An astrologer in Chapman's The Conspiracy of Charles, Duke of Byron. Byron comes to him in disguise, and he predicts that the man whose horoscope he's reading will lose his head. Byron then beats him.


A captain under Byron in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron. He brings letters from La Fin to Byron in III, which persuade Byron (after he has told the King's two messengers that he will not return to the court) to return to meet with the King. La Brunel warns Byron of La Fin's possible treachery.


La Busse is the son of Ganelon and a friend of Orlando in the anonymous Charlemagne. He is hostile towards his father's plots, supporting Orlando as the rightful heir. After Ganelon's disgrace, however, he loyally attempts to win back the favor of Charlemagne on his father's behalf. Charlemagne sets La Busse a riddle that he must solve to redeem Ganelon's fortunes. La Busse must come before Charlemagne on a road never used by horse or man, riding on a beast that is neither horse, mare or ass but that is nonetheless a 'usual thing for burden'. He must be neither clothed nor naked, and bring with him his greatest friend and greatest enemy as companions. La Busse solves the riddle by meeting the Emperor on a newly ploughed field, riding a mule, clothed in a net and accompanied by his greatest friend (a spaniel) and his greatest enemy (his wife). La Busse marries Bertha, the daughter of Eudon, and with their help he is able to solve Charlemagne's riddle and redeem Ganelon. He leaves the court despairing when his father's murders of Richard, Gabriella and Eldegrad are discovered.


Mirabel's father in Fletcher's Wild-Goose Chase. In De Gard's three year absence, has protected and given a home to Oriana. He desires that Mirabel marry, and strongly argues that Mirabel choose from among Nantolet's two daughters, Rosalura and Lillia-Bianca.


Monsieur La Far is left in charge as Marshal of the French troops when the King of France is inexplicably recalled from Dover in Shakespeare's King Lear. The Marshal never appears in the play.

la FIN

A ruined French noble in Chapman's The Conspiracy of Charles, Duke of Byron. He is exiled by Henry in the first scene of the play; he then conspires with Savoy to lure Byron to their cause. His apparent despair persuades Byron to take him into his service.
A ruined French noble in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron. He supports Byron and serves as his envoy to Henry early in the play, ostensibly to assuage Henry's concerns about anti-French activity on the part of the Italians, the Spanish, and the Duke of Savoy. He betrays Byron's plans to Henry, and testifies against Byron at his trial.

la FISKE **1619

Spelled L’Fiske in the dramatis personae to Fletcher’s Bloody Brother. One of the five cheating rogues (called mathematicians, they are fraud astrologers) along with Norbrett, Russe, DeBube, and Pippeau. According to him, they represent five of the seven deadly sins: lechery, envy, gluttony, covetousness—their boy, Pippeau, represents sloth. He and the others take Latorch’s money and tell him whatever horoscope he wishes to hear. Aubrey orders the “mathematicians" whipped for their knavery and also orders them to witness Latorch’s hanging.

la FUE

La Fue is a choleric and physically unappealing clown in the anonymous Charlemagne. He serves Ganelon. He feuds with Didier before becoming the unlikely love-object of Charlemagne when he holds the magic ring. He later comes before Charlemagne in finery, having returned the ring to Bishop Turpin, and is humiliated by the court.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by God as an example of man's sinfulness.


Labeo is an officer in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar who, along with Flavius, receives orders from Brutus to continue the battle at Philippi.

LABERIO **1635

Carolo’s disguise name in Rider’s The Twins. Carolo and Alphonso meet in Pale’s wood where they fight and Alphonso falls. Carolo, fearing to be taken in the murder, determines to disguise himself and hide in the woods. See CAROLO.


An officer in Caesar's army in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. He fights with Rollano and is killed by the wounded Nennius. Alternately spelled Labienus.


Rufus Laberius Crispinus is the offending poetaster in Rome in Jonson's Poetaster. Probably Jonson modeled him to lampoon his fellow playwright, John Marston. At Albius's house in Rome, Crispinus enters, apparently to visit his cousin, Cytheris, but actually to study Chloë and dedicate her a poem commissioned by Albius. Albius announces the arrival of important guests and the poets and their ladies enter. After light conversation and music, the guests depart for the banquet hall. On the Via Sacra in Rome, Crispinus sees Horace and wants to ingratiate himself with the great poet. Though Horace is visibly displeased with the poetaster's irritating company, Crispinus insists that Horace should introduce him to Maecenas. Horace is saved when Minos enters with Lictors to have Crispinus arrested for debt. In his turn, Crispinus is saved by the boisterous entrance of Captain Tucca, who threatens and cajoles Minos, finally persuading him to be content with half of Crispinus's debt. At Albius's house, Crispinus enters with his host, followed by Demetrius and Tucca. Crispinus sings his love poem, apparently inspired by Chloë as Canidia, but the poets present discover that the poem is plagiarized from Horace. Crispinus is diplomatically silent, and he exits with the others to the ball at court. Disguised as Mercury, Crispinus enters an apartment in the Palace together with the entire party of poets and their ladies, each characteristically dressed as gods and goddesses. All the masks play their assigned roles. When the angry Caesar enters and interrupts the revelry, Crispinus says he is a poor gentleman poet and exits meekly. While Caesar is holding his court with the poets, Crispinus enters with Demetrius. When Aesop and Lupus are chased in disgrace, Crispinus and Demetrius are charged with calumny and plagiarism. They sit a trial and are pronounced guilty. As a punishment, Crispinus is given an emetic to throw up the difficult words that had overloaded his vocabulary. After he vomits superfluous words, Crispinus's sentence is to be locked in a dark place in solitude. Crispinus and Demetrius are made to swear they will never publicly detract Horace or write against him.


A count in Chapman's An Humourous Day's Mirth. Father of Dowsecer and jealous husband of his young wife Florilla. He tempts her with jewels that magically appear in her locked garden (to which he has made himself a key). He learns that she intends to betray him in a rendezvous at Verone's tavern. He goes there with Labesha but does not find her. When she later chides him for his mistrust, he vows that he will never be suspicious again, and they are reconciled.


A vain gull according to Lemot in Chapman's An Humourous Day's Mirth. Foyes chooses him as suitor and chaperone for his daughter, Martia. When he learns that she has arrived with Florilla at Verone's tavern, he reports her to her father, Foyes. The gallants, Berger Catalian, and Blanuel, gull him. They tempt him out of his apparent melancholy with a bowl of cream, which he devours, then denies eating. They then decide to tell him that Martia is dead, and he attempts suicide offstage but is stopped by Lemot.


Labienus was Caesar's lieutenant in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. But he has deserted him for Pompey, believing his was the better cause. He arrives, wounded, to tell Ptolemy of Pompey's loss and arrival in Egypt.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Quintus Labienus is reported to have turned against Caesar and raised a Parthian army, taking Syria, Lydia and Ionia.


Labour is a character in "The Triumph of Time," the final play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. Plutus commands him to serve Anthropos.


The Labourers are characters in the masque Ptolemy arranges for Caesar in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. The three of them sing a song praising Nilus and how easily he flows into the beds they make for him in spring.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. One of the noble French soldiers taken prisoner at the Battle of Leith. He, or another character of the same name, later serves as one of the French commissioners at the peace negotiations in Edinburgh.

LACERO **1638

A ‘tottered’ (tattered) common soldier with a cock feather in his hat in Mayne’s Amorous War. Macrinus, Lacero, and Serpix tell Callias, Neander, and Artops that they are going to complain to the king how the captains use up all the regiment’s money and finery to deck themselves while the common soldiers are left in squalor. They earn ‘four and eight pence weekly.’ The soldiers threaten to mutiny, but their captains turn a deaf ear to them. They play a trick by disguising themselves as Thracians and capturing their cowardly captains whilst Callias, Neander, and Artops dally with the “Amazon" warriors in their tent. Callias, Neander, and Artops are blindfolded and led away and made to exchange clothes with their soldiers (still believing them to be Thracians), and Macrinus, Lacero, and Serpix tease and taunt them with visions of slavery and gelding in Thrace. Callias begs to be hanged instead.


Timon's faithful servant in the anonymous Timon of Athens. He brings gold, but warns Timon not to spend it so lavishly among his friends. When he sees the fiddler Hermogenes in Timon's house, he wants to throw him out. But Timon binds Laches and tells Hermogenes to give him a sound beating, then he dismisses him. The faithful Laches now wants to go back to his master's house in a soldier's disguise. On the way he meets Hermogenes, hoodwinks and beats him, presenting himself as "Nemesis." Hermogenes thanks the unknown soldier who seems to have come to his rescue. He wants to make him his servant and calls him Machaetes. Even Timon does not recognize him and thinks he is Revenge when he comes to him in IV.3, and he bids him to invite all his friends to his mock banquet. Laches discovers himself to Timon in his distress (in V.2), thus showing that he is still his faithful servant, but Timon insists that he has to hate him because he now hates every man. Together they curse all humanity. When Timon finds gold and his false friends come again, Laches helps Timon to drive them away with a spade.


With Atropos and Clotho, the fate Lachesis defers to the glorious Eliza at the play's end, surrendering to the queen a spindle and reel in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. Narcissus mentions Lachesis when, about to die, he utters the words "Lachesis, loppe thy loome." According to Greek mythology, Lachesis was one of the three fates–the one that was in charge of measuring the length of the thread of life.


A "ghost character" and possibly an imaginary one as well in Baylie's The Wizard. When Shallow asks Delia who she has loved, she responds that she first loved Lady Hawties Lackey.


A rustic swain in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. One of Chremylus' honest neighbors. When Carion tells him that Plutus will make him rich, he imagines how his other friends, Clip-Latin, Rent-all, Steal-all, and Noyse, will act when they are likewise enriched. He later delights in seeing parson Dicæus defeat Penia-Penniless in a disputation over the superiority of wealth over poverty.


When the Usurer in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England confiscates all of Thrasibulus's land, Alcon jokingly refers to the youth as having been newly dubbed Sir John Lackland.


Lackwit in Marmion's A Fine Companion is the son of the usurer Littlegood, who wishes his son to be scholarly, and Mistress Fondling, who desires her son to learn dashing courtly skills and to sow his wild oats. Eager to become a "brother" to Captain Whibble and company, Lackwit not only is deprived of his hat and cloak but is also left with his carousing friends' bill. He promises to accomplish a fine deed in seeing that his sister marries as his father wishes to Dotario. Instead he is duped into allowing his sister Aemilia to wed the disguised Careless.


Laco (Gracinus), commander of the night watch in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall . He is the general who conspires with Macro to have the Senate meet at night behind Sejanus' back.


A "ghost character" in Holiday's Technogamia. Cheiromantes predicts that Choler will have two children, Furioso and Lacryma. The second will be a sober girl who takes after her mother; she will be modest and beloved by wise men


Lactantio is the nephew of the Cardinal of Milan in Middleton's More Dissemblers Besides Women. Since he is the Cardinal's heir, he must pretend to be chaste. But he loves Aurelia (and several other women). So he acts like a religious scholar, while disguising Aurelia as a gentleman who is staying with him. At the same time, he keeps another mistress in disguise as his Page. However, his "Page" then turns out to be pregnant, and asks him to marry her, but he refuses. He then orders Aurelia to be his lover, and renounce her former lover, Andrugio; she agrees. But her father favors a third suitor, the Governor of the Fort. Her father sees through her disguise, and drags her away to the fort. Lactantio has to invent a reason why his "gentleman friend" has left, and also has to deal with his pregnant Page, deciding to send the latter to a nurse of his acquaintance. He sends Dondolo to the fort to try to convey a message from Aurelia, but Dondolo misinterprets her sign language; this makes Lacantio angry, and he insults Dondolo, who runs away with the gypsies. Lactantio becomes convinced that Andrugio will worm his way into Aurelia's affections again. Then the Cardinal tells him that he would like him to marry the Duchess. Lactantio is delighted, seeing this as the route to wealth. He goes to meet the Duchess, who tells him that she'd like to help him destroy Andrugio. She asks Lactantio to forge a love-letter from Andrugio to her, which he can then use to arrest Andrugio, on her authority. Lactantio thinks everything is going is way. But when the Duchess allows Aurelia to marry whomever she wants, Aurelia chooses Lactantio. Lactantio rejects Aurelia, saying he's moved on to better things. He is disappointed, however, when the Cardinal enters and asks the Duchess to choose her husband, and the Duchess announces that she will remain a vowed virgin forever. The Duchess then reveals the truth about Lactantio's "Page," explaining that Lactantio has been wooing her in man's apparel "because he was bashful / And never could endure the sight of woman." The Cardinal is furious, and Lactantio laments his bad luck, resigning himself to marrying his "Page," although the Duchess sweetens the blow with a 10,000 ducat dowry.


Lactanio is a friend of both Doria and Vitelli in Glapthorne's Ladie's Privilege. He greets Doria when he returns from war and stands with him at both his trial and his supposed marriage to Sabelli.


Lactantio's mistress in Middleton's More Dissemblers Besides Women is disguised as his Page named Antonio but she is never given a proper name. Lactantio is happy to have her in his house, until he learns that she is pregnant, and decides to send her away. When the Cardinal finds the "Page" crying, he takes "him" away from Lactantio and gives "him" as a gift to the Duchess. The Page is annoyed, and even more so when the Duchess and Celia decide that he is not manly enough and needs dancing practice. She thus ends up undergoing a session with the ghastly Crotchet and Sinquapace, during which and her exertions cause her to go into labor, to the astonishment of all. At the end, the Page enters in her female attire, and the Duchess reveals to the Cardinal that Lactantio has been wooing her in man's apparel "because he was bashful / And never could endure the sight of woman." The Duchess gives the Page 10,000 ducats as a dowry, so that she can marry Lactantio.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Locrine. Strumbo quotes his fourth book of Consultation: "everything goes arsward" in I.iii, a comic interlude.


Lactusia, a nurse and occasional amateur poisoner in Quarles' The Virgin Widow, is Quack's confidante, and persuades him to poison Kettreena at the queen's behest. At the close of the play she reveals that she swapped the infant Kettreena and Augusta in their cradles, when in Artesio's employ.


Lord Lacy declares himself Marian's father in II.ii in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington, although later her father is shown repeatedly to be Fitzwater, indicating incomplete revision. Lacy appears in only a single scene before he is replaced by Fitzwater. In that scene, he argues with his brother, Hugh Lacy, believing that he conspired to have Robin outlawed. He threatens to kill Hugh, but it is John who actually does so. (See also "FITZWATER").


Family name of Sir Hugh and Rowland in Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday.


‘A captain booted and spurred’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. He first appears at the opening of act three with Denham. He is headed to London with a press of men. He has come under orders to divert Denham to Colchester. He reports that the Spanish will despoil Colchester on their first day, London the second, and geld all the lawyers on the third day. He wishes Denham well and exits towards the Maldon side of the stage. When he meets Denham again, he learns that ‘the Spaniards be fled all’. Lacy declares that the Lord has fought on the English side this day and suggests that he and Denham repair to the Tarlton Inn for a drink. At the inn, Pearle asks that Lacy and Denham judge the cuckolds and cuckqueans. Lacy’s judgement is that each should take his own home. He tells them not to fret for even kings have ‘worn Vulcan’s badge’. He points out that each is already revenged upon the other by their acts.


Family name of Lord Lacy and Sir Maurice in Massinger's The City Madam.


He learns about the situation with the Bonavent's interrupted marriage in Shirley's Hyde Park, but he perhaps knows anyway, because he is soon sent for by a servant of Mistress Bonavent. He is to marry Mistress Bonavent as soon as Bonavent's 'disappearance' can be timed at seven years–that time is the day of the play's setting. He bullies the disguised Bonavent into dancing for the amusement of the others. To rectify the rift, he plans a day of frivolity in Hyde Park. In revenge for the earlier incident, Bonavent violently coerces Lacy into dancing to music played by a Bagpiper. His fury is calmed by Mistress Bonavent; he promises to be civil to the 'newcomer', the disguised Bonavent. Back at the Bonavents' house, where the wedding is to take place, Lacy is perturbed when Bonavent places a willow garland on his head. He cannot understand why he is marked as single when he is due to be wedded. When Bonavent's identity is revealed, he realizes that he cannot now marry Mistress Bonavent. He takes the news with good grace, accepting the workings of 'providence'.


Lacy, Earl of Kent, apparently a man of mature years in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame, is the close friend of Morgan, Earl of London, and has been chosen by Morgan to marry his daughter Honorea. But when the devil Belphagor as the Spanish doctor Castiliano cures her muteness, Honorea vehemently rejects Earl Lacy (and Castiliano as well)–she is in love with Musgrave, a young gentleman. Morgan pretends to relent and marry her to Musgrave but pulls a so-called "bed-trick," substituting Earl Lacy in Honorea's bed and so ensuring their marriage. Honorea rejects Earl Lacy again, but is later converted to virtue and returns to him. She is dismayed to find that he is very sick and arranges for the Spanish doctor to treat him. Mariana, not knowing of Honorea's change, tries to get Castiliano to poison Earl Lacy, but he substitutes a sleeping potion. After St. Dunston and Earl Lacy watch from cover as Honorea rejects Musgrave a last time, news is brought that Earl Lacy is dead, seemingly poisoned by the doctor. After Honorea witnesses Castiliano/Belphagor vanish into the bowels of the earth, she swoons to find Earl Lacy, whom she now loves, awake and alive.


Edward Lacy, the Earl of Lincoln, is Prince Edward's best friend in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. When the prince determines to make Margaret his mistress, he sends Lacy in disguise to woo on his behalf. Instead, Lacy falls in love with the maid, as she does with him. When Prince Edward learns of the relationship, he confronts the couple at Fressingfield, threatens to have Lacy executed, is moved by Margaret's pleading, and promises to support Lacy's marriage to the young woman. Before their wedding, Lacy decides to test Margaret by sending her a message from court indicating that he is to be married to one of the waiting women attendant upon Elinor of Castile. At court, Lacy's description of Margaret's beauty and virtue is so telling that King Henry orders him to fetch Margaret from Fressingfield in order to have them married at the same time as Prince Edward and Elinor. Believing herself abandoned, Margaret had decided to enter a convent, but when Lacy arrives and tells her the truth, she gives up her intention to enter the religious life and returns with her beloved to court.


Hugh Lacy is the brother of Lord Lacy in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. After Robin and Marian escape, he is accused by his brother of plotting with Prince John and the others to outlaw Robin. John, who is upset at Marian's escape, stabs and kills him, apparently believing he helped Robin and Marian.

LACY, LORD **1602

A lord in Heywood's Royal King; has no lines and contributes nothing to the plot.

LACY, LORD**1632

Lord Lacy is a friend to Sir John and father to Lacy in Massinger's The City Madam. He is introduced to Sir John after observing him deal with the three debtors with outstanding balances. After hearing Luke's impassioned speech asking his brother, Sir John, for leniency to the debtors, he insists on Luke being a good and reformed person, chastising Sir John for his treatment of Luke. That is, until the end of the play when Luke is exposed for being a hypocrite to his own words when Lord Lacy brings Old Goldwire and Old Tradewell before Luke in an effort to pay their sons debts and thus free them from debtors prison. Luke denies them and even has Old Goldwire and Old Tradewell arrested, proving without doubt to Lord Lacy that Luke is indeed the scoundrel Sir John had pointed him out to be.


An unspecified number of ladies are present when Dorothea learns of the warrant for her death in Greene's James IV.


A group of ladies carry Mellida away after she falls into a death swoon upon the false rumor of Antonio's death in Marston's Antonio's Revenge. A group of ladies return to the stage at the end of the play to congratulate Antonio and his men on the killing of Piero.


Apparently the ladies-in-waiting of the dead Queen Mariana in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon, they appear in her funeral cortege during the dumb show at the beginning of the play with their eyes covered by scarves. Once Time and Truth remove the veils from their eyes, they pledge allegiance to Titania. They may include Agathe, Aura, Castina and Philaema, who later appear as Titania's ladies-in-waiting. (See "AGATHE," "AURA," "CASTINA," and "PHILAEMA").


During the first banquet in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens (scene I.ii) a group of ladies performs a Masque of Cupid and the Amazons, a masque that might also represent the five senses. After their performance they dance with the guests, and then they all are entertained. Apemantus describes them as prostitutes.


In I.iii of Shakespeare's Cymbeline, the Queen sends a lady to summon Imogen. In II.iii, Cloten seeks access to Imogen by bribing one of her ladies.


The hypothetical court ladies who will attend to Mammon in his imaginary paradise are "fictional characters" in Jonson's The Alchemist. Mammon imagines having a huge amount of money, which he gained because of the alchemical transmutation, and fantasizes that the most innocent ladies will fan him with ostrich plumes.


In II.i of Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, Hermione's ladies attempt to entertain Mamillius.

LADIES **1617

A group of ladies-in-waiting in Fletcher's Queen of Corinth habitually appears with the Queen of Corinth when she appears at court. None of them speak.

LADIES **1620

Captive beauties in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage. They are paraded first before the tyrant Ferrand, from whom they beg but do not receive mercy. Next, they are placed before the imitation king Castruchio, whose plan to impregnate all of them is thwarted by the Doctor. The ladies are subjected to several sexual threats. When Ferrand decides not to use them himself, he gives them to his guards who are encouraged to "enjoy" the women, then ransom them back to their own husbands.


Ladies in Fletcher's The Pilgrim, presumably from the King's court, accompany the Governor and Verdugo to church on the King's birthday.


An unspecified number of ladies in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador, along with the Bishop of Winchester, step between the opposed factions in the last scene.


Two ladies-in-waiting who attend on Margarita, and introduce her guests in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife.


Non-speaking characters in Fletcher's The Elder Brother. They arrive for Angellina's wedding to Eustace and who then watch as the bride is courted and proposed to by the groom's brother.


The Ladies cheated by the depraved young gentlemen are fictional characters in Jonson's The New Inn. When Host rails against the current decayed ways of the nobility, he says that the young gentlemen use their liberal arts education to cheat and steal. After having cheated a gullible Lord at cards, the rascals pinch three or four buttons from the Ladies' gowns.


Two ladies in Capua tempt Hannibal in the first act of Nabbes' Hannibal and Scipio. After initially fighting his impulses, Hannibal aggressively woos the second lady, but she rebukes him for being soft when he should be acting like a soldier. The first lady, meanwhile, teases Maharball and Himulco. The two ladies represent the passions which are eventually Hannibal's undoing later in the play.

LADIES **1635

Two groups of ladies figure in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy.


Three ladies help to make an audience for Voluble's lecture on clothing and other finery in Cavendish's The Variety. Each lady has a single question or remark.


As regret for sinful behavior sweeps through the court at Nineveh in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England, Aluida calls upon her ladies-in-waiting to follow her in fasting and prayer. In unison, the ladies agree that it is right for them to do so.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. The prodigal Asotus wishes to send for "a whole coach or two" of such lewd women.


They enter the court in great distress in Rowley’s When You See Me over Queen Jane’s ill health and call for more women to assist, more warm clothes, and to see the wine well burnt.


Non-speaking characters in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron. Four ladies appear along with the other performers in the second act Masque of the Virtues.

LADIES of the COURT **1611

They come to get Tormiella after she leaves the king in Dekker’s Match Me in London. They dress her in fresh garments and a mask before leading her from Cordolente’s house into a coach.


Mute characters in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. They are with the Princess Neronis when she comes upon Clyomon, who is seasick on their shores.


"Ghost characters" in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. Philicia's "women" are referred to throughout the play as the King questions why "none of [her] maids" are "worthie to keep [her] company" in the Garden and Guiderius explains to Arviragus that Philicia "dares not have [him] in her chamber, least some of her women shud know it."


Three ladies at the French court whom Savoy courts in Chapman's The Conspiracy of Charles, Duke of Byron. They appear with him in the final scene as he prepares to depart.


Three Roman ladies (termed 'dames') in Richards' Messalina knock at Lepida's door seeking to avoid rape. The Bawd and Saufellus kill all three. Their ghosts subsequently return to gloat when Saufellus is swallowed by the earth.


Ladislaus, King of Bohemia in Massinger's The Picture, doting husband of Honoria.


The third of four shepherds in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess. Along with Alexis, Egon, and Thirsis, he is arranging a country entertainment for Diocles.


For named ladies, search under the given name e.g. "ANNE, LADY."


Kinswoman of the King and later his Queen in Preston's Cambises. Although initially reluctant to give in to Cambyses' advances, since she is his cousin, she ultimately gives in and marries him. On their wedding night she dares to question the morality of Cambyses' murder of his brother, and in a fit of anger, Cambyses has her executed.


Attendant upon Queen Videna in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appears in the first playlet.


An unnamed lady in Marston's What You Will is seen with Lorenzo Celsi in his first appearance.


A "ghost character" in [?]Heywood's The Fair Maid of the Exchange. At the beginning of the play, Phillis and Ursula are in the dark at Mile-End Green on their way to deliver ruffs and other wares to the anonymous lady. They have ventured out in this circumstance only because Phillis is "much beholding" to her ladyship.


The Lady in Armin's The Two Maids of More–Clacke, thinking that her husband was dead because of what he tells her in his letters, marries again with Sir William Vergir. In her wedding, she loses one of her gloves. Later, she rejects Sir William's offer to marry her son with one of his daughters. When she meets her former husband, she promises him that she will not sleep with her new husband any more and that she has a son with James whom she has not stopped loving. She will continue their love story in spite of being recently married until she is caught in bed with James. She is distinguished from Vesta due to her fault. The Lady is forgiven by her husband in public but later she learns that he plans to poison her and she blames Humil for betraying her and his father. She is poisoned in the party and dies.


Non-speaking character in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron. Accompanies the nurse and the Dauphin to the King in the opening scene. Possibly the same lady appears with the Queen and others in IV.ii.


The Lady in Fletcher's The Night Walker marries her daughter, Maria, to the old, avaricious Algripe, despite the daughter's love for Frank Hartlove. When her daughter apparently dies, the lady regrets the engagement. Furthermore, Algripe refuses to return Maria's dowry, which the lady tries to get back. When Maria returns home disguised as Guennith, the lady recognizes her daughter; a contrite Algripe returns the dowry, and the lady consents to Maria's marriage to Hartlove.


The Lady is the lover of King Govianus, whom the Tyrant usurps to gain her love in [?]Middleton's The Second Maiden's Tragedy. The Lady refuses to leave Govianus, and so the Tyrant banishes them to a house where they are kept in separate rooms. The Lady and Govianus befriend their guards, who allow them to spend time together. The lady's father, Helvetius, tries to persuade her to prostitute herself to the Tyrant but she refuses, and Govianus persuades Helvetius to repent of his unnaturalness. When the house is surrounded by the Fellows, the Lady asks Govianus to kill her to prevent her capture. But he cannot kill her, and swoons. So she kills herself. Govianus buries her body in his family vault. But the Tyrant, inflamed with lust, breaks into the tomb and steals her body (see GHOST of the LADY to learn what her ghost does). He dresses up her corpse as if it were alive, and hires a painter to paint her face in lively colors. But the painter is Govianus in disguise, and he paints her face with poison so the Tyrant dies when he kisses her. Govianus orders the body to be placed on a throne and crowned. He then he returns it to the tomb, and the Lady's Ghost accompanies he body. (See also "GHOST of the LADY").


The Lady is the sister of Martha in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady. The Elder Loveless is in love with her, and she returns his love but cannot resist tormenting him. He has annoyed her by kissing her in public, and has been ordered to spend a year travelling in France to appease her. She is similarly dismissive towards another suitor, Welford, provoking the sympathy of Martha and Abigail Younglove, her waiting gentlewoman. Returning in disguise, Elder Loveless tries to convince her of his death, but is recognised and humiliated as the Lady pretends to have transferred her affections to Welford, only to reject him when Elder Loveless has departed. Later, Elder Loveless goes to the Lady again, and tries to convince her that he has tired of her. The Lady pretends to swoon, and Elder Loveless reveals his true feelings; she again humiliates him, and he rails against her before returning home again. Welford and Elder Loveless join forces to seek revenge. They go to the Lady, with Welford disguised as a masked woman, and claim that 'she' is Elder Loveless's new sweetheart. The Lady is stung into action, and agrees to marry Elder Loveless. The next morning, Elder Loveless discloses that his 'betrothed' was Welford; the Lady is irate at having been tricked, but vows to be patient.


The lady who longed to spit in the great lawyer's mouth is a "fictional character" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Littlewit makes the argument that his wife needs to see other things at the Fair. He gives the fictional example of a lady that, pretending she had pregnant cravings, desired to spit in the lawyer's mouth after an eloquent pleading. This example is inappropriate and unbecoming, just as the demand Mistress Littlewit makes. However, Dame Purecraft accepts as justifiable the request of a physiological longing for seeing things.


She attends Dorigene in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids.


A servant to Celia while at the court in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant.


A fictional character in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. In Chamlet's shop, George Cressingham, disguised as "Gascoyn" the tailor, pretends to advise "Sir Andrew"/Franklin to buy expensive cloth. "Gascoyn" lies that "my lady," "Sir Andrew's" supposed wife sent him a message that she wanted a new gown. According to the would-be tailor, the lady said she wanted to go to Lady Trenchmore's wedding and did not want to be seen without a new gown.


Alternate name in Fletcher and Middleton's The Nice Valour for both the Duke's sister and for the gentlewoman who disguises herself as Cupid, neither of whom are given any other name.


The Noble Gentleman's wife in Fletcher's The Noble Gentleman, "Madam Marine, a witty wanton." She is referred to as "Lady" in the play's text.


A lady wooing a soldier in the first act of Nabbes' Hannibal and Scipio, observed by Maharball and Himulco. The soldier resists her entreaties at first, but eventually agrees to go with her as long as she will let him be with other women. The soldier's seduction presages the later temptation of Hannibal and downfall of Massanissa. This lady is not to be confused with the Young Lady of the fourth act, a Spanish noblewoman betrothed to Lucius.


One of Philicia's women in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. The Lady informs Philicia that Guiderius "desires to kisse [her] hand," advises her of the fact that "the King desires all shud esteeme him," and is sent by her to "bring him in."


She has a brief exchange about the flower in her hair in the opening scene of Suckling's Aglaura (first version) and also Aglaura (second version).


The lady is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. She is the wife of the gentleman and insists that he sleep with the citizen's wife.

LADY **1639

The king gives his daughter a new lady when he forbids her to see Clara in Sharpe’s Noble Stranger. The lady sings the princess to sleep with “Charm, oh charm, thou god of sleep" and promises to pity and help the princess in her mourning. The part was likely double cast with ‘boy’ as he was also a singer and nearly three acts intervene between the two characters’ appearances. She is on hand in the final scene when all is resolved but plays no active part in the action.


Appearing only late in Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors, the Lady Abbess is in charge of the priory where Antipholus Erotes and Dromio of Syracuse take refuge during the bizarre series of events resulting from myriad mistaken identities. The Abbess is discovered to be Aemilia, the mother of both Antipholus Erotes and Antipholus Sereptus, and long-lost wife of the jailed Syracusan merchant Egeon.


A "ghost character" in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier. Hubert recalls his encounter with her while sacking a church; she had an aura of holiness, and he found himself unable to dishonor her.


In Act Three of Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers, she is asked to bring some gentlemen in front of her lady. In Act Four, she is sent by the king to see if the princess is already sleeping with her husband. And in Act Five, she comes back looking for Austrella.


A bawdy court lady in Fletcher and Massinger's Thierry and Theodoret. She is brought by Protaldy to witness his failed plan to demonstrate his courage by assaulting De Vitry. She witnesses the plan backfire.


The Lady is part of Olimpia's household and a representation of the loose sexuality at court in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject. When Theodor is looking for his sisters' lodgings, he intends to ask somebody about Honora and Viola. The area around Olimpia's quarters is famed for sexual encounters and secret assignations. When Theodor sees a Lady, he pretends to be Boroskie's servant. The Lady gives him money and tells him to announce to Boroskie that a choice Young Lady has prepared a secret assignation with him in the chamber by the water. The Lady observes that the arrangement is private and convenient, inviting Theodor to her personal rooms. The Lady shows Theodor where she lives and says she will be expecting him. When she exits, Theodor calls her a Bawd.


Actually Caperwit's page in disguise in Shirley's Changes. Lady Bird comes calling for Caperwit while he courts the sisters Chrysolina and Aurelia. She is supposedly an alderman's widow who loves Caperwit. Caperwit manages to foist her upon Simple, who is surprised after the wedding masque to have "married" a male page.


A “ghost character" in Mayne’s City Match. Baneswright knows of a choleric lady who is about to fire a maid who will fit Madam Aurelia’s needs perfectly.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's The Alchemist. Dapper's former love, an unnamed lady. When Subtle and Face force Dapper to give up all his valuables in order to be pure before the "Queen of Faery," Dapper holds onto a golden bracelet till last. After Subtle and Face pinch him badly, pretending the elves punish him for not giving up all his earthly possessions, Dapper finally gives the golden bracelet. He says his love gave it to him as a token when she left him, and he has been wearing it since with a leaden heart. Face snatches the golden bracelet, telling Dapper he may keep his leaden heart.


First Lady is a country lady in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. She attends the courtiers' party as a mask and she is a mute character. Since Amorphus and Morphides keep the door at the party in Cynthia's palace, letting in only the nymphs and their gallants, Hedon says that this country lady is his friend and she is allowed in. Second Lady also attends the courtiers' party as a mask and is a mute character.


Two Ladies figure in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater:


Fictional characters in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Complement invents a First Lady "weeping and mournfull, for that her Monkey is sicke of the mumps" in order to teach his disciple Gringle the proper thing to say to her. She is described as "richer in clothes then in joynter" and is married to one "who was dubbed Knight with an unbloody sword." This is the basis of Complement's first lesson to Gringle in the play. Next, Complement invents "some faire and honourable Lady [. . .] mentioned at the Table" in providing Gringle with an example of a situation in which he should make use of the "Italian Shrugge." In this example, a fictional Gentleman "should aske you whether there past no tearmes of love betweene you and her" and the shrug is the perfect way to escape the situation with grace.


