombie, who prophesies that they will be lawfully married tomorrow, and that they will each displace a fool and become wealthy in the process. Believing such events to be impossible and viewing the prophecy as a cruel joke, they hurl insults at Mother Bombie and leave dejected. Only when Vicinia reveals the baby-switching plot in the final scene do Mæstius and Serena discover that not only are they not brother and sister, but they are also the children of the wealthy Stellio and Memphio-a revelation that fulfills Mother Bombie's prophecy and allows them to marry.


A shepherdess, skilled at herbal medicine, with whom Palemon falls in love in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder. When she tells him never to speak to her again, he goes mad. She rejects Titterus's attempts at persuading her to love Palemon. She cures the wounded Shepherd. After the battle, she cures Palemon's wounds, and when his madness is also cured, grants him her love.


A mute character in Whetstone's 2 Promos and Cassandra. He accompanies the King's officer as he reads the royal proclamation regarding corrupt officials.


A gull in Lyly's Mother Bombie. The Sergeant attempts to aid the Hackneyman in his suit against the servant Dromio by threatening arrest and a few blows over the head with his mace, but he is largely an ineffective thug. Along with the Hackneyman and the Scrivener, the witty servants cozen him.


Bowyer gives instructions to the sergeant of his company as they go out to take up their positions on watch in the anonymous Trial Of Chivalry.


The last disguise that Cockledemoy assumes in Marston's Dutch Courtesan is that of Sergeant. Having persuaded the real sergeant to drink himself into a stupor, Cockledemoy steals his clothes and heads to the execution of Malheureux, at which he picks the pockets of the accused, much to Malheureux's chagrin.


This character has a functional use befitting his name in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. He appears once escorting Witgood.


He assists Rafe in the Mile End muster in The Grocer's Honour portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle.


The Sergeant in Barry's Ram Alley guards Francis when she is imprisoned. She tries to bribe him to release her by offering him sexual favors, but is interrupted and carried off by Lieutenant Beard.


At the war in Tourneur's The Atheist's Tragedy, Charlemont finds himself almost exhausted and begs the Sergeant to relieve him. The Sergeant replies that he will do so, but only after he has finished his rounds, leaving Charlemont to fall asleep and be visited by the ghost of his father Montferrers.


The 'Serjeant,' accompanied by the Tutor, arrests Brains in Shirley's The Witty Fair One after Brains and the Tutor have fought.


There is a sergeant from Tuscany on the front line in the scene when a disguised Florello surrenders to the town perdue in Davenant's The Siege.


The Sergeant in Shirley's The Young Admiral is a Sicilian combatant who leads Pazzorello into the battlefield, where Pazzorello–following false instructions on gentlemanly behavior–lies face down among the whizzing bullets.


When the May Day riots of 1517 erupt in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More, the Sergeant-at-Arms asks the ringleaders whether they would refuse the king's mercy. John Lincoln replies that they would not, but he vows they will show none to the foreigners who have abused the London citizens with impunity. Later in the play, an official named Downes arrests More, and because the source passage for the May Day riots in Holinshed's Chronicles names the Sergeant-at-Arms as Nicholas Downes, it may be that Munday and his fellow contributors considered the two characters to be one and the same.


He announces to Cromwell that he has been arrested in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell.


A court official of London and companion of Yeoman Hanger in Middleton and Dekker's Moll Cutpurse, The Roaring Girl. Curtilax's name refers to a curtle ax, or cutlass, a short, curving broadsword with a single edge much favored by seamen. When Sir Davy Dapper files a false arrest warrant against his son Jack, Sergeant Curtilax and Yeoman Hanger are dispatched to arrest the young man. They are prevented from doing so, however, because of Moll Cutpurse's intervention.


Two Sergeants in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates. They enforce the commands of the Parliament and hang the Thief, Deceit, and Falset.


Two sergeants arrest Philip in I.ii of Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho because of a debt of four score pounds.


Possibly brothers in Wilde's Love's Hospital. The First and Second Sergeants are hired by Comastes to seize Surdato after the deaf man has rescued Nigella. At Comastes's direction the two sergeants "pretende an action of Detinew att Signeour Figmentoes suite" while the "blackamoore" is sent home to Facetia.


Two Sergeants try to arrest Orsabrin in Suckling's The Goblins, mistaking him for a man who owes money to a Tailor. They are unsuccessful, and one of them is wounded in the attempt.


Two Sergeants figure in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden:
  • The First Sergeant who arrests Mercurio is identified later as Tripes (see separate entry).
  • Second Sergeant assists Tripes with the arrest of Mercurio. He is probably the character later identified as Mace (see separate entry).


In II.i of Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI he posts the Sentinels at Orleans and gives them instructions to be vigilent.


Along with the Sheriff, Bailiff and Mayor of Hereford in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle, he attempts to restore order in aftermath of a skirmish between the factions of Powis and Herbert.


A "ghost character" in William Rowley's A Match at Midnight. A fellow of Captain Carvegut and Lieutenant Bottom. Leader of a 'brave company'. Tim is gulled into buying drinks for the company.


This Sergeant carries the mace during the queen's coronation in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me.


Two Sergeants should take Demeas to prison in II.5 of the anonymous Timon of Athens. Timon pays 16 talents to set him free.


Sergeants is the name the Mayor of Rochester uses in addressing the Officers guarding George Browne in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women.


Two Sergeants arrest Barnard for failing to repay his loan to Master Berry in [?]Heywood's The Fair Maid of the Exchange, but they are content (for a bribe from the Cripple) to take him first to Berry's house. There, the Sergeants assure Berry that they have witnessed Mall swear her love for Barnard, one of the things that influences Berry to cancel Barnard's debt and to accept him as a son-in-law. The Sergeants do not appear in the cast of characters, but they may be the non-speaking "Officers" who do appear there and who accompany Wood in the arrest of Master Flower at the end of the play.


The Sergeants arrest Spendall in Cooke's Greene's Tu Quoque when he defaults on his debts and intern him in a debtor's prison administered by the jailer Lodge.


Ordered to take custody of Fitzdottrel for default on Gilthead's warrant in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass.


Two Sergeants are hired by Russell to arrest Fitzallen on trumped-up charges of debt in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel. They disguise themselves as saltpeter-men in order to catch Fitzallen by surprise.


In V.i of Brome's The Damoiselle, they arrest Wat. They take him to a room to wait while Valentine thinks how to save him.


Two sergeants in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped are told by Tomazo, Lodowick and Stultissimo to arrest Julio. Julio tricks a learned Doctor into speaking a good word for him, and escapes.


Disguises assumed by Shift and Nim in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. They approach and arrest Pearle, saying they do so in the name of Wright, the goldsmith. With Pigot’s help, they agree to let Pearle go in exchange for two Angels apiece, forty shillings, and he must buy them wine.


“Ghost characters" in Glapthorne’s Hollander. Urinal tells Sconce of how Artless’ weapons salve cured two sergeants and their yeoman who otherwise would have drunk mace-ale with the devil.


Trojan lord who lands in Carthage with others (Ilioneus, Sergestus) and is reunited with Aeneas in II.i of Marlowe's Dido, Queen of Carthage.


Priest to Mahomet in Percy's Arabia Sitiens. In Epimenide's presence, Sergius prays to Mahomet for rain to end the drought afflicting the desert. Reveals in a soliloquy that he has never had a true divine revelation and that his oracles are fabricated. Overhears Maroth and Haroth reveal to Epimenide the prayer that leads the way to Heaven. Vows to see it for himself and have some true insight to share with the people of Arabia. Tells Nabatha and Shebe that Epimenide is in Heaven and that they both will be married that very evening. When Nabatha and Shebe bring Caleb and Tubal to Sergius, he agrees to take them all to Heaven to find Epimenide. Once in Heaven, he tells Mahomet how he learned the prayer that leads to Heaven. Mahomet orders Sergius whipped for bringing mortals into Heaven.


Lucius Sergius Catilina is a Roman politician and conspirator in the last days of the Roman republic in Jonson's Catiline. In 63 BC, Catiline set up a conspiracy to be elected consul but was defeated. In his study in Rome, Catiline ponders on his intended scheme, inspired by the evil apparition of Sylla's Ghost. Aurelia enters and Catiline tells her his ambitious dream, instructing her to enroll the dissatisfied Roman matrons to his cause. When the conspirators enter, Catiline delivers his address and they seal the pact by drinking human blood. After Cicero has been elected consul, however, Catiline pretends to congratulate his rival in the Senate, but he meets later with the conspirators to discuss plans for retaliation. At his home, Catiline discusses secretly with Caesar, who tells him that he and Crassus are on his side, and he should go along with his plot. When the conspirators enter, Catiline presents the plan of setting fire to the city and attributes specific tasks to each member. In the Senate, Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy, but Catiline denies the allegations. However, he says he will go to banishment to clear all suspicions against him. When he meets the conspirators later, Catiline tells them to go along with their plan, despite his self-banishment, while he is raising an army abroad. After the conspirators have been arrested and tried in the Senate, the exiled Catiline delivers his final address to the army, inciting them to fight to the death. Later, Pomtinius reports to the Senate that Catiline resisted the assault till he died.




Serlsby is a country squire from Laxfield and a suitor for Margaret's hand in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. Although his wife has recently died and the customary mourning period has not elapsed, he is eager to marry Margaret, and holding the "copy" to the Keeper's land, he hints that he will dispossess Margaret's father if the young woman does not select him. He later dies in a duel with his chief local rival Lambert of Crackfield. His son is the Second Scholar.


A Protestant murdered by Mountsorrell in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris.


Wife of Seroune in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned as the tempter of Adam. Hatred of the Serpent is part of the covenant between God and Adam.


The terrifying Serpent appears onstage in The Valiant Welshman, and was presumably performed by puppetry or an actor (or two) in a costume. It is conjured by the Witch to ravage the countryside in the hope that Caradoc will want to fight it. Caradoc uses a magic herb obtained from an Old Man to repel it.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. A Danish beast that eats women. Whoever slays this beast will be espoused to Juliana, Princess of Denmark. Clamydes slays it (offstage), and Subtle Shift brings the news of the slaying to Bryan Sans Foy. The creature appears later as a head upon Clamydes's sword.

SERPIX **1638

A ‘tottered’ (tattered) common soldier with a cock feather in his hat in Mayne’s Amorous War. Macrinus, Lacero, and Serpix tell Callias, Neander, and Artops that they are going to complain to the king how the captains use up all the regiment’s money and finery to deck themselves while the common soldiers are left in squalor. They earn ‘four and eight pence weekly.’ The soldiers threaten to mutiny, but their captains turn a deaf ear to them. They play a trick by disguising themselves as Thracians and capturing their cowardly captains whilst Callias, Neander, and Artops dally with the “Amazon" warriors in their tent. Callias, Neander, and Artops are blindfolded and led away and made to exchange clothes with their soldiers (still believing them to be Thracians), and Macrinus, Lacero, and Serpix tease and taunt them with visions of slavery and gelding in Thrace. Callias begs to be hanged instead.


A "ghost character" in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. The ruler of Iberia and an enemy of Scilla. Scilla, after he regains Rome the second time, sends Metellus to find and kill him.


Sertorius carries a message from Icilius to the Roman camp in John Webster's Appius and Virginia. Hs is to tell Virginius of the treachery against Virginia.


A courtier in Wilson's The Inconstant Lady. He is often in Pantarbo's company, Seruius joins with Tonsus in making fun of Pantarbo's foppery. He also helps Tonsus separate Aramant and Millecert when Aramant draws his sword on his brother.


See also SERVINGMAID, SERVINGMAN, USHER, BOY, PAGE, and related concepts.


Servant to the Keeper of the Tower in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appears in the second scene.


In the B-text only of Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, the Servant to the Duke of Vanholt parries with the saucy Carter, Clown, Horse-Courser, and Dick when the rowdy group demands an audience with the Duke so that they can question Faustus.


A servant assists Phillis in feeding the palmers in the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick.


Appears in scene 1 of the anonymous plot of Frederick and Basilea, played by Black Dick (Jones), an actor who played minor roles.

SERVANT **1597

This unnamed Servant is employed by the Lord Chief Justice in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.


The Servant in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington arrives to tell the Prior that he has been replaced by Father Jerome, signaling his fall from grace with John.


The Servant is Wellbred's domestic in Jonson's Every Man in His Humour. In the street before Knowell's house, the Servant enters while Knowell is discussing with Stephen. The Servant has the assignment of delivering a letter to Edward Knowell from his master Wellbred. The Servant asks the father if his name is Knowell and, since he gets an affirmative answer, he gives Knowell the letter addressed to the son. Thus, the Servant's mistaken delivery triggers the entire plot. At Knowell's instruction, the Servant leaves with Brainworm to have a drink as a reward for delivering the message.

SERVANT **1598

A mute character in Haughton's Englishmen for My Money. He announces that Susan Moore may arrive very late at Pisaro's house.


The Servant, also known as Sanders' Man in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women, keeps track of George Sanders' money and investments and answers his questions about them. When Sanders' wife, Anne, wants to buy cloth and other items, Sanders' Man asks his employer whether she should be given the money. The Servant enforces Sanders' refusal of money in front of the Milliner, the Draper, and Anne Drurie, thus embarrassing Anne Sanders, intentionally or unintentionally.

SERVANT **1600

He announces the arrival of the two witnesses whom Gardiner will persuade to lie about Cromwell in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell.


The Servant of Old Plainsey in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green enters to announce that messengers have come from the Cardinal and Gloucester. These are, in fact, the Cardinal and Gloucester themselves, in disguise.


The Servant in Shakespeare's Hamlet brings Horatio to the Sailors who have brought letters from Hamlet.


Mute. He wears ‘a blewe coat’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants.


W.W. Greg divines a servant from the disintegrated plot of the anonymous 2 Fortune's Tennis, which lists "A s"–nothing more is known or can be recovered.


A servant to Glister in Middleton's The Family of Love. He fetches the whips Glister uses to humiliate Lipsalve and Gudgeon.


A servant of Thomas Sherley Jr, who argues against the mutineers in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers. He stays with Thomas when the sailors abandon him. When Thomas is captured, the Servant follows him, and informs the King of England of Thomas's fate.


The Servant in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra announces the arrival of Thidias, and then, on Antony's orders, takes him off to be whipped. He reports back that Thidias was soundly whipped and begged pardon.


A servant to Cerimon who helps recover Thaisa from the sea in Shakespeare's Pericles.


D'Amville discovers the unnamed Servant sleeping near a pile of gold in Tourneur's The Atheist's Tragedy. When the nobleman wakes him and asks if he has been sleeping, the Servant indicates that he has had a restless sleep, thus sounding a note of uneasiness shortly before the ghost of Montferrers arrives to mock his brother. When D'Amville inquires about the gold, the Servant tells him it is part of the treasure that has come to him as a result of Montferrers' death, and he is then sent away so the villain may privately enjoy the sight of his newfound wealth. Later in the scene, the Servant returns to inform D'Amville of Sebastian's death and of Rousard's continuing decline.


The Servant in Field's Amends for Ladies reports to Ingen that the letter was delivered by an Irish footboy (really Lady Honour in disguise) and sends him in.

SERVANT **1611

A Servant of Petronious in Fletcher's The Woman's Prize rushes past Rowland looking for his master, informing Rowland that Petronious' "jewell," Livia, is stricken with illness.


A servant in [?]Middleton's The Second Maiden's Tragedy warns Govianus and the Lady of the armed Fellows surrounding the house.

SERVANT **1613

A servant of the Second Daughter of Bonduca gives her letter to Junius via Judas in Fletcher's Bonduca. Later, he identifies Junius to the Second Daughter.


Two servants figure in Fletcher's The Honest Man's Fortune"
  • One helps to separate Longavile and Dubois in the tavern when they pretend to fight.
  • Another carries messages within Lamira's house; this second servant refuses tips from Laverdure, La-poope, and Mallicorne.


The Servant in Shakespeare's Henry VIII brings news to Wolsey's banquet that a group of strangers on a barge have just arrived; the Servant does not recognize the disguised King Henry among the visitors.

SERVANT **1613

The Servant's role in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen is to report to Emilia news of the seesaw nature of the challenge between Palamon and Arcite.


Aurelia's servant in Middleton's More Dissemblers Besides Women, whom she trusts.


A servant attends Merione in Fletcher's Queen of Corinth when she meets her brother Leonidas in their home, and again as she goes to Vesta's temple on the night before her marriage with Agenor. This seems likely to be the same servant who introduces Euphanes to Merione's presence when he arrives to present the fateful ring to Beliza.


One unnamed servant in particular may be assumed in the service of Brunhalt's agents in Fletcher and Massinger's Thierry and Theodoret. He assists Bawdber in the plan to bribe De Vitry. He later assaults and incapacitates the magician Le Forte (offstage), enabling Lecure to assume his identity in disguise.


One of Russell's servants in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel is ordered to announce the arrival of the saltpeter-men, although he nearly ruins the scheme by missing his cue. He may be the same Servant who arrives at the Roaring School to ask Chough to return to Russell's house.


A servant to Julio in Webster's The Devil's Law Case.


The Servant in Fletcher's The Knight of Malta tells Norandine that it is not yet day, and questions him on his plans to walk around the town.


One of Cassilane's servants announces Fernando's arrival in ?Ford's The Laws of Candy.

SERVANT **1619

He takes charge of the banquet for Rollo and Otto along with the Sewer in Fletcher’s Bloody Brother.

SERVANT **1619

A servant tells Philaritus that his father has sent for him in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. This is probably the same character as Coridon.


Unnamed Servant to Polymetes in May's The Heir. He first brings his master letters from the Court and announces the arrival of Virro to pay his respects to grieving father and eligible daughter. He next announces the arrival of a stranger, 'Irus,' on private business.


Unnamed Servant in Guiomar's house (possibly, though not necessarily the Page who attended Duarte earlier) in Fletcher and Massinger's Custom of the Country. The Servant rejoices to learn that Duarte still lives and agrees to keep the secret until Duarte permits its revelation.


A woman in the service of Violante in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. She delivers a message to Jamie arranging the fateful meeting with her mistress.


Petruccio's servant in Fletcher's The Chances. He is told to hold the horses while the challenge is delivered.

SERVANT **1625

An unnamed Servant of Cornelio in Shirley's The School of Compliment. This fellow reports he cannot find Selina upon her wedding day morning.


Tells Annabel of Bonvile's departure, and runs after him, leaving Annabel alone to be menaced by Rochfield in Webster and Rowley's A Cure for a Cuckold.

SERVANT **1626

This unnamed Servant in Belfare's household refers to his master as "Your Worship" in James Shirley's The Wedding.


The Servant in Davenant's The Cruel Brother, along with an unspecified number of other, mute Servants, helps subdue Lothario and tells him to be quiet.


This unnamed Servant in Shirley's Love's Cruelty serves Bellamente and reports seeing Clariana and Hippolito together in Clariana's chamber.


Silent character in Act V of ?Brewer's The Country Girl. He comes with the doctor.


This unnamed Servant of Sir Gervase Simple offers a song as backdrop to Gervase's sorrow over the loss of Aurelia in Shirley's Changes.

SERVANT **1632

He serves at the home of the Bonavents in Shirley's Hyde Park and is possibly same character as Jarvis. Tells the disguised Bonavent about the marriage plans of Lacy and Mistress Bonavent, and facilitates Bonavent's entry into the house.

SERVANT **1633

Sir Richard Hurry's Servant in Shirley's The Gamester. He tells Leonora and Violante that Delamore has been slain by Beaumont. He carries out various simple tasks on the Hurry family's behalf.


A "ghost character" in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday. Cleander informs Eubulus that he commanded a faithful Servant to kill Thyrsis after Euarchus's order that Sylvia and her lover be killed. Claiming that his Servant's hands trembled with fear while attempting to strangle the Thyrsis, Cleander describes how he spotted the golden circle around Thyrsis's neck and therefore told the Servant to let him go.


A servant of Bellamie's uncle in Nabbes' Tottenham Court, who has only a few lines in act five, but important ones. Near the end of the play, he brings word that Worthgood's rich uncle has died and made Worthgood his heir, thus allowing Worthgood and Bellamie to marry.

SERVANT **1635

The Servant in Shirley's Coronation explains to Polidora about Arcadius' reaction to Sophia's proposal at court. The Servant also carries a letter from Polidora to Arcadius.


Informs the King that he has found "one dead or asleep" near "th'Garden dore" and that one of Adrastus's servants is also "dead hard by" in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia.


A servant of Countess Claridon in the anonymous The Wasp. He announces the arrival of "Constable Fallbridge."


A servant to Horten in Nabbes' The Bride, who arrives in act five with news that Kickshaw has escaped and and stolen some of Horten's rare antiquities.


The Servant to Demagoras is unnamed in Glapthorne's Argalus and Parthenia. He provides an audience for Demagoras's plans to besiege Kalander's castle. He warns Demagoras against the attack but is ignored, then meets Argalus and warns him of the villain's plans. He returns briefly after Demagoras falls in single combat with Argalus to utter a brief, generic epitaph over his master's body.


An unnamed Servant of Sir Clement in Shirley's Constant Maid. This fellow obtains Hornet's keys while Hornet is changing clothes and thus helps facilitate the release of Hornet's niece.


Delivers a letter from Antiphila to Philander in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady declaring that if she does not marry his father, she'll marry him.


The Servant in Shirley's The Gentleman of Venice is treated rudely by Malipiero, who comes seeking Cornari.


Servant of Milcho in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland. He performs access-giving tasks in Milcho's house, reports on characters' movements, and discovers the dead body of Corybreus, sharing his unclear thoughts with Milcho about who may have been responsible.


One of Lady Strangelove's servants in Brome's Court Beggar who brings Ferdinand to Frederick (disguised as a doctor). He warns against untying Ferdinand.

SERVANT **1640

Octavian's servant in the anonymous Ghost. He says that he knows Babilas murdered Octavian because he saw the former in the morning, approaching his master's chamber with "frowning looks and call him forth."


Announces the arrival of Device at Sister's in Cavendish & Shirley's Country Captain.


In Salusbury’s Love or Money, a disguise employed by Pamphilus to see for himself that Juristis and Medico are attempting to woo his wife, Maria.


When Alphonso arrives at Leonardo's house the second time in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage, he orders his servant to walk his horse to protect it from the cold. His servant promises to do so. This character is mostly likely the same as "First Servant" who comes with Alphonso to Leonardo's house the first time. The character is listed as "Alphonso's Servant" because he is clearly different from the "Servant" who helps Mark-Antonio.


Antonio's Servant in Fletcher's The Chances. He reports to Antonio that a wench (Second Constantia) and Francisco robbed him while he was at the Surgeon's and is sent to find a conjurer to tell Antonio where they went.


In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, this Servant is sent to ask Brutus why Caesar was killed, and to offer Antony's loyalty to Brutus.


As More converses with his family in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More about how good it is to have resigned as Lord Chancellor and to be able to pursue a private life, the unnamed Servant at Chelsea interrupts to report the arrival of the Earls of Surrey and Shrewsbury, who have come to give More one last chance to submit to the king's authority over the church in England. More sends the Servant out to escort the nobles inside.

SERVANT at the TOWER**1595

When More learns in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More that he is to be executed the next day, the Lieutenant of the Tower praises him for his patience, resolve, and good humor. More then sends the unnamed Servant at the Tower to fetch a urinal. When it arrives, the condemned man notes that there is "gravel" in the water, and the Servant asks if it should be sent to a doctor for examination. More jokes that such an action is unnecessary, for the king has a cure for him the next day.


Bacurius's servant in Beaumont and Fletcher's A King and No King fetches a stick with which his master beats Bessus and two goofy swordsmen. The servant gets the chance to beat the three fools a bit himself.


A non-speaking character in Fletcher's The Chances. Brings wine to the Bawd.


A servant under Rosko in Whetstone's 1 Promos and Cassandra. Brings sweet water to Rosko while Grimball is being barbered.


He announces the arrival of Vermine to his master's in III.ii of Brome's The Damoiselle.


In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Caesar's Servant is sent to bid the priests to make a sacrifice. He returns with the news that the sacrificial animal was heartless, indicating that Caesar should not go forth on that day-the Ides of March.


Calladine's Servant in Davenant's Love and Honor. He tells him a lady in mourning wishes to speak to him. He is given charge of Melora (pretending to be Evandra) and she persuades him to bring her to the Duke's court. The Servant worries that Calladine will be angry with him, which is proven true as soon as they appear in court. The Servant defends himself from Calladine's anger by stating that she told him she had Calladine's consent to come to the court.


He travels with his master in the anonymous King Leir to Leir's court and wishes that he could stay behind since, he says, the journey will tire both himself and Cambria.


Carintha's servant announces Armante in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador.


He travels with his master in the anonymous King Leir to Leir's court and comments in an aside that Cornwall is tired of his life, a fact which Cornwall puts down to his love for Gonorill. Back at Cornwall's castle, the Servant announces the arrival of the Ambassador from Gaul.


After the Duke's disappearance in Carlell's The Deserving Favorite, a servant announces to Clarinda that the enraged King has arrived and is threatening to kill Count Utrante. In the fifth act, a servant (probably the same one) brings news of Clarinda's return from the forest.


A silent serving person in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida.


Elder Loveless's Servant in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady announces the arrivals of Welford and Abigail Younglove to the house of Elder Loveless.


A part played by Paris in the final inset play of Massinger's The Roman Actor. He performs the part of the son in the first and Iphis in the second. In the climax of the final play, Domitian plays a jealous husband who kills a faithless servant, played by Paris.


Non-speaking characters in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. At Puntavorlo's country house, the knight enters followed by the two servants. Second Servant is holding a bag with Cat in it. Carlo Buffone describes First Servant to Puntavorlo as a good lean slave who loves Dog and can take good care of him. At the same time, in an aside, Carlo Buffone tells First Servant to poison Dog or find another way to kill him. When Fastidious Brisk arrives at Puntavorlo's lodgings in London to sign the insurance papers, Puntavorlo sends First Servant to the Notary, telling him to leave Dog with them. First Servant returns with word that the notary has the papers ready. After the insurance papers are signed, Puntavorlo tells First Servant to go home with Second Servant and Cat, while he takes Dog with him to court.


Servants to Marcellina in Chapman's Monsieur D'Olive.


The Duke has two servants in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore who, along with the Duke, watch Infelice wake and, possibly, play music to help her revive:
  1. The First Servant swears that he will speak Greek before he will reveal that Infelice is not dead.
  2. The Second Servant is the one who informs the Duke that she is waking and later swears he will speak Welsh (which he claims is harder than Greek) before he will reveal that Infelice is not dead.


Two servants attend Cranmer and the young prince in Rowley’s When You See Me:
  1. Cranmer calls on a servant to convey Browne to the Master of the Chapel to have him whipped for drawing the young prince into playing tennis when he should be at his studies. It could be the same servant who later delivers a letter from Princess Mary to Prince Edward urging him to encourage a debate between Bonner and Cranmer. She encourages him to pray to the saints.
  2. The second servant brings a letter to Prince Edward from the Princess Elizabeth. She encourages him to pray to God.


The First and Second Servants in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra comically describe how drunk Lepidus is and how little real power he has.


Two Servants figure in Dekker's If It Be Not Good:
  • The First is one of Bartervile's employees.
  • The Second is also one of Bartervile's employees, and he is referred to as Carlo. Second Servant challenges Lurchall to bet on which of the two of them can work faster. He is sent to the Chancellor's court in Bartervile's place to testify that Bartervile is indisposed.


Two servants in the Allwit household in Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside. They call Whorehound their master and recognize Allwit only as their mistress's husband. They are employed to spy on their mistress for the jealous Whorehound and even ensure that Allwit is not sleeping with Mrs. Allwit. One of these servants comes to Whorehound toward the end of the play with the news that Whorehound has killed Touchwood Junior in their duel. He then delivers the news that Lady Kix is pregnant.


The First Servant in Fletcher's The Mad Lover takes the role of the Ape in Stremon's masque of beasts. The Second Servant takes the role of the Lion. Other, unnumbered servants also appear and take the roles of Charon and the Lawyer.


The First and Second Servants in Shirley's The Opportunity work for the false "prince" Pimponio. The First Servant finds his master unusually jovial for Spaniard. The Second Servant comments upon the majesty with which Pimponio consumes alcohol.


Two servants figure in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate:
  • Servant 1 works for Bill Bond and his two accomplices–Master Silence and Doctor Clyster. He brings in a candle when Damme de Bois, who has come to visit the cozeners, asks for "leave to take a pipe of tobacco." Later, he and Servant 2 bring hot water and old clothes on stage while Damme de Bois is sleeping. He also helps to cheat that visitor.
  • Servant 2 also works for Bill Bond and his two accomplices–Master Silence and Doctor Clyster. He and Servant 1 bring hot water and old clothes on stage while Damme de Bois is sleeping. He also helps to cheat that visitor.


Two servants figure in Mead's Combat of Love and Friendship:
  1. The first brings a message to Lysander from Artemone.
  2. The second announces the entrance of the comic characters in the final scene.


There are three servants in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage.
  • Alphonso's Servant is otherwise identified in his first scene as "First Servant."
  • The Second Servant, who serves Leonardo, invites Alphonso to enter. When Alphonso refuses and demands that the Second Servant instead tell Leonardo to come out, the Second Servant does so, commenting that Alphonso is a strange old man.
  • Another Servant (not referred to as "third") aids a wounded Mark-Antonio to the Governor's house. He offers to help Mark-Antonio enter, but is refused.


There are three servants found in Shakespeare's King Lear. Each serves in Gloucester's castle:
  1. The first servant urges Cornwall to stop his cruel blinding of Gloucester. He mortally wounds Cornwall in a sword fight before he is slain, from behind, by Regan.
  2. The second servant is kind enough to make sure that the blinded Gloucester makes his way to Tom o' Bedlam and safety away from Regan.
  3. The third servant obtains flax and egg whites to help staunch the bleeding after Cornwall plucks out the old Earl's eyes.


Three Servants figure in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater:
  • At Gondarino's house, First Servant enters to inform his master that he has received a present, a fish-head. Since Gondarino orders that the present should be taken to the woman who sent it, telling her she is a whore, First Servant says the fish-head is from the Duke. Gondarino instructs him to take it to Mercer's to pay for a debt he owes him, and First Servant exits to execute the orders.
  • At Gondarino's house, Second Servant enters announcing his master that the count's sister, Oriana, has been caught in a hailstorm in the street and wants to shelter in Gondarino's house. Since he is a woman-hater, Gondarino orders Second Servant to tell her she is not welcome, but the servant says she is in the house already. At this point, Oriana enters with her Waiting Woman and Page.
  • At Gondarino's house, Third Servant enters announcing his master that Duke has been caught in a hailstorm in the street and is seeking shelter in the house. Unable to refuse the Duke, Gondarino invites him in and Duke sees Oriana in Gondarino's house, thus raising suspicions regarding her chastity.


Three servants figure in Field's A Woman is a Weathercock:
  • The First Servant is sent by Sir John Wordly to fetch Sir Innocent Ninny and Lady Ninny for the masque.
  • The Second and Third Servants carry torches for the wedding masque. They attempt to hold back Scudamore, who is disguised as a vizard-maker. Later the Second Servant encounters Strange carrying Pouts on his back.


Three servants appear in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas:
  1. The First Servant is one of Valentine's servants; he is sent to call the Physicians to Francis when the latter becomes increasingly ill.
  2. The Second Servant is one of Sebastian's servants; he is bid by his master to bring messages to Thomas and to spy on him to see if he has really reformed or not. He later tells Sebastian about Thomas' drunken serenade to Mary.
  3. The Third Servant may or may not be the same as Servant 1. One of Valentine's servants, he tries to shut Thomas up when he serenades Mary.


Each carries a message to Zorannes at the beginning of Suckling's Aglaura (first version) and also Aglaura (second version).


Of Androlio's three servants in Davenant's The Spanish Lovers, the first and third rise little higher than supernumeraries. The second of the three servants, however, is important in the plot because he turns against his master and is responsible for the rescue of Claramante. At the end he is arrested at the charge of Marillia, who claims—untruly, as it seems—that he has raped her.


These four unnamed servants in Fletcher's The Honest Man's Fortune prepare Lamira's banquet and debate whom Lamira will choose as husband.


The Servants in Shirley's Constant Maid are dismissed from service when Hartwell lacks money. Disguised as lords, the First, Second and Third Servants urge the newly-"knighted" Hornet to purchase more appropriate–and expensive–attire. The Fourth Servant arrives at Hornet's home disguised as pursuivant. Supposedly he has been sent by the king to summon Hornet; the Servant takes Hornet to Clement's house, where Hornet finds himself knighted by the "king"–Hornet's Cousin in disguise.


Sent by Frederick to tell Franck to stop her pining over love in Fletcher's The Captain.


He helps his master to get seated to attend the masque in Burnell's Landgartha.


While living as a hermit in Brome's The Queen's Exchange, Alberto is accompanied by a comic servant who frequently complains of his lack of food. The servant complains that while Alberto spends most of his time praying, he is left with the brunt of the difficult work of caring for or burying the outlaw's victims who appear weekly.


A comic character in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore, he is supposed to guard Hippolyto's door each Monday and make sure no women enter. He enters to tell Hippolyto that Matheo's page is here with a message. When it is discovered that the page is actually the reformed prostitute Bellafront, the Servant protests the idea that he is damned for letting her in and tries to thrust her out of the room. When the Doctor's man knocks at the door, the Servant will not let him in for fear that he is also a woman despite his beard.


After Philanthus is brought to Lucinda's house in Carlell's The Fool Would Be A Favorite, a servant tells him that he has been captured by a witch and that horrors await him. This story is devised by Lucinda to make his actual situation seem better by comparison.


Takes a purse of gold from Lelia to her disguised father in the street in Fletcher's The Captain. He leaves when Lelia's father arrives. Lelia always requires him to leave when she plans to do "bodily business."


Tells Leon about Margarita's lifestyle in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife.


A servant at the Asparagus Garden in Brome's The Sparagus Garden. He demands further payment from Mistress Hollyhock and her gentleman when they try to skimp on their bill.


Agrees to shoot Strozza during the hunt in Chapman's The Gentleman Usher.


Sent by Michael to follow Estifania and ascertain her wealth in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife.


In Middleton's Your Five Gallants, he delivers a new suit of clothes from his mistress as a timely gift for the gigolo, Tailby.


In Middleton's Your Five Gallants, he delivers a new beaver hat from his mistress as a timely gift for the gigolo, Tailby.


In Middleton's Your Five Gallants, he delivers ten pounds in gold from his mistress to the gigolo, Tailby.


The servant-monster unlikely to appear in the theatrical Fair is a "fictional character" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. The reference is to Caliban from Shakespeare's The Tempest. In the Induction, the scrivener reads the articles of the contract between Author and the spectators. The contract stipulates that Author warns the spectators against identifying characters in the play with actual people, or with characters in other plays of the period. In conclusion, the Author says his play does not feature a servant-monster in his fictional Fair.


Mr. Bateman's servant goes to see Sly in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen in the hope that Undermine should pay him the money he owes his master. It seems that he is actually going to be the only one to be paid there and then.


Mr. Nice's servant announces the arrival of Sir Reverence Lamard to visit Mr. Nice in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden.


Mr. Oweinge Servant goes to see Sly in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen, on behalf both of Mr. Shorter and Mr. Oweinge, in the hope that Undermine should pay him the money he owes his masters.


Mr. Payne's Servant goes to see Sly in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen, on behalf both of Mr Payne and Mr Thorowgood, in the hope that Undermine should pay him the money he owes his masters.


Mr. Sharpe's servant goes to see Sly in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen in the hope that Undermine should pay him the money he owes his master. When he is told he is not going to be paid, he also feels cozened.


Mr. Shorter is a creditor in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. He had invested some money in Undermine's business and now he sends a servant to see Sly, too, in the hope his master–Undermine–should pay him the money he owes him. But his servant idoes not going to receive any money.


Mr. Strange's servant goes to see Sly in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen in the hope that Undermine should pay him the money he owes his master. When he is told he is not going to be paid, he feels cheated.


Mr. Taylor's servant goes to see Sly in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen in the hope that Undermine should pay him the money he owes his master. When he is told he is not going to be paid, he feels cheated, and he threatens to sue him. Then he goes to see Undermine, but he witnesses a fake quarrel between him and Mountayne, in which the former blames the latter for the loss of his fortune. The servant despairs because he realizes he will not get his masters money, and he tells Brainsicke about his misfortune. On hearing it all, Fewtricks explains to him that he has been cozened by Undermine.


Mr Thorowgood is a creditor in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. He sends a servant to see Sly, in the hope he should pay him the money his master owes him. At first, it seems that he is not going to be paid, although, in the end, all creditors will recover their money.


In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Octavius' Servant is sent by Antony to warn Octavius that Caesar has been murdered and Rome is not safe for Octavius. The Servant reports that Octavius and Lepidus are already in Rome.


Two servants in Fletcher's The Captain. They bring orders for alcohol to the three tavern boys.


In the final act of Brome's The New Academy, a servant announces that Rachel Maudlin cannot be found and that a stranger (actually Cash) has come to see Matchil.


The Servant in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night enters while Malvolio is trying to impress Olivia with his smiling and yellow cross-gartered stockings. He tells her that Cesario has arrived and awaits her.


A silent serving person in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida.


Serves Peter Vecchio at his house in Fletcher's The Chances.


Romanello's servant in Ford's The Fancies Chaste and Noble announces the arrival of Flavia's coach.


Semele's Servant in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter announces to Semele the arrival of her old nurse, Beroe–actually the angry goddess Juno in disguise.


A "ghost character" in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. Sinatus frees the prisoner Guimantes and advises him to disguise himself "in th'habit of one of [his] Servants" and "escape to Stamfoard."


The servant of Sir Bartram in Greene's James IV tells him that dinner is ready.


Minor character in ?Brewer's The Country Girl. Sir Robert asks him to bring the lady in Act V.


A silent character in Brome's A Mad Couple. He works at Sir Thrivewell's as his servant.


The servant to Thomas of Woodstock (at Plashy) in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock announces the arrival of the foolish Courtier to Woodstock, and is (presumably) one of the servants whom he orders to prepare a banquet for the sinister masquers.


In Brome's The Sparagus Garden, Touchwood asks this servant to make him a warrant for the arrest of Sir Hugh Moneylacks and his confederates when Thomas Hoyden accuses them of cheating.


Tresilian's servant in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock locks up the share of the taxation booty that Tresilian has reserved for himself from King Richard II.


A silent serving person in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida.


In Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle, he announces the arrival of Mistress Merrythought to his master though he does not mention that her son, Michael, is also with her. He later returns to tell Luce that Jasper's coffin has arrived.


Welford's Servant appears, drunk, to attend Welford at the house of the Lady in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady.


Servant to Sir Alexander Wengrave in Middleton and Dekker's Moll Cutpurse, The Roaring Girl. The servant brings news to Sir Alexander that Sebastian and his bride have returned to London from being wed.


"Ghost characters" in Wilmot's Gismond of Salerne. They are said to execute Guishard by strangling him. They reportedly tear Guishard's heart from his body and carry it, impaled on a sword, to Tancred.


Two servants, members of Chester's household, figure in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber.
  • Chester is furious at the ladies' disappearance and makes inquiries among his servants. The First Servant says that none of them saw the ladies, but suggests that they might have gone through the garden gate, which they have found open.
  • The Second Servant brings a letter from the Earl of Chester to the Abbot on the morning the two marriages are to take place. The Servant leaves to announce to his master that the Abbot will fulfill the orders.


When Eleanor undergoes the public humiliation that precedes her banishment for treason in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, her husband Gloucester awaits her accompanied by several of his servants.


Appear in scene 2 of the Anonymous plot of Frederick and Basilea, played by Thomas Hunt and Black Dick (Jones), two actors who played minor roles.


The servants in Heywood's Royal King are all probably the same character, but may not be. The Marshall tells a servant to re-shoe the King's horse with his (the Marshall's) horse's shoes. A servant of the Marshall presents the King with the dowry that the Marshall has sent along with his Isabella. Later, a servant announces Chester's return with Isabella. Then he returns to re-present Isabella to the King.


Bragardo stops two servants during the wedding preparations in the anonymous Wit of a Woman and asks what is going on. Both servants reply with rhyming insults.


There are a number of servants on stage in Chapman's Bussy D'Ambois. One servant arrives to assist Tamyra's maid Pero, who has just been stabbed by Monsieur. A number of servants appear with instruments of torture to help Montsurry coerce Tamyra into revealing the name of her lover.


The Earl's men in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho, who seize the Citizens.


When Paulina wants to show Leontes his infant daughter Perdita for the first time in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, a servant attempts to prevent her in obedience to Leontes' orders. Later, a servant reports that Cleomenes and Dion have returned from Apollo's oracle at Delphos. During Hermione's trial, just as Leontes is rejecting Apollo's oracle exonerating her, a servant enters to tell him that Mamillius has died from anxiety for his mother. In Bohemia, Autolycus' wares impress a servant who describes them to the participants in the sheep-shearing festival.


"Ghost characters" in Jonson's Catiline. After the conspirators have been exposed in the Roman Senate, being placed under private custody, the praetors' report comes that they continued the seditious actions subversively. According to Pomtinius, Cethegus's Servants have been conspiring to arm themselves and come to their master's rescue. Pomtinius estimates that Cethegus's Servants are many and very well trained in the arts of war.


In the masque of beasts (IV.i) that Stremon organizes in Fletcher's The Mad Lover, the First and Second Servants portray the Ape and the Lion, but the characters of Charon and the Lawyer are presented by two unnamed Servants.


Two servants in the Duke's household and two other servants figure in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject.
  • The First Servant in the Duke's household is likely the character who refuses to tell Theodor about his sisters' lodgings in court. Later, while preparing the banquet ordered by the Duke, the First Servant talks with the Second Servant. The First Servant observes that there will be much drinking at the feast that night.
  • When Theodor inquires about his sisters' lodgings at court, he asks a Servant first, who refuses to tell him. Then Theodor sees a Second Servant in the Duke's household who is carrying a jug of wine. Theodor asks if he may have some wine, and the Second Servant serves him. Theodor is about to drink the entire carafe but the Second Servant will not allow it. While preparing the banquet ordered by the Duke, the Second Servant speaks with the First Servant. The Second Servant says he is glad the old general has been invited, because the news will make half the court drunk with joy.
  • Another servant is part of Burris's household in the Duke's palace. This Servant delivers a casket to Burris, which he gives to Theodor for Archas, in the Servant's presence. When Archas comes to court for the Duke's feast, the Servant gives him directions. Telling him that Lord Burris lives this side of the palace, probably the side where Archas used to live while in active service. The Servant confirms that Burris has sent Archas the casket with gold. Inquiring whether Archas wants something else, the Servant learns that Archas will need only his horses after supper and promises he will have the groom wait with the horses outside.
  • Another servant is part of Archas's household. Archas's Servant brings news to Theodor and Putskie from the country house. The Servant says that Archas summons Theodor immediately at his house.


Two servants to Champernell in Fletcher and Massinger's The Little French Lawyer. They assist with Lamira's plot against Dinant and Cleremont by helping persuade Cleremont that Anabell was the sleeping Champernell. One of the servants accompanies the family on their trip to their summerhouse.


There are two sets of servants in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage: one employed by Castruchio to serve his royal banquet, and the other employed by Lucio to help carry the corpses of Virolet and Juliana.
  • The banquet servants, who are not numbered, take away the dishes and finally the table as the Doctor forbids each item on the menu.
  • Lucio's three servants carry Virolet and Juliana's hearse through Naples to help motivate the coup against Ferrand and to demonstrate Martia's need to repent for her role in the deaths.


Alphonso has at least two servants in Fletcher's The Pilgrim, both of whom help to search for Alinda after she disappears.


Non-speaking characters in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. In disguise, the servants help seize Don Henrique, Octavio, Jacinta, and Ascanio as part of a ruse to trick Violante into incriminating herself in front of the Assistant and her husband.


Alsemero's servants in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling are surprised when he decides not to sail from Alicante, but they are pleased, because it is safer on land.


Otrante's servants in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill are ordered to call Florimell first a whore, then a virgin, in order to make her believe that her reputation lies in Otrante's hands.


Attached to Brisac and Miramont's households in Fletcher's The Elder Brother. One announces the arrival of Eustace and Charles at Brisac's house; another is asked to witness Charles's confrontation with his brother Eustace over Angellina, and is sent to ask the king for a pardon when Charles decides he will kill Eustace.


Servants with torches appear around Prince Palador at the Masque of Melancholy in Ford's The Lover's Melancholy.


In the scenes in Arioldus' house in Wilson's The Swisser servants carry in tables and announce guests. Andrucho, Iseas and Asprandus have two servants carrying the coffin.


"Ghost characters" in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Eugenius claims that the "Captaine [. . .] to whom [he] did commit the keeping of the Westerne-gate of the City" has promised to "assist" the "flight" of he and Artemia and "provide trusty Servants to be [their] guides."


There are possibly two servants in Killigrew’s Claricilla.
  1. A servant announces the king to Seleucus after the duel. He immediately returns to inform the king that Manlius has arrived with urgent news.
  2. Seleucus refers to either a “ghost character" or the same servant who will fetch Olinda to him in order to lead Manlius to Claricilla with Melintus’s letter.


Several minor servants figure in Carlell's The Fool Would Be A Favorite. Some or all of the following actions could be presented by the same actor or servant character. One servant informs Aurelia of Philanthus's courtship of Miranthe. One tells Adrastus that he is expected at court. One announces the Herald of Arms. One tells the Moor that Philanthus is approaching.


Mute characters in Carlell’s Osmond. They bear the injured Calibeus away after Ozaca stabs him.


Non-speaking characters in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. THey come with the Duke of Mantua and the Duchess in Act Five when they see the Necromancer.