Women in Marianus' court in the anonymous The Wasp. When Gerald and Varletti depose Marianus, they attempt to seduce the women in court, but these turn out to be strumpets placed there to discourage them.


The First and Second Ladies in Shirley's Royal Master attend Theodosia and the First Lady wonders when Octavio will marry.


Three ladies accompany Violetta to the banquet at Camillo's house in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. Before the festivity, the ladies listen to Hipolito bragging about his war exploits and the extremely intense sexual pleasures derived from violence and murder. Hipolito says he has seen more human heads kicked like footballs than are maidenheads in Venice, and more legs of men served at dinner than ever he should see legs of capon on a platter.
  • The first lady is called Hero. The First Lady ironically observes that maybe he saw capon's legs and mistook them for human limbs. While Virgilio sustains Hipolito's exaggerations, Violetta tends to disbelieve them. At Violetta's suggestion that they should change the conversation topic, the First Lady recommends beauty as a suitable subject for ladies. When Violetta is falling in love with Fontinel at the dance, she stops dancing with Camillo and invites Hero to dance with Fontinel.
  • When Violetta dismisses her brother's bravado about his war exploits by diverting the guests' attention to the food, the Second Lady uses the parallel of the teeth and food being masticated. She alludes to the fact that, with his mouth full, it will be difficult for the braggart to speak so much about the excesses of war. At Violetta's request to change the topic of conversation, beauty is suggested as a more suitable theme for ladies. When Camillo exposes the Neoplatonic and romantic notion that Beauty turns men into immortal gods by making them live for ever in love, the Second Lady notes ironically that some men have even died for love.
  • When Hipolito brags about his warlike exploits, combining violence with sexual innuendo, the Third Lady observes that these great talkers are never great doers.


Three ladies figure in Davenant's The Fair Favorite:
  1. The First Lady of the court, at one point called named Olari and at another Alari, is remarked upon by Thorello for her shortness and her disguising the fact by wearing chopines.
  2. The Second Lady of the court, who enters with a book, and curtsies to everyone but Saladine, does so presumably either because of a previous quarrel or to hide their real relationship.
  3. The Third Lady of the court enters wearing white. Thorello remarks on her terrible breath.


A fictional character in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In an apartment in Cynthia's palace, Phantaste, Philautia, Argurion, and Moria are expecting the miracle water from the fountain of Self-love, so much publicized by Amorphus. While waiting, the vain nymphs discuss fashion, their admirers, and fantasize on what they would like to be. While Moria and Philautia imagine they could be extremely powerful women, Phantaste fantasizes that she could impersonate many women and do various things. As a Great Lady, Phantaste imagines that she could lie in bed all day and have the courtiers visit her.


The great lady is a "fictional character" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. In the Induction, the scrivener reads the articles of the contract between Author and the spectators. The contract stipulates that Author warns the spectators against identifying characters in the play with actual people. In conclusion, the pig-woman (Ursula) must not be taken to represent a great lady of real life. Ironically, Ursula does have some of the mannerisms of authoritative ladies, commanding everybody around and being carried away in her chair as if it were a throne.


A "ghost character" and possibly fictional in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. Cosimo and Dorido tease Castruchio about a Great Lady who hires Castruchio to write verses against the lechery of women in order to cover her own affair with Castruchio. Castruchio neither confirms nor denies the existence of such a patron.


The lady in Dumb Show Four of Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur enters in courtly dress and carries a doll representing a human child. As she walks about the stage, four Soldiers attack her, take the "child," and fling it against the wall, thereby indicating that war does not spare man, woman, or child.


One of Dol Common's disguises in Jonson's The Alchemist. The mysterious lady allegedly staying at the alchemist's house is Dol Common. The impersonation is adopted to deceive Sir Epicure Mammon. Initially, the lady merely lets herself be seen in passing, allowing Face as Lungs to explain to Mammon that she is a noble lady whose family has sent her to Subtle's care in order to be cured of the madness brought about by too much learning. Face says she has gone mad with studying the works of rabbinical scholars and would fall into a fit if she hears anything touching the Hebrew. When Dol enters disguised as the lady, she says she is a poor baron's daughter who studies mathematics and distillation in the alchemist's house. Mammon tells her he is the possessor of the Philosopher's Stone and gives her a ring, promising her floods of gold. When Face as Lungs enters to tell Mammon he speaks too loudly and Subtle might hear them from his laboratory, the Lady exits with Mammon. In a room upstairs, Dol disguised as the lady enters with Sir Epicure Mammon. Her "mad" speech incorporates phrases from Hugh Broughton's Concent of Scriptures. Face, as Lungs, pretends to be distressed at the lady's having fallen into a talking fit.

LADY of the LAKE

A fictional character within Massinger's A New Way to Pay Old Debts, along with the Queen of Fairies, whom Marrall imagines to be the possible "lady" which Welborne invites him to dine with because he thinks "it must be an enchanted dinner." He is likely referring to the Lady from Arthurian legend–variously identified with Morgan le Fay and more probably with Vivean (also Nineveh, Nimue, Niniane)–who gave Arthur the sword Excaliber and to whom Bedivere threw the sword as Arthur lay dying.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Pilgrim. An imaginary fairy godmother figure invented by Alinda while she pretends to be mad. Alinda gives Juletta a 'nutmeg' (really a ring) that she claims was given her by the Lady of the Mountains.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. Malvolio mentions the Lady of the Strachey who married a yeoman as he convinces himself that Olivia really is in love with him.


A disguise of Wittipol's, hired by Merecraft to impersonate an instructor in fashionable etiquette in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass. Merecraft uses this character to obtain more money from Fitzdottrel, who wishes to send his wife to the Spanish Lady for instruction in how to act like a Duchess. Wittipol substitutes himself for (ghost character) Dick Robinson, the boy actor Merecraft originally intended to hire to play the part, in order to get close to Mistress Fitzdottrel. At her "salon," hosted by Lady Tailbush and attended by Lady Eitherside, she impresses the women with her knowledge of exotic cosmetics. Fitzdottrel develops a passion of the "Spanish Lady" and signs over his estate to Manly at "her" suggestion.


The Weeping Lady is resentful of Frollo in Burnell's Landgartha. She then she leaves the scene with Frederick and Wermond.


The Young Lady is part of Olimpia's household and a "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject. When Theodor inquires about his sisters' lodgings at court, he sees a Lady near Olimpia's quarters. Thinking he is Boroskie's servant, the Lady tells Theodor of a secret amorous assignation between a choice Young Lady and Boroskie. This sequence of amorous propositions reveals the loose sexual behavior at court.


A "ghost character" in Shirley's Love's Cruelty. The Young Lady has provided a token for Bovaldo to wear.

LADY, YOUNG **1635

A Celtic noblewoman from Spain in Nabbes' Hannibal and Scipio, betrothed to Lucius, who arrives in Carthage at the end of act four as a prisoner of Scipio. Lucius asks Scipio to release her to him, which Scipio does as an example to Massanissa.


A maid of Cornelia in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey.


Laelia is daughter of old Tullius, sister of Tullius, and lover of Marius in the anonymous The Faithful Friends; when her father broke off her hopes of marriage by having Marius banished to the frontier, she disguised herself as a boy and took service as Philadelpha's page, under the name of Janus. When her lover returns, just in time to join in the expedition against the Sabines, she follows him and her brother to the front, and is able to witness their worthy management of the campaign. Her grief at Marius' supposed death discloses her true identity, and she returns to Rome to take part in the unmasking of Martius and Rufinus.


A soldier fighting for Arragon in Greene's Alphonsus, King of Arragon, he threatens Alphonsus with revenge after discovering the dead King Flaminius. Upon discovering his mistake, he vows to serve Alphonsus. He is crowned king of Naples after the defeat of Belinus.


Laelius, a Roman general in Marston's Sophonisba, is suspicious of Sophonisba's much-praised virtue from the outset, and he is eventually sent by Scipio to tell Massinissa that he must sacrifice her.


Friend of Eschines and suitor to Allcyane in the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune. He befriends the magician Urganda. Summoned by his lady's jailor, he is in time to thwart a plot to drug her and marry her to Carynus. Urganda then punishes the conspiring rivals and fathers before restoring Allcyane to him.


Laertes is the son of Polonius in Shakespeare's Hamlet. His first desire is to return to France and, unlike Hamlet's desire to return to Wittenberg, Laertes' wish is granted. Before he leaves, he instructs Ophelia to reject Hamlet, claiming that since a prince cannot marry for love, she will only end up discarded and dishonored. When Polonius is killed, Laertes returns in a rage, with followers who want to proclaim him king, and threatens Claudius. However, he is quickly won over by Claudius and turns his rage on Hamlet. This rage is only increased when Ophelia, who has gone mad, drowns. At her funeral, Hamlet and Laertes scuffle in the grave, trying to prove who loved her most. Claudius and Laertes then plot Hamlet's death. Claudius comes up with the plan of accidental death during a supposedly friendly fencing match, but it is Laertes who adds the refinement of poisoning the foil's tip. He has an unction, bought from a mountebank, that he may have purchased originally to murder Claudius after Polonius' death. Despite Laertes' supposed greater skill at fencing, he at first cannot hit Hamlet and, when he finally does (after a pass that Hamlet has won), Hamlet is able to wrestle the sharpened weapon away from him and use it against him. Laertes is wounded and confesses that the sword that has cut them both was poisoned and that Claudius is to blame. He forgives Hamlet and is forgiven by him before he dies.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Laertes is mentioned by Ajax as the father of Ulysses.


Laetitia is Frances Frampul's sister, daughter to Lord and Lady Frampul in Jonson's The New Inn. From a discussion between Host and Lovel, it emerges that Laetitia was lost in infancy, which partly caused her mother's distress and subsequent disappearance from home. Laetitia is also the name adopted by Frank when he disguises as Lady Frampul's female companion. At the inn, Frank enters disguised as Laetitia, with Lady Frampul, and accompanied by Nurse and Prudence. When asked about "her" name, Frank/Laetitia answers it is Laetitia Silly, Lady Frampul's relative. In fact, it turns out that he/she is not lying, because "Silly" is her mother's maiden name, and she does turn out to be Lady Frampul's sister. As Laetitia, Frank speaks very little, but is present at the two sessions of the love court. During the second session, it is understood that Frank/Laetitia elopes with Beaufort and later it is reported that they got married secretly in a stable. Frank/Laetitia enters with Beaufort and everybody congratulates Beaufort ironically on his marriage, because they thought that "Laetitia" is actually Frank, a boy. In the final revelation scene, Nurse avers that the person whom everybody knew as a boy, Frank, Host's adopted son, is actually her daughter, Laetitia. So, Laetitia is revealed as Lord Frampul's long-lost daughter, and Nurse as Lady Frampul, her mother. Although her ambiguous identity is the subject of discussion, Laetitia herself never speaks, and she remains silent throughout the reconciliation scene, when she is united with her sister (Lady Frampul), her father (Lord Frampul), and her new husband (Beaufort).


A Lord of France in Shakespeare's All's Well. He encourages the King to consider Helena's cure. Later, believing Helena dead, he arranges for Bertram to be engaged to his own daughter, but when Bertram is discredited, he cancels the engagement.


Sir Amorous La-Foole is a foolish knight in Jonson's Epicoene. At Clerimont's house in London, La-Foole enters to invite Clerimont and Dauphine to a party at Haughty's. Speaking of his ancestry, La-Foole says he is descended lineally of the French La-Fooles. After delivering his invitation, La-Foole exits, while Clerimont and Dauphine comment critically on his affectation. At Otter's house, La-Foole enters to attend a party given in his honor by his cousin, Mistress Otter. La-Foole meets the gallants, who persuade him to have the party transferred to Morose's house. La-Foole exits to make the arrangements. At Morose's house, La-Foole enters with Otter and Daw, joining the party of merry gentlemen. All the gallants drink heavily in the sound of blasting trumpets and drums. When Morose drives the noisy intruders away, La-Foole and Daw run off. In a long open gallery at Morose's house, La-Foole enters with Haughty's party. When Epicoene pretends that her husband is mad, La-Foole barges into the conversation at the most inappropriate moments. La-Foole exits with Haughty's party. La-Foole re-enters and Truewit ridicules him by locking him and Daw in separate rooms, setting one against the other, and forcing them to accept satisfaction through what they think to be private humiliation. Dauphine in disguise, pretending to be Daw, tweaks La-Foole's nose while the ladies are watching from above. Truewit instructs La-Foole to behave with Daw as if nothing happened. When, later, La-Foole and Daw are summoned from their separate rooms they embrace like the best of friends. When the furious Morose chases everybody away, La-Foole runs off with the ladies and Daw. In the final reconciliation scene, La-Foole and Daw are forced to admit that Epicoene was their mistress before her marriage. When, however, Epicoene proves to be a boy, the two foolish knights are publicly humiliated and La-Foole exits with Daw in disgrace.


Only mentioned in Marmion's A Fine Companion. Lackwit's geneological studies seem to indicate that his family name is equal in status to that of the Lafools.


Lafort, like Philamour, is a counselor in the court of Charles VIII in Massinger's The Parliament of Love. He aids in his running of the Parliament of Love.


Family name of Old Lafoy, his son Frances, and daughter Gabriella, in Brome's The New Academy.

LAGUS **1607

A “ghost character" in Tomkis’ Lingua. Platony was the son of Lagus, King of Egypt, who brought in a spectacle that was half white and half black according to Memorie.


Lais is a courtesan in Lyly's Campaspe. She tries to persuade the dissolute soldiers of Alexander's court that peace is more enjoyable than war.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. Lais was the name of various ancient Greek courtesans and it has become symbolic for this profession. When he wants to regain the favors of his discontented mistress, Fulvia, Curius compares her to Venus. Inviting her to yield to his love, Curius appeals to Fulvia's qualities as a Venus. Curius says that Fulvia has too much of Venus's need for sexual gratification not to accept his passionate advances, though he is unable to lavish her with rich gifts. In addition, Curius says Fulvia is a Lais and she has all the attributes of a courtesan, so she cannot pretend to have turned Lucrece, a virtuous woman, all of a sudden.


Like Bebia, she comes to St. Dunstan's and the Devil tavern to carouse with Timothy in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. The boy/drawer hails her from next door. She revels with Timothy until his money runs out and then ignores him entirely.


A "ghost character" in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta. Formerly king of Thebes, Laius initiated the disastrous events coming to a climax in this play when he tried to subvert the prophecy that his son would be his death by placing the infant to die in the wilderness. The boy, Oedipus, is rescued however, and survives to fulfill the prophecy. Jocasta tells the story to Servus to open the play.


"A woman Spectator" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Lala is a part of the play's Introduction. She is a "Spinster" and a "true housewife" who is described by Prologus as a "chattering Mappy." She chides Prologus for delivering the play's Prologue in Latin and, at her insistence, he agrees to translate his message into English. She tears the paper from which Prologus reads and repeatedly misconstrues his words and meanings, and injects her own comments and questions into his "part." His pleadings with her to keep quiet prove useless, and he exits to hang a "banner at Apollos gate." Lala expresses her mistrust of scholars and remains for the play's first scene, in which she "intrude[s]" on Philoponus and behaves in the same manner towards him as she has behaved towards Prologus. Once she is assured that the play will be presented in English, she goes "into the tyreing house" to "scamble and rangle for a mans part" since, as she protests, women should be able to "act men, as well as boyes act women."


A self-described scholar and soldier in Goffe's The Courageous Turk, Lala Schahin servers as tutor or principal adviser to Amurath, and he is the catalyst for much of the play's action. Early on, he decides to cure Amurath of his love for the captive Eumorphe and devises the masque in which the figure of Alexander the Great rejects fleshly pursuits and pleasures in favor of a career on the battlefield. Later, he disguises himself as the Ghost of Orchanes, Amurath's father, to urge rejection of Eumorphe and a renewal of the wars against the Christians. After appearing in several of the battle sequences, Lala Schahin is present when the Christian captain Cobelitz stabs Amurath to death, and he remains to counsel Amurath's son Baiazet, urging him to follow the Turkish custom and kill his younger brother Jacup so there will be no rivals for the throne.


A "ghost character" in Randolph's Amyntas. The late wife of Claius, who died giving birth to the twins Amyntas and Amaryllis. She was formerly betrothed to Philaebus, son of Pilumnus the high priest of Ceres. Pilumnus called down a curse on her for breaking his son's heart. She dies, but Philaebus's bereavement also kills her rejected fiancé. Bitter resentment motivates Pilumnus's vendetta against the exiled Claius as much as it does the Oracle, which dictates that Claius's blood must be spilled to appease the goddess.

LALAGE **1632

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. Possibly Demetrius' late wife and mother of Tyndarus and Evadne and supposed mother of Pamphilus.


Lamard is a French knight in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden, who wishes to marry Splendora. He is, however, discovered in the company of a whore, Mrs Light, at the King's Head. He escapes paying for the drinks there, and accompanies Mr Nice to witness the arrest of his rival Mercurio. He is later himself arrested on a debt of £6000 to Mr Bonaventure, but escapes from the Wood-Street Counter by climbing down a rope. He returns and reveals that he is in fact Will Nice, and that he has adopted this disguise in order to ensure that Splendora and Mercurio will be permitted to marry each other.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Lambarde is mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he is explaining to Sir Cupid Phantsy that he can see he is getting worse, and, thus, he is going to put him on a 'reading' diet: "I prescribe you Littleton's Tenures to read in French, with Lambarde's Justice of Peace, Dalton, Crompton, and Fitzherbert, Pulton's Statutes, and Coke's Reports." William Lambarde (1536-1601) wrote Eirenarcha: or the Office of the Justices of Peace (1582). He co-authored–with Richard Crompton and Michael Dalton–The Complete Justice, published in 1636.


A country squire from Crackfield (Cratfield) in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. Lambert is a suitor for Margaret's hand. In pursuit of her, Lambert offers to make over to her all his lands in joint possession. He dies fighting a duel with his chief local rival, Serlsby of Laxfield. His son is the First Scholar.


Lambert Simnel, a falconer in Ford's Perkin Warbeck. He once tried to gain control of England by pretending that he was Earl of Warwick. He was caught and confessed and tasted the king's clemency. He is brought to the pretender Warbeck in the Tower to convince him to confess and win the king's pardon.


A "ghost character" in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. He used to be Hyppolita's suitor.


Master Innocent Lambskin is a young gentleman in William Rowley's A New Wonder: A Woman Never Vexed. He, like Speedwell, hopes to marry the wealthy Jane Bruyne. He is the son of a starch-maker who made his fortune with a brewery, but Lambskin is now in debt to the Widow. He is outraged when Jane rejects him in favour of the citizen Robert Foster, and Lambskin is then humiliated when Stephen forces him to repay some of his debts.


A London knight in Middleton's No Wit, No Help Like a Woman's, one of the four suitors of the rich widow, Lady Goldenfleece. With the emergence of the disguised Kate Low-Water as Lady Goldenfleece's favorite, the suitors realize that they have wasted their time, money, and energy pursing the widow. Disgruntled, they disrupt Goldenfleece's wedding feast by masquerading as the four elements (Gilbert portrays Fire) and presenting a pseudo-masque.


A pseudonym used by Forobosco when he is in England in Fletcher, Ford, Massinger and Webster's The Fair Maid of the Inn.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. A sin destroyer. One among the "true religious" men and "holy women" whom Hick Scorner was glad to see drown in the Irish Sea at the Race of Ireland when their thirteen ships foundered and sank.


A prostitute in Whetstone's 1 Promos and Cassandra. Before learning of Promos' arrival, she describes (in a song and a soliloquy) her luxurious lifestyle–paid for by the impetuous youths and lascivious old men of Julio. Then Rosko arrives and tells Lamia of the court's sentence on Andrugio. She vows to live chastely, and tells Rosko to seek employment elsewhere. But Rosko convinces her to abandon her fresh vow of chastity in favor of another plan. He suggests that she seduce Phallax, for with his protection no one will dare turn her in. Rapax and Gripax arrest her and Rosko and bring them to Phallax. She insists she is innocent and chaste and Phallax attempts to seduce her. She invites him to her house for dinner.
A prostitute in Whetstone's 2 Promos and Cassandra. In a soliloquy, she explains how she is profiting from the new, strict laws against prostitution. All the other prostitutes have ceased their trade, but she can carry on under the protection of her powerful lover Phallax; thus she has a monopoly and can charge dearly. When the King demands a round-up of all the wrongdoers in Julio, Gresco arrests Lamia. He and the three billmen bring her to trial.


Lamia is a lady at Sapho's court in Lyly's Sapho and Phao.


Lamia, a wise woman in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph, uses folk medicine to heal the wound of Clorindo, the disguised Silvia.


Lamia is Rustico's puritanical wife in the anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. She uses a great show of piety, together with a cudgel an ell long, to control her foolish husband. When he crosses her, she beats him; his willingness to put up with this disgusts the two wise men.


Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Lamia is mentioned by Slightall when he is in the haunted chamber at the Changeables, trying to guess who the fair she-spirit in front of him–who is no one but Anne herself–is: "be'st thou a Lamia, / Or Incubus, thou canst not scape me so." According to Greek mythology, Lamia was a woman whose suffering made her go mad, and whose name was uttered in order to frighten children. She suffered because Hera, jealous of her husband's (Zeus's) love for Lamia, killed her children. Thus, she lost her mind and, envious of happy mothers, she started to steal and kill their children. Later, her name also referred to a woman who sought the destruction of young people.


Aelius Lamia is a Roman senator in Massinger's The Roman Actor. He is also the first husband of Domitia. When Domitian makes Domitia his empress, Lamia prays that the gods will use Domitia to destroy Domitian. Lamia is executed for treason when he fails to show sufficient admiration for Domitia's singing.


An unmarried gentlewoman in Fletcher's The Honest Man's Fortune. She prefers her estates in the country to the corruption at court, Lamira provides hospitality for Lady Orleans and Veramour and takes Montaigne into service when he becomes destitute. Lamira initially maintains that the unmarried life is the perfect state for women and rejects the suits of Mallicorne, La-poope and Laverdure but allows them to stay on her estate. She secretly admires Montaigne's restraint when insulted by Mallicorne, Lapoope and Laverdure. Lamira helps prevent the duel between Orleans and Amiens. After Orleans and Lady Orleans are reconciled, Lamira invites everyone to a feast where she will select a husband. At the feast, Lamira asks Montaigne who deserves her hand; Montaigne proposes Amiens, but Lamira chooses Montaigne because he has borne himself so humbly as her servant that she believes he will not abuse his power as her husband. Montaigne objects that he is betrothed to Charlotte, who releases him from his promise and says that she wooed him on behalf of Lamira. Lamira and Montaigne become engaged.


The daughter of Vertaigne in Fletcher and Massinger's The Little French Lawyer. Lamira has willingly conceded to her father's choice of a husband, the elderly Champernell, and rejected the advances of Dinant. As Lamira and Champernell leave their wedding, Dinant meets them in the street and insults them both. Although disgusted by her husband's tears of rage and frustration, Lamira assures him that Dinant is of no interest to her; Champernell grants Lamira full liberty to talk, ride, and feast with whomsoever she wants. When her Nurse informs Lamira that her brother Beaupre has challenged Dinant to a duel, Lamira pretends to love Dinant and persuades him to go to the opposite side of the city to defend her honor against an imaginary slanderer. Defending Dinant's courage when her brother and Verdoone question his valor, Lamira makes Champernell jealous, but she threatens to run away if her husband puts restrictions on her. When her maid Charlote announces that Lamira wears the breeches in the family, Lamira strikes her. Deciding that she herself must avenge Dinant's attempts to dishonor her, Lamira arranges an assignation with her former suitor, pretending she will sleep with him. Warning Dinant of the extreme danger should her husband awake, Lamira arranges for Cleremont to take her place in bed with Champernell. Lamira then makes a great deal of noise, orders music and wine, and delays her encounter with Dinant until she is able to expose his lust to the household. Champernell praises her for this plot, and they set off to their summerhouse with friends to celebrate Lamira's triumph. On their way, Lamira and others are kidnapped by ruffian gentlemen hired by Dinant who arranges an unsuccessful rescue attempt to show his devotion to Lamira. Imprisoned in a vault with Anabell, and tormented by threats of rape from the first gentleman, Lamira is forced to see her brother marched off bound and with a halter around his neck. After Dinant professes his love and reunites Lamira with her brother and the others who have been kidnapped, he asks for a moment alone with her, and threatens to rape her. Lamira confesses she was too hard on Dinant and deserves whatever abuse he can heap upon her. When she kneels and yields to him, Dinant suddenly announces he will become an ardent defender of Lamira's honor. Lamira is reunited with Champernell and assures him that no foul play occurred during her imprisonment.


Lamira, wife of Chamont in Massinger's The Parliament of Love. She aids in her husband's plan against Perigot by pretending to be interested in his sexual advances. Perigot takes Chamont to court, but the King rules against him.


Lamorall, a fighting gallant and friend to Vitelli in Fletcher, Beaumont, and Massinger's, Love's Cure. He fall in love with Vitelli's sister Genevora. He fights Lucio over Genevora but loses. At the end he serves as Vitelli's second in the duel, but he is not needed.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Hamlet. Lamord is a Norman who Claudius says came to court and praised Laertes' ability to duel, thereby arousing Hamlet's envy.


His kinship with Dumain is not specified in Hemming's Fatal Contract, but they have been companions in exile, serving incognito as common soldiers in the wars after escaping Fredigond's earlier vengeance in 'Witenburge.' With Dumain, he is recalled to court by Fredigond in time to be made scapegoats for her murder of the king. Lamot remains at court disguised as Strephon, a surgeon, who cures Clovis after his seeming-fatal duel with Clotair. He conceals Clovis's survival and meets with Dumain and the rebel camp. He accompanies Clovis to Clovis's 'funeral' and later to the raid of Fredigond's secret tryst with Landrey, where he assists in their capture. They join the rebels and Lamot, although not named, can be assumed to be one of the Monsieur's 'company' who storm the citadel and witness the revelations and deaths which close the play.


Initially one of Lucina's suitors in Shirley's The Ball, Lamount falls prey to Lucina's joke that sends three suitors running after useless marriage licenses. Failing in his suit here, Lamount then courts Honoria, claiming he had loved her long but had never spoken. Once again Lamount is duped, this time by the combined efforts of Honoria and Rosamond.


The egregiously vain and bombastic Lampatho Doria is the main butt of Quadratus's satire in Marston's What You Will.


Friend of Walkadine Hoard in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One, his name is that of an "eel-like fish." The etymology of his name is appropriate to this character who, along with Spitchcock, is parasitical on Hoard and assists him in his usurious schemes.


Also called Onos in the play's stage directions in Fletcher's Queen of Corinth. A comic character, Lamprias is a foolish 'young' heir of fifty-six who has been led by the nose by his covetous uncle and his pedantic tutor for many years. Having tried to court the heiress Beliza, he has been sent packing in order to travel and gain maturity, and has just returned to Corinth. He is very well satisfied with his own gentlemanliness, but a figure of fun to those around him. Crates in particular mocks him and uses him to try to provoke Euphanes; however, Euphanes refuses to rise to the fool's insults. Euphanes' page, meanwhile, frightens Lamprias by threatening to beat him if he shows any further disrespect to his master. Humiliated, the heir takes the advice of his uncle and tutor and departs for a new grand tour, hoping to "come home a man" in thirty years or so.


Lamprias is a foolish poet who loves Ethusa in Mead's Combat of Love and Friendship. He frequently quarrels with Pisistratus, his rival in affection. Ethusa has fun by ordering him to woo her with valour. In the final scene he enters dressed in armour. Pisistratus, for whom Lamprias has written poetry, allows Lamprias to beat him up, but Lamprias goes too far and it degenerates into a quarrel. The other characters laugh at them.


A poor neighbor of Erestus in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale, Lampriscus has two daughters from two unsatisfactory marriages: the beautiful but ill-tempered Zantippa and the ill-favored but loving Celanta.


A "ghost character" in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped. Lamunes plotted with Julio's father to burn the city.


Lamure is a colonizer travelling on the ship captained by Albert in Fletcher and Massinger's The Sea Voyage; he is a former usurer and merchant. He protests against his goods and his money being thrown overboard to save the ship. When they reach the shore he accuses the Master of losing his goods deliberately and maliciously. Lamure, Franville and Morillat demand a large share of the Portuguese treasure. The resulting fight results in the loss of the ship as Sebastian and Nicusa take their chance to escape the island. Lamure, Franville, Morillat and the Surgeon become so hungry that they plot to eat Aminta. They are beaten off by Tibalt, the Master and the sailors. Aminta forgives them, and they are eventually given food by Albert. Franville, Lamure and Morillat squabble for the attentions of the same Portuguese woman. They are held prisoner by Juletta, and disgust her with their abject behavior. In an attempt to win more lenient treatment they inform Clarinda that Aminta is not Albert's sister.


Outspoken leader of the nobles against Gaveston in Marlowe's Edward II. He joins the two Mortimers and Warwick in open rebellion to banish or kill Edward II's lowborn French favorite. He chastises Edward for rejecting his nobility, neglecting his queen, and ignoring his subjects to heap favors on Gaveston. He helps capture Gaveston, but later is captured and beheaded by Edward II. The historical Thomas of Lancaster, Edward II's cousin, led the baronial opposition to Edward until he was defeated by the king's forces at Boroughbridge in 1322 and beheaded.


The Earl of Lancaster is present at the Parliament in Chettle's(?) Looke About You. He is an adamant supporter of the old King and opposes together with Chester the release of the Queen from prison. Lancaster is likewise present on the heath when Gloster and Skinke are finally caught. Avoiding an open fight with the Duke of Leicester, who is of the young King's party, Gloster agrees to being arrested by Lancaster, whose loyalty to the old King has been unfailing.


Lancaster (John of Gaunt) in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock is brother to Thomas of Woodstock and the Duke of York and disapproving uncle to the young King Richard II. After the attempt by the Carmelite to murder them, he and York urge Woodstock to banish the King's corrupting favorites and to change his own style of dress to something less "plain" and more conventional for one of his rank; Woodstock persuades him that they must be less direct with the favorites, but promises to dress up for the coronation. Soon after it, the King seizes power into his own hands, and Woodstock retires to his house at Plashy. His brothers visit him there with gloomy tidings of the Court; when Cheney arrives with the "blank charters" of the new taxation, they leave Plashy for their own estates, in the hopes of calming the likely rebellion. On receiving news of Woodstock's death, Lancaster and York decide to raise an army against Richard and his followers. The King accuses Lancaster of having a Carmelite murdered in prison; Lancaster does not bother to deny this, but instead reminds Richard of the Carmelite who recently tried to murder the King's uncles. Lancaster and York win the battle, and are imposing punishment on the favorites when the play breaks off.


Also known as "Crouchback," he is the younger brother to Edward in Peele's Edward I. Edmund is Duke of Lancaster and accompanies the king on his Welsh campaign. At the play's end, Edward insists that Edmund join him disguised as one of the French Friars Elinor has summoned to hear her confession, and in several asides, the duke expresses his uneasiness at this project. When Elinor confesses to having slept with Edmund the night before her marriage to the king, Edmund tries to convince Edward that the queen must be temporarily insane because of her weakened condition. Edward, however, rejects that suggestion, and promising that Edmund's head will ransom the king's disgrace, he orders his brother to leave.


John, Earl of Lancaster is Henry IV's second son in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth; however, he is a senior member of Counsel at the beginning of the play due to his older brother Hal's delinquency. John first comes onto the stage to inform his father of Hotspur's battle in the North versus Douglas' Scottish forces. Lancaster fights bravely at Shrewsbury. Hal is markedly impressed by his younger brother's mettle. After Shrewsbury, John puts down a revolt by Bishop Scroop and Hastings.


Old servant to Valentine's father in Fletcher's Wit Without Money. He is sympathetic to Francisco and accompanies him to Widow's home to thank her. He is contemptuous of Valentine's refusal to accept the responsibilities of being a wealthy landowner. With Tenants he berates Valentine for his neglect of his servants and tenants. He plots with Uncle to get suitors to remove their support and encourage Valentine to return to his estate.


See also "LAUNCELOT."


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Puntavorlo starts a rehearsed game of chivalric courtship to his wife before his castle, he pretends to be an errant-knight who seeks refuge in the castle, while she pretends to receive him gallantly. Carlo Buffone, Sogliardo, and Fastidious Brisk are watching the scene, making caustic comments. Carlo Buffone says this is a tedious chapter of courtship, in the manner of Sir Lancelot and Queen Guenever. The irony addresses the medieval chivalric romances.


Lancelot, servant to Lisander, goes into exile with his master in Massinger's 1634 Cleander, or Lisander and Calista (a revision of Fletcher's 1623 The Wandering Lovers?). He leaves to find fresh horses for their journey only to return to discover that Lisander has decided to return to the city to face trial.


Lancelot is first the servant of Shylock in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. He quickly declares his intention to switch masters, since he believes serving a Jew is akin to serving a devil. He meets with his blind father, Gobbo, and at first teases him into thinking his son is dead. After Lancelot reveals himself, they both confusedly ask Bassanio to take Lancelot on as his man, a request Bassanio grants. Returning to Shylock's house with an invitation for dinner, Lancelot delivers a message to Jessica that her Christian lover, Lorenzo, will be coming for her that night. When most the of the main characters are en route to Antonio's trial, Lancelot teases Jessica about the state of her soul.


A "ghost character" in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green. A Scrivener. He is the secretary to Veleires in Amiens. Young Plainsey disguises himself as the Scrivener and gives a forged letter to the Switzer, so that Mumford will be accused of treason.


Only mentioned in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!. When Gertrude is deserted and penniless, living in a poor alehouse, she dreams of Sir Lancelot and the Knights of the Round Table. In a discussion with Sindefy, Gertrude daydreams of knights in shining armor coming to rescue her from her predicament.


A friend of the usurer Harry Dampit in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. Lancelot has no real functional role in the plot of the play, but rather is an observer and instigator; he delights in seeing the "thief rail upon the thief."


A knight of Lewisham, whose estate is in decline in The London Prodigal. He aims to restore his house by marrying his three daughters, Luce, Frances and Delia, to rich suitors. He attempts to manipulate the other characters, but his greed makes him easily gulled by Flowerdale, who tricks him into allowing Luce to marry him. He is eventually pleased when Frances marries the rich Master Civet, and when Flowerdale promises to reform.


The family name of Captain and Justice Landby and Jane in James Shirley's The Wedding.


Landgartha is a Norwegian lady in Burnell's Landgartha. She is the leader of the Amazons, an army of very brave women that fight like men to win eternal fame. She has the reputation of being a terrible general so she is wanted as the leader of Frollo's troops together with her Amazons. However, she joins Reyner to go against Frollo. Landgartha faces Frollo at the end of Act One as she only wants to marry the man who defeats her in battle. She also refuses Reyner's proposal a bit later making him melancholic. She will be courted by Reyner when she visits the court with her ladies. Being afraid of being attacked if she rejects him, she accepts the proposal, warning Reyner that he might be making a mistake. Happily married, she is surprised when her husband wants to leave her and asks him unsuccessfully to let her go with him. Finding out that her husband has gotten married again, she goes to Denmark. First, she gives a letter to Inguar for Reyner to tell him that she is coming. She arrives at the same moment that Reyner is being attacked by Harrold, whom she hits. She has forgiven Reyner in her letter. Defeating his enemy, she will depart again leaving half of her army with Reyner to protect him. She will keep on being his wife but he will not own her any more and she leaves for Norway.


The Landlord in the anonymous Pedler's Prophecy comes looking for the Artificer, announcing that he will evict the Artificer and his family unless they agree to a doubling of the rent. The Artificer begs for pity, reminding the Landlord that he has lived in the house all his life and always paid his rent on time, but the Landlord insists, claiming he is only doing what every landlord does. When the Pedler tells him that his family has turned into pigs, his tenants all to dogs and that he himself will play the part of Acteon and be torn apart by his tenants, he seems half to believe it, but is reassured by the Artificer that the Pedler is speaking metaphorically.


A country gentleman in the Praeludium in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. He says no one is worth his company beneath the twelve-penny rooms of the playhouse. He prefers to see the fool in every act whether in a comedy or tragedy. When two different actors fail to remember the prologue, Spruce, Spark, and Landlord retire to a box and leave the stage.


Tutor to his novice Bernard in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids, Landoffe disguises himself as a spirit Asmody who Bernard believes he has conjured. After temporarily serving Bernard in this disguise, Landoffe reveals his deception in an effort to chastise his overreaching pupil, but vows to once again dawn the disguise when necessity warrants. In an effort to counter Raymond's deceit, he summons an unnamed spirit who provides Dorilus and others with a ring which renders its bearers invisible. He summons the spirit at the play's conclusion to retrieve the magic ring from Smircke and plays an integral in the masque that concludes the play.


A "ghost character" (in the dramatis personae as "Lady mentioned") in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. She is in love with Hirildus, but he does not care for her because he is in love with another lady, Cordella. When he hears that his best friend Eulinius is deeply in love with Landora, he forces Rollano, her servant, to let Eulinus as "Hirildas" into her room at night. Eulinus then spends the night with her. Rollano, her servant, later tells Eulinus that his lady killed herself by taking poison–either because of her grief after Hirildus' death or because of the civil war.


A "ghost character" in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador. Mentioned by Lapland the Clown.


Peter Landoys is treasurer to Brittany in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. He travels from Brittany with Richmond to battle at Bosworth Field. It is Landoys that points out for the audience that the impending marriage between Richmond and Elizabeth will unite the Houses of York and Lancaster. After the battle, he celebrates with a victorious Richmond.


A "ghost character" in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England. When the Clown describes how frightened he was at the time the Man in Devil's Attire approached him, he tells the court that his "landresse" (laundress) called him "slovenly" the next day, an apparent reference to his having lost control of his bodily functions.


Fredigond's favorite in Hemming's Fatal Contract. He is already promoted by her to the ranks of Duke of France and Mayor of the Palace at the start of the play. His flamboyance and arrogance angers the true nobility, who despise him as the Queen's minion. His attachment to the Queen seems throughout to be sincerely passionate. The king, Childerick, discovers their affair, but the Queen has the king's murder well in hand before she informs Landrey. He panics when their liaison threatens to be exposed by the fire in their bedroom: the Queen disguises him as Clovis's ghost (using the same disguise Clovis earlier used to impersonate Childerick's ghost), and he escapes. He is implicated in Clovis's revenge for Clotair's marriage to Aphelia, who produces fake evidence implicating him in an affair with Aphelia, and he is banished form court. At their next secret meeting, Landrey entertains the Queen with music and his own poetry. He attempts to escape, again disguised as the ghost, but is captured by a drunken guard. In prison, tormented by starvation, he undergoes a sketched-in repentance for his former vices, and makes an unexpectedly brave attempt to escape and fight Castrato, but he is stabbed and killed.


An Italian Lord and a guest of Mavortius in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. Landulpho is invited to watch the play staged by Sir Oliver Owlet's Men. Landulpho is understandably unimpressed by the production.


The Archbishop of Canterbury, in reality Sedicyon in disguise in Bale's King Johan, Part 1.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's King John. John's refusal to accept Stephan Langton as the Pope's choice for Archbishop of Canterbury causes the Pope to send Cardinal Pandolf to John demanding his submission.


Languebeau Snuff is a former Puritan candle maker in Tourneur's The Atheist's Tragedy. His conversation so pleases Belforest that he makes Snuff his personal chaplain. In fact, Snuff is nearly a stereotype of the hypocritical stage Puritan. Seemingly pious and humble, he is merely enjoying the comfortable life Belforest provides for him. Accompanying Levidulcia to Cataplasma's for the tryst with Sebastian, Snuff quickly realizes the nature of the place, becomes sexually aroused, and decided to pursue Soquette for sexual favors. When she meets him in St. Winfred's graveyard, she spies the sheet, wig, and false beard he has with him, and Snuff explains that he intends to disguise himself as the ghost of Montferrers and frighten away anyone who might happen upon them. Before Snuff and Soquette can conclude their business, however, they themselves are frightened off by the arrival of Charlemont, who retrieves the disguise items Snuff has dropped. When the latter returns looking for Soquette, he finds the corpse of Borachio, and thinking it to be the woman waiting for him, he prepares to have sex, only to discover his mistake. His shocked cries of "Murder" eventually bring the Watchmen who arrest both Charlemont and Castabella for the murder of Borachio. Snuff is later arrested with Soquette, Fresco, and Cataplasma, and with them, taken before the two Judges, where he attempts to claim he was only trying to convert the fallen creatures in Cataplasma's operation. The Judges are not deceived, however, and after forcing him to admit that he has no education (and thus is unlikely to be much of a chaplain) he confesses to simply taking advantage of the easy life Belforest offered him. The Judges sentence him to return to his former trade (as a candle maker) where, as the First Judge observes, he will provide more "light" to the world than he ever could by his preaching or by his life's example.

Saves Vernon and the ship's master from the shipwrecked Pelican in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley only to turn him over to King Phillip of Spain.


A Druid in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. He and his colleague Lantonus discuss the immortality of the soul and reincarnation. On Cassibelane's request, they then have to perform a ritual to get an oracle from Andates, the Moon Goddess, which Lantonus only solves at the end of the play.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll. A nobleman once offended by Alfonso.


L'Anou is a French courtier and Bussy's enemy in Chapman's Bussy D'Ambois. He is present when Bussy defies the Duke of Guise at court. After Bussy forced the Duke to back down temporarily, Barrisor, D'Alou and Pyrhot confront Bussy, Brisac and Melynell. The six resolve to settle their differences via the blade. According to Nuntius, L'Anou faces off against Brisac in battle. Barrisor initially offers to fight Bussy alone, but L'Anou and Pyrhot insist upon joining the fight against D'Ambois' comrades. After L'Anou slays Brisac, Bussy runs L'Anou through in revenge.


Lanour, along with Montaigne and Chamont, is an assistant to the governor in Massinger's Unnatural Combat.


Initially identified as the First Gentleman in Fletcher and Middleton's The Nice Valour, La Nove is a savvy and well-meaning servant to the Duke of Genoa and functions as a chorus, explaining the roles of Shamont and the Passionate Lord. La Nove attempts to find new servants for the Duke when, tired of the excessive courtesy of his collection of Gentlemen, the Duke dismisses them all.


One of the noblemen exiled with Bourbon and Martell, friends of Dumain and opponents of the corrupt monarchy in Hemming's Fatal Contract. They welcome him and Charles Brissac to the campaign to depose the king. Their revolution is later taken over and led to victory by Clovis.


A servant to Spendall in the anonymous Oberon the Second.


Lantern is the name Leatherhead assumes as a puppeteer in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. While he erects the puppet-theatre with Filcher and Sharkwell, Lantern/Leatherhead instructs Filcher to beat the drum and attract the customers. When Cokes enters the puppet-theatre, and Littlewit follows shortly after, Leatherhead whispers to Littlewit to call him Lantern in this puppeteer impersonation. Lantern/Leatherhead presents the prologue of the puppet-play Hero and Leander, which is a burlesque of the genre. The puppeteer intervenes in the dialogue with the puppet-characters. He has an argument with Puppet Cole, who strikes him over his head. Lantern/Leatherhead responds to Cokes' comments during the play. When Puppet Damon and Puppet Pythias start fighting, Lantern/Leatherhead joins in, and even fuels the fight. Lantern/Leatherhead as narrator continues the story, saying that the tragic encounter raised up the ghost of Dionysius, in the form of a schoolmaster, who chides the two friends for their rash behavior. The puppet-play is interrupted when Busy walks into the show, ranting against the vanity of the theatre idol. Lantern/Leatherhead suggests that his Puppet Dionysius should undertake a philosophical disputation with the Puritan. Lantern/Leatherhead plays the interpreter between the language of the theatre, represented by the Puppet Dionysius, and the real world. Actually, he only repeats the questions Puppet Dionysius asks. When Busy admits defeat, Lantern/Leatherhead urges him to let the play go on. When Overdo reveals himself, Lantern/Leatherhead is speechless. He will be one of the guests for supper at Overdo's house.


Laocoon, the priest of Apollo in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, proposes to hurl a javelin into the wooden horse and so prove that it conceals Greek warriors. Before he can do so, however, Synon is discovered, and while the Greek is telling his deceitful tale Laocoon is stung to death by serpents.


A “ghost character" in Goffe’s Orestes. Whilst being stabbed, Agamemnon cries out piteously that he will not be able to tell Orestes of what he saw in Troy, including the death of Prothesilaus who was dear to Laodmie.


Daughter of Eudora in Chapman's The Widow's Tears. She falls in love with Hylus as he plays the part of Hymen at the masque celebrating Tharsalio and Eudora's wedding and marries him.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. Laomedon was the Trojan king who enlisted Hercules's aid in rescuing his daughter Hesione from a sea monster. Following the rescue, Laomedon refused to give the reward, and Hercules took satisfaction by destroying much of Troy and giving Hesione to his battle companion Telamon.
Laomedon is King of Troy in Heywood's Brazen Age. He is father of Hesione and Priam. Because he borrowed money from priests and refused to repay the loan, Neptune has ordered that the Trojans sacrifice one virgin per month (drawn by lot) to Neptune's giant whale. At the time of the play, Troy has just about run out of virgins, forcing Laomedon to offer his own daughter Hesione. Laomedon agrees to pay Hercules two prize white horses if Hercules slays the whale. After Hercules slays the whale, Laomedon refuses to pay the debt. He locks himself up behind Troy's walls and accuses Hercules and the Argonauts of being Greek spies. After a brief respite, Hercules returns to destroy Troy and kill Laomedon.


A decayed gentleman in Fletcher and Middleton's The Nice Valour, he has purchased rather than earned his coat of arms, Lapet makes his living by allowing himself to be beaten by, among others, the Passionate Gentleman. Lapet has a Falstaff-like soliloquy on "What honor a man loses by a kicke" and he and the much-abused Clowne Galoshio, compare notes on the beatings they have endured. Lapet later writes a book and table on the topic of receiving blows, and he and the Clowne examine the printer's proofs of it. The book and table are later turned into a masque danced by Lapet, the Clowne Galoshio, the Lady disguised as Cupid, and four fools. When the Duke dismisses his retinue, La Nove recommends Lapet as a new attendant. After the Duke decides Lapet is too base to be his servant, Lapet ruefully resumes his place as a gentleman.


Married to a decayed gentleman in Fletcher and Middleton's The Nice Valour, Lapet's Wife accidentally overhears Shamont's complaints about her husband's lack of honor; she then expresses her dismay that Shamont has not attempted to kiss her. Lapet later complains that his wife's social ambitions are behind the Duke's decision that Lapet is too base to be a servant and therefore must return to life as a gentleman.


Lapland is a clown in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador who serves Armante, but craves to be a chronicler. When Colchester dismisses him after Armante's household is broken up by order of the king, Voltimar promises to secure him this post. He duly presents his 'chronicle' to the king at the end, but it proves to be more of a comic prophecy, in the vein of Lear's fool. The clown was to have played Vulcan in the final masque.


A "ghost character" in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador. Mentioned by Lapland the Clown as being his cousin.


Governor of Calais in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock; he takes responsibility for the murder of Woodstock, entrusted to him by Richard II. Lapoole directs the Murderers, even though his conscience is queasy: he comforts himself with the thought that "'twixt two evils 'tis good to choose the least". After the murder, he has the Murderers summarily killed, and reaffirms his own self-interested loyalty to the King.


A captain in Fletcher's The Honest Man's Fortune. He takes advantage of Montaigne's financial naivety in his straitened circumstances to bilk him out of money. He also is a rival for Lamira's hand. In the end, he is forced to apologize and make restitution.


The nephew of the King of Lydia. in T.D.'s The Bloody Banquet In Act One, while in disguise and in disgrace for accepting the kinship of the Lycians, he rescues his Aunt, the Queen of Lydia, from the ravishes of two soldiers. He reveals his identity, shows penitence for his treachery, and agrees to protect the stricken Queen. In Act Three, when seeking victuals for the Queen, her infants, and himself, he falls into the trap that the Clown and Shepherds have set for the sheep-killing wolves. He is rescued by the small train of his Uncle, the King of Lydia. He determines to relocate the missing Queen and her infants. In Act Five, fully integrated again into the family of the Lydian King, he assists with the removal of the tyrant, Armatrites from his unlawfully-taken throne of Lydia.


The disguise assumed by Fansy in Skelton's Magnyfycence to mislead Magnyfycence.


Lover of Castarina and Bacheus’ nephew in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. His uncle can redeem Peromett from banishment, but no one knows where Peromett is. He goes to Apollo for guidance. Apollo tells Lariscus that he is destined to be crossed in his love and yet derive new blessings from that. Apollo says that Lariscus and his love cannot be together until she is dead. He sees Philaritus kissing Castarina and grows angry. He forms an alliance with Arismena to seem to be in love with her to vex Castarina. He accepts Philaritus’ challenge to duel at Apollo’s shrine. As Philaritus and Lariscus begin to duel, Arismena and Castarina come in with bows and arrows and threaten to kill Arismena should Philaritus wound Lariscus or Castarina should Lariscus wound Philaritus. Arismena admits love for Philaritus as Lariscus and Castarina reconciled, but the satyrs take up the weapons and steal the women away. Lariscus advises Philaritus to seek aid from Cleobulus to raise an army to comb the satyr’s forest for the women. Returning home, he is relieved to discover that the kidnapping was a jest propounded by Cleobulus and Baccheus, but when the actual satyrs attack and steal the women in earnest, he goes in pursuit with the others. He is captured along with the others and taken before the Grand Satyr. There, he learns that the women died rather than be ravished, and he goes to grieve over their hearses. When the women rise up, however, and all is explained, he happily leads Castarina to their marriage.


A nymph of Diana in Lyly's Gallathea, she helps to capture Cupid but does not appear to have fallen in love with anyone.


Larius is a lord who chooses to pursue the art of Astronomie in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.

LARKIN, PEG **1638

A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Wit in a Constable. A handsome woman of Cambridge to whom Hold–fast alludes. He wonders if any of London’s women are as handsome as she.


A "ghost character." A Frenchman whose horse Lady Ruinous sometimes uses in Middleton and Rowley's Wit at Several Weapons.


Lartius is a patrician and friend to Coriolanus in Shakespeare's Coriolanus. Like him, he serves as a general under Cominius in the battle at Corioles.


A nobleman, the nephew of Katherine, and a painter in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll. He is in love with Lucelia and goes to her father's house disguised as Cornelius, but his disguise fools no one. He denies any wrongdoing with Lucilia and agrees to marry her, but once they are married, Lassinbergh loses interest, becomes melancholy, and departs. He is enchanted by a magician, but when the spell is broken, is still determined to reject Lucilia. Later, awaking and finding Lucilia gone, he has another change of heart and regrets his mistreatment of her. When he appears in court later, he is entirely repentant.


Fictitious characters in Fletcher’s Bloody Brother. Latorch tells the butler that he has promised a bevy of young lasses that they might look upon Rollo and Otto’s banquet and requests him to make a place for them. The story is only a ruse to get into the kitchen to speak with the people preparing the banquet.


An earl, father of Margaret, brother of Cortezza in Chapman's The Gentleman Usher. He hosts a visit from Duke Alphonso, who is courting his daughter. On the second day of the visit, after he returns from the hunt, he questions Margaret about her coolness to the Duke's suit. Later, he (with Alphonso, Cortezza, and Medice) spies on the meeting between Vincentio and Margaret arranged by Bassiolo. He orders Cortezza to keep Margaret locked in her room. In the final scene, he is astonished by Bassiolo's intimacy with Vincentio, and argues that Strozza should allow Medice to confess his sins.


A personified figure in Wilmot's Tancred and Gismunda. He accompanies Cupid when he arrives from the heavens to assert his power. Cupid has a red twist of silk in his right hand, which is apparently held by or attached to Late Repentance and Fair Resemblance.


Latiaris, a senator and a spy, a friend of Sejanus in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall . He tricks Sabinus into treasonous statements while hidden spies overhear him. He and Natta are arrested along with Sejanus at play's end and led away to execution.


Bishop in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Hugh Latimer, reformist Bishop of Worcester, burnt at the stake in Oxford, 1555. While being led to execution with Ridley by guards, Latimer professes his continued faith in religious reform, and is gratified to hear Cranmer's recantation of his return to Catholicism.
A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. Wolsey fears that Elizabeth’s teachers Latimer and Ridley will turn her against Rome and so he plots to remove them. Historically, he was not Elizabeth’s teacher.


Lord Latimer is one of Frances Frampul's suitors and a guest at the New Inn in Jonson's The New Inn. Host welcomes Latimer and Beaufort to his house. Latimer and Beaufort accept to take part in the mock court of love, where Lovel is the appellant and Lady Frampul the defendant. Latimer enters with Lady Frampul's party to attend the mock court of love, presided by Prudence as the supreme judge. When Lady Frampul delivers her speech on love, in response to Lovel's Neoplatonic rhetoric, Latimer observes that Lady Frampul seems serious in her feelings for Lovel, and he senses he is going to have another fit of jealousy. In the second session of the love court, Latimer agrees that the topic should be valor. During Lovel's ardent speech on bravery as the greatest virtue of mankind, Latimer intervenes with allusions to the opinions of the Spanish fencing masters on the matter. When Lady Frampul shows she is impressed with Lovel's devout declarations, Latimer notices that she is not feigning, fearing that Lady Frampul's sentiments towards Lovel might be genuine. It is inferred that Latimer exits when Beaufort elopes with Frank/Laetitia. Latimer enters in excitement, alerting Host, Lady Frampul, and Fly. He announces the entrance of the newly married couple, Beaufort and Frank/Laetitia. When Host reveals that Beaufort has married a boy, Latimer mocks his friend. In the final revelation scene, Host discloses himself as Lord Frampul and gives Prudence a dowry of two thousand pounds, which Beaufort doubles. In this situation, Latimer offers to marry Prudence, who accepts readily.


Latinus is a player in Paris's acting company in Massinger's The Roman Actor. He plays the part of the miserly father in the first inset play and the porter in the second inset play.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. Latona is the Latin name of Leto, in Greek mythology the mother of Apollo and Artemis/Diana, children of Zeus. Latona was the goddess of fertility and she protected graves. Sometimes, Diana is identified with Latona. When Echo sits by the Fountain of Self-love lamenting her lover's death, she says that Latona and her nymphs bathe themselves in that spring, totally oblivious of Echo's sorrows. Probably Echo identifies Diana/Cynthia with Latona, her mother.

LATORCH **1619

Rollo’s earwig according to the dramatis personae to Fletcher’s Bloody Brother. He inflames Rollo against Otto immediately after Sophia has reconciled her sons. He advises stealth in undoing Otto at the banquet. He asks the butler to make a place for a bevy of young lasses that he has promised to look upon the banquet. He bribes the Cook, Yeoman of the Cellar, Butler, and Pantler to poison Otto at supper. Otto will not eat, and Latorch encourages Rollo when he breaks into their mother’s room to turn a deaf ear to Sophia’s pleas and slay Otto. He stirs up the rumor that Rollo killed Otto defending himself against the younger brother’s conspiracy. He is impressed that Edith swayed Rollo’s clemency and begins to woo her for himself. Aubrey upbraids him for being a parasite that leads Rollo with false council. He poisons Rollo against Aubrey. He promises to woo Edith in Rollo’s name. He asks for blank warrants that he may fill in as he pleases. He goes to his “Mathematicks" in Rome to have them reveal Rollo’s destiny for him. The confidence trickster Norbrett tells him that Aubrey poses the greatest threat to Rollo. He arrives back in time to discover Rollo is dead and Aubrey lives. Aubrey sentences him to be hanged from a gallows ten feet higher than usual as the advancement he sought for his machinations.


‘A ranger’ and Olivel’s jealous husband who fears cuckolding in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. He is in town buying arrows when Claribel and, later, Floradin arrive at his home to have Olivel invite them to stay and be refreshed. He detects them at once and, chases them until Olivel pretends to commit suicide. Frightened by her pretended death, he runs away to Colchester. There at the Tarlton tavern, he meets Doucebella and Aruania. He offers them his bed (the only one left in Colchester) in exchange for hearing their sad tales and telling them his. He is surprised by Olivel, Floradin and Claribel, who call him ‘villain’ and ‘fornicator’ when they find him sharing his bed with their wives. When all is finally resolved, he agrees to take Olivel ‘for better, not for worse’.


Latrocino heads a band of local thieves in Thomas Middleton's The Widow who also operate a medicinal flimflam when business on the roads is slow. Latrocino robs Ansaldo and later accuses Ansaldo of stealing the purses of Brandino and Martino.


Latronello is a servant of Falso's in Middleton's The Phoenix. He disguises himself and robs Phoenix and Fidelio.


A non-speaking role in Marston's Parasitaster, or The Fawn: one of the allegorical attendants in the Masque of Cupid's Council.


One of the sixteen banished Affections not otherwise listed in the dramatis personae but included in Madame Curiosity’s list of banditti in the anonymous Pathomachia. He is the son of Joy and the nephew of Hope. He is to join the main battle of Pride’s army. He disguises himself as Joy, but Justice sees through the disguise at once and sentences him to imprisonment both gentle and free.


A servant of Proteus and the owner of Crab the dog in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona. Launce characteristically mistakes and misconstrues words and phrases. Launce does, however, exhibit intuition in suspecting his master Proteus to be something of a "knave."


See also "LANCELOT."


Launcelot is Thomas' servant in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas; he has accompanied his master on his European travels, and boasts of speaking eight languages. Despite Launcelot's claims to debauchery, Sebastian accuses him of having ruined Thomas by teaching him to read, keep company with polite people and fall into other habits unseemly for a Roaring Boy. He employs the Fiddler for his master's planned serenade to Mary, and joins in the subsequent revels. He then gleefully reports Thomas' misdemeanors to a satisfied Sebastian, but is thrown out of the house when Thomas denies his reports and pretends sobriety. He gets back into Sebastian's good graces by showing him Thomas disguised as Dorothy and is rewarded in the all-round happy ending.


Only mentioned in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. The Arthurian hero Lancelot is one of the warriors Merrygreek insists women think of whenever Roister Doister appears.


A suitor in John Heywood's The Play of the Wether. The Launder needs the sunshine to dry her laundry. She quarrels with the Gentylwoman, who accuses the Launder of attacking her out of envy.


Gives Mihil advance warning of his father's arrival in town in Brome's The Weeding of Covent Garden. She fetches books and gowns to enable Mihil and his creditors to represent themselves as diligent students of the law.


A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Wit in a Constable. Jeremy suggests that the imposter who claimed to be Sir Geoffrey Hold–fast’s son was some bastard of his father’s, gotten upon his tailor’s wife or laundress because “he has a good store of them."


A "ghost character" in Sharpham's Cupid's Whirligig. Lady Troublesome accuses her husband of sending money to the laundress's daughter as payment for sexual favors; he claims it was an act of charity.

LAURA **1631

Laura is a young gentlewoman greatly favored at court in Shirley's The Humorous Courtier. She informs the audience of how Depazzi hyperbolizes his poesy, and she expresses the duchess' desire that Orseolo come to court.


Laura is a lady attending the Duchess Urbino in Shirley's The Opportunity. She and Melinda note how the duchess is emotionally affected by Aurelio, who poses as Borgia.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Ghost. Pinnario mentions Laurana when he suggests that Engin has been called to the newlyweds' chamber on their wedding night, for him to read them about the "Valiant Parismus and his loved Laurana." He refers to the work Emanuel Forde published in 1598, entitled: "Parismus, the Renovmed Prince of Bohemia. His most famous, delectable, and pleasant Historie. Conteining His Noble Battailes fought against the Persians. His loue to Laurana, the Kings Daughter of Thessaly. And his straunge Aduentures in the Desolate Iland. With the miseries and miserable imprisonment, Laurana endured in the Iland of Rockes. And a description of the Chiualrie of the Phrygian Knight, Pollipus: and his constant loue to Uioletta."


See also LAWRENCE and related spellings.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the underlings of Harman van Speult, listed by Sheathing-Nail.


Friar Laurence is discovered hiding in a chest supposed to contain a nun's treasure in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John; threatened with hanging he offers to give the Bastard a hundred pounds sterling.


Friar Laurence is one of two churchmen who appear in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona. He reports to the Duke that he last saw Sir Eglamour in the forest, accompanied by a lady assumed to be the Duke's daughter Silvia.


A priest in Verona in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Friend, confidant and advisor to Romeo and Juliet. Hoping it may ease the feud between the Capulets and Montagues, Laurence agrees to marry Romeo and Juliet in secret. When Romeo is banished, Laurence draws on his knowledge of medicines and poisons to provide Juliet with a draught to make her appear dead. When he learns that Romeo has not been informed of the plan, he rushes to Juliet's tomb in the hope of preventing disaster, but arrives too late. Romeo and Paris are already dead, and fearing repercussions, Laurence flees, begging the reawakened Juliet to follow. When he is captured and brought back, he finds Juliet dead as well. He is questioned by the Prince, and may be the subject of further inquiry and punishment when the play ends.


A young courtier in Middleton's The Family of Love. Lipsalve competes with his friend Gudgeon for the affections of Mistress Purge. Thinking Glister is a conjurer, Lipsalve asks him to magically procure Mistress Purge for him but is tricked by Glister into fighting with Gudgeon instead. Before that can happen, Lipsalve, also lusting for Maria, disguises himself as Gerardine in the hopes of bedding her, but the ruse is unsuccessful. Later, after fighting with Gudgeon, and realizing he's been gulled, he and Gudgeon plan revenge by cuckolding Glister. Still harboring designs on Mistress Purge, however, Gudgeon and Lipsalve also join The Family of Love. Later, their attempts to bed Mistress Glister are thwarted by Glister's purgatives.


One of judge All For Money's suitors in Lupton's All For Money. Sir Laurence Livingless is an ignorant and worldly priest who, when examined by the Bishop, was deposed from all his benefices and livings. He succeeds in becoming the chaplain of All For Money, who will also give Sir Laurence Livingless letters to produce at visitations to prevent being discharged.


Laurentia, also spelt Lawrentia, is, along with Marina and Mathea, one of Pisaro's three daughters in Haughton's Englishmen for My Money. She loves Ferdinand. When Pisaro hears of her interest in the impoverished Englishman, and similar interests of her two sisters, he sends them indoors and plans to marry her off to a rich foreign merchant. When she talks again to Ferdinand, Laurentia tells him to spend money, encouraging him that he will get his lands back after marrying her. She tells him to go the Exchange to raise money. Later, Laurentia mocks the manners and conversation of Vandalle, the Dutchman Pisaro has chosen for her. To promote their own wishes, the daughters send their father's servant, Frisco, with a message inviting their young suitors to come that night after Pisaro has retired. Pisaro intercepts the message and tells the foreigners to take the places of the Englishmen that night. In turn, the daughters intercept his plan. When Vandalle, as part of Pisaro's plan, arrives outside Pisaro's house, Laurentia and her sisters call out the name of each Englishman; Vandalle replies calling out for Laurentia. Laurentia tells him to climb into the basket and she will draw him up. He climbs in, the girls pull him half way up and leave him hanging. Laurentia tells him that if he tells their father she will cut the rope and let him fall. Anthony has a plan to thwart their marriages to the merchants. As part of this plan Laurentia is to disguise herself as Anthony. Pisaro sends her, thinking that she is Anthony, to check that Balsaro will be coming. In this way she manages to leave the locked house. Balsaro soon enters with the married Ferdinand/Heighton and Laurentia revealing that he has married them on Pisaro's instructions–sent by "Anthony." When Pisaro threatens Anthony, Laurentia confesses to imitating Anthony. Frisco is delighted and suggests that Mouche the French teacher (Anthony in disguise) dress up like Laurentia and marry the Dutchman.


An ancient citizen, father of Isabella and Endymion in Hausted’s Rival Friends. He comes looking for Isabella, whom he believes has dressed as a boy to seek Lucius. He comes upon Endymion and informs him that the boy’s uncle has died and left him eight thousand pounds. Laurentio finds Lucius and curses him for ruining Isabella When Isabella begs him to forgive Lucius, he agrees to their marriage.


Beautiful and modest, but calumniated by Stroza in Heywood's A Maidenhead Well Lost, the daughter of General Sforsa is banished from Millaine at Julia's behest just as she and her mother learn of her father's victory and death. While she and her mother are traveling in poverty to Florence, they encounter the Prince of Florence, who falls in love with her and installs them in a comfortable lodge. She loves him in return, and is made miserable by the news that he must wed Julia. She concurs in Stroza's plan to take Julia's place in the nuptial bed, which she leaves with lavish gifts from the Prince. When the Prince comes to her to share his joy at having found his bride still chaste, she uses the gifts to prove that it was she, not Julia, whose maidenhead he took. After the Prince reveals the plot, and the Duke of Millaine confirms that she is of honorable descent, she and the Prince are free to marry in law as well as in fact.


Lauriana is the name used by Fioretta while in Ferrara in Shirley's The Imposture.


Museus's "Verger" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Lauriger assists Drudo and Preco with the Proclamation of Apollo's "yeerly visitation." He talks with the others about Apollo's approaching visit and orders Drudo to "looke [. . .] betweene the Temple and the hill" for people, and Preco to "looke into the Grove." When no one can be found, Preco climbs a tree to proclaim Apollo's coming, and the three "returne" to Museus to "acquaint" him with what they've done. Lauriger later claims that, after he, Preco, and Drudo informed Apollo of their "publishing of his Mandates," Apollo "charged [them] that this inquiry should be more strickt then heretofore." For this reason, Preco and Drudo are sent to notify those who must appear in the Court at Apollo's command. Siren attempts to convince Lauriger to leave Apollo's service and follow Queen Hedone, "the Goddesse of delight and pleasure," instead. Lauriger will not be tempted and flies from her, but Siren follows him. She attempts to lure him with a letter which he refuses to open, and then vows to have revenge on him. Complement sends his "Broker" (presumably Implement) to "proffer" Lauriger with a "pension" if he is able to "procure a patent from Apollo" that will allow the Captaine to "hold on his apish trade," which Lauriger identifies as a "trap" and refuses. For this reason, Lauriger vows to "accuse them both anon at Apollos Judgement seat." He is approached by Ludio and, after a long discussion with the gamester on school, work, and play, Lauriger agrees to play a game of blind man's bluff with him. However, Lauriger tricks Ludio by exiting after having blindfolded and turned him. He is present at the sentencing of disobedient characters at the play's end, where he helps to bring about order, informs Euterpe that Museus requires her assistance, and searches the "upper garment" of Siren by lifting up her veil, pulling off her wig and, thus, revealing her true identity as "an ugly Sea-Monster." He injects various comments into the action, orders Siren to be taken away, and informs everyone of Captaine Complement's fate.