Servants to Goodlove in Nabbes' The Bride, who accompany him at the end of act four when he arrives looking for Theophilus and encounters the wounded Raven. One servant identifies Raven, and another takes him to Horten's house nearby.


Mute characters in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. The help Bryan Sans Foy to carry the enchanted Clamydes to Bryan's prison. They are also presumably slain by Clamydes and the Three Captive Knights, but his action is only heard offstage.


Two unnamed servants set the table for the dinner the Duke prepares for Clarinda in Carlell's The Deserving Favorite. One servant speculates that the occasion must be very special, and the other informs him who the guests will be. These servants are most likely either Bernardo and Jasper or Bernardo and Francisco.


Kix orders one to saddle his horse in Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside. Later, One is told to order the parish bells rung (to celebrate Lady Kix's pregnancy supposedly), a second is told to make a bonfire by the door at night (an order he deems "monstrous"), and the third is sent with 100 pounds to give to Touchwood, Senior. They tell Sir Oliver Kix that both Moll and Touchwood Junior have died.


"Ghost characters" in Wilde's Love's Hospital. The Second Sergeant informs the starving Macilento that all the scraps that the charity of the Magnificoe's Servants cast in to the basket are used to feed prisoners, prompting Macilento's request that he be arrested on the spot.


The stage directions in Brome's The Queen's Exchange indicate that four servants are present in Offa's house when Osriick is mistaken for Anthynus. One voices support for Arnold's decision to take "Anthynus" to prison.


They tell Spurio of Lussurioso’s attempt to bed Castiza in [?]Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy and are overheard by Hippolito before Vindice can deliver the same news that Gratiana is going to act as bawd to her daughter. They go with him to catch Lussurioso with Castiza but are foiled because Lussurioso has gone instead to try to catch Spurio with the Duchess.


In Act Three of T.D.'s The Bloody Banquet, they agree to keep any secret that the Queen of Cicilia may have. They serve Tymethes at the lavish banquet.


They say nothing in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell but are present at Hales's feast for Wolsey, More and Gardiner.


They prepare the opening banquet for the usurping king and his nobles in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. Another servant (perhaps one of the same two) later reports to Timeus that Pallantus has escaped and is probably hiding in a nearby lodging.


Two servants of a usurer in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens, like most of the servants they carry their master's name. They appear as besiegers of Timon's house in II.ii. and III.iv.


Fictional characters in Wilde's Love's Hospital. Surdato comes to believe that the First and Second Sergeant were not sergeants trying to arrest him (as he had previously believed) but "the Venice-Embassadors Servants come to invite [him] to dinner," and that he denied them in a most unmannerly way due to Macilento's false assessment of them.


A constable in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. He orders Simplicity to be whipped on suspicion of complicity in the robbery of Mercadore. He also brings Love, Conscience and Lucre before Judge Nemo.


A "ghost character" in Kyd's Cornelia. A Roman soldier, Cassius asks him why he weeps, and why he allows Caesar to use him.


One of Timon's servants in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens. Timon sends him to Lord Lucius to ask for a loan of fifty talents, and he is refused.


The Serving Lady in the house of Amphitrio, who appears once in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter, supports Alcmena when Amphitryo denies that he has recently been to the house.


A disguise adopted by Wiley, George's boy in Greene's George a Greene, so that he can smuggle Beatrice out of Grimes' house in his clothes. His disguise is so successful that Grimes falls in love with him, and when Edward asks Grimes to give his permission for Beatrice to marry George, Grimes says he will if he can marry the serving maid. Permission is given and Wiley throws off his disguise, embarrassing Grimes.


The serving-man in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock listens admiringly to the satirical songs of the schoolmaster, until both are seized for treason by Nimble and Ignorance. Since the corrupt Lord Chief Justice Tresilian, the corrupt Lord Chief Justice, is prepared to negotiate only for cash, and wants any convicts without it whipped and hanged, the serving-man's prospects look grim.


The Servingman in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice arrives to tell Portia that her current suitors have all decided to leave without attempting the riddle, and that the Prince of Morocco has arrived.


The Serving-man arrives in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington to tell the Prior that six barns have been destroyed by a fire. The fire has overtones of fate or God's vengeance because it was touched off by lightning falling in the form of a firedrake. He also reports that those who tried to put it out cursed Warman and claimed it was punishment for his hoarding corn and betraying the Earl of Huntington. The Prior becomes angry and orders the Serving-man from his sight.


Master Hammon's servant in Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday. He unwittingly reveals to Rafe Damport that his lawful wife Jane is about to marry again by bringing him the pair of shoes Rafe had made as a parting gift for Jane as the model for her wedding slippers.


The block-headed servant of Ingenioso's potential patron in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus agrees to introduce the two if Ingenioso will write a love-letter on his behalf.


Mute. He wears ‘a blewe coat’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants.


Perhaps as many as four appear in the anonymous 2 Fortune's Tennis. Because of the state of decay, nothing more can be deduced regarding the character's function in the otherwise lost play.


One of the disguises adopted by Sencer in Thomas Heywood's The Wise Woman of Hogsdon. As a "servingman," Sencer helps the Wise-Woman of Hogsdon and Second Luce engineer Young Chartley's downfall at the end of the play.


One of Bellamont's servants in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho who comes to tell him that his son has been arrested.


A servant in the household of Felecia and Florida in Sharpham's The Fleire.


The Servingman serves Sextus and accompanies him on a visit to Lucrece in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece. He has a short conversation with Pompie about why he has not been asked to sleep in the same room as his master. In the morning, the Servingman orders Pompie to have the horses ready, as his lord means to depart early.


Together with the maid in Armin's The Two Maids of More–Clacke, he perfumes the room where the wedding takes place.


The Serving-man in Barry's Ram Alley announces the arrival of Throat at the house of Lady Sommerfield.


Octavio's disguise in Day's Humour Out of Breath. When Octavio Duke of Venice decides to spy on his sons, his deputy Hortensio brings him humble clothes, and he assumes the disguise of a man seeking service. He does not apparently take a new name, but his sons and others do not recognize him in this disguise.


Works for Carracus in Tailor's The Hog Hath Lost His Pearl. Answers the door when Albert stops by to inquire after the health of the recently married Carracus and Maria. Later, he is criticized by Carracus for not persuading Albert to stay. He next appears when Young Lord Wealthy arrives seeking Maria; he tells Young Lord Wealthy that Carracus is ill, but then Carracus himself appears and receives the letter from Old Lord Wealthy.


This unnamed Servingman in Shirley's The School of Compliment calls at the Compliment School for a speech commissioned by Sir Valentine Wantbrain.


Thersamnes' serving man in Suckling's Aglaura (first version) and also Aglaura (second version), who carries in a message.


The old servingman is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. He serves the young gentleman and is, along with him, accused of attempting to rape the maid, who has in fact just kicked them both.


The disguise that Wat adopts in order to talk to his sister in Brome's The Damoiselle. He tells Vermine that Sir Amphilus is at his inn in Holborne. Vermine does not recognize him as he is wearing a beard that covers his face. When he is left with his sister, he tells her how well she is going to live if she marries his lord. He tries to convince her in vain. Proving his sister's reasoning, he jokes about his master saying that he only likes whores and duck before he reveals himself.


There are three servingmen in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge. The second is called Pedro and the third James, but the First Servingman has no name. He feels that Sharkino is an impostor who cannot assist the Third Servingman, James, in locating some missing spoons and napkins.


There are two serving men in John Webster's Appius and Virginia,
  1. Unnamed in the play, the First Serving-man, eager to see a spectacle and fairly certain that Virginia is innocent, pledges to attend the trial of Virginia.
  2. The unnamed Second Serving-man pledges to attend the trial of Virginia along with the First Serving-man.


Amphitrio's Serving Men (not distinguished in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter) admit Ganymede to the house, believing him to be their fellow-servant Socia; later, they announce the unexpected return of the real Amphitryo; in the last scene, they, like everyone else, are confused by the identity-tricks pulled on them all by Jupiter.


A silent character in Brome's A Mad Couple. In Act Two, he accompanies the lady to go shopping and to hold her purse.


The unnamed Servingman in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More informs the Lord Cardinal's men that More has been summoned to court and their production of The Marriage of Wit and Wisdom has been cut short. He gives them payment for the part of the play that has been performed, but he shortchanges them. Later, More fires him after learning that he has only disbursed eight angels instead of the ten More had authorized.


A non-speaking character in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. Franklin disguises as an old serving man after his alleged death and accompanies his father, Old Franklin. As an old servant, Franklin attends the payment of all his creditors by fifty to the hundred. Finally, Old Franklin reveals his son's disguise.


Orlando Friscobaldo employs two serving men in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore. Early in the play, Orlando orders them to close up his house in the city and to return to the country, but first he borrows the traditional blue coat of livery from one of them for use in his disguise as Pacheco. Later, Orlando has them pretend to be two peddlers who are then set upon by Matheo. This establishes the grounds for the robbery charge against Matheo, which in turn leads to Matheo's appearance before the duke, at which time Orlando will reveal himself and recognize Bellafront as his heir.


The Servingmen attend Young Loveless, the Widow, and Morecraft in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady. One of them provides Morecraft with ale, and is rewarded with an angel and advised not to buy land. Morecraft later gives the servingmen more money.


"Ghost characters" in Baylie's The Wizard. Antonio promises Caelia that his Servingmen, who are good tall knaves, will protect them both if she agrees to marry her.


They help deliver Oldcastle to the Tower of London in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle; they are defeated by Harpool and allow Oldcastle to escape.


They discover the sleeping Oldcastles and the nearby body of young Richard Lee in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle.

SERVIO **1592

A Nobleman in ?Greene and Chettle's John of Bordeaux who reports how bravely Amurath fought and defeated the Germans.


Servio is Sempronio's uncle in the anonymous Knack To Know An Honest Man. He is usurious and vindictive, taking the case against Lelio who has apparently killed Sempronio to the Venetian court. He finds out that Brishio has helped Lelio escape Venice by ship and tells Marchetto, a man close to the Duke of Venice. Servio happily explains to the disguised Sempronio that he will willingly lose a kinsman a year if the results make him rich like this, and that anyone who forgets God for a dozen years will become rich. He rejects Sempronio's request to look into his conscience, calling Sempronio a knave. When Brishio's two sons are to be executed for wounding Fortunio, who has been attempting to seize Annetta, their mother, and Lucida, their sister, he rejoices that now he will be richer as the result of exterminating Brishio's family. When the porter explains that the brothers have escaped, Servio is furious with his daughter, Phillida, believing (correctly) that she allowed them to escape. The Duke orders Servio to be tortured for allowing the escape until Servio's daughter explains that it was she who allowed the sons to escape. When the disguised Lelio returns to Venice to surrender and thus improve the lot of his wife and daughter, Servio recognizes him and despite Lelio's wish for Lucida to have the reward money for capturing Lelio, seizes Lelio to claim the reward money for himself. Lucida promises not to object if Servio agrees to keep Lelio in his prison for three days, which he does. He brings Lelio to court and claims the reward. When Lucida speaks up explaining that Lelio had discovered himself to her first and that Servio had kept Lelio imprisoned for three days when the law required him to hand him over to the court immediately he was found, the Duke confiscated the reward and sentenced Servio to prison for twelve moths. After the other characters have been forgiven and made friends, he is angry that he will have to surrender all the goods he had inherited from Sempronio, now that the latter is alive.


A servant to Corvino in Jonson's Volpone.


The Servitors in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra respond with suitable horror when a depressed Antony suggests that he should do them service as they serve him.


Hog's servant in Tailor's The Hog Hath Lost His Pearl. Discusses with Hog the plan to marry Rebecca to Young Lord Wealthy as he ties Hog's points. Hog sends Peter to summon Rebecca. After he returns and Hog leaves, Peter tells Young Lord Wealthy that Rebecca has no other suitors. After Young Lord Wealthy begins wooing Rebecca, Peter promises him to tell everyone that Young Lord Wealthy and Rebecca are betrothed. Later, enters with Hog and Lightfoot after the mortgage arrangements have been completed; Hog orders him to fetch some beer for Lightfoot and Haddit. When he returns, Lightfoot begins to quarrel with him, and Haddit suggests that they, along with Young Lord Wealthy, descend to the cellar to restore peace over some drinks. Peter passes out and later finds his way, along with Young Lord Wealthy, into Hog's chamber where Hog awaits the return of the spirits with his treasure. Peter falls into the hole that Lightfoot, Haddit and the Player had used to make their magical entries, and then re-enters the room carrying a candle. He tells Hog that Rebecca has left and then joins Hog and Young Lord Wealthy going to Old Lord Wealthy's. At Old Lord Wealthy's he observes the resolution of Hog's robbery and the union of Rebecca and Haddit. At the end of the play he exits to Old Lord Wealthy's feast with Young Lord Wealthy.


Servius is the King of Rome, if only through the usurpation of Tarquin's (unnamed) father in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece. He has one child: Tullia. When he hears that his son-in-law, Tarquin, has proclaimed himself king, he raises an army. He is killed in an encounter with Tarquin and Tullia, though who exactly kills him is not clear. (The stage direct reads only "Servius is slaine.") His daughter tramples his corpse and has her chariot roll over him; Tarquin, however, orders that the former king be burned in a pyre with all solemn and due obsequies.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Catiline. Servius Sylla is a member of Catiline's conspiracy. When the conspirators are exposed in the Roman Senate, Allobroges testify against them, disclosing the names of Autronius, Servius Sylla, and Vargunteius as members of Catiline's conspiracy.


Servulus (also spelled Sernulas) is one of three dandies in Machin's(?) Every Woman in Her Humour. His chief pastimes include drinking, singing, and looking at himself in the mirror. Servulus is generally a peaceful fellow. After Acutus starts a tavern brawl with the dandies, Servulus is ready to forgive him, saying that Acutus must have been mad. Later, after several other beatings and tricks, Servulus suggests that he and Scilicet hug Acutus. Not surprisingly, Acutus soon loses interest in Servulus and focuses his attention on Scilicet and Philautus.


Servus is introduced by a stage direction in the anonymous Pater, Filius et Uxor, which explains that he arrives speaking in a strange language. He is a little pedantic, since he corrects Filius when the boy mispronounces the word the former has just uttered. Besides, when he is asked his name, he replies he is called Robyn ten away, but not happy with that, he provides the names of the previous nine. He buys all the faggots for his master, Humfrey Hattles, thus preventing Filius from being severely punished.


The faithful Servus (the designation presumably signaling his function, not his name in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta) listens to Jocasta's account of the sad state of Thebes and moralizes on it.


This unnamed servant in Peele's David and Bethsabe learns that Cusay brings word of the death of the Child Bethsabe has had. Worrying about David's response to this sad news, he urges Cusay to conceal it. David observes the two speaking and forces the report from Cusay.

SERVUS **1603

Servus, a slave in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall.


Servus attends Philotas in Daniel's Philotas. He tells Philotas that there is not enough money to pay a captain whom Philotas wanted him to reward; Philotas tells him to sell 'apparel, plate, jewels' to raise the money.


Sesmenos is the ruler of Bulgaria in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. Allied with the Servian despot Lazarus, he campaigns unsuccessfully against Amurath and is killed in battle.


Sesostris appears in dumbshow in the additional Chorus that in the quarto follows Chorus VII but is headed '3' in Greene's James IV.


Sesostros, King of Egypt, appears in the dumb show that opens Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta, riding in a chariot drawn by four kings, as an emblem of "vnbrideled ambitious desire."


A Neapolitan Duke in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage. Sesse, with his daughter Martia, fled his country after killing one of King Ferrand's minions over a matter of honor. Having kidnapped Ferrand's beloved nephew Ascanio, Sesse is seriously wounded in a fierce fight when Virolet and other Neapolitans attempt to rescue Ascanio. While being treated for his wounds, Sesse recounts a dream in which his ship burns and Martia leaps overboard; he then hears that his daughter is escaping with Ascanio and Virolet, with whom she has fallen in love. Sesse orders the gunner to shoot at their longboat but is unable to prevent Martia's escape. Sesse curses his daughter and vows to be avenged for her betrayal of him. He pursues Martia to Naples where he and his crew disguise themselves as Switzers. In addition to discovering ample evidence of Martia's betrayal and depravity, Sesse also finds the people of Naples in desperate straits owing to Ferrand's tyrannical laws against communicating with each other. Interrupting Castruchio's comic royal banquet, Sesse and his crew cause Ferrand to flee to his castle tower. Confronting the tyrant, Sesse defies Ferrand, denies that ambition is his motive, and removes his disguise, revealing his identity to the people of Naples, who support his efforts to overthrow Ferrand. Returning from his attack on the tyrant bearing Ferrand's head and announcing the deaths of most of the tyrant's followers, Sesse refuses the citizens' offer to make him king. He attempts to kill his faithless daughter Martia, but his loyal Boatswain kills her first to prevent Sesse from having to bear the guilt of having killed his own daughter. Sesse makes Ascanio king of Naples then returns to sea, vowing not to return.


Muly Mahamet Seth is one of the two younger sons of Muly Mahamet Xeque in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. As a result of the victory against his nephew Muly Mahamet in civil war, he is named the true successor of the crown after Abdelmelec.


The planetary divinities gather in Hades in Heywood's The Silver Age to adjudge the dispute between Pluto and Ceres for custody of Proserpine, and make wry or grim comments as the trial proceeds.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. Having fallen for Imperia's trick of confusing Lazarillo with music and birds' singing, the Spaniard invokes the Seven Wise Masters of the world. Yet, he makes the confusion with the Seven Deadly Sins. The Seven Wise Masters is a term traditionally used to describe a group of ancient Greek sages of the seventh and sixth centuries B.C., also called Sophoi. Plato in his "Protagoras" provided a first listing of these wise men. Most prominently remembered are
  • Thales of Miletus, a philosopher, and
  • Solon, lawgiver of Athens.
Others, hardly known now, were
  • Pittacus of Mitylene,
  • Bias of Priene,
  • Cleobulus the Lindian,
  • Myson the Chenian, and
  • Chilo of Lacedaemonia.
Some lists of the seven give other names.


Severino, a banished Nobleman in Massinger's The Guardian. He is also the father of Calista and husband of Iolante; he wants to regain his status in Naples.

SEWER **1619

He takes charge of the banquet for Rollo and Otto along with the Servant in Fletcher’s Bloody Brother.


Hugh Sexten is a member of the troupe of crude amateur actors in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. They come to entertain the lords Moorton and Pembrooke on the night before their wedding. The peasant-actors debate over which of them should have the opening speech. Hugh claims he is entitled to say the opening address because he has taken pains in composing it. When the others elect Turnop to deliver the welcoming oration, Hugh says Turnop deserves the leading role because he has more learning and has borrowed the usher's old coat to look more suitable. The unprofessional actors perform an amateurish dumb pageant in honor of Moorton and Pembrooke. During the night, the peasant-actors rehearse their song of dedication to the brides near the house where the bridegrooms are lodged. When Shrimp replaces Will's Welsh song with his own song about the ladies' elopement, the clowns are accused of involvement in the escape plan. When Chester demands an explanation from the actors, Hugh replies that Tom should answer, being the oldest among them. Chester sends the troupe of actors and his servants in search of the ladies. At Gosselin's castle, John a Cumber discusses with the actors the play they are going to act before the lords Llewllen, Chester, Moorton, and Pembrooke. This play is intended to be a mockery of John a Kent, with John a Cumber playing John a Kent. Yet, the actors arrive after the play is enacted with the real characters acting as themselves, and John a Cumber is humiliated in the disguise of John a Kent. The actors see the person whom they think to be John a Kent (actually John a Cumber in disguise) and begin spilling their abuse upon him, as taught by John a Cumber. After they perform this last act of John a Cumber's humiliation through disguise and misrepresentation, the actors exit to do their daily jobs.


The Sexton, along with the churchwarden Steven Loach, argues with Wiggen over whether Jack, the village ne'er-do-well, should be buried at the expense of the parish in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale.


The town clerk in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. He is sent for to take down the interrogation of Borachio and Conrade. He tells Dogberry that his examination is all wrong, but when the truth comes out, he orders the two men bound and taken to Leonato.


The Sexton in Fletcher's The Night Walker gives Wildbraine, Toby, and the other ringers various items to cover themselves after Lurcher steals their clothes.


A sexton in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Discovers Bertie as he searches for firewood to warm the Duchess, who has gone into labor. Bertie strikes him and he runs off crying for help.

SEXTON **1632

He arrives in Randolph's Jealous Lovers to bury the "suicides" Tyndarus and Techmessa. He engages Asotus in bantering gallows humor reminiscent of Hamlet's gravediggers. He calls his wife, Staphyla, to come help rob the "corpses" of their clothes. When Tyndarus and Techmessa rise from their coffins, however, he faints and is placed in Tyndarus' coffin. Much later, he speaks from the coffin, forbidding the banns of Asotus and Phryne. Tyndarus, however, reminds him of his attempted robbery of the "corpses" and the Sexton relents, vowing in future only to rob the living.


In Act One of T.D.'s The Bloody Banquet, when Armatrites, the King of Cicilia, seizes the throne of Lydia, Sextorio immediately changes his loyalty from the deposed King to the new usurper. In Act Four, he agrees to spread Armatrites' lie that he is some forty miles away from the castle, so that the King can surprise his enemies within. He follows Armatrites' orders to quarter and display the already-dead Tymethes' body. In Acts Four and Five, he carries out various menial tasks for Armatrites.


Sextus is a Prince of Rome, the son of Tullia and Tarquin, brother to Aruns and nephew to Brutus in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece. After Tarquin has bad dreams, Sextus, Aruns, and Brutus, go to the Oracle. Upon his return to Rome, Sextus sets out with an army to fight the Gabines. Sextus is somehow made general of the Gabines and attacks the Roman forces, twice defeating them. Soon after, on command of his father, he decides switch sides yet again. He has the leaders of Gabines beheaded. His father is proud of him and makes his general of his Roman forces. We also learn in his reconciliation, that he had some friction with his brother Aruns. Sextus is ordered to join Collatine, Brutus, Valarius and Horatius Cocles and Mutius Scevola in Ardea, leaving Porsenna's forces in charge of Rome. After a drunken banquet, Sextus belligerently denies Collatine's claim to having the most virtuous wife. Collatine decides to bet horse and armor that his wife is the most virtuous and the most beautiful. They decide to visit Horatius Cocles', Aruns', Valarius' , and Mutius Scevola's respective wives, and then Collatine's wife, Lucrece. Sextus is asked to judge the outcome. He chooses Collatine's Lucrece. Half way back to the camp, Collatine asks Sextus to go back to Lucrece, bearing a ring on his behalf. Sextus returns and they have a drink together, Sextus urging Lucrece to drink her wine as fast as possible. Clearly, his intent is to get her drunk. She refuses, but her self-moderation only fuels his lust for her. He delivers the ring and begs for a goodbye kiss. (The lack of stage directions leaves it unclear as to whether she complies.) She states that it is getting late and she doesn't want to be seen spending so much time so late at night with another man and, thus, says her farewells for the evening. When the house is quiet, Sextus sneaks into her bedroom and wakes her, calls her "sweet," and expects his sexual advances will succeed. When she refuses him, he threatens to kill her and one of the grooms and then to say that he found them in bed together. This renders her near silent. The scene ends with Lucrece invoking Jove's protection and Sextus carrying her off stage. (Lucrece's invocation to Jove is problematic. Since Jove was guilty of many rapes, her call to him might be interpreted by Sextus as a tacit compliance.) After the rape, he begs a goodbye kiss, but she, crying, flies from him. Sextus returns to the camp and is taciturn. As civil war breaks out, Sextus is captured and confesses that he is guilty of rape and is prepared to die bravely. He argues, however, that if the army kills him, Collatine will loose honor. Brutus agrees to a single combat in which they are both killed. Collatine is made Counsel. (Why Collatine did not fight Sextus himself is unclear.)


Young son of Pompey in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. He is sent for safety to Lesbos with his mother, Cornelia, and his sister, Cyris. He sees his father wounded by the murderers.
Pompey's young son in Kyd's Cornelia, he witnesses his father's assassination. When Pompey's Ghost appears to Cornelia, he tells her to take Sextus to a far-away land, away from the tyranny of Rome.
Pompey, or Pompeius, is at war with Rome in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. He believes that if Caesar and Antony are fighting he has a chance to win against Rome at sea. He is disturbed to hear that Antony and Caesar have reconciled, and agrees to meet with them before fighting. When he is offered Sicily and Sardinia, he agrees to peace, and feasts Caesar, Antony and Lepidus on his ship. While all are on board, Menas suggests that they sail out to sea and kill the three. Pompey responds that he would have been pleased if Menas had done the deed, but he himself cannot knowingly agree to it. Eros later reports that there is a war between Caesar and Pompey, and that one of Antony's officers has killed Pompey, an act which angers Antony since Pompey might have been an ally against Caesar (although historically Antony ordered the death).
A "ghost character" in May's Cleopatra. Son of Pompey the Great; a threat to the triumvirate of Antonius, Caesar, and Lepidus. Like Lepidus, he is mentioned in II i. as "ruined" by the time the play's action starts.


Sextus Propertius is a poet in Rome, friend of Ovid in Jonson's Poetaster. In a discussion with his father, Ovid promises he will do anything his father wants him to, including the study of law, and he promises to run the legal rugged lines as smooth as Propertius's elegies. At Ovid's house in Rome, Ovid and Tibullus discuss about the ladies who inspired their love verses. Tibullus informs Ovid that Propertius grieves for his beloved Cynthia's death. At Albius's house, Propertius enters with the other poets and their ladies. When Albius calls Chloë out on some household pretext, the guests feel free to speak openly about love. Since Ovid tells his friend Sextus that he is not sociable, Propertius responds that his mind is sick and he is not a good companion. Propertius is grieving for his beloved lady Cynthia, recently deceased. When his friends try to cheer him up, Propertius says they cannot feel the weight of his oppression, and it is easier to talk poetically about suffering rather than bear it. Propertius exits in mourning. When Horace comes to Albius's house to escort Chloë and Cytheris to a masquerade ball at court, he announces that their melancholic friend Propertius has locked himself in Cynthia's tomb and would not come out.


Called Queen Iane throughout Rowley’s When You See Me. She sends thanks to Wolsey for his prayers during her time of pregnancy. Before the embassy from France can arrive, she goes into labor and must leave the court. Her delivery is such that either the mother or child must die, and she sends word to Henry that she wants the child to live. She dies giving birth to Edward. Historically, her date of death was 24 October 1537, which was twelve days after the birth.


Present at Berkeley Castle along with Lord Berkeley and the Duke of York as Bolingbroke, the Earl of Northumberland, and Harry Percy approach in Shakespeare's Richard II.


A ‘ghost character’ mentioned in connection with the Spanish invasion in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants.


Spelled Seimer in Rowley’s When You See Me. He is Queen Jane’s father. Henry calls for him while the queen is in labor and dying. He arrives in time to see the newborn infant and learn of his daughter’s death. Afterwards, he is in presence as a counselor to the king. Dudley, Gray, and Seymour think Wolsey has grown too great and dangerous and begrudge his attempt to gain the papal crown


Servant to Macbeth in Shakespeare's Macbeth. Seyton confirms to Macbeth reports of the Scottish and English forces rising against him, and reports to him the death of Lady Macbeth.


See also SFORZA.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's A Maidenhead Well Lost. We learn from the Soldier how this general of Millaine, at the point where their army was in dire straits for lack of money and supplies, led a victorious assault on the citadel at Naples, but discovering that his commission explicitly forbade him to take advantage of their victory by seizing and sharing booty with his unpaid soldiers, gave them his arms and equipment and then died of a broken heart.


Lodovico is a courtier attached to Count Hippolito in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore. Because he has such a wide circle of acquaintance (with Hippolito's gentlemen, Candido the draper, and even the Duke of Milan) he frequently is a catalyst for the action of the play. Believing that Candido's Bride may be as much a shrew as the first wife (Viola of Part One), Lodovico arranges to help Candido tame her. Disguised as a new apprentice in the shop, Lodovico encourages the draper to cross his new wife, often aiding him in the process. The taming sequence is cut short, however, when the Bride surprises everyone with the announcement that she has no desire to wear the breeches in the marriage, and she submits to her husband. Later, Lodovico attempts to help his friend Matheo by providing him with satin for a new suit, and Matheo's refusal to pay the tailor further indicates the unreliable nature of Bellafront's husband. Finally, the Duke employs Lodovico in arranging some of the components of the final scene in which all the confusions may be settled. It is Lodovico who accompanies the Constable in the arrest of Matheo and the search of his house, and it is Lodovico who informs Hippolito that Bellafront has been arrested for prostitution, thus sending the count to the prison to correct this injustice.


See also SFORSA.


Along with Nicanor and Iago, Sforza is the third of the aging Sicilian lords who attend on King Atticus as councillors in the anonymous Swetnam. While Nicanor is scheming and disloyal, and Iago honest and loyal, Sforza steers a middle course by trying to avoid conflict. He is present at the trial of Leonida and Lisandro and reports its outcome to Iago. Although he despises Swetnam's misogyny, he feels that Leonida's fate may be deserved as her coldness and disdain have made her unpopular with the nobles. He rebukes Iago for distressing the King by condemning Leonida's execution, but he joins in the celebrations when Leonida, Lisandro and Lorenzo turn out to be alive.

SFORZA **1626

Sforza is an extremely loyal soldier at Elvas Castle, home of Antonio and Castabella in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge.


Sforza is Duke of Milan in Cokain's Trappolin. He provided military support in Lavinio's war against Mantua. He hosts Lavinio in Milan and oversees the marriage festivities between Lavinio and Isabella.


A seasoned general and Queen Eulalia's champion in Brome's The Queen and Concubine. Having saved King Gonzago's life in battle prior to the play's beginning, he returns with Gonzago heaped with honors. He is appalled to find his daughter, Alinda, has become a wily courtier in his absence and desires the King. He is imprisoned without being told of the Queen's trial and Alinda's preferment. His life is spared by his former rival, Petruccio. Disguised as a Captain, he warns King Gonzago that his rebellious soldiers seek Petruccio's death for the supposed murder of Sforza. When Petruccio is brought before the King for treason, Sforza reveals himself and insists on his loyalty. He accompanies the King to Palermo and, after Alinda's treachery is exposed, agrees to pardon her after she is cured by Eulalia, confesses her wrongs, and promises to enter a nunnery.

SFORZA **1635

A “ghost character" in Rider’s The Twins. The former duke of Milan. He banished Julio and would be angry to learn that Julio enjoys his banishment and the comforts of the woodland.


An Italian ally to the French King, Charles VIII in Barnes's The Devil's Charter, who, along with his brother, Lodowick, joins forces with Charles and attacks Alexander's fortress of Castell Angelo. Ascanio calls Alexander the "Antichrist" and warns Charles not to believe Alexander or place any faith in the word of this Pope who he recognizes as a liar and a reprobate. After their successful invasion, he demands that Alexander turn over the triple-diadem-or Crown of the Papacy-and the Cross Keys-the symbol of the Pope's authority in Rome.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. Farelo de Sforza was the Duke's secretary and, on his death, the Duke appoints Foreste to his position.


A "ghost character" in Barnes's The Devil's Charter. He was the second husband of Lucretia Borgia.


The brother-in-law of Countess Katharine and uncle to her two sons in Barnes's The Devil's Charter. He appears on the walls of Furli with Katharine when she faces Caesar Borgia and his troops.


Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan in Massinger's The Duke of Milan. Sforza has placed himself squarely against the Spanish, whom he hates. The French, freshly funded by Sforza, have taken the field. Should they loose to the Spanish, Sforza will be bankrupt and defenseless before the Spanish. He holds a birthday party for his wife, Marcella, and swears his undying loyalty to her. During the party a courier arrives. His letter is clear: the Duke's French forces have been defeated. The Duke tells his Duchess that he could be taken prisoner, his lands and titles stripped from him, his mother murdered, and his sister ravished, and he'd be fine. But if anything should happen to his wife, he'd be disconsolate. If faced with that circumstance, she promises to kill herself. Perscara councils the Duke to surrender immediately to the Spanish Emperor, and hope for mercy. The Duke agrees. He then makes Perscara promise that should the Spanish Emperor execute him, Perscara will kill the Duchess. Perscara is horrified, but agrees. The Spanish Emperor is surprised by Sforza's surrender, and decides to hear his case. Rather than flatter, the Duke proclaims himself the Emperor's enemy and demands immediate death. The Emperor is so touched by the Duke's courage that he reinstates him as Duke of Milan. The Duke is happy to return to his loving and constant wife. Francisco, however, has convinced the Duchess that the Duke is unfaithful and wishes her death. He also protests his love to her. The Duke is surprised that his wife doesn't rush to greet him upon his return. She replies that her blood is more temperate than he suspects. Graccho sees this as proof that the Duchess is having an affair with Francisco; the Duke is enraged by her cold affection and swears never to think of her again. A trick is planned, and the Duchess is led in. On hearing that Francisco is dead, the Duchess retorts, 'thou hast killed then/ A man I do profess I loved; a man/For whom a thousand queens might well be rivals.' The Duke stabs her. Proclaiming that he was innocent, the Duke then calls for Francisco. Sensing that she has been manipulated, the Duchess says that it was he, not she, who was the sexual aggressor, but the Duke does not believe her. Before the Duchess can be arrested, however, she dies. The King is broken hearted. He learns that Francisco is the villain and calls for doctors to attempt to revive the Duchess. Francisco and his sister, Eugenie (a woman the Duke once wronged), enter disguised as doctors and attempt to fool the Duke into believing the Duchess will revive. They are discovered and arrested but not before Eugenie manages first to poison the Duke. He dies slowly of the poison.


An Italian ally of the French King in Barnes's The Devil's Charter. Lodowick recognizes that Rome, and as a result, all of Italy, has deteriorated into corruption because of the malignant reign of the present Pope, Alexander VI. He supports Charles VIII in his invasion of Italy and hopes to remove Alexander from the Vatican. When Charles's troops win the battle and are on the verge of occupying Rome, Lodowick encourages Charles to press forward with the attack and not negotiate with Alexander, But Charles believes that the Pope will honor his word and so he agrees to Alexander's terms for a truce. Lodowick honors the truce and salutes the Pope.


Duke of Venice in Marston's Antonio and Mellida. He first appears in the play's Induction wherein the actors comment upon their parts (though the speech headings identify them only by their character names). He is Mellida's father, Rossaline's uncle, and vengeful victor over Andrugio, Duke of Genoa, and his family. He boasts in Latin that he is "most exalted of the gods," offers money for the heads of Andrugio and his son, Antonio, and declares he will not allow Mellida to marry Antonio. Indeed, he announces that he will drink from Antonio's skull and become legendary for slaying him. When Mellida flees to find Antonio, Piero tracks her down and forces her to marry Galeatzo. Right up to the middle of the final scene, Piero epitomizes the name Sforza, made shorthand for "tyrant" in the 16th century by the Sforza dukes of Milan. In the closing moments of the comedy, however, Andrugio marches in to claim Piero's love as reward for his head, and Piero's hate turns to love and honor for Andrugio. As the final stanzas approach, Piero also welcomes Antonio and gives his permission for Mellida to wed Antonio.
Piero Sforza is the Duke of Venice in Marston's Antonio's Revenge. He is the first character on stage following the Prologue. He orders Strotzo to tie the dead body of Feliche's son to Piero's sleeping daughter Mellida. Piero states that he has just killed his rival Andrugio. Feliche was killed to cover Piero's tracks. Piero explains that he lost Maria to Andrugio long ago and has always planned on reaping vengeance for the dishonorable defeat. Apparently, Piero allowed Andrugio's son Antonio to be betrothed to Mellida for the sole purpose of making Andrugio's fall into death more precipitous. Piero hatches a plan to woo Maria anew. He hopes to "poison the father, butcher the son and marry the mother–ha!" After Antonio discovers Feliche's corpse in Mellida's chamber window, Piero has Mellida arrested as a whore. Piero informs Pandulpho that he has killed young Feliche for deflowering Mellida. Piero then affects surprise at the news that Andrugio has died. While watching Andrugio's funeral, Piero expresses a resilient hatred for Antonio. Piero reveals to the audience in a soliloquy that he plans to kill Antonio, woo Maria and marry off Mellida to a Florentine gentleman. By doing so, Piero plans to use his control over Venice, Genoa and Florence for an attack on Rome. After recruiting Balurdo, Piero theorizes that ambitious men are most successful when they employ with loyal, stupid followers. Piero angers Pandulpho by denying young Feliche a proper burial. He cements Pandulpho's distrust when he further reveals that: 1) Andrugio is dead; 2) Mellida will be condemned; and 3) Piero wants Pandulpho to assist in the framing of Antonio. When Pandulpho refuses to help, Piero banishes him from Venice. Piero spies on Antonio's meeting with Mellida in prison so that he can laugh at the lovers' anguish. Piero then resolves anew to woo Maria. In order to save Mellida from execution, Piero convinces Strotzo to confess to falsely testifying against Antonio's bride. Strotzo is instructed to tell the court Antonio paid him to slander Mellida. In this way, Mellida will live, but Antonio will die. What Strotzo is not told is that Piero plans for Strotzo to die immediately thereafter, taking the conspiracy with him to his grave. At Mellida's trial, Piero calls for Strotzo and Antonio to appear. When Strotzo confesses to false testimony, Piero and Castillo strangle him. When Piero learns that Mellida has died in grief over the false rumor that Antonio is dead, Piero's first thought is to commence with his wedding to Maria. He expresses no real sorrow. In a dumb show, Piero is condemned as a criminal by Galeatzo before an assembly of Venetian senators. He tries to revive his spirits by getting drunk and watching a masque. Unfortunately for Piero, Antonio, Alberto and Pandulpho are three of the courtiers disguised for the masque. They yank out his tongue and then slowly stab him to death as he is tied to a chair. As he lay dying, Antonio presents Piero with a cooked dish made with Julio's corpse.


Shackle is one of Brainsicke's keepers in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. He, and often Clutch, accompany the young man everywhere he goes after he is released from jail.


Gaoler of Newgate in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass; with his keepers, he discovers the dead body of the cutpurse whose body Pug occupied, and the wall broken down where Satan, Pug, and Iniquity escaped and returned to Hell.


With Lurchall and Ruffman, Shacklesoule is one of Pluto's devils in Dekker's If It Be Not Good. Disguising himself as Friar Rush, he infiltrates the Neapolitan priory and schemes to corrupt the friars. He entices the friars' bellies with delicacies and encourages them to devote their time to making wine. Unable to corrupt the upstanding Subprior with wine, he summons the devil Glitterbacke from hell so he can use the drops of sweat that pour from Glitterbacke's golden head to turn the Subprior's drinking water into gold. Although this fails to tempt the Subprior, Glitterbacke and Shacklesoule do manage to seduce the priory cook, Scumbroth, with the gold. Shacklesoule finally attempts to corrupt the Subprior by appealing to his lust with Courtesans and an Italian Zany. When this also fails, he tries to frighten him into a state of despair. Finally, he gives up, settling instead for damning the rest of the friars to hell. He returns to hell in triumph with Lurchall and Ruffman.


A gallant in Heywood and Brome's The Late Lancashire Witches, Master Shackston is the friend and companion of Master Arthur and Master Bantam. Like Bantam, Shackston is skeptical about witchcraft, but he is more moderate in his views. The events of the play change his mind. He is invited, along with the other gallants, to dine with Master Generous, on the condition that they tolerate Generous' foolish nephew Whetstone. They agree, but the promise is broken by Bantam, who loses patience and insults Whetstone; although it is Bantam's indiscretion, Shackston is guilty by association in Whetstone's eyes and he too becomes a target of Whetstone's later revenge. Shackston is amongst the guests who witness the witchery at Lawrence and Parnell's wedding celebration, and is an onlooker during the Skimmington ritual performed outside the Seely household. Shackston then accompanies the other gallants to Whetstone's for supper. Afterward, Whetstone retaliates for the earlier insult by offering to conjure the gallants' fathers, and the Tailor, who in a dumb show claims him as his son, confronts Shackston. Angered by the unfounded suggestion that he was begotten illegitimately, Shackston attempts to draw his sword but is prevented by unseen forces. Shackston is in turn revenged in the final scene, however, when the witches are arrested and Whetstone is denounced for consorting with them.


A servant to Fortunatus and his sons in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. After the death of Old Fortunatus, he travels with Andelocia.


Shadow of a Lady, presumably, the spirit of Montreville's former mistress in Massinger's Unnatural Combat.


Simon Shadow is one of the motley crew recruited by Shallow for military service with Falstaff in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.


Sir Conquest Shadow is a coward in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. He can act as a brave man only in his imagination. He visits Doctor Clyster to tell him about his disease–"strange imaginations"–and he explains he suffers from imaginary valor: he thinks of quarrels with brave swordsmen, and he always ends up being victorious. He actually reports several interesting quarrels, duels in England and overseas (with their subsequent trials and all) and fights at sea he imagined, in so much detail that they sound as if they had really been true. The trouble is that, if he is brave in his imagination, he is a coward in real life: he dares not fight when he is conscious. The doctor–impressed by his fantastic accounts–exclaims that if he had that imagination, he would not want to be cured. But his patient explains that those thoughts "trouble me very much and keep me from my business." He then begs Doctor Clyster to cure him, and he offers him ten pounds in gold, if he does. The doctor forbids him "all foreign corantos, be they gazettes either in French or Dutch," conversing with merchants, living near the coast–so that he cannot hear of "setting out of ships"–and being in the company of swordsmen. Besides, he will not read stories about fights, nor letters or news in times of war. When he hears the doctor's prescription he manifests his consternation because he is in pension with a soldier. Then he is advised to either withdraw his pension or let the soldier have it, and leave. Doctor Clyster also explains to him that, should his prescription fail to work, he would try a "physical cause" with him. Later, Sir Conquest Shadow, aware of the fact that he has been cozened, goes to see the doctor again. But, being a coward, he leaves as soon as the doctor threatens him with proclaiming him a coward. Encouraged by Damme de Bois, he and the other cozened victims siege the house of the three cheaters. Finally, Master Algebra, who was passing by, offers to act as a judge, and he actually solves the case satisfactorily for all the parties involved, cures the cozened people and he is recompensed both by the victims and by the cheaters.


A false friend of Sir Charles Mountford, who tricks him out of his last remaining wealth in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness.


A prominent character and opponent to the title character in the anonymous Tamar Cam. According to W.W. Greg, Mahommed of Khwarizm is probably meant.


A villain whom Greene hires, along with Black Will, to murder Arden in the anonymous Arden of Feversham. After missing an opportunity to kill Arden in St. Paul's, he accosts Michael, who is also trying to kill Arden and joins him to their band. In an attempt to kill Arden with swords, Shakebag is wounded by Franklin and forced to flee. The wound causes Shakebag to become galvanized in the attempt to kill Arden. Shakebag is one of the three who stabs Arden to death. The other two are Mosbie and Alice. He flees to London where he murders a woman and her tapster before seeking sanctuary in a church. The Franklin tells us that Shakebag was later murdered in Southwark as he was heading for Greenwich.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Arden of Feversham. Shakebag had hoped to hide at an old female acquaintance of his. When she refused him, he kicked her down the stairs and broke her neck. He stabbed her tapster to death as well.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus. Ingenioso says in an aside that Gullio's oration on his mistress is naught but scraps of Shakespeare and other theatrical authors, and is told that his own encomium on Gullio's mistress should imitate Shakespeare among other authors; Venus and Adonis and Romeo and Juliet are particularly approved.
Only mentioned in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus. Iudicio commends Adonis and Lucrece in their kind, but faults Shakespeare for avoiding graver subjects—he and Ingenioso do not mention the plays. Later, Burbage and Kempe value Shakespeare's dramatic work more highly than the plays of the university wits.
Only mentioned in Cavendish & Shirley's Country Captain. Thomas brings Underwit a book of Shakespeare's plays.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. He wrote his comedies for Plutus.
Only mentioned in Wild’s The Benefice. Invention reads some praise for him (‘if thy learning had been like thy wit, Ben would have blushed, and Johnson [sic] never writ’) but Furor Poeticus finds fault in his works (‘for the fine and true dramatic law, he was a dunce and scribled with a straw’) and calls for an imaginary Jailor to take him away.


The disguise Ruffman assumes in order to infiltrate the Neapolitan court in Dekker's If It Be Not Good, more often referred to as Bohor.


Robert Shallow is a country justice called cousin by Justice Silence in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. Shallow presents a rather motley crew of recruits for Falstaff, and his conversations with Falstaff and with fellow justice Silence provide glimpses of Shallow's rough-and-tumble law education days.
Shallow, cousin to Slender, is an elderly country justice in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. Falstaff's followers have robbed Slender, and Falstaff has slighted Shallow by beating his men, stealing his deer, and breaking open his lodge. Shallow seeks amends by having Slender marry Anne Page for her inheritance. He even rather foolishly attempts to woo the young woman on his cousin's behalf, but the plan goes awry when Anne Page steals off with Fenton.


A rich fool in the sub-plot of May's The Heir. At Franklin's urging, he is betrothed to the reluctant Luce. Arriving with music for their wedding-day, he is surprised to find Luce pregnant and is persuaded that he was too drunk to remember having impregnated her. He apologizes and agrees to a quiet wedding to forestall scandal. The ceremony is interrupted by Luce's true love, Francisco, who attempts to claim her by pre-contract. Shallow refuses to believe that his credulity is being abused. (Shallow foolishly sees the evidence that Luce is visibly expanding and therefore cannot be 'contracted.') The Sumnor serves Shallow and Luce with writs of unchastity, which threatens a public scandal, so Shallow agrees to a second, more secret wedding before their trial. Even after Francisco, disguised as the Parson succeeds in marrying Luce himself, Shallow persists in claiming the paternity of the unborn baby. When the 'baby' is revealed to be a cushion, Shallow is given it, as the likeliest heir he will ever sire.


Shallow is a suitor of Caelia in Baylie's The Wizard, but he quickly realizes he has no chance to win her. He is fooled by Hog and Delia into believing that Delia is a lady and in love with her, and so he agrees to marry her. He disguises himself as the conjurer, on Hog's advice, to supposedly trick Delia into revealing her love, and while disguised, he is arrested in Antonio's place by Sir Oliver and Sebastian. Shallow reveals himself and this results in everyone discovering the tricks played by Hog and Delia.


An ill-favored country knight in Glapthorne’s Wit in a Constable. He is a fool who agrees with Thorogood that he is the most egregious knight in the country, lives on onions and corn-salads, and whose father died a knave and so left Sir Timothy one as well. He has come to town to court Grace. He lets Valentine do all of his talking, interrupting only long enough to agree with what he says, until Grace is quite taken with Valentine. He agrees to have Valentine disguise as his niece to get him closer to Grace, thinking that Valentine intends to woo in the knight’s name. When the disguise is almost immediately revealed, he tries for a moment to uphold that Valentine is his niece. He is forced to agree that the women who have so entertained a man in their chambers would not be fit for his wife. Covet convinces him that the women are proper, and he cannot decide whether he should take Clare or Grace, so Jeremy and Sir Timothy engage in a dialogue of “whichever you like, I’ll have the other" that only makes both look more foolish. The women assure Sir Timothy and Jeremy that they will make them terrible wives. Thinking they jest, both men take them at their word and agree to be complacent cuckolds and to marry the women immediately but in such secrecy that absolutely no one will know of it. He bribes the watchmen four groats as he, Jeremy, and Grimes make their way through London by night with a sedan chair. When Busie suddenly inquires what’s in the sedan chair, they are obliged to retreat. He marries “Luce" (Maudlin intended) by mistake when the women disguise themselves as Clare and Grace. He declares himself happy with the match for Jeremy’s sake.


Shaloon is a character in "The Triumph of Death," the third play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He is a servant to Lavall.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. One of the noble French soldiers taken prisoner at the Battle of Leith.


The name that Folly gives to Manhood after corrupting him in the anonymous Mundus et Infans. As with "Repentance," the name is never listed as a character at the beginning of the play or used as a heading above any of Manhood's lines, but Folly does call him "Shame" three times.


Reason calls Shame "a merchant" in the anonymous Marriage of Wit and Science. He comes to deal with Wit after Wit is found wearing Ignorance's clothes. He helps Reason berate Wit for squandering the gifts of Nature.


Returns from the underworld in Preston's Cambises to reveal the wrongs and shameless deeds of Cambyses.


Shame is the page of Pride in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London. He calls himself 'Modesty.' He carries a lance with a gilt pendant. The Spanish pages (Terror, Shame, and Treachery) fight the pages of London (Wit, Wealth, and Will) and are defeated.

SHAME **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the fifteen affections and the subject of the play as mentioned in the dramatis personae but not otherwise mentioned in the play proper.


A messenger in the anonymous Nice Wanton. He informs Xantippe of the deaths of her daughter Dalilah, who has contracted the pox, and her son Ismael who has been executed. Worldly Shame mockingly blames Xantippe herself for the deaths of her children and leaves her a knife with which to commit suicide.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David as an example of an upright, virtuous man.


He is a courtier of Emmanuel's in the anonymous Weakest Goeth to the Wall. When Emmanuel discovers the absence of Ferdinand and his daughter and plans to chase after them, Shamont urges Emmanuel to talk less and do more.


Favorite of the Duke in Fletcher and Middleton's The Nice Valour, Shamont is the man of nice valor who leaves no insult unrevenged. Court opinion is divided about the sincerity of his commitment to honor, although most think it sincere. Shamont is inadvertently insulted by the following:
  • Lapet, whose failure to answer the blows he is given strikes Shamont as base;
  • the Passionate Lord, whose lack of self-control irritates Shamont;
  • the Souldier, his brother, who does not realize the lady he is attempting to court, the Duke's sister, is Shamont's lover and with whom Shamont nearly fights a duel; and
  • the Duke, who touches Shamont with his switch to get the courtier's attention.
The latter offense provokes a strong reaction in Shamont who, unable to seek redress for the perceived insult, leaves the court to the dismay of his Lady, the Duke's sister. Shamont is forced to return to court to ask the Duke to pardon his brother the Souldier after the Souldier is arrested for apparently murdering the Passionate Lord. After turning away several times, Shamont finally brings himself to ask the Duke for the pardon, which the Duke grants in an effort to satisfy Shamont's wounded honor. The pardon, however, is unnecessary because the Passionate Lord unexpectedly survives his injuries. Reconciled with his favorite, the Duke approves of the marriage between his sister and Shamont.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. One of the noble French soldiers taken prisoner at the Battle of Leith.


A "ghost character" in Sharpham's The Fleire. An Irish gallant, the lackey of Oscabath, named by Antifront as one of the many customers of the prostitutes Felecia and Florida.


Sultan Shamurath of Babylon invades Jerusalem and threatens the rule of the King of Jerusalem in the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick. Shamurath depends upon the assistance of Zorastes, his sorcerer. In battle against Guy's Christian soldiers, Shamurath's forces are routed. The Sultan is coerced into converting to Christianity. He returns to Babylon and promises to convert his people.


Lord Shandoyse, bearer of the Mace for Queen Mary in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me, sits on the council that interrogates Elizabeth. He later bears the Sword at Elizabeth's coronation.

An Irish soldier defending Dundalk in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley, apprehended by Stukeley for treason. He quarrels with Buske over command of the force and is eventually killed by him in hand-to-hand combat.


A lady of a certain age and an ambivalent moral reputation in ?Ford's The Queen, Shaparoon is nevertheless treated as a confidante by Salassa. Lodovico describes her as his "couzen," although it is unclear whether he means this literally or whether he uses the word to indicate a relationship more carnal than familial; after all, he describes Shaparoon as "excellently traded / in these mortal businesses of flesh and / blood." Flattered by Mopas about her beauty and high birth, Shaparoon does indeed serve as a go-between for Velasco and Salassa on numerous occasions. Her greatest triumph comes when she helps to punish the pretentious Pynto by pretending that she is an aristocratic lady who has fallen in love with him. He marries her, only to discover that he has been joined to "this ugly bawd." Shaparoon offers no objections to his insulting description of her.


A cheater in Cartwright's The Ordinary. One of his deceptions is to disguise himself as a confessor and make Sir Thomas confess to his avarice. His disguise is revealed by Littleworth.


Andrew Shark the barber is one of the many identities that Cockledemoy, a city knave, assumes in order to swindle Mulligrub, an underhanded vintner in Marston's Dutch Courtesan. Wearing this disguise, Cockledemoy offers Mulligrub a shave; soaps up his entire face (including his eyes); and, while Mulligrub is unable to see, steals a bag full of his money.


Sharkino is a local doctor who runs a sort of apothecary in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge. We find his poisons are all the same despite how he advertises them, and he claims to know by the color of a maid's urine whether she has lost her maidenhead. Sharkino's remedies, if they work at all, are largely placebos.


Sharkwell is a doorkeeper at the puppet-theatre in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Sharkwell and Filcher help the puppeteer (Leatherhead) erect the puppet theatre. Lantern/Leatherhead tells them to beat the drum in order to attract customers. Apparently, Sharkwell's role is to collect the money, and the puppeteer instructs him to procure two pence per person from any gentlefolk. Sharkwell promises to take three pence if he can. When Littlewit wants to enter the theatre and Filcher refuses him admission unless he pays, Sharkwell recognizes Littlewit as the author of the play and says he must come in gratis, because Master Littlewit is a voluntary and the author.

A cutler of Fleet St. in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. Along with many other tradesmen, he gossips about the impending marriage of Captain Stukeley and Nell, daughter of the wealthy Sir Thomas Curtis. Immediately after the wedding, they seek to abscond with Stukeley's newfound money, citing debs both real and fabricated.


A "ghost character" in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. Mr. Sharpe is a creditor. He sends a servant to see Sly, in the hope he should pay him the money his master owes him. At first, it seems that he is not going to be paid, although, in the end, all creditors will recover their money.


A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Sharpe of Leeds made arrows for Scarlet and Scathlock when they were outlaws.


A "ghost character" in Marston's Dutch Courtesan, Master Shatewe, the jeweler, does not appear on stage. At the time that Freevill and Malheureux plan their pretend duel, Freevill tells Malheureux that he will wait at Shatewe's until after Malheureux has informed Franceschina that he has killed Freevill and after Franceschina has allowed Malheureux to claim her body as his reward. However, Freevill never intends to go to Shatewe's, and when Malheureux insists that the living Freevill can be found at Shatewe's, and the searchers return without Freevill, Malheureux is sentenced to death for murder.


A lord who is "mad for love" in Fletcher's The Noble Gentleman; his beloved is named Love. Denied Love's hand in marriage by the King, he has become insanely paranoid and doesn't recognize Love when she attempts to comfort him. The Lady arranges an interview for him with the Gentleman, during which Shattillion insists that he's the heir apparent to the throne and the Gentleman has him confined. He escapes, warns Jaques of a plot against his life, and is convinced to fight to prove the King's right to rescind the Gentleman's title. Finally feeling he is reconciled with the King, he recognizes Love and is healed.


A "ghost character" in Sharpham's The Fleire mentioned by Antifront as a man who sent his mistress an oat cake.

SHAVETT **1599

A “ghost character" in Ruggle’s Club Law. Rumford suggests that he should be the next Burgomaster because he is worth two hundred pounds. Colby objects to him because he fears that, because he loves the gentle Athenians (students) too well, and his father was Baker, and because he is a pretie pettifogging Lawyer a kinde of Attorney, he’ll “drawe bloud of theise gentle Athenians, he'le tickle them effaith."


Shave'em is a prostitute who works with Secret in Massinger's The City Madam. Ding'em is her pimp. Young Goldwire as one of her clients. She denies her services to Ramble and Scuffle, and draws her knife on the former. Just as things are about to get very ugly Young Goldwire and Ding'em, show up pretending to be a Justice of the peace and a constable. She is later with Secret and Ding'em at the lavish party thrown for Luke, and is arrested by Luke. She makes a final appearance in V.iii to plead for mercy from Luke.


Assists Chip in constructing the scaffold upon which Mariana is to be executed in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight, and takes part in a pun-filled discussion of ways to cause a woman to die.


A "ghost character." Gloucester's page reports to the audience in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III that Doctor Shaw, in service to Richard, has begun to preach from the pulpit at St. Paul's that Edward V and the Duke of York are Edward IV's bastard sons.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Richard III. A cleric of London. Richard III sends Lovell to Doctor Shaw to order him to give a sermon supporting Richard's claim to the throne.
Doctor Shaw works closely with Gloster in assuring the latter's rise to power in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV. When King Edward worries incessantly over a prophecy that a man called "G" would betray and succeed him, Shaw claims that the "G" stands for George, Duke of Clarence, when in fact the "G" of the prophecy refers to Gloster. Shaw also counterfeits evidence that King Edward's sons, Prince Edward and Prince Richard, are illegitimate; the boys are afterward murdered in the Tower. Shaw is visited by the ghost of Friar Anselme, the cleric whose prophecy Shaw has deliberately misinterpreted and who promises doom for Shaw, a prophecy that is not misrepresented and does in fact occur.


Shealty is the herald of the Spanish lords in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London. According to Policy, his name is "an Irish word, signifying liberty, rather remissness, looseness if you will." His coat carries "the arms of Spain before, and a burning ship behind." He and Fealty act as go-betweens during the confrontation between the lords of London and Spain, and he describes the Spanish lords to the lords of London.


A workman in the shipyard in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. The workmen quarrel genially as they work, and mutter about the massacre of Englishmen by the Dutch at Amboyna (although the reference to Amboyna was deleted by the censor). Later, they meet in a tavern, and Sheathing-Nail tells the story of the massacre (this too was censored). Trunnel encourages the workmen to taunt Dorothea Constance, whom they assume to be as unconstant as the other women in town, but they are chased off by Captain Fitzjohn. When the Mary is launched, the workmen entertain the East India Company board members with "some dainty dance, every one wearing the emblem of his name upon his head."


A maid of honor to Epimenide in Percy's Arabia Sitiens. Encourages Epimenide to be kind to Haroth and Maroth, but then capitulates to her mistresses' disdain. When Epimenide goes to Heaven, Nabatha and Shebe travel to Mecha to ask the oracle Sergius her whereabouts. He tells them Epimenide is in Heaven, then tells them they both will be wed that same evening. Dressed in their wedding garb, the women meet Caleb and Tubal near Mecha and tell them of Epimenide's fate. When the men tell them they fear breaking their sacred vow, Shebe and Nabatha take them to Sergius. Sergius agrees to transport all four to Heaven so they can find Epimenide. Mahomet grants her Caleb as a husband.


Lucifera, a devil raised by Delphia in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess to punish Geta's arrogant abuse of his judicial power. The She-Devil sits on Geta's lap and causes his chair to dance. She whispers in his ear, causing him to repent and vow to return to life as a tiler.


An alternate designation for Kate in Fletcher's The Pilgrim.


Sheleemien Thomas is the Irish name given to Nurse in disguise in Jonson's The New Inn, when she is attending Frank. Like Frank/Laetitia, Nurse/Sheleemien Thomas is always present in Lady Frampul's party, but she seems to be drunk or sleeping most of the time. During the first session of the love court, it seems that Nurse had been busy with a bottle, because Host tells her to put away the bottle and go to sleep. In her drunken babble, Nurse speaks of a long line of Irish names, thus proving her fictional Irish ancestry. During the second session of the love court, Nurse/ Sheleemien Thomas is sleeping, and Beaufort tells the others not to wake her, because he wanted to be free to court Frank/Laetitia. When the second court of love ends, Host wakes Nurse/Sheleemien Thomas, asking her about Frank/Laetitia. Nurse exits to look for her ward. Nurse re-enters just after Beaufort announces his marriage to Frank/Laetitia, and Host mocks him for having married a boy. Nurse clears the situation revealing that Frank, whom Host believed to be a boy, was actually her daughter. Then, Nurse reveals herself as Lady Frampul, wife to Lord Frampul and mother to Laetitia and Frances.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. When told that Plutus will find his way to honest houses "at a short-hand," Blepsidemus replies, "What, brachygraphy? Thomas Shelton's art?" Shelton translated Don Quixote in the 1620's not from Cervantes' original text but from the Brussels' editions.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a sinful man.


Neptune disguises himself as a shepherd in Lyly's Gallathea to find out why things are going so badly with his sacrifice, and ultimately he negotiates peace terms between Diana and Venus


Mucedorus is disguised as a shepherd throughout most of the Anonymous Mucedorus. He first dons the disguise in order to travel to see Amadine. He later adopts a hermit's attire, but whichever disguise he wears the audience is always aware that he is Mucedorus.


By disguising himself as a shepherd in Greene's Orlando Furioso and spreading the rumor that Angelica and Medor are in love, Sacripant's man helps Sacripant in his attempt to trick Orlando. Orlando attacks the "shepherd," tears off his leg, and wears it.


Joan la Pucelle's father in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, a shepherd, visits the English camp to comfort his captured daughter, but she rebuffs him and claims to be of nobler birth.


Mute character in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. Crowned as a king by Fortune.


Enters wounded and running, to tell of Ariadne's abduction by Pheander in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder.


Complains to Caradoc about the Serpent that is ravaging the countryside and leads him to it in The Valiant Welshman.


Sings during the entrance of the goddesses in the play-within-the-play in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill.


This unnamed Shepherd in Shirley's The School of Compliment is sent by Antonio to summon Cornelio to the shepherd's festival.


The anonymous Shepherd and Nymph in Randolph's Amyntas squabble over who ought to present the prologue to the pastoral, arriving at the agreement to share it between them. He speaks to the men in the audience, disingenuously warning them not to expect sophistication with in the pastoral to follow, only homely matters of rustic life appropriate to the pastoral genre.


A fictitious character in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday. Hylas imagines some kind shepherd passing by Nerina's burial site and writing a message on her grave.


A shepherd in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped finds the stabbed Antonio and nurses him back to life. He, Cornelia, Phemone and Antonio dramatically return to Venice at the crucial moment in the trial of Fransiscus.


With Dametas in Shirley's The Arcadia, he discovers Gynecia with the supposed dead body of Basilius.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's As You Like It. Phebe, in falling in love with Ganymede, invokes the "dead shepherd" that once asked "who ever loved that loved not at first sight?" The quotation is from Hero and Leander (published in 1598) and the "dead shepherd" is probably meant to refer to its author, Christopher Marlowe. Touchstone seems to refer to Marlowe's murder when he states, "It strikes a man more dead than a great reckoning in a little room."


A fictitious character within the story of Paris and Enone which the Chorus intends to perform before the king in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday.


Part of the Chorus of Shepherds in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday, the First Shepherd expresses his puzzlement over the fact that Euarchus would send for the players and then "command [them] to return" without first seeing their business, while the Second Shepherd is pleased by the fact that Euarchus is sending them home since it saves them so much trouble.


Three Shepherds, filled with bucolic passion, put in an appearance in Shirley's The School of Compliment:
  1. The First Shepherd we meet in the countryside comments that the shepherd's life is without care or worry. This Shepherd later makes an offer of marriage to "shepherdess" Mopsa, who is actually Gorgon in disguise.
  2. The Second Shepherd describes the shepherd life to Selina as one full of visions of playing nymphs; he claims to catch fish by singing madrigals to them.
  3. The Third Shepherd explains that there is no despair or jealousy involved in a shepherd's life.


The Lustful Shepherd chases after Cloë, wanting to kiss, embrace, "and do the thing shepherds do at wrasteling" in Tatham's Love Crowns the End. After Cloë screams for help, Lysander chases off the Lustful Shepherd. Later, attired like a satyr and out to ravish "wenches," the Lustful Shepherd encounters Scrub who confronts him and chases him away.


The Old Shepherd helps to usher in the second, comic half of Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale when he tells his son (the Clown) that "thou met'st with things dying, I with things new-born." The newborn thing that the Old Shepherd discovers is Perdita, and in the sixteen years that elapse between the end of the third act and the beginning of the fourth the shepherd rears her as his daughter. He has cause to regret his charity when the Bohemian king Polixenes discovers that his son Florizel has been courting Perdita and orders the shepherd hanged for fostering the romance. Camillo persuades the young lovers to seek refuge in his native Sicilia, planning to report their destination to Polixenes in the hope that Polixenes will take him there. Meanwhile, the roguish Autolycus learns from him Perdita's true identity. The shepherd and his son the clown travel to Sicilia, and the comic resolution is facilitated by the shepherd's description of the articles which he found with the infant Perdita. Leontes, in gratitude, makes the old shepherd a "gentleman born."


The final disguise in which Lorenzo appears before his father, Atticus, as part of the Masque of Repentance in the anonymous Swetnam. He plays the father of the Silvan Nymph Claribell, aka his own sister Leonida, who he begs Atticus to join in marriage with her lover Palemon, aka Lisandro. When Atticus does so, he reveals the true identities of the lovers before finally disclosing his own.


The Sullen Shepherd in Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess is a malcontent shepherd with scabby sheep and a lean dog, who rejoices in breaking up the relationships of the other shepherds. He lusts after the shepherdesses but loves no one. He assists Amarillis in return for her agreement to have sex with him, and he helps her to transform herself into the shape of Amoret. The Sullen Shepherd misdirects Amoret away from Perigot and lusts after her. Meeting Cloë and Alexis with his lust aroused, the Sullen Shepherd challenges Alexis for Cloë and wounds him before being chased away by the Satyr. He throws Amoret into the well after Perigot has wounded her. He tries to get his reward from Amarillis, but she rejects him. The Sullen Shepherd pursues her, but the Priest of Pan stops him. The Sullen Shepherd is completely unrepentant, and by play's end he has been banished by the Priest of Pan.


A fictional character in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In an apartment in Cynthia's palace, Phantaste, Philautia, Argurion, and Moria are expecting the miracle water from the fountain of Self-love, so much publicized by Amorphus. While waiting, the vain nymphs discuss fashion, their admirers, and fantasize on what they would like to be. While Moria and Philautia imagine they could be extremely powerful women, Phantaste fantasizes that she could impersonate many women and do various things. As a Shepherdess, Phantaste imagines that she could have many shepherds pipe and sing love ditties to her.


This unnamed Shepherdess in Shirley's The School of Compliment performs a song at the shepherd's festival.


Led by Ceres in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess, the unnumbered Shepherdesses perform a dance choreographed by Delphia to honor Diocles.


Disguises adopted by Francisco and Hippolito in Day's Humour Out of Breath. Francisco and Hippolito, sons to Octavio Duke of Venice disguise themselves as shepherds when they go into the countryside in search of love and beauty. They seem not to take new names, but Antonio and his daughters assume they are in fact shepherds when they encounter them.


The shepherds of Arcadia form the chorus of voices that provides songs between acts of Daniel's Hymen's Triumph and that recognizes the worthiness of Thyrsis and Silvia at the time of their union. The shepherd's festival is the pagan analogy of the Christmas season.


Three Roman shepherds in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess. Alexis, Ladon, and (possibly) Thirsis marvel that Diocles has returned the countryside to prosperity and enabled its inhabitants to hold their traditional celebrations. In gratitude, they (along with a fourth shepherd, Egon) plan a country entertainment for Diocles.


In Act Two of T.D.'s The Bloody Banquet, they lay a trap for wolves that have been attacking their sheep. They come across one of the Queen of Lydia's infants, and return him to her.


When Alcinous is redeemed in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber, Dorus calls for a dance, and an ‘Antique of Shepherds’ enters and performs it.


"Ghost characters" in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday, Sylvia informs Delia that Thyrsis defended her from the avarice of old shepherds, who tried to take her goats.


They open act two of (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess singing “Come shepherds come, impale your brows" with Sylvia.


Sheriff of the city of Julio in Whetstone's 1 Promos and Cassandra. Openly submits to Promos' authority and presents him with the keys to the city in the opening scene.


A "non-speaking" character in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V, brother to the Major. He appears with the Major when they are both summoned by Henry IV who asks them why they have jailed his son, disregarding his rank.


After Eleanor's public humiliation for treason in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, the Sheriff relinquishes her to Sir John Stanley, who will convey her to the Isle of Man where she has been exiled.


A sheriff of Salisbury in Shakespeare's Richard III. The Sheriff leads Buckingham to execution.


A non-speaking character in Shakespeare's King John. The Sheriff appears in the first scene and speaks privately with Essex, presumably to tell him about the Falconbridge brothers since they enter next. However, he does not speak out loud.


Unnamed in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV, the Sheriff searches at the Boar's Head Tavern for a fat man seen entering there after the robbery of two gentlemen travelers.


The Sheriff in Chettle's(?) Looke About You accompanies John and Richard in their search for Gloster.


Also spelled Shiriff and Sheriffe in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women. Taking George Browne to be executed, the Sheriffe says that Browne's brother is in Newgate for murder and would like to speak with him. After allowing Browne to talk with his brother, the Sheriffe asks Browne to tell the truth about what Anne Sanders knew about her husband's death. He tells Browne that Anne Drurie had accused her. After Browne is hung, a messenger arrives to direct the Sheriff to hang Browne's body in chains, and the Sheriff replies, "It shal be done." In the final scene the Sheriffe comes with holberds (halberdiers) conducting Roger to collect Anne Sanders and Anne Drurie to escort them all to the gallows.


Arrests Sir Charles Mountford after the fight with Sir Francis Acton in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness.


Sent to arrest Flowerdale for debt in The London Prodigal.


The unnamed Sheriff in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt follows Holmes to arrest the Duke of Suffolk, and seeing Holmes kiss the duke's hands in a show of apparent fidelity, compares Holmes to Judas.

SHERIFF **1605

A sheriff of London in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me.


Leads Purser and Clinton to the place of execution in Heywood and Rowley's Fortune by Land and Sea.

SHERIFF **1619

He and the guards lead the kitchen staff to their execution in Fletcher’s Bloody Brother.


The sheriff appears at the tavern to arrest Falstaff in connection with the Gads Hill robbery in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. Hal hides Falstaff and sends the sheriff and his officers away.


A sheriff in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Explains to the impatient Bonner why Latimer and Ridley are delayed on their way to the stake.


At the end of Heywood's The Captives, is leading Friar Richard to his execution when he is intercepted by the Duke of Averne and Dennis, who confess to their role in Friar John's murder. The Duke turns himself over to the Sheriff's authority when Lady Averne arrives with a pardon for her husband from the King.


He attempts to break up a fight between Lords Herbert and Powis in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle. Later he announces an edict from the King forbidding public quarrels and the wearing of weapons.


The Shrieve, of Sheriff, of Kent in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock, along with the Shrieve of Northumberland, stoutly resists the new, wild form of taxation represented by the "blank charters", and is imprisoned by order of Tresilian, the corrupt Lord Chief Justice.


A mute character in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. The Sheriff of Kent is present when Ely is found by the Colliers, and John tells the Sheriff to take him into custody and send him to Warman.


Thomas Nidigate, Sheriff of Lincolnshire in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John, brings to John's court the dispute between Philip and Robert Fauconbridge.


Although More is one person to hold this title during the May Day riots in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More, it is an unnamed Sheriff of London who arranges for the execution of the ringleaders, has a gibbet erected in Eastcheap to make a more vivid example of the condemned individuals, and when he learns from the unnamed Another Officer that the streets are blocked, preventing the prisoners from making their way to the place of execution, orders that they be brought on foot. Their sudden arrival allows for the regrettable execution of John Lincoln just moments before the Earl of Surrey comes with word of the king's pardon. He may be the same as either the First Sheriff or the Second Sheriff who both appear as More is taken off to execution.


A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. Wolsey sends out orders by the sheriff to order the brothels of London.


The Sheriff of London in Middleton's(?) Puritan. He arrests Skirmish for Oath's murder.


The "Sherife" is seeking Prodigalitie in the anonymous The Contention Between Liberalitie and Prodigalitie, in the belief that the latter supplies his lack of bravery with murder and theft. He catches the man, but his accomplices flee.


The Shrieve of Northumberland in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock is ally and fellow-sufferer of the Shrieve of Kent. The two are not distinguished.


Until II.ii, the Sheriff of Nottingham is a separate character in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington; after that, he is subsumed by the character of Warman, indicating incomplete revision. This note covers only the scenes for the separate Sheriff, see the Warman entry for the Sheriff's actions after II.i. The Sheriff is part of the original plot, with the Prior and Warman, to have Robin Hood outlawed, but the Sheriff is worried that it will be difficult. With Warman, he attempts to take Little John's chest, suspecting that it contains Robin's goods, but they are unsuccessful. (See "WARMAN").


A "ghost character." Though he does not appear on stage, the Sheriff of Yorkshire is reported by Harcourt as having overthrown the Earl of Northumberland and Lord Bardolph in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.


Two Sheriffs figure in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More:
  • The First Sheriff officially assumes custody of More from the Lieutenant of the Tower and escorts him to the place of execution. While doing so, he reminds More that he and his companions are only doing their duty (just as More had done his when he served as Sheriff of London).
  • The Second Sheriff appears in the party of officers who take custody of More from the Lieutenant of the Tower and escort the condemned man to the scaffold. More recognizes him as an old friend, and the Second Sheriff remarks that he, and many others, had derived comfort from a divinity lecture More had once delivered at Saint Lawrence's.


The family name of Sir Anthony, Robert, Thomas (Senior), and Thomas (Junior) in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers.


Sherwin is a goldsmith in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More whose wife has run off with the Lombard Francis de Bard. After the woman is returned to him, Sherwin finds himself sued by the foreigner for the woman's "maintenance" while their affair was occurring.


Disguise adopted by Anne in order to cheat her mother and Lord Skales, and to recover her beloved Master Slightall in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Her father, who also disguises–in his case, as the Divell–in order to help her, describes her to his visitors in the following terms: "this had with her beauty so much terrour, so much affright and horrour in her lookes, / such a confused noyse, with hellish sounds / Able to drive the sences retrograde; / Turne reason into madnesse, and invert / Capacity into fury. She is one of the Divell's servants, / And kitchen maides in Hell." Later, disguised as the Divell, he explains to Slightall that "to thee she shall seeme faire and beautifull." And, in fact, when the young man faces Anne disguised as the she-spirit, her beauty infatuates him.

SHEWER **1600

He is the servant in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell who carries in the food at the banquet Cromwell gives for the ordinary people he knows.


Shift is a materialist and a cheat, using two different impersonations for various occasions in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Shift enters St. Paul's, Cordatus describes the suspicious-looking character. Cordatus says he is known under several names, such as Apple-John and Signior Whiffe, but his standing name is cavalier Shift. Shift enters St. Paul's brandishing his sword, while the Puntavorlo party is watching. Carlo Buffone overhears that Clove and Orange greet Shift by two different names, and confronts Shift with his double impersonation. Shift admits that he takes the name of Signior Whiffe when he is a tobacconist and master Apple-John when he is a poor squire about the town. Concluding that Shift is an excellent impersonator, Carlo Buffone recommends him to Sogliardo as a professor in the art of hedging the creditors. Sogliardo invites Shift to dine with him and Shift exits with Sogliardo and Carlo Buffone. Later, Carlo Buffone reports that Sogliardo spent a whole day and night with Shift, in the privacy of their room at an inn, smoking heavily. At Puntavorlo's lodgings in London, Sogliardo praises his new friend's exploits, including the fact that he did five hundred robberies and escaped from jail forty times, while Shift professes modesty. When Sogliardo invites Shift to come to court with him, Shift says he has other business as master Apple-John and exits. On the palace stairs at court, Shift enters to meet Sogliardo as arranged. The Puntavorlo party enters, and Puntavorlo notices that his precious Dog is missing. Macilente blames Shift for having stolen Dog. Shift tries to exonerate himself, saying he never did robbery in all his life. This statement makes him fall out of Sogliardo's favor, because he boasted to his friend that he was a master thief. Shift exits in disgrace.


‘Another Lift his [Nim’s] fellow’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. His news from London, when Nim asks, includes the Thames being wide, Paul’s steeple steep, and the cost of seeing a new play being two pence. He sings. His doubt over Nim’s skill ‘by hook and by crook’ spurs Nim to demonstrate by stealing the ‘Bolle’ that Pearle orders from Wright. He praises Nim when he steals it. He stands silently by and enjoys watching as Pearle discovers that his prize has been taken. He helps encourage the sport as Pearle grows angry and threatens to beat Christian. He and Nim disguise as sergeants, approach and arrest Pearle, saying they do so in the name of Wright, the goldsmith. With Pigot’s help, they agree to let Pearle go in exchange for two Angels apiece, forty shillings, and he must buy them wine. When all is resolved between the cuckolds and cuckqueans, Pigot keeps the money they extorted and returns the ‘Bolle’ to Pearle in exchange for Pearle showing mercy to the ‘lifts’; Pearle (showing lenience) banishes Nim and Shift from Colchester with the clothes on their backs and money in their pockets and if they ever return they are to be given a firkin apiece at the town’s expense.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David as an example of sinful man who should nevertheless not sway God away from his love of the Israelites.


See also MASTER of the SHIP, MASTER and related concepts.


He is only an offstage voice in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. During the second tempest of the play, he is heard offstage barking orders to strike sail and cast anchor while the Boatswain deposits a seasick Clyomon on the shores of the Isle of Strange Marshes.


The Shipmaster takes Caesar over the River Anio in his desperate (and successful) last bid for victory in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey.

SHIRK, JACK **1636

One of the meaner members of the Twibill Knights in Glapthorne’s Hollander. He is on hand at Sconce’s initiation into the order.


Another suitor for the hand of Pecunia in Randolph's(?) The Drinking Academy; he is appalled to hear that she now favors Knowlittle. He enlists the aid of his friends Bidstand and Nimmer first to steal letters from Pecunia to Knowlittle and then to pretend to be Pecunia's Ghost and Pluto, so that they can steal money and clothes from Knowlittle, Worldly and Whiffe.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV Although never appearing on stage, Shirley is a loyalist knight listed as slain at Shrewsbury.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub. In-and-In Medlay's father, and a weaver.


A "ghost character" in Greene's James IV. Slipper wants to buy shoes from him with the reward he has received for stealing Ateukin's letters.


At Deliro's house, Shoemaker enters with Fungoso in a new suit and shoes, together with Tailor and Haberdasher in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Fungoso thanks Shoemaker and tells him he will put the shoestrings to his new shoes, in the hope lowering the total cost. It is not clear if Fungoso pays Shoemaker, probably not, and Shoemaker exits before the other suppliers.


A jolly, friendly owner of a shoemaking shop in Faversham in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. He hires Crispinus and Crispianus as apprentices. He permits Crispianus to volunteer for the army, when Crispinus reveals his true identity. He helps to hide Leodice's pregnancy from her father. The two princes refer to him as a father figure in the play's conclusion.


Plying his trade in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker, he supplies Sir Jarvis Clifton with four thousand pairs of shoes to for his soldiers in the Scottish campaign.


Included among the disgruntled tradesmen in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. He complains of being out of work now that Plutus has made all honest men rich. He agrees with the other tradesmen–attorney, tinker, miller, tailor, shoemaker, etc. –to combine into an insurrection. Nothing comes of this, however, in the play, and they are not seen again.


Creditor to Mihil Crosswill in Brome's The Weeding of Covent Garden, who, in an attempt to secure payment, agrees to participate in Mihil's attempted deception of his father that he wishes to marry an elderly widow.


“Ghost characters" in Mayne’s Amorous War. At the rumor of the Thracian invasion, they have taken to the street armed with awls.


The Shoemaker's Wife, whose name is Sisly, has a tempestuous relationship with her husband in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. She is very impressed by Crispinus and Crispianus, and encourages her husband to hire them as apprentices. When Crispinus confides in her that he has married and got a child, the Wife is disgusted and blabs to her husband, but when Crispinus reveals that he is a prince and his wife is the Emperor's daughter, the Wife agrees to help him. She suggests firing the beacons to distract Maximinus from Leodice's escape. The Wife presents Crispinus with his baby boy at the end of the play.


Along with John Irische, John Sholar is one of three men who Shrewd Wit and Ill-Will claim will bear witness for them when they are finally caught and confronted by Good Remedy in the anonymous An Interlude of Wealth and Health.


A shopkeeper in Cartwright's The Ordinary.


Family name of Master Matthew and Mistress Jane in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III; in Shakespeare's Richard III; in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV and also in his 2 Edward IV.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. Husband to Edward IV's mistress, Jane Shore.


Mrs. Shore is Edward IV's mistress at the time of his death in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. Unlike in Shakespeare's play, Shore's wife and Queen Elizabeth Gray are not the same person. After Edward's death, Mrs. Shore laments the cruelty of fortune and sees her own doom ahead. She is concerned that all of the people she has favored with her influence over Edward will abandon her. She is also certain that the new Protector Gloucester is determined to ruin her. She proves to be prophetic on both counts. Richard comes and throws her penniless into the street to starve as a condemned whore. After being accused by Richard's page of leading a wicked and naughty life, Mrs. Shore condemns Richard's hypocrisy and turns her fate over to God. She repents for all of her sins.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. Mistress Shore was Edward IV's favorite mistress. Richard III made her do public penance. Prudence shows her displeasure at wearing the gown discarded by Lady Frampul, because Pinnacia had worn it. Prudence says her strength lies in her wit, she does not owe her intelligence to fine clothes, and she would rather die unclothed in a ditch, like Mistress Shore, than rely on the superficial ornament of rich dress.
Only mentioned in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. A rare beauty of yore whom Grobiana disdains.


Mr. Shorter is a creditor in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. He had invested some money in Undermine's business and now he sends a servant to see Sly, too, in the hope his master–Undermine–should pay him the money he owes him. But his servant does not going to receive any money. Later he will be misled by Undermine again, who will let him believe that he will recover his money from Mountayne. But, in the end, Undermine will become an honest man, and meet his debts.


The family name of Sir Quintilian and maiden name of Cælestine in Dekker's Satiromastix.


Clown, servant to Widow in Fletcher's Wit Without Money. He is the intermediary for Widow and Isabel in their love affairs. Also a tavern-companion of the Widow's servants, Roger, Harebrain, and Humphrey. Isabel sends him to Francisco with money.


Parson Short-hose is Grim the Collier's local clergyman in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame, so Grim confesses to him his love for the country maid Joan, and his resultant state of distraction. The Parson agrees to help Grim win Joan from Clack the Miller, but admits in an aside his own longing for her. He secretly plots to run away with Joan while, at his instigation, Grim and Clack are busy fighting each other. He is foiled by the devil Akercock in the form of the invisible sprite Robin Goodfellow, who beats the Parson and chases him away. In the end Parson Short-hose is reconciled to the betrothal of Grim and Joan, and nervously shares a meal with Robin Goodfellow and the couple.


Together with Falselight, he is a "spirit" employed by Quomodo in Middleton's Michaelmas Term. Under the alias Blastfield, the character befriends the Essex gentleman, Richard Easy, and is integral in Quomodo's efforts to extort his lands. After promising Easy that he will provide for his every need during his sojourn in the city, "Blastfield" feigns the inability to secure credit from his typical sources, including Quomodo. Together, Shortyard, Falselight, and Quomodo conspire to defraud Easy by pretending to provide Blastfield cloth on credit that he can sell to raise the necessary funds and, invoking "custom," require that Easy must cosign the loan. They then pretend that no merchant is willing to purchase this merchandise and that Blastfield has defaulted on the loan. Disguised as sergeants, Shortyard and Falselight arrest Easy on Quomodo's suit. Quomodo, feigning leniency, allows Easy to seek temporary bail from a "generous citizen" in order to track down Blastfield. Shortyard assumes this identity as well and posts Easy's bail, taking back Easy's lands in Essex as surety. When Easy is unable to locate Blastfield, his estate is forfeit to Quomodo and the three tricksters celebrate their coup. When Quomodo fakes his own death to observe what will happen when he dies, Shortyard is briefly adopted as Quomodo's heir, but he is banished from the city when Quomodo's machinations are discovered.


Show is raised from Hell by the Prologue and whipped on stage by two Furies in Randolph's Aristippus. Show is still suffering the punishment of banishment for unacceptable malicious attacks in the past. Show is repentant and will purge from his act the 'dregs of wit' and private venom and agrees to follow the Prologue's instructions to concentrate his powers on comedy reproving vices. He is freed from the Furies and given new robes before starting the entertainment.


A "ghost character" in Barry's Ram Alley. Shreds is a tailor whose wife was abducted by Inns of Court students, as described by Throat.


Shrewd Wit is the ne'er-do-well companion of Ill-Will in the anonymous An Interlude of Wealth and Health. He disguises himself as Wit in order to help Ill-Will take advantage of Wealth. Despite his tendency to announce his intentions to gull Health, Wealth, and Liberty while they are listening, he manages to be admitted into their service. His frequent oaths "by the mass" reveal his crypto-Catholic identity. He plots to make Wealth, Health, and Liberty universally despised, and he slanders Good Remedy to the trio. After beating Health and imprisoning Wealth and Liberty, Shrewd Wit and Ill-Will are sent to prison by Good Remedy.


Alternate name in the anonymous Everyman for the holy man called Confession.


Shrimp is a boy in the service of John a Kent in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. When the ladies follow their lovers to Gosselin's castle, John a Kent sends Shrimp to wake up the rival party. Shrimp comes upon the troupe of amateur actors rehearsing the welcoming song in honor of the ladies. Shrimp replaces their Welsh song with his own song about the loss of the ladies, thus informing Moorton and Pembrooke that Sydanen and Marian have eloped. When the lords come out in panic, Shrimp leaves diplomatically to fetch Chester. Shrimp re-arrives with Chester, whom he has warned about the ladies' disappearance in the same musical manner, serenading under his window. All the actors and servants, including Shrimp go in search of the vanished ladies. After John a Cumber tricks John a Kent and gains access into Gosselin's castle, John a Kent sends Shrimp to spy on his rival through the keyhole. Shrimp reports that John a Cumber intends to perform a play in mockery of John a Kent and that the ladies are to be sent to Chester in the company of Oswen and Amery. John a Kent sends Shrimp to fetch back the ladies. In the woods on the way to Chester, Shrimp uses music to lure the ladies away from their guardians, and then puts Oswen and Amery to sleep with hypnotic chimes. After the ladies' departure with their lovers, Shrimp wakes Oswen and Amery, telling them the rivals have stolen the ladies. Pretending to be John a Cumber's boy, Shrimp leads Oswen and Amery along a shortcut in the woods in search of the ladies. Shrimp succeeds in confusing Oswen and Amery, making them chase about the same tree in the belief that they are on the ladies' trail, and bringing them at last out onto the lawn before Gosselin's castle. When John a Kent reveals the disguise trick played on John a Cumber, he shows that Shrimp has been the instrument of deception.


Page to Lipsalve in Middleton's The Family of Love.


One of the jeerers (idle hecklers) in Jonson's The Staple of News. Shunfield, Piedmantle, Madrigal, Fitton, Cymbal, and Almanac hound Pennyboy Senior, mocking him, and also a suitor to Pecunia, Infanta of the Mines. A naval officer in charge of the muster-roll, he is exposed as a mere "canter" or jargonist by Pennyboy Canter.


Shylock is a Jew and a moneylender in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. When approached by Antonio and Bassanio about a loan, he at first rejects them, pointing out the previous ill treatment they have heaped on him. Eventually he agrees, but asks for a bond of a pound of Antonio's flesh if the loan is not paid back in three months. He also reluctantly agrees to have dinner with them, and during his absence his daughter Jessica elopes with Lorenzo, taking a large amount of money with her. This throws Shylock into a frenzy, as he alternately mourns the loss of his daughter and his ducats. He meets Solanio and Salerio, and they taunt him about his daughter, provoking the "Hath not a Jew eyes?" speech. When Antonio loses his ships, Shylock insists on collecting the pound of flesh, despite the pleas of the Duke and others to be merciful, and Bassanio's offer to repay the debt three times over. Throughout, he insists on justice. Portia, in disguise as a law clerk, declares that he can have his pound of flesh, but that the bond does not include blood, and therefore he must take the flesh without spilling a drop of Antonio's blood. With that, Shylock attempts to collect money instead, but Portia insists that it will be flesh or nothing, and that further, since he has conspired against a citizen's life, his life and goods are forfeit. The Duke spares his life, and–although Shylock is allowed to keep his estate–he is forced to draw a deed of gift of one half to be given to Jessica on his death and the other half is placed in Antonio's trust also to be given to Jessica upon Shylock's death. Shylock is also required to become a Christian. Shylock, unable to refuse, asks leave to go, saying he is unwell.


A fictional character in Greene's James IV, the imagined daughter of one of the merchants–merchants who have, according to the Lawyer and the Divine, risen too high in the state.


Sib is Knavesbee's wife and the daughter of a Captain in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. Being admired by Lord Beaufort, Sib's husband tries to persuade her to accept Beaufort's proposition by suggesting a confession game to her. While Knavesbee admits to having had affairs with other women, Sib only mentions that a handsome Cambridge scholar fell in love with her, but she never acknowledges an affair with him. Sib becomes suspicious of her husband's insistence that she confess an affair and retorts that she heard of one in England who got a divorce from his wife by such a trick. When she hears that her husband wants her to become Beaufort's mistress, Sib considers her husband base. Knavesbee leaves her alone with Beaufort. Hearing Beaufort's proposition, Sib says nothing, but uses a wink as an equivocal sign of consent. After her husband's departure with Beaufort, Sib admits her abhorrence of Knavesbee's attitude. However, she feels it would serve him right to be cheated and she decides to go to the rendezvous with Beaufort. At Beaufort's house, Sib is received by Mistress Cressingham disguised as the male page Selenger. Sib courts the page and then confesses to Beaufort that she is in love with Selenger. Sib's policy is to pretend to have fallen in love with the page and, by making Beaufort angry with her, she would secure her honesty and also punish her husband. In the final scene, Knavesbee complains that his wife has locked herself in his house with Selenger. Sib, according to Knavesbee, admitted to having slept with the page. When Selenger's identity as Mistress Cressingham is revealed, Sib makes Knavesbee kneel before her and, holding a razor to his throat, makes him promise that he will never play the pander to his wife again.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. A sluttish woman whom Free Will and Imagination have seen in bed with the rector, Sir John. Along with Jane, Cate, and Besse, Free Will refers to Sibley as his "sweet trully mully."


Rose Oatley's loyal servant and go-between in her elopement and subsequent marriage with the young aristocrat Rowland Lacy in Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday.


Only mentioned by Macros in Verney’s Antipoe.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. Sibyl is one of several archaic prophetesses. According to an ancient Roman legend, a collection of prophecies predicting the destiny of the Roman state, the Sibylline Books, was offered for sale to Tarquinus Superbus, the last king of Rome before the republic, by the Sibyl of the Greek colony of Cumae in Italy. He refused to pay the price, so the sibyl burned six of the books before finally selling the remaining three at the price she had originally asked for the nine. The books were thereafter kept in the temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill to be consulted only in emergencies. When Catiline discloses to Aurelia his ambitious dream of becoming a consul, he says he needs to enroll dissatisfied generals and patricians in his conspiracy. Among others, Catiline mentions Lentulus, who is descended from the Cornelius family. According to Catiline, Lentulus has hopes of magnificence because the Sibylline Books said that a third man of the Cornelius family would become king in Rome. Catiline admits to having paid the flattering Augurers to interpret that the prophecy meant Lentulus, saying that he intended to use Lentulus's weakness to further his own plan.