A wavering nymph, daughter of Medorus in Randolph's Amyntas. Alexis and Damon woo her. Her 'wavering' is the result not of indecisiveness but rather of feminine policy. She wisely knows that it is better to enjoy the devotion of two rival suitors than to choose either and give herself in obedience as wife. She is, moreover, aware of the curse on marriage that afflicts Sicily until the goddess Ceres is appeased with the blood of Claius. She respects her father's caution at any marriage being attempted under the circumstances. She promises one man her bed, but the other her maidenhead, making each man feel the more favored. She promises to help Amaryllis's unrequited love for Damon if she can. She later advises Damon to take Amaryllis and Alexis to find another love, but she is not able to dissuade them from courting her. To prevent them fighting over her and profaning sacred ground with their blood, she promises to let an arbitress choose her mate and takes their oaths to abide by the final decision. She appoints Amaryllis her arbitress, leading to Damon's fury and violent attack on Amaryllis. Despite this, Amaryllis chooses Damon for Laurinda in a noble act of self-sacrifice for her friend. Laurinda learns this from the letter written in Amaryllis's blood, but she decisively rejects Damon as a murderer and accepts Alexis. Now eager for marriage, the lovers are reminded of the curse, and Laurinda wisely agrees to postpone the wedding. When Amyntas solves the riddles of the oracle, and Damon falls in love with Amaryllis, the couple is free to celebrate their union.


The son of Janicola in Chettle, Dekker and Haughton's Patient Grissil. He is a scholar burdened by poverty. He becomes part of Gwalter's court when Gwalter marries his sister Grissil, but later he is banished along with Janicola as part of Gwalter's test of Grissil. He rails at his own banishment and that of his sister, but all to no avail. He continues to resent and complain about Gwalter's treatment of the family until, in the end, he realizes that he did not understand Gwalter's motives. He thus resolves to be more humble in the future.


Laval, the name Montecarlo assumes while in disguise in Massinger's The Guardian.

Lavall is a character in "The Triumph of Death," the third play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He is the lecherous son of the Duke of Anjou. He is visited by a spirit that tempts him. Lavall secretly marries Gabriella, grows weary of her, and then marries Hellena, a more advantageous match. He also attempts to seduce and then rape Casta. He is killed by Gabrielle.


A clown in Shakespeare's All's Well. Also "Lavache." A servant to the Countess of Rossillion. He at first wants to marry Isabel but later does not. He announces the that Bertram has run away and later announces his return.


Friend to Dowsecer in Chapman's An Humourous Day's Mirth. He attempts to dissuade him from his melancholy by urging more healthy pursuits. When Dowsecer falls in love with Martia, Lavel accompanies him as he pursues her to Verone's tavern.


Laverdure is a French knight in Marston's What You Will. He is planning to marry Celia until he realizes that her first husband, Albano, is still alive.


A courtier in Fletcher's The Honest Man's Fortune. He takes advantage of Montaigne's financial naivety in his straitened circumstances to bilk him out of money. He also is a rival for Lamira's hand. He believes that Veramour is a gentlewoman disguised as a page, and, after apologizing to Montaigne and offering to make restitution for his financial tricks, he asks for Veramour and is humiliated to discover that Veramour is in fact a boy.


A "ghost character" in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador. Mentioned by Edmond in his disguise as an Irishman.


Lavia is Emilia's servant in Wilson's The Inconstant Lady. She brings Cloris to her on request, announces the arrival of Aramant and Millecert, and keeps Cloris locked in her room. She speaks honestly and directly to Aramant about Emilia's loss of love for him, and later she tells the admiring Cloris that Aramant is "[t]he most accomplish'd gentleman in Burgundy." She unlocks the gate for Cloris can escape to find Aramant, and then covers for her with Emilia. In the closing scene, Cloris remembers "honest Lavia."


Lavinia, the only daughter of Titus in Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus, is betrothed to Bassianus at the beginning of the play, but Titus decides she should marry Saturninus instead, though Saturninus eventually marries Tamora. As revenge for the execution of Alarbus, Chiron and Demetrius rape Lavinia, and, in order to prevent her from revealing their identities, cut out her tongue and cut off her hands. Lavinia eventually spells their names in the sand with a wooden staff by guiding it with her mouth and feet. Lavinia helps Titus cook Chiron and Demetrius into a meat pie. Titus kills her during the banquet, claiming she has dishonored the family.


Lavinio is the Duke of Tuscany in Cokain's Trappolin. He is identified as a member of the Medici family. After winning a war against Mantua, aided by Sforza, Lavinio turns governance of Florence over to the Lords Barbarino and Machavil, and journeys to Milan to wed Isabella, Sforza's sister. They watch a masque to celebrate their nuptials, and then retire to consummate their union. Upon his return to Florence with his new wife, Lavinio is amazed by the behavior of his courtiers, who seem to think he has been there for some time, having been fooled by the transformed Trappolin. He discovers his substitute governors in prison, where Trappolin has placed them, and to his confusion, they plead for his mercy. They, too, are confused, as he inquires how they came to be imprisoned. In their explanation of what has transpired they reveal the love match between Prudentia and Horatio, whom they still know only as Brunetto. Lavinio believes his sister is distracted, like the rest of the nobility, and believes a general frenzy has overcome his region. They all believe the madness is limited to their Duke. Mattemores reveals the identity of Horatio, and enourages the Duke to eavesdrop on the lovers. Upon overhearing the love pledges between Prudentia and Horatio, Lavinio reveals himself and chastises them for their behavior. He denies his blessing of their marriage, undoing what Trappolin has done in his name, and once again orders the arrest of Horatio. Upon discovering the situation, Trappolin reverses it, and these alternations between Trappolin's will and that of the true Duke continue, as Trappolin seeks an opportunity to transform the Duke with his magic powder. The opportunity presents itself at last, and the Duke is transformed, although he retains knowledge of his true identity. Flametta enters and mistakes him for her Trappolin. The Duke rejects her. When Mattemores enters, the Duke inquires about his Lords, and Mattemores rebuffs him, believing him to be Trappolin. The disguised Trappolin enters and orders the release of Horatio, infuriating the true Duke. Yet, he must be patient as long as he appears to be the lowly Trappolin, and so looks on as the imposter sends his sister and Horatio off to be wed. Finally, Trappolin orders the imprisonment of Lavinio, and Pucannello complies. All are convinced that Lavinio is Trappolin. In prison and lamenting his condition, Lavinio pleads with Barbarino and Machavil to release him. They believe he is mad. While Lavinio is in prison as Trappolin, Horatio and Prudentia are wed. Tiring of his game, and with the marriage of Horatio and Prudentia accomplished, Trappolin releases Lavinio from prison and warns him to use his freedom well. The Duke continues to insist that he is the true Duke, and the others are impatient with him. When Mago enters shortly thereafter and reveals the real identity of Lavinio, the Duke forgives everything. Mago explains that Horatio's elder brother Prince Filberto has died, thus making Horatio the heir to Piedmont's throne. With this news, Lavinio grants Prudentia and Horatio his blessing. The confusion having been resolved, Lavinio welcomes his bride, Isabella, to court, and promises to tell the whole story at a later time.


Law is a branch of the commonwealth (Utopia) represented in the aborted masque following the beggars' wedding in Brome's A Jovial Crew. It is to be played by the decayed lawyer. With Divinity, it "stretch[es] its wide throat to appease and reconcile" City, Court, and Country.


See also LAURENCE and related spellings.


The manservant of Old Seely in Heywood and Brome's The Late Lancashire Witches, Lawrence is also in love with his fellow servant Parnell. The witchcraft plaguing the Seely household affects Lawrence. He and Parnell rule over the rest of the family; in particular, he holds full sway over the men of the household. Lawrence proposes marriage to Parnell, and although she first interprets it as a joke in her bewitched state, she presumably agrees. The next time we see the couple it is at their wedding celebration. By means of witchcraft this celebration becomes a scene of chaos:
  • the bride cake is turned to bran,
  • the wedding feast is transformed, and
  • the fiddlers are bewitched.
We also discover that Lawrence had previously been involved with Mall Spencer, who resents being jilted. Although she professes no longer to have feelings for Lawrence, she gives him a wedding gift of a lace point for his britches that is bewitched, rendering him impotent. During the celebration Lawrence and Parnell's behavior becomes erratic, one minute consumed by lust and the next angry with each other. When Parnell discovers that the once sexually overactive Lawrence is impotent, she becomes so shrewish a wife that the neighbors perform a Skimmington ritual outside the Seely household in protest (see Rabble). Not to be outdone by Parnell's wading into the crowd to pluck down and beat the Skimmington effigy, Lawrence likewise beats the effigy of the Skimmington's wife. This discord between Lawrence and Parnell seems to be what inspires Doughty to go "a-witch-hunting," and when the witches are taken into custody, Parnell and Lawrence are no longer bewitched. Moreover, they relate how they became suspicious of Mall's gift and threw the lace point on the fire, where it wriggled and hissed like a live thing before its destruction lifted Lawrence's impotence. Lawrence and Parnell happily resume their servant status at the end of the play. With Lawrence no longer impotent, they are in love again.


He appears at the beginning of the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V with Robin Pewterer and John Cobbler. The three of them are neighbors and assist Derrick in apprehending Cuthbert Cutter the thief.


A fictional character within [?]Heywood's The Fair Maid of the Exchange. When Fiddle is introduced to Racket (Bobbington in disguise), he jokingly says his father is Sir Lawrence Lyre.


Sir Lawrence is a Latin-spouting comic priest in the anonymous Wit of a Woman, whom Ferio asks to officiate at the marriage of (presumably) Veronte and Gianetta. He is presumably also the priest who is present at the marriage-feast, and therefore it is to be assumed that he has also officiated at the other three marriages.


The little French lawyer in Fletcher and Massinger's The Little French Lawyer. La-writ is busy with clients when he accidentally stumbles onto Beaupre, Verdoone, and Cleremont as they await Dinant's arrival for the duel. Pressed into service as a duelist by Cleremont, La-writ discovers a taste for fighting. Using his law papers to defend his belly, La-writ defeats Beaupre and Verdoone, then meets Dinant. Cleremont prevents a duel between the two by explaining that La-writ saved Dinant's honor in the duel. La-writ's new devotion to fighting, in addition to prompting belligerent songs, causes him to dismiss his clients and challenge Vertaigne, a judge who has ruled against La-writ, to a duel. Vertaigne sends his nephew Sampson in his stead, and Cleremont tricks the men into stripping down to their shirts and handing over their swords. Abandoned and very cold, the two men beat each other to keep warm. Seeking shelter, they meet Champernell and Vertaigne, who assume the lawyers have been robbed by the same ruffians who kidnapped their friends. Champernell and La-writ exchange insults, and Champernell beats the lawyer, effecting his reform. La-writ returns to life as a lawyer and advises Sampson to go home and reform himself.


The Lawyer in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London is hired by Lucre after being preferred by Fraud and Dissimulation. He may be the same character as 'Creticus the Lawyer' with whom Lucre is later accused of adultery.


The Lawyer discusses the state of the nation with the Merchant and the Divine in Greene's James IV.


Like the Judge in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England, the Lawyer (called Master or Signor Mizaldo during the court session) exemplifies the widespread corruption in Nineveh. He accepts the case of Alcon and Thrasibulus against the Usurer, but he takes the latter's bribe to throw the case. When he is called upon to make statements on behalf of his clients, he pretends to be distracted and unable to focus on their case, and the Judge then finds for the Usurer. As the session ends, the Lawyer accepts the Judge's invitation to dine with him and the Usurer.


The lawyer is a Yorkist supporter in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI. Shakespeare imagines a fictitious debate in which the Yorkist and Lancastrian factions choose the symbols of their quarrel, the white and the red roses. Suffolk sides with Somerset and the Lancastrians, plucking a red rose from a nearby bush, while Warwick and Vernon choose a white rose to show their support for Richard Plantagenet's Yorkist side.

LAWYER **1604

A name used in stage directions to identify Ferio in the anonymous Wit of a Woman, although one probably erroneous stage direction seems to identify Ferio and the Lawyer as separate characters.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Epicoene. The Lawyer whom Morose wants to contact about his divorce. When he sees that his supposedly silent wife is a garrulous shrew, Morose exits in a rage to seek counsel from a lawyer in the City. Later, he returns and informs Truewit and Dauphine that he could not contact the lawyer because there was such noise in court that he was frightened and went home. According to Morose, the lawyers were speaking and counter-speaking with their several voices of citations, appellations, allegations, certificates, and interrogatories that the noise there seemed unbearable.


One of the Madmen who torments the Duchess in Webster's The Duchess of Malfi.


Role taken by Stremon's servant in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. In the masque presented to Memnon by Stremon, an unnamed servant plays a grumbling lawyer who was not capable of wooing.


When Virolet attempts to keep his end of the marriage bargain with Martia, he hires the lawyer to arrange a divorce from Juliana in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage. The lawyer decides to use Juliana's barrenness, now guaranteed because of the torture to which Ferrand subjected her, as the basis for the divorce.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. The present Lady Cressingham's father, who died as a justice of peace. When Sir Francis suggests that they should borrow money with interest instead of selling his land, Lady Cressingham rejects the idea and admits nobody gets rich by buying things with usurers' money. She indirectly refers to her father, the lawyer, in whose house she learned about such practices.


Along with Cutpurse, Physician, and Captain in Fletcher's A Wife for a Month, one of four named suitors who comes to the court of Naples on the day of Valerio's execution in order to woo Valerio's soon-to-be widow, Evanthe. Tony, the fool, interrogates them and finds them corrupt, and Evanthe rejects them, finding them old and diseased. Frederick offers Evanthe in marriage for a month, but the sad joke is that these suitors are too old to last that long.

LAWYER **1637

A mute character in Mayne’s City Match. He goes with Warehouse to Aurelia’s house. He has Warehouse’s blank deeds with which to invest Dorcas with Warehouse’s property for their marriage.


The lawyer is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. He rarely demands a fee from his clients, dresses in rags, and is scrupulously honest–a satiric contrast to London lawyers. The lawyer represents the poet, the captain, the balladwoman, and the beggar, demanding payment from the latter only.


Also Beggar 2 in Brome's A Jovial Crew, the lawyer is a beggar who has been barred from practice and whipped after seeking to make a living by giving false evidence. He is to play Law in the aborted wedding masque, and he plays Oldrents in the inset play before Oldrents.


Cutbeard is disguised as a Canon Lawyer according to Truewit's plan to dupe Morose in Jonson's Epicoene. At Morose's house, Truewit enters with Cutbeard as Canon Lawyer and Otter as a Divine. After receiving instructions from Truewit on how to behave convincingly in their roles, Cutbeard/Canon Lawyer and Otter/Divine counsel Morose on the legal and theological grounds for divorce. Cutbeard/Canon Lawyer uses extravagant Latin vocabulary and he pretends to be in scholarly disputation with the learned divine. From Cutbeard/Canon Lawyer's Latin babble, Morose understands that if the man is frigid or the wife is proved corrupt there may be just cause for divorce. Consequently, when Epicoene enters followed by the ladies, Morose pretends that he is unable to perform his marital duties and wants to have the marriage annulled. Cannon Lawyer explains that the divorce cannot be proclaimed because, when the man is frigid, the wife is the injured party. If the wife accepts the situation, there is no ground for divorce. Otter/Divine says that it is the same in theology, but if the wife is found corrupt, then there is a possibility of divorce from the part of the husband. After Epicoene's infidelity has been confirmed, the two impostors find that the case is not applicable when the adultery happened before the marriage. Finally, Dauphine reveals that Epicoene is a boy, so the marriage is void, and both impostors accord that this is a just impediment in the first grade. When Morose agrees entirely to his nephew's conditions, Dauphine reveals the two impostors' disguise.


These two unnamed lawyers in Fletcher's The Honest Man's Fortune represent Montaigne in his legal defense against Orleans but insinuate it is Montaigne's fault when he loses.


Two lawyers are present, and speak a very few words, at the trial of Samorat and Orsabrin in Suckling's The Goblins.


A rich lawyer of London is a "fictional character" in Jonson's The Alchemist. In his fantasy regarding his exceptional sexual prowess gained because of the magical elixir, Mammon imagines he will take every wealthy lawyer's wife as his mistress for a thousand pounds.


Two lawyers in the anonymous Swetnam attend the trial of Leonida and Lisandro and comment on the arguments offered by Swetnam and Atlanta.


Two Lawyers explain and justify the Old Law to Simonides and Cleanthes in the opening scene of Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law. Their legal wisdom proves foolishness, however, when in the last scene the Old Law is revealed to be a fiction.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. A former mayor of London whose portrait is admired by Doctor Nowell.


A gallant of London in Middleton and Dekker's Moll Cutpurse, The Roaring Girl. Laxton's name is likely a pun on "lacks stone," or "lacks testicles." Mistress Gallipot is enamored of Laxton, and he strings her along because she steals money from her husband to give to him. Laxton comes to demand more money of her than she can give him without raising her husband's suspicions, so she devises a scheme. She claims that she had been betrothed to Laxton but married Gallipot because she thought Laxton had drowned at sea; now Laxton has returned to marry her, she claims, and must be bought off. Laxton later teams with Greenwit in an attempt to extort more money from Gallipot. While Mistress Gallipot is enamored of him, Laxton is enamored of Moll Cutpurse. He makes an appointment to meet with her, paying her to have sex with him. When she meets with him, though, she returns the money and attacks him with her sword for thinking that women are whores.


A friend of Antonio's in William Rowley's All's Lost by Lust. Lazarello advises Antonio against marrying the lowborn Margaretta, but his advice is ignored. Lazarello goes to the wars with Antonio, and when Antonio falls in love with Dionyzia, encourages him to commit bigamy. Lazarello then encourages Antonio to get a divorce from Margaretta thus: Lazarello will disguise himself as Antonio, sleep with Margaretta, and then reveal his identity. In this way Antonio will be able to divorce her for adultery. The plan goes wrong when Margaretta murders Lazarello, thinking him to be Antonio.


Lazarillo de Tormes in Castille is a Spanish soldier in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. He is also the protagonist of the Spanish picaresque novel of the same name. In a street before Blurt's house, Lazarillo confesses his love for Imperia and decides to stay in Venice for her sake. Lazarillo is looking for suitable lodgings, and Pilcher tells him that the constable distributes housing in Venice to foreigners. When Blurt enters, Lazarillo shows him his pass from the Duke and introduces himself as the first cousin to the lieutenant of the king of Spain. Thinking he is an important person, the constable tells Lazarillo that he may stay at his home. At Imperia's courtesan house, Imperia and Hipolito devise a masque game of men disguised as women to trick Lazarillo. The Spaniard gives the courtesans an elaborate and lengthy lesson of how they should treat their fictional husbands. Imperia instructs Simperina to get rid of Lazarillo. She confuses Lazarillo with sudden noises, music, and birds' singing inside Imperia's house–he is wearing only his shirt and slippers, but holds firmly on his sword, thinking the room is haunted. Hearing a Spanish tune, he starts dancing and falls through a trapdoor into the sewers of Venice. Frisco hears Lazarillo scream for help from the pit, but Imperia orders him to let Lazarillo lie there. Having managed to extricate himself from the sewers, Lazarillo comes to Imperia's house to reclaim his clothes, but Frisco will not let him enter and drenches him with urine from the upstairs window. Blurt the constable then arrests Lazarillo on suspicion of robbery. In the street before Imperia's house, Blurt brings Lazarillo under arrest, at the Duke's command. When the Duke magnanimously pardons the Spaniard, Blurt claims from Lazarillo the debt of twenty shillings for having lodged him. The Spaniard protests, but the Duke offers to cover his debt.


Lazarillo, a hungry servant, Mendoza, a patcher, Pachieco, a cobbler, and Metaldi, a smith, all work together to help Alguazier steal in Fletcher, Beaumont, and Massinger's, Love's Cure. The Assistant tries them. They are sentenced to a whipping and an unspecified time in the galleys.


Lazarillo is the Hungry Courtier in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater, a hedonistic epicure who would do anything for a good meal. At Valore's house, Lazarillo enters and is received by the count, in the hope of being introduced to the secrets of the Duke's menu. At Gondarino's house, Lazarillo enters with Valore, who informs him that the fish-head Lazarillo had hoped to dine on is now at Mercer's house. While Lazarillo fantasizes about various ways of retrieving his meal, the eavesdropping Intelligencers interpret his words as high treason to Duke. Lazarillo exits with Valore to Mercer's, where he is introduced as a potential customer for silks and velvets. When he finds out that the fish-head is gone from Mercer's kitchen, Lazarillo exits in pursuit of his beloved dinner. In a street before the brothel, Lazarillo enters with Boy, who tells him that the fish-head is inside the establishment. While he is courting Julia with the purpose of having his desired meal, Lazarillo is arrested as a traitor. Before being taken in custody, Lazarillo promises Julia to marry her if she keeps the fish head safe for him. At the palace, Lazarillo is brought before Duke and presented as a traitor, but Duke delegates the decision to Valore, who sets Lazarillo free and advises him to master his desires. In a street before the brothel, Lazarillo demands from Julia the promised fish-head for dinner, but Julia wants to go to church first to be married, as promised. Lazarillo exits with Julia to the altar.


Apprentice to Cordolente in Dekker’s Match Me in London. He watches the shop.


Lazaro is Diego's hostler in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. After both the disguised Theodosia and Philippo are settled, Diego speaks with Lazaro about their horses. Lazaro assures Diego that the horses are well taken care of, but says they are both foul-tempered; the one tried to kick him and the other is refusing to eat the hay given. He and Diego then agree that they should steal less, but that it is difficult considering the world and their situation.


A Spanish courtier and villain in the anonymous First Part of Jeronimo. Lorenzo pays him to thwart the love between Belimperia and Andrea. Lazarotto suggests that Alcario should woo her, and he would kill Andrea on his arrival from Portugal. Ieronimo and Horatio overhear these plans. When Lazarotto sees Belimperia and Alcario in Andrea's clothes, he thinks that Lorenzo has not managed to kill Andrea yet. Lazarotto then kills Alcario, mistaking him for Andrea. Just at that moment the real Andrea, Rogero, Ieronimo, Horatio and others appear, they discover the body and the murderer in the act. Lorenzo promises Lazarotto to get the King's pardon for him. Lazarotto then swears that it had been Alcario who had paid him to murder Andrea because he was his rival in the suit of Belimperia. Without telling him, Alcario had taken advantage of Andrea's absence and disguised himself as Andrea. Ironically, therefore, he had mistaken Alcario for his designed victim. The King decides that Lazarotto should be executed immediately. Lazarotto now asks Lorenzo to get his pardon, otherwise he would tell everything. Lorenzo manages to discredit him as a liar before he can detect the truth, and he sees to it that he is immediately executed.


Called the governor of Servia (Serbia) in Goffe's The Courageous Turk, Lazarus joins forces with the Bulgarian ruler Sesmenos in an attempt to prevent Amurath from conquering all of eastern Europe. Like Sesmenos, he is sometimes baffled by the unabated Turkish successes, but like his Bulgarian counterpart, he is encouraged by the captain Cobelitz to trust in God's purpose and fight on. Lazarus is slain by Lala Schahin in the final battle.


Constable Lazy is one of the prisoners in the Counter in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden, seen conducting a mock-parliament in the prison. It appears that he is only a constable within the context of the mock-parliament.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. He is one of the first group of Portia's suitors, described by Nerissa, who leaves without attempting to find the correct casket.


Le Beau is a foppish courtier to Duke Frederick in Shakespeare's As You Like It. When Celia and Rosalind are jesting with Touchstone early in the play, Le Beau interrupts to report that they are missing an exciting wrestling match. At the match, Rosalind sees Orlando for the first time, and they fall in love at first sight. After the match, Le Beau warns Orlando to be on his guard against the unpredictable Duke Frederick, who now knows that Orlando is the son of his old enemy Sir Rowland de Boys. Like Adam, Le Beau disappears from the text. Some productions (though with no textual justification) assign the lines of Jaques De Boys to Le Beau at play's end.


A "ghost character" in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. Hugh le Brun was engaged to Isabel before she married John, and is a background threat of rebellion during the play.


He is also known as the Duke of Burgundy and the Archbishop of Bourges in the Anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V. As a French messenger from Charles VII, he offers Henry V fifty thousand crowns a year and the French Lady Katherine in marriage if Harry is willing to forego his "unreasonable" claim to the French crown. Later, he delivers a mocking gift of tennis balls from the French Dauphin. Returning to France, the Archbishop conveys Henry V's refusal to settle for anything less than the crown. At the end of the play, the Duke of Burgundy swears fealty to Henry V.


Monsieur Le Frisk is a dancing master in Shirley's The Ball, frequenting the drawing rooms of the nobility and speaking in heavily French-accented English.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. Leah was Shylock's wife, and when he hears that Jessica has traded a turquoise ring for a monkey, he reminisces briefly about how Leah gave it to him before they were married. She is apparently dead, and Shylock demonstrates tender feelings for her saying that he would not have traded the ring for a wilderness of monkeys.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. With Sir Jarvis Clifton, one of the two English noblemen from whom Lord Grey of Wilton expects reinforcements for the Battle of Leith. He keeps the water-ports for the English side during the battle.


Son of Hardenbergh and friend to Alberdure in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll. He reproaches himself for not remaining with his friend during Alberdure's madness, laments his apparent drowning, and is overjoyed to learn he is still alive. Leander reunites Alberdure with his father.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Hero and Leander were two legendary lovers who died tragically on the shore of the Hellespont. Though Ovid wrote about Hero and Leander in his Metamorphoses, the puppet play is a travesty of Marlowe's poem Hero and Leander and of Richard Edwards' old-fashioned play. Cokes reads the playbill of the puppet play to be performed at the Fair, which says "The ancient modern history of Hero and Leander, otherwise called The Touchstone of True Love, with as true a trial of friendship between Damon and Pythias, two faithful friends o' the Bankside." When he speaks to Cokes about the play, Littlewit, the author of the puppet-play, imagines Leander as a dyer from the Bankside who spies Hero at Trig Stars and falls in love with her. Instead of Abydos, the original place of the legendary Leander, the Prologue of the puppet-play presents him as the son of a dyer at Puddle Wharf. In his imaginary game with the silly objects purchased from Leatherhead as a hobbyhorse seller, Cokes assigns the representation of Leander to the fiddle-stick.


Main character, though mute, of one of the five dumb shows Jupiter orders which features those slain by the machinations of Venus and Fortune in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune.


A generous young man in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. He has recently finished mourning his father's death. During a conversation with his friends, Leandro hears Jamie speak of Amaranta's beauty. He quickly hatches an elaborate scheme to meet her and perhaps seduce her. Dressed as a student, Leandro uses a forged letter from his father and a cash payment to persuade Lopez to introduce him to Bartolus, Amaranta's husband. With Lopez's good word and 300 ducats more, Bartolus agrees to let Leandro stay as his law student on the condition that he never strays beyond his quarters. Fooled by Leandro's shy, studious demeanor, Bartolus leaves him in the house with Amaranta. Despite his best efforts and ample opportunity, Leandro reports after Bartolus's breakfast party that he was unable to penetrate Amaranta's virtuous defenses. Finally, Bartolus grudgingly forgives Leandro for his interest in Amaranta.


Leandro is a court attendant in Shirley's The Doubtful Heir. He receives unwelcome letters announcing Leonario's war victory and capture of Ferdinand, and though at Ferdinand's trial Leandro charges that Ferdinand only pretends to be related to Olivia, it is Leandro who later admits to having saved the true heir Ferdinand in infancy.


Leantio is unsympathetic, though he could have been quite likable in Middleton's Women Beware Women. Of all the pawns in this chess game, he is in the weakest position. Middleton chooses not to make him pitiful. Rather, he begins as a jealous husband who treats his pretty wife, Bianca, like a piece of property to be hidden away. He gives no regard to her happiness or comfort. His interest in her is almost exclusively sexual. When the Duke cuckolds him, he is easily bought off with a worthless title. He falls easily into a spiteful alliance with Livia and allows himself to be a kept man in order to torment his estranged wife. He acts badly towards his wife by flaunting his new riches and bragging about his liaison with Livia. He, like Hippolito, does not balk at murder in the name of honor. Although he does not pick the fight with Hippolito, he is certainly prepared to kill Livia's brother. In the fight with Hippolito, Leantio is killed. His death triggers Livia's vengeance against her brother.


Also called "Frog" in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho, a servant of Featherstone. His colleague Squirrel tells him that Greenshield's "sister" is probably his wife, as she sleeps every night with him, and that she intends to cheat her husband with his master. Together they watch her when she pretends to be sleepwalking to get into Featherstone's room.


Leir is the king of England in the anonymous King Leir. He is a recent widower who decides, now that he has no wife, to match his three daughters to neighboring kings to ensure stability. However, he knows that his youngest daughter, Cordella, refuses to marry at his command. He decides to trick her with a "love test" and to ask each daughter to express how much she loves him. When Cordella, as he expects, claims she loves him best, he will ask that she prove it by marrying at his command. His two eldest daughters, Gonorill and Ragan, are warned by Skalliger of the nature of the test, and declare that they will do anything he says, but Cordella says only that she loves him as a child should love a father. Enraged, Leir dispossesses her and tells her to leave the court. He then divides his kingdom between Gonorill (now married to the King of Cornwall) and Ragan (now married to the King of Cambria). Leir decides to live with Gonorill, but he manages to enrage her at every turn, and he finally feels that he must leave Cornwall. Perillus, his only loyal companion, suggests traveling to Cambria to live with Ragan, and Leir agrees. They make the journey on foot, arriving exhausted, to be greeted by a welcoming Cambria and a furious but dissembling Ragan. Ragan sends a message to both Leir and Perillus to meet her at a thicket two miles outside of the castle, where they both fall asleep out of weariness. They are awakened by the Messenger, whom Ragan has sent to kill them. At first, Leir believes that the Messenger is a robber, and then he is convinced that Cordella has arranged the murder attempt. When he is shown proof that it is Ragan, he is willing to die because of his daughters' lack of love, However, he attempts to save Perillus from death, and Perillus is equally determined to save Leir. Between the two of them, they convince the Messenger not to kill them. Leir is overcome with grief, but Perillus convinces him that he was wrong about Cordella's anger and that he should travel to Gaul. They arrive in Gaul without money to pay for their passage, and Leir is required to give up his gown and cap to the First Mariner. They are starved and dying when Cordella along with the Gallian King and Mumford, who are all disguised, discover them. At first, Leir does not recognize them, and when they have given him food and drink, he tells them his story and his reluctance to approach Cordella who, he believes, must hate him. Cordella reveals herself and there is an emotional reunion. The King swears to return Leir to the throne and invades England with an army. After taking Dover, Leir meets with the Nobles, and they declare their happiness to have him back (although see the note under "CHIEF of DOVER"). Leir then meets with his daughters and their husbands and reveals the letters that show Ragan's attempt to have him murdered, but she refuses to admit that she has done wrong. After the battle, Leir is restored to the throne thanks Mumford and the King. He ends by admitting that Cordella's declaration of love was the true one.
King Lear is a sovereign whose sufferings are brought about through poor judgment and the machinations of vicious offspring in Shakespeare's King Lear. Dividing his kingdom between Goneril and Regan after casting off his youngest daughter and his most trusted earl, Lear is subsequently cast off by both of his older daughters and suffers a madness borne of physical hardship and emotional distress. Reunited with Cordelia and on the way to recovery, Lear is once again shattered when Cordelia is hung in prison; he dies quite literally of grief at the play's end, embracing the lifeless form of Cordelia.


Learchus is one of the shepherds who ask Nature to create a woman so that they can procreate in Lyly's The Woman in the Moon. He courts Pandora and quarrels with the other shepherds. After Stesias marries Pandora, Learchus continues to press his love. Pandora, under the influence of Venus, tells Learchus she now loves him; when the shepherds discover that Pandora has professed love to each of them in turn, they denounce her to Stesias. Now under the influence of Mercury, Pandora gets her revenge–she sends a letter to Learchus, persuading him to meet with her. Professing her love once more, Pandora manages to make Learchus go back on his story to Stesias; Pandora agrees to meet the shepherd at midnight, but Stesias arrives instead and beats Learchus. Eventually, Learchus and the other shepherds tell Stesias the whole story of Pandora's manipulations.


A discontented soldier in the anonymous The Faithful Friends and associate of Leontius, Learchus is enraged by Tullius' rapid rise and joins Rufinus' plot to bring the newcomer down.


The learned antiquary is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. He is being instructed by the balladwoman.


Learning With Money is a pious and generous scholar in Lupton's All For Money. He appreciates Learning Without Money and willingly gives money to Neither Money Nor Learning. In the play, he is set as an example to those who have money.


Learning Without Money is a poor scholar in Lupton's All For Money. He is content with what he has and warns Learning With Money of the risks of being rich.


Leatherhead is a hobbyhorse seller in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. While the people at the Fair begin to erect their booths and stalls, Leatherhead advertises his wares as everybody else. Leatherhead and Trash are present during most situations of stealing and deceiving people. When Quarlous and Winwife get into a fight provoked by Knockem to distract their attention, so that Edgworth might pinch their purses, Leatherhead and Trash attend the scene. When Ursula is wounded in the fight, Leatherhead carries Ursula in a chair to her booth, together with Knockem and Mooncalf. In another scene at the Fair, Leatherhead, Trash, and others sit at their booths and stalls, when the officers enter, apparently to restore order. Whit asks Leatherhead the time, but the peddler treats the officers with contempt, telling them he has a business to run. Leatherhead offers his wares to the Littlewit party. These consist of rattles, drums, babies, little dogs and birds for ladies, purses, and pipes. Cokes wants to buy everything he has for sale, and Leatherhead is eager to please him. Leatherhead witnesses the two scenes in which Cokes is robbed. When the Littlewit party leaves Ursula's booth, and Busy rails against the vanities of the Fair, Leatherhead fetches the officers. Having been paid by Littlewit to rid him of the zealous Puritan, Leatherhead pretends that Busy's zeal impedes the trade in the Fair. While packing his seller's stall, Leatherhead tells Trash nobody will recognize him under his new disguise. Leatherhead is disguised as a puppeteer, using the name of Lantern.