There are two Lords from Sicily in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder:
  1. The First is a lord who comes to Thrace in search of Radagon and learns that he was banished. He warns Pheander that the King of Sicilia will be angry. Before the final battle, he advises the King of Sicilia to attack Pheander.
  2. The Second is a lord who makes a valiant speech when it seems the Sicilians will have to fight Pheander. Before the final battle, he warns that Pheander is attacking.


Sicilius Leonatus, Posthumous Leonatus' father in Shakespeare's Cymbeline, fought for Britain against the Romans and died from grief when his two elder sons were slain in battle, before Posthumous Leonatus was born. He appears in the play as one of the Leonati, the familial ghosts who visit Posthumous Leonatus.


Along with Brutus, Sicinius Vetulus is elected one of the first tribunes of Rome in Shakespeare's Coriolanus. They are officials whose obligation it is to represent the interests of the plebian class. He and Brutus use their political and rhetorical skills to incite the Roman populace against Coriolanus, and they lead the movement to have him banished.


Master Sickly is a hypochondriac in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. He goes to see Doctor Clyster after he has been treated by doctors in England and abroad. He feels he is about to die, and that is a last attempt to recover his health. He explains he feels like burning inside. When Doctor Clyster asks him to tell him about his symptoms, his new patient specifies all sorts of silly affections, nevertheless the doctor seems to have a cure for each of them, though he pretends that to cure his many diseases is going to be hard work–he also explains that, should he fail, he would put his reputation at risk. Then, Master Sickly offers him twenty pounds in gold then, and forty more, when he finishes. Still, the doctor pretends to be reluctant, since so many doctors had failed to cure him before. Master Sickly raises his offer to a hundred pounds when he is recovered. But, still, the doctor goes as far as to ask him for fifty now, and his 'victim' accepts. Finally, Clyster offers his patient a 'medicine' he has prepared as a remedy for his disease, as well as a paper containing a fake charm for sweaty toes–thus, the doctor receives the sum of fifty pounds in gold they had agreed on. Later, Master Sickly goes, with Damme de Bois, to see Doctor Clyster again, in an attempt to make Damme realize he should abandon his skepticism and trust the doctor. When, later, Master Sickly discovers he has been cheated, he comes to Bond, seeking counsel with respect to what legal action he can take against Doctor Clyster, on the charges of having cozened him. Bond then offers to indict the Doctor for practicing without a license. Master Sickly still rewards him with ten pounds of gold and assures him he will give him more when the matter is over. Afterwards, encouraged by Damme de Bois, he and the other cozened victims siege the house of the three cheaters. Finally, Master Algebra, who was passing by, offers to act as a judge, and he actually solves the case satisfactorily for all the parties involved, cures the cozened people and he is recompensed both by the victims and by the cheaters.


Sickness accompanies Poverty in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.


A Spirit sent by Ormandine in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom to tempt St. David.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Sir Philip Sidney (1554–1586) was an author, courtier, and soldier during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England. He became famous for his literary criticism, prose fiction, and poetry. At his house in London, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When the discussion is diverted towards the efficiency of poetry, Daw says that not every man that writes in verse is a poet. Clerimont interprets this remark as referring to poetry as a profession, and implies that a knight needs not live by his verses. In reply, Dauphine brings Sir Philip Sidney's example, saying that Sidney lived by it and his noble family is not ashamed. By comparing the pompous Sir John Daw with Sir Philip Sidney, Clerimont and Dauphine intend to flatter their foolish interlocutor and divert his attention from the true purpose of their visit. Jonson's relationship to the Sidney family, notably observed in his poem To Penshurst, may suggest the rather fawning reference in this play.


A gentleman stranger, disguised as Philogano in Gascoigne's The Supposes.

SIGHING **1617

A mute character in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the sixteen banished Affections not otherwise listed in the dramatis personae but included in Madame Curiosity’s list of banditti. He is to join the main battle of Pride’s army. She disguises herself as Sadness, but Justice sees through the disguise at once and sentences her to imprisonment both gentle and free.


King of Poland in Suckling's Brennoralt. The background to the play is a rebellion by the Lithuanian princes (Almerin and the palatines of Mensecke and Trocke) against him. Sigismond is served faithfully though grouchily by Brennoralt, and at the end of the play the rebels have been routed; the romantic disasters accompanying this, however, lead Sigismond to feel that "victory it selfe's unfortunate".


King of Hungary in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2. He crosses the Danube to meet Orcanes and offers him war or peace at his discretion. He swears a truce in the name of Christ. Frederick and Baldwin shortly after convince him that such an oath has no power when made to an infidel such as Orcanes. Sigismund is thus persuaded to attack Orcanes treacherously as Orcanes goes to fight Tamburlaine. Sigismund is killed in the attack and dies pleading for absolution for his perjury. Orcanes orders Sigismund's body be left on the field to be eaten by birds and beasts.


A "ghost character" in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. In the B-text only, Sigismond was assured by Pope Julius that the papacy would recognize the Emperor as ruler.


Son of Ferdiand, King of Thessaly in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort. When his father seeks to install him king, Sigismind is so utterly melancholic that he is deemed, both by his father and his man Catzo, unfit to rule. He finds temporary reprieve from his sorrow when he meets Princess Adelizia of Sicily and promptly declares his love for her, only to have his suit summarily rejected. When Adelizia arrives at court, after being shipwrecked off Arcadia and pursued by the traitor Oswell, she willingly takes Sigismund as husband, restoring his sanity and the King's happiness.


A term of contempt in the mouths of Shakespearean men. When Orlando and Jaques spar in III.ii of Shakespeare's As You Like It, Jaques calls Orlando Signior Love. Shakespeare uses a similar designation in Much Ado when Benedick calls Claudio Monsieur Love.


A nickname in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing that Beatrice bestows on Benedick early in the play.


Signior Perdu is the name used by Didmo for Pazzorello in Shirley's The Young Admiral. According to Didimo, a Signior Perdu is a gentleman who lies prone upon a raging battlefield.


A non-speaking character in Peele's Edward I. In the scene of Edward's return from Palestine, Signor de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, is mentioned as Edward's prisoner in the stage direction. Many editors take this as an error for Elinor de Montfort.


A peculiar character in Dekker's Noble Spanish Soldier. He converses with Medina's faction before the wedding between Onælia and Cockadillio. His only response to any question or statement is "no."


The brother of Lucius Silanus, who has already been killed by Agrippina, Silanus is Proconsul of Asia in May's Julia Agrippina. On Agrippina's orders, Pallas sends Publius Celerius and Aelius to murder him.


(Also called Silenus in May's Julia Agrippina). Lucius Silanus is a member of the Imperial family who was betrothed to Claudius's daughter Octavia. In order that Nero could marry her instead, Lucius Silanus was deposed from the Praetorship by Vitellius and subsequently killed.


A "ghost character" in May's Cleopatra. Roman who defects from Antonius to Caesar; mentioned at IV i. Historically, this was Marcus Junius Silanus.


The supposed daughter of Stellio, Silena is the actual child of Vicinia in Lyly's Mother Bombie. A dim-witted fool, Silena is kept indoors by her father to prevent the neighbors from discovering her idiocy until he can marry her off to Memphio's son Accius. She steals out of the house, however, and is temporarily wooed by Candius (pursuant to his father's wishes). But Candius is baffled by her nonsensical prattle. She consults the cunning woman Mother Bombie, but fails to understand the ominous prophecy Mother Bombie utters and leaves unimpressed. Through the machinations of the clever servants (Dromio, Riscio, Lucio, and Halfpenny), Silena and Accius meet face to face and reveal their foolishness.Their meeting succeeds in uncovering Memphio and Stellio's plots to marry off their idiotic children to one another. Both Memphio and Stellio agree to go ahead with the arranged match, since Accius and Silena have been publicly revealed as unfit marriage material, but Vicinia intervenes in the final scene, disclosing that Silena is not Stellio's daughter and that she and Accius are actually brother and sister. Memphio offers to maintain Silena in the household of his newlywed children (Mæstius and Serena) at the end of the play.

SILENCE **1597

Silence is a country justice called cousin by Justice Shallow in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. His daughter is Shallows' goddaughter, and his conversations with Shallow provide glimpses of the past lives and current friends of both men.


Master Silence went to university, but he, as well as Clyster, "endured expulsion from the College" in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Later, he taught at petty school. Now he is working for a lawyer and he has to write false passes for false begging soldiers and forged briefs to cozen the well-disposed people. He finds he has no honour left. Then he invites Clyster to take part in a plot he and Bill Bond are planning. It takes him some time to convince him, but finally, he manages to do it. When Bond comes, Silence learns he has to play the part of a Silenced Divine–a minister forbidden to preach for non-compliance with canons adopted by the Hampton Court Conference of 1604. The first victim to visit him is Master Ominous, a superstitious man punished with ill fortune. The solution Master Silence replies: "shun all antiquaries and heathenish superstitions and traditions," and explains that his disease is also "partly in the blood," therefore, he recommends him to see also an eminent physician who lives in the same house. But when he finishes his session with Master Ominous, Bond reprimands him because he expected him to get more than to pieces of gold from that man. Master Silence apologizes, explaining that it was his "first essay." His next visitor is Master Bead, thus, he pretends to be a Roman priest. But, realizing that his 'victim' is surprised to find that he is not dressed as such, he assures him that–despite his appearance–"the inward man is priest." When he finds out that Master Bead is troubled by "many scruples of conscience," he assures him he can help him. But, suddenly, they are interrupted by someone else knocking on the door, and he remembers he had another appointment with Narrowit, a Puritan, and he kindly invites Master Bead to "come some other time." Unfortunately, the latter is leaving the following day, and he will not visit the place again for years. Then, Master Silence–unwilling to miss the opportunity to cozen him–offers the possibility of placing each of them on different sides of the room, for him to "walk between you and dispatch both as suddenly as I can", and Master Bead accepts. When Narrowit enters, Master Silence pretends to be a Puritan and claims to be "converting for our glorious cause, a Romanist that is tacking about to us." And he asks him for leave to offer his counsel to both of them, in the same room, as he had previously explained to Master Bead. He then listens to Narrowit's and Bead's scruples, alternatively, and, curiously, they are all petty devotional trespasses related to their respective religions–which would not have been trespasses at all had the Puritan been Catholic or vice versa. Master Silence tells each of them what they want to hear–which is exactly the opposite in each case, since all their scruples coincide. The only thing that changes is the faith they profess and its commandments; thus, Silence has to adapt his advice to one faith or another, according to whom he is talking to. Once he has listened to Narrowit, he explains that "it would be too long to answer every particular," but he is glad because his scruples "show a tender conscience, which is a great sign of a good man." And, as regards Master Bead, he assures him that his confessor will give him "perfect absolution for all these." And, aware of the fact that he is a Catholic, and that Catholics believe in relics, he will give him one that will preserve him "from all these scruples hereafter, as anything else that you may call ill." Curious about the nature of the relic, he asks about it, and Master Silence explains that it is "a Tyburn martyr's blood upon a straw." When he is rewarded with ten pieces of gold by Master Bead, Master Silence–still performing the role of a Catholic priest, assures him that the money will be "put in bank for the general good, for which the order shall give you thanks." Then he addresses to Narrowit, and he informs him that, as regards his scruples, "the brethren of Amsterdam will quit you from them all." And he also offers him a medicine: "a cordial beyond the elixir for the separation." When he is offered five pounds as recompense, by Narrowit, for his services, he suggests he should double that amount–and his victim actually does it. Then, Master Silence receives the visit of Master Fright, who tells him about his fears and keeps blaming the devil for all the awful things he sees and hears at night, which, later on, in day light, are inoffensive. When he finishes with his account he implores to be cured, and Silence prescribes him to purge himself "of all profane histories and wicked poets" and to read pious works instead. Master Fright offers the divine some money for his services, and, though the latter seems to reject it at first, he then accepts it, only "as it may be a weapon against the day of battle to fight against Antichrist." Later, Master Algebra arrives and Master Silence and his two friends agree to listen to him. When he is urged by Master Algebra either to cure him or to accept he is right, he quickly replies that "it is the devil that doth haunt thy brain in the likeness of wit, the more for to delude thee." When the patient leaves, Clyster calls Silence and explains to him he had recognized Master Algebra–he was a bright man, who might have discovered their ignorance, if not their knavery. Then, the divine suggests they should change their lodging "to get new customers and avoid the old." Later, Silence will be busy devising a plot–with Clyster and Bill Bond–to cheat Damme de Bois as he sleeps: they suddenly wake him up and try to make him believe that he is dying. After a while, when they tell him that he seems to have come to himself, he realizes he is being cozened, and he decides to follow their game. Thus, after speaking to Master Silence, in an attempt to seek peace for his soul, and to Doctor Clyster, he expresses his wish to write his last will and testament before the lawyer. Once he has specified what he is going to leave and to whom, it is obvious he has found them out–and he makes it evident when he tells Master Sickly that he leaves him "to be cozened by these honest gentlemen." Aware of the fact that they have been found out, Silence and his two comrades send Master Sickly away because they do not want him to realize he has been cheated. When they consider they have, at last, succeeded, they celebrate their triumvirate and their cozening. But Damme de Bois was not cheated so easily, and he comes accompanied by all their victims, encouraging them to ask for what they had offered them as recompense for their fake services. Thus, Silence soon receives the visit of Master Ominous, who, having found out he had been cozened, is there to ask him for satisfaction–but Silence threatens him, and his victim leaves. Then it is Narrowit's turn to threaten Silence, but he ends up being threatened by him with taking Prynne's ear from about his neck. Later, Master Bead also goes to see him seeking satisfaction–but Silence threatens to reveal his secret and Bead leaves. However, encouraged by Damme de Bois, all their cozened victims siege their house. Finally, Master Algebra, who was passing by, offers to act as a judge, and he actually solves the case satisfactorily for all the parties involved, cures the cozened people and he is recompensed both by the victims and by the cheaters.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. At court, Saviolina enters with Puntavorlo, Fastidious Brisk, and Fungoso. The lady inquires about Fungoso, thinking he is the much-praised gentleman she is supposed to meet, but Fastidious Brisk says he is not. According to Fastidious Brisk, Fungoso is a relative of a certain Justice Silence.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. Clinias mentions Silenus when, praising Narcissus's beauty, he admires his strength, remarking that he is stronger than Silenus. According to Greek mythology, Silenus was either son to Hermes, or to Pan. Usually portrayed as the elderly companion of Dionysus, he was fat and bald, and had the tail and ears of a horse.


A senator of Thessaly in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort. He along with his three counterparts is entrusted to "determine the affairs of state" by King Ferdinand while the monarch attempts to cure his son, Prince Sigismund, of his melancholic temperament. When Gisbert seeks judicial remedy in the senate for the wrongs done to him and his daughter by Lucius, the four senators sympathize with the shepherd but are unable to provide redress, feeling that sorrow and hardship are the poor man's lot. When King Ferdinand is moved by Gisbert's suit, he is banished from the court to Arcadia where he conspires with Oswell only to turn on the traitor when they arrive at King Ferdinand's court.


Silius fights with Ventidius when he kills Pacorus in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. He urges him to seize the moment and attack Media and Mesopotamia, claiming Antony will reward him for his successes. However, Ventidius disagrees, pointing out that captains who exceed their generals lose rather than gain favor.


Silius (Caius), a general and friend to Agrippina in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall. He rails against the rule of Emperor Tiberius and warns Agrippina of Sejanus' spies. Sejanus plans to have him executed as a warning to the others in Agrippina's group. When Silius realizes he will be convicted on trumped up charges, he stabs himself to death on the Senate floor rather than yield to Tiberius' tyranny.
[Caius or Cajus] Silius starts in Richards' Messalina as an upright man, fond of reading and devoted to his wife Syllana, but after being drugged by Messalina and led to her bed he succumbs to her beauty and to the position of power she offers him. He is even persuaded by her to kill his wife Syllana, but is unable to go through with it. He does however marry Messalina once Claudius seems to have given his consent to this. He is eventually killed by Evodius when Claudius' troops surprise the wedding party.
A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned by Vitellius as having attempted a coup against Claudius.


A foppish courtier and the suitor for Placentia's hand in Jonson's The Magnetic Lady. He is preferred by Placentia's foster-mother, Polish. Parson Palate agrees to help him in return for future favors, and Sir Diaphanous also bribes Doctor Rut to advocate for him. After the quarrel with Captain Ironside, Practice counsels him to sue, but Compass goads Sir Diaphanous into challenging Ironside by letter, with Bias as the messenger. The duel, after a long bout of verbal sparring, is interrupted before it becomes swordplay by Interest's announcement that Placentia is in labor.


A fury in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools whom, along with Medaea, Mennippa, and Grulla (or Trulla), Edentula summons to pinch Silly when he foolishly woos Urina.


A Gentleman Usher who aspires to be a courtier in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. He is in love but has no object for his love and wishes to versify to Cupid. Fido introduces him to Musophilus so Musophilus might gull Silly. Silly promises Musophilus his whole estate for a half hour's conference with Cupid. Musophilus suggests that Silly try to make Urina, the physician's daughter, love him. Silly is next blindfolded while Musophilus, disguised as Cupid, beats him in preparation for meeting Urina. The beating, Silly believes, is the sensation of Cupid's arrows striking him. He takes Musophilus's poem along, but chooses to blazon Urina with one of his own making. Urina has him chased away by pinching furies summoned up by Edentula. Silly drops Musophilus's poem as he flees, and Urina finds it.


The usurper in love with Claricilla in Killigrew’s Claricilla. He intends to force Claricilla into marriage, but the siege interrupts him. He is killed by Melintus during the siege and, as he dies, he says he did all for love of Claricilla.


Along with his companion gods Pan and Faunus, Silvanus welcomes the visiting Olympian goddesses Juno, Pallas, and Venus to Ida. His particular contribution to the local greeting is a gift of oak branches loaded with acorns in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. Frisco mentions him when, discussing with Ioculo and Mopso, he explains that his master swears by Silvanus–the god of the woods. According to Roman mythology, Silvanus was the god of uncultivated land, forests, hunting and wild nature. Often identified with the Greek god Silenus, and even with Pan or the Satyrs, Silvanus was not part of the official Roman religion. However, his cult seems to have been very popular, since he was worshipped privately throughout Italy.


A woodsman and a companion of Montanus in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. Silvanus voices the pastoral ideal. Whereas Dorcas urges Montanus to take revenge, Silvanus calls for valiant but worthy conduct.


Silvanus in Shirley's Grateful Servant organizes and directs the satyrs in the grove where Grimundo takes Lodwick to visit a lascivious lady.


Silver arrives at Clutch's house in act IV of Jordan's Money is an Ass, accompanied by Hammer-head and their mistresses. He has stolen away his mistress and hopes to marry her there. These characters, who appear only briefly and are not included in the 1668 cast list, would require actors in excess of the eight referred to by the Prologue. They may, therefore, be vestiges of an earlier text.


A “ghost character" in Ruggle’s Club Law. Though mentioned in the dramatis personae and in the text, he does not actually appear on stage. One of the twenty-four Electors for the Burgomastership. The name suggests a reference to Miles Goldsborow, who was one of the Cambridge town officials when the play was presented. He is not at the roll call of electors and is fined. Brocknecke’s jest “we’ll make him borrow silver or gold" seems intentionally to conflate the two names.


Master Silverpen requests that Bartervile come to the Chancellor's court in Dekker's If It Be Not Good to testify in the suit launched against him by Farneze.


A "ghost character" in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Mother of Plutus, god of wealth. An alderman's widow.


Silvertris is in love with the nymph Niobe in Lyly's Love's Metamorphosis. He leaves declarations of his love on the tree around which the nymphs dance. But Niobe is proud and disdainful, and rejects his love. Silvertris complains to Cupid, demanding that Niobe be turned into a bird of paradise as punishment. Cupid grants his wish but restores Niobe at Ceres' request. However, Niobe says she would rather be a bird than be in love. Ceres tries to change her mind and eventually Niobe agrees to be Silvertris' lover.


A friar in Dekker's If It Be Not Good, Silvester is reported to have stabbed Nicodeme in a drunken rage.


Probably a "ghost character" and possibly a fictitious character in Greene's James IV. Sir Silvester is mentioned as the man to whom Ateukin sold the lease that he had promised to Sir Bartram.


See also SYLVIA.


Silvia is the belle of the emperor's court in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona. As the Duke's daughter she draws the love of Thurio, Valentine, and Proteus. Devoted to Valentine, she seeks him in the forest after he has been banished for attempting to elope with her. Saved from thieves by Proteus and Sebastian, Silvia is permitted to wed Valentine when her father discovers the genuine honor of Valentine's spirit.


Silvia is in love with Palaemon, but their trust in one another has been disturbed by the lies of Colax, who hoped to gain Silvia's affections for himself in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. Colax told Silvia that he saw Palaemon courting Nisa in the woods, and told Palaemon that Silvia had been unfaithful with to him Thyrsis. Silvia discusses her disappointment in Palaemon with Cloris, and recounts the vows they made to one another, telling Cloris to be warned by her example. Humiliated, Silvia decides to hide herself from the world. She remains in the woods until a search party is sent by Ergistus and Meliboeus. Colax tells Silvia and Palaemon that he has abused them, and that his stories were untrue. Palaemon and Silvia are reconciled.


The beautiful shepherdess in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. Silvia disappears on the eve of her arranged marriage to Alexis, whom she does not love. Her beloved Thyrsis finds a scrap of her gown and a lock of her hair, concludes that she has been devoured by a wild beast, but remains faithful to her memory. She has in fact been captured by pirates, and then released, and has returned to Arcadia disguised as a boy named Clorindo. She plans to maintain the disguise until Alexis has married his new fiancée, Galatea. However, she welcomes the opportunity to visit Thyrsis as the emissary of her new employer, Cloris. Thyrsis is too lost in tears to recognize her through the disguise. But on the day of Alexis' marriage, she tells him the story Sulia and Syrtis, which is actually that of Silvia and Thyrsis. He does not get the point, and recognizes her only after the jealous Montanus has stabbed her, thinking that she is Clorindo. When revived by Lamia, she is formally engaged to marry Thyrsis.


Silvia in Ford's The Fancies Chaste and Noble is one of the three sisters who live in the Marquis's Bower of Fancies. They are generally thought to be his mistresses, though they are in fact his nieces. At the end, Camillo, Vespucci and Romanello are told they are free to court Silvia or her sister Floria.


Silvio is a ranger who lives in the forest in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. When he sees Eurymine for the first time, he takes her for a nymph of the forest and he falls in love with her. He urges her to stay and to tell him about her. When he hears her story, he sympathizes with her and offers her his lodgings. But Gemulo, the shepherd, who has joined them, also offers his hospitality to the lady, and both men engage in a discussion, to decide which of them can offer the worthiest lodgings to Eurymine. Eurymine settles the argument by announcing she will accept the ranger's house, and Gemulo's flock to take care. When she appears before them in the shape of a man, explaining that she is her own brother, who has come to take care of Gemulo's flock, because his sister, Eurymine, has left, Silvio and Gemulo distrust "him." They think the boy is too handsome, and could be a rival rather than her brother, as he claims to be. Therefore they to see if she has really gone away. But once they have checked she is not there any longer, still mistrusting, the two men take Eurymine, in the shape of a boy, to see Aramanthus, the wise old man, in the hope that he should find out the truth. In the end, neither Silvio nor Gemulo get the lady, but, in compensation, Apollo will play his harp and the muses will dance for them.


A comrade to Ricardo along with Uberto and Pedro in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Coxcomb. Silvio knows of Ricardo's plan to abandon Viola.


A lord in Webster's The Duchess of Malfi He is first seen praising Antonio's skill at the tilt. He soon leaves for the military camp at Milan. There he informs Ferdinand that Malateste is a foolish and cowardly soldier.

SILVIO **1616

Silvio is one of a group of thieves headed by Latrocino in Thomas Middleton's The Widow. When the thieves perpetrate their medicinal flimflam, Silvio pretends to have had an internal rupture that has cured through the Latrocino's treatments.

SILVIO **1620

A well-born man, in love with Belvidere in Fletcher's Women Pleased. He threatens his friend and rival Claudio, who also love Belvidere. Mistaking the disguised Soto for Claudio in the dark, he shoots at him. He persuades his aunt, Rodope, to let him see Belvidere, but is captured by Bartello. At his trial, his willingness to die to save Belvidere's honor touches the Duchess, who banishes Silvio for a year to find the answer to a riddle in order to win Belvidere's hand. Silvio hides, disguised as a farmhand and, when the Captain orders the Farmer to send his son Soto to war, Silvio volunteers to take his place. He encounters a hag (Belvidere in disguise) who convinces him to let her accompany him to battle and, when he succeeds in capturing the Duke of Siena, exacts his promise to grant her request in return for the answer to the Duchess' riddle. Knighted and then arrested by the Duchess on his triumphant return, he demands to answer the riddle and, secretly aided by Belvidere, does so correctly. He is dismayed when the hag (Belvidere) claims his hand in marriage. When Belvidere offers him the choice of a beautiful, unfaithful bride or a haglike, faithful one, he gives her the choice, and is rewarded with Belvidere restored to her true self.

SILVIO **1635

A shepherd and Dowze’s father in Rider’s The Twins. Silvio and Philagrio bring Corbo a picture of Dowze. He approves of Corbo for Dowze’s suitor.

SILVIO **1636

Silvio is a courtier who pities the duchess Euphemia in Shirley's The Duke's Mistress. He has a part in killing Leontio at the play's end.


Silvius is a young shepherd swain and the unhappy suitor of Phebe in Shakespeare's As You Like It. Phebe is in love with Ganymede, who is really Rosalind in male disguise. At the end of the play, Rosalind tricks Phebe into marrying Silvius, and their nuptials comprise one quarter of the quadruple wedding that closes the play.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Menas reports that Caesar and Lepidus are in the field and when Pompey doubts him, he says he has the information from Silvius.


Ephestian Quomodo's son in Middleton's Michaelmas Term. He graduated from Cambridge and is now a law student at one of the Inns of Court. Sim disapproves of his father's extortionate practices and, at his funeral, Quomodo (disguised as a beadle) overhears his son's derogatory comments and promptly disinherits him.


Sim is the play's clown figure, and a servant to the Bloodhounds in William Rowley's A Match at Midnight. Although he makes witty comments on the play's events, he contributes little to the plot. He does, however, distract Earlack when Moll meets Ancient Young, by reading to him. He also tricks Randall into waiting for Moll in Leandenhall, at the same time that she had arranged to meet Ancient Young: Sim does this in the hope that mayhem will ensue.


Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. Lucrece uses his name as an exclamation.


Sim Suresby is a servant to Gawin Goodluck sent to Dame Custance a day before his master's return in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Witnessing one of Roister Doister's attempts to ingratiate himself with the widow and hearing of the ring and token the braggart has sent to the woman, Sim retires to inform Goodluck that all may not be well. When Goodluck's friend Tristram Trusty stands witness to Dame Custance's constancy, Sim is forgiven for any offense he may have given her because his actions were the result of consideration for his master.


A court Lord, allied to Abrahen in Glapthorne's Revenge for Honor. He is the most machiavellian of Abrahen's evil conspirators, described as the court Hermes for his delight in plots and plotting. With Mura, he conspires to poison the Caliph's mind against Abrahen's elder brother, Abilqualit. Simanthes provides for Abrahen the poisoned handkerchief intended to kill the Caliph, but which is not needed when the ruler dies of natural grief. The handkerchief is later used by Abrahen to commit suicide. Abilqualit, feigning death, learns of Simanthes's complicity from his brother's gloating soliloquy. Later, dying, Abilqualit names Simanthes, together with the eunuch, Mesithes, as due for punishment for their treason.


Also spelled Skimeon in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. One of the three Seditious Captains. He is equally motivated to rebellion by his hatred of the ruling priests and the common people. Tried for treason along with Jehochanan and sentenced to exile by Ananias for his part in the murder of the Roman legate and the ensuing mutiny. He conspires again with Jehochanan to invade Jerusalem with his army of ten thousand men and is assisted to enter the city by their treacherous go-between, Zareck. He defies the authorities and proclaims rebellion in Eleazer's name, which is not initially successful. His anarchic proclamation offering liberty to servants, debtors and criminals wins more support, and the High Priest is deposed. The conspirators quarrel and Skimeon is prepared to duel with Eleazer when they are interrupted by news of the Roman army's arrival to parley. He is wounded in the first skirmishes. Skimeon is active in the torture of Josephus's father in defiance of Josephus's attempts to mediate between sides. When the war is lost he flees and attempts to surrender disguised in royal robes but is identified. He is brought before Titus, still wearing a crown and is sentenced to death along with Jehochanan.


Lambert Simnel, a falconer in Ford's Perkin Warbeck. He once tried to gain control of England by pretending that he was Earl of Warwick. He was caught and confessed and tasted the king's clemency. He is brought to the pretender Warbeck in the Tower to convince him to confess and win the king's pardon.


Although jester to King Henry in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay, Rafe spends most of his time accompanying Prince Edward and his friends. Disguised as the prince during Edward's visit to Oxford, Rafe is arrested for drunken brawling. He is released when Sussex explains their mission to the Constable.

SIMO **1632

Doting father of Asotus in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. He has wasted himself by storing up wealth for his son. He now delights in watching his boy's intemperance. He bribes Ballio to hide him where he may watch Asotus carouse. While watching Asotus with Phryne, Simo lusts after the courtesan and bribes Ballio to get Asotus out of the room so he might seduce her himself. Asotus returns to find them together and rebukes Simo. Simo is shamed and promises to give Phryne half his estate as jointure in her marriage to Asotus. At the final act wedding, Simo joyfully agrees to marry Phronesium and allow her, as condition to the marriage, to have all the gallants and riches and freedom she desires.


Simon is a tanner in Middleton's Hengist. When Vortiger grants Hengist as much land as a cow's hide can cover, Simon helps Hengist by cutting the hide into thongs and stretching them so that Hengist can claim the earldom of Kent. Simon runs against the Puritan Oliver, a weaver, for the mayorship of Queenborough and wins. He destroys Oliver's loom, captures, him, and forces him to watch a play in which two cheaters rob a clown. Simon insists on playing the clown, and the actors rob him in actuality.


Only mentioned in Shirley's Contention for Honor and Riches. A Biblical character, Simon is mentioned in passing by Clod.


A citizen, a miser, and the father of Andrew in Cartwright's The Ordinary. He has had Sir Thomas Littleworth imprisoned for debt. He has arranged for Andrew to be educated by Meane-well as a politician and diplomat, rather than sending him to Oxford. He hopes to marry Andrew to Mrs. Jane Bitefigg. He is foiled by his son's marriage to Priscilla, which reveals Andrew as a fool.


A "ghost character" in Peele's Edward I. Rice ap Meredith remarks to Lluellen that when the English learn that the Welsh prince has married Simon de Montfort's daughter Elinor, many of them will support Lluellen's claim to Wales because of de Montfort's status as a reform figure during the Barons' Wars.


Simon, Earl of Leicester first appears immediately after Prince John has struck Ely's Messenger in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Leicester asks what he means by this action; John replies that the Messenger's head only bleeds, but Ely shall be headless for his treachery. Leicester calms him and tells him that slow words are more effective than sharp. His initial apparent friendship with John contrasts sharply with his later appearances, indicating incomplete revision. Leicester reappears after John has usurped the crown. John is not at all pleased to see him. Leicester says that he will attempt to check John's royal ambitions, but John welcomes Leicester back from war (apparently the crusade). Leicester expresses shock at John's usurpation and the support he receives from Queen Elinor and the nobles. He then announces that he comes from King Richard to collect the ransom that has been sent for three times. When John claims that England has already paid too much to send Richard on crusade, Leicester paints a vibrant picture of the English willingly giving their money and jewelry to Richard, and the battles Richard has fought. When John still refuses ransom, Leicester takes Richard's colors and treads on them to express his anger. At this point, Richmond enters, although Leicester fears at first it is John's army, and announces that Richard has returned. Leicester is overjoyed at the news and asks Richmond to describe Richard's captivity, which he does.
Although Leicester is part of the mass entrance after the hunt, he does not speak, and is not present for Robin Hood's death in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. He first appears in a speaking role when he comes to visit Fitzwater and Matilda as a proxy wooer for William Wigmore. While there, he, along with Fitzwater, Bruce and Richmond, is accused by John of plotting treason. Leicester makes no secret of his dislike of John, and after John leaves he goes with Fitzwater to raise an army. In the first battle, Leicester finds Queen Isabel and Matilda. When he asks who has harmed Matilda, she lies and says it was soldiers, sparing the Queen shame. Leicester then commands soldiers to return the Queen to John's side in safety. After the second battle, when John has won, the king offers the rebels life and liberty, and Leicester, with the others, agrees to be loyal to John again. However, when the deaths of Lady Bruce and her son, and then Matilda, are revealed, Leicester suggests to Young Bruce that they put Louis the Dauphin on the throne. He is persuaded away from this course with some difficulty by Hubert and Oxford, and again swears loyalty to John.


A shrewd and self-confident craftsman in Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday. He makes a meteoric rise from sheriff, alderman and finally Lord Mayor of London thanks to a clever business venture proposed to him by his journeyman Hans Meulter, the young aristocrat Rowland Lacy in disguise. He is an earthly and benevolent alternative power at the center of the play and benefactor of the members of his guild. Eyre also pulls the strings so that the play's star-crossed lovers, Rowland and Rose Oatley, can be united, promising to "bear them out" against the wrath of their families. He ultimately has the King of England himself vindicate the marriage between Rowland and Rose during a splendid Shrove Tuesday breakfast.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Dr. Simon Forman was an Elizabethan occultist and alternative medical practitioner in London. He was a quack physician and surgeon, who spent time in jail for occult practices and prescribing dangerous potions, was banned from practicing medicine, and implicated in murder after his death. The London people held him in high regard, mainly because he bravely stayed in London during a plague outbreak, and cured himself and others of the disease. Truewit, Clerimont, and Dauphine discuss the behavioral characteristics of court ladies. While Truewit says that men should love wisely and all women and he shows unusual competence in describing the ladies' manners, Dauphine admires his friend's knowledge in these matters. Dauphine says that his friend has demonstrated excellent understanding of women, implying he should be very successful with them, as if he had the best love philter in the world. Dauphine says that Truewit could do better than Madam Medea or Doctor Foreman. Dauphine refers to the renowned Elizabethan magician and quack doctor. The implication is that Truewit's expertise could have procured him as much success with women as if he had taken a love philter from Simon Forman.


The disguise assumed by Dissymulacyon in Bale's King Johan, Part 2 to poison King Johan.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Dr. Simon Read was convicted in 1608 of magic practices on testimony of a young clerk like Dapper. When Dapper is introduced to Subtle, who receives him in his Doctor's cap and gown, the bogus alchemist seems reluctant to reveal himself as a magician to Dapper because of the Read case. Dapper says Read was an ass who dealt with a fool. When Face tells him that the fool who denounced Read was a clerk, Dapper is surprised. Ironically, the story repeats itself, as Subtle also proves to be a charlatan and Dapper a fool.


A servant to Lady Plus and Sir Godfrey in Middleton's(?) Puritan. She attempts to convince Pyeboard and Nicholas not to steal nor cheat, citing the ten commandments as her authority for all prohibitions


Simon Shadow is one of the motley crew recruited by Shallow for military service with Falstaff in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.


A workman in the shipyard in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. The workmen quarrel genially as they work, and mutter about the massacre of Englishmen by the Dutch at Amboyna (although the reference to Amboyna was deleted by the censor). Later, they meet in a tavern, and Sheathing-Nail tells the story of the massacre (this too was censored). Trunnel encourages the workmen to taunt Dorothea Constance, whom they assume to be as unconstant as the other women in town, but they are chased off by Captain Fitzjohn. When the Mary is launched, the workmen entertain the East India Company board members with "some dainty dance, every one wearing the emblem of his name upon his head."


A “ghost character" in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. A knight and Grobian. Pamphagus tells of how Simon Slouch passed an oyster through his nose whilst laughing, and his neighbor ate it. He is on the list of invitees Oyestus is sent to cry into the Grobian feast.


A musician in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet hired to play at Juliet's wedding to Paris.


King of Pentapolis and father to Thaisa in Shakespeare's Pericles. He sets a tournament for the hand of his daughter and is pleased when Pericles wins. He insults Pericles, calling him a traitor, in order to test his love for Thaisa. Simonides dies shortly before the reunion of Pericles with Thaisa.


Simonides is the wicked son of Creon and Antigona in Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law. He is delighted to learn that his father is old enough to be executed under the Old Law. Although he makes a show of sadness to his face, Simonides brings Creon before Evander and demands that the law be fulfilled. He then woos Eugenia, the young wife of old Lisander. Lisander challenges Simonides to a drinking competition, and beats him. Simonides is present at the arrest of Leonides, and, along with the Courtiers, he prevents Cleanthes from attacking Eugenia. In the trial scene, he enters into a debate with Cleanthes, arguing for the transcendent authority of laws made by kings. When Evander reveals that the Old Law was a fiction, Simonides apologizes grudgingly for his behaviour. Under Evander's new laws, Simonides will not receive his inheritance until he has been judged by Cleanthes to be mature of mind.


Symony is Avaryce's sister in the anonymous Somebody, Avarice, and Minister. When Mynister forsakes Veryte, who contrasts his dissolute living, Symony takes Mynister into her service, promising him riches. Then, Symony, Avaryce and Mynister despoil Veryte, and Simony assumes her garments in order to deceive the people and make them follow her.


Simony travels to London hand in hand with Usury in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. Lucre makes him her servant, putting him in charge of "such matters as are ecclesiastical." He encourages Lucre to aid his friend, Sir Peter Please-Man. He helps Usury to escape the law after murdering Hospitality. Simony escapes trial by Judge Nemo, and is last heard of chatting with the clergy in St Paul's.
Since the end of The Three Ladies of London, Simony has been banished while his mistress, Lucre, has been in prison, but now in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London, hearing that the three ladies may be released, he is back, and he meets his old friends Fraud, Usury and Dissimulation, in the hope of renewing their "old entertainment." But the ladies, even Lucre, spurn them, and they run away when Nemo arrives. Simony, Dissimulation, and Fraud disguise as sailors in order to join with the Spanish invasion.


A guard at the prison in Shirley's The Arcadia. He is sympathetic to the prisoners Pamela, Philoclea, Misodorus, and Pyrocles.


Posing as a blind man whose vision has been restored by some miracle in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, Simpcox is quickly detected by Gloucester's shrewd questioning. Gloucester orders Simpcox and Simpcox's wife publicly whipped all the way from St. Albon to their home village of Berwick.


When Gloucester proves that the miraculous cure of Simpcox's blindness is a ruse in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, Simpcox's wife pleads for mercy on the grounds that their poverty drove them to it. Gloucester orders Simpcox and Simpcox's wife publicly whipped all the way from St. Albon to their home village of Berwick.


Simperina is, along with Trivia, Imperia's maid in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. At Imperia's request, Simperina and Trivia read in alternate dialogue the lyrics of Hipolito's sonnet about a woman's chaste heart. Imperia orders her maids to prepare the banquet. Curvetto pays Simperina to let down a cord from Imperia's window at ten o'clock that night. While the courtesans and Imperia listen to Lazarillo's eloquent counsel on how they should behave to their fictional husbands, Simperina confirms that she has the trapdoor ready for the blabbering Spaniard, She then leads him into the foul-smelling trap. At ten o'clock, Simperina is at Imperia's window and drenches Curvetto with foul water when he pulls the cord, pretending the water was prepared for a rat. Simperina asks Curvetto to come later, at midnight, when she says a rope ladder will be ready for him. When Fontinel pretends to declare his love for Imperia in her house, Simperina enters with Frisco and Trivia. While Frisco announces that there is somebody at the door claiming to be Camillo and Hipolito, Simperina and Trivia seem very frightened. At Imperia's orders, they smooth her gown and shuffle the rushes, while Fontinel hides in Imperia's closet. Seeing how Violetta pleads with Imperia to return her husband to her, Simperina is revolted and says that, if her man had fallen for Imperia, she would have scratched the courtesan's eyes.


The widow Simphorosa is the mother of Domitilla in Shirley's Royal Master. Fearful of the influence that court life might have upon her daughter, Simphorosa has secluded herself and Domitilla in the country. When she and Domitilla are summoned to the court, some of Simphorosa's fears are recognized as she finds herself warning Domitilla not to dream of marrying the king.


Simple is Knowlittle's servant in Randolph's(?) The Drinking Academy. Like his master, he is trying to improve himself by learning to smoke tobacco, but cannot get the hang of it. He is sent with letters to Pecunia and on the way back is distracted by Bidstand pretending to sell ballads. His pocket is picked by Shirke and Nimmer. When confronted by the supposed ghost of Pecunia, he begs for mercy.


With the eager blessing of Mistress Goldsworth, Simple courts her two daughters, Chrysolina and Aurelia in Shirley's Changes. This foolish knight is extremely backward, however, and initially has not even met the women he sets out to woo. Because he has little luck with Goldsworth's daughters, Simple is quick to wait upon Lady Bird at Caperwit's urging, exchanging jewels for kisses and discovering only at the play's end that Lady Bird is really a man.


Simple is the servant to Slender in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. He takes a letter to Mistress Quickly asking that she assist in Slender's wooing of Anne. Believing the disguised Falstaff is in fact the wise woman of Brainford, he accosts "Mother Prat" at the Garter with questions on Slender's behalf.


Simpleton is Newman's rival for the hand of Lucy as Cavendish's The Variety opens. He has pretensions to city sophistication and hence denies that he is the son of his countrified mother, the rich widow. He induces the two Jeers (Major and Minor) to harass Newman verbally and arranges for his landlady, Voluble, to intercede against Newman. When Lucy continues to reject his suit, he plans to abduct her and keep her in his country house until she agrees to marriage. James, his servant, alerts Newman to the abduction, and Newman rescues Lucy. Simpleton charges Newman with assault in the rescue, but this charge is eventually dismissed, and Simpleton is nearly sent to Newgate Prison. In the huge confusion over just who the rich widow is at the end of the play, Simpleton is forced to acknowledge his mother in front of all of the other characters.


Simplicity is dressed "like a miller, all mealy, with a wand in his hand" in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. He has come to London to become a servant because all the girls laugh at millers. He meets Dissimulation, Fraud, Usury and Simony on the way, but he is shrewd enough to recognize them all. He is accepted by Love as her servant. He tries to help his friend Sincerity to gain preferment as a priest, but although Conscience writes a letter, Simplicity fails to get him anything from Lucre except a parish called St. Nihil's. He takes Conscience's and Love's gowns to Usury to help pay their rent. When Hospitality is murdered, Simplicity does not lament, because he disliked the food at his house. Simplicity is disappointed when he and Sincerity visit Sir Nicholas Nemo's house and find there is nothing there. He decides to become a beggar with Tom Beggar and Wily Will, and they sing a song together. But the two beggars always con Simplicity out of the best takings, and when Tom and Will rob Mercadore, Simplicity is whipped by Serviceable Diligence's men on suspicion of complicity.
Simplicity enters "in bare black, like a poor citizen" in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London. He carries an image of Tarlton. He is now married to Painful Penury, and works as a ballad-seller. He contests in a ballad-singing contest with Wit (the audience is invited to choose the winner). His wife reminds him that it is a fasting-day, but Simplicity resolves to drink instead of eat. When Fraud, Dissimulation, Usury and Simony try to cajole the veiled three ladies into accepting them as servants, Simplicity warns them who they are speaking to. Then, he and Painful Penury are gulled by Fraud into buying some worthless goods; when Simplicity tries to pawn them, Usury will not accept them. He recognizes Fraud, Dissimulation and Simony in their sailor disguises, and hides to overhear them. He learns that the French artificer was Fraud, and runs away. He then interrupts the lords of London with "a great noise within", and enters with his neighbors, brandishing clubs, to hunt for Fraud. Pomp tells him to calm down and look elsewhere. Simplicity then presents a suit to the lords, calling for the abolition of those who call for any old iron, gold, silver or wood. He gets money from Diligence to present a 'show' at the wedding of the lords and ladies. In the wedding parade, Simplicity carries the lance and shield of Tyranny. Then he recognizes Fraud in the parade, and begs Pleasure and Conscience to help him recover his money. To make Simplicity happy, Pleasure punishes Fraud by tying him to a post and inviting the blindfolded Simplicity to charge at him with a burning torch. But in fact, Simplicity is directed toward the other post, so Fraud is unharmed. Fraud escapes, but Simplicity, when his blindfold is removed, believes that he has burned him to ashes.


Simplicity is a character in "The Triumph of Time," the final play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He accompanies Anthropos along with Poverty.


A naïve new student in Cambridge in Randolph's Aristippus. He is from Giggleswick in Yorkshire. (Historically, this places him as a scholar of Christ's College, making him a fair butt for humour from the author, a graduate of Trinity.) He is a committed and pedantic student, much given to Latin and Greek tags in his conversation. He enters reading Scotus and baffled by it, and is seeking out the renowned teacher, Aristippus, for instruction. He asks for him at the Dolphin tavern, and is first unable to make the tavern Boy understand that he doesn't want a drink. He is invited to study with Aristippus: his matriculation consists of drinking to confirm every article proposed by the two Schollers: to swear to defend his master's honour, to the disgrace of brewers, Alewives and Tapsters and the enmity of Maltmen. His worries about a recent ban on drinking are dismissed by the Second Scholler, as he has already sworn to observe the keep the customs of the University, of which drinking is one. He is enraptured by Aristippus's lecture, and joins in their Philosophers' Song with the other scholars before they are all beaten off stage by Wildeman and two Brewers. He returns to remonstrate angrily with Wildeman for doing a serious injury to Aristippus. After Medico de Campo has cured Aristippus, Wildeman repented and been admitted to their fellowship and Aristippus sung a final song in praise of wine and good company, Simplicius remains behind to ask the audience's approval for his graduation, now he is qualified to take his degree–in drinking. He then joins the others to drink further healths all round.