The cobbler in Jonson's The Staple of News providing Pennyboy Junior with his first boots as an heir.


Marcus Porcius Lecca is a member of Catiline's conspiracy in Jonson's Catiline. According to Catiline, he is ambitious and he is among those to whom Catiline has promised a rich Roman province as a reward for his fidelity. At Catiline's house, Lecca enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot has been exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. When the plot is exposed in the Senate, Cicero says that huge quantities of arms and supplies have been amassed at Lecca's house, one of the headquarters of the conspiracy. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, it is understood that Lecca shares their punishment.


Sister to Pride in the anonymous Youth. Brought in by Pride to serve as Youth's mistress, and agrees to go along with Youth, Riot, and Pride to the tavern.


One of the seven deadly sins in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appears in the first scene with the other six sins, then crosses the stage again to announce the third playlet, which dramatizes lechery.


Lechery, the seventh of the Seven Deadly Sins in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, confides to Faustus that he prefers a bit "of raw mutton" to a surfeit "of fried stockfish."


Lectorius is a supporter of Marius in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. He argues for Marius in the first debate, claiming he would rather die than see Scilla in charge, and he exits with Marius to show his support. He is with Young Marius when Cinna sends word that Young Marius should find his father and march on Rome. Young Marius asks his advice, and Lectorius suggests they take to the sea. Just before they find Marius, when Young Marius is complaining about his fate, Lectorius reprimands him for not seeing how lucky he is. When Cornelia and Fulvia are verbally attacking Marius, Lecotrius is amazed that Marius endures it. Marius sends him for jewelry to give to Cornelia and Fulvia, to show that he means them no harm. Lectorius enters after the Captain has killed Anthony and announces that Marius has died, and he describes how he was visited by seven eagles and realized it was the day of his death. He also tells the soldiers that Scilla is hastening to enter Rome.


Brunhalt's loyal physician in Fletcher and Massinger's Thierry and Theodoret. He is the provider of drugs and poisons for the Queen's plots. He has long served Brunhalt and realizes that his good fortune and survival depend on her continuing ascendancy. He suggests to her the use of the impotence-drug, which constitutes her first attempt to ruin Thierry's marriage, and procures the potion for her. Disguised as the magician Le Forte, he persuades Thierry that the only way he can ensure future heirs for France will be to sacrifice the first woman coming from the Temple of Diana the next dawn. He then contrives the victim to be Ordella. Believing the plot has succeeded, he next proposes to Brunhalt the use of the poisoned handkerchief that will kill Thierry by depriving him of sleep. It is reported that to escape arrest when Brunhalt's treason is made known, he drowns himself.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Silver Age, mentioned by Semele as one of Jupiter's previous paramours.
A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Leda (called Lada in the text) is Helen's mother. During the banquet at which Helen is asked to choose between returning to Greece or remaining in Troy, Menelaus, hoping to influence Helen, tells her that Leda still grieves over the daughter's absence.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. In Greek and Roman mythology, Leda was a fair mortal wooed by Zeus (Jupiter) in the guise of a swan. When Fulvia and Sempronia discuss their lovers, Fulvia suggests that they might exchange favorites. Fulvia implies she is tired of Quintus Curius, and Sempronia could have him, adding that the world is full of sexually rewarding men. In fact, Fulvia is dissatisfied because Curius is broke and he cannot pay for her extravagant tastes. Since it is known that Caesar has sent Fulvia a pearl as a gift, probably in exchange for sexual favors, it is inferred that Fulvia refers to Caesar, Sempronia's former lover, who now has turned to Fulvia, lavishing her with rich gifts. Showing her preference for a rich lover, Fulvia adds that she is not impressed with mere sexual prowess, and she would not be taken with a swan, like the foolish Leda. Only for the price of bright gold, like Danae, would she endure a rough and harsh Jupiter. Fulvia implies that she prefers material wealth beside sexual potency.


A "ghost character" in May's The Heir. The King's niece and true love of Eugenio. When Eugenio's revelations during the arraignment of Philocles prevent the feared tragic outcome, the King rewards Eugenio with the boon of his choice. Eugenio asks for the hand of the King's niece. A double wedding is arranged for him, his sister and their prospective partners to create a happy resolution to the play.


While searching for the murderer of his son in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle, he stumbles across the Oldcastles, who have fallen asleep after fleeing from St. Albans. He accuses them of murdering his son and has them arrested.


A "ghost character" in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel. A creditor of Fitzallen, perhaps a fictional invention of Russell.


When Pistol captures a French soldier at the battle of Agincourt in Shakespeare's Henry V, Pistol's questions and the soldier's pleas for mercy work at cross purposes until the Boy arrives to serve as their translator. The Boy is able to explain that the soldier's name is Monsieur Le Fer, and eventually a ransom agreement is reached. Later, Henry orders his soldiers to kill their prisoners, so Pistol loses the ransom and Monsieur Le Fer loses his life.


A "ghost character" and disguise in Fletcher and Massinger's Thierry and Theodoret. A magician and astrologer living as a hermit and known to Lecure. He is captured by Lecure's servant, allowing Lecure to take his identity and, in disguise, give Thierry false instructions to cure his impotence. This sets up the plot to sacrifice Ordella.

LEFT LEGS **1632

Stipes begins calling Geoffrey left-legs in Hausted’s Rival Friends when he fears the boy has slept with his daughter and been a “left legged rascal" with her.


Along with Arthur Armstrong in Hausted’s Rival Friends, one of two young scholars, robustious football players, and suitor to Mistress Ursely for the parsonage’s sake. Anteros calls him colossus. When Bully Lively pretends to die, he and the other suitors begin pulling at Ursely as on a rope to win her quickly. When Anteros receives the parsonage deed and Sacrilege Hook drives Stutchell off, he and the other suitors flock to Anteros and call him patron. He is driven off by Anteros as unworthy to marry his sister.


The Legate in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar conveys King Philip's offer of his daughter Isabel to Sebastian.


Late in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, Winchester gives him money for the Pope in recompense for investing him with symbols of high rank.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. Lucio is sent to Lucca, ostensibly to greet the Pope's Legate, but really so that the Duke can attempt to seduce Corsa.


See also "LEISTER."


Leicester in Marlowe's Edward II. He comes with Trussel and the Bishop of Winchester to Killingworth Castle to ask Edward II, who was taken there after being captured at the Abbey of Neath, to abdicate in favor of his son. When Edward refuses to yield his crown, Leicester persuades him to do so for Prince Edward's sake. After Edward is deposed, Leicester yields him to Berkeley's custody on the queen's orders.


The Earl of Leicester supports the Queen's release at Parliament in Chettle's(?) Looke About You and slanders the old King for his affair with Rosamund.


The Earl of Leicester attends on King Richard I in the anonymous The Fair Maid of Bristow.


Lecester [sic] is an English lord in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me who is supportive of the Exchange and an attendant of the Queen.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. the Earl of Leicester is mentioned as currently leading a rebellion in England.


Simon, Earl of Leicester first appears immediately after Prince John has struck Ely's Messenger in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Leicester asks what he means by this action; John replies that the Messenger's head only bleeds, but Ely shall be headless for his treachery. Leicester calms him and tells him that slow words are more effective than sharp. His initial apparent friendship with John contrasts sharply with his later appearances, indicating incomplete revision. Leicester reappears after John has usurped the crown. John is not at all pleased to see him. Leicester says that he will attempt to check John's royal ambitions, but John welcomes Leicester back from war (apparently the crusade). Leicester expresses shock at John's usurpation and the support he receives from Queen Elinor and the nobles. He then announces that he comes from King Richard to collect the ransom that has been sent for three times. When John claims that England has already paid too much to send Richard on crusade, Leicester paints a vibrant picture of the English willingly giving their money and jewelry to Richard, and the battles Richard has fought. When John still refuses ransom, Leicester takes Richard's colors and treads on them to express his anger. At this point, Richmond enters, although Leicester fears at first it is John's army, and announces that Richard has returned. Leicester is overjoyed at the news and asks Richmond to describe Richard's captivity, which he does.
Although Leicester is part of the mass entrance after the hunt, he does not speak, and is not present for Robin Hood's death in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. He first appears in a speaking role when he comes to visit Fitzwater and Matilda as a proxy wooer for William Wigmore. While there, he, along with Fitzwater, Bruce and Richmond, is accused by John of plotting treason. Leicester makes no secret of his dislike of John, and after John leaves he goes with Fitzwater to raise an army. In the first battle, Leicester finds Queen Isabel and Matilda. When he asks who has harmed Matilda, she lies and says it was soldiers, sparing the Queen shame. Leicester then commands soldiers to return the Queen to John's side in safety. After the second battle, when John has won, the king offers the rebels life and liberty, and Leicester, with the others, agrees to be loyal to John again. However, when the deaths of Lady Bruce and her son, and then Matilda, are revealed, Leicester suggests to Young Bruce that they put Louis the Dauphin on the throne. He is persuaded away from this course with some difficulty by Hubert and Oxford, and again swears loyalty to John.


One of the three executioners in Fletcher and Massinger's Sir John Van Olden Barnavelt. The others are from Harlem and Utrecht. He throws dice with his fellow executioners to determine who will behead Barnavelt and loses.


Secretary of the States and follower of Barnavelt in Fletcher and Massinger's Sir John Van Olden Barnavelt. He is characterized by the second of the two captains as a fair-weather friend. After the fall at the siege of Utrecht, he is arrested and imprisoned by Maurice in The Hague. In prison, he betrays Barnavelt's secret plans, enraging the latter. Barnavelt visits him there and persuades him to kill himself to spite Maurice. After a touching scene with his little son, he does so. His body, in its coffin, is displayed in chains at Maurice's order. [The visit of Barnavelt to the prison, and his responsibility for Leidenberch's death, is a fiction. Barnavelt was himself in prison at the time. According to Frijlinck, "The plausibility of this scene was doubted even by Fletcher's contemporaries."]


The son in Fletcher and Massinger's Sir John Van Olden Barnavelt, portrayed in the play as a young child, is arrested with Leidenberch and volunteers eagerly to go prison to look after him. He has a touching scene with his father just before Leidenberch's suicide. [This has a basis in fact. Leidenberch's son was permitted to attend his father in prison; his name was Joost, and he was in fact eighteen.]


Alternative spelling for Leidenberch in Fletcher and Massinger's Sir John Van Olden Barnavelt.


Only mentioned in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. A former king of Britain, mentioned in the Bards' song in act II.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous King Leir. The play begins with Leir mourning his recently deceased wife, who is considered to have been "a perfect pattern" and raised her daughters well. She apparently raised them almost alone because Leir expresses great uncertainty about how to provide for them now that she is dead. (For King Leir see "LEAR or LEIR").


An older lord of the faction opposed to the King in Davenport's King John and Matilda. He joins the discussion of the King's failure to uphold Magna Carta and agrees that John's assault on Matilda should be avenged. He brings news of the arrival of the papal legate and is present as an opponent of the King's ceremonial submission to Rome. He makes the suggests that the rebels offer the English crown to the King of France, but the other rebels reject this. He takes Windsor when the King captures Fitzwater. With Old Bruce, he defies the King from Windsor Castle. News of rebel reinforcements and the arrival of Matilda's cortège persuade John to accede to the rebel's demands.


Lelaps is the dog of Carinas in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. Amarillis lures Lelaps from his master in an attempt to gain Carinas' attentions for herself. Carinas, however, rebukes her for spoiling his hunting.


Lelia is the daughter of Gripe in the anonymous Wily Beguiled. She loves the impoverished scholar Sophos, but her father intends her to marry the simple but rich rustic, Peter Ploddall. She is also the object of the machinations of her father's dishonest lawyer, Churms. She rejects Peter Ploddall from the start. When Churms announces his love her, she refuses him but agrees to be his friend when he tells her he will try to persuade Gripe to let her make a free choice for marriage. Despite her father's instructions she refuses to hold Peter Ploddall's hand as a sign of their betrothal. Gripe is furious. She is mewed up in the house. Later the nurse tells her of Fortunatus's plan to have Lelia and Sophos meet each other the following night. In order to escape the house, Lelia tells Churms that she dislikes Sophos but that her father would never allow her to marry Churms. She asks Churms to take her to a friend's house the following night, a two days' journey through the woods. She promises that when they reach her friend's house, she will give Churms her heart. In the woods, when Sophos and Fortunatus accost Churms, she rejects Churms and chooses Sophos by kissing him. After Fortunatus chases Churms off, Lelia and Sophos spent the rest of the night in the woods to listen to a song and await better fortune. Meantime, Fortunatus gains Gripe's permission for their marriage, she returns with Sophos to her father where a wedding for the next day is arranged.


A widow whose lack of virtue is the subject of ridicule by Lodowicke and Piso in Fletcher's The Captain. Lelia rejects her father's pleas for money enough to live on, saying that he was foolish to give his estate to her while she was still alive and that if he should die as did her mother, he would behave appropriately. She sends him away with nothing. She chides her Waiting Woman for admitting and proceeds to demonstrate how to exact money from a suitor. She accuses Julio of unkindness until he gives her jewelry. She then suggests marriage and, when Julio runs away, swears that if he comes back, she will not let him get away again. Lelia later sees her disguised father in the street and, failing to recognize him, sends a Servant with a purse of money and an invitation to dine with her. Before her father arrives, however, Julio returns with his friend Angilo. Lelia manipulates Julio into saying that he will marry her. She believes that she has captured Julio in earnest, but Angilo says that he will kill Julio before letting his friend dishonor himself by marrying such a woman, and Julio chooses friendship over Lelia's love. When Lelia's father, still in disguise, enters for dinner, she offers him sex, saying she prefers older men. She is initially surprised when her father reveals his identity but conceals her surprise and pretends that she knew. She then continues to seduce him. When an eavesdropping Angilo appears to stop her, Lelia tells Angilo that the old man had forced his way in, threatened her with his sword, and claimed to be her father, and that she only pretended to believe him. She asks Angilo to attack the old man, but Angilo is not fooled. He rejects her father's suggestion to kill her and recommends taking her, along with her Waiting Woman, to his house and reforming her. Lelia calls uselessly for help as they drag her to a waiting carriage. A reformed and penitent Lelia is married to Piso, and at the nuptial festivities, Julio apologizes to Lelia. Lelia welcomes Julio, Clora, and the others. She responds in polite confusion when Lodowicke says that he is there to marry her. When her father's ruse is revealed and Piso discovers that he has married a wanton widow, Lelia vows to be true to him, her ways now being mended.


Lelia is a prisoner, captured by Frivolo in Davenant's Love and Honor. Frivolo suggests that she serve Vasco's captured Widow, and help to persuade her to marry Vasco, which she does. When Vasco and the others make fun of her, which she cannot hear, Lelia pretends they have said romantic, or at least polite, things. Even after the wedding, Lelia is still in the position of translating what the men say into more acceptable material. However, for her trouble, and because her mother is wealthy, Frivolo agrees to marry her.


Lelia's father, on his way to see Lelia in Fletcher's The Captain, encounters Piso and Lodowicke, who ask him if he is Lelia's pander. The old man beats Piso for the insult to Lelia. He asks Lelia for money enough to live on. Lelia denies her father's request, adding that finding a job or even dying would be more appropriate for him. The old man, concealing his identity, meets Jacamo and Fabritio, who, touched by his plight as an apparent old soldier, offer to share their meager resources and take him to a tailor. Lelia's father receives a purse of money from Lelia along with an invitation to dine that evening. He reveals that he has a plan to use Piso and Lodowicke and asks them to meet him. That evening, he arrives at Lelia's to discover a banquet, music, the Waiting Woman with "a Night-gowne and Slippers," and Lelia offering to sleep with him. He asks Lelia to send away the music and the Waiting Woman, then reveals his identity and asks her to repent. Instead, Lelia attempts to seduce him again, refuting the taboo against incest. He decides that it would be most honorable to kill her first and then himself, but Angilo, who, unknown to Lelia and to Lelia's father, had bribed the Waiting Woman to allow him to eavesdrop, stops him. Angilo offers to help Lelia's father bind and gag Lelia and her Waiting Woman, carry them to a carriage, and take them to his house where they might be able to reform the women. Lelia's father meets Lodowicke and Piso, tells Lodowicke that a young, virtuous, beautiful, and wealthy widow loves him, asks Lodowicke for a ring to send the widow as a token, and tells Lodowicke to procure the provisions for the wedding. After Lodowicke leaves, Lelia's father pretends to Piso that he identified Lodowicke as the groom by accident; Piso is the true groom. He tells Piso that they will use the provisions Lodowicke purchases. He then meets Angilo and Julio, and Julio reveals that he intends to marry Clora. At the nuptial festivities, Lelia's father lets Lodowicke know that he was in error, then reveals his identity and Lelia's to Piso, who realizes that he has married the woman he recently accused of being a whore. When Lelia's father says that he will provide well for Piso and Lelia, however, and Lelia promises to be faithful to Piso, Piso resolves to make the best of the situation.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's Love and Honor. Alvaro urges Frivolo to marry Lelia and mentions as incentive that Lelia's mother is rich in pewter and wine.


Takes a purse of gold from Lelia to her disguised father in the street in Fletcher's The Captain. He leaves when Lelia's father arrives. Lelia always requires him to leave when she plans to do "bodily business."


Lelio is a Venetian gentleman in the anonymous Knack To Know An Honest Man. He seems to kill Sempronio, a friend, in a duel after the latter has attempted to seduce his wife. After the duel he goes his wife, Annetta, and daughter, Lucida, to advise them to take the most expensive jewels for themselves because his house will be confiscated as a result of his apparent murder. His father-in-law, Brishio, happily helps him to leave the country on one his ships. Lelio joins the Duke of Florence's' army and does so well that Florence chooses him as his champion in a fight against Milan's champion, who turns out to be Brishio, who has also had to flee Venice. When each discovers the identity of the other they refuse to fight each other. Milan and Florence take this as an example of how to behave and agree to settle their differences according to the decision of Brishio and Lelio. Brishio's two sons soon have to flee Venice after they have wounded Fortunio, the Duke of Venice's son, as they were defending their sister and niece from Fortunio's assaults. They find Lelio and instruct him to return to Venice and thus release their father from his exile. Lelio agrees; however, when Brishio hears of his sons' demands, Brishio refuses to accept Lelio's offer. Lelio does in fact return to Venice for his own reasons, disguised as a coal seller. He explains to Annetta that he has returned to rid Brishio of his banishment and to allow Lucida to receive his goods. He is content to die. He tells Lucida that since the Duke has stated that whoever takes Lelio to him will be given 1000 crowns, she should be the one to take him in. When Servio arrives to capture Lelio, Lelio explains that he is Lucida's prisoner but Servio ignores his claim. Servio takes Lelio to court, having kept him in his jail for three days at Lucida's request. Lelio explains to the Duke that he has voluntarily surrendered because he had killed his friend, and will sacrifice his life for doing so. He has also caused his father-in-law to be banished, and caused his wife and daughter to live in misery, all actions which can be undone by Lelio's death. He is sentenced to death. When Brishio's two sons step forward to say that they were the cause of Lelio's surrendering himself, Lelio is adamant that he did so voluntarily. Brishio enters offering himself up to death saying he has nothing to live for if his sons and son-in law are executed. All this time Lelio keeps insisting that he is the one to be executed. Soon, after all the problems are cleared up and all have forgiven each other, Lelio gives Lucida's hand to Sempronio.

LELIO **1615

Antonio’s son in Tomkis’ Albumazar. He has the keeping of Flavia now that Antonio is dead and has sworn Pandolfo shall not have her. He loves Sulpitia, the girl his father intended to marry and is best friends with her brother Eugenio. He agrees in Cricca’s plot to beat and drive away the false Antonio when he appears. When the real Antonio returns, Lelio (believing it is Trincalo transformed) is moved to pity at the remembrance of his father and sends him away, threatening to beat him ‘out of Antonio’s skin’ should he see him a second time. He is later with Cricca when they both see Antonio and Trincalo arguing and discover the deceit. He agrees with Cricca’s plan to turn the tables on the tricksters. Conspiring with the real Antonio and the other young lovers, he wins Sulpitia’s hand in marriage.


A soldier in Nabbes' Hannibal and Scipio under Scipio, whose main function is to deliver news of offstage doings. In act three, he brings Scipio the news that Massanissa has conquered Numida and captured Syphax, and at the end of the same act he brings news that Hannibal is preparing for battle near Zama. At the end of act four, he introduces the Young Lady and tells Scipio that Hannibal has fled. Played by John Page in the original production.


A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. Wolsey’s mistress. Will Sommers alludes to her briefly.


Lemophil, "the glutton," is a courtier in Ford's The Broken Heart. He along with Groneas is rebuked by the maids of honour.


An "imp of desolation and minion of the king" according to Labervele in Chapman's An Humourous Day's Mirth. Lemot is the center from whom the entire plot unfolds:
  • he persuades Florilla to test her virtue amid temptation,
  • persuades the Countess that her young husband is wooing Martia for himself (rather than on behalf of his cousin Colinet), and
  • sets up both
    • the scene in which everyone observes Dowsecer's melancholy, and
    • the massive denouement at Verone's tavern.
Despite his abuse of all the characters, including the King, the events he precipitates prove to be amusing enough to everyone that he is forgiven.

LEMOT **1610

French gentleman, brother to Alizia in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk. He is traveling with her to her marriage to Raymond junior, when Ward attacks their ship. He advises Alizia to disguise herself as a boy, grieving for her misfortune and threat to her chastity, while encouraging the crew to trust in justice and put up a bold resistance to the pirates. His call to arms inspires them to a courageous fight, but he is blinded in the fight. Ward mercilessly has him thrown overboard, showing courage and defiance to the last. Grief for her lost brother remains one of Alizia's preoccupations through much of the play.


Lemure, a Courtier in Massinger's 1634 Cleander, or Lisander and Calista (a revision of Fletcher's 1623 The Wandering Lovers?), informs Dorilaus that he has tried his best to persuade the king to listen to the protests that his daughter is innocent. He serves as bailiff at court proceedings and acts as the king's informer.


Popilius Lena is a Roman Senator in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. He is with Caesar at the entrance to the Senate, and he expresses to Cassius the hope that the day's enterprise will go well.


A young girl who is trying to escape the aftermath of the battle in the anonymous A Larum for London. She tries to protect her brother, Martin, but she is killed along with her entire family despite pleas of her mother and blind father, Harman.

LENCUO **1632

Only mentioned in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. Demetrius, disguised as an astrologer, rattles off a list of "the learned Cabalists and all the Chaldees." The list includes Asla, Baruch, Abohali, Caucaph, Toz, Arcaphan, Albuas, Gasar, Hali, Hippocras, Lencuo, Ben, Benesaphan, and Albubetes.


A thane of Scotland in Shakespeare's Macbeth. Although initially loyal to Macbeth, his tyranny drives Lennox to join Angus, Menteith and Caithness in leading the Scottish forces in the revolt against Macbeth.


Lenon is a lord of Tartary in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. He is beaten by St. David in a joust and is resentful of David's popularity. When David accidentally kills Arbasto, the heir to the throne, Lenon argues that he should be executed.


The two Lentuli (unnamed) are Roman nobles, supporters of Pompey in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. They are with Cornelia when Pompey arrives in Lesbos. When the murderers attack him, they, with Demetrius, try to help him and are wounded. After the murder, they encourage Cornelia to be calm. These are presumably Gaius Lentulus Spinther and Lucius Cornelius Lentulus; the latter was in fact one of the two consuls, though Chapman seems to have two consuls in addition to him.


Servant of Bomelio in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune. Meets Lentulo and engages in comic banter.


Lentulo, a Neapolitan Gentleman, along with Camillo and Donato, he offers advice to Adorio on how to deal with Caldoro in Massinger's The Guardian.


A mute character in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. Lentulus is given an entrance in V.i, but neither speaks nor is addressed by other characters. In Appian's Roman History, Lentulus is one of the Romans killed by Scilla after Scilla retook Rome.


The dramatis personae of Machin's(?) Every Woman in Her Humour describes Lentulus as a "soldier-hero." This occupation is so much a part of Lentulus's personality that he is unable to woo his beloved Terentia. Instead, Lentulus recruits his best friend, Tully, to make love to his intended on his behalf. Tully's efforts to win Terentia for Lentulus are unsuccessful; she is in love with Tully, not Lentulus. Rather than hold a grudge, Lentulus quickly accepts the love-match and settles on Flavia, who is in love with him, as his wife.


Lentulus, the successor of Flaminius in Carthage in Massinger's Believe As You List.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. Julio Lentulus is referred to by Lorenzo. Lorenzo states that he obtained his poisons from Julio Lentulus, a famous Neapolitan poisoner, and then poisoned him himself.


A widow who takes great pride in her virtue in John Marston's The Insatiate Countess. She successfully fights off Mendoza Foscari, who pursues her relentlessly. She urges Abigail and Thais to reveal the truth to the Duke of Venice and rescue their husbands, who are waiting to be executed for a crime they did not commit.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Catiline. Publius Lentulus Sphinter is a Roman aedile, an official in charge of buildings, roads, sanitation, and public games. When Catiline's plot is disclosed in the Roman Senate, the consul rules that the conspirators should be placed in private custody. Sphinter is charged with supervising his relative, Lentulus.


Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura comes from an ancient Roman patrician family of the Cornelius gens and is a member of Catiline's conspiracy in Jonson's Catiline. He was notorious for his private life and was ejected from the Senate because of it. According to Catiline, who was using Lentulus's dreams of magnificence, the Sibyl's prophecy said that a member of the Cornelii would be king in Rome, and Catiline persuaded Lentulus he might be the one. At Catiline's house, Lentulus enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. Lentulus and Longinus accompany Catiline to the Senate. Since Catiline's plan has failed, and Cicero has been elected consul, Lentulus and Longinus express their dissatisfaction privately. After the plot has been exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. Lentulus has the specific charge of going to Pompey's house and seizing his sons alive, so that the conspirators might use them as bargaining objects in the dispute with Pompey. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. Lentulus organizes the connection with the Allobroges and thus compromises the plot. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, Lentulus denies the allegations, but is placed in private custody, in the charge of his relative Publius Lentulus Sphinter. After reports of the conspirators' further seditious actions, the Senate condemns them to death and Cicero orders that Lentulus should be strangled.


Leocadia is the daughter of Sanchio, and in love with Mark-Antonio in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. She disguises herself as a page named Francisco and tries to make her way to Barcelona to follow Mark-Antonio after he deserts her. Her traveling party is robbed, and then meets up with Philippo and the disguised Theodosia, who are struck by the beauty and nobility of Francisco and insist that "he" travel to Barcelona with them. Theodosia recognizes almost immediately that the page is really a woman, but she and Philippo continue the pretense until Barcelona, where Theodosia privately confronts Leocadia. Unaware of who Theodosia really is, Leocadia reveals that she was secretly engaged to Mark-Antonio, but that he deserted her to be with Theodosia, and that therefore she has taken on male garb to travel to Barcelona and find him. Philippo, Theodosia and Leocadia find Mark-Antonio in the street fight. When he is wounded, Theodosia faints, and Leocadia follows him. Philippo attends to his sister, but when he realizes that Leocadia has run off, he, by now in love with Leocadia, reviles Theodosia for distracting him. The Governor finds both Mark-Antonio and Leocadia and brings them all to his house, where Mark-Antonio attempts to seduce Eugenia. Leocadia then, under Eugenia's direction, informs him that his wound is fatal. He admits that he was engaged to Theodosia first, left her for Leocadia and then deserted her as well, causing both women to reveal their true genders. Rejected in favor of Theodosia, Leocadia runs out, followed by Philippo. Eventually, Philippo finds Leocadia with the help of Incubo, and convinces her to love him instead of Mark-Antonio. However, they are interrupted by the arrival of both Alphonso and Sanchio, and after Sanchio rebukes his daughter for her dress, she runs off again. She apparently returns to the Governor's House, because it is there that Eugenia has Leocadia and Theodosia stand between their fathers' during the attempted duel to force a reconciliation.


Like Archippus in Cartwright's The Royal Slave, an Ephesian captive.


Leodice is a Roman princess, daughter of the Emperor Maximinus in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. She falls in love with Crispinus when he fits her shoes, and her concerns about their unequal birth are ended when he reveals to her that he is a prince in disguise. They marry in secret. The shoemakers hide Leodice while she gives birth, and cause the firing of the coastal beacons in order to distract her father. At the end of the play, Maximinus looks favourably on Crispinus after his brother's military successes; he forgives Leodice's transgressions, and she becomes a Queen alongside Crispinus.


Earl of Chester in the anonymous Edmond Ironside. Saxon, in the first scene a follower of Canute, but he thinks that Ironside is the true king, and he changes sides together with Turkillus, leaving their eldest sons as pledges in Canute's hands. As a result of their fathers' treason, the sons have their noses and hands cut off. At the end of the play both Turkillus and Leofricke swear revenge.


King of Ireland in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland. He tells his high priest, Archimagus about his black dreams, but is placated by Archimagus. Demands information and deference from Patrick, and orders him and his followers to leave Ireland–they don't. He orders that the court's women are not told about the conversion of Dichu, which appalls him–the women have 'soluble and easy hearts', he fears. He pays tribute to the pagan gods at the temple, and hears Jupiter's order that Patrick be killed. He believes that his daughters are 'pious', and that they stay at the temple to worship the gods–actually, they are seeing the sons of Dichu, who the King has ordered the deaths of. He welcomes Patrick to the court, professing all sorts of courtesy and hospitality, but he tries to have him killed by poisoned wine. He orders Milcho to imprison his Queen in his house, after she is impressed by Patrick's Christianity and converts. He orders Milcho to somehow kill Patrick when he visits the latter's house to see the Queen. He breaks down during the blood sacrifice to Jove and Mars, but returns, only to be further frightened by the sons of Dichu–he thinks that the blood-covered brothers are their ghosts, because he thinks that they have been killed on his orders. He continues to seek Patrick's death, asking Archimagus to contrive some plot. The King sees the reptile plot of Archimagus fail, and the further rise of the apparently invincible Patrick, He professes repentance and a new eagerness to welcome Patrick–but Patrick does not trust him.


One of the disguises of Irus, Leon is a usurer in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. In this disguise he has Antisthenes arrested for (allegedly) failing to repay his loan, woos and wins Samathis, attempts to seduce Elimine, reports the apparent death of Hermes (by being swallowed up by the earth; Hermes being another of Irus's disguises), and reportedly kills himself by leaping from the Alexandrian Tower into the sea.


A well-built, low-ranking soldier with a taciturn demeanor in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife. His pragmatic cowardice angers his commander, Juan de Castro. But these qualities attract Margarita, who marries him in the belief that she will be able to rule him. Leon, once married, becomes assertive, and orders Margarita to obey him. He foils the plans of Duke Medina and other officers to remove him from Margarita's presence, and once he has demonstrated his superiority over them all, they respect him and he is promoted to the rank of captain.


Leon, lover and cousin of Clarinda in Massinger's 1634 Cleander, or Lisander and Calista (a revision of Fletcher's 1623 The Wandering Lovers?), helps to set up Caliste as an adulterer. He kills Cleander, and gives Lisander's sword to Clarinda. Shocked by the murder of Cleander, Malfort faints, giving time to Clarinda and Leon to place false evidence at the crime scene. He is told that Clarinda is having his child and proposes that they run off together. But in the end he decides instead to confess to the court so that Caliste and Lisander may go free.


Appearing only once and without warning in Tatham's Love Crowns the End, Leon junior addresses Leon senior as father, consoling him that his missing daughter, Gloriana, might be found safe and unmolested.


Banished by the duke in Tatham's Love Crowns the End. His lands confiscated, "good old Leon" fled court with his daughter, Gloriana. Pisander (Lysander's real name) and Francisco followed, both seeking Gloriana's hand. After Francisco abducts Gloriana in disguise, Leon worries that she is lost, "deflower'd" by "some savage." In the end Leon learns that the duke has died and his lands are restored. As the play closes Leon is preparing for the marriage of Gloriana to Lysander.


The garrulous carrier Leonarde takes letters from Consiliodorus to Philomusus and Studioso in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus, and brings back news of their hard life in the country.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


Leonardo is Bassanio's servant in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. He takes orders from Bassanio to see to dinner, and directs Gratiano to him.


A Thracian lord who dies of plague in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder.


Leonardo is the father of Mark-Antonio in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. Alphonso confronts Leonardo, demanding both his daughter back and satisfaction from Mark-Antonio. Leonardo declares that he does not believe Alphonso, but he does later ask Pedro if he thought any of the sailors on Mark-Antonio's ship might be disguised women. Despite Pedro's assurances, Leonardo decides he should go to Barcelona and retrieve Mark-Antonio so that his son can answer Alphonso's claims. He arrives in Barcelona after his son is wounded in a street fight, but he is assured by the surgeon that the wound is minor. He then meets with his son at the Governor's house, and approves his engagement to Theodosia, although he scolds Mark-Antonio for keeping it a secret from Alphonso.


A senator of Thessaly in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort. He along with his three counterparts is entrusted to "determine the affairs of state" by King Ferdinand while the monarch attempts to cure his son, Prince Sigismund, of his melancholic temperament. When Gisbert seeks judicial remedy in the senate for the wrongs done to him and his daughter by Lucius, the four senators sympathize with the shepherd but are unable to provide redress, feeling that sorrow and hardship are the poor man's lot. When King Ferdinand is moved by Gisbert's suit, he is banished from the court to Arcadia where he conspires with Oswell only to turn on the traitor when they arrive at King Ferdinand's court.


Leonardo is courtier and companion of the Duke in Marmion's The Antiquary. He assumes a disguise and follows along with the Duke throughout the latter's search for the "vulgar;" at Petrutio's banquet, he and the Duke dress the drunken Veterano as a Fool.


Leonario is the prince of Arragon whose wedding to Olivia of Murcia has been delayed by war in Shirley's The Doubtful Heir. When Olivia instead weds Ferdinand, Leonario seems willing to acquiesce to the maneuvering of fate in the matter. He discovers, however, that Ferdinand has a mistress at court and reminds Olivia of her own law concerning death sentences for unfaithful wives. Though Leonario arrests Ferdinand, believing the man's claim to the throne to be bogus, he learns the truth about Ferdinand's heirship. Leonario is then able to wed Olivia, whose marriage to her cousin was both unconsummated and invalid.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the underlings of Harman van Speult, listed by Sheathing-Nail.


Leonato is governor of Messina, Hero's father and Beatrice's uncle in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. When Don Pedro and his soldiers return from battle victorious, planning a holiday in Messina for at least a month, Leonato is their willing host and a good-humored participant in Don Pedro's plot to match Beatrice and Benedick. When Claudio cuts short his marriage ceremony with the announcement that Hero has committed adultery, Leonato is quick to believe the charge and expresses his hope that Hero will not outlive her shame. Friar Francis persuades Leonato not to judge his daughter too rashly, and Leonato comes to believe that she is innocent. After Borachio has revealed the plot to discredit Hero, Claudio repents and offers to fulfil any penance Leonato can devise. Leonato instructs Claudio to tell Messina of his error, to visit Hero's grave and pay tribute to her there, and finally to marry Antonio's daughter, now the sole heir of Leonato and Antonio (but see "ANTONIO'S SON"). The veiled bride is really Hero, and because Leonato also consents to a match between Beatrice and Benedick he has the pleasure of attending this double wedding, which closes the play.


As the son of the Duke of Ferrara in Shirley's The Imposture, Leonato has been promised the hand of Fioretta of Mantua in exchange for military assistance. He is affronted when the supposed Fioretta tells him he must wait at least a year to marry her, during which time she will offer prayers of thanksgiving for Mantua's military victory. Leonato kidnaps "Fioretta" and takes her to Ferrara, where eventually he discovers that "Fioretta" is really Juliana, and Lauriana is really Fioretta. Leonato and Fioretta are in love by the play's end and plan to wed.


Family name of Posthumous, his father, Sicilius, mother, called only "ancient Matron," and his two deceased brothers who return as ghosts (the "Leonati") in Shakespeare's Cymbeline.


Leonatus is the true name of Seleucus, revealed at the end of Shirley's Coronation by the Bishop when he testifies that Leonatus is truly the elder son of the dead king Theodosius and is the throne's rightful heir.


Leonell is the son of the Duke of Parma, but does not reveal this until the last scene of Davenant's Love and Honor. He is badly wounded and captured by Prospero, but is only concerned with Evandra's safety. After he is somewhat recovered, Prospero takes Leonell to Evandra's secret cave to keep her company. Leonell immediately begs forgiveness for the sin of allowing her to be captured, but Evandra insists that he could have done no more. Prospero and Leonell almost duel when they discover that both love Evandra, but they are distracted by Alvaro's arrival to tell Evandra that he will be dying in her place. She tricks both Prospero and Alvaro into entering the cave and locks them in. She then ask Leonell to swear by his love for her that he will do whatever she requests, and when he does, tells him to stay behind and open the cave door when she has left. He does so, and Alvaro declares since all three love Evandra, they are brothers and cannot fight. Instead, they decide to visit her in prison to say farewell. Just before the Duke has her executed, Leonell reveals himself as the Duke of Parma's son, declares that it was actually his father that captured the Duke's brother and agrees to die in her place. At this point the Ambassadors reveal themselves as the Duke of Milan and the Duke's lost brother. In joy at his brother's return, the Duke forgives everyone and offers to marry Alvaro to Evandra, but Melora steps forward to press a prior claim. This allows Evandra to be married to her true love, Leonell.


Leonella is the waiting-woman to Anselmus' Wife in [?]Middleton's The Second Maiden's Tragedy. She promises to stay with her lady and prevent her from being tempted by Votarius. But Leonella's lover, Bellarius, is Votarius' enemy, and they conspire to ensure that the Wife will commit adultery with Votarius, thereby laying him open to revenge. Anselmus, however, believes Votarius' claim that the furtive Bellarius is having an affair with his Wife. He attacks Leonella, believing her to be his Wife's bawd, but Leonella tells him the truth: that Votarius is his Wife's lover. When the Wife plans her fake attack on Votarius, she asks Leonella to remind Votarius to wear armor beneath his shirt. But Leonella does not, and puts poison on the sword that the Wife plans to use. She laughs when the Wife kills Votarius. But Anselmus then kills her for slandering his Wife.


Princess of Sicily, daughter of Atticus and Aurelia and sister of Lusypus and Lorenzo in the anonymous Swetnam. She is a beautiful paragon, pursued by many princes, but determined to marry only her true love, Prince Lisandro of Naples. For this reason she is known as disdainful and cold, and is said to have been the cause of "many [a] hopeful youth's untimely end." Her father forbids her to see Lisandro, and sets his councillor Nicanor (who also wishes to marry her) as her guardian. Lisandro manages to gain access to her, disguised as the Friar, but Leonida's maid Loretta accidentally reveals the deception to Nicanor's servant Scanfardo, and the lovers are betrayed. Leonida and Lisandro are then tried for treason; because each tries to take full blame for the offense, the trial comes to hinge upon the question of who is more at fault in sexual temptation, the man or the woman. The 'Amazon' Atlanta thus becomes Leonida's advocate, pleading that men are the greater tempters, but Leonida is pleased when her cause fails and she, not Lisandro, is condemned to death. She is apparently executed, causing Lisandro to attempt suicide and the court to plunge into mourning. In fact, however, she is rescued by the efforts of Atlanta (a.k.a. her brother Lorenzo) and Aurelia. After the Masque of Repentance moves her father to contrition, she appears before him in the guise of the Nymph Claribell, is joined to her lover Lisandro in the guise of Palamon, and all ends happily with the revelation of their survival.


Leonidas is a general in the army of the Queen of Corinth, much admired for his valour and wisdom in Fletcher's Queen of Corinth. He vanquishes Agenor, Prince of Argos, in war and gains his respect and friendship. To seal a peace between the two kingdoms, Leonidas promises Agenor the hand of his sister, Merione, despite the fact that she has already been wooed and won by Prince Theanor of Corinth. Having convinced Merione to accept this new arrangement, Leonidas is horrified to find her raped and drugged outside his door on her wedding morning. He vows vengeance on the man who wronged her. Thanks to Theanor's tricks, he becomes convinced that this man was Euphanes. When the Queen refuses to give Euphanes up, Leonidas joins Agenor in capturing the Prince and holding him hostage. Euphanes' gracious behaviour in surrendering himself, unarmed, in exchange for the Prince, and his rational arguments in favour of his own innocence, convince Leonidas and Agenor that he was not responsible for the rape. They become his admirers, applaud his reconciliation with his brother, and join with him in bringing Prince Theanor to justice. In the play's final scene, Leonidas accepts Theanor's marriage of Merione as a fair recompense for his sins against her.


Cleanthes' father is eighty, and thus marked for death under the Old Law in Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law. Cleanthes and Hippolita persuade him to disobey the law. Since he has no wish to leave his country, they encourage him to hide in his forest lodge. The children then pretend that he has died of natural causes. Leonides is discovered when Hippolita tells Eugenia, who reveals the deception to Evander. Leonides is arrested and taken away to execution. But at the end of the play, Evander reveals that the Old Law was a fiction, and that Leonides and the other old men were not really killed.


Leonides lives in a cave with the enchanter Argalio, who dotes on him in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. Argalio persuades him that the mournful ghosts of his family are mere illusions and tries to cheer him up by conjuring a dance of spirits. When Saints James, Denis and Patrick attack them, Argalio and Leonides escape on an ascending throne.


A murderer sent by Dionyza to kill Marina in Shakespeare's Pericles. He is prevented by pirates who abduct Marina, but Leonine tells Dionyza that Marina is dead. He is subsequently poisoned by Dionyza to ensure his silence.


Leonis is a French colonel in service to Raymond in Rawlins's The Rebellion.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's Thierry and Theodoret. Theodoret's bastard son. Brunhalt gives her murder of Thierry political context by writing to him with details of her treason and explanation that she has removed her son to make Leonor king of France. The accidental discovery of these letters by De Vitry, hidden in Protaldy's boot, leads to Brunhalt's exposure and downfall.


Appears in scenes 3, 6, 9, 16, 18 and maybe 17 (q.v. Queen) of the anonymous plot of Frederick and Basilea; played by the young actor Will (Will Barnes, Parr or Kendall?).


The mother of Romelio and Jolenta in Webster's The Devil's Law Case. Hearing that that Contarino has killed Ercole she works to heal him, ostensibly so that he may be tried for the killing. Later, she reveals that she is in love with him and is distraught when she hears that Romelio has killed him. She then brings a suit against him, and announces to the court that Romelio is a bastard fathered by Crispiano while her husband was abroad, a claim that Crispiano himself disproves. Ashamed, she promises to retreat to a monastery, but in the end, along with Jolenta and Angiolella, promises to build one instead.


Leonora is at first in love with Cleremond, who supposedly kills Montrose for her in Massinger's The Parliament of Love. She presents evidence against him in a court case, but, at the play's close, Charles VIII orders her to marry Cleremond.


Leonora in Shirley's Grateful Servant is disguised as Dulcino for most of the play's duration. Uncertain of the Duke of Savoy's love, and wary of being thrust into a state marriage, this Milanese lady assumes the role of Foscari's page in order to test the duke's love. Leonora is tested herself, however, when as Foscari's servant she must go along with her master's plan to enter a religious house. When she accompanies Foscari to the duke's home and would don a churchman's habit along with Foscari, the churchman Valentio reveals Leonora's identity. The play ends with Leonora confident of the duke's honor and planning to wed him.


Sir Richard Hurry's daughter in Shirley's The Gamester. She has been a life-long friend of Violante. She complains that her love for Delamore is not approved of by her father. Leonora grieves inconsolably when a Servant tells her that Delamore has been killed. She remains loyal to Violante when it is reported that it is her lover, Beaumont, who has slain Delamore. Her grief is dismissed by her father, who urges her to marry Beaumont, the supposed slayer of her lover. She is wracked by thoughts of her dead sweetheart, and by Old Barnacle, who advertises his nephew's bravery to her. Mistress Wilding takes Leonora under her protective wing. Eventually, she finds out that Delamore has actually survived–her marriage to him will be blessed by Sir Francis, who had been offering her to Beaumont only to test the latter's faithfulness and immunity from corruption.


Leonora is the Duke of Messina's niece and confidant of Almira in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman. As the play opens, she engages in courtly but erotic dialogue with Pedro, but his heart is with Antonio. She seems unaware of the fondness these men have for each other. The father orders her to break off contact with Pedro because it is unclear whether Pedro has aided Antonio in his escape. Leonora is crushed but promises to obey. Later in the play, she has a sympathetic conversation with Borachia concerning Almira's sudden obsession with the slave, the disguised Antonio.


An ancient lady, mother of Hellena in Heywood's A Challenge for Beauty. She is keen for Hellena to accept Bonavida's offer. According to the dramatis personae she is Aldana's wife, but this may be a mistake, since nothing is made of it in the play.

LEONORA **1637

Urraca’s governess in Rutter’s The Cid. She reminds Urraca that Roderigo is below her in birth and yet sympathizes with the girl for her love of him. She later brings news that Roderigo and Sancho are to duel. Whether Roderigo wins or dies, he is to be safely delivered away from the Infanta, for his victory means immediate marriage to Cimena. She also notices that Cimena has chosen in Sancho a champion who is untried and likely to die in the contest, which indicates Cimena’s desire to be forced to forgive and marry Roderigo.


Leonaro is a young gentleman of Venice who is in love with Lucretia, the ward of Honorio in Chapman's May Day. He works with Temperance to plan how to approach his love, but when she fails to appear at their scheduled meeting, he and Lionello repair to the Emperor's Head, where they meet Quintiliano and his company. At the celebration, he unmasks and reproaches Ludovico for dishonoring Lucretia earlier in the day. His beloved is revealed to be Lucretio, a man disguised as a woman.


Brother to Balthazar and Claramante in Davenant's The Spanish Lovers; he is a hot-tempered young man, jealous of his sister's reputation and easily provoked to duels, which he usually loses. He first challenges Dorando, and is only restrained when his brother and sister remind him that Dorando has just saved Balthazar's life. Even so, he tries to challenge him soon afterwards, but instead, by mistake, challenges Orgemon, Claramante's lover; he is defeated by him, and saved only by the appeal of Claramante herself—whereupon he renews his attack and wounds Orgemon. When Claramante runs away from his house, Leonte follows her, and eventually finds her in the house of Marillia. Here, as he tries to force her to return, he is interrupted by Dorando, whom he immediately challenges. He is defeated again, and his life again saved by Claramante. Given pause by this second rescue, Leonte now decides to reform, and, for the rest of the play, does nothing more than perform an occasional solicitous action for Claramante and her admirers.


Leontes, King of Sicily in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, suspects that his wife Hermione is in love with his childhood friend Polixenes. Despite the pleas of his courtiers, Leontes persists in his accusation, and even Apollo's oracle cannot convince him. Immediately after Leontes rejects the oracle, a servant enters to report that Mamillius has died from anxiety about his mother, then Hermione swoons and is believed dead. Leontes repents his rash actions, seeing these deaths as Apollo's retribution. His redemption begins sixteen years later when Perdita arrives in Sicily with Florizel. Leontes discovers that Florizel's shepherdess bride is really the long-lost Perdita, and father and daughter are reunited. Meanwhile, after tormenting Leontes for sixteen years, Hermione's maid Paulina reveals a statue of Hermione which mysteriously comes to life. Leontes regains the wife he believed lost forever, and the play ends happily.


Also spelled Leonato in Shirley's The Duke's Mistress. A relative of the duke of Parma and the court favorite, Leontio sees the duchess Euphemia as an injured lady. Though he tells Euphemia that perhaps the duke will repent and forsake pursuit of Ardelia, he gladly accepts the duke's commission to imprison Euphemia, for he wants the lady himself. He plots to have the duke killed, and when Bentivolio thinks he has killed the duke in Ardelia's chamber, Leontio imprisons both Bentivolio and Ardelia. Leontio is caught, by the disguised duke, attempting to take Euphemia by force, and Leontio is killed by Pallante, Strozzi, Silvio, and Ascanio.


Leontius is a courtier of Emmanuel's in the anonymous Weakest Goeth to the Wall who describes how he has watched Emmanuel's daughter, Odillia, and Ferdinand, the man he brought up from childhood, expressing their love for each other. This news inflames Emmanuel.


Leontius is duke of Licia, the father of Leucippus and Hidaspes, and the uncle of Ismenus in Beaumont & Fletcher's Cupid's Revenge. As a gift for her twentieth birthday, he agrees to grant Hidaspes anything she might request. With the support of Leucippus, Hidaspes asks that Leontius suppress the cult of the god Cupid in Licia. Leontius is apprehensive, but agrees to carry out her demand and orders Ismenus to smash the statues of Cupid in the palace, to command the city to do the same and to send out proclamations to the rest of the country. He then offers to grant Hidaspes any other request she might have, and when she declines to make any, tells her to come to him again in six days' time, when he will deny her nothing. She asks to be allowed to marry Zoylus, Leucippus' court dwarf. Leontius refuses her request and has Zoylus executed; Hidaspes is confined to her chamber, where she dies of grief. Leontius discovers Leucippus at the house of the young widow Bacha. Trying to protect Bacha, Leucippus swears that he came to her with lustful thoughts but that she refused him and even refused marriage. Leontius is persuaded by Leucippus' speech; he decides to send Leucippus away and woo Bacha himself. He tells Ismenus and Leucippus that they must leave the court to suppress a rebellion. In Leucippus' absence Leontius dresses himself up and goes to court Bacha, blind to how ridiculous he looks. They are married. Bacha and the courtier Timantus make Leontius resentful towards Leucippus by praising him extravagantly; Bacha then sends the lords Agenor, Nisus and Dorialus to Leontius to defend Leucippus, knowing that this will make him even more suspicious. Leucippus defends himself to Leontius, but is unsuccessful in the face of Bacha's schemes. Timantus tricks Leucippus and brings him before Leontious. The duke orders that his son be taken to prison. After Leucippus' rescue by the citizens and his subsequent exilement, Leontius sickens and dies; the news of his death is brought to Bacha by Ismenus, Antenor, Dorialus and Nisus.


A discontented soldier in the anonymous The Faithful Friends and associate of Learchus, Leontius is enraged by Tullius' rapid rise and joins Rufinus' plot to bring the newcomer down.


Also addressed as Colonel in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. Leontius is an old faithful servant of Antigonus and advisor to Demetrius in battle. He tricks the Lieutenant, who loses courage when he is well, into believing that his ailments have returned. He is also instrumental in reuniting Celia and Demetrius by convincing Celia to return to the court after the lovers have an argument.


According to a confused stage direction in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom, one 'Leopides' appears during the visitation of the ghosts of Leonides' family. Leopides is either Leonides's father, or, more likely, a printing error.


A sea captain, and frankly, a successful pirate, in unrequited love with Hippolyta in Fletcher and Massinger's Custom of the Country. His offshore career results in the capture of Zenocia, Arnoldo and Rutillio, intercepted in their flight from Clodio. An honorable but ruthless buccaneer, he admires in retrospect the valor of the two men who tried to preserve their freedom against overwhelming odds, as well as their leap into the sea to avoid the humiliation of capture (leaving Zenocia in his clutches). Leopold comforts her with the assurance that the pair could easily swim safely to shore from there. He fails to learn from her birthplace (the mysterious 'country' of the play's title), but, suitably impressed by her bearing and beauty, decides to use her as a gift to Hippolyta, with the task of interceding for him romantically. Zenocia makes no progress with this, as Hippolyta is currently infatuated with her missing husband, Arnoldo. Leopold spies on Hippolyta's attempted seduction, recognises Arnoldo as his former prisoner, and seethes with resentment. He hires a Bravo, with the help of Zabulon, to assault and maim his rival; he also identifies to Zabulon the connection between the separated couple, with the intention of discouraging Hippolyta from her new lust, in scorn to be a rival to her own slave. This fails, but the Bravo's help is not required, as further eavesdropping on Leopold's part on the reunion of the newly-weds allows him to learn of Arnoldo's true love for his bride and hatred of Hippolyta and her lecherous machinations. He leaves the scene and therefore misses the opportunity to witness his mistress's first attempt to have Zenocia murdered. He subsequently apologises in the presence of the Governor for having taken prisoner a citizen of an allied nation, and Zenocia regains her freedom. He is also unaware that Hippolyta tries a second time to murder Zenocia, by magic, and is only conveniently on hand when she recants her previously debauched ways (not mentioning the homicidal impulses, which they happily but unknowingly share) and offers her chastened hand to him, which he gratefully accepts.


A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Leopold is King Richard's captor. Leicester describes how Richard took Leopold's colors and trod on them at Acon. Richmond describes how Richard was taken, after striking Leopold's son dead, and how Leopold had Richard thrown in a lion's den as punishment. However, Richard ripped the heart out of the lion even as Leopold was in fear of the lion from a distance.


A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Richard killed Leopold's Son with his fist, leading to his capture.


Leosthenes, a gentleman of Syracuse in Massinger's The Bondman, was once enamored of Statilia but is currently enamored of Cleora. As he leaves for the wars, he asks her to promise to be true to him. When he finds that Marullo (Pisander disguised as a slave) is his rival, he is prepared to fight for her. After he helps put the revolt down, he appears in court to reclaim Cleora. Yet, after Statilia reveals herself, he once more promises to marry her.


Lepida is the virtuous mother of Messalina in Richards' Messalina. Unable to save the three ladies who are killed by Veneria the Bawd, she imprisons Veneria and has her fed to the dogs; unable to convert Messalina, she resolves to kill her instead, but runs mad. She subsequently recovers her wits at the wedding celebrations and, overhearing the plan for the rape of the vestals, arranges their escape. She asks Vibidia, Matron of the Vestals, to intercede for Messalina and ask Claudius to visit her after her arrest. Finally she watches Messalina die.


An attendant to Gwalter and Pavia in Chettle, Dekker and Haughton's Patient Grissil. Along with others, he urges Gwalter to marry, but opposes his choice of the low-born Grissil. After the marriage, Lepido admits Grissil's remarkable virtue but still favours and assists with her banishment. Ultimately, he and Mario are denounced as black-hearted flatterers.


A ‘ghost character’ in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. Rhodaghond recounts how Guasto, the Duke of Vacunium, called forth a ‘solemn cheer’ and his noblemen came from far and near to participate, including Camillo, Bentivole, Lepido, Collinio, Ursino, Novoli, Gonsagua, Columna, Flaminio, ‘and twenty more’. It was during this event that Florimel, who once despised Amadour, grew to love him when he earned great praise from the Duke of Vacunium for his prowess in the games.


Lepidus is a consul and an apparent neutral, more concerned with maintaining peace than with which man actually wins in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. When Scilla takes Rome, Lepidus supports him, agreeing that Scilla shall be the general, but he objects to calling Marius a traitor and stripping him of the title of tribune. Scilla threatens him with death after his mild protest and Lepidus is silent for the rest of the scene. When the young and old citizens confront each other, Lepidus calls Scilla's claims insolent, but is more concerned with diverting the brawl than with taking a side. As Marius approaches, Lepidus tries to rouse Anthony and Octavius to arms, apparently against Marius. However, when Marius actually enters, Lepidus wishes him fame and long life, and defends himself and the other consuls against the accusation that they exiled Marius, claiming that they did not do so. He then creates Marius consul and plans with Marius to keep Scilla out of Rome. When Scilla has retaken Rome, Lepidus is there, and after Scilla has died, Lepidus suggests that he be buried with other nobles, a suggestion that Pompey feels is not exalted enough.

LEPIDUS **1603

Lepidus (Marcus), a senator in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall. He along with Arruntius act as chorus in the play, discussing the events.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as a great Roman of the past.


"A merry humorouse old Lord" and Facetia's widowed father in Wilde's Love's Hospital. Lepidus has banned Comastes from his home and, according to his daughter, tries to discourage her from "fancyinge man" through many avenues including bringing hopeless suitors home to her. Although he mocks and encourages many of his daughter's suitors and approves of Lysander's villainous acts towards Piscinus and Aegidius, he means for Facetia to marry Lysander (who is described throughout the play as Lepidus's parasite) and along with Lysander he attempts to frighten Olimpa (disguised as Nigella) into marrying the oblivious Caecilius. Although Lepidus informs his daughter's suitors that Facetia "is att yeares of discretion and able to make her own choice" near the play's end, he instructs Comastes (disguised as a Rustic) to bring Facetia to St Clares where he claims he has "appointed one" to marry his daughter and Lysander. After Olimpa reveals her true self to Lysander and the others Lepidus expresses concern over the fact that Lysander and Facetia will not be married, but when Comastes enters with Facetia in hand the Lord blesses their marriage and, thus, accepts Comastes as his son-in-law. Furthermore, in order to allay the other suitors, he returns Piscinus's and Aegidius's cozened money and offers to let Macilento live in commons for his good service.


Lepidus is part of the triumvirate established to rule after Caesar's murder in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. According to Antony, Lepidus is the weakest link in the trio's chain, fit only to be led, taught, or driven; Lepidus is notably absent during the battle scenes, though Octavius has dubbed Lepidus a good soldier.
Lepidus is the third member of the triumvirate, with Caesar and Antony, but functions more as Caesar's second in command in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. When Antony and Caesar agree to meet, it is Lepidus who reconciles them. When the three make peace with Pompey and dine on his ship, Lepidus becomes completely drunk, and is made fun of by both Antony and the servants. Eros reports that after the wars with Pompey, Caesar had Lepidus thrown in prison on trumped up charges of treason.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Lepidus is mentioned by Doctor Clyster, when he explains the parts each of the cozeners had in their 'triumvirate' (sic): "One strives to be Augustus, the other Antony; I shall be Lepidus." Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (d. 13 B. C.) was praetor (49 B. C.) and consul (46 B. C.) with Caesar. He was also pontifex maximus. It was when Lepidus returned from Gaul with Antony that Augustus joined them to establish the Second Triumvirate. Thus, Antony obtained Gaul, Lepidus, Spain, and Augustus, Africa, Sardinia and Sicily. They made their power absolute by massacring all those who were unfriendly to them in Italy, and by their victories over the republican army in Macedonia, under Brutus and Cassius.
A "ghost character" in May's Cleopatra. Formerly one of the three masters of the Roman world, along with Antonius and Caesar. Like his historical opponent Sextus Pompeius, he is mentioned in II i. as "ruined." Historically, this was MARCUS AEMILIUS LEPIDUS.


A third cowardly and foppish lord of Cyprus in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. He, as his friends Ganyctor and Iringus, becomes similarly embroiled in the women's plot to overthrow the government.


A Castilian nobleman in Habington's The Queen of Aragon. Lerma is the only person who knows the true identity of Ascanio, the disguised King of Castile, and challenges Velasco when Velasco, loyal to Florentio, speaks ill of the unknown leader.

LESBIA **1600

A "ghost character" in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus. Lesbia is the supposed beloved of Gullio. When Ingenioso presents her Gullio's "improved" version of the encomium Ingenioso has written on Gullio's behalf, she refuses to accept it, calling Gullio a known fool and despising his Latin additions to Ingenioso's work.


Chambermaid to Elinor in Dekker's(?) Telltale. Enters with the court party for the Valentine game and is chosen by the Duke. Later, listens to Isabella's lament over the imprisonment of Picentio and informs Isabella that they have been summoned to court to greet the Venetian ambassadors. At court she joins the court party in greeting the Ambassadors and witnesses Garullo's arrival disguised as a fool as well as the arrival of the distracted Hortensio. She secretly marries Garullo. After her marriage to Garullo is revealed, she is held prisoner with Garullo on Elinor's orders. Lesbia discusses Garullo's melancholy state with him as well as Cancko; they are joined by Fernese and Bentivoli. She pleads with him to be merry, and grieves after he drinks a cup of supposedly poisoned wine.


Colonel Lesle, the Iago-like Machiavellian villain of the play and leader of the group of foreigners (Butler and Gordon) who betray and kill Wallenstein in Glapthorne's Albertus Wallenstein. First ostensibly loyal to Wallenstein, and called his 'best friend', he voices disgust at the Emperor's order for Wallenstein's resignation and argues that subjects are free to disobey the unjust commands of princes. Moreover, he argues, as a Duke, Wallenstein is a prince in his own right and can proceed with honour, with their backing, under his own authority.
[ed. note: sig. B4r is clearly missing a speech where Lesle's encouragement prompts the plotting of Wallenstein's next move. Lesle has two distinct speeches back-to-back, the first arguing Wallenstein's autonomy, the second advising against rashness during the 'exploit' presumably proposed by Wallenstein is missing text. This could have been censored as too overtly eloquent of the defiance of royalty.]
Lesle's suggestion of approaching Saxon-Waymar and Gustavus Horne as allies in Wallenstein's defiance is accepted. His treacherous nature is first suggested in a brief soliloquy where he identifies himself with a 'subtle snake', but we are left guessing at what he is actually aiming at, or why. After witnessing Wallenstein's muster of support at Dresden, he further soliloquizes about his plans to use Gordon and Butler as his agents. He persuades them that Wallenstein's cause is treacherous, stresses that their position as foreigners caught up in controversy is the more dangerous and that most importantly, the Emperor will richly reward them all for betraying Wallenstein. They meet the Emperor and Lesle succeeds in convincing him that their reputation as Wallenstein's friends is merely a ruse, by betraying details of Wallenstein's league. He wins a rich commission to assassinate Wallenstein and persuades his comrades that they are acting for justice. He leads them back to Wallenstein where he again makes fulsome speeches of loyalty to the Duke, including the story that the Emperor has unsuccessfully tried to suborn the three to treachery. He affects scorn for the Emperor's alleged bribes. Wallenstein promises to reward his loyalty. The conspirators plan to act during the royal wedding celebrations in Egers (where Gordon is Governor). Lesle decides that Wallenstein's allies are also to be killed, to weaken the entire league and win further favour with the Emperor. He leads the Duke's welcoming-committee to Egers and makes sure that the allies are provided with plenty of drink for loyal toasts. The Duke having retired, Soldiers loyal to Lesle shoot the assembled allies: together with Gordon and Butler, Lesle then stabs Wallenstein, gloating in the face of accusations of treachery.


A young gentleman, who is in love with Clare in Webster and Rowley's A Cure for a Cuckold. At the wedding of Annabel and Bonvile, Lessingham woos Clare, who replies with an enigmatic letter stating that the only way to gain her love is to kill his best friend. Lessingham asks the gallants to duel with him, but all refuse. He then approaches Bonvile, and asks him to be his second in a duel. Bonvile agrees, even though it is his wedding night, and they travel to Calais Sands. There, Lessingham reveals that he in fact wants to duel with Bonvile, and explains why. Bonvile refuses to fight, and suggests that since all friendship between them is now dead, he has fulfilled Clare's terms. When Lessingham returns to Clare and tells her that Bonvile is dead, Clare explains that he misunderstood: she meant that he must kill her, since she was suicidal over her unrequited love for Bonvile and was planning to make Lessingham the unwitting agent of her death. Lessingham becomes melancholic, and spitefully tries to cause make Bonvile believe that Annabel has had an affair with Rochfield in his absence, and suggests to Annabel that Bonvile and Clare are having an affair. But when Rochfield and Clare have explained their behavior to everyone, Lessingham repents. He and Clare forgive each other, and all is well.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry V. He is reported among the French dead on the Agincourt battlefield.


The name preferred by Sir Andrew Gruel in Middleton's Michaelmas Term because of his chronic forgetfulness–he has, both literally and symbolically forgotten his own parents. The newly knighted Scotsman is, along with Rearage, a suitor for Susan, the daughter of Ephestian Quomodo. Despite being preferred by both Susan herself and her father, Susan's mother Thomasine dislikes him, preferring Rearage instead. He hopes to obtain part of Quomodo's fortune because he has introduced his courtesan, a comely "country wench," to a number of gallants throughout the city. Through them, Thomasine discovers that he is keeping a mistress. He is forced by a judge to marry his courtesan. Ironically, he is forgotten by his own parents at the play's conclusion.


Letoy is described in the dramatis personae of Brome's The Antipodes as a "fantastic lord." He dresses like a peddler but lives like an emperor. An Epicurean, he stages his own entertainments, including stage plays, which he also writes. He is the permanent host of Hughball and stages the Antipodean inset play that Hughball uses to cure Peregrine. Letoy pretends to seduce Diana and then reveals himself to be her father.


Theagines’ daughter, Pausanes’ sister in Killigrew’s The Prisoners. When Sardinia falls, she escapes to Gillippus’ galley. Defended by Zenon, she comes upon Hipparchus who falls in love with her at first sight. She gives him her name in exchange for his allowing them to pass. During the act four storm, Gillippus tries to rape her, but the storm grows too great and he must tend his ship. When the ship sinks, Gillippus swims her ashore to slake his lust but Hipparchus is there and kills the pirate. Hipparchus faints from his own wounds, and Leucanthe prays for aid and calls to Theagines to help bind his wounds. At the signal beacon she is reunited with her father, uncle and brother and discovers that Eucratia and Hipparchus are her cousins.


Leucippe is an agent for the king's lust in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. She is very efficient and thorough in finding young and beautiful women for the king. It is Leucippe that provides her husband Menippus information about Celia. She is later instructed by the king to deliver the love potion to Celia and to let no one else touch it. However, while delivering the potion she encounters the fainted Lieutenant and after retrieving water for him, returns to find the potion gone. She decides to lie to the king about the mistake, fearing his anger, but is eventually found out and forgiven for her error.


Leucippus is the son of duke Leontius, the brother of Hidaspes and the cousin of Ismenus in Beaumont & Fletcher's Cupid's Revenge. He supports Hidaspes' demand that the cult of Cupid be suppressed in Licia. Around the time when Hidaspes falls in love with Leucippus' court dwarf Zoylus, Leucippus is absent from court. It turns out that Leucippus has an secret relationship with a widow, Bacha . When he is discovered with her, Leucippus swears that Bacha is chaste. His father, believing his story, falls in love with Bacha himself and marries her. Bacha tries to maintain her sexual relationship with Leucippus. When Leucippus refuses her, Bacha decides to take revenge, using the ambitious courtier Timantus as a tool, and plotting to make her daughter Urania heir to the dukedom. Bacha and Timantus make Leontius resentful towards Leucippus by praising him extravagantly; Bacha then sends the lords Agenor , Nisus and Dorialus to Leontius to defend Leucippus, knowing that this will make the duke even more suspicious. Leucippus defends himself to Leontius, but is unsuccessful in the face of Bacha's schemes. Ismenus advises Leucippus to take revenge against Bacha by killing her daughter Urania, but Leucippus refuses. Timantus urges Leucippus to flee, telling him that his apprehension is about to be ordered, and offers to take him to a safe house; Ismenus tells Leucippus not to trust Timantus, but Leucippus goes with him nonetheless and is brought before Leontius. The duke orders that his son be taken to prison and Leucippus is condemned to die. He is about to be executed when, as Agenor and Nisus report, he is rescued by the citizens. Against the advice of Ismenus, Leucippus refuses to use the citizen-army and instead goes into exile. Urania goes to Leucippus disguised as a boy, and when Timantus tries to assassinate Leucippus she takes the blow for him. Leucippus accuses Timantus and fights a duel with him; mortally wounded, Timantus reveals Urania's true identity. Leucippus does not believe him, but Urania herself confirms her identity before her death. Ismenus brings Bacha before Leucippus, and he refuses to stain his hands with her blood; she then stabs him with a concealed knife, before stabbing herself. Leucippus names Ismenus as his heir, asking that he reinstate the cult of Cupid. . He dies mid-sentence just as he is asking Ismenus to give Bacha a decent burial (which Ismenus refuses to do). Ismenus and the lords are to accompany Leucippus' body back to the court.