The court fool who befriends Musophilus in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. He refers to himself as the "court mirth." Musophilus goes to him for preferment at court, but the Simplicius is on an errand to fetch a physician for his ailing wife. Musophilus offers his services, and Simplicius agrees to call on him should she need medicine. Later, he comes to Musophilus to have speeches of celebration written because it turns out the woman is pregnant. Musophilus asks in return to have his brother, Crusophilus, proclaimed a fool and unworthy to run Cremulus's estate. Simplicius soon returns with a paper from court empowering Musophilus to seize all of Cremulus's wealth.


The foolish Simplicius Faber is an associate of Lampatho Doria's in Marston's What You Will. Albano beats him for insisting that Albano is Soranza. He is gulled by Holifernes Pippo's disguise as a woman named Perpetuana.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. When the fool tells Musophilus that his wife is ill, Musophilus offers to come on Saturday to giver her a dose of "Popes' holy shadow," holy thistle, and other sovereign medicines. The fool says that she is more a Puritan than a Papist. Later, it is discovered that she is pregnant. In repayment for speeches of celebration that Musophilus will write on the happy event, Simplicius goes to court to have Crusophilus declared a fool.


The foremost of the "fools" in the anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools Simplo arranges through Proberio to become Antonio's servant, hoping thereby to learn how to succeed in business. Immediately, Antonio cheats Simplo by taking charge of the latter's papers, using them first to buy a piece of Simplo's land at much less than its value, and then to take the purchase money back into his own hands. Simplo thus becomes the means for revealing to the audience many of Antonio's tricks, as well as an agent in the deceit of others. He nevertheless remains guilelessly faithful until he finally decides that he has learned enough and leaves Antonio's service.


One of Hobson's Porters in Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside. He says he has come from the Bell, but probably Middleton meant the Bull in Bishopsgate as that was Hobson's place of call. He brings a letter from Tim to Yellowhammer, styling it "from a gentleman in Cambridge," and helps them translate Tim's bad Latin–particluarly the part that reminds Yellowhammer to pay the porter.

SIMSON **1600

The tapster in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus, Simson, whose humor is to use the phrase "as they say" once or twice a sentence, complains to the Draper and Tayler that Luxurioso has left town without paying his reckoning.


A "ghost character" in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green. When Old Strowd complains that young men spend too much money on gaudy clothes, Tom, who has just had his gaudy cloak stolen, describes how Simsons (or perhaps Simson's son) wears his jerkin swash fashion, with eight or ten gold laces a side. The reference is vague. The phrase reads, "old Simsons son of Showdon Thorp" and could mean "Old Simson's son" or "Old Simsons, son of Showdon Thorp."


Symulatyon is Flateri's cousin in Wager's The Cruel Debtor. On seeing Flateri and Rigor fighting, Symulatyon tries to separate them and is hit by the two knaves.


Sin is the Vice of Lupton's All For Money. He is the Son of Pleasure, who is the son of Money. Sin, gives birth to Damnation. He offends Satan, his friend, and threatens to forsake him, but two devils, Gluttony and Pride, succeed in convincing Sin to remain and help to send people to Hell. Then, Sin introduces All For Money to Money and ushers the suitors to the judge.


Follower of Selimus in ?Greene's Selimus I. Warns Selimus that he risks his life if he kills his father, as the Bashaws may turn on him and his brothers Acomat and Corcut will seek revenge. He also reminds Selimus of the punishment he will face after death. After Selimus learns of Bajazet's reply to his request for a meeting, Sinam is ordered to prepare Selimus' forces to march on Byzantium. Sinam accompanies Selimus when his forces ecounter Bajazet and his forces on the way to Byzantium. Joins Selimus, Mustaffa, and the Janissaries for the internment of Bajazet's and Aga's corpses in the Temple of Mahomet. Sinam, along with Mustaffa and the Janissaries, discuss with Selimus the flight of Acomat and his alliance with Ishmael and the Soldan of Egypt. After Selimus strangles Corcut, he orders Sinam to lay siege to Amasia, where Acomat's wife and his sons Amurath and Aladin reside. On the way to Amasia, Mustaffa's betrayal is revealed, and once Mustaffa and Solima are brought before Selimus, Sinam is ordered to strangle both of them. Sinam, along with Selimus, Hali, Cali, and the Janissaries, arrive at Amasia. After the siege of Amasia, Sinam accompanies Selimus and his forces as they encounter Acomat and his forces. During the battle with Acomat's forces, Sinam captures Acomat and is rewarded by Selimus by being appointed general of the Janissaries. When Acomat refuses to acknowledge Selimus' authority, Sinam is ordered to strangle him.


A Lord and Arviragus's friend (who is referred to as his "foster-father") in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. Sinatus chides Adrastus at the play's beginning for his wartime strategies and is charged by the King with organizing the ceremony for Arviragus's homecoming. He advises the King to "hast to the Campe" and "confirm the Souldiers loyalties" before they are recruited by Arviragus and, thus, he is admitted by the King to speak to the army on his behalf. Although Guimantes attempts to have him killed "lest in the Battell he shoud forsake" the King, he set[s] the Prince free when Arviragus commits him (as a "prisoner") to his charge. He speaks for Eugenius when the King means to have him killed, thus saving his life, and is apprehended by guards and falsely identified as one of the King's murderer's by Adrastus (prompting Guimantes to order him "to the Prison" where he claims "torture shall force [he and Eugenius] to confess").
A Lord, "Counsellor," and, according to Oswald, one of "the Kings Embassadours" in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Sinatus is imprisoned (along with Eugenius) at the play's beginning for his supposed involvement in the former King's murder. His life is sued for by Artemia and Philicia and, in order to "remove all possibility of doubt how much [he] love[s] [Artemia]," the King agrees to set Eugenius and Sinatus free from prison (although he does not do so until later in the play when Artemia begs again for "justice to [her] father and Sinatus"). He discusses Guimantes's "virtue[s]" and "vice[s]" in prison with Eugenius, is sent by the King to "invite" Arviragus to "leave Cartandes [. . .] and chase hence the Danes" ("with tender of Philicia for his wife"), and is informed by the King of Philicia's flight from the Kingdom. Although Sinatus warns the King of Eugenius's hatred, Guimantes appoints Artemia's father as his "substitute [. . .] touching the Government and safety of the City." He is informed by the Lord of the planned escape of Artemia and her father, is given leave by him to inform the King of the plot, and is entrusted with Guimantes's plan to disguise himself and accompany the two in their flight from the City.


Sincerity is a poor cousin of Simplicity in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. He studied to be a preacher, but cannot find work. He asks Simplicity to prefer him to Love and Conscience. They have no money to help him, but Conscience writes a letter to Lucre asking for help. Sincerity hopes Lucre will find him a benefice or parsonage, but all she offers is the worthless parish of St. Nihil's. Sir Nicholas Nemo then offers to help and invites him to his house, but Sincerity can see that he is a nonentity. Sure enough, when Sincerity and Simplicity visit Nemo's house, there is nothing there.
Sincerity brings new attire for Conscience in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London.


Sindefy is a London prostitute in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!. Security nicknames her Sin. Sindefy is Quicksilver's mistress. On the morning after Quicksilver has been dismissed, Sindefy helps him dress as a knight and wonders how he will maintain his status without money. Sindefy agrees to be introduced to Gertrude as a noble lady from the country and to act as her companion in the deceit planned by Sir Petronel and Quicksilver. Just before Gertrude's departure for Sir Petronel's fictional eastward castle, Security presents Sindefy to Gertrude as a gentlewoman who will wait on her. Sindefy accompanies Gertrude to the country in search of Petronel's non-existent castle. When Gertrude returns crestfallen from her journey, Sindefy tries to cheer her up. At the poor alehouse, they are lodged after Touchstone has repudiated Gertrude. Sindefy tells Gertrude that the hostess will not give them any food unless the lady pays her debts. When Gertrude falls prey to illusions, wishing the fairies to work miracles for her, Sindefy disillusions her. In the final reconciliation scene, when Sindefy accompanies the other women to prison, Golding suggests that Francis Quicksilver should marry Sindefy and Security should provide her dowry.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Macbeth. Macbeth's deceased father. Macbeth inherits the title Thane of Glamis from him. Historically, Macbeth's father was Finlegh, Thane of Ross.


Sinew is an Egyptian soldier in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. He loves Mistress Caro but she loves the courtier Blood. Sinew pays Barebones to help him win Caro's love. Barebones summons the demon Cantharides, who makes Caro fall in love with Sinew, but then makes her transfer her affections to Barebones. When the demon's magic wears off, Caro returns to Blood. Sinew, in disguise, brings a fake letter to Blood saying he has been sent for by his master. The trick angers Caro, but Cantharides then makes a fool out of Sinew by biting him so that "he runs up and down crying sa sa sa tarararara."


A shadow character, a gallant and follower of the Duke in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore. He is an almost mute character, having only one individual line in which, at the Bethlem Monastery, he suggests to the Sweeper that the madhouse should have women as well as men. Sinezi does not appear on stage without the Duke, appearing in only the first scene, the scene where the Duke is told that Hippolyto and Infelice are together and in the final scene at the Monastery.


The stage directions state that "one" of the characters in the anonymous Tom Tyler And His Wife comes forward at the end, without stating who, to sing the final song, about chance, patience and asking God to preserve the Queen.


A singer in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools, possibly Musophilus, possibly offstage, sings the verses that Silly drops and Urina finds. The song, written by Musophilus, fills Urina with love.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. Castruchio's singer is mentioned by Dorido and Cosimo, who comment that he sings Castruchio's libelous songs and is a big man.


Masquers in Rastell's Four Elements who dance and sing with Sensual Appetite for Humanity.


As the Lady's body is brought out for the Tyrant's delegation in [?]Middleton's The Second Maiden's Tragedy, a choir sings about the transience of beauty.


Parishioners in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate who offer up a song to Lopez and Diego in hopes they will decide to stay in the parish.


A disguise adopted by Mawworm in Middleton's A Mad World, My Masters while attending Lord Owemuch (Follywit's disguise) during their visit to Sir Bounteous. Singlestone is bound during the robbery, an inconvenience that earns him healthy payment from the disgraced Sir Bounteous.


John Sinklo and Sly try to sit on the stage during the Induction to Marston's Malcontent. They exchange banter with the actors about the rival Blackfriars theatre and argue with them about the play that is about to be performed, and over theatrical issues in general. They are finally taken to a private box, and the play is allowed to begin.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Sinon is the Greek who convinces the Trojans to take the wooden horse designed by Ulysses into the city, thus initiating the destruction of Troy. Thersites calls him "most like mee" and mentions Sinon will appear in part two of the play.
Spelled Synon throughout Heywood's 2 The Iron Age. A guileful Greek, he can in one speech epically imagine the overthrow of Troy and in the next select Thersites as his boon companion. He boasts to Diomed that he can win Cressida to be his lover, and persuades her to kiss him by revealing that the Greek is already married. He then spurns her, however, and barely escapes death at the hands of her champion, Penthesilia. He devises the strategem of building a giant horse, hiding soldiers in it, pretending that the Greeks armies have sailed away, then having the hidden Greeks open the city to the others after they have secretly returned. He allows himself to be found, bound and apparently abandoned, so as to persuade the Trojans that the horse is an offering to Pallas that ought to be brought inside the city walls; once there, he opens the door and lets Pyrhus, Diomed, and the others out. He captures Cassandra but is driven off by Chorebus, then kills Polixena in gleeful sport. He carries the news of the Greek victory to Mycene, reports that Agamemnon, Menelaus, Hellen, Pyrhus, Diomed, and Ulisses have escaped the shipwrecks that destroyed most of the Greek fleet, and comments acerbly on the murder of Agamemnon and the match between Pyrhus and Hermione. During the nuptial melée, he feigns death (like Falstaff), but rises up to challege the exulting Cethus for the title of greatest scoundrel; they fight, and the two Machiavels kill each other.


A comic dancing-master in Middleton's More Dissemblers Besides Women, hired to teach the "Page" (Lactantio's mistress).


Though not individually named in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass, the Seven Deadly Sins perform a "rude dance" or "masque" at the end of act one. Generally, scholarship of the age agreed that the seven were Pride, Envy, Jealousy, Sloth, Avarice, Lust, and Gluttony although other sins, such as Wrath, could sometimes substitute for one or more of these. The play does not make clear which seven dance.


A soldier in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. Siphax is the brother of Cleanthe, one of princess Calis's waiting women. When he visits the princess on behalf of Memnon, he falls in love with the princess and tells his sister he will die if he cannot have her. Cleanthe arranges a false message from Venus that instructs Calis to marry the first man she meets upon emerging from the temple, at a place where Siphax is to be waiting. He is undone, however, when Chilax has Siphax's abandoned mistress Cloë disguised as the princess and tricks Siphax into marrying her.


Name given to Charity by Riot in the anonymous Youth.

SIR JOHN**1513

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. A priest that Free Will knows of who sleeps with one Sibley, who comes willingly to his bed. Free Will says that both he and Imagination have caught the two in bed together. Later, Free Will suggests that Sir John has also made Imagination's father a cuckold, which occasions a fight between them.


See also SYREN.


Gnothos' wench in Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law, whom he intends to marry as soon as his old wife, Agatha is executed.


"A Sea nimph" and a "messenger from Queene Hedone" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Siren works throughout the play to entice characters from their work and encourage them to enjoy themselves at Queen Hedone's request. Complement claims that he "ha[s] her love and shall." She almost succeeds in the case of Amphibius, who informs Philoponus that his "passions" which (though previously directed towards his scholarly endeavours) are now newly "inthrald," and the two discuss Amphibius's desire to "untwist" himself from his "bond of service to Apollo"–the result of Amphibius's encounter with Siren and his receipt of what he sees as a very convincing letter from Queen Hedone encouraging him to give up his scholarly goals. Philoponus reads his friend's letter from Siren and Queen Hedone, and the two discuss it and then depart for the "laurell Grove" to get to the bottom of what Philoponus refers to as the "fardell of false wares." Amphibius claims, later in the play, that (while in the laurel grove) Philoponus "dispel'd those mists" which Siren had "cast before" his eyes. When Amphibius expresses his desire for revenge upon Siren, Philoponus advises him "no more to speake with her by word or pen." Siren attempts to convince Lauriger to leave Apollo's service and follow Queen Hedone, "the Goddesse of delight and pleasure," instead. Lauriger will not be tempted and flies from her, but Siren follows him. She attempts to lure him with a letter which he refuses to open, and then vows to have revenge on him. She approaches the blindfolded Ludio in the hopes of tempting another scholar with her mischievousness and, after Ludio's confusion due to Lauriger's trick upon him is dispelled, Siren realizes that the boy is already more concerned with pleasure than with Apollo's service and that her efforts would be wasted on him. She encourages him to seek out Grobiano to play, but Ludio explains that he must study "an oration" if he hopes "to save [his] head from a blow, which Apollos visitation may now bring upon [him]." Preco "cite[s]" and "indict[s]" Novice and Siren to appear in Court for "subverting Apollos subjects." and the "goddesse" immediately tries to tempt them from their work. Novice claims that he "will have more acquaintance with her" if Apollo allows it. He also claims that "this Siren would make a good wife for [his] Master, Captaine Complement" and, thus, claims that Siren will be his "Mistresse." Drudo puts a stop to this by charging Preco to take Siren to Apollo while he goes to "cite Slug." She expresses no concern over having to appear before Apollo, since she claims that she has "good friends" in the Court. Ludio informs Thuriger that "Siren slid on smoothly" during her appearance before Apollo's Court, and has possibly "unbent Apollos bow." She is called forward by Preco at the sentencing of disobedient characters at the play's end, and is referred to as "Siren Spinster." She expresses her desire to say more in her defense, which request Lauriger and Preco squash as the latter informs her that she "must heare the Judge, or else bee prest to death presently." Museus claims that Siren "must first be searcht" and, despite her protestations, Lauriger "lift[s] up her vaile," "pull[s] off her head of yallow lockes" and, thus, exposes the "seeming glosing Nimph" as "nothing else, but an ugly Sea-Monster." Museus pronounces her punishment - "to returne to the sea, and there to be tossed, and doussed, together with Scylla" - and gives her a message "to carry to Dame Hedone, if ere they meete againe": "that Hedone shall ever unseparably bee manacled to Lupe." Amphibius expresses his hatred for Siren and has "one kick more at her" before she is brought out.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's Royal King. A prostitute in the Bawd's brothel.


A judge in Preston's Cambises who accepts the offer from Cambyses to serve in his place during the war with the Egyptians. Upon the departure of Cambyses, Sisamnes turns corrupt and uses his position for personal gain.


Servant to Cratander in Cartwright's The Royal Slave while he is briefly king.


A "ghost character" in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. Prate and Lollia's servant who is summoned but never appears during the near-discovery of Lollia and Alphonso's assignation.


The proper name of the Shoemaker's wife in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. It is used in the dialogue but not in speech prefixes or stage directions.


A country wench, maid to Anne in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness. She appears in the country dancing scene, and accompanies Anne in her banishment.


A mistaken character in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk appearing only in the quarto Dramatis Personae. Obviously a misreading and duplication of the character Gismund.


Sister to Lady Huntlove in Cavendish & Shirley's Country Captain. Courted by Device and by Courtwell. Jokes about Device with Dorothy. Initially refuses them both. She thinks Device is an amusing fool and tells Courtwell that she will not marry a lawyer. Sister and Courtwell meet when they are both drunk and have an argument when he tells her he is swearing off love and women, including her. Device tries to win her but Sister becomes interested in Courtwell when he shows valor in confronting Device. Sister and Courtwell marry.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. After Cleanthe agrees to help her brother Siphax win the heart of Calis, she begins acting strangely in the presence of the princess. Calis calls attention to the odd behavior (which is seconded by Lucippe), remarking that strange things always seem to happen when Cleanthe acts this way. When Cleanthe objects, the princess points out that the last time the lady behaved in such a fashion was immediately before the death of the princess's unnamed sister.


Disguise that Selina takes to accompany Cleon and Clorinda to Neustrea in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers.
Disguise that Selina takes in Carlell's 2 Passionate Lovers to accompany Cleon and Clorinda to Neustrea. Lodged at the Druid's in Act One, she promises Cleon that she will help him to carry out his plan as she loves him. However, she has serious doubts about Cleon's intentions to marry her. Later, she takes the disguise of a knave to come to the court.


The Colonel's Sister tends her injured brother in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel. On his deathbed (as he thinks) the Colonel leaves her all his wealth in his will, but he orders her to marry Ager so that his friend will inherit everything. The Sister is reluctant, but the Colonel angrily demands her compliance, so she goes to Ager and submits to him. She remains silent throughout the play's conclusion.


A "ghost character" and possibly fictional in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. Dorido tells Cosimo that he has been challenged to a duel because his sister drank the Duke's health with her hat on. However, since the point of the entire speech is to satirize how quickly men are willing to fight, and over what trifles, it is possible that Dorido has no actual sister.


A ‘ghost character’ in Verney’s Antipoe. Dramurgon ravished her.


Also called the Lady in Fletcher and Middleton's The Nice Valour, the Duke's sister is courted by her brother's favorite, Shamont, the man of nice valor. She is courted unsuccessfully by Shamont's brother, the Souldier, a scene Shamont overhears and by which he is enraged. The Passionate Lord enters during the Souldier's courtship of the Duke's Sister and, in his love fit, begins imitating the Souldier; in retaliation for this insult, the Souldier later stabs the Passionate Lord. The Duke's Sister petitions her brother to pardon the Souldier; the Duke refuses her request although he later agrees to the pardon in an attempt to persuade Shamont to return to court. Although Shamont is easily insulted and is enraged by the least offense to his honor, the Duke's Sister remains faithful to him, and the couple finally obtains her brother's consent to their marriage.


A “ghost character" in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. Graculus says to save his life he’d give the satyrs his own sister.


A "ghost character" in The London Merchant portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. She is inquired after when Humphrey speaks to Luce.


A "ghost character" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Ludio informs Thuriger that his sister "had sprinckled" the "combe of [his] fingers" and his lips "with rose water [. . .] to make [his] Rhetoricke the sweeter" for his appearance before Apollo's Court.


A ‘ghost character’ in Salusbury’s Love or Money. When Juristis claims to have loved Maria in her mother’s womb when first she announced her pregnancy, Maria points out that she was not the first daughter, and he must have fallen in love with her elder sister.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen. The Marshal's sister does not appear on stage in the play, but she is described by Palamon and Arcite as a "pretty brown wench."


A "ghost character" in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Sometimes Neanias received a kirtle from Anus for his sister.


A "ghost character" in Brome's A Jovial Crew. Oldrents learns that, many years ago, Patrico's sister, a beggar woman, secretly bore Oldrents a son and died. That son is Oldrents' own steward, Springlove.


Only mentioned in Glapthorne's Argalus and Parthenia. Imprisoned with her by Amphialus in his unsuccessful plot to force King Basilius to agree to his marriage to Philoclea. This character is based on Pamela, from Sydney's Arcadia, and Glapthorne's play assumes great familiarity with this work.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. According to Bohemia, Saxony has invited Prince Edward to Germany in the hope of arranging a match between him and Saxony's sister. However, Edward states he has travelled here to marry Saxony's daughter, which he does, and Bohemia's statement is presumably an error.


"Ghost characters" in Strode's The Floating Island. Malevolo describes how Prudentius has had Amorous' sisters whipped.


They are "ghost characters" in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet who, along with Ansleme, are invited to the Capulet feast.


"Ghost characters" in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas. Five sisters. Thomas tells his father that he has had sex with all of them.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. In the hope of convincing the skeptical Surly of the ancient lore of alchemy, Mammon says that Sisyphus was damned to roll a stone uphill ceaselessly just because he tried to reveal the secrets of the gods. In Greek mythology, Sisyphus was the king of Corinth, who was famous for his ambition and cruelty. After his death, he was condemned to the interminable agony of rolling a stone uphill. The stone would then roll down and oblige him to roll it up again.
A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Silver Age. In the aftermath of his conquest of Hades, Hercules boasts, he will bring Sisiphus' rolling stone to a halt.
Only mentioned in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. At Florimel’s death, Fulvia calls down curses on Clodio’s departed soul, hoping he will dwell in torment with Sisyphus and Tityos.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Catiline. Publius Sittius Nucerinus is a Roman general, commander of the army in Mauritania. He is Catiline's ally. When Catiline incites the conspirators to rebellion against the Senate, he lists their main allies and enemies. While Pompey in Asia is considered an enemy, Nucerinus is listed as an ally.


The Earl of Northumberland and father of Young Siward in Shakespeare's Macbeth. Siward, along with Malcolm and Macduff, leads the English forces in the revolt against Macbeth.


A “ghost character" in Ruggle’s Club Law. Though mentioned in the dramatis personae and in the text, he does not actually appear on stage. One of the twenty-four Electors for the Burgomastership. He is not at the roll call of electors and is fined.


Lord Skales is a young baron who is in love with Anne in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. He sends Treatwell to speak to her father and express, on his behalf, his wish to marry her. When he receives the news that the girl has accepted him, he goes to visit her, but finds himself turned down just because his physical appearance does not come up to the young girl's expectations. She had related honorific titles to good looks, and she was disappointed not to find him attractive. Nevertheless, he is encouraged by her mother, and decides not to give up, since "hee's no good Souldier that at first repulse / Will leave the Breach." Thus, he stays for dinner. Afterwards, Geffrey goes to see him and offer him his services as a servant, and he enrolls him. Later, when he hears Mistriss Changeable say that her house has been haunted for ten days, and Gentleman 2 tells them that there is a Fryer John who can "transhape his spirits [...] / into what forme he please," he immediately asks his new servant Geffrey to go and find the friar. Then, in the belief that Master Slightall, who has lost his fortune, is still poor–unaware of the fact that he has made a deal with the Divell (Master Changeable in disguise) and has made him pay his debts in exchange for his soul–he goes in search of him. When he finally finds him, he hears him say that he wants to buy his Lordship, and he believes he has lost his mind. He just wanted to give him some money, but that offends Master Slightall, who charges against Lord Skales and his men (Treatwell and Geffrey), beating them up with the help of Roger. After that unfortunate encounter, Lord Skales goes to visit Mistriss Changeable and reports the incident to her, explaining how his offer was turned down and how he was challenged by Slightall, but changing the story to his own benefit, claiming to have "chastized his ingratitude" with his sword. His hatred against his rival begins to grow so much that when Master Changeable explains that he has managed to find a man–Master Slightall–who is going to try and solve the mystery of the evil she-spirit in their haunted chamber, he–reluctant at first–ends up accepting the idea, because he believes his rival will be torn to pieces by the devil. In the end, he will be cheated, since Anne will marry his rival, Master Slightall.


Skalliger is an advisor to King Leir in the anonymous King Leir. He first suggests that Leir base the dowries of his daughters on their confessed love for him. When Leir agrees to this love test, Skalliger comments in an aside that he will go to the daughters and betray Leir to them. He tells Gonorill and Ragan of Leir's plans for them and for Cordella. Later, when Leir is living with Gonorill, she consults with Skalliger how to be rid of Leir, his demands, and his attempts to run her household. He suggests cutting Leir's allowance in half so that he will learn to be grateful for what he has. After Gonorill exits, he comments that Gonorill is the shame of her sex, but that he himself is a villain. Nevertheless, he sees that he must flatter to survive.


In the frame story of (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington, Skelton is the creator of the play, and takes the role of Friar Tuck. He is pleased finally to have a chance to rehearse (Eltham has been busy on the King's business) and calls in the actors, reprimanding Little Tracy for acting like a lad rather than Lady Marian. After the dumb show is presented, Skelton has it presented again, and provides commentary for it, in the verse form for which he was famous. While performing as Friar Tuck, Skelton breaks into a long verse railing against overly nice, courtly speech; he is recalled to his character by Little John/Eltham. After Robin has met with and forgiven Ely, Eltham breaks character to complain that Skelton has not included any of the traditional jests or songs of Robin Hood. Skelton defends his play by claiming that the King himself has approved it, and that he shows the true history and tragedy of Robin Hood, not the old jests. Eltham then complains about Skelton breaking into his verse and Skelton tells Eltham to pull on his sleeve if he goes on too long in verse (which he then proceeds to do). After the end of the play, Skelton and Eltham remain to discuss it. Eltham is worried that the play ends before the death of Robin. Skelton suggests that they present the play in two parts and describes to the audience what the next play will contain.

SKELTON **1632

Skelton is one of four servants that represent all that is left of the foolish servant / courtier by Ford's day in Ford's Perkin Warbeck. He offers some slight amusement and an opportunity for other characters to inform the audience, by informing them, what is occurring. He is relegated to an unimportant role and is cheered on by his lord, Warbeck, as he is led to the scaffold at play's end.


A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. Will Sommers is said to be with him when Henry sends for his fool.


Skill is the name assumed by Fraud in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London when he presents himself to Policy as a servant.


Skinke is the prime mover of disguise and confusion in Chettle's(?) Looke About You. He is a robber and a cony-catcher, and he has arguably poisoned Rosamund, the old King's mistress, upon Queen Elinor and prince Henry's command. He is omnipresent in several disguises and is perhaps the main source of the title's cautionary: 'look about you'. Skinke's first and last disguise is that of an old wise Hermit (whom, in his own words, he has helped along the way to death). It is unknown whether Robin Hood has seen through Skinke's disguise when at the outset of the play he comes to ask him to attend Parliament under the protection of the young King's party. The young King intends to make Skinke Lord of some of Gloster's lands—however Parliament turns out to be a disagreeable experience for the rogue who has many enemies at Court. He consequently decides to make himself scarce. He soon chances upon the innocent Redcap, who is on a mission from Gloster to Marrian with letters to Prince Richard. Redcap cannot remember the name of the Lady he is going to see, so Skinke refreshes Redcap's memory and then sends him on a wild goose chase by the river in the wrong direction. To shield Redcap from the cold, Skinke swaps his warm cloak and hat for Redcap's clothes—and so obtains a new disguise. Skinke is however soon intercepted by a constable and a watch who bring him straight 'home' to the Fleet. Once in the Tower Skinke, disguised as Redcap, is in turn tricked of his clothes by Gloster, and Skinke must stay in prison till he escapes disguised in clothes that the visiting Prince John has left unguarded. Hereafter Skinke meets Faukenbridge, whom he (now dressed as Prince John) relieves of a gold chain. Back in the Hermit's guise he is consulted by Prince John and Faukenbridge on their search for Gloster, but feeling the earth getting hot under his feet slips away again. He is shortly after intercepted together with Gloster by Lancaster and Leicester. Skinke convenes with all other characters at the final scene where Henry condemns Gloster to death and bestows a coronet on Skinke to humiliate his father. Upon young King Henry's sudden repentance, Skinke decides to leave for the wars in Portugal.


A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Hollander. Sconce’s cousin german once removed. He was taken by the enemy last summer by a stratagem of hay boats set a fire.


An Englishman serving on Bumble's ship in Davenant's News From Plymouth. He has no qualms about fighting against his fellow Englishmen, so long as he gets paid. He serves as a translator when Furious Inland explains to Bumble that he cannot fight a sea battle without a ship.


An old soldier in Middleton's(?) Puritan; he agrees to help Pyeboard cheat the Widow, with the agreement that Pyeboard will teach him to conjure. In the end, however, he turns on Pyeboard and reveals all the deceptions to Lady Plus and Sir Godfrey


A "ghost character" in Marston's Dutch Courtesan, Don Skirtoll does not appear on stage. Mary Faugh lists him, along with the Irishman Sir Patrick, the Italian Master Beieroane, and the Dutchman Haunce Herkin Gluken Skellan Flapdragon, as one of the members, presumably representing the Spanish contingent, of the wide-ranging international clientele that Franceschina entertained before she met Freevill.


A "ghost character." Skogan does not appear on stage in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. He is mentioned as a youth whose head John Falstaff supposedly "cracked" during younger years.


A disguise assumed by Young Lord Nonsuch in order to gain access to Lady Troublesome in Sharpham's Cupid's Whirligig. Slacke is a begging soldier who is hired as a servant by Sir Timothy Troublesome. As Slacke, Nonsuch attempts to convince Troublesome that his Lady is pregnant and that he should divorce her, thus freeing her for Nonsuch himself. When Troublesome decides to leave his Lady and marry her cousin Peg, he sends Slacke to procure the divorce. Slacke confesses his love to Lady Troublesome; when she rejects him, he attempts to make her husband even more jealous by exaggerating the relationship between the Lady and Captain Woodly, another of Young Lord Nonsuch's disguised characters. The Young Lord's fiancée, Nan, who has run away to avoid the marriage, falls in love with Slacke and, disguising herself to marry him, is surprised to find herself united to Young Lord Nonsuch.


The Slave is one of those sold by Bosco's men in Malta in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. It is not entirely clear from the dialogue, but it seems that he is a Moor rather than a Turk. Barabas questions him as to his health and loyalty, but is unsatisfied by his answers and buys Ithamore instead.

SLAVE **1636

A mute character in Killigrew’s Claricilla. He tried to stab Tullius but missed and is condemned to die after first being broken upon the ship’s anchor.


Cinna's Slave is sent by him to deliver a message to Young Marius in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. He describes how long he has traveled seeking Young Marius. Directed by a sailor to Young Marius, he delivers his letter that is stored in the top of the javelin he carries.


Although this character has no formal name, he is used as a foil to compare the relative virtues and natural breeding of the English against slaves from other lands in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman. The Englishman is found to be nobler and, in general, superior not only to other slaves, but also to his Italian masters. Nonetheless, the English are also described as mad. Later in the play, things take on a more sinister tone when the English Slave suggests to a group of pirates that they should kidnap Leonora and Almira and sell them as sex slaves to the Turks. The plan is put into action, but Antonio comes to the rescue.


Two slaves are imprisoned in Caesar Augustus' camp in Markham's Herod and Antipater:
  1. The unnamed First Slave is offered freedom if he will slay Herod. The Slave refuses to kill a king and is eventually given command of a Roman legion. The assumption is, of course, that such loyalty to royalty provides a measure of safety for Augustus.
  2. The unnamed Second Slave offers that he would kill his own father if freedom were the reward. Augustus withdraws his offer of freedom as well as his request that the slave kill King Herod in return for that freedom. The Slave is then thrown into the sea by order of Augustus, who obviously feels that this Slave has no loyalty and consequently presents a danger if set free.


Two slaves figure in Davenport's The City Night Cap.
  • In Act Two, the First Slave testifies at a trial where he says that together with his partner he has seen Abstemia having sex with Philippo. Later, in Act Three, he has to appear again and there he repeats his confession. However, he is betrayed by his accomplice.
  • Together with the First Slave, the Second Slaave accuses Abstemia of adultery at the first trial. However, when the Duke of Venice has recourse to law in Act Three, he changes his testimony and confesses that Lorenzo has paid them with promises and gifts.


King Henrick orders two Slaves to rape Victoria in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier. They agree, but then "dance anticly and exeunt," having been struck mad.

SLAVES **1635

Several slaves figure in Killigrew’s The Prisoners.
  • One binds Lysimella after Gillippus has captured her.
  • During the act four storm, three slaves give up Gillippus’ foundering ship, one is stabbed by Gillippus and the others flee.


Will Slawter is hired by Miles Forest in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III to assist James Terrell in Richard III's plot to kill the princes in the Tower of London. Slawter is partnered with Jack Denten. When Denten voices second thoughts about the killings, Slawter threatens to kill Denten, too. Slawter and Denten kill the princes and bury them within the Tower.


The Constable in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass. He directs the arrest of Fitzdottrel for default on Gilthead's warrant, and of Merecraft, his tenant, for rent in arrears. However, he is persuaded to release Merecraft in order to take part in a plan to produce and promote the use of forks. Later, he arrests Pug for stealing Ambler's clothes.


Slender, cousin to country justice Shallow in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor, is made drunk and then robbed by Falstaff's followers, Bardolph, Pistol and Nym. Falstaff has slighted Shallow as well. To make amends, Evans suggests marriage to Page's daughter Anne because she will inherit £700 on her seventeenth birthday. Anne's father approves of Slender and tells him to steal her away and marry her at the fairy revel set to humiliate Falstaff. Slender makes it possible for Anne and her true love Fenton to marry. He steals away not with Anne but rather with a boy that Margaret Page has placed in a white dress.


One of the "complices" in Cartwright's The Ordinary, a lieutenant whose military background has given him the training necessary to be a truly efficient cheat. He conspires with Heare-say and "Meane-well" throughout the play.


Master Slightall is a young gentleman who is in love with Anne in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. He is not of noble descent, but he is wealthy, since–in the Scrivener's words: "he had in Acres, glebe and medow, / Upland, and Dale, in woods and arrable; / And though in name a private gentleman, / Yet hath he three faire Lordships, besides sheepewalkes, / Parkes, and other large Demesnes." He has Anne's father's consent to marry her, but he has not gained her mother's yet. Thus, he is greatly shocked when his beloved one receives another offer of marriage from Lord Skales, and immediately turns him down and accepts the other, just in order to reach a better position by entering the aristocracy. Feeling betrayed, in order to take revenge, Master Slightall decides to lead a licentious life from then on. He meets two gentlemen, and tells them about his determination, explaining that, since he has been betrayed by his beloved one, now he is going to love all ladies–with blind eyes to their imperfections. Therefore, he asks Roger to provide him a "good lusty lasse" for that night, and, though his man reprimands him, he, nevertheless, insists. But Roger refuses to do him that service. Later, Geffrey arrives with the news that his has pawned his sword and has received £1000 for it. Slightall is glad to hear that, and he does not care about the conditions of the pawning. Then he asks Geffrey to do what Roger had refused to. And, meanwhile, he is going to play cards with the two gentlemen. As time goes by, he ends up squandering all his fortune. He then calls his two servants, and reveals he has kept a little gold for them: he gives some to Roger and some to Geffrey. Slightall admits that Roger was a good servant, who had always advised him to follow the right path. And his current state is the result of not having paid much attention to his wise words. Geffrey had never questioned his crazy wishes, and had always obeyed him–even is he should not–thus contributing to his downfall. That way, alone and poor he meets Anne one day, who, to his surprise, tells him she loves him. He cannot believe her, and, thinking she is a she-devil, blames her for his misfortunes and announces he is going to turn a savage and live in a cave. Thus, leaving her with the impression that he has lost his mind, Slightall goes away. When he is alone, several 'anticke' dancers appear before him in different shapes–one of them in the shape of the Divell. He then sees an opportunity to put an end to his problems and asks the Divell if he is powerful enough to pay all his debts. The Divell's response is affirmative, and he agrees to do it on the sole condition that he may claim his soul in exchange. Slightall agrees. Then, he goes to meet his debt with the Usurer, and to see his mortgage is discharged. Later, Lord Skales comes to seek him–thinking he is still poor–therefore, when Slightall offers to buy his Lordship, Lord Skales believes he is mad, and offers him some money. But Slightall feels offended, and fights against Lord Skales, Treatwell and Geffrey. With the help of Roger, he manages to beat them up and defeat them. He is then asked by the Divell to go and sleep in a chamber he has haunted with a she-spirit–one of his servants-–assuring him that the lady, who appears deformed to other people, will seem fair and beautiful to him. When he arrives at the house he greets Master Changeable, and asks to be shown to his chamber–feeling curious at the thought of what he may find there. He actually sees some devils dancing, two maids and Anne. He is infatuated by her beauty, although he is unable to identify her and keeps relating her to mythological women. Then the Divell arrives and claims the young man's soul, but, on the latter's request, he agrees to wait and take his soul the next time they meet. When that time comes, Slightall makes the Divell take him to see all his creditors for him to check that his debts have really been met. But the friars manage to cheat the Divell, telling him that, since the Divell has paid all Slightall's debts, now the young man is indebted to the Divell, therefore, since he is still indebted, the Divell cannot take his soul yet. Slightall still asks the Divell for one more favour: he wants to see the she-spirit (Anne) again, and that favour is granted to him. Finally, Master Slightall will manage to marry Anne, with the help of Master Changeable and the friars.


"A lazy droane" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Ludio claims that he could not get Slug out of bed to game with him. Drudo instructs Preco to deliver Siren to Apollo while he goes to "cite Slug" to appear before Apollo's Court. Drudo then lectures Slim Slugge on his laziness and discourages him "from hope of admittance" since on "every visitation day" for the past seven years Slugge has been "shut out of doores by Museus." He refers to himself as "Slim Slugge, Sluggy Sluggorum." When Slugge asks Drudo to play the part of Apollo so that they won't have to complete the trek to Apollo's Court, Drudo refuses but allows him to "say what [he] canst" since "Apollo sees and heares all things in all places." Thus, Drudo listens to and comments on Slugge's "clayme" until he's had "enough" and forces the "drunken Beare" to move along to the Court. Ludio informs Thuriger that, when he heard Slugge "call'd" to Apollo, he left the Court assuming that the droane would make them "tarry long." He enters the sentencing of disobedient characters much later than the others and, for this, is chided by Drudo. Preco calls him by a number of titles, and Museus proclaims that "Apollo doth banish [him] into Lubberland." At this, Slugge attempts unsuccessfully to entice someone to accompany him there.


Albano's page in Marston's What You Will.


A clown in Nabbes' Tottenham Court, the keeper's manservant. He usually appears alongside the keeper, providing witty and irreverent commentaries on the proceedings, but in the play's last act he helps Sam, Bellamie's brother, woo and win Cicely.


Slipper is the son of Bohan and the brother of Nano, with whom he enters Ateukin's service in Greene's James IV. However, he shows Ateukin up in front of Ida, and he agrees to steal his letters for Sir Bartram. The King of Scotland condemns him to be hanged, but Oberon and the Antics rescue him.


Slipper's companion dances the hornpipe with him in the second chorus of Greene's James IV. The stage direction specifies that the companion can be of either sex.


Slitgut is an apprentice to a butcher in Eastcheap in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!. His master sent him to Cuckold's Haven with a pair of ox horns to pay homage to Saint Luke as well as King John, who cuckolded a butcher. While he is on the Thames shore, he witnesses the wrecking of the ships and reports how Winifred is fished out of the water. When he takes Security out of the water, Slitgut pities the old man but wonders why the castaway is furious for having been cast ashore at Cuckold's Haven. Slitgut describes how he sees a woman floating in the distance, almost at Saint Katherine's, with her clothes floating around her. He sees how she swims and reports someone setting down a ladder and rescuing her. Slitgut witnesses Sir Petronel's party being cast ashore. After seeing Quicksilver, Sir Petronel, and Seagull come out of the water all wet and still drunk, Slitgut decides to come down from his observing point. The fact that so many shipwrecks occurred during the tempest leads Slitgut to the conclusion that Heaven sent punishment for profaning Saint Luke's memory with the ridiculous custom of the ox's horns. Slitgut decides to throw away the offering and he exits.


A "ghost character" in Sharpham's The Fleire. A Dutch gallant named by Antifront as one of the many customers of the prostitutes Felecia and Florida.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Mundus et Infans. Mundus tells Infans/Manhood that he must swear fealty to seven kings. The kings are the seven deadly sins.


One of the seven deadly sins in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appears in the first scene with the other six sins, then crosses the stage again to announce the second playlet, which dramatizes sloth.


Sloth, the sixth of the Seven Deadly Sins in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, claims to have been conceived on a sunny bank and lies there still.


A non-speaking role in Marston's Parasitaster, or The Fawn: one of the allegorical attendants in the Masque of Cupid's Council.


A “ghost character" in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. A knight and Grobian. Pamphagus tells of how Simon Slouch passed an oyster through his nose whilst laughing, and his neighbor ate it. He is on the list of invitees Oyestus is sent to cry into the Grobian feast.


Slubber is Blurt's beadle in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable, but Blurt uses him as his secretary, being reluctant to admit that he is himself illiterate. Slubber's name suggests a careless person. In front of his house, Blurt has Slubber show the Spaniard Lazarillo his staff as a symbol of his weighty position. Seeing that the Spaniard is armed to the teeth and looks bellicose, the cautious Slubber orders Blurt's men to turn their arms towards Lazarillo. When Lazarillo shows Blurt his pass from the Duke, Blurt pretends to be unable to read it because of the importance of his office and hands the paper to Slubber. Slubber reads the pass and notes it is not written in the Duke's hand. However, he notices a little blot on the paper. At Blurt's suggestion that this blot looks like the wart on the Duke's hand, and therefore this is his "hand," Slubber accepts the ridiculous idea and Lazarillo's pass is validated. When Lazarillo tells his long Spanish name, Slubber concludes, according to his peculiar logic, that the Spaniard must be a great man in his country. Slubber writes Lazarillo's long name incorrectly, as he hears it from Blurt's inaccurate dictation. The mace-bearer follows Blurt and Lazarillo to the constable's house. In the street before Imperia's house, Blurt and his guards enter with the Duke to enforce the law when the incensed Venetian gentlemen want to kill Fontinel. When, at the Duke's command, Blurt goes to fetch Curvetto and Lazarillo from prison, the constable calls Slubber and the rest of his watch to follow him.

SLUGG **1599

One of the twenty-four Electors for the Burgomastership in Ruggle’s Club Law.


"A lazy droane" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Ludio claims that he could not get Slug out of bed to game with him. Drudo instructs Preco to deliver Siren to Apollo while he goes to "cite Slug" to appear before Apollo's Court. Drudo then lectures Slim Slugge on his laziness and discourages him "from hope of admittance" since on "every visitation day" for the past seven years Slugge has been "shut out of doores by Museus." He refers to himself as "Slim Slugge, Sluggy Sluggorum." When Slugge asks Drudo to play the part of Apollo so that they won't have to complete the trek to Apollo's Court, Drudo refuses but allows him to "say what [he] canst" since "Apollo sees and heares all things in all places." Thus, Drudo listens to and comments on Slugge's "clayme" until he's had "enough" and forces the "drunken Beare" to move along to the Court. Ludio informs Thuriger that, when he heard Slugge "call'd" to Apollo, he left the Court assuming that the droane would make them "tarry long." He enters the sentencing of disobedient characters much later than the others and, for this, is chided by Drudo. Preco calls him by a number of titles, and Museus proclaims that "Apollo doth banish [him] into Lubberland." At this, Slugge attempts unsuccessfully to entice someone to accompany him there.


Sluttishness accompanies Poverty in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.


Sly is a drunkard who falls asleep in the street after being thrown out of doors by the Tapster in the anonymous The Taming of a Shrew. He is taken to the house of the Lord while still asleep, as a jest, and told, when he awakens, that he is a lord. He is convinced that he is, in fact, a lord and agrees to see "his" players perform as long as there is a fool involved. During the play, he interrupts three times:
  • first to ask if the fool (Sander) will come again,
  • second to ask if Polidor and Aurelius will be married and
  • finally to object to the threatened imprisonment of Phylotus and Valeria for impersonating the Duke of Sestos and his son.
Sly then falls asleep. In the fourth interlude, just before the final scene, the wager scene, the Lord calls Boy and other servants to redress Sly in his own clothes and return him to where he was found. After the end of the play-within-the-play, Sly wakes believing he has had a dream that has taught him how to tame a shrew.


Sly is Undermine's faithful servant in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. He goes to prison to visit Brainsicke when his master tells him to, at the beginning of the play, and later he tries to help his master in his plan to distance Modestina and Sir Wittworth. In fact, he tries to make her believe that the young gentleman has been mocking her and saying awful things about her. Sly even tries to take advantage of the situation, making advances to the lady. But she is reluctant to believe him, and rejects him. He later comes in a haste to warn his master that his house is full of Sergeants who "have seised on all," in execution of "the suite" of Mountayne. He is also responsible for worrying and upsetting the Doctor, announcing that Sir Wittworth had fallen dead at their gate, despite the efforts of several people to revive him again. His final task consists in telling the creditors' servants, when they go to see him, that he will only pay Mr. Bateman.


In the induction to Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew, Christopher Sly is a drunken tinker. Thrown out of a tavern for breaking glasses, Sly falls asleep outside, where he is found by a Lord's hunting party. As a practical joke played by the Lord, Sly is made to think that he himself is a lord who has been ill. To entertain Sly, travelling players stage a performance of The Taming of the Shrew as a play within a play. Sly finds the play tiresome and, along with Bartholomew (who is pretending to be Sly's wife), disappears from the text.


William Sly and Sinklo try to sit on the stage during the Induction to Marston's Malcontent. They exchange banter with the actors about the rival Blackfriars theatre, and argue with them about the moral message of the play about to be performed. They are finally taken to a private box and the play is allowed to begin.


Complains to Sisamnes in Preston's Cambises about how Sisamnes' corruption has ruined him and other simple men.


A woman with a small voice in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy calls offstage for Charon's boat.


Family name of Sir Oliver, Thomas, and William in Barry's Ram Alley.


A plaintiff in Justice Suresby's court in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More, Smart has charged Lifter with stealing his purse (and the ten pounds in it). He is pompously berated by the judge for carrying such a sum around to tempt poor people.


Jacob is the host of the disguised Lodowick, Duke of Bullen, his wife, daughter, and Bunch in the anonymous Weakest Goeth to the Wall. All are taking refuge from the fighting in France at his house in Flanders. Unknown to Lodowick, Jacob tries to seduce Lodowick's wife, Oriana. Bunch dislikes him because he can't understand his Flemish accent. When Lodowick falls behind in his payment, he asks for time to pay. Jacob refuses and demands that Lodowick leave the house, leaving behind his wife and daughter as surety. Lodowick leaves for London. Bunch takes Jacob down to an inn where a batch of English ale has just arrived. When they return Jacob is violently drunk. Bunch offers all his money to Oriana and Diana so they may escape. Diana urges her mother to do so. Soon after, Oriana announces to the drunk, fat, lustful Jacob that she and Diana are leaving him, now that their debt has been paid When Bunch returns, Jacob tells him that the women have left for London.


Younger brother of Cambyses in Preston's Cambises, he complains to Ambidexter, Attendance and Diligence about his brother's drinking, but on the advice of Ambidexter, agrees to wait out his brother's reign. At his brother's command, and as a result of Ambidexter's lies, he is executed by Murder and Cruelty.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's As You Like It. Touchstone mentions that he has once been in love with a woman named Jane Smile.


A fictional character in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale. In a speech about jealousy and betrayal, Leontes imagines a fictional neighbour, Sir Smile, who enjoys fishing in a man's pond and seducing his wife while the man is absent.


A clown attending Lord Raymond in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids, Smircke, or Smirke, is an intimate of Frederick and commiserates with him when his family's fortunes deteriorate as they are expelled from the Duke's court. He comes to possess the magic ring of invisibility, taking the opportunity to kiss Julia and commit other mischievous deeds, but he soon comes to despise what he had erstwhile considered a gift. He is freed from his burden by the spirit summoned by Landoffe. His pun on his name earns him good-natured smirks during the masque that concludes the play.


Family name of Sir Raph and Lady Smith in Porter's 1 The Two Angry Women of Abingdon.


The otherwise unnamed Smith in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England rescues the Clown, his apprentice, after the drunken spree on the night the First Ruffian is murdered. Later, he catches the Clown seducing his wife, but the Clown gives him such a beating that the Smith agrees to become a willing cuckold. After the preaching of Jonas begins to stir the people of Nineveh, the Smith and his wife repent their sins, close up the shop, release the Clown from his indentures, and devote themselves to fasting and prayer.


One of the Madmen of Goteham (together with Miller and Cobbler) in the anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave. In a comic interlude they decide to deliver a petition to the king. They want a license to brew strong beer three times a week.


A "fictional character" in Jonson's Epicoene. When Truewit discusses Morose's noise-hating idiosyncrasy with Clerimont, he mentions that a Smith should be ominous in Morose's neighborhood, because the constant hammering of his trade would be disastrous for Morose's ears.


One of the craftsmen who constructed the secret pit for Offa in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. He and the other craftsmen return disguised as devils to steal the money they assume Offa has hidden in the pit. Instead, they end up freeing the outlaws and escorting Mildred and Edith out of the house.


Two smiths figure in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers.
  • The real smith takes part in the construction of the tower. In Act One, he is told by the Clown to produce some padlocks that would only let the Duke enter the fortress.
  • The smith is also a disguise that Julio uses to visit the tower in Act Five.


Lady Smith accompanies her husband in Porter's 1 The Two Angry Women of Abingdon while he is hunting during the day, but she dislikes anyone killing deer. She returns home when night falls.


Dick the butcher, John Holland, Smith the weaver, a Sawyer and Michael are all followers of the rebel Jack Cade in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI.

SMITH, TOM **1600

Also called 2 Smith in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell. He works for Thomas Cromwell's father ("Old Cromwell") with Hodge and Will Smith (1 Smith). He jokes with young Cromwell when the latter asks the smiths not to hammer.

SMITH, WILL **1600

Also called 1 Smith in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell. He works for Thomas Cromwell's father ("Old Cromwell") with Hodge and Tom Smith (2 Smith). He opens the play talking about how young Thomas Cromwell studies so hard.


One of the rebels serving under Falconbridge in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV, Smoke puns upon his name, claiming he will "smoke" those who will not be still while Falconbridge speaks.


Geber's familiar in Percy's Arabia Sitiens. Pursues Caleb and Tubal after they take Geber's purse and ring.


A "ghost character" in Sharpham's The Fleire. A silk merchant named by Antifront as one of the many customers of the prostitutes Felecia and Florida.


Never appearing on stage in the play, Master Smooth is mentioned by Mistress Quickly as the silk merchant with whom Falstaff sometimes dines in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.


Maid to Carrack in Davenant's News From Plymouth. She hopes to become a member of the gentry some day.


The honest smith of Edmonton in the anonymous The Merry Devil of Edmonton. He goes poaching in Brian's Wood together with Sir John, Banks, and Blague.


The snail does not speak in Udall's? Thersites. He is present onstage, and Thersites fights him. When the Snail pulls his horns in, Thersites is delighted with his victory, his only one in the play.


In the dumb show to III of the Anonymous Locrine, a crocodile is sitting on a riverbank, and a little snake stings it. Then both fall into the water. "So Humber having conquered Albanact, Doth yield his glory unto Locrine's sword" is Ate's commentary.


Under orders from Archimagus in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland, they slither threateningly towards Patrick, but he drives them into the sea; they will never again appear on Irish soil.


Snap is a porter and a sheriff's officer in Syracuse in Edwards's Damon and Pithias. When Carisophus summons him to arrest Damon under the false accusation of espionage, Snap takes the prisoner before King Dionisius. Following Grimme's cozening by Iacke and Wyll, Snap hears Grimme's description of his assailants. He concludes that the rascals appear to be lackeys, not porters as they pretended to be. Snap accompanies Grimme to court in the hope that the collier might recognize the two tricksters.

SNAP **1611

Alathe is disguised as a boy who calls "himself" Snap in Fletcher's The Night Walker. As Snap, she offers to serve Lurcher as an accomplice in stealing but cleverly foils Lurcher's thefts. In the cemetery he pretends to be the ghost of Maria and chastises Algripe. Snap helps Lurcher rob Algripe and then lure him to a secluded place where he poses as an angel who chases away the furies and offers Algripe salvation if he mends his ways. At the end of the play, he reveals "himself" as Alathe, Lurcher's estranged sister, who was previously betrothed to Algripe. The reformed and contrite Algripe reproposes to Alathe who accepts his offer.


Snap in Fletcher's Beggars' Bush is the stuttering member of the beggars' troop.


A servant to Craft in the anonymous Oberon the Second. He poses as the Devil to enchant Losarello with a spell that will help him beat the "giant" at Covet's home. He also plays the part of various fairies, barristers and judges in Fairyland.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Every Man in His Humour. Snare is a scrivener. When Cash gives his master his morning business report, he informs Kitely that he is being expected on the Exchange to conclude a contract. Kitely hesitates, thinking that during his absence his wife might be tempted to entertain the gallants. Cash reminds Kitely that Snare, the scrivener, will be there with the bonds, ready to draw the official document of payment. This information seems to determine Kitely to leave his house after all, since, apparently, the prospect of gain is stronger than his latent jealousy.


Master Snare is a yeoman who serves as assistant to Master Fang, the sheriff's sergeant, in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.


Snarl is friend to Philautus and Fidelio in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. He feels that dissembling is the proper way to live one's life and sees effeminacy in both genders. At the end of the play, he dresses as constable and arrests both Jeffry and Ardelio.


Sneak is in charge of a band of musicians that sometimes plays at the Boar's Head Tavern in Eastcheap in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.


Sneakup is Pyannet's meek husband, father to Josina and Toby, and Crasy's father-in-law in Brome's The City Wit. He is excoriated by his wife Pyannet whenever he tries to speak. At court Crasy retrieves the jewels stolen by Pyannet by stealing them from Sneakup.

SNEGO **1627

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Clip-Latin's "host" who will be glad of Clip-Latin's good fortune because the parson will now "build no more sconces, but . . . pay my old tickets." He will serve him and his companions a cup of stingo.


Snip is Canbee and Hadland's boy in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green. He helps them rob Tom Strowd and runs away with his sword. Then, dressed as a girl, attempts to con Tom and Swash again. They see through his disguise and terrify him. He does not appear in any of the later scenes where actual fighting takes place.

SNIP **1630

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. A tailor charged with riot, Justice Nihil lets him go because he is a neighbor.


A "ghost character" in Barry's Ram Alley. Snipe is one of the clients of Throat; his name suggests that he is foolish and probably gullible.


One of the group of rude mechanicals in the anonymous The Faithful Friends, who supply some of the play's comedy, Snipsnap is a tailor who displays his masculine courage by breaking the Tapster's head. But when Marcellinus arrives to impress soldiers for the war against the Sabine, the tailor is very loath to go. He is braced up by Bellario, however, and once at the front gives a decent account of himself.


Andrew Snoord puts up a 'bill' advertising for employment [sometimes called a si quis] at the same time as Nano and Slipper do in Greene's James IV, and enters the service of Ateukin with them. He is beaten by Ateukin for the loss of the letters that Slipper stole, and when he discovers that Slipper was the real thief Andrew arranges to have him robbed. He continues as Ateukin's supporter, but, reasoning that the parasite's career is bound to be short-lived, he sends a letter to the King of England to inform him of the treatment meted out to his daughter. When James IV repents of his behavior, he orders Andrew hanged.


A classic dull-minded constable in Davenant's The Wits. He arrests both the elder Pallatine and Thwack. After he becomes aware that it is all an elaborate hoax, he is delighted to go along with the scheme.


An easily excited woman in Davenant's The Wits. She is keen on reporting wrongdoing in her neighbor Mistress Queasy's house and eager to make her husband perform his constabulary duty.


Sinior Snot is a nickname applied to Bragardo by a hostile servant in the anonymous Wit of a Woman.


Tom Snout the tinker is one of the rude mechanicals performing Pyramus and Thisbe for the Duke's wedding in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. Snout is originally cast as Pyramus' father but ultimately portrays Wall, a talking heap of limecast that wins the backhanded praise of being "the wittiest partition" that the audience has ever heard speak.


A ruffian soldier in Preston's Cambises, Snuf, along with Ruf and Huf, fights briefly with Ambidexter, only to make up with the realization that Ambidexter can help them in their desire to gain from the war.


Languebeau Snuff is a former Puritan candle maker in Tourneur's The Atheist's Tragedy. His conversation so pleases Belforest that he makes Snuff his personal chaplain. In fact, Snuff is nearly a stereotype of the hypocritical stage Puritan. Seemingly pious and humble, he is merely enjoying the comfortable life Belforest provides for him. Accompanying Levidulcia to Cataplasma's for the tryst with Sebastian, Snuff quickly realizes the nature of the place, becomes sexually aroused, and decided to pursue Soquette for sexual favors. When she meets him in St. Winfred's graveyard, she spies the sheet, wig, and false beard he has with him, and Snuff explains that he intends to disguise himself as the ghost of Montferrers and frighten away anyone who might happen upon them. Before Snuff and Soquette can conclude their business, however, they themselves are frightened off by the arrival of Charlemont, who retrieves the disguise items Snuff has dropped. When the latter returns looking for Soquette, he finds the corpse of Borachio, and thinking it to be the woman waiting for him, he prepares to have sex, only to discover his mistake. His shocked cries of "Murder" eventually bring the Watchmen who arrest both Charlemont and Castabella for the murder of Borachio. Snuff is later arrested with Soquette, Fresco, and Cataplasma, and with them, taken before the two Judges, where he attempts to claim he was only trying to convert the fallen creatures in Cataplasma's operation. The Judges are not deceived, however, and after forcing him to admit that he has no education (and thus is unlikely to be much of a chaplain) he confesses to simply taking advantage of the easy life Belforest offered him. The Judges sentence him to return to his former trade (as a candle maker) where, as the First Judge observes, he will provide more "light" to the world than he ever could by his preaching or by his life's example.


Snug, a joiner by trade, is the rude mechanical who takes the role of the Lion in the mechanicals' theatrical performance for the Duke's wedding in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. He informs Peter Quince that he is "slow of study."


[In Cutter of Coleman Street (performed 1661), Cowley's 1658 revision of his Renaissance play, The Guardian, Mr. Soaker, "a little fuddling deacon," marries Puny to Aurelia in the belief that she is Lucia—a belief shared by Puny. He does not exist in The Guardian, where Aurelia and Puny are only engaged, not married, by the end of the play.]


The disguise assumed by Clokyd Colusyon in Skelton's Magnyfycence to mislead Magnyfycence.


A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the four half-Virtues (or imperfect Virtues) at King Love’s command. Sobriety has recently been banished from Germany and is therefore available for Love’s war. He is one of Temperance’s two assistants.


Arriving home before his master Amphitrio in Heywood's The Silver Age, this dim-witted servant meets Ganimed disguised as himself, and communicates the resulting confusion to Amphitrio to great comic purpose.
Servant to Amphitryo in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter, and victim, like him, of the tricks played by Jupiter on the household. When Jupiter takes the form of Amphitryo, Ganymede takes that of Socia, and succeeds in persuading everyone of his identity–including, at last, poor Socia himself. He and his master realize that they are, at least, the same Amphitryo and Socia who wrote and delivered the same letter, and that therefore they should stay together. Jupiter has no words for him at the end, but Socia has his own moment of divine communication when he dreams of the angry Juno; "Haigh ho," he says, with characteristic resignation, "nowe am I adrempt off a skowld".


Only mentioned in Zouche's The Sophister. Definition, Division, Opposition, and Description mention Socrates while attempting to "draw out" for Discourse "the pedigree, which is a true lineall discent of all the chiefest inhabitants within these provinces." Homo "begat Socrates, Plato, and the rest."
A “ghost character" in Tomkis’ Lingua. Memorie remembers a time in Athens when Aristophanes put Memorie on the stage and Socrates was put down by it.


Sodomy represents all forms of unchaste sexual activity, but principally any form of unnatural or perverted sex in Bale's Three Laws. He focuses on the Catholic requirement of celibate clergy to argue that priests are particularly susceptible to homosexuality. Together with Idolatry they succeed in corrupting mankind and causing Lex Naturae to become infected with leprosy.


Grandson to Abbas, son to Mirza in Denham's The Sophy. At the end of the play, he is established by the army as the next King of Persia.


Insuloso Sogliardo is a clown, brother to Sordido in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. He manages to buy a knighthood. Sogliardo enters with Carlo Buffone, telling him he has land and money and wants to become a gentleman at all cost. Before Puntavorlo's country house, Sogliardo enters with Carlo Buffone and Fastidious Brisk. The three men have a silly conversation about hobbyhorses and amusing pastimes. Puntavorlo arrives and all are invited into the house. At St. Paul's, Sogliardo enters informing the Puntavorlo party he has purchased a coat of arms. When Carlo Buffone discovers Shift's double impersonation, he recommends him to Sogliardo as an efficient professor in the art of hedging the creditors. Sogliardo invites Shift to dinner and he exits with Carlo Buffone and Shift. Later, Carlo Buffone reports that Sogliardo spent a whole day and night with Shift, in the privacy of their room at an inn, smoking heavily. At Puntavorlo's lodgings in London, Sogliardo enters with Shift, introducing him as a person whom he knows very well, actually he knows him all over. There are several allusions to Sogliardo's homosexual inclinations. Sogliardo exits with Shift to act as witnesses to the signing of Puntavorlo's insurance document. Then, Sogliardo joins the Puntavorlo party to court. In an apartment at court, Sogliardo enters with Macilente and, during the conversation, he is blissfully unaware of the fact that the other men ridicule him by introducing him to Saviolina as a gentleman. Though he is everybody's laughing stock, Sogliardo continues to play according to his idea of a courtier. Sogliardo exits with the Puntavorlo party to the tavern. At the Mitre Tavern, Sogliardo gets involved in the brawl, but he manages to run out when the Constable and the officers arrive.


‘Steward unto Amadour’ in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. He is sent in act four to conduct Florimel to the secret nuptial spot where Amadour waits with the vicar and Vasco.


A French nobleman in Chapman's The Conspiracy of Charles, Duke of Byron.
A French nobleman in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron. He warns Byron at the beginning of IV that the King may yet forgive his treachery if he will ask his mercy.


A captain and strong supporter of the King in Chapman's The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois. He appears in two scenes (with Epernon) but has no assigned lines.


Sol is one of the planets in Lyly's The Woman in the Moon who, jealous of her beauty, take it in turn to rule Pandora's behavior. Sol makes her virtuous.

SOL **1632

Another name for Phoebus in Hausted’s Rival Friends.


Sol is a character in the masque performed in Cokain's Trappolin to celebrate the nuptials of Lavinio and Isabella.


One of King Humanity's courtiers in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates. He makes his first appearance drunk, and describes Lady Sensuality to the King. His first name is "Sandy." Along with Placebo and Wantonness, he recommends that the King begin an affair with Lady Sensuality. He and the other courtiers encourage the King to indulge in ceaseless sexual activity and drinking, but are admonished when Divine Correction arrives, and promise to engage only in lawful pleasures henceforth.


Solanio is a friend of Antonio's in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. With Salerio, he tries to cheer up Antonio, and then passes the task on to Bassanio when he arrives. Solanio and Salerio discuss together the outcry raised by Shylock when he daughter elopes, and worry that the report of a wrecked ship refers to Antonio's ship. However, when they next meet Solanio reveals that the ship was Antonio's. They encounter Shylock and taunt him about his daughter, provoking the "Hath not a Jew eyes?" speech. When Antonio is arrested, Solanio goes with him for comfort, but is not in the courtroom.


A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. His fleet and warlike appearance are mentioned during Leicester's description of Richard's crusade.


He offers to show Fortunatus the miracles and wondrous sights of the entire world in exchange for his magic purse in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. In the Soldan's possession is a magic hat that allows the wearer to travel anywhere. Fortunatus tricks the Soldan into letting him wear the hat, at which moment he disappears to his desired destination, Cyprus, where his sons are.


An old and diplomatic monarch in Thomas Heywood's The Four Prentices of London. He sets his standard and ensign on the walls of Jerusalem as a challenge to the crusaders and is killed in the final action.


Father of Zenocrate in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1. He is first seen in IV.i preparing to meet Tamburlaine's army, though he has been caught unawares by their advance. Incensed by the theft of his daughter, he is unwilling to think of Tamburlaine as anything other than a barbarian thief. He joins with the king of Arabia to break Tamburlaine'' siege of Damascus. He is defeated at Damascus but spared for Zenocrate's sake. Tamburlaine frees and enriches him. The Soldan, pleased to discover that Zenocrate has been treated with honor, embraces Tamburlaine's offer. At the coronation of Zenocrate that ends the play, Tamburlaine promises him yearly tribute from the Egyptians, Moors, Asia, and Barbary to Western India.


After being passed over by Angelica in Greene's Orlando Furioso, he returns to Egypt.


The Soldan of Egypt is an empire-builder and conquers the city of Antioch in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. He lusts after his daughter, Miranda, and decides to marry her. He is angered when she escapes, and Colactus persuades the Soldan that Lysander helped her. The Soldan tries to kill Lysander, but Cyprian paralyses him with a magic spell. The furious Soldan decides to vent his spleen by declaring war on Babylon, but he is captured by the Babylonians. Prince Clitophon of Babylon releases the Soldan to gain revenge on his father for drowning his lover. The Soldan agrees to settle the war with a single combat between Lysander and 'Armidan,' but when the latter is revealed to be Miranda in disguise, he is furious. The Babylonians and the Egyptians are about to kill the couple when the Romans burst in. He and the Caliph submit to Rome. The Soldan apologizes to Miranda for his incestuous lust, and all is well.


A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Soldon's Son is mentioned by Leicester as the admiral of the Muslim fleet when Richard was on crusade.


The Soldier, after hearing John preach to the Publican about non-violence, confesses to murder, rape and theft, and begs God to forgive him in Bale's John Baptist's Preaching in the Wilderness. John baptizes him, and the Soldier asks for rules of behavior. John tells him to obey the rule of war, and also to neither rape nor plunder. In addition, although John allows him to wear a weapon to keep the peace, he tells the Soldier he must never misuse it. The Soldier thanks him and leaves.


The soldier in Pickering's Horestes captures a woman after murdering her husband. The woman then turns on him, and he surrenders to her.


There is one soldier with a speaking part in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1. He brings Tamburlaine news of the 1,000 horsemen of Theridamas that have come from Mycetes to rout Tamburlaine's force.


Leader of a troop of soldiers in [?]Wilson's Fair Em, the Miller's Daughter. They arrest King William the Conqueror on his return to Britain, because they do not recognize him. The mistake is swiftly resolved but in the meantime causes the separation of William from the woman with whom he has eloped, supposedly Mariana but actually Blanch disguised.


A soldier in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI reads aloud Edward's proclamation reasserting his right to the crown.


Recruited by Guise to murder the Lord Admiral in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris. Later, Guise employs him to kill Mugeroun.


The Soldier in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green enters with Luce and the other workers, just after Mumford is accused of treason but does not directly ask Mumford for money. Mumford gives him a gold chain of his own accord, and the Soldier says he will pray for Mumford.


As Sir Thomas Wyatt delivers a rousing speech to his men before Rochester in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt, the unnamed Soldier makes remarks supporting Wyatt's view of their task and his low opinion of the Spanish, then leads the crowd in shouting the battle cry of "A Wyat, a Wyat, a Wyat."


An unnamed soldier in Marston's Sophonisba tells Sophonisba that Syphax has lost the battle against Scipio and warns her to flee.


Before the first battle in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra, the Soldier enters and begs Antony not to fight at sea. Antony refuses to listen but, after he and Cleopatra have left, Canidius tells the Soldier that he is right. Just before the second battle, the Soldier enters and is complimented by Antony for being early so ready. The Soldier responds that a thousand more are equally ready. Since no mention is made of the earlier disagreement, it is unclear if this is the same character.


A soldier of Alcibiades' army in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens. He finds Timon's grave and makes a wax copy of Timon's epigraph. He brings it to Alcibiades at the end of the play. He is also likely to be the same character known as "courier" who seeks out Timon and also the character known as "messenger" who brings news of Timon's death.


A nameless soldier in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron appears and speaks at Byron's execution, extolling his merits.


Designated a "musquetier" in the text of Tourneur's The Atheist's Tragedy, the unnamed Soldier stands guard with Charlemont and agrees to wake the exhausted nobleman when the Sergeant returns from his rounds. When Charlemont awakes after being visited by the ghost of his father Montferrers, the Soldier assures the young man that he must have been dreaming, but the apparition then reenters to insist Charlemont return home, and the Soldier shoots at it before taking flight.


Like the Scholar and the Seafarer, the Soldier comes to the Neapolitan court to entertain the King in Dekker's If It Be Not Good. Offering to tell tales of war, he also challenges the courtiers to defeat his fellow soldiers in a military exercise. He is mocked by the courtiers and the King and sent away. The Soldier joins the Duke of Calabria when he attacks Naples.


A Vandal soldier in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier reports Eugenius's miraculous curing of the blind man to Bellizarius.


A soldier is sent by Leontius in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant to inform Antigonus of Demetrius's grief over losing his men in battle. Also, a soldier of the opposing camp informs the kings Seleucus, Ptolomie, and Lysimachus, of the strange behavior of the Lieutenant.


One of the Governor's men in Fletcher's The Island Princess. He reports that the Guard saw Armusia's men and boat ready to escape with the king, but it all happened so fast, they were powerless to stop them.


Brother of Shamont in Fletcher and Middleton's The Nice Valour, the 'Souldier' provides a contrasting portrait of honorable behavior. After insulting his brother by inadvertently courting Shamont's lover, the Duke's sister, the Souldier is himself insulted by the Passionate Lord's imitation of the Souldier's wooing. Taking seriously the Passionate Lord's challenge, issued while the latter is in his love fit, the Souldier plots vengeance. Meanwhile, Shamont challenges him to a fight, but they are interrupted by the arrival of the Duke. After Lapet's masque, in which dancers interpret the blows illustrated in Lapet's book and table, the Souldier enters and stabs the Passionate Lord, who appears to die. Shamont is forced to return from his self-imposed exile to ask the Duke to pardon his brother. The Duke grants the pardon to satisfy Shamont's insulted honor, and orders the Souldier to be released from prison. The release has already happened, however, because the Passionate Lord recovered from his wounds. The repentant Souldier begs the Duke for his favor, which the Duke grants.


A disguise adopted by Musophilus in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools in order to try Cremulus's charity to strangers. To demonstrate how he once decimated a whole army by blowing his nose, the "soldier" takes Cremulus by the nose and pulls off the old man's spectacles, declaring that he has now made the whole world vanish.


A suitor of Lady Honour in Shirley's Contention for Honor and Riches. The Soldier's competition for Honour's affections is the Courtier. The two decide they must fight for Honour; as they begin, No-Pay enters and effectively ruins the Soldier's appetite for fighting.


Thrusting past the dismissive Stroza to deliver his message in Heywood's A Maidenhead Well Lost, this soldier reports the great victory of the Millainese at Naples, but also the death of the broken-hearted General Sforsa.


A Yorkshire native recently returned from the Russo-Polish war in Heywood and Brome's The Late Lancashire Witches, the Soldier is passing through Lancashire on his way home when he encounters Master Generous. Poor and hungry, he asks Master Generous if he may work to earn food and shelter. It is a propitious moment because Miller Greety comes to inform Master Generous, his landlord, that he is giving up the mill. Previously a miller by trade, the Soldier asks if he may take over the mill, undeterred by the miller's tale of being repeatedly attacked by supernaturally large cats. The Soldier does not appear again until much later in the play, when the witches and their familiars attack him. Stouthearted, he defends himself and wounds one of the invisible spirits. When he reports the attack to Master Generous and Master Arthur, they note his bloody sword and find a human hand. Generous recognizes the hand as belonging to his wife, the "cat" that the Soldier wounded being the transformed Mrs. Generous. The Soldier accompanies Generous when he confronts his wife, and is pressed by Generous to take Mall Spencer, his wife's companion and fellow witch, into custody. He is also among those who confront the arrested witches in the final scene.


A soldier in Nabbes' Hannibal and Scipio who is wooed by a lady in the play's first act, as Maharball and Himulco watch. He resists the lady's charms at first, but eventually agrees to go with her as long as she will let him be with other women. The soldier's seduction presages Hannibal's eventual seduction and downfall. Played in the original production by George Stutfield, who doubled as Bostar.


A soldier on the King's side in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. The Souldier informs the General, Guimantes, that "the enemie appears upon the rock" and "tumbles down great stones" which "hath put the Campe in great disorder." Furthermore, he volunteers for the duty of "dispatch[ing] that wretch," Cleanthes, who has surprised the King's army.

SOLDIER **1636

A mute character in Killigrew’s Claricilla. Melintus must kill a soldier in the woods while escaping from the duel. He gives the soldier’s sword to Philemon to fight Tullius.


A soldier in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot helps Bruce to disguise him as he prepares to leave the English camp for Wallace.


One of the soldiers (number unspecified) in Brome's Love-Sick Court. He accompanies Stratocles when he captures Eudyna and thanks him for his money before they depart.

SOLDIER **1639

The Soldier in Shirley's The Politician bears letters forged by Gotharius. The letters are supposedly from Turgesius and speak of rebellion; they also speak of disdain for Marpisa.


One or more Aragonese soldiers (it is unclear if the same character is meant each time) make minor comments at various points in the action in Habington's The Queen of Aragon.


Also Beggar 3 in Brome's A Jovial Crew, the soldier is a decayed soldier who has become a beggar and joined the crew of beggars staying on Oldrents' estate. He is to play Army in the aborted masque following the beggars' wedding and plays Hearty in the inset play before Oldrents.


A bloody soldier informs Raymond in Rawlins's The Rebellion that the Spanish forces have re-grouped and have taken the momentum in battle.


After Enobarbas has deserted Antony for Caesar in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra, the Soldier tells him that Antony has sent all his treasure after him, with more besides.


One of Crasy's disguises in Brome's The City Wit. Crasy, disguised as a crippled soldier, robs Sarpego, the schoolmaster who owes him money.


In the skirmish at Orewin Bridge in Peele's Edward I, Lluellen is killed by English troops. The First English Soldier orders the corpse to be buried, but he takes the head to present to Mortimer. Later, when Mortimer gives the head to Edward, the king promises a reward to this soldier.


At the conclusion of II.i of Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, when Orleans is readily taken, the soldier gloats that he has "loaden me with many spoils" with no other weapon that crying the name "Talbot" at the French.


Soldier represents the common military man in Shirley's The Young Admiral who feels that promise of future reward is small remuneration or comfort for the soldier without noble rank.


Two soldiers struggle over a reward in the anonymous Locrine:
  1. The First Soldier is from Locrine's army and finds Elstrid after the battle. He brings her to Locrine, who then falls in love with Elstrid.
  2. The Second Soldier claims to be the one who found her.
They fight for their prize, and Locrine has them both put to jail.


Two soldiers in Prince Philip's army in the anonymous Lust's Dominion. They are not prepared to fight any longer and so hasten Philip's failure and arrest.


Soldiers in Shakespeare's All's Well who aid the Second Lord in abducting Parolles. Since the men are posing as enemy soldiers, and pretend to be unable to speak Parolles' language, the First Soldier pretends to be an interpreter.


The First Soldier, an old acquaintance of the Captain's in Middleton's The Phoenix, has been sure the Captain would never wed and is quite glad that his own wench provides for his upkeep instead of vice versa-and all without the "benefit" of marriage. The unnamed Second Soldier, also a friend of the Captain's, regales his friend with the tale of recently having taken three ships at sea.


The First Soldier helps to carry the wounded Mark-Antonio to a house in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. He wishes Mark-Antonio good health, and then complains that there are no good duelists left in the city. When the Second Soldier points out that Old Ignatio still lives, the First Soldier agrees but points out that there are none left who specialize in piercing the heart or disemboweling a man.


Two soldiers figure in Goffe's The Courageous Turk:
  • As the Bulgarians and Servians prepare to face the Turks, the drunken First Soldier insults and then fights with the Second Soldier (the corporal). When the two are parted by Lazarus and Sesmenos, the First Soldier suggests settling the issue by proxy and having their respective "laundresses" (the First and Second Trulls) fight one another.
  • The Second Soldier, referred to as a corporal, is insulted by the drunken First Soldier and fights with him until they are parted by the commanders Lazarus and Sesmenos. When his antagonist suggests settling their dispute by having their camp followers (the First and Second Trulls) fight one another, the Second Soldier calls the women and orders them to "scratch" at each other.


Belonging to the camp of Virginius in John Webster's Appius and Virginia,
  1. The First Soldier complains of starvation and being fed only upon promises.
  2. The unnamed Second Soldier in the Roman encampment complains about the lack of food supplies in the camp, trading complaints with the First Soldier.


Two soldiers have more central roles in the anonymous Dick of Devonshire.
  • The First is an English man-at-arms and reports the capture of the fort of Cadiz and of its commander.
  • The Second is a comic character who prefers eating and especially drinking to fighting.


The First and Second Soldiers threaten to kill Petruccio in Brome's The Queen and Concubine for the supposed murder of Sforza, but Petruccio informs them that Sforza is not dead. Disbelieving, they arrest him for treason and bring him before the King.


The two "Souldiers" are ordered by the King to seize Adrastus in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Despite the fact that Adrastus suspects them of "com[ing] to murther [him]" and attempts to bribe them "from [their] Duty," the two soldiers present the warrant "seal'd by the Kings command" and Adrastus agrees to go with them.


Two soldiers figure in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland:
  • The First, enjoying the profits of war, wishes that Patrick's band was nearby, so that he could capture yet more Christians and accept the financial rewards. He seeks to ravish Emeria as soon as he sees her, but it stopped by the antics of the invisible Rodamant, who makes him and his colleague fight each other.
  • The Second wishes that his family was a Christian one–so that he could capture them for a reward from the pagan King's regime. Like the First Soldier, he seeks to ravish Emeria, but is rendered foolish by the tricks of the invisible Rodamant.


Three soldiers figure in the anonymous Weakest Goeth to the Wall. When Epernon vehemently rejects Hernando's demand that he hand over the French crown and offers, old as he is, to fight Hernando in single combat, a soldier reminds him that he is too old and weak to win such a contest. When Mercury approaches ready to assassinate the general, the same soldier prevents Mercury from getting close. In the same scene a second soldier discovers a poniard in Mercury's hand, the weapon Mercury had planned to use to assassinate Epernon. Another soldier announces that the Spaniards have been defeated and that the lost Duke Lodowick had challenged the Hernando, Duke of Medina, to single combat and killed him. Don Ugo is also dead. The soldier then announces that a Duke, unknown to him but known to Lodowick, also joined in the battle on Lodowick's side.


Three soldiers guard the princess Elizabeth in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me.
  1. Because the First Soldier cannot make direct reference to matters of state, he instead offers that neither of his own sisters would ever imprison the other.
  2. The Second Solider urges his fellow guards to beware of talking about the princess.
  3. The Third Soldier plans to spend the night drinking and talking of friends instead of discussing matters of state.


Three lame soldiers meet Septimus after he has received his reward for killing Pompey in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. The First Soldier states that they are forgotten by Caesar. When Septimus gives them money, the First Soldier says he is sent by the gods, and asks his name so that they can worship him. When he finds out from Scaeva who it is, the First Soldier throws the money back, saying he wished it was heavy enough to kill Septimus and that not even a hangman or a thief would take his money. After Septimus has repented, the soldiers enter again, talking about the dramatic change. The First Soldier reveals that Septimus' parents hated him, especially his mother, because of a prophetic dream she had while pregnant. When Septimus enters, all three soldiers are moved to tears by his repentant speeches and agree to pray for his soul. After Septimus returns to his old ways and is then captured by Caesar, the First Soldier takes off his belt to hang Septimus (as ordered by Caesar), and scornfully rejects Septimus' last attempt to bribe his way to freedom, saying he deserves a much worse death than just hanging. The Second Soldier says the belt is too good for such a task as hanging. When the Second Soldier states that Septimus would make an excellent speech at the gallows, the Third Soldier comments that he should be hung just for their edification. The Third Soldier does not return for the scene where Septimus is captured and taken off to be hanged.


The Soldiers in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra, as a group, greet Antony before the first battle, but they also are standing watch when they hear music in the air. The Second Soldier identifies it as the music of Hercules, a god beloved by Antony. The Third Soldier responds negatively to the Fourth Soldier's concern about whether or not the music bodes well. All four are amazed and follow the music off stage.


There are four soldiers in Fletcher's The Knight of Malta.
  • The First Soldier is one of those who fought with Norandine. He tries to get Norandine to allow the Surgeon to dress his wounds, but Norandine refuses until the treasure is shared out. He exits with the others and brings in all the treasure, and then, once that is shared out, asks what should be done with Lucinda. When Norandine tells the Soldiers to decide, the First Soldier asks if he can have her.
  • The Second Soldier is one of Norandine's fighters. He identifies part of the treasure as English cloth, and then begins a fight with the Third Soldier over Lucinda.
  • The Third Soldier claims that he deserves part of the treasure because he was at the fight, but Norandine calls him a coward who looked for a place to hide, and refuses him a share. When Norandine tells them to take away Lucinda, the Third Soldier offers to marry her and convert her. He then begins to fight with the Second Soldier over her.
  • The Fourth Soldier offers to marry Lucinda after Norandine tells the Soldiers to decide amongst themselves what to do with her.


A disguise adopted by Farneze, cousin to Gonzaga in Massinger's The Bashful Lover. He takes the disguise as a Florentine soldier in order to look for Prince Uberti, from whom he has been separated. He finds the prince has been captured and gives up his disguise so that the prince may use it and thus escape. Uberti is then disguised as the Florentine Soldier.


When Pistol captures a French soldier at the battle of Agincourt in Shakespeare's Henry V, Pistol's questions and the soldier's pleas for mercy work at cross purposes until the Boy arrives to serve as their translator. The Boy is able to explain that the soldier's name is Monsieur Le Fer, and eventually a ransom agreement is reached. Later, Henry orders his soldiers to kill their prisoners, so Pistol loses the ransom and Monsieur Le Fer loses his life.


Another name for the Third Suiter in the anonymous The Contention Between Liberalitie and Prodigalitie. He has lost his leg in the Queen's wars. He served in France, Flanders and Ireland under Captain Wel-Don. He is recompensed by Liberalitie.


Having been victimised by the Broker's usury in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom, the Lame Soldier appears at the court of Iacomo Gentili and accuses the Broker of his corrupt dealings and insatiable greed, which have ruined not only the soldier and his family, but other too. The Lame Soldier receives the hundred pounds Iacomo had first bestowed on the Broker, in recompense for his troubles and as a punishment for his usurious creditor.


The unnamed Maimed Soldier is another of Gorgon's disguises in Shirley's The School of Compliment. With closed eyes, he tries to borrow money of Gasparo.


A “ghost character" in Mayne’s Amorous War. Though he has but one leg, he pays double to lie with the suburb mistress who also lies with Pistoclerus.


After Marius has taken Rome in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War, a Soldier finds Cornelia and Fulvia and brings them to Marius.


Disguise Lysander assumes in Chapman's The Widow's Tears in order to test Cynthia with food, drink and, eventually, himself. Lysander really does, however, assume the duties associated with the disguise, to guard the funereal monuments and prevent the removal for burial of the bodies of crucified criminals. The "soldier" succeeds in his temptation of Cynthia but fails to guard the crucified bodies, one of which his brother Tharsalio removes but later restores when he discovers the true identity of the "soldier."


The first disguise that Mumford takes on in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green. While so disguised he is given a diamond by Bess and sees Sir Robert offer his daughter to Young Plainsey, despite the latter's engagement to Bess.


Gelosso disguises himself as an old soldier in Marston's Sophonisba to warn Massinissa that Gisco has been sent to poison him and advise him to ally with Scipio.


During the battle between Young Marius and Scilla's followers, Young Marius retreats from the fight with some soldiers in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. One questions why he has left the breach and receives the answer that Young Marius is studying how to die with honor.


After Lluellen coerces Edward into returning Elinor de Montfort to him in Peele's Edward I, the Welsh prince demands pardon for his men. When Edward asks if all the Welsh will be loyal thereafter, the soldiers shout that they will upon certain conditions, which are then enunciated by the First Welsh Soldier:
  • pardons for all;
  • Edward's assurance of their safety;
  • the speedy return of Elinor de Montfort to Lluellen; and
  • the king's promise that the Prince of Wales will always be a native-born Welshman.


Members of Horestes's army in Pickering's Horestes; they tell Idumeus they will follow his advice.


Mute characters in ?Munday's Fedele and Fortunio.


Soldiers under Ferrex and Porrex in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appear in the first playlet.


Two soldiers have significant action in Peele's David and Bethsabe.
  • The unnamed Soldier arrives with Joab at the place where Absalon is hanging in the oak. Joab asks why he has not killed the traitor, to which the Soldier replies that everyone knows of David's order that his erring son not be harmed. To this, the Soldier adds that had he done what Joab is suggesting, the nephew of David would then have surely charged him as a murderer to avoid falling out of favor with the king.
  • After Joab stabs the hanging Absalon, several soldiers enter, and the First Soldier suggests stabbing the bleeding man to death (which they do) and burying the corpse in the wood under a pile of stones. Joab then reenters and ratifies this action.


Four Soldiers enter in Dumb Show Four of Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur, attack the courtly Lady, take her "child" (represented by a doll), and fling it against a wall. They then attack the King who is walking about the stage, throw his crown on the stage, and drag him away. This betokens the ultimate failure of Mordred to steal Arthur's throne.


Four otherwise undifferentiated soldiers figure in the action of Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War.
  • After the first battle between Marius and Scilla in Lodge's, Scilla approaches several soldiers and asks that they listen to him. One Soldier speaks. He agrees that they should listen, and, after Scilla is done, is won over by his words and declares that they should all fight to revenge the wrongs done to Scilla.
  • The other three act in concert:
    1. The First Soldier is one of the three sent to find and kill Anthony. He is the most practical of the three, directly questioning the Clown as to Anthony's whereabouts, and ordering the others to kill Anthony immediately when he enters. However, he is won over by Anthony's oration, finding himself forced to pity. When the Captain kills Anthony, the First Soldier claims that Anthony contained all the Muses and that the bees that brought honey to Homer's lips also did so for Anthony.
    2. The Second Soldier is one of the three sent to find and kill Anthony. He questions the Clown about his master and suggests following him to Anthony. When Anthony is discovered, the Second Solider announces that he has been sentenced to death and to prepare himself quickly. When Anthony speaks, however, the Second Solider find that his rage is softened, and after the Captain kills Anthony, he mourns the loss of one who was gifted by the Graces and Apollo.
    3. The Third Soldier is one of the three sent to find and kill Anthony. He is the most amused by the Clown's drunkenness and tries to find out the whereabouts of Anthony by singing along with the Clown and offering him more wine. He is so impressed by Anthony's words that he feels his soul has been drawn out of him by the speech, but he does not verbally mourn Anthony when the Captain kills him.


Soldiers of Theridamas and Techelles in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2. Outside Balsera in Soria, the soldiers express their zeal at besieging the stronghold and treasury of Soria. After the battle at Aleppo, soldiers are ordered to carry the slain Calyphas away. They are later given the Turkish concubines and their jewels to divide among themselves.


The Soldiers of the Calais garrison in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock, on the orders of Lapoole, shoot the two Murderers who have just killed Woodstock.


Non-speaking characters in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. The Soldiers, led by Frederick, join the ambush of Faustus organized by Benvolio. They arrive late, attack Faustus, and are driven out by devils summoned by Faustus.


Soldiers are seen capturing Gaveston shortly before he is murdered in Marlowe's Edward II. Later they seize Kent when he endeavors to visit his brother, the deposed Edward II. The soldiers take Kent to Mortimer, and one of them reports that Kent tried to free the imprisoned former king. This report leads Mortimer to question Kent and then to have him executed.


An unspecified number of soldiers fight at Philippi in the anonymous Caesar and Pompey.


In places spelled SOLIERS. Appear in scenes 5 and 16 of the Anonymous plot of Frederick and Basilea, played by Thomas Hunt and Black Dick (Jones), two actors who played minor roles.


A Soldier in the anonymous Trial Of Chivalry who speaks to Bowyer concerning watch duty is identified later in the scene as Rafe Nod.


Soldiers who aid the Second Lord in abducting Parolles in Shakespeare's All's Well. They speak gibberish to convince Parolles that they are enemies speaking a foreign tongue.


They deliver the disguised Macros to the Jailor and his wife in Verney’s Antipoe. A great number of other soldiers appear simply to be slaughtered in a number of set pieces demonstrating the skill of Antipoe and his four friends, Dabon, Liperus, Macros, and Sabos.


Mute characters in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany, six soldiers take part in the killing of the Palsgrave.


At least two soldiers besides the Sergeant, William Hamerton, and George Greengoose accompany Rafe in his Mile End muster in The Grocer's Honour portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. They further the bawdy banter of the sequence. The First wants a "nose" for his powder, and the Second a "stone" for his piece (firearm).


Various soldiers in Brewer's The Lovesick King fail to respond to Ethelred's rallying cry at the opening of the play; another frees Alured when Elgina requests it of Erkinwald.


Several unnamed soldiers, who may be the same as the Janissaries in Goffe's Raging Turk, accompany Achomates to fight against the emperor. They reappear after the nocturnal bloodbath has carried off Selymus, Achomates, and the bassas; their intent to restore Baiazet is frustrated by his death, and at the end they join in swearing fealty to Solyman, fanning his latent ambitions into flame.