Romantic heroine of the play's main plot in May's The Heir. Apparently modeled, with her lover Philocles, on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. She is daughter of the Lord Polymetes, and believes herself recently bereaved and made a rich heiress by the death of her brother Eugenio. She is secretly in love with the son of her father's enemy and torn by her divided loyalties. She has seen and desired Philocles only at a distance, but dreads any arranged marriage to anyone else. She is repelled by Count Virro (nearly fifty), her father's first choice in suitor for her, and is amazed but delighted to receive a love-letter from Philocles. She confides in Psecas, her maid, and fears that the letter, too good to be true, could be a forgery. Leucothoë sends her maid with an encouraging reply to Philocles and proposes a secret meeting. Psecas is forced to betray her mistress's secret love. The lovers' meeting is spied on by her father, Roscio, 'Irus' and Psecas. Polymetes plans to allow their elopement before arresting Philocles on the capital charge of abducting an heiress. Leucothoë comforts Philocles's with hopes that their love will reconcile the families. Her main fear is Virro's courtship. It is she who proposes a speedy elopement before remembering the legal peril to Philocles. His eagerness to take the risk for her sake emboldens her, and they plan to elope that evening. She arrives at a lonely hermitage disguised in boy's clothing. She is unnerved by bad omens and her accurate suspicions of Psecas's betrayal. Philocles arrives with Clerimont and the trap is sprung. Leucothoë curses her treacherous maid and is unable to persuade her father to relent. She demands the same penalty in law as her lover's, insisting that her consent be recognized. When ignored, she threatens suicide. In the custody of 'Irus,' she travels to Court to beg the King for a pardon for Philocles. Her plea has the disastrous effect of moving the King to a tyrannical lust for her. Like Isabella in Shakespeare's Measure, she refuses to consent to illicit sex to save a life. The King, frustrated, accuses her of witchcraft and treachery before handing her over to her father. She attends Philocles's trial (the only woman named as present) and again begs the Judges for mercy. They regret that they cannot. She does not speak again, despite the astounding revelations which follow and leave her to see a brother not dead, a lover pardoned, a father reformed and the family feud ended as she had wished. Her name may be derived from Leucothea, an early Greek sea goddess often identified with Ino, daughter of Cadmus, whose name means "white goddess" or "runner on the white [foam]."


Leuculaus is a "ghost character" in Daniel's Philotas. According to Dymnus, Leuculaus is part of a plot to kill Alexander.


Also spelled Liverpool in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho. A trickster ("cony-catcher"), friend of Tom Chartley, companion of Doll Hornet. He and Chartley disguise as Doll's servants to make her victims believe that she is a gentlewoman. Together with Chartley and Philip he accompanies Maybery's party to Ware.


Niece of Martino, in whose house she lives in Ford's The Lady's Trial. Levidolche is divorced from her husband, Benatzi, and lives a degraded life. She is the mistress of Adurni until his followers, Futelli and Piero, show him a letter in which she propositions Malfato. Cast off by Adurni, rejected by Malfato, in disgrace with her uncle, she suddenly sees Benatzi, now fallen on hard times. She knows him at once, but he does not recognize her. Concealing her knowledge, she remarries him on condition that he will kill Adurni and Malfato. At last, to the relief of Martino and the pleasure of Benatzi, she reveals the truth. The man she has married is not a dangerous stranger but her own husband. She is returning to respectable married life, and she no longer hates Adurni and Malfato. No one is killed, and the approving gentry give her money in token of her reformation.


The wife of Belforest and mother of Castabella, Levidulcia is the very figure of lasciviousness in Tourneur's The Atheist's Tragedy. Early in the play, she arranges a tryst with Fresco, Cataplasma's servant, and when Sebastian, D'Amville's younger son, arrives, Levidulcia hides Fresco behind an arras and engages Sebastian in a conversation that indicates her desire for him as well. Upon the arrival of Belforest, Levidulcia prompts Sebastian to leave angrily with his sword drawn, and calling Fresco from behind the arras, tells her husband that Sebastian had chased the servant into the house with the intent to kill him. Later, Belforest learns that Levidulcia has arranged to meet Sebastian at Cataplasma's house, and he rushes to confront his wife and her lover. The two men fight, and each kills the other. A repentant Levidulcia comments on the harm she has caused and then kills herself to make a forceful statement about the consequences of unbridled lust.

LEVITE **1638

A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Wit in a Constable. Busie says he will arrange for a little Levite in Whitefriars to marry Sir Timothy and Jeremy to Clare and Grace.


Levitia is a young woman of fashion in the anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. When he sees her, Insatiato falls instantly in love with her, and she agrees to marry him after a remarkably short courtship in which the practical questions go largely unasked. She speaks mainly in proverbs.


Levune is a Frenchman in Marlowe's Edward II. He brings news to Queen Isabella who shares it with Edward II that the Queen's brother, Lord Valois, the King of France, had seized Normandy from Edward's and English control. Later, after Edward II's victory over the nobles and his execution of Lancaster and Warwick, Spencer and Baldock give Levune money from Edward, charging him to return to France and use the money to dissuade the French nobility from joining Queen Isabella's cause against Edward. Levune did as instructed and reported by post to Spencer that the Queen, Mortimer, and numerous others had gone with Sir John of Hainault to Flanders in preparation for doing battle against Edward II in England.


See also LOUIS, LEWIS and related spellings.


Dauphin of France in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John, Lewes is an enthusiastic warrior who welcomes war with England. After the inconclusive first battle of Angiers he marries Blanche. He is unable to prevent the capture of Arthur, but is encouraged by Cardinal Pandulph to seek the English crown.
Son of the King of France and husband of John's cousin Blanche of Castile in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John, Lewes (the future Louis VIII) invades England with a French army, and makes his way through London to Bury St. Edmonds. He insists on an oath of support from all the conspirators, but doubts its sincerity, and plans to execute all of them and seize their estates after they have helped him to the English crown. He and his new allies confront the king at Dover, scorning Pandulph's curse, but cannot capture the fortress, and the Bastard's sally allows the King to escape toward Swinstead. Lewes follows, exulting in his triumph, but is dismayed to learn that the English lords have renewed their allegiance to John, and that the reinforcements he expected from France have perished on the Goodwin Sands. But the news of the disaster at the Wash encourages him to press on. He arrives at Swinstead to find John dead and the English nobles prepared to resist on behalf of young Henry; encouraged by Pandulph, Lewes abandons his claim and agrees to a peaceful withdrawal.


Sebastian dispatches Lewes de Sylva with letters to Philip, king of Spain, to tell him the Portuguese crave his aide in their behalf in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar.


King Lewes of France, father of Philip and Katharina, is at war with the King of Navarre, whose kingdom he claims in the anonymous Trial Of Chivalry. Lewes and Navarre agree a truce, but Lewes is deceived into thinking that his daughter has been raped by Navarre's son Ferdinand during the truce, and blames Navarre for this. When Burbon offers battle to the King of Navarre, therefore, Lewes joins Burbon, and battle is joined. Before battle begins, though, Lewes passes by the tomb in the woods, and is defeated by the Earl of Pembroke in single combat. Even after the death of Burbon, Lewes' forces continue to fight Navarre's. However, at the end of the battle his children reveal themselves to be unharmed after all, and Lewes ends the play reconciled to everyone.


See also LOUIS, LEWES and related spellings.


The French king in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI. When Edward assumes the throne, he sends Warwick to France as an ambassador to broker a marriage between Edward and the French queen's sister Lady Bona. At the same time, Margaret journeys to the French court, seeking support for the Lancastrian cause. When news arrives that Edward has married Lady Grey, the French king becomes Edward's enemy and Margaret's ally.


The Dauphin of France in Shakespeare's Henry V. See "DAUPHIN."


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Charlemagne. Lewis is the supposed son of Charlemagne and Theodora, who dies giving birth to him. His father is, however, more likely to be Richard. His birth is described, but he never appears in the play and his eventual fate is not revealed.


A French lord and an indulgent father in Fletcher's The Elder Brother. Lewis decides to arrange a marriage for his daughter Angellina with one of the sons of his neighbor Brisac. Charles, the scholarly elder brother, seems unsuitable, but Lewis is impressed with the polished courtier Eustace and, after Brisac agrees to persuade Charles to transfer his inheritance rights to his younger brother, Lewis tells Angellina she is to marry Eustace. Arriving to witness the signing of the papers and to negotiate the dowry, Lewis is furious when Charles, who has suddenly fallen in love with Angellina, refuses to sign over his inheritance. When Angellina accepts Charles's unexpected proposal, Lewis disowns her. He confronts Brisac and accuses the justice of having plotted against him, demanding that Brisac deliver Angellina, who has taken refuge with Brisac's brother Miramont. Lewis orders Brisac's house seized and has his friends and kinsmen kidnap Angellina. On the road to Paris, traveling to see the king to have the matter adjudicated, Lewis accuses Angellina of lust, a charge vigorously denied by Angellina's maid Sylvia; he is then confronted by Charles, Eustace, and Miramont, who have come to rescue Angellina. Miramont persuades Lewis to drop his suit to avoid publicity, humiliation, and greedy lawyers. Although Lewis does not give his verbal consent, Miramont claims to see the consent in Lewis's face, and Charles and Angellina are reunited.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. Don Lewis was a famous sixteenth-century Spanish fencing master. At the turn of the sixteenth century, the Spanish were considered the greatest swordsmen in the world. Don Luys Pacheco de Narvaez was Caranza's most famous pupil. With the publication of his book on fencing, around 1600, "Don Lewis of Madrid" achieved international fame as the sole fencing master of the world. Don Lewis' influence spread out from the Spanish peninsula, in competition with the ideas of the Italian fencing masters. In a learned discussion on fencing between Tipto and Fly, the former asks if the master of fence teaches the art in the Spanish way of Don Lewis. It seems that Fly has some knowledge of the Spanish fencing theory of the "mysterious circle," but he replies ironically that the master was not Don Lewis, but a Greek master, Euclides. Fly refers to the ancient Greek mathematician, who studied the geometry of the circle, expecting Tipto to be unaware of anything other than fencing. In addition, Fly suggests that Euclid's geometry is superior to Don Lewis' theory of the magic circle. When Host says that the great fencing names had their time, Tipto, probably in a surge of Spanish patriotic fervor, says that Don Lewis of Madrid is the sole Master of the world.


Lewis is certain that France has not wronged Edward of England in any way in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV. He sees peace, however, as preferable at almost any cost to war, and he willingly cedes his crown upon Edward's demand when the English monarch comes to France. Hidden in Edward's chamber, Lewis overhears the details concerning the treachery of French nobles Burgundy and S. Paul; both men claim to hate the French king, yet both renege on promises of war aid to Edward, hoping for personal gain in their duplicity. Historically, this would have been Louis XI, son of Charles VII.


A character from the badly deteriorated plot of the anonymous 2 Fortune's Tennis. Because of the state of decay, nothing more can be deduced regarding the character's function in the otherwise lost play.


A "ghost character" in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Lewis Loiterer is one of the individuals Merrygreek admits to having sponged from before taking up with Ralph Roister Doister.


A "ghost character" in Davenport's King John and Matilda King John's opponents approach him to be their ally in the wars against John. He invades England, accompanied by Richmond. These reinforcements help to outnumber John's forces and persuade him to accede to the demands of the rebels.


A "ghost character" in Burnell's Landgartha. He is a Christian emperor who helps Harrold.


Lewys is a suitor to Clara and the son of De Castro, who was killed by Alvarez in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy. He unwittingly aids Roderigo in Clara's abduction. When Fernando expresses the wish to revoke Alvarez's banishment, Lewys secretly plans to avenge his father's death, but he forgives Alvarez when the old man reveals himself.




Only mentioned as an epithet in Jonson's The Alchemist. When Face announces Subtle that he has procured other potential customers for his alchemical tricks, Subtle tells him he will come right away, only to dispatch the two little John Leydens. Subtle refers to Tribulation and Ananias, who are in another room inspecting the goods they have purchased for their Anabaptist Brethren. John Brockholdt or John of Leyden was the leader of the Anabaptists.


Alexandra's page in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus, he persuades her to change clothes with him to beguile Antiochus. His keeper, Dinon, falls in love with him; Libanio kills him while he sleeps beside the river and makes his escape to rejoin Alexandra and Gobrias, where Cyrus honors him.


Liberalitie is the chief steward to Virtue in the anonymous The Contention Between Liberalitie and Prodigalitie. He is sought by states which seek to maintain stately dignity, because that is which wins the subjects' faithful love. He delivers moralizing speeches warning men against the dangers and miseries of Fortune. When he meets Captain Wel-Don, he praises him on his bravery and his feats when fighting for his country. Then he comforts him offering him employment in his own country, thus preventing him from having to go abroad in search of employment. When Prodigality is charged with murder, Liberalitie has to take charge of Money. The former expresses his amazement at seeing the latter so fat. When hearing Money's reply, Liberalitie offers to take care of him, preventing him from the extremities he had to endure in the hands of Prodigalitie and of Tenacitie. When Money agrees to be administered by Liberalitie, the latter begins with his sensible administration by recompensing Captain Wel-Don and the soldiers with some Money.


A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the eleven virtues that regulate the affections. Covetousness and Prodigality are the extremes of Liberality. She is the eleventh in the wave against the Vices.

LIBERTY **1515

Spelled Liberte in the original. At the beginning of Skelton's Magnyfycence, Lyberte is placed with Felycyte under the control of Measure by Magnyfycence, but when the king falls under the influence of the court vices, Lyberte is released and Measure is expelled from court. This is the beginning of Magnyfycence's ruin.


Liberty is a friend of Wealth and Health in the anonymous An Interlude of Wealth and Health. He claims that he is better than Wealth and Health because without Liberty, Wealth and Health amount to nothing. Liberty appears to cause the entrance of Ill-Will by claiming to be ready to act at the will of Health and Wealth. He encourages Health and Wealth to accept Ill-Will, disguised as Will, as their servant. When Will and Wit (a.k.a. Shrewd Wit) threaten to leave, Liberty promises to follow them. Due to the machinations of Ill-Will and Shrewd Wit, Liberty is imprisoned, possibly along with Wealth. Good Remedy intervenes to send Ill-Will and Shrewd Wit to prison, and arrange for the release of Liberty and Wealth.


A servant attending on Marcellina in Chapman's Monsieur D'Olive.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Catiline. Caius Licinius is a Roman senator. Sempronia reports to Fulvia the political machination supposed to lead to Catiline's election as a consul. According to Sempronia, there are six competitors beside Catiline for the consulship. These are Caius Antonius, Galba, Longinus, Cornificius, Licinius, and Cicero. Catiline's arrangement is for Licinius, Longinus, Galba, and Cornificius to retire from the competition, while Cicero cannot be elected because he is not a patrician. Thus, Catiline and Antonius are left as the only candidates. In fact, the situation is changed and, following rumors of Catiline's plot, Cicero and Caius Antonius are elected. It seems that Licinius, like other senators, was privy to Catiline's plans, but did not get involved in the conspiracy.


Marcus Licinius Crassus is a Roman general and politician in Jonson's Catiline. Some people believed that Crassus was acquainted with Catiline's conspiracy because he hated Pompey and was for anyone who should rise against Pompey's increasing influence. Crassus enters the Roman Senate with the others senators and hears Cicero's address of gratitude for having been elected consul. Crassus doubts Cicero's honesty and alludes to Caesar that he would secretly support Catiline's plot. At Cicero's house, Cicero tells his brother to summon a number of senators and tribunes he could trust, among whom he mentions Crassus. When Cornelius and Vargunteius try to gain access into Cicero's house under the guise of friends, but with the purpose of murdering him, Crassus is in the group of Cicero's friends and clients who witness the scene. When the conspirators flee and the remaining senators advise Cicero to follow the assassins and bring them to justice, Crassus is silent and prefers to observe the events. After Cicero has accused Catiline of conspiracy in the Senate, he mentions to his friends that he will not implicate Caesar and Crassus because they are powerful men and it is dangerous to stir too many serpents at once. Before the final confrontation between the Senate's army and Catiline's troupes, Crassus and Caesar discuss the situation. Seeing that Catiline's boat is sinking, Crassus and Caesar desert Catiline. After the depositions against the conspirators in the Senate, the Consul rules that Gabinius should be placed in Crassus's private custody. Though a report comes that a witness implicates Crassus in the conspiracy, Cicero pretends not to believe it, and Crassus is called noble, just, and loyal.


Cornelia's first husband in Kyd's Cornelia; he allies himself with Pompey in the rebellion against Caesar. He is killed in battle by Caesar's troops, along with his father, on the plains of Pharsalus.


Licio is one of a group of comic servants who steal and pawn Midas' golden beard in Lyly's Midas. Forced to redeem it by the barber Motto, the servants have their revenge by tricking Motto into saying that the King has assess' ears, for which (by law) Motto should have his own ears cut off. However, when he pleads for mercy, the servants let him go.


A disguise assumed by Hortensio in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. In order to woo Bianca secretly, Hortensio has himself presented to Baptista as a music tutor for Bianca and Katherine. The disguise does not work. As Lucio, Hortensio has a lute broken over his head (by Katherine) and fails in his attempt to win Bianca.


A cook in Jonson's The Staple of News. He is employed by Pennyboy Junior to cook a dinner honoring Pecunia. He becomes instrumental when he is given the deed to Pennyboy Senior's estate by Picklock. Unknowingly, he gives it to a courier who is actually Pennyboy Junior, thereby foiling Picklock's scheme.


This unnamed Lictor in John Webster's Appius and Virginia has sent word for Appius to hear the decree of the Senate concerning the appointment of Appius as Decemvir.


Roman officials in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess. After Geta's promotion, he employs the two Lictors to perform unreasonable orders, such as whipping a suitor to Geta for having eaten garlic. The Lictors offer Geta poor advice about using and keeping his authority.


Watches the three playlets with Henry in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. He acts as expositor for the dumb shows and also interjects in the middle of the first and second playlets, thereby dividing these playlets into two acts each. He also delivers the epilogue.


The older companion and former nurse of Phillis in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. Lidia advises Phillis not to reject the suit of Montanus outright but to make use of his service. Because Montanus is jealous of Clorindo, with whom Phillis is in love, Lidia persuades him to frighten the Clorindo into reciprocating Phillis's love.


Lidia, beautiful daughter of Charomonte in Massinger's The Great Duke of Florence, in love with Giovanni.


Lidian, brother to Caliste and in love with Olinda, is disheartened by the contest between himself and Clarange that requires him to avoid Olinda, the woman he loves, in an attempt ultimately to win her in Massinger's 1634 Cleander, or Lisander and Calista (a revision of Fletcher's 1623 The Wandering Lovers?). Olinda has declared that she will love only the last man to visit her. He challenges Clarange to a duel to settle matters, but Lisander convinces him not to fight. He takes to the forest to live as a hermit. When counseling Lisander, he learns the news of Clarange's death and decides to return home to see Olinda (not realizing that the news is a trick to lure him back). After Clarange wins the contest, Lidian brings his case before the king, citing what he considers unsportsman-like conduct. But Clarange reveals that he has become a friar thus leaving Lidian free to marry Olinda.


Lieutenant of the Tower in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appears in the induction scenes.


The lieutenant in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI is one of the English pirates who capture several gentlemen prisoners among whom is the exiled Suffolk. Suffolk identifies himself in the hope that they will spare his life, but Walter Whitmore and his lieutenant agree that Suffolk's misdeeds, compounded by his rude behaviour to the pirates, merit death. In a long speech, the lieutenant enumerates Suffolk's crimes against England, from orchestrating Henry's match with an unworthy mate to the murder of Gloucester. Whitmore and the lieutenant kill Suffolk.


He is present at the scene of Cromwell's arrest in Lambeth in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell.


An unnamed officer in Dansiker's employ in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk. The spokesman for his loyal crew, agreeing to accept the French amnesty offered to them, and to follow Dansiker in any daring but worthy deed which will redeem their honour, even if it costs their lives. Later reports to Dansiker that he has successfully planted the firebomb at Benwash's house.


The lieutenant, an eccentric and humorous character in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant, is admired for the bravery in combat he demonstrates whenever he suffers from a painful ailment. When cured, however, he becomes a coward and refuses to fight in the battle. Leontius, with the help of the Gentlemen and Phisitians, tricks the lieutenant into believing that his ailment has returned, causing his courage to return as he takes off by himself challenging whole companies of men. After the battle, he confronts Demetrius to pay his charge who, distraught over the false news of Celia's death, points a gun at him causing him to faint. Leucippe sets down the love potion, which the king has created for Celia, to retrieve water for him and while she is gone Leontius gives the lieutenant the potion, thinking it is liquor. After drinking the potion, the lieutenant falls violently in love with the king and wishes himself a "wench of fifteen." In the end, the lieutenant is rewarded by the king for his suffering.


This unnamed Lieutenant in Marmion's A Fine Companion joins Captain Whibble in trying to deprive Careless of his land and money. He suggests that being a pimp is a most noble profession, and he ends the play by turning tapster in the employ of Whibble, who has turned Host.


Associate of Terresius in Killigrew’s The Princess. He takes Sophia from two of his soldiers after they capture her. He attempts to ravish her, but relents when she swears she is still a maid. He returns to her, filled with lust, but is prevented in his rape by the appearance of Cilius, who falls at once in love with Sophia and orders the lieutenant on pain of death to protect her. He is drunk and angry when Terresius asks for an accounting of the slaves to be sold in Naples and renders no intelligible answer. He falls asleep in the woods and wakes to find the wounded Nigro, whom he resolves to assist. He is called away to check on Tullius and entrusts the old man to Crabb’s care. Upon Terresius learning that some of his men have stolen and sold Cicilia, he agrees that the pirates should be hanged but only after they sober up enough to feel the punishment. He conspires with Cilius to help free Sophia. When Cilius claims to have been wounded by Sophia’s love, the lieutenant mistakes him, thinking she’s given him the clap. He tells the soldiers who sold Cicilia and are condemned for it that, if they mutiny and fight for Cilius, they shall be free. Discovering the shipwrecked Virgilius and the others, he is wounded as he fights Virgilius. He fears to die alone but is found by Tullius, who taunts him as he once taunted Tullius. He promises to make Tullius his heir if Tullius will get him to a surgeon. Instead, Tullius begins to strip him and, when he hears a noise, drags the lieutenant away to cut his throat.


Officer in the Florentine army in Dekker's(?) Telltale. Enters with the Captain and the Ancient to Aspero complaining about his withholding of their pay and their rewards for the capture of the Venetian princes. When they threaten to complain to the Duke, Aspero gives them gold to share amongst themselves and their soldiers, and promises to divide the Princes' ransom amongst them when it arrives. Later, he joins the Captain in his discussion with the disguised Duke regarding their grievance with Aspero over lack of pay. The Lieutenant and Ancient observe the Captain's transformation of the disguised Duke into the supposedly missing Duke, as well as Victoria's reaction when she sees the trimmed and costumed Duke. The remainder of this scene is missing from the manuscript. At the end of the play, the Lieutenant returns to court with the Duke, Duchess, Julio, the Captain, and Ancient, all impersonating their spirits. Picentio, disguised as the French Doctor, commands them to indicate their approval or disapproval of Aspero. After showing signs of approval the spirits perform a dance, during which the Duke takes the crown and the Duchess the scepter. They witness the Duke resume his authority, listen to Bentivoli's tale, witness the purged Garullo's return, and exit with the court to the weddings of Picentio and Isabella and Hortensio and Elinor.


A soldier turned highwayman in William Rowley's A Match at Midnight. He works with Captain Carvegut. They try to rob Randall, but he escapes them and steals their stash of money. They are drinking partners of Alexander, and help him to gull Tim.


When Henry is restored to power in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI, the lieutenant of the tower begs his pardon for keeping him imprisoned.


The Lieutenant of the Tower is charged with overseeing More's imprisonment in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. Knowing that More has enjoyed the king's favor, he is confused by More's assertion that the estate he will leave behind is not large. More then explains that he has been giving large sums of money to provide crutches for crippled soldiers and cloaks for poor scholars. The Lieutenant weeps openly as More is taken off to be executed.


He mistakenly allows Harpool to escape with Oldcastle in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle.

LIEUTENANT of the TOWER **1600

In the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell, he announces to the jailed Cromwell the arrival of the Duke of Suffolk, the Duke of Norfolk, the Bishop of Winchester (Gardiner), the Earl of Bedford, and Sir Richard Ratcliffe. Later he announces the entry of Cromwell's son, Harry.

LIEUTENANT of the TOWER **1604

The Lieutenant of the Tower in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt (the historical Sir John Bridges) informs Lady Jane Grey and Guildford Dudley of the Duke of Northumberland's execution on Tower Hill, and then he carries out Queen Mary's command that the two young people should be held apart until their arraignment on charges of treason. He appears later and is ordered by the Bishop of Winchester to summon Jane and Guildford for execution.


As his name implies, Lifter is a cutpurse in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. Charged with having stolen a purse containing ten pounds from Smart, Lifter asks More to help him while the jury deliberates his fate. More instructs Lifter to steal Justice Suresby's purse and promises to win his release by this "jest." More himself serves as Lifter's "setter" by sending Suresby to speak to Lifter, and the criminal uses the distraction of his story about another thief (Lifter's Namesake) to get the justice's purse and then pass it on to More.


A fictional character in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. In order to take Justice Suresby's purse, Lifter claims that there is a superior pickpocket who goes by the name of "Lifter," and while pretending to explain how this Namesake operates, Lifter uses the Justice's excitement at learning more about the criminals he so enjoys pursuing to cloak his actual lifting of Suresby's purse.


Caius Ligarius has only a small role in the conspiracy against Caesar in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, but he firmly allies himself with the murderers even though he suffers from illness at the time of the crucial events in the Senate.


Mrs Light is whore in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden, in whose company Sir Reverence Lamard is first seen, and who takes part in the dancing at the King's Head.


An assassin in Marlowe's Edward II. He specializes in killing without leaving a trace of foul play on the victim, Lightborn is charged by Mortimer to take custody of Edward II from Gurney and Matrevis and to kill him. Lightborn makes Gurney and Matrevis unwitting accomplices in such a disgusting and painful regicide that Gurney immediately stabs Lightborn to death. Together he and Matrevis then throw the assassin's body into Berkeley Castle moat.


A country gentleman in Tailor's The Hog Hath Lost His Pearl. Has come to London to visit his relation Haddit, whom he finds much altered due to his poverty. After hearing Haddit's plan to court Hog the Usurer's daughter, Lightfoot offers to help by buying Haddit an expensive outfit and mortgaging some land to Hog in return for cash. Later, when Haddit has his expensive clothes, Lightfoot raises the possibility that Rebecca might already be betrothed; they continue on to Hog's. Later, he appears with Hog, having completed the paperwork to mortgage some of his land to Hog. After Hog leaves with the mortgage papers, Haddit and Lightfoot develop a plan to get Peter drunk so that he will pass out: Lightfoot will quarrel with Peter, and Haddit will intervene, restoring peace between them through drink. Peter enters and they begin to put their plan into action; Young Lord Wealthy then enters and is called upon by Haddit to judge the merit of his proposed solution to the quarrel. Haddit tells Peter and Lightfoot to go to the cellar and drink several mugs of beer together; he also invites Young Lord Wealthy to join him in the cellar as well. Later that evening, Lightfoot appears in a flash of fire in Hog's chamber, disguised as the spirit of King Croesus. As the spirit of Croesus, Lightfoot tells Hog that his earthly riches will be multiplied and that after death he will reign in hell with Croesus. Lightfoot as the spirit of Croesus summons Ascarion, who is the Player in disguise, and orders him to take Hog's silver away and turn it into gold; he then summons Bazon, who is Haddit in disguise, and orders him to take Hog's gold away and turn it into pearl. He tells Hog to fix his eyes on the west and watch for the returning spirits; in the meantime, Lightfoot exits with Hog's jewels. Later, Lightfoot joins Haddit and Rebecca as Haddit pays the Priest who married them, and then he continues on with Haddit to Old Lord Wealthy's. At Old Lord Wealthy's Lightfoot greets Hog and learns of his robbery. At the end of the play he joins Haddit and Rebecca and exits to Old Lord Wealthy's feast.


Strigood rents lodging from Hannah Camelions under the name Lightfoot in Brome's The New Academy. As Lightfoot he claims to be Joyce and Gabriella's father. At Hannah Camelions' home, he establishes the New Academy, which purports to give instruction in courtly behavior but quickly gains the (undeserved) reputation as a house of prostitution.


Ligoces, also spelled Lygones, is an Armenian lord and Spaconia's father in Beaumont and Fletcher's A King and No King. He tracks his runaway daughter to Iberia and accuses her of becoming Tigranes's whore. He also condemns Bessus for helping Spaconia find a place in Panthea's service. When Tigranes suggests that he wishes to marry Spaconia, Ligoces claims to be thrilled as a father but disappointed as a loyal counselor and subject. Thankfully, Ligoces is made to accept the match.

LIKING **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the nine inferior Affections. A minion of Love who attended the Parliament during Love’s sickness.


One of the sycophants around Young Novall in Field and Massinger's The Fatal Dowry; like Aymer he is a superficial, vain and effeminate parasite, finally brought to trial for his involvement in Beaumelle and Young Novall's tryst.


A "ghost character" in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. Conchylio (disguised as Cupid) includes the Nymph Lilla in a list of possible love interests for Cancrone.


The white-skinned daughter of the King of Africa in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder. Lillia Guida agrees to let her servant Eusanius fight in the war against Pheander and gives him her scarf as a favour. She tries to defend him from the slur of treason brought by Moor 1 but fails, and Alcade plans to marry her to Sophos instead. She is brought to Thrace by her father, where they are captured by Eusanius. After the identities of the disguised characters are revealed, and it has transpired that Eusanius is a prince, her father permits her to marry him.


Daughter of Nantolet in Fletcher's Wild-Goose Chase. Lillia-Bianca falls in love with Pinac, but later, after quarrelling with him, acts as if she is giving up on Pinac and wishes him a happy life with Mariana; however, as part of a plot devised by Lugier, she reveals to him that Mariana is, in fact, a prostitute who has had relations with Mirabel. In the conclusion of the play, she accepts Pinac's marriage proposal.


Wife of Andrew, Charles's witty servant in Fletcher's The Elder Brother. Lilly is placed in charge of the linen for the wedding feast. Andrew overhears Brisac arrange an assignation with Lilly, who, despite some intense flirting and fondling, dismisses the old man as too old to have sex with her. When Brisac later threatens to take away Andrew's farm, Lilly responds first by threatening legal action, then by conceding to his lust, but Andrew enters and prevents the encounter.


A friend of Onesipherus Hoard in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. After being invited to the festivities following the wedding of Hoard and Medler, he is present when the true identity of the Courtesan is revealed to Walkadine Hoard.


Lime is a mason hired to work on Temple restoration in Markham's Herod and Antipater. He is also employed by Salumith to testify falsely that the king's younger sons had concocted a plan to kill their father by having large stones dropped upon the king form the Temple construction site.


Noble at the Court of England in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. He receives gifts from Andelocia.


John Lincoln, a broker by trade, is one of the leaders of the May Day uprising against foreigners in 1517 in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. It is he who convinces the Bettses (George and Ralph), Doll Williamson, and the others who have suffered abuse to rouse the commons of London by having Doctor Beale read a list of charges during the Easter week sermons. When the riots begin, Lincoln assumes command of the insurgents and urges them against the hated foreigners. When More, whom he respects, arrives to address the crowd in his capacity as Sheriff of London, Lincoln helps still the mob, and when More convinces them to lay down their arms and submit to the king, Lincoln agrees to the recommendation, provided More will attempt to procure pardons for them. Condemned along with the other ringleaders, Lincoln patiently submits to the law, and climbing the scaffold accepts his fate as just, forgives all who have played a part in his undoing, and is hanged only moments before the Earl of Surrey arrives with the pardons More has procured from the king.


John, Earl of Lincoln is named Richard III's legal heir in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III even before the murder of the princes in the Tower of London.


Lincus is a corrupt lawyer in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. He meets Alcon and they greet each other as old friends. Lincus is finding trade hard in Arcadia, where the people are too content to enter into legal disputes. He is, however, working on Montanus and Acrysius, who have quarrelled over grazing rights. Lincus comes before Ergistus and Meliboeus, together with Alcon, Techne, Colax and Pistophoenax. When the outsiders are banished, Alcon is unrepentant, telling Lincus that they must look for new targets in another city.


Servant to Lucinda in Carlell's The Fool Would Be A Favorite. She tries to convince Lucinda to look favorably on Agenor. She is with Lucinda in the woods when they encounter the friends of Adrastus.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. Lindabrides is a heroine in The Mirror of Knighthood, whose name was a synonym for a kept mistress. The Mirror of Knighthood is a Spanish romance by Diego Ortuñes de Calahorra (1562), translated into English by Margaret Tyler (1578). Lindabrides is also the heroine in a Spanish comedy by Pedro Calderón de la Barca, entitled El Castillo de Lindabrides. This play deals with the chivalric world and the characters bear stock names, such as Rosicler, Claridiana, or Meridian. When Amorphus instructs Asotus in the art of being a courtier, Asotus says he will call his fictional lady "my dear Lindabrides." Since Amorphus wants details about this exotic-sounding name, Asotus explains that Lindabrides is the emperor Alicandroe's daughter and the Prince Meridian's sister in The Knight of the Sun. It seems that Asotus collates two chivalric romances, taking the title from one and using the badly distorted characters' names and plot from the other.
Only mentioned in Shirley's Love's Cruelty. In The Mirror of Knighthood, the name of Lindabrides is synonymous with a kept mistress. In speaking with Clariana, Hippolito uses the phrase "superintendant Lindabrides" to describe a mistress he has never had.


The name Alexander gives to Sue Shortheels the whore when he gulls Tim into believing that she is a Greek princess in William Rowley's A Match at Midnight.


The shirt maker in Jonson's The Staple of News providing Pennyboy Junior with his first set of shirts as an heir.

LINGUA **1607

In Tomkis’ Lingua, she wears a crimson satin gown, white roses, purple scarf, red buskins drawn with white ribbons, silver garter and gloves. She wishes to make her case before Common Sense to be counted as a sense but believes the five senses have muffled Common Sense to all pleas from others. She has her page Mendacio lock up Veritas, lie to the five senses, and bring her robe and crown. She has the robe and crown set out to tempt and entrap the five senses. She manages to present her case to Common Sense and does so with a speech made up of English, Latin, Greek, and French that Common Sense calls a gallemaufry and Memorie remembers was the fashion back in 1602. She sets out all of her graces including her ability to end wars without bloodshed and charm ears. Common Sense rules against Lingua as there can be only five senses, but he allows a sixth sense to women, that of speaking. Secretly, she is not happy with half a sense and having lost her crown. As act four ends, she colludes with Mendacio for more mischief. Somnus puts her to sleep and, whilst dreaming, confesses her crimes whilst Common Sense overhears her. Common Sense sentences her to be imprisoned in Gustus’s house behind two great gates and thirty guards (the teeth) until she be eighty.

LINGUA **1617

Only mentioned in the anonymous Pathomachia. Pride likens himself to “lady Lingua" who once aspired to the title of a sense. Later, Justice upbraids the presumption of such ambition.


“Ghost characters" in Rowley’s When You See Me. The instruct Prince Edward in languages. Edward calls for them to attend him in the morning. The Italian is named Franciscoe.


A gallant in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho who attends the afternoon tavern-party and participates in the assignation at Brainford. There, he and Monopoly alone are sober enough to keep company with the wives, but they drive them from the room when they smoke tobacco. The wives then refuse to complete the assignation, and he is humiliated by Justiniano.


Linsy-Wolsey is a thrifty citizen who owes Crasy money but refuses to repay him in Brome's The City Wit. He hopes to marry Jane Tryman (Jeremy is disguise) who is lodging at his house; Crasy and Tryman use this opportunity to trick Linsy-Wolsey out of the money he owes.


A lion follows a Bear or "any other Beast" and is then killed by an Archer in the introductory dumb show of the anonymous Locrine. According to Ate's prologue he stands for Brute, who is brought to end by Death.


Lion is the role assigned to the rude mechanical Snug the joiner in the Pyramus and Thisbe theatrical performance planned to honor the Duke's wedding in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. His task includes the supposed killing of Thisbe (he actually only mauls her shawl) as well as explaining to the delicate females in his Athenian audience that he is not truly a lion but rather is a common joiner only playing a role.


Role taken by Stremon's second servant in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. In the masque of beasts (IV.i) that Stremon organizes in an attempt to restore Memnon to his wits, the Second Servant takes the role of the Lion.


A non-speaking character in Wilde's Love's Hospital. One of four "Beasts" which dance with the 4 "little boyes" and 4 Satyrs in the antemasque that Himen presents near the play's end.


Lionel is the servant to Master Burnish, the goldsmith, in Marston's Dutch Courtesan. Mulligrub commissions him to deliver a gold cup that Mulligrub has just bought to Mistress Mulligrub at home. Lionel successfully completes his mission, but then Cockledemoy pretends to be another of Burnish's servants and manages to carry off the cup for himself in the end.


One of the four gallants at the wedding of Annabel and Bonvile in Webster and Rowley's A Cure for a Cuckold. Lionel refuses Lessingham's plea to duel with him, claiming he has vowed never to visit Calais. He becomes a sharer in Woodroff's shipping venture. He assists Compass, during the legal debate with Franckford. Lionel and the other gallants are present at Compass' wedding.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. Jack Cade claims that his real name is John (or Jack) Mortimer, and that he is descended from the house of the Duke of Clarence, who was the second son to Edward III, and therefore he has a stronger claim to the throne than has the Lancaster Henry VI, who descends from John of Gaunt, third son of Edward III.


Sir Lionel Freevill is Freevill's father in Marston's Dutch Courtesan, and the younger seems to have inherited the elder's his appetite for women. The dramatis personae describes Sir Lionel as "an old knight," but age doesn't stop him from offering marriage, a five hundred pound jointure, and satisfying sex to Crispinella, the sister of the woman to whom his son is engaged. From the beginning of the play it is clear that while Franceschina is still in love with Freevill, he is quickly falling out of love with her, and yet he defends the importance of brothels as well as a husband's natural propensity and right to frequent them. Moreover, as the play progresses, Franceschina goes from being a beautiful "courtesan" with "virtue" to a "vile whore" in Freevill's estimation, and yet Freevill never turns this careful inspection upon himself and his own deeds. The suggestion is that Young Freevill learned this double standard from his father: at the end of the play, it is Sir Lionel, and not any other character, who exclaims that Franceschina should be sent "to severest prison" and punished with "the extremest whip and jail!"


Lionell is the nephew of Veterano the Antiquary in Marmion's The Antiquary. He helps Lorenzo gain revenge upon Petrutio for the latter's refusal to wed Lorenzo's daughter, and he plays the role of the Duke near the play's end and engages Petrutio to Angelia.


Father of Young Lionell in Heywood's The English Traveler; neighbor of Old Geraldine, Wincott, and Ricot. A merchant seaman, he has just come home from a long voyage to find his house locked. His servant Reignald tells him that it is haunted by the ghost of someone murdered by the former Owner of the house. Reignald is trying to keep him away from the house while Young Lionell and his friends try to cover up the damage done by three years of wild living. Old Lionell becomes suspicious when he hears the Usurer demanding the return of the money that Reignald and Young Lionell have borrowed. After learning the truth, he forgives them both, resigned to the idea that youths will behave foolishly.


A knight of failing wealth in Cooke's Greene's Tu Quoque. Believing that honor must be purchased, Lionell leaves his house to Spendall for a term when he intends to live at various other dwellings in the city in an effort to recoup his failing fortunes. When Spendall steals a significant amount of his wealth, Lionell seeks to recoup his fortunes by marrying his daughters Joyce and Gartred to the arriviste gallants Bubbles and Scattergood respectively. Anxiously awaiting the wedding day and rousing his reluctant friends, Lionell is surprised to learn that his daughters have married Staines and Geraldine after outwitting and extorting the wealth of their original suitors.


Son of Old Lionell in Heywood's The English Traveler. He and the servant Reignald have been using up his father's estate with raucous living and wild parties while Old Lionell was at sea. He pretends to return Blanda's love, while enjoying himself with various wenches. He knows that what he does is wrong, but blames his behavior on youthful foolishness.


One of Theagine's disguises in Chapman's May Day. Lionello is Leonoro's page. Theagine, Lucretio's betrothed, has followed him to Venice and disguised herself as a boy. With her master, she goes "muffled" to meet with Temperance and arrange a meeting with Lucretia. When this is foiled, she and Leonoro go to the Emperor's Head where Quintiliano remarks on "his" sweet face. She then disguises herself as a woman to participate in the gulling of Innocentio at Honorio's party. There she reveals herself as Theagine to the now revealed Lucretio.


Peter de Lions is a servant of Burbon in the anonymous Trial Of Chivalry. He is attracted to Thomasin, Bellamira's maid, and is thus a rival to Dick Bowyer, with whom, early on, he has a swordfight which is interrupted by the arrival of Pembroke. He steals Thomasina's key and lets Burbon into Bellamira's tent to poison Bellamira's face. When Burbon is later killed by Philip, Peter is on hand, but is too cowardly to fight against Philip. In the battle, he abducts Thomasin, who is taken off him again by Dick Bowyer. Dick Bowyer kills Peter de Lions on the battlefield.


One of the four worthy knights of Tartar in Verney’s Antipoe. He conspires with Dabon and Sapos to kill Dramurgon and agrees to take noble Macros into their conspiracy; the conspirators see Macros lying in his prophetic stupor and elect to leave him there for the time being. Upon catching Drupon about to murder the sleeping Macros, he along with Dabon and Sapos capture Drupon and lead him away to torture. He agrees with his friends Dabon, Macros and Sapos that Dramurgon has dishonoured them by refusing to fight the kings of Bohemia, Corinth and Thrace and believes that he will find some trick to avoid the fight on Thursday next. Fearing Antipoe dead by execution, he is delighted to see that Macros has rescued the hero and goes to fulfill his promised love with the king of Bohemia’s daughters. He stands beside Antipoe to kill the men Dramurgon sends to compel the fallen Bohemia from him. He and the other three knights appear before the President of Tartar identifying the four daughters of Bohemia as their ‘contracted wives’ and all go in to supper. He later objects to passing judgement upon Macros for the murder of Dramurgon. He is next to commit suicide after Drabon commits suicide after Macros commits suicide after Antipoe commits suicide for his failure to avenge Dramurgon’s murder. He is later seen as a ghost, clad in white, ascending to the throne with the others at the behest of Brutus.


A young courtier in Middleton's The Family of Love. Lipsalve competes with his friend Gudgeon for the affections of Mistress Purge. Thinking Glister is a conjurer, Lipsalve asks him to magically procure Mistress Purge for him but is tricked by Glister into fighting with Gudgeon instead. Before that can happen, Lipsalve, also lusting for Maria, disguises himself as Gerardine in the hopes of bedding her, but the ruse is unsuccessful. Later, after fighting with Gudgeon, and realizing he's been gulled, he and Gudgeon plan revenge by cuckolding Glister. Still harboring designs on Mistress Purge, however, Gudgeon and Lipsalve also join The Family of Love. Later, their attempts to bed Mistress Glister are thwarted by Glister's purgatives.


She accompanies Philicia (who is dressed "in the habit of a man") in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Liriana and the Princess had been "resolv[ed] to be taken prisoners" before discovering "all freedome in the Camp." Along with Philicia, Liriana expresses delight in the assurance that Arviragus will not be sacrificed by the Queen.


See also LYSANDER and related spellings.


Lisander is a friend of Demetrius in Day's Isle of Gulls. He is in love with Violetta, a daughter of duke Basilius, and hopes to win her from the fortified island. He disguises himself as an Amazon, Zelmane, and bribes the venal Dametas to gain access to the court. Lisander is reunited with Demetrius, whom he left behind when he went travelling, and together the pair save Violetta and her sister Hippolita from Julio and Aminter. Basilius and his wife Gynetia both fall in love with Lisander, the duke believing him to be a woman and Gynetia knowing him to be a man. Basilius arranges for Gynetia to woo Lisander in front of him. Later, Basilius, Gynetia, Lisander and Violetta play bowls, and Lisander takes the opportunity to woo Violetta under her parents' noses. Basilius courts Lisander repeatedly, and Lisander eventually agrees to meet him at Adonis's Bower; Basilius does not realise that Lisander has also arranged for Gynetia to meet him there, and that it is a ruse to give the two princes the opportunity to escape with Hippolita and Violetta. However, Demetrius and Lisander make the mistake of trusting the princesses to Julio and Aminter, who are disguised as Lacedaemonian intelligencers, while they return to the island to explain themselves to Basilius and claim their prizes. They are double-crossed by Julio and Aminter, who claim the princesses for themselves. Lisander and Demetrius are furious and draw their swords, but Basilius approves the claim of Julio and Aminter within the rules of the challenge.


A disguise in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort assumed by Lucius after fleeing to Arcadia when King Ferdinand is overthrown. Working as a servant to the poor shepherd Gisbert for seven years, the master makes him his heir and gives him his daughter, Urania, in marriage despite the protestations of two competing and neighboring shepherds Alexis and Surdo (sons of Lisippus and Cosmo respectively). He sheds the disguise when Ferdinand reclaims his throne and his wealth and position at court are restored.


An old man with a nineteen-year-old second wife, Eugenia in Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law. Lisander is angered by the suitors who are wooing Eugenia in anticipation of his execution under the Old Law. In response, he dyes his beard black, and tries to behave in a youthful manner. He successfully, defeats Courtier 1 at dancing, Courtier 2 at fencing, and Simonides at drinking. But Cleanthes upbraids Lisander for embracing youthful folly rather than mature wisdom. In accordance with the Law, Lisander is sentenced to execution and taken away to his death. But at the end of the play, Evander reveals that the Old Law was a fiction, and that Creon and the other old men were not really killed.


Lisander, a gentleman in love with Caliste in Massinger's 1634 Cleander, or Lisander and Calista (a revision of Fletcher's 1623 The Wandering Lovers?). He stops Clarange and Lidian from dueling over Olinda, but himself kills two men in a duel. His involvement with Caliste is complex: it begins when Lisander saves Caliste's father, Dorilaus, from assassins in the forest. Soon after, Lisander writes to Caliste declarations of his love. He then bribes Caliste's maid, Clarinda, to allow him entry to Caliste's room at midnight. But Clarinda has set him up. Clarinda raises the alarm of an intruder, and the servants see Lisander leaving the house. Sometime after, he kills two men in a duel, forcing him to flee the city. He meets Lidian in the forest, and then Alcidon, who tells him that Cleander has been murdered. Lisander also learns from Alcindon that his own sword has been found near the corpse. (Leon found his sword, which was placed in Malfort's hand by Clarinda.) Given the circumstances, Malfort, Lisander and Caliste have been charged with murder. He returns to save his lady and clear his name. At trial, he is able to clear Caliste and himself of all charges by convincing Leon to testify. The king orders Lisander to build a monument in honor of the two men he killed and to marry Caliste in one year's time.


Lisander is a court attendant in Shirley's Coronation who brings to the audience's attention the fact that the young queen directs most of her attention toward Cassander's son Lisimachus.


Prince of Naples in the anonymous Swetnam. Although he is the son of King Atticus of Sicily's enemy, the King of Naples, he is in love with Atticus' daughter Leonida and is beloved by her in return. Unfortunately, Atticus has forbidden their marriage and barred Lisandro from visiting his daughter on pain of death. Despite this command, Lisandro disguises himself as Friar Anthony, Leonida's confessor, in order to visit her. In this same disguise, he hoodwinks Nicanor into confessing his nefarious plans for the Princess. Leonida and Lisandro meet, and all seems well until Loretta lets slip the 'Friar's' true identity to Nicanor's servant, Scanfardo. Lisandro and Leonida are caught and put on trial for treason, each insisting that the other is completely innocent of wrongdoing. When the question cannot be proved, the trial turns to an effort to decide whether men or women are more at fault for temptation. Lisandro is devastated when women are found guilty and Leonida is sentenced to death while he himself receives only a sentence of banishment. He convinces his guards to allow him to see Leonida's executed 'body' and, convinced that she is indeed dead, tries to kill himself. He is rescued by Atlanta, who has in fact also rescued Leonida, and in the end both are restored to life and happiness, presented to the repentant King Atticus in the guises of Palemon and Claribell, and blessed in their marriage.


Lisauro is the brother of Ismenia and son of Bellides in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill. He and his kinsman Tirso quarrel with Antonio and Martine, of the rival Julio clan, but Ismenia and Aminta end the fight by standing between them. In a later scene, Lisauro encourages Vertigo to behave like a lord in order to gull Franio.


Lisimachus is the son of Cassander, Epire's lord protector in Shirley's Coronation. Lisimachus is favored by Sophia and is expected to be her chosen mate. But when she becomes queen absolute and instead chooses Arcadius, Lisimachus says that he feels no dishonor. Lisimachus is an honorable noble, offering his services to Arcadius when the latter is deposed by Seleucus.


An honest shepherd, father to Alexis in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort. He entreats Gisbert to consider his son's suit for his daughter Urania and is disappointed when he learns that Urania is betrothed to Lucius (disguised as Lisander). He attempts to mediate between Cosmo and Gisbert but the former rejects his efforts and Gisbert is forced to seek legal remedy in King Ferdinand's court.


Servant to Philogano in Gascoigne's The Supposes.


The Litter-Man in Brome's The Sparagus Garden brings Tim Hoyden, dressed in women's clothes, to Striker's house to take part in the final denouement.


A courtier in Ferdiand's court in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort; he refuses to entertain Gisbert's lawful suit against the newly installed senator Lucius.


Conjured by Merlin to play prestidigitatory tricks on the Clown in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father.


A "ghost character" in Greene's George a Greene. Scarlet describes himself as second only to Little John among Robin's followers. When Robin orders Scarlet and Much to find bats (staffs) to take with them to seek out George a Greene, Much says he will take Little John's.
Only mentioned in Peele's Edward I. When the Welsh rebels decide to assume the roles of figures from the Robin Hood legend, Rice ap Meredith is titled Little John.
Little John is Robin's servant and best friend in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. He is with Robin when the latter discovers he has been banished, and helps him plan his escape, counseling him to restrain his grief lest he upset Marian. Little John attempts to remove Robin's goods, claiming that they are his own while Warman and the Sheriff insist that they be allowed to inspect the box containing them. Little John fights with the Watch and knocks them down, but before anything else can happen, Prince John arrives and allows Little John to go free. Little John then helps Robin rescue Scarlet and Scathlock. After Robin decides to become an outlaw, Little John announces a list of articles they should follow. When Doncaster arrives to arrest them, Little John helps Robin fight him off, and later is with Robin when Ely enters the forest and is discovered. Little John meets with Richard, who is searching for Robin, and when he recognizes Little John, he rewards him immediately with a hundred marks a year and the title of squire. Little John is "played" by Eltham, who breaks character twice during the play, first to complain to Skelton/Friar Tuck about his tendency to fall into Skeltonian rhyme and second to complain that the play contains none of the traditional merry jests or songs associated with Robin Hood. (See also "ELTHAM").
Little John is the servant and close friend of Robin Hood in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. He is hunting with Robin and King Richard and is sent by Richard to seek Scarlet and Tuck so they may help track a deer Richard has been unable to kill. He is not present for Robin's death, but presumably goes with Richard on crusade, as Richard promises that all Robin's men shall go with him.


Little Pricke (also called just Little) is a little fairy in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. She, when she sees a girl sleeping, peeps underneath her frock to play there, and then she bites her like a flea, and skips about. She appears singing and dancing in the forest, with Penny and Cricket, before Mopso, Frisco and Ioculo. She also offers them music and invites them to dance. The boys are also reluctant at the beginning, but they end up singing and dancing with the three fairies.


Littlegood is an usurer by trade and is married to Mistress Fondling in Marmion's A Fine Companion. He gives in to Fondling's demand that their son Lackwit be allowed to sow a few wild oats; the result is that his son unwittingly brings about the marriage of Aemilia to Careless, when Littlegood would have instead wed his daughter to Dotario.


A "fictional character" in Cavendish & Shirley's Country Captain. Dorothy pretends that he is a wealthy knight from an old family, and claims in a phony letter to Sir Richard that he is her long-lost father.


One of the gamesters in Shirley's The Gamester. He agrees with Hazard that it would be counter-productive to try to rescue Beaumont from the Officers' custody–his friends and him retire to the tavern instead. There, he is bewildered to receive a barrage of oral abuse from the inarticulate Young Barnacle. He takes part in the gambling at the ordinary, losing heavily. He then assists Hazard, taking part in the savage "taming" of Young Barnacle. Later, he co-witnesses the joining of hands of Hazard and Penelope.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Littleton is mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he is explaining to Sir Cupid Phantsy that he can see he is getting worse, and, thus, he is going to put him on a 'reading' diet: "I prescribe you Littleton's Tenures to read in French, with Lambarde's Justice of Peace, Dalton, Crompton, and Fitzherbert, Pulton's Statutes, and Coke's Reports." Sir Thomas Littleton (1407?-1481), a lawyer of the Inner Temple in London, was the author of the Tenures, a complete survey of English land laws.


Family name of John and Win in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair.


A reputed wit in Nabbes' Covent Garden. He first appears with Hugh and Jeffrey Jerker, never speaking a word. Later Mistress Tongall tries to match him up with Lady Worthy, and brings him to Dungworthy after the latter expresses a desire to meet some city wits. All Littleword does is silently write in his table-book, leading Dasher to believe that he is a spy. He speaks only one word the entire play: "No", spoken when Dungworth asks him whether he will inform against Dasher.


A “ghost character" in Ruggle’s Club Law. Though mentioned in the dramatis personae and in the text, he does not actually appear on stage. One of the twenty-four Electors for the Burgomastership. He is not at the roll call of electors and is fined.


The son of Sir Thomas Littleworth in Cartwright's The Ordinary, he hopes to be revenged on Sir Simon for putting his father in prison and to gain the hand of Mrs. Jane. In order to do so, he has taken on the disguise of Meane-well and pretends to be a confidence trickster like Heare-say and Slicer. He arranges to marry Priscilla off to Andrew and to disabuse Sir Thomas of his belief that Shape is really a confessor, among other things, finally throwing off his disguise and his former companions as he has intended to do all along.


Littleworth is a foppish suitor to Lady Bornwell in Shirley's The Lady of Pleasure . He assists Kickshaw in tutoring Frederick to become a fop. He loses a war of words with Celestina. While drunk, he falls into the Thames and appears on stage soaking wet.


A "ghost character" in Cartwright's The Ordinary. Littleworth's father, he is in prison for debt and therefore does not appear in the play.


A mute character in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Little Tracy is one of the actors in the frame story, a boy who is to play Marian. He is reprimanded by Skelton for leaping about like a boy when he should be acting like a lady. (See also "MIRIAN").


Liturgus, faithful servant to Philogonus in (?)Johnson's Misogonus. He informs his master of Misogonus' wild life but consoles him by saying that Misogonus will mend his ways some day. When Philogonus learns that Misogonus has a twin brother, it is Liturgus he sends from Laurentum to Apollonia in search of the twin. After Liturgus returns with Eugonus and the latter is received by Philogonus as his heir, Liturgus talks Misogonus into seeking his father's pardon. Liturgus is the voice of reconciliation for Philogonus' family.


Livebyhope is not one of the Passions but seems instead a good civil servant in Strode's The Floating Island. He first serves Prudentius, spying on the Passions when told and reporting their plot to Intellectus Agens. When Prudentius leaves The Floating Island, Livebyhope switches his allegiance to Fancie. He offers her a crown of feathers, the only one she finds acceptable, and she makes him Master of Requests. Livebyhope presents a masque of Morpheus that insults the Passions but pleases Fancie, who gives him monopolies. He is then wounded by Audax and Irato and rescued by Intellectus Agens. When Fancie thinks Livebyhope is dead, she is ready to commit suicide, and Livebyhope declares that her grief has hurt him, but there is no formal suggestion by Prudentius that they should unite. Livebyhope returns to serving Prudentius.


An old merry fellow of eighty in Hausted’s Rival Friends. He lives in the impropriate parsonage. He has the parsonage for his lifetime and means to cheat Sacrilege Hook and the parasites from getting it. He will drink sack to stay healthy and outlive them all. For a joke he names Hook his heir and falls down as if dead. He rises again as Hook is having the bell tolled for him, laughs at Hook’s covetousness, and says he will change his will. Both Lucius and Neander have asked Lively to win Pandora for the other, but because Lively most favors Lucius, he tells Neander to pretend to marry another girl so Lucius might believe himself free to marry Pandora. When Stipes finds Constantina disguised as a boy, Bully Lively takes the boy on as his gentleman servant. He discovers that it is Constantina looking for her Cleopes and promises to help. He tells Neander that this is a boy dressed as a girl and has them contract marriage before a vicar in furtherance of his plan. When Neander discovers that he has married a woman in earnest, he threatens Lively with a sword. After Neander discloses that he is Cleopes and embraces the match with Constantina, he forgives and thanks Lively.


Also spelled Leverpool in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho. A trickster ("cony-catcher"), friend of Tom Chartley, companion of Doll Hornet. He and Chartley disguise as Doll's servants to make her victims believe that she is a gentlewoman. Together with Chartley and Philip he accompanies Maybery's party to Ware.


These two functional characters' only contribution to the plot and theme of Middleton's Michaelmas Term occurs when they attest to Quomodo's enrichment through "shifts" and "cozenages."


The daughter of Prisius in Lyly's Mother Bombie. Livia is in love with Candius and is determined to choose her own husband despite her father's contrary wishes. Livia is poor but practical, and otherwise a dutiful daughter. Forced by her father to eschew any contact with Candius, she is further made to take up weaving instead of sewing, in the vain hope that she will then have no time to dwell on thoughts of Candius. While her father plots to marry her to Memphio's more wealthy but foolish son Accius, Livia and Candius, at the bidding of the clever servants (Dromio, Riscio, Lucio, and Halfpenny), dress as Accius and Silena and trick the unwitting approval of their marriage from their fathers. They subsequently marry but keep their marriage a secret until their fathers confront them. The fathers, powerless to oppose the marriage, extend their forgiveness to Candius and Livia and their blessing for the match at the end of the play.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet who is invited to the Capulet feast.

LIVIA **1603

Livia, wife to Drusus Senior, daughter-in-law to Tiberius in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall. She conspires with Sejanus to poison her husband. Sejanus asks to marry Livia, but the Emperor fears that such a marriage would bring Sejanus too close to the throne. At play's end Sejanus' wife is reported to be preparing to testify against Livia as well as against Eudemus (the physician who mixes the poison that killed Drusus Senior) and Lygdus (the eunuch cup bearer that administered the poison).


Livia, Drucius Tiberius' wife; Tiberius' daughter-in-law; sister to Nero, Drusus, and Caligula (the Germanici); daughter to Germanicus and Agrippina in the anonymous Tragedy of Tiberius. She is seduced by Sejanus in his bid to usurp her father-in-law's throne. She appears near play's end and drowns herself in a well.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Livia is Caesar's wife. Cleopatra excuses holding back some of her treasure as gifts for Livia and Octavia.
A "ghost character" in May's Cleopatra. Wife of Caesar. He speaks her name in an aside as he tries to pull himself together against the charms of Cleopatra.

LIVIA **1611

Maria's sister and Biancha's cousin in Fletcher's The Woman's Prize, Livia loves Rowland but is promised to elderly Moroso by Petronious, her controlling father. She rejects Rowland's invitation to elope and is accused of acquiescing to marrying Moroso for his money. When she decides to join Maria and Biancha's protest against the men, they refuse to admit her at first, but then they let her in, further alienating the impressionable Rowland. Rowland rejects her outright, but the two are reunited and secretly married through the connivance of Biancha and Tranio.

LIVIA **1621

Livia is a wicked woman in Middleton's Women Beware Women. She is a "hobby" pander and bawd. She leads both Bianca and Isabella into sinful assignations with the Duke (Bianca) and her own brother, Hippolito (Isabella). She puts Bianca in a position for the Duke to rape her during the famous chess scene wherein she distracts Bianca's guardian (the widow, Leantio's mother) while the Duke seduces the girl.. She lies to Isabella, her own niece, off-handedly smearing the honor of Isabella's mother (Livia's sister-in-law, who is dead), convincing her that she is not in blood related to Hippolito and so encouraging the incestuous liaison. Livia has no scruples about murdering her own niece in revenge for the death of her lover, Leantio. She murders Isabella by dropping molten gold upon her while playing Juno in a masque. She is in turn murdered by Isabella, who burns poisoned incense beneath her while she descends from above


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as Britannicus's ancestor.


One of judge All For Money's suitors in Lupton's All For Money. Sir Laurence Livingless is an ignorant and worldly priest who, when examined by the Bishop, was deposed from all his benefices and livings. He succeeds in becoming the chaplain of All For Money, who will also give Sir Laurence Livingless letters to produce at visitations to prevent being discharged.


‘An old servant in black velvet, and in long-thick short-white gray hairs, His character’ in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. He first appears in act four, attending the party of Rhodaghon , Fulvia, and Jeptes where he is sent ahead in the woods to discover how far ahead Tremelio’s huntsmen might be. He returns an hour later with news that they have all returned home.


Livio, a follower of Ferdinand in Massinger's The Maid of Honor.


Livio is the brother of the heroine Castamela and the friend of the Marquis's nephew Troylo-Savelli in Ford's The Fancies Chaste and Noble. At the opening of the play, the Marquis makes him Master of the Horse, although Livio has some fears that he may be called upon to prostitute Castamela in exchange. Nevertheless, he asks Romanello to cease his courtship of her on the grounds that he cannot really afford to marry and agrees to let Castamela be taken by Troylo-Savelli to join the Bower of Fancies. However, he is horrified when he thinks that Castamela has been corrupted there and tries to persuade Romanello to marry her after all. When Romanello declines, Livio goes to tell the Marquis that he resigns his post and to challenge Troylo-Savelli. However, Troylo-Savelli calms him and persuades him that all will be revealed before bedtime. On this basis he goes to invite Julio, Flavia and Romanello to supper, at which the Marquis reveals the chaste truth about the Fancies and gives Livio Clarella for his wife.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Livy (64? BC–AD 17) was one of the great historians of imperial Rome. His great history, in 142 books, tells the story of Rome from the earliest years until 9 AD. Livy did not see history in political terms. Rather, he emphasized personalities, events, and the glories of the past. Livy preferred literary effectiveness to historical accuracy. Thus, his narrative of Rome from its founding is more like a prose epic, a series of splendid pictures, than history. At his house, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw pronounces one of his sententious maxims, saying that, when he praises sweet modesty, he praises sweet beauty's eyes. Promptly, Clerimont pretends to identify the dictum as originating from one of the great philosophers. Daw denies it, saying that these are his own creations, and he shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. Daw calls Thucydides and Livy tedious and dry authors. Daw adds that he utters wise aphorisms every hour and, if only they were collected, he would become equally famous.


Lizaro is a volunteer soldier under General Castracagnio in the Duke of Tuscany's army in Davenant's The Siege. Lizaro and Ariotto frequently mistake Soranzo for a fellow volunteer and often corner him in tedious, humorously inappropriate conversations. Lizaro and Ariotto are extorted out of their pay first by Captain Piracco, then by the captain's ensign Mervole. The two men are particularly humiliated on those occasions when they are accosted in public. They ask Mervole to sign a sheet of paper promising that he will not reveal their relationship in public, nor will he label the men cowards. Lizaro and Ariotto win their freedom by appearing to fight enthusiastically against one another as the doubles in Soranzo's duel with the Mervole. After that display, Mervole respects the pair. Lizaro, Ariotto, Mervole and settle their accounts peacefully and join forces to gain up on Piracco. They rob him of everything he has, including his shirt. At the end of the play, they report his abuse of power to General Castracagnio.


Isabella? Annabella? An abbreviation of Bellamira? A character from the badly deteriorated plot of the anonymous 2 Fortune's Tennis. Because of the state of decay, nothing more can be deduced regarding the character's function in the otherwise lost play.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


Llwellen is the Prince of Wales, father to Sydanen in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. He has promised his daughter to Moorton, though she had been secretly betrothed to Sir Griffin. On the night before the weddings, Llwellen appears at the house where the bridegrooms are lodged only to find that the ladies have disappeared. Hearing that the ladies have been abducted by their lovers and taken to Gosselin's castle, Llwellen wants to assault the castle and kill Sir Griffin and Powesse. Eventually, Llwellen accepts John a Cumber's help to retrieve the ladies. At the castle, Llwellen arrives as the First Antique in a masque arranged by John a Cumber to gain entrance into the castle. After John a Cumber's party has gained power over the castle, Llwellen appears with his daughter and the bridegroom of his choice. On the lawn before Gosselin's castle, Chester, Llwellen, Pembrooke, and Moorton prepare to attend the play John a Cumber has arranged for them. When John a Kent arrives disguised as John a Cumber and asks these lords to act as themselves in the play, they agree thinking this is part of the wedding fun. They are unaware that the ladies and their lovers also act as themselves in the play. In the revelation scene, Llwellen witnesses how all misunderstandings are cleared and how, by his cunning, John a Kent has expunged John a Cumber's offense. At Chester Abbey, just before the weddings of Sydanen to Moorton and of Marian to Pembrooke are to be celebrated, Llwellen and his party expect the bridegrooms. Llwellen attends and approves unwittingly the marriages of Sydanen to Sir Griffin (disguised as Moorton) and of Marian to Powesse (disguised as Pembrooke). Faced with the fait accompli of his daughter's marriage to Sir Griffin, Llwellen has no choice but to consent.


Resenting the English domination of the Welsh in Peele's Edward I, Prince Lluellen is the leader of an uprising against Edward. Although he genuinely loves Elinor de Montfort, daughter of Simon de Montfort, Lluellen courts her in part because he realizes that some disaffected English nobles may support him because he is allied to the daughter of one of the chief reform figures of the Barons' War. His party, including Elinor, Rice ap Meredith, Friar Hugh ap David, and others, takes to the mountains to await the gathering of rebel forces, and the group passes the time playing the roles of various figures from the Robin Hood legend, with Lluellen himself assuming the role of Robin. He is ultimately defeated by English forces under the command of Mortimer, Earl of March, and his head is sent to Edward as a token of victory.


Loach is the churchwarden who sides with the Sexton in arguing that the penniless Jack should not be buried at the expense of the parish in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale. The burial goes forward when Eumenides gives all his meager funds to underwrite the funeral.

LOB **1561

A clownish countryman in Preston's Cambises, who along with Hob, gossips and complains of the King's cruelty, only to be overheard by Ambidexter. He is tricked by Ambidexter into fighting with his friend Hob