Five soldiers are given speaking parts in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject.
  • One Soldier represents the voice of Archas's army. Seeing that the victorious general Archas and his army are not given due honors, the Soldier speaks up. He demands, in the name of the army, that the general be offered a full triumph.
  • The First Soldier is part of the Duke's army and loyal to the former general Archas. When Archas takes his farewell to arms, he shakes hands with his soldiers. When the Ancient foresees that this is just the beginning of the misfortunes, the First Soldier agrees and curses the Duke for his malice. The First Soldier asks Captain Putskie what they should do after Archas's retirement. He says he could retire as well and go back to his old job as a shoemaker, but the Ancient tells him he is still needed to fight. When the Second Post brings news that the Tartars are at the borders, the First Soldier directs him to the Duke. Later, dismissed from the army and having no other means of subsistence, the First Soldier becomes a peddler. When Boroskie wants to know why he and his fellow soldiers are performing such menial jobs, the First Soldier tells him ironically that he mends cracked maidenheads for Boroskie's fictional loose daughters.
  • The Second Soldier is part of the former general's army. When Archas takes his farewell to arms, he shakes hands with the soldiers. After Archas's departure, the Second Soldier is of the same opinion as the Ancient that the Duke has behaved ungratefully towards Archas. When the Ancient advises the faithful soldiers to refrain from fighting under the new general, the Second Soldier relishes the thought of the Tartars burning Moscow unless they intervene. Dismissed from the army and having no other means of subsistence, the Second Soldier sells potatoes. When Boroskie asks the soldiers why they are performing such menial jobs, the Second Soldier offers Boroskie a potato ironically. According to the Second Soldier, it may increase the old courtier's sexual prowess.
  • Dismissed from the army without pay and having no other means of subsistence, the Third Soldier is a peddler. When Boroskie asks him what he is selling, the Third Soldier answers ironically that he sells honesty to his Lordship, adding it will be worth his money. The Soldier alludes to Boroskie being in need of honesty and to the pecuniary importance he attached to it.
  • Dismissed from the army and having no other means of subsistence, the Fourth Soldier is a peddler. The Fourth Soldier sings the mocking song about the peddler who exchanges cracked maidenheads for new. The allusion is to Boroskie's tarnished virtue.
  • Another group of Soldiers are "mute characters." When Archas takes his farewell to arms, he shakes hands with his "honest" soldiers. When the Ancient and Putskie suggest that they should refuse to fight under the new general Boroskie, the soldiers cheer in agreement.


The soldiers in ?Ford's The Laws of Candy support Cassilane and Antinous in their respective bids for recognition as champion; Antinous sends all of the soldiers to stand by their general, Cassilane, while Antinous speaks. They act as a chorus to support claims brought by Cassilane and Antinous. They also bring in Fernando as a captive.


The soldiers in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage, of whom there are "as many as may be," assist Sesse with his effort to overthrow the tyrant Ferrand and guard Martia and Ascanio after their capture.


Guards of Belvidere's tower in Fletcher's Women Pleased.


During the dumb show in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess, Persian soldiers conspire with Delphia who uses her magic rod to enable the soldiers to rescue their princess Cassana and capture Aurelia, Charinus, and Maximinian. Delphia raises a mist to allow the soldiers and their captives to escape from Rome. During the battle between Rome and Persia, Geta and two Roman guards defeat three Persian soldiers. Two Roman soldiers accompany Maximinian when he comes to kill Diocles, but the thunder and lightning Delphia sends causes an earthquake that prevents the soldiers from moving.


Soldiers of Caesar's and Cassibelane's army in Fisher's Fuimus Troes.


Many non-speaking English soldiers appear in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker and fight in the English army at the Battle of Leith.


Three nameless English men-at-arms encountered by Pike when he comes ashore in the anonymous Dick of Devonshire; they share with him their booty of Spanish fruit, assuring him that all the Spaniards have fled; all three are killed by Spanish reinforcements while enjoying the fruit.


An unspecified number of soldiers attend of Nero until dismissed by Agrippina in May's Julia Agrippina.


There are a number of soldiers on stage in Davenant's The Siege. One soldier of Pisa calls on Foscari to confer with the senate.


At the beginning of Wilson's The Swisser, four soldiers are running away from the enemy.


Four unnamed Soldiers in Glapthorne's Albertus Wallenstein are engaged by Lesle to shoot Wallenstein's allies, Tertzki, Kintzki, Illawe and Newman, to clear the way for the assassination of the Duke.


There are a number of soldiers that figure in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy.
  • A group of six soldiers: They represent the unrest in the usurper’s army, undermined by rebels who spread rumors in the ranks of their hopeless fight. Hearing the rumor that both the usurper and his prince are dead, six soldiers go to the tent of Poliander, Menetius, and Comastes with a view towards slaying them and joining the rebels. The sight of their captains discourages their action, but they are caught and confess their intentions.
  • Another group of rebel soldiers burst into Eudora’s chamber with their captain and Pallantus. They are mute characters and Pallantus orders them out along with the captain.


Several soldiers figure in Killigrew’s The Prisoners.
  • Mute characters. Three soldiers accompany Philon as he attempts to divert Gillippus from pursuing Lysimella.
  • Mute characters. Several of Gillippus’ soldiers follow him in pursuit of Lysimella.
  • Another soldier informs the king that Gillippus is still alive and has taken Leucanthe to his galley.


They serve under Terresius, lieutenant, and Tullius in Killigrew’s The Princess. Two argue with the lieutenant after capturing Sophia because they wish to keep her. Three others have beaten the two in punishment. Other soldiers bring in the captive Roman soldiers. When Nigro and the viceroy fall, soldiers along with Crabb capture Cicilia. They wish to ravish her but, fearing the wrath of the lieutenant and Terresius, decide instead to sell her in Naples. When Virgilius tries to redeem Cicilia from them, their Corporal falls, but they chase Virgilius away and deliver Cicilia to Bragadine. Their mischief is discovered afterwards, and Terresius condemns them to be hanged. The lieutenant offers them freedom if they mutiny and support Cilius, which they accept. They come upon the shipwrecked Facertes, Cicilia, and Paulina and capture them. Upon learning that they have captured Facertes and Cicilia, they become their soldiers to command.


The first soldier is a Janisarie in Carlell’s Osmond, and he and a second fight over who shall rape Despina whom they have captured in the battle. Osmond kills them to save Despina for Melcosbus. Later, other soldiers appear with the captains to plan their overthrow of the “lazy" king. They eavesdrop and overhear Malcosbus refuse Calibeus’ plea for mercy, and afterwards they convince the old man to join their cause. When the king slays Dispina before his men, they agree she was worth all the king had said she was. When Osmond discovers Dispina’s body, they have to convince him that it was Melcosbus that slew her.


Group of soldiers in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers. They talk to Clindor in Act Five about what should be done to Agenor. They do not want to free the prince, which brings them into conflict.


Group of soldiers in Carlell's 2 Passionate Lovers that belong to the Prince of Aquitain's fleet and that help Cleon and the Prince of Aquitain to kidnap Clorinda and Olinda in Act Three. They fight Clindor and Clarimant while the treacherous princes escape.


In Act One of T.D.'s The Bloody Banquet, they seek to rape the stricken Queen of Lydia; they show cowardice when they are both chased off by Lapyrus.


Two soldiers in Dekker's(?) Telltale enter with the disguised Julio and Duchess to the Captain, Lieutenant, Ancient, and disguised Duke, arguing over who will have first use of the Duchess as camp prostitute. Their scheme is overturned by the Captain, who insists that the Duchess be treated civilly and that she work as his cook and laundress.


Three Dutch Soldiers figure in the anonymous A Larum for London.
  • The First Dutch Soldier confers about the best way to escape. After hearing Stump's arguments, he joins final battle.
  • The Second Dutch Soldier says that the town's exits are well guarded. After hearing Stump's arguments, he also joins the final battle.
  • The Third Dutch Soldier says that the three soldiers are in danger just being together. After hearing Stump's arguments, he also joins final battle.


Four soldiers accompany the Tyrant to the vault in [?]Middleton's The Second Maiden's Tragedy. Despite their misgivings, they help him exhume the body from its tomb. They carry the dressed-up corpse into the throne room. The Soldiers seem to be the Tyrant's only supporters once the Nobles have drifted away.


Four disbanded soldiers in Fletcher and Massinger's Thierry and Theodoret. They turn to banditry with De Vitry. He first challenges them to a contest of wits in winning his last remaining coin. The first defends the money from the persuasion of the second, the flattery of the third and the (Welsh) blandishments of the fourth. De Vitry outwits them all, by taking back the money by force. They agree to follow him as outlaws. Their first victim is Protaldy.


Four beggars in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. They hope to find more charity in the poor Musophilus than in all the court. They tell him impossible stories of their heroism. In return, Musophilus sends them to dine at Duke Humphrey's–the crypt at St. Paul's where beggars gathered: the phrase "to dine at Duke Humphrey's" meant to go hungry. Musophilus calls them "frenchified" because of their outrageous lying.


The soldiers of the Empress of Babylon in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon march across the stage on their way to fill the fleet of the Third King and to swell the attack on Fairyland. The Second King calls the sound of their drums the "music of heaven."


Three Babylonian soldiers kill Doron and threaten Justina with rape in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer, but they are beaten by Miranda, and called off by Clitophon. Later, two Babylonian soldiers (perhaps different ones) take Justina to the river to be drowned, but they are washed away by a freak tide raised by Cyprian. These two are dragged from the stage by two "Tritons" representing the flood. When Clitophon leaves Babylon, other Soldiers desert the Caliph and join him.


Many soldiers of Fairyland in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon follow Truth, Plain Dealing, Florimell and other Fairy leaders in the battle against the Armada; they are present to greet Titania when she arrives at Beria.


When Scilla enters in triumph after taking Rome in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War, he designates Lucullus the general. The Soldiers cheer this appointment.


The Soldiers who travel with Young Marius in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War pledge their lives to Marius when he promises to return to Rome.


Otherwise unnamed masquers performing in honour of Titus's Triumph in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. They appear as Time, Piety, Temperance, Chastity, Friendship, Constancy and Patience. Their masque underlines the royal virtues of Titus and incites him to judgement of the prisoners-of-war.


They were captured with Sophia at Baio in Killigrew’s The Princess. They may be the same characters referred to as “boys" in other parts of the text. They are led out with Sophia in act v to be taken to the slave market in Naples.


Various characters labeled soldiers appear throughout the anonymous A Larum for London; three numbered soldiers who are given lines may be the same or different characters at each entrance.
  • The First and Second Spanish Soldiers search for Lady Champaigne. They aid Sancto Danila in threatening Old Citizen. They attack the children (Lenchy and Martin) and kill them, their mother, and father. They tie up the Fat Burger by his thumbs near the end of the play to make him reveal his fortune.
  • The Third Spanish Soldier announces that Danila needs to return to the fight because the one-legged soldier (Stump) is attacking the Spanish forces.


During Pike's trial by combat in the anonymous Dick of Devonshire, three experienced Spanish soldiers armed with sword and dagger assail him; armed only with a quarterstaff he kills one of them and disarms the other two.


"Three or four tattered soldiers" governed by Bolt interrogate Wallace, Mountford and Glascot at the gates of the English camp in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot.


Capture Bacon and his servant Perce in ?Greene and Chettle's John of Bordeaux.

These two unnamed soldiers apprehend Don Antonio at the Battle of Alcazar while disguised as a priest in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. After he pleads for mercy, they spare his life, but sell the Spanish nobleman into slavery.


They search for the disguised Lysander after one of the crucified bodies has disappeared in Chapman's The Widow's Tears. They discuss the rigor of the law that seeks to punish the dead bodies of criminals.


They enforce the King's order against public gatherings in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle.


Corporal Judas commands four starving soldiers who accompany him on his missions in Fletcher's Bonduca. They try to steal from the Britons, but are caught, and are only saved from execution by the intervention of Caratach. When they try to capture young Hengo, Caratach fights them and beheads one of them.


Penius's soldiers are disgusted with his pessimism before the battle with Britons in Fletcher's Bonduca. They march into battle despite his order to stay put. After winning the battle, they demand his death, but Penius has already killed himself. They accompany his body to the camp.


Justice of the Peace and uncle to Lady Loveright in Davenant's News From Plymouth. He is characterized by his loquaciousness and habit of finishing other people's sentences, often contrary to the intent of the original speaker. He is tricked by Seawit into preparing to both plead and judge the comparative worthiness of the nine worthies in the belief that Carrack's guests will later hear the result of his efforts. Topsail invites him to present the trial to a group of sailors instead. Once all the sailors have fallen asleep listening to him, he becomes angry and drinks himself to sleep. Once he has recovered, he begins his regular practice of disseminating fallacious news. Among the news, he includes a report that his niece has agreed to marry Topsail. He is confident that she will do so rather than diminish his credit by proving his story false. When this assumption proves false, Topsail promises to ruin Trifles credit. Additionally, Topsail stages a scene in which the disguised Porter threatens to arrest Trifle for spreading false news. As a result, Trifle is forced to flee the country.


The Solicitor in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen arrives before Undermine with Sir Wittworth and three creditors, to ask him to pay what he owes them.


Wife of Mustaffa and Bajazet's daughter in ?Greene's Selimus I. After Selimus leaves Mustaffa in charge of Byzantium, Solima enters to Mustaffa and pleads with him to flee, but Mustaffa tells her not to fear. Hali brings Mustaffa and Solima before Selimus, where Mustaffa's betrayal of Selimus comes to light. Solima asks Selimus to spare Mustaffa and accuses him of cruelty when he refuses. Selimus orders Sinam to strangle her.


See also SALOMON, SOLYMAN, SOLOMON, and related spellings.


The Sultan of Turkey is the part played by by Balthazar in Hieronimo's play-within-the-play in the final act of Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy.


Emperor of the Turks in Kyd's Soliman and Perseda. As he awaits the return of his general, Brusor, from Rhodes, he plots how he might take that kingdom. One of his brothers, Amurath, supports his plan, while the other, Haleb, raises questions about it. When Amurath kills Haleb in a rage, Soliman kills Amurath, then mourns both brothers. When Brusor returns from Rhodes, he asks him about its defenses and explains his plan of conquest. When Erastus appears seeking asylum, Soliman invites him to join his army and challenges him to a fight. Erastus defeats him in the challenge and impresses the emperor. Soliman agrees that Erastus need not fight in the war against Rhodes. He sends Brusor to lead this assault. When Brusor returns victorious, he brings Perseda and Lucina with him as prisoners. Soliman gives Lucina to Brusor, but wants Perseda for his own. When she refuses him, he vows to kill her but is unable to do so and agrees instead to let her live as a Christian virgin. When his "other best beloved"—Erastus—enters, he learns that the two are lovers and approves their marriage. He appoints Erastus Governor of Rhodes. When Brusor proposes a plan that will eliminate Erastus and give Perseda to the emperor, he agrees to it. Despite his proclaimed love for Erastus, he orders his arrest on false charges of high treason. When Erastus is executed, he is so dismayed that he executes the two Janissaries that strangled him, has the witnesses thrown off the tower, and kills the Lord Marshall. He then sails to Rhodes to claim Perseda. Challenged to single combat by an unnamed defender of Rhodes, he agrees and wins the combat, only to discover that it is a disguised Perseda that he has slain. He then kills Basilisco and Piston, and sends Brusor to his death for causing the deaths of Erastus and Perseda. As he lies beside her to contemplate Perseda's beauty, he discovers a note that reveals that he has been poisoned by the kiss she allowed him to give her as she died. He dies.


A "ghost character" in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. Under his colors Amurath served in the field. Sultan Solimon is the father of Amurath.


Solinus is a citizen of Athens in Lyly's Campaspe.


Solinus is the Duke of Ephesus in Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors. He explains to Egeon the no-trade edict between Ephesus and Syracuse but stays Egeon's execution. The Duke is present at the play's conclusion when Egeon's predicament is resolved through the reunion of the twin Antipholus characters, the twin Dromios, and Egeon with his wife Aemilia.


The uncle of Bellamia and Jacinta in Shirley's The Example, Sir Plot is obsessively concerned with conspiracies, subterfuge, and the prevention of any possible ill. He and his wife use separate sleeping quarters, and Sir Plot seems quite content with their apparently fairly open marriage. In keeping with his extremely cautious nature, Sir Plot warns his niece Bellamia to be careful around fine lords while her husband is away.


See also SALOMON, SOLIMAN, SOLYMAN and related spellings.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. God mentions that Solomon, the son of David, will complete the building of the temple, as a sign of God's love and the coming of Christ.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Nice Wanton. The Messenger cites Solomon's advice not to spare the rod with children.
Only mentioned in Fletcher's The Knight of Malta. When Mountferrat believes that Oriana has accepted his suit, he makes an extended comparison between himself and Solomon with all his wives and concubines, and proclaims that he is luckier than Solomon.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. In an attempt to convince the skeptical Surly of the benefits of alchemy, Mammon claims that Solomon wrote treatises of alchemy. Fifteenth-century manuscripts exist of an alchemical treatise attributed to Solomon. Mammon believes that Solomon had the Philosopher's Stone.


Solomon is Littlewit's servant and a "mute character" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. When his master wants to go to the Fair with his wife, accompanied by Dame Purecraft and Busy, Solomon brings their coats. Littlewit says that Solomon is to join them, the more the merrier, but Solomon has no part at the Fair. It is to be inferred that he was either diverted some place in the Fair, or he is a silent companion to the Littlewit party.


Solomon serves Lucina in Shirley's The Ball and delivers the messages that summon Lamount, Bostock, and Travers to the lady and to their ultimate embarrassment over her trickery.


A foolish young gentleman in Brome's The Northern Lass, son and heir to Sir Hercules Nonsense of Cornwall. Young Master Nonsense has been brought to town by Sir Paul Squelch, who intends to marry him to his niece, Constance. His inarticulate attempts at courtship go badly; even when mad with love melancholy Constance is unconvinced by Nonsense's efforts to pass as her beloved Sir Philip. After welcoming guests to Sir Paul's dinner party, Nonsense is so amused by the proceedings that he brushes off his rejection by Constance and declares his intention to "make a Stage play on't, when I come into Cornwall."




A foolish courtier in Denham's The Sophy. He is treated as a sort of jester by Abbas but is savagely tortured when he speaks in defense of Mirza. Aided by drink, he maintains great good humour about this, and at the end the new king, Soffy, promises to reward him for his loyalty.

SOLYMAN **1618

Solyman is Selymus' son in Goffe's Raging Turk; initially deeming himself less worthy than his ambitious father, he is acclaimed at the end as emperor by the soldiers, who vow to protect and sustain him, and he resolves to carry out his father's ambitions by extending Turkish power far into Europe.


Sombody is, with Veryte, the only positive character in the play in the anonymous Somebody, Avarice, and Minister. The fragment opens with Mynister cursing Sombody, and Sombody reproaching Mynister for his ignorance. Then Sombody disappears from the play and, later on, he is just mentioned by Mynister, who admits that Sombody is the only person he can not overcome.


Nobody's nemesis is constantly being blamed for Nobody's misdeeds in the anonymous Nobody and Somebody. In contrast to his sworn enemy, however, Somebody "loves usury and extortion," and, at the king's behest seeks to suspend Nobody's charity by "sowing sedition" throughout the nation and blaming it on Nobody. This attempt at slander is unsuccessful because of Nobody's slippery identity. He catches up to Nobody in London where he engages him in combat; his foe escapes. After pursuing Nobody to court, he enlists the help of the braggart to subdue him. At court, Somebody has Nobody and his clown arrested on the trumped-up charge of gambling and sedition. He brings his prisoner before King Elydure, begging justice "against Nobody." His suit fails when Nobody contends that all the crimes he is accused of must have been committed by somebody since "nobody" cannot act as an intentional agent. He, along with his accomplice, Sycophant, is punished for his crimes. [n.b. Somebody is depicted in a woodcut illustration on the final page of the quarto edition (sig. I3v). He has an elongated body to contrast with the depiction of Nobody (sig. A1r), who is nothing but an exaggerated crotch with arms and a head.]


The [second] Duke of Somerset returns from France in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI to announce that England's French territory has been lost. He dies defending Henry against the Yorkist rebels, slain by the Duke of York's son Richard Plantagenet (who in later plays will become Richard III). Historically, he was Edmund Beaufort, younger brother to John, the Somerset of 1 Henry VI. When he was slain at St. Albans, he became the first noble to die in the War of the Roses. Historically, he was Edmund Beaufort, second duke of Somerset.


The Duke of Somerset supports Edward's claim to the throne in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI, but after Edward's improvident decision to marry Lady Grey he follows Clarence and Warwick in rebelling against Edward. When Warwick and his allies capture Edward, Warwick tells Somerset to convey the erstwhile king to the Archbishop of York. Later, Somerset is captured by Edward's forces after the battle of Tewkesbury and beheaded. Historically, he was another Edmund Beaufort, fourth Duke of Somerset, younger brother of Henry the third duke.


John Beaufort, third Earl and then the first Duke of Somerset in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, is a Lancastrian supporter. Shakespeare imagines a fictitious debate in which the Yorkist and Lancastrian factions choose the symbols of their quarrel, the white and the red roses. Suffolk sides with Somerset and the Lancastrians, plucking a red rose from a nearby bush, while Warwick and Vernon choose a white rose to show their support for Richard Plantagenet's Yorkist side. Henry warns Somerset and Richard Plantagenet that their quarrel risks dividing the English when they should be united against the French.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. One of the English soldiers praised by Arguile for their bravery in mounting the scaling ladders at the siege of Leith.


A country gentleman, friend of Warbeck and suitor of Katherine Carter in Rowley, Dekker and Ford's The Witch of Edmonton. He is arrested on suspicion of assisting in the murder of Susan. He is released when the truth is revealed. When Frank repents on the gallows, Warbeck forgives him, and he and Katherine agree to marry.


A Lancastrian in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI. In Coventry, he reports to Warwick that Clarence and his troops are two hours away.


Family name of Lady Sommerfield, the late Sir John, and Constantia in Barry's Ram Alley.


Lady Sommerfield is the mother of Constantia Sommerfield, the widow of Sir John Sommerfield and the sister of Justice Tutchin in Barry's Ram Alley. She has a house on St John's Street, and comes to town when she finds that her daughter has disappeared. Tutchin tells her that William Smallshanks has kidnapped Constantia, but Lady Sommerfield is then confronted by Throat, who thinks that he has married Constantia and claims to be Lady Sommerfield's new son-in-law. Lady Sommerfield is horrified. She comes to the house of Changeable Taffeta in search of William Smallshanks, accompanied by Tutchin, Throat and Lieutenant Beard. William denies that he has seen Constantia and reveals that the woman Throat has married was the courtesan Francis.


Henry’s fool in Rowley’s When You See Me. He is sent for from Dr. Skelton and enters, booted and spurred and blowing a horn, bringing news. He delivers drolleries concerning the dead pope, Mamet, and King Arthur to Henry’s delight. Later, Sommers tricks Patch into taking a beating from the king to help bring Henry out of his depression after the queen’s death and wins a velvet coat from Compton when he succeeds. He and Patch carouse in Wolsey’s wine cellar while the cardinal is in France and there discover the gold he has hidden in his casks. Will tells Henry what he has found. The play ends with the king first, then the Emperor, and finally Queen Catherine trying Will Sommers’ wit at rhyming, which contest he wins.


In the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis Somnus is the God of Sleep and he has three sons: Morpheus, the eldest, Icelor and Phantafor. Somnus sends Morpheus to carry out the task of appearing in a vision before Ascanio to indicate him how to find his beloved Eurymine. According to mythology, Somnus is the Roman version of Greek Hypnos, the personification of sleep and twin brother of Thanatos (Death). Both brothers lived in the underworld, near the palace of their mother Nyx, goddess of the night.

SOMNUS **1607

The chief enemy to Care in Tomkis’ Lingua. He wears a black mantle of cobweb lawn to his feet over a dusky taffeta coat and a crown of poppy tops. He carries dark silk scarves, a mace of poppy, and leans upon a pillow propped on Crapula’s shoulder. Crapula wishes him to end the fighting between the five senses at the banquet. He puts Visus to sleep then Lingua and next Gustus, Olfactus, Auditus, and finally Tactus. Appetitus returns with Irrascibile and beats Crapula until Somnus puts Appetitus to sleep.


"Son, to George and Anne Sanders" and "Young Sanders" both appear in the list of characters in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women. In the text the former is described as Anne Sanders' "little sonne"; the latter as George Sanders' "yong sonne." Their dialogue and school circumstances are similar, but this boy appears to be younger. At home one day he asks his mother when they would eat, and she replies they would eat when his father returned from the Exchange. He asks for new clothing, and she promises new clothes at Easter. She asks him to see that his sister locked the closet, and he says he will get some fruit at the same time. He leaves when George Browne approaches the house.


A character from the badly deteriorated plot of the anonymous 2 Fortune's Tennis. Because of the state of decay, nothing more can be deduced regarding the character's function in the otherwise lost play.


A part played by Paris in the first inset play of Massinger's The Roman Actor. He performs the part of Iphis in the second. In the climax of the final play, Paris plays a faithless servant who is killed by a jealous husband, played by Domitian.


When Amurath threatens to have his grandchildren killed in Goffe's The Courageous Turk, Aladin's Wife orders her sons to beg for mercy. Aladin's First Son does so and calls Amurath to notice Aladin's tears.


Like his brother in Goffe's The Courageous Turk, Aladin's Second Son attempts to move Amurath to mercy. He offers his mother, Amurath's daughter, a handkerchief and thus calls the Turk's attention to his mother's tears.


A mute role in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. He is not mentioned in the dramatis personae. Mandubrace brings him as a hostage to Caesar.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. After Borachio has revealed the plot to discredit Hero, Claudio repents and offers to fulfil any penance Leonato can devise. Leonato tells Claudio to tell Messina of his error, to visit Hero's grave and pay tribute to her there, and finally to marry Antonio's daughter, now the sole heir of Leonato and Antonio. Apparently Leonato has forgotten about Antonio's musical son, mentioned in the first lines of I.ii, who would presumably inherit at least some of his father's property.


Also called filius in the anonymous The Wasp. Pleads for his banished father, but Marianus will not listen. Instead, he is sent to the kitchens to work among "the black guards." He dutifully takes refreshment to his jailed father against Marianus' orders and heroically accepts his father's rebuke for disloyalty to the crown. Proving his true loyalty to his father, he accompanies Archibald when he impersonates Percy and looks after the horses. He is among the disguised barons who show loyalty to Marianus in the final act.


He appears in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2 with his father and mother, Olympia, on the walls of the besieged town when Theridamas sounds parley. As the city falls, he begs his mother to kill him. She stabs him and burns his body along with his father's.


A "ghost character" in Peele's Edward I. When the Queen Mother greets Edward upon his return from Palestine, she remarks that during his absence he has lost his father (Henry III), his uncle (Richard of Cornwall), and his son. The son is not named, but historically two of Edward's sons–John and Henry–died while he was campaigning.


A "ghost character" in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore. The First Madman mistakes Pioratto for his eldest son. He calls this son a fool with crooked legs, a verjuice face and a pear-colored beard. The eldest son was or is a scholar.


A "ghost character" in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore. The First Madman mistakes the Duke for his second son and asks him to kneel and ask for blessing. The Second Son is notable for monstrous short hair and abominable long nails, and his father made him a promoter.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus, this unnamed youth went to the court of the old King of Assyria, planning to marry his daughter. While hunting, however, he embarrassed the old king's son, by twice succeeding where the prince had failed; enraged, the Prince Antiochus killed him, and left his body lying where it fell.


The son of the Duke of Guise is brought in to see the dead body of his father in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris.

SON, HERMIT’S **1635

He and his father find Theagines washed ashore in Killigrew’s The Prisoners. According to the stage directions, he builds a fire on the stage. This fire becomes the all-important signal beacon that brings the characters together at play’s end for the final revelations. How the banished Memnon got this child whilst in exile is not revealed, but he is Hipparchus and Eucratia’s half-brother if not full brother, though that too is never mentioned.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. Leontius, after Antigonus explains that Demetrius would be commanding the battles, speaks of the experience King Philip's son had already acquired by the time he was Demetrius's age.


A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. The king has pardoned him for murder once, and another man died for the murder. Henry will not pardon him a second time when petitioned.


A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Richard killed Leopold's Son with his fist, leading to his capture.


A “ghost character" in Carlell’s Osmond. He is also Orcanes’ younger brother and remains unmentioned until the closing moments of the play. Odmer agrees to take the crown and rule the Tartars only until Melcosbus’ younger son comes of age to take the throne and rule for himself.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Narcissus. Son to Mother Hubbard. He is mentioned by the Porter when he tries to make the choir boys stay.


A "ghost character" in Holiday's Technogamia. Cheiromantes predicts that Music will have three sons, Melancholico, Timido, and Jucundo. The first will be named after his father (Cheiromantes does not reveal the name, but at the play's end Musica marries Melancholico), and be solitary and unhappy, with a cold and dry constitution.


A fictional character in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. When Robin Hood is in disguise as an Old Man, he pretends that his son was killed by Scarlet and Scathlock and that he seeks revenge for the killing.


Unnamed, but captured by Ward, together with his father and younger brother, and brought to Tunis for sale into slavery in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk. Says very little, but adds his voice to his father in defying Ward. His father dies of grief at the division of his family, and the brothers are sold in the company of others who tried to intercede on their behalf. Seen later with his brother, Albert and Ferdinand being taken under guard to serve in the galleys. Their plight now troubles Ward's conscience, but he resists their generous offers to forgive him if he remains Christian. He does not reappear, and is presumably doomed to life in slavery, as unlike his brother, he lacks a fiancée to work for his release.


A non-speaking character in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar, the young son of Rubin and the late Abdelmunen is sacrificed to Amurath by his mother after Amurath's soldiers help Abdelmelec win the civil war. Bassa tells Rubin that Amurath will joyfully receive her son.


A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Soldon's Son is mentioned by Leicester as the admiral of the Muslim fleet when Richard was on crusade.


A non-speaking part in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. A guest at the Capulet feast.


The tavern keeper's son in Chapman's An Humourous Day's Mirth. He assists his father and gives the opening speech in Verone's pageant in the final scene during which he complains of being interrupted.

SON who has killed his FATHER

During the civil war which pits Henry's Lancastrian supporters against the Yorkists in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI, Shakespeare brings onstage a father who has killed his son and a son who has killed his father to dramatize how divisive the war is.


"Ghost characters" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Caesar reports that Antony has set himself up as Emperor of Egypt and proclaimed his sons kings of kings.


"Ghost characters" in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1. In praising his wife's superiority and grandeur, Bajazeth speaks of the three sons she has borne him. He compares them favorably to Hercules and predicts that they will grow into mighty warriors.


"Ghost characters" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by God as an example of man's sinfulness.


"Ghost characters" in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. They are described by Labienus as landing with Pompey and their mother at Lesbos and then Egypt. Caesar later describes them as maters of the sea and allied against him. After Caesar falls in love with Cleopatra, Scaeva wishes that Cato, Juba and the sons of Pompey would attack and rouse Caesar from his romantic lethargy.


Tarmia's children in the anonymous Tamar Cam. The young actors who played these roles doubled as the nymphs, Heron and Thia, in the play. Little is known of the roles from the plot that survived only into the nineteenth century.


The Roman Soothsayer in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar warns Caesar to beware the Ides of March. Like Calpurnia's dream, the priest's sacrifice, and Artemidorus' unread letter, the Soothsayer's warning goes unheeded.


The Soothsayer in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey predicts a reversal of the war in the favor of Caesar.


The Soothsayer reads Iras and Charmian's palms in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra, and declares that they will be more loving than beloved, and will outlive their mistress. After Antony marries Octavia, he asks the Soothsayer whose fortunes will rise higher, his or Caesar's. The Soothsayer predicts that Caesar will have better fortune and therefore Antony should stay away from him.


An alternative designation for Philarmonus in Shakespeare's Cymbeline.

SOPHIA **1619

Mother to Rollo and Otto in Fletcher’s Bloody Brother. In the first scene, she upbraids her warring sons telling them that their fight will despoil the dukedom they seek to rule. When Rollo and Otto suddenly agree to divide Normandy and each rule half, she scolds them again and reminds them that each half would be weaker and apt for conquest from outside. With motherly affection, she reconciles her sons to accepting equal rule over an undivided Normandy. When Otto tells her he has learned the banquet is poisoned, she refuses to hear ill against Rollo until he breaks in armed. When Edith comes to her with a plan to be revenged on Rollo, Sophia will not hear it. She warns Aubrey of Edith’s plot against Rollo, but they arrive too late to save him.


Sophia, the chaste wife of Mathias in Massinger's The Picture.

SOPHIA **1635

Sophia begins Shirley's Coronation as queen of Epire and beloved of Cassander's son Lisimachus. She obtains the title of queen absolute after her coronation by the lord protector Cassander; her first royal decision is to abandon Lisimachus and choose Arcadius as king and mate. Shortly, however, Arcadius is proven to be her brother, as is later Seleucus. Free then from queenship and matrimonial entanglements, Sophia hopes to win back the love and trust of Lisimachus. It is Sophia who speaks the play's Epilogue.

SOPHIA **1636

Julius Caesar’s daughter and Virgilius’s sister, a blue-eyed beauty in Killigrew’s The Princess. Before the play begins, she pleaded with Caesar to spare the captive Facertes even as Facertes once spared Virgilius. She is in love with Facertes. She is captured in Baio by the lieutenant and his soldiers. Though the lieutenant thinks she is in her second age, ‘when women fall,’ but she insists she is a maid and stands upon that to prevent him from raping her. Cilius falls in love with her at first sight and orders the lieutenant on pain of death to protect her. She, in return, sees marks of her Facertes in Cilius but a vow stops her from telling Cilius her name. She agrees with Cilius’s plan to escape from bondage on their way to Naples. When Facertes and Cicilia are captured, she is reunited with her love. The pirates release her when the discover it is Facertes and Cicilia whom they’ve captured and all ends happily.


A name assumed by Fallacy in Zouche's The Sophister. Fallacy, after instructing Opposition to "proclaime [his] lawfull just succession," claims that he "will no longer be call'd Fallacy" but, rather, "stile[d]" as "great Sophime."


A “ghost character" and the author in Tomkis’ Lingua. Phantastes complains that a sophister recently came knocking so he could put Common Sense, Memorie, and Phantastes all on the stage together.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Sophocles (496–406 BC) was the second of the three great Greek writers of tragic drama during the fifth century BC. Of the other two, Aeschilus preceded him and Euripides was his successor. Sophocles is believed to have written 123 dramas, but only seven have survived. Fragments of lost plays and poems also exist. When Ovid praises the immortality of poetry, he says that Sophocles will live forever through his work, as long as the sun, the moon, or Mount Aratus remain on earth.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Part of the lineage of Tragedy, according to Comedy.


Sophocles, one of Petruchio's two close friends in Fletcher's The Woman's Prize, joins with Tranio, the other close friend, in discussing Petruchio's two wives and the prospect of Livia marrying Moroso. Sophocles bets with Petruchio about the latter's wedding night and then stands with him in blockading Maria's locked house. He urges Petruchio to bargain with Maria rather than fighting with her, and he reminds the new husband that his wife is chaste. Maria flirts with Sophocles in her strategy to tame Petruchio, and Sophocles tries to be evenhanded when speaking with his friend about his new wife, supporting, for example, Petruchio's trip to Paris. Sophocles announces that Petruchio died on this trip from grief for Maria and sends Jaques and Pedro to Maria to break the news and tell her to act wifely.


Sophocles is a character in "The Triumph of Honor," the first play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He is the Duke of Athens. Sophocles refuses to bow before the conqueror Martius and beg for his life; it is spared only through the intercession of Sophocles's chaste wife, Dorigen. When Dorigen informs him of her vow not to yield to Martius until the rocks have been moved, Sophocles tells that honor demands she fulfill her vow.


Sophonirus is an old courtier who supports the Tyrant's usurpation of Govianus in [?]Middleton's The Second Maiden's Tragedy. He is a pathetic flatterer, who wishes he could prostitute his wife to the Tyrant. He is ordered to go to the house where Govianus and the Lady are imprisoned and giver her a jewel from the Tyrant. Govianus stabs him to death, but Sophonirus dies gloating that they are about to be attacked by armed men. Govianus props Sophonirus' body against the door, so that when the Fellows burst in they think they have killed him. They are so wrapped up in this that they neglect to carry away the Lady's body, leaving Govianus free to bury her.


A "ghost character" in [?]Middleton's The Second Maiden's Tragedy. Sophonirus wishes he could prostitute her to the Tyrant.


Sophonisba, a Carthaginian in Marston's Sophonisba, is the daughter of [H]asdrubal[l]. She is the titular wonder of women, a model of chastity, honest, and nobility. She has just married Massinissa but their wedding night is interrupted by the news of Scipio's attack. The still-virginal bride encourages her husband to go, placing patriotism above personal interest or desire. She is captured by Syphax, her rejected suitor, but threatens suicide before disgrace and manages to escape from him. She is found by Massinissa. However, no sooner have they been reunited than Laelius arrives bringing Scipio's order that Massinissa must sacrifice her. Sophonisba nobly commits suicide.
A Carthaginian noblewoman in Nabbes' Hannibal and Scipio, originally betrothed to Massanissa, but given by Hannibal to Syphax to secure Numidia's alliance with Carthage. Massanissa captures and marries her after defeating Syphax in alliance with the Romans, but she drinks poison given to her by Massanissa rather than be turned over to Scipio and the Romans. As she is dying, she blames her own "adulterous easiness" for her death, emphasizing the play's theme of hedonism and incontinence leading to ruin. Played by Ezekiel Fenn in the original production.
One of the chorus of men and women in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium who enter at the beginning of the play and place the instrument of their deaths upon Cupid’s altar. Her name is edited to ‘Sophonisba’ from ‘Artemesia’ in the ms. She carries a ‘hazer’ (or cup). See CHORUS for more details.


Pheander banishes his brother Sophos for pleading the case of Ariadne in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder. Many years later, Sophos ends up at the court of Alacade, King of Africa with Eusanius, whom he had found in Thrace as a child. Alcade agrees to help him removes Pheander from the throne. Sophos arrives at the battle in time to assist the Sicilians. When Ariadne explains how she lost her child, Sophos realizes that Eusanius must be her son, and the family is reunited.


A man of high sensitivity but little money who loves Lelia in the anonymous Wily Beguiled. He raises the subject of his love, with her father, Gripe, pointing out that he is neither rich nor poor. Gripe rejects him. Sophos wanders in the woods alone lamenting his luck and falls asleep there. Nymphs and satyrs sing around him, and when he awakes sunken-eyed and love-lorn he tells Fortunatus, who has been looking for him, of his love for Lelia, Fortunatus's sister. He reveals that Churms is his go-between. Fortunatus tells him not to trust Churms. Sophos despairs at the chaos of the world. Following Fortunatus's plans to help him, the next night he enters the woods with his friend in order to meet Lelia. In the woods, as he awaits Lelia with Fortunatus, he continues to lament but recovers himself after Fortunatus beats Churms. Later in the woods Fortunatus chases off Churms, and Lelia and Sophos spend the rest of the night in the woods awaiting better fortune while listening to a song. With Fortunatus, he returns with Lelia to Gripe and it is agreed that they will marry the next day.

SOPHRON **1630

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. He has accused Adicus of flat felony. Justice Nimis learns that Adicus is the richer of the two and condemns Sophron as the thief.


Sophronia is Midas' daughter in Lyly's Midas. She expresses her concerns about Midas to the court and is entertained by the ladies of the court while the King seeks a remedy. When Midas closets himself on his return, Sophronia is determined to find out why.


Sophronos is father to Menaphon, brother to Meleander and uncle to Eroclea and Cleophila in Ford's The Lover's Melancholy. A leading Cyprian courtier, he is horrified by Agenor's lust in pursuing Eroclea and helps his niece to escape the ruler's clutches. After Agenor's death, he becomes a councillor to Prince Palador, but is convinced that "the commonwealth is sick" because of the Prince's melancholy and lethargy. He begs Palador to pay more attention to his duties, and accuses him of being "headstrong" in his passions. With Aretus, he prods Corax to discover the cause of Palador's melancholy. He is impressed when Corax's Masque of Melancholy succeeds in showing that Palador's illness proceeds from frustrated love. He is among the courtiers sent away by Palador when the latter prepares to face his lost beloved, Eroclea, in the form of 'Parthenophill'. Later, he is among those who arrive to restore Meleander's honours and titles to him, and is given thanks for his part in the play's happy ending.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Timon of Athens, the name of a prostitute in the bawdy song sung by Hermogenes, Timon and his friends during the bacchanalia in II.5.


A young and hot-headed monarch in Thomas Heywood's The Four Prentices of London. He sets his standard and ensign on the walls of Jerusalem as a challenge to the crusaders and is killed in the final action.


The Sophy is a proud, but genial ruler in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers. He is impressed by Anthony and Robert Sherley. But Calimath and Halibeck encourage him to be angry when Robert makes an independent deal with the Great Turk to save Thomas Sherley Jr, and when Robert falls in love with the Sophy's Niece. The Sophy tests his Niece's love by pretending that he has executed Robert. He is impressed with her reaction, and allows them to marry. When the Sophy learns of Halibeck's plotting against Anthony, he orders his death. He is happy for the child of Robert and the Niece to be baptized, and offers himself as Godfather.

SOPHY of PERSIA **1607

A "ghost character" in The Grocer's Honour portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. In IV the grocer George asks the Boy to have Rafe meet the Sophy of Persia, who is to "come and christen him a child." The Boy objects, saying that the device is "stale" and has been performed already at the Red Bull. The Boy refers to action performed in The Travels of the Three English Brothers.


The Sophy's Niece falls in love with Robert Sherley in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers, but their love is unacknowledged until her uncle begins to suspect, and she defends Robert from his anger. When the Sophy pretends that he has executed Robert, the Niece says that only now has she realised her love. The Sophy, convinced that her love is genuine, reveals that Robert is not dead, and allows the couple to marry. She bears Robert a child, and it is baptized a Christian.


Soquette is a prostitute in the employ of Cataplasma in Tourneur's The Atheist's Tragedy. She is sought by the hypocritical Puritan Languebeau Snuff, who attempts to have sex with her in the graveyard of St. Winfred's Church. She and Snuff are startled by the arrival of Charlemont and flee before they can conclude their business. Later, she agrees to meet Snuff once more, but their tryst is interrupted when she, Snuff, Cataplasma, and Fresco are arrested following the deaths of Levidulcia, Sebastian, and Belforest. With the others, she is sentenced to a whipping, carting through the streets, and a period of hard labor.


Evanthe's brother and an ambitious courtier in the court of the wicked Frederick in Fletcher's A Wife for a Month. Sorano indulges King Frederick's every whim, encouraging the unrightful, usurping king to take every advantage of his absolute power. He encourages the king's libidinous interest in Evanthe, one of the queen's ladies in waiting and Sorano's sister, who is secretly in love with Valerio, an honorable courtier. Sorano argues that the Queen will not be angry at a liaison between the king and Evanthe, and he promises to procure Evanthe for the king. When Evanthe refuses, Sorano suspects that she has another love, and he sends his man Podramo to rifle his sister's letters and private papers. Sorano and Frederick discover verses to Evanthe written by Valerio, and Frederick immediately realizes that Valerio is his rival. Frederick's initial sentence is that the lovers are granted one month to live as husband and wife after which time they die, but Sorano insists that this is letting them off too easily. Frederick gives Sorano his ring, and allows him to "take all authority." Sorano's new sentence is that Valerio may do nothing more than kiss his new wife Evanthe; otherwise, he dies instantly. Additionally, Valerio may not tell Evanthe of his sentence under pain of death. Meanwhile, Sorano feeds Frederick's anxiety about Alphonso, and Frederick engages Sorano to kill the usurped king once and for all. Sorano prepares a poison and an antidote. He takes the antidote himself, and then takes the poison in front of Alphonso's guardians, Friar Marco and Rugio, to demonstrate that he does not intend to harm Alphonso. In truth, Sorano gives Alphonso poison, but Nature intervenes, and the poison proves medicinal to Alphonso, who is fully restored to health and to the throne. Alphonso sentences Sorano to live out the rest of his life enclosed in the monastery.


Francisco Soranza is a perfumer in Marston's What You Will who, because of his remarkable resemblance to Albano, is commissioned by Jacomo and Albano's brothers to impersonate him.


Soranzo is a young officer under General Castracagnio in the Duke of Tuscany's army in Davenant's The Siege. More specifically, he is assigned to the Lieutenant General's regiment. Florello is Soranzo's role model. At the beginning of the play, Soranzo is eager for Castracagnio to press some mysterious suit with Foscari. It is later revealed that Soranzo has fallen in love at the sight of Bertolina and wants Castracagnio to propose marriage on behalf of the young officer. Soranzo is unaware that Bertolina and Florello are in love with one another. While moving about the Tuscan camp, Soranzo is challenged to a duel by Mervole, who plans on defeating and subjugating Soranzo. Instead, Soranzo easily defeats Mervole in the fight and wounds the bullying ensign's right hand beyond use. Soranzo unwittingly assists in Florello's abandonment of the army when he leads a disguised Florello to the front line. During the attack on Pisa, Soranzo finds Bertolina and tries to help her escape Florello's wrath. Soranzo confesses to the young woman that he loves her. When Florello finds Soranzo and Bertolina together, he first considers killing them. Because of his love for them both, however, he decides to let them go off together due to the mistaken belief that Bertolina loves Soranzo. Unfortunately for Soranzo, Bertolina does not love him. When Soranzo sees how much Bertolina and Florello love one another, he withdraws his suit.


Soranzo is a nobleman of Savoy in Shirley's Grateful Servant. He and companion Giotto pity Astella, the neglected wife of Lodwick, and the two nobles also discuss the duke's forthcoming attendance at a ceremony initiating two nobles into the church.


Disguise assumed in Verney’s Antipoe by Macros in order to enter the jail. Sorcam is servant to the Jailor’s Wife.


A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the twenty-five vices that are the extremes of the eleven virtues. Sordidity, Pride, Envy, and Curiosity are the extremes of Humility.


Sordido is a rich farmer, brother to Sogliardo and father to Fungoso in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. In Italian, sórdido means dirty and extremely thrifty. Sordido believes in astrological predictions and would do nothing without consulting his almanac. In the country, Sordido enters reading his almanac. His servant brings him a document from the justice instructing farmers to bring all the grain to the market. Since the astrological prognostication held that the time was not right for selling grain, Sordido decides to disregard the official mandate and speculate the market until the price rises, according to prediction. Sordido exits to do his agricultural work. Before Puntavorlo's house, Sordido enters with Fungoso to visit his neighbor. During the conversation, Sogliardo tries to persuade his brother to give Fungoso twelve pounds, apparently to buy books at a bargain price. Sordido cannot be persuaded to part with more than ten pounds. In the country, Sordido enters blaming the astrological prognostication, which seems to have backfired and damaged his business. A servant brings Sordido a letter from his son, in which Fungoso asks for more money. Sordido says that, rather than give his son money from his hard-earned fortune he would hang himself. Sordido attempts to hang himself, but is rescued by some peasants. The Rustics are disappointed when they see that the man whose life they saved is the profiteer Sordido and Sordido himself blames them for having saved his life. However, sensing that a miracle has just happened, Sordido behaves out of his parsimonious and selfish humor and he repents. Sordido exits speaking of the blessing of life, love, and grace.


The Ward's man in Middleton's Women Beware Women. He plays along with the foolish Ward, every bit as foolish himself. He is first discovered with the Ward carrying toys with which to play. He engages with Ward in evaluating and sniggering over Isabella, the Ward's intended bride.


Sorrow is the jailer of Love, Lucre and Conscience in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London. Nemo orders him to release them, and Sorrow sets them upon their stones.


The name Vaster's wife assumes after Benjamin rescues her from the brothel in S.S's Honest Lawyer.


A Sicilian lord in Killigrew’s The Prisoners. He is on hand in several scenes but does not add materially to the forward motion of the plot.

SOSIA **1603

Sosia, wife to Caius Silius in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall. She is arrested and her lands confiscated after her husband gallantly slays himself in the Senate rather than yield to the will of Caesar.

SOSIA **1604

Sosia, son to old Dauus, is one of the messengers Amphitruo sends to his wife in order to announce his imminent arrival home to her in the anonymous Birthe of Hercules. As he travels at night to deliver the message, he is afraid a constable should stop him and send him to prison. But he meets Mercurius instead, and he offers him a detailed account of the battle they won, and of his own cowardice. Later, he is distracted by the god who, having taken the shape of Sosia, stands before Amphitruo's door, calling the real Sosia 'impostor.' The latter has a hard time arguing with Mercurius about his identity, and he ends up hesitating and leaving, not being able to deliver his master's message to Alcumena. He then goes back to Amphitruo and is severely reprimanded by him for not having been able to accomplish his task. And, when he tries to explain to his general that he is able to be in two places at the same time, and that his other self had delivered the message, Amphitruo cannot believe his ears and thinks his servant is drunk. Sosia is in love with Thessala, one of Alcumena's maids. As he goes back home with his master, he expects to be welcome by her–at least, he has been luckier than his general, because his beloved one has been faithful to him in his absence. Later, he will serve as a witness for Iupiter–who has taken up the shape of Amphitruo again–, of the fact that he had accused Alcumena of unfaithfulness in jest. He will also be asked by his general/god to go and tell Blepharo that Amphitruo wants to dine with him. When he brings Blepharo to his master's presence, as they approach the house, from a distance, he realizes there is something strange going on, since he can see Amphitruo mumbling outside the house, and the door is shut. And once they reach him, the general claims he had never asked him to bring Blepharo to his presence. After listening to them, Blepharo reaches the conclusion that a magician must have enchanted Amphitruo's house.


One of the gentlemen of the Corinthian court in Fletcher's Queen of Corinth. He is invited (along with Neanthes and Sosicles) to prove his sycophantic love for Prince Theanor of Corinth by joining in the rape of Merione by Theanor and Crates. He is the first of the three gentlemen to toady to the Prince when the latter condescends to ask for their support. He is likely one of the Maskers who appear disguised before the raped Merione and sprinkle water on her face while singing and dancing. He joins Crates in mocking Lamprias and his train, and in insulting Euphanes, but when Crates repents his ill deeds he joins Euphanes in the plot to disclose Theanor's sins, and is present at the final scene when Theanor repents his ill deeds and makes amends to Merione.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Sossius was a lieutenant of Antony's. Ventidius claims he lost Antony's favor when he achieved too much in battle and gained great renown.


Like Domitius in May's Cleopatra, Sossius is a Roman consul banished from Rome for favoring Antonius. Sossius comes to Egypt to visit Antonius, and urges him to seize the moment to attack Caesar. [The character, also spelled Sosius, disappears early on, and May does not say what happens to him. Unlike Domitius and so many others, the historical character stayed loyal to Antonius; Dio says that he went into hiding after Antonius's death, but was pardoned by Caesar.]


Wife of Fallerio and mother of Allenso in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies. Also called Sostrato. Attends, along with her husband and son, Pandino and Armenia on their deathbeds. She grieves and promises Pandino and Armenia to look after Pertillo, and consoles Pertillo after the death of his parents. Sostrata joins Fallerio and Allenso as Pertillo prepares to depart for university with the Ruffians. She tearfully parts from him and gives the Ruffians money to ensure his safety. Later, she enters weeping with Fallerio, fearing for Pertillo's safety. Fallerio tries to stop her from crying and blames Allenso for upsetting her. When Allenso enters, grieving over Pertillo's death, the shock of Allenso's announcement that Pertillo was murdered leads to her death.


Alternate form for Sostrata in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies.


Sostratus is a lord at the court of Alexander in Daniel's Philotas. He is informed by Attaras of the sequence of events surrounding the arrest of Philotas.

SOTO **1620

Claudio's comic servant and the son of the farmer who employs the disguised Silvio in Fletcher's Women Pleased. Claudio sends him, disguised, to woo Belvidere at her tower. Shot at by Silvio, who mistakes him for Claudio, Soto is luckily unhurt. Visiting his father's farm, he organizes the May revels, which are interrupted by the Captain. Called to war, he gratefully allows Silvio to take his place. Returning to his Morris Dance, he coerces the reluctant Bomby into playing the Hobby-Horse. He announces Silvio's return to the Duchess' court, and participates as a dancer in the wedding masque for Silvio and the hag.


Soto is Sancho's "man" in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy. With his master he joins the gypsy band and plays Hialdo in the prodigal son play staged by the gypsies.




A musician in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet hired to play at Juliet's wedding to Paris.


A Cobbler in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates. He welcomes Chastity to sit among the Common People and drink with them. In an interlude between the Parts, the Pardoner sells him a divorce from his shrewish wife, in an obscene ceremony involving the kissing of one another's arses.


Hearing that her husband is drinking with Chastity in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates, she becomes jealous, threatens Chastity, and chases her husband from the stage. In an interlude between the Parts, the Pardoner sells her a divorce from her husband, in an obscene ceremony involving the kissing of one another's arses.


An alternative form for Southampton in the anonymous Edmond Ironside.


(South), Saxon, loyal follower of Canute in the anonymous Edmond Ironside. He lets his daughter, Egina, marry Canute in II.


They urge the gatekeepers to open the gates to avoid worse damage in the anonymous Jack Straw.


At Eleanor's behest in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, the duplicitous priest Hume arranges a séance in which Roger Bolingbrook, the priests Hume and Southwell, and the witch Margery Jourdain conjure a spirit who will ostensibly help Eleanor to become queen. Hume is working for Cardinal Beaufort and Suffolk, who plan to use Eleanor to discredit her husband, the Duke of Gloucester. With Hume's collusion the séance is interrupted and the participants arrested. King Henry condemns the three men to the gallows, Margery Jourdain to Smithfield where she will be burnt as a witch, and Eleanor to the Isle of Man where she will live in exile after a public humiliation.


A "ghost character" also identified as the Operator and Stone Cutter in Sharpham's Cupid's Whirligig. When Sir Timothy Troublesome, weary of what he wrongly perceives as his wife's infidelity, decides to have himself castrated in order to be certain that any children his wife conceives will not be his, he and his servant Wages visit the Sow Gelder.


Actually a musician in Lady Strangelove's house in Brome's Court Beggar. She has him pose as a sow gelder and pretend to prepare to castrate the Doctor. During the preparation, he sings a song.


A Portuguese soldier and companion to Armusia in Fletcher's The Island Princess. Soza valiantly defends his leader. Soza follows Armusia and Emanuel to the island of Terna to rescue the king. He disguises himself as one of the Merchants, sets the dynamite, and helps spirit the king away. When he hears that Armusia has been arrested in Sidore, he follows Christophero, Pedro, and Emanuel to rescue their leader. Soza is level headed and advises a sure course based on a well-thought-out plan. He helps Pyniero reveal the Governor's true identity, arresting him, taking him before the king, and off to prison.


Spaconia is an Armenian maid and Tigrane's true love in Beaumont and Fletcher's A King and No King. She covertly infiltrates the Iberian court by accepting a position (assuming the name Thalectris) in Panthea's service. Spaconia is genuinely concerned that her love Tigranes will forsake her for Panthea. In fact, Tigranes does temporarily favor the Iberian princess. Spaconia wins Tigranes back due to her supreme devotion to him. After gaining access to the imprisoned Tigranes by presenting an official token of Panthea's, Spaconia scolds Tigranes impressively for his lack of rectitude. When Ligoces tracks Spaconia down in Iberia, he accuses his daughter of being a whore. Happily, it is demonstrated that Spaconia is a true maid and she wins the hand of Tigranes as her just reward.


Spado, Livia's attendant in the anonymous Tragedy of Tiberius. He draws his rapier on Sejanus to defend his lady's honor, but Sejanus buys him off with a purse of money.


Spadone passes himself off as a eunuch in Ford's The Fancies Chaste and Noble. He is constantly resenting comments that he takes to be slights to his manhood. He assures Secco that the page Nitido is having an affair with Secco's wife, Morosa, but when both Morosa and Nitido deny this Spadone's villainy is revealed. Trapped in Secco's barber's chair with a razor at his throat, he admits that he is not in fact a eunuch, and the Marquis reveals that he is actually the son of Troylo-Savelli's wet-nurse.


A knight in Kyd's Soliman and Perseda. He participates in the Governor's games.


This unnamed Spaniard duels with and kills an Englishman in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. King Philip orders the Spaniard hanged for his cowardly behavior in the duel.


The Spaniard, Philario's friend in Shakespeare's Cymbeline, participates in the conversation that leads to Iachimo's wager that he can seduce Imogen.


"The Spaniard" is a derogatory term used by some in King Henry's court to refer to Emperor Charles V, nephew of Queen Katherine in Shakespeare's Henry VIII.


Sir Paul Squelch unwisely appears at his own dinner party disguised as a Spaniard in Brome's The Northern Lass.


A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Wit in a Constable. The four watchmen gossip about a flounder fisherman hooking a drowned Spaniard’s body, slain in ‘the late sea-fight.’ The fisherman found ‘the Inquisition’ hidden in the Spaniard’s ruff according to the watchman.


The Spanish ambassador in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron appears in V to ask Henry's leave for their forces to cross his kingdom in their (putative) campaign against Flanders. Despite his knowledge of Byron's conspiracy with the Spanish, Henry grants them leave.


A "ghost character" in Glapthorne's Ladie's Privilege. Adorni mentions him to Frangipan as recently arrived at court.


A general in Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy.

A "ghost character" in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. Spectacus is a "fencer" (gladiator). Granius recalls seeing Crassus beat Spectacus, and make the latter fear death. Granius compares Marius to Crassus saying he will beat Scilla, but Scilla takes another meaning from the example, claiming that he hopes to die fighting, like Spectacus.


The Spanish lady is a "ghost character" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. When Mistress Littlewit enters elegantly dressed, her husband admires her fashion. He says her fine high shoes are like those of the Spanish lady. The allusion is to a fashionable English widow who dressed in Spanish style, with high-heeled shoes.


A disguise of Wittipol's, hired by Merecraft to impersonate an instructor in fashionable etiquette in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass. Merecraft uses this character to obtain more money from Fitzdottrel, who wishes to send his wife to the Spanish Lady for instruction in how to act like a Duchess. Wittipol substitutes himself for (ghost character) Dick Robinson, the boy actor Merecraft originally intended to hire to play the part, in order to get close to Mistress Fitzdottrel. At her "salon," hosted by Lady Tailbush and attended by Lady Eitherside, she impresses the women with her knowledge of exotic cosmetics. Fitzdottrel develops a passion of the "Spanish Lady" and signs over his estate to Manly at "her" suggestion.


A disguise that Valentia uses to escape recognition at the court of Mantua in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. At the wedding, however, she is recognized by her father so she has to run fast to reach the tower before her father does.

Known alternately as John Sparing/Spring, a vintner in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. Along with many other tradesmen, he gossips about the impending marriage of Captain Stukeley and Nell, daughter of the wealthy Sir Thomas Curtis. Immediately after the wedding, they seek to abscond with Stukeley's newfound money, citing debs both real and fabricated.


A seaman's wife in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. She and Isabel Nutt are unlike Dorothea: they are happy when their husbands go to sea, and enjoy the opportunity to take lovers. Later, they meet and discuss bawdy gossip. Mary claims to be carrying in her basket some children's clothes to work on; but when Thomas Trunnel gets the women drunk he reveals that she is in fact carrying painted cloths.


A young gentleman in Sharpham's The Fleire. He rejects Florida and consequently is the target of a murderous attack by the gullible Piso and Havelittle. Fortunately for Sparke, the poison that is intended for him is only a sleeping potion. Thought to be dead, he later awakes having experienced a vision of hell. In the end, he is united with Nan, who has helped save his life.

SPARKE **1619

An Inns of Court man in the Praeludium in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. He objects to Landlord’s assumption that he is fit to judge poetry. He claims Landlord hasn’t recognized a plot since the “powder treason," alluding to the Gunpowder plot. When two different actors fail to remember the prologue, Spruce, Spark, and Landlord retire to a box and leave the stage.


The clown Sparrow is Old Philip Sparrow's son in the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick. He is told by his father to marry Parnell Sparling, a young woman Sparrow has impregnated. Instead of marrying Parnell, he travels with Guy to the Holy Land. When Guy and Sparrow come upon an elderly hermit, Sparrow's first thought is to kill the man for his possessions. Sparrow is disappointed first when the hermit has not heard of Squire Sparrow and then again when the hermit offers the men a meager meatless meal. Guy has to bodily threaten Sparrow in order to convince the Squire to enter into battle. When Guy instructs Sparrow to find a way into a castle Sparrow hides in a bush instead. The bush is hit by lightning and his backside catches fire. Sparrow is also pounded by fairies after he calls Oberon King Muttonbone. During a battle with the pagans, Sparrow again hides in the bushes. He finds a group of sleeping pagans and tries to rob them of their food; unfortunately for him, they wake up and chase him away. Sparrow believes he is doing good service by decapitating the corpses of Guy's slain foes. Sparrow temporarily captures a pagan soldier and ties him with a halter, but the pagan easily escapes. Sparrow loses track of Guy after the knight forswears combat. Swallow comes upon Guy's grown son Rainborn and enters into his service. Rainborn's Spartan provisions characteristically dissatisfy Sparrow. Sparrow gains renown in the English court as a world traveler. He suffers a disastrous defeat when he fails in an attempt to steal some pork. He devotes himself from then on to stealing lamb.


Old Philip Sparrow is the clown Sparrow's father in the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick. Old Philip demands that his son honor his obligations by marrying Parnell Sparling after the young man has impregnated her. Philip's son refuses the request and flees England.


The spectators are the audience of Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, performed at the Hope. They are part of the contract drawn between Author and the spectators, which is read by the scrivener. The contract stipulates that the spectators should remain in place, with patience, for two hours and a half, while Author promises to offer them an entertaining play. The contract indicates that every person in the audience has the right to censure the play, in relation to its value for money, provided that the judgment belonged to the specific person's opinion, not derived from contagion with considerations of others. In addition, the said holders of opinion will preserve it intact during the following days. The contract specifies that the spectators should not consider the opinions of the person sitting next to them, even if this person is a professional critic.


Speed is Valentine's outspoken page in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona. Proteus engages Speed to deliver a love letter to Julia, and in demanding recompense before telling of Julia's response to that letter, Speed implies that Julia is wanton and therefore unfit to wed Proteus. Speed, however, is reporting Lucetta's response to the letter, not Julia's. He is also quick to note that Silvia's use of Valentine as scribe for letters to her unknown lover actually reflects Silvia's desire to fire Valentine's love for her.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Speed is mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he is giving Sir Cupid Phantsy a possible cure for his disease: "and when you read, read Guicciardini or our Speed's chronicle." John Speed's History of Great Britain (1611) is here referred to as Speed's Chronicle. Speed is also mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he is asking Sir Cupid Phantsy, on his second visit, "have you done as I prescribed in reading Speed's History? John Speed is the most famous of all English cartographers. He was an antiquary, and the author of the most important and prestigious atlas of his time. His best known works are two atlases: The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine (1612), and the Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World (1627).


Sir Godfrey Speedwell is an elderly knight in William Rowley's A New Wonder: A Woman Never Vexed. He is a suitor of Jane. He is a former rake who is only after Jane's money. He is outraged when Jane rejects him in favour of the citizen Robert Foster, and he is then humiliated when Stephen forces him to repay his debts.


Former servant to the late Earl of Gloucester in Marlowe's Edward II. Spencer is accepted into court by Edward II at Edward's niece's urging. After Gaveston's death Spencer becomes Edward's confident, and the king bestows the title Earl of Gloucester on him. Spencer remains at Edward's side until the two are captured by Rice ap Howell after failing in their escape to Ireland. He is beheaded by troops loyal to the Queen and Mortimer. The historical Edward II had two favorites detested by the barons, Hugh le Despenser and his father of the same name.


Executed by Bolingbroke (now King Henry IV) along with the Earl of Salisbury, Blunt and Kent for treason in Shakespeare's Richard II.
Spencer wonders why King Richard II has returned and agrees that the commoners are fearful because of their numbers in the anonymous Jack Straw.


Spencer is a gentleman who, meeting Bess at the Castle tavern in Plymouth, falls in love with her in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part One. After killing the bully Carrol who has slandered Bess, Spencer departs for the Azores with the Earl of Essex's forces, leaving Bess his portrait, some money, the title to the Windmill tavern in the Cornish town of Foy, and a request that she wait for him there. In the Azores, Spencer is wounded trying to part two English Captains during an argument. Believing his wounds to be severe, he sends his friend Goodlack to Foy with his ring, a farewell message for Bess, and a will leaving his considerable estate to her, with the proviso that she must still have continued to be virtuous in his absence. Spencer has the good fortune to meet an English Surgeon who manages to heal his wounds and who invites him to come aboard the ship of an English Merchant for whom he works. During their voyage, the ship is taken first by the Spanish, then by Bess's ship, but the lovers fail to recognize one another at the time. Spencer notes something familiar about her but fails to comprehend the truth because Bess is dressed in male attire; she in turn thinks him to be a ghost, and with Captain Goodlack wounded below decks, the key to their reunion is lacking. Arriving in Morocco, Spencer is on hand as Bess, now dressed as a woman, visits Mullisheg's court, and the two are united at last. Mullisheg arranges their marriage and a great feast and promises rich treasure to them.
In Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part Two, when Mullisheg, the King of Fez and Morocco, begins a plot to sleep with Bess, and Tota, Mullisheg's wife, attempts to arrange an affair with Spencer, Bess and Spencer flee while the king and queen fall victim to a "bed trick" arranged by Goodlack. Spencer is taken prisoner by Bashaw Joffer. Joffer, admiring the Englishman's courage in battle, allows him to visit Bess's ship in order to dissuade her from suicide. After visiting Bess, Spencer returns to the court as he had sworn he would. Just before he is to be sentenced to death, Bess and their companions arrive to stand with him. Their loyalty, devotion, and bravery so impresses Mullisheg that he spares the group, promises treasure, and commits himself to imitating the virtues he sees displayed by the Europeans. Attempting to return to England, Spencer and his party are attacked by a French pirate, and in the commotion of battle, he is swept away with his friend Goodlack. Washing ashore, he comes into service with the Duke of Ferrara who uses him as his champion in a dispute with the Duke of Mantua. When it turns out that the Mantuan champion is none other than Goodlack, the two Englishmen behave in such an impressive fashion that the two dukes patch up their differences, and the two Englishmen make their way to Florence. There, Spencer is reunited with Roughman and Clem, and there he also learns that Bess has been rescued from bandits and now resides in the ducal court. Before he can see her, however, he is employed as a messenger to Bess by the Duke, who makes him swear oaths that he will have nothing personally to do with the lady. Recognizing Bess, he honorably keeps his word, and she is baffled by his strange behavior. Eventually, she arranges to have Spencer charged with theft and for herself to have the power to sentence him. She then reveals to the duke her relationship to and love for Spencer. The duke releases Spencer from his oaths, and the two lovers are united at last.


Hugh Spencer, known in the dramatis personae as Spencer Senior, is father to Spencer and described as "an old man" in Marlowe's Edward II. He backs his son and Edward II, who makes him Earl of Wiltshire and calls him Lord of Winchester. Shortly before his son and the king are arrested, he is captured and turned over by Rice ap Howell to Queen Isabella and Mortimer who have him executed.


Sir Thomas Spencer in Peele's Edward I brings Edward the report of Queen Elinor's sinking into the earth at Charing Cross and her reappearance at Potter's Hive (afterward called Queenhith).


Spendall is a rascal associate to Captain Seagull and Scapethrift in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!. Petronel has hired the three adventurers to sail his ship to Virginia. Spendall swears everybody to secrecy because of the delicate nature of the voyage. According to Spendall, Sir Petronel booked the passage under a false name and he intended to sail away secretly with his wife's money. At the Blue Anchor tavern, Seagull, Spendall, and Scapethrift wait for Sir Petronel. Hearing Seagull praising Virginia's famed bounty, Spendall is eager to know how far it is and how long it would take him to reach those great treasures. When Sir Petronel tells them that a masked lady will join them on their voyage, Spendall and Scapethrift welcome her on board the ship. After much drinking and dancing, the drunken party composed of Sir Petronel and his crew, Winifred and Quicksilver embark on a boat to go to the ship, despite the storm warning. It is not clear what happens to Spendall after the boat wreck.


Spendall is the recipient of Sir Lionell's shop and home when the knight chooses other dwellings in an effort to recoup his failing fortunes in Cooke's Greene's Tu Quoque. Falling on hard times, Spendall steals from Lionell, loses this money in a dice game with Staines, Rash, and the other gallants, a circumstance prompting him to challenge Staines to a duel. The two begin the duel, but soon leave friends, the entire scene satirizing the absurdity of residual chivalric codes. Thinking his difficulties at an end, Spendall is promptly arrested by two Sergeants, his property is seized, and he is taken to a debtor's prison administered by Lodge and his assistant Holdfast. While interned, Spendall repents his crimes and, after being released pursues a rather heavy-handed marriage to a wealthy widow who he eventually marries. Spendall's role can be interpreted in allegorical terms as typographically related to mankind's fall and eventual redemption through Christ.


Spendall is a spendthrift who wants to sell his land to Covet in the anonymous Oberon the Second. He is fooled by Craft to fight a giant that is haunting Covet's house. Losarello takes him and his servants prisoner at Covet's house. "King Oberon" (Craft in disguise) later fools him into deeding over all his land in order to live out his life drinking in Fairyland.


Like Narcisso, Jovinelli, and Brisco, Spendola is a Count of Naples in Dekker's If It Be Not Good. When the Duke of Calabria attacks Naples, Spendola makes the decision that the court should flee to Bartervile's and hide there. With the other courtiers, he is betrayed by Bartervile to the Duke, captured, and beheaded.


A "ghost character." A woman described by the Niece as a supplier of medicine in Middleton and Rowley's Wit at Several Weapons.


Only mentioned in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus. "Spencer" is one of the poets Ingenioso is to imitate in the poem he is writing for Gullio; the passages quoted owe much to Book I of The Faerie Queene.


Only mentioned in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus. Spenser is one of the writers listed by Ingenioso as represented in Belvedere; Iudicio praises his work (comparing him to Homer) and laments his lack of patronage.


A farmer and father to Candius in Lyly's Mother Bombie. Sperantus wishes his son to marry the wealthy Stellio's daughter Silena. Candius, however, is in love with Prisius' daughter Livia and resists his father's wishes. Sperantus agrees with Prisius that their children must not wed, and he enlists the aid of his witty servant Halfpenny to further his marriage plan for his son. Like Prisius, Sperantus spends a large portion of the play trying to keep track of his servant's activities, and he too is duped by Halfpenny and the other servants (Dromio, Riscio, and Lucio) into giving his blessing for the marriage of Candius and Livia, believing them to be Accius and Silena. When the ruse is discovered he is angry, but he is eventually mollified and gives his blessing to the match.


A country gentleman in the anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. He argues with Spurco and Gulato over the superiority of hawking to either hunting or drinking; the two wise men find all three pursuits equally shallow.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. Harman van Speult was the Dutch commander who massacred British sailors at Amboyna, in the East Indies; the workmen talk about these events (their discussion was deleted by the censor).


One of Timon's false friends in the anonymous Timon of Athens, A lying philosopher. He has lengthy pseudo-philosophical discussions with his colleague Stilpo about Aristotle, the moon and Plato's ideas. When Timon asks them for help, they tell him to cloth himself with virtue if he has nothing else to wear. Both appear at Timon's mock banquet in IV.5 and they come with all the other false friends to beg Timon for money in the final scene.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Catiline. Publius Lentulus Sphinter is a Roman aedile, an official in charge of buildings, roads, sanitation, and public games. When Catiline's plot is disclosed in the Roman Senate, the consul rules that the conspirators should be placed in private custody. Sphinter is charged with supervising his relative, Lentulus.


Captain Ned Spicing is one of the rebels serving under Falconbridge in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV. He is taken to the Mayor by the Miller and is executed for his part in the rebellion against the king.


A disguise adopted by Face in Jonson's The Alchemist, also spelled Ulen Spiegel. Ulan Spiegel, or Lungs (because he blows the furnace), is Face's disguise as the alchemist's apprentice. When he wants to trick Mammon, Subtle as the Doctor calls his Ulan Spiegel to help him perform an alchemical experiment. Originally, Ulan Spiegel is the knave hero of a popular German jest book, a magician's apprentice. Since Mammon is eager to unveil the alchemical mystery and discover the elixir of eternal youth and maximum sexual capacity, Face as Ulan Spiegel assists Subtle in performing an alchemical experiment. Face shows exceptional knowledge of alchemy. Later, when Subtle surprises Mammon with the "mad" lady and pretends the work has been compromised because of Mammon's lechery, Face as Ulan Spiegel enters in a flurry announcing the Athanor and the entire laboratory have exploded.


"Ghost characters" in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. Arviragus informs Philicia (as he "beg[s] [her] licence to depart") that it is "not unlike [he] may bee pierst thorow with a bullet" since "there are spies upon" him.


"Ghost characters" that spy on Agenor in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers.


Frankford's butler in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness. A minor character whose function is merely plot exposition and stage-clearance.


Spillblood is a roaring boy in Field's Amends for Ladies. He is found in a tavern on Turnbull Street in the company of Whorebang, Bots, and Tearchaps. Welltried brings Lord Feesimple to them in an attempt to cure his fear of swords. A fight breaks out, and Whorebang, Tearchaps, Bots and Spillblood flee the scene.


One of the blades employed by Squirrel in his bawdy-house in Nabbes' The Bride; he gives their names as "Rashbe, Spilman, Poinard, and others", but they are not named elsewhere. After hearing them carousing, Raven asks Squirrel to have them attack Theophilus and the Bride, whereupon they carry the Bride away and threaten to rape her. Theophilus successfully fights them and forces them to release the Bride and give up their weapons. They go and get Justice Ferret to complain about Theophilus's abuse of them, but disappear before pressing charges. Later they return and encounter Kickshaw, whom they rob and leave tied up.


The "Lady" of the title and young wife of Auria in Ford's The Lady's Trial. Spinella is devoted to her husband, and distressed when he leaves her behind for his campaign against the Turks. Invited in his absence with her sister, Castanna, to the house of Adurni, she finds herself trapped alone with her host and forced to listen to his gallant courtship. Auria's friend Aurelio forces his way into the locked room, finds her, and refuses to believe that she is innocent. Spinella flees to the house of her cousin, Malfato, where she soon puts a stop to his declarations of love. Persuaded by Castanna that her husband wants her back, she returns home. After putting her through a brief "trial," in which she defends herself against both him and Aurelio, Auria declares his complete faith in her innocence. She accepts him in return.


Only mentioned in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. In praising Autolicus, Agurtes states that even the Spanish general Spinola tried to capture the valiant Autolicus without success.


Spinoso is a lord of Verona in Davenport's The City Night Cap. In act Three, he comes with Pandulpho to announce the arrival of the Duke of Venice.


See also GHOST(S), FIEND(S), APPARITIONS, and related concepts.


Margery Jourdain identifies the spirit that Bolingbrook conjures for Eleanor as Asmath or Asnath in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. The spirit, who appears and disappears in thunder, reveals that Henry will be deposed, that Suffolk shall die by water, and that Somerset should avoid castles.


An unnamed spirit in the anonymous Tamar Cam of which nothing else is recoverable from the plot that survived only until the nineteenth century.


Non-speaking role. The Spirit is conjured by the Devil to capture Joan, but is defeated by Merlin in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father.


The spirit is a character in "The Triumph of Death," the third play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He tempts Lavall to seduce Casta, and, failing that, to rape her.


A ghost conjured by Landoffe in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids. He provides a magic ring that renders the bearer invisible. He retrieves the ring from Smircke at the end of the play.


A devil that disguises as Katherine to gull Cuddy in Rowley, Dekker and Ford's The Witch of Edmonton.


In the woods in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland, steals the magic bracelet from Rodamant. Possibly any one of the other spirits (First, Second, or Third).


At least three spirits figure in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland:
  • The First fears the coming of Patrick.
  • The Second tells Archimagus that the feared Patrick has arrived.
  • The Third explains that Patrick's arrival forces the Spirits' departure.


During the magical competition at Oxford in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay, Jaques Vandermast summons the Spirit in the Shape of Hercules to tear the branches from the tree that Friar Bungay had caused to appear. Friar Bacon later orders the Spirit to take Vandermast back to his school at Hapsburg and to remove Bungay's tree entirely.


Non-speaking role in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. Conjured by Cyprian, the Spirit appears in armor with a shield on which is written the parentage of Lysander.


A non-speaking character in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. The Spirit of Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.E.), described in the play as "Emperor Alexander," is conjured up by Faustus at the German Emperor's request. In the A-text, Alexander merely appears, but in the B-text, Alexander fights the Spirit of Darius, kills him, and places Darius' crown on Alexander's own Paramour's head.


A non-speaking character in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. The Spirit of the Paramour of Alexander the Great (Roxana), is conjured up by Faustus at Charles, the German Emperor's request and, in the B-text only, receives the crown of the dead Darius from Alexander. She has a mole on her neck, which Faustus allows Charles to inspect.


He and Diaphines's spirit enter to Otanes in the anonymous Tamar Cam.


A non-speaking character in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. In the B-text only, the Spirit of Darius (Persian Emperor Darius III; reigned 336-330 B.C.E.) appears at the court of Charles, the German Emperor when Faustus conjures up Alexander. The two fight, and Alexander kills him and places his crown on the head of his own Paramour.


He and Ascalon's spirit enter to Otanes in the anonymous Tamar Cam.


A non-speaking character in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. Mephostophilis produces the Spirit of Helen of Troy, called "Helen of Greece" in the play, upon Faustus' command after the Scholars ask Faustus to show her beauty to them. Later Faustus has Mephostophilis bring Helen to him as paramour "to glut" his "heart's desire."


Disguise assumed by Lightfoot during the deception and robbery of Hog in Tailor's The Hog Hath Lost His Pearl.


A character in the anonymous Tamar Cam whose name comports with geography more than history. The part this character plays is unclear from the plot that survived only to 1803.


Appears at Frank's bedside in Rowley, Dekker and Ford's The Witch of Edmonton. May not be Susan's ghost, since she died forgiving Frank: it may instead be a dream-figure, or a devil conjured by the Dog.


Behemoth and Cartophylax are spirits in Chapman's Bussy D'Ambois. Behemoth is called by Friar Comolet to discover what Monsieur and Montsurry plan to do with the secret paper. Behemoth is rather offended to be called upon for such a menial task. So, Behemoth sends Cartophylax to find out what is written on the paper.


Various spirits who inhabit Prospero's island and do his bidding in Shakespeare's The Tempest. The spirits set up a banquet for Alonso and the others, and later perform a Masque or "revel" for Miranda and Ferdinand in which they perform the parts of Juno, Ceres, Iris, nymphs and reapers.


Six unnamed Spirits "of peace" in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. They provide a vision to the divorced Katherine. They bow to her in her dreams and hold a garland over her head. She awakes in a state of rejoicing after the vision.


At Delphia's command in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess, a Spirit from a Crystal Well enters as flowers rise from the well; the spirit sings for Diocles and Drusilla. A second spirit enters during the dance of the Shepherds and Shepherdesses and warns Delphia that Maximinian is on his way to kill Diocles. Two additional spirits in the forms of Pan and Ceres dance for Diocles and Drusilla.


Two spirits in Richards' Messalina sing a song of despair to Messalina.


Fictitious characters in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. Adrastus claims that the Witch keeps company with Spirits and Goblins and, later, fears lying to the King concerning the Witch's prophecies lest she "informe him" of the truth "by a Spirit."
"Ghost characters" in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. The Witch complains that her "Spirits" are "dull and heavy" and, though she attempts to call on them "to defend [her] from [Adrastus]," her "feare takes away [her] power" and she is murdered.


They follow Corybreus into the quarters of Emeria in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland, celebrating and dancing as Corybreus begins to carry out his plot to rape the maiden. Possibly same as the First, Second, and Third spirits.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Mathlai, Tarmiel, Barborat, Rael, Velel, and Thiel are the names of spirits taken from Elementa Magica by Pietro d'Albano. Subtle recommends to the gullible Drugger the best solutions for the location of his shop. He suggests that Drugger should write the names of Mathlai, Tarmiel, and Barborat on the eastern side of his shop, and Rael, Velel, and Thiel on the northern part. Subtle claims these are the names of the Mercurial spirits, meant to frighten flies from the boxes of tobacco. Implicitly, the god of commerce, Mercury, was supposed to protect the shop.


Argalio's familiar spirits dance for Leonides to cheer him up in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. One of them warns Argalio of the approaching Saints.


Calib's familiar spirits protect her from the angry George in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom until they are defeated by the power of the wand.


St. David fights them off in Ormandine's cave in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom.


Also referred to as the Spiritual Estate or the Prelates in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates. They are a group representing the First Estate of Scotland, the clergy. They process onto the stage at the beginning of the play and remain there as auditors throughout, exiting during the interlude between the parts. The Bishop, Prioress, Abbot and Parson sit among them. When they re-enter for the Second Part, they are led by Covetice and Lady Sensuality and walk backwards. Examined by the Parliament and ultimately accused by Flattery, they are all stripped of their ecclesiastical robes, revealing the motley beneath, and exposed as fools.


A "ghost character" in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. Nan Spit is the kitchen maid at the inn where Robin works, and Rafe lusts after her.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. A cobbler of Nottingham, he is a friend and religious brother of Joshua. Joshua asks Young Bateman to do his commendations to him on his return to Nottinghamshire.


Friend of Walkadine Hoard in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One, his name literally means "fried eel." The etymology of his name is appropriate to this character who, along with Lamprey, is parasitical on Hoard and assists him in his usurious schemes.


Brothel keeper and employer of Mistress Mary in (?)Heywood's How A Man May Choose A Good Wife From A Bad. Advises Mistress Mary to use her good looks to marry a rich husband. She leaves when Young Master Arthur arrives to court Mistress Mary. Later, she witnesses Brabo propose to and be rejected by Mistress Mary. Mistress Splay next appears after Mistress Mary and Young Master Arthur are married. She defends Mistress Mary's right to have her way in all things, and stands aside with Brabo while Mistress Mary and Young Master Arthur speak privately. Later, Mistress Splay joins Brabo, the Officers, and Hugh as they arrest Young Master Arthur. After he is arrested, Mistress Splay looks forward to sharing in his wealth. At the end of the play she appears with Mistress Mary, Brabo, Young Master Arthur and Hugh before Justice Reason, and offers to act as a witness to Arthur's confession before Mistress Mary. When Mistress Arthur appears and the murder charge disappears, Mistress Splay wonders what prevented the poison from working on Mistress Arthur.


Daughter of Mr Nice, in love with Mercurio in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden. She overhears her father disapproving of the relationship, and writes a note to arrange an assignation with Mercurio. Mercurio is, however arrested for debt, and feigns his own funeral, thus teaching her father a lesson: at the end of the play she is married to Mercutio.

SPONER **1599

Searcher in the service of the Rector in Ruggle’s Club Law. He attends Musonius when he comes with a writ to catch Niphle in his lechery with Luce at Tavie’s house. After the searchers find Niphle hiding in a tub with a beggar-wench and parade them to jail in the tub, he helps Purcus to arrest Luce. Luce kisses him when she learns they have a mutual acquaintance in Bridget Boulton.


Sportlove is friend to Valentine in Chamberlain's Swaggering Damsel. In Act Two, he tells his friend that somebody like him–handsome, with good clothes, education and money–should not worry because he will have Mistress Sabina in the end. Thus, when Valentine receives a letter from Sabina, he advises him to promise things to the lady to sleep with her, and then leave her.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Tragedy of Nero. Nero's castrated male "wife," Sporus is greatly resented by Poppaea. She learns of Nero's flamboyant "wedding" to the eunuch and jealously challenges him to deny a detailed description. Nero turns his anger on her: the occasion is a turning point in the collapse of their partnership.


Spring introduces the second of the four interludes in [?]Queen Henrietta's Florimène. He or she sings, and is followed by three pairs of young men and women who dance.

Known alternately as John Sparing/Spring, a vintner in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. Along with many other tradesmen, he gossips about the impending marriage of Captain Stukeley and Nell, daughter of the wealthy Sir Thomas Curtis. Immediately after the wedding, they seek to abscond with Stukeley's newfound money, citing debs both real and fabricated.


An aptly named friend of Sir Hugh Moneylacks in Brome's The Sparagus Garden, who joins with him in his plan to gull Tim Hoyden. He teaches Tim some very elaborate 'gentlemanly' modes of address and some turns of the rapier, which Tim later shows to Striker and Touchwood as proof of his gentility.


Springlove is Oldrents' steward and a beggar child whom Oldrents has raised in Brome's A Jovial Crew. He, along with Oldrents, provides a guesthouse for beggars. Though he is an honest and faithful steward, Springlove has an inbred desire, every spring, to wander as a beggar and vagabond. Against Oldrents' wishes but ultimately with his consent, Springlove departs to beg. Unbeknownst to Oldrents, he is accompanied by Rachel and Meriel, Oldrents' daughters, and their sweethearts, Hilliard and Vincent. Springlove teaches them how to beg, but with only marginal success. In the course of their wanderings, Springlove encounters Amie, with whom he falls in love. With her and the rest of the beggar crew, Springlove arrives at Master Clack's house where he plays himself in the inset play before Oldrents and is reunited with Oldrents. Here Patrico also reveals that he is Springlove's uncle (on his mother's side) and that Springlove is Oldrents' son. The play concludes with Oldrents' promise to make Springlove his heir and Clack's concession to the marriage of Springlove and Amie.


One of a number of attendants to the arriviste Bubbles in Cooke's Greene's Tu Quoque. Unlike Staines who uses his position to gull his master, Sprinkle plays a significantly more reassuring role, being new to London society himself.

SPRUCE **1619

A courtier in the Praeludium in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. He hopes to sit near Spark in case the play is dull they can talk. He agrees with Spark that Landlord hasn’t the wit to judge a play. When two different actors fail to remember the prologue, Spruce, Spark, and Landlord retire to a box and leave the stage.


Town Clerk in Ruggle’s Club Law. He is verbose and tiresome to the others when he speaks. After the fight, he attends and protects Niphle as he leaves prison. He proves a milquetoast when he will not draw up Niphle’s compromise plan to appear to make peace with the students and look for an opportunity for revenge.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's All's Well. A captain in the Florentine army.


A gentleman usher to Lady Worthy in Nabbes' Covent Garden. Warrant challenges him to a duel over the love of Susan, but they are interrupted by the arrival of Dorothy and Lady Worthy. Later, at night, Dorothy and Susan watch Spruce and Warrant comically try to duel in the moonlight, and when Ralph and Dobson show up, Susan tricks them into robbing Warrant and trying to rob Spruce. Later, when the constable brings in Ralph and Dobson under arrest, Warrant denies that he was robbed, leading into the mock trial which concludes the play. In that mock trial, Ralph characterizes Spruce as "a Malkin of mock-gentry, made up of silk and vain-glory".


Spruse resorts to chicanery in his wooing of women in Marmion's A Fine Companion. He first appears in the play to show a box of unsigned love notes, penned by hire and ready for Spruse simply to fill in a woman's name. Hoping to win Valeria but never planning to wed her, Spruse first claims that Valeria has given him the ring that Aurelio had earlier given her. Forced to confess the truth, Spruse finally aids Aurelio in wedding Valeria.


Like Hircius, Spungius is a whoremaster and drunkard in Massinger and Dekker's The Virgin Martyr. He serves Dorothea, but is not a Christain. Aptly named, Spungius abandons Dorothea after he has his fill of her provisions. Theophilus orders that he torture Dorothea, but after his failure to inflict any pain, Theophilus orders that he be executed.


A country gentleman in the anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. He sustains against Gulato and Sperato the superiority of hunting over either hawking or drinking, to the disgust of the two wise men.


A knight of Lewisham, whose estate is in decline in The London Prodigal. He aims to restore his house by marrying his three daughters, Luce, Frances and Delia, to rich suitors. He attempts to manipulate the other characters, but his greed makes him easily gulled by Flowerdale, who tricks him into allowing Luce to marry him. He is eventually pleased when Frances marries the rich Master Civet, and when Flowerdale promises to reform.


The Duke's bastard son in [?]Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy. Spurio is a misanthrope and a malcontent who has designs on cuckolding the Duke by bedding his bride, the young Duchess. At this he succeeds. The dying Duke, murdered by Vindice and Hippolito, is forced to watch secretly as Spurio successfully seduces the Duchess at an inn. He plans to kill the new Duke, his half-brother Lussurioso, and to that end joins with his step-brothers Ambitioso and Supervacuo to present a masque of revenge. The masque is to end with knives produced and Lussurioso murdered. However, when they come to fall upon the party, they find that everyone is already dead. After Supervacuo stabs Ambitioso and proclaims himself Duke, Spurio stabs Supervacuo and proclaims himself Duke. He is then stabbed himself by the fourth member of their masque, an unnamed lord.


Spurius, a servant of the Emperor in the anonymous Tragedy of Tiberius. A non-speaking role, he is sent to fetch in the burning crown that Tiberius uses to execute Sejanus. He is ordered to force-feed Agrippina and while attempting it accidentally strangles her to death. Tiberius stabs him for his clumsiness.


Spurling is a member of the troupe of crude amateur actors in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. They come to entertain the lords Moorton and Pembrooke on the night before their wedding day. The peasant-actors debate over which of them should have the opening speech. Seeing that the scales incline in favor of Turnop rather than Hugh, Spurling asks Hugh if he will allow himself to be outfaced so easily. Spurling's role in the pageant is to represent Moorton's name. Spurling plays a Moor holding a tun. In his speech, Turnop presents a "golden tun" offered by "a monstrous murrian black a moore." During the night, the peasant-actors rehearse their song dedicated to the brides near the house where the bridegrooms are lodged. When Shrimp replaces Will's Welsh song with his song about the ladies' elopement, the clowns are accused of involvement in the escape plan. Chester sends the troupe of actors and his servants in search of the ladies. At Gosselin's castle, John a Cumber discusses with the actors the play they are going to act before the lords Llewllen, Chester, Moorton, and Pembrooke. This play is intended to be a mockery of John a Kent, with John a Cumber playing John a Kent. Yet, the actors arrive after the play is enacted with the real characters acting as themselves, and after John a Cumber has been humiliated in the guise of John a Kent. The actors see the person whom they think to be John a Kent (actually John a Cumber still in disguise) and they vent their abuse upon him as they were taught by John a Cumber. After they perform this last act of humiliation at John a Cumber's expense, the actors exit to do their daily jobs.


The spur-maker in Jonson's The Staple of News providing Pennyboy Junior with his first set of spurs as an heir.


A Persian and spy for Mycetes in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1. He reports the arrival and superior strength of Tamburlaine's forces, recently combined with Theridamas and Cosroe.


Squartacantino, servant to Cantalupo in (?)Jeffere's The Bugbears, makes fun of the foolishness he sees in his elderly master's lust to marry Rosimunda, who is young enough to be Cantalupo's daughter. Squartacantino's banter helps coax Cantalupo to break the engagement.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. According to Bottom, Mistress Squash is the mother of the fairy Peaseblossom. Squash does not appear on stage.


A widowed justice, friend to Mistress Fitchow in Brome's The Northern Lass. He claims gentlemanly descent, although Master Widgine argues that he was merely a Grazier before coming up to the city. He intends to marry his niece, Constance, to Master Nonsense, but is frustrated when she goes mad from love melancholy. He considers remarrying to provide himself with a new heir, but Mistress Trainwell's offer to oblige scares him into spending his money prodigally, and he orders a huge dinner party (about which he promptly forgets). He takes a fancy for the prostitute, Constance Holdup, and he plans to carry off an affair with her by setting her up in a house where she can pass for his mad niece, to whom he will make 'charitable' visits. When Mistress Trainwell convinces him that his real niece has eloped with Master Widgine, he is incensed. Incited by her, he finally arrives at his own dinner party disguised as a Spaniard; is almost arrested by Vexhem; consents to marry Mistress Trainwell when she promises to get him out of this fix; and ends by forgiving everyone and sanctioning the marriage of Sir Philip and Constance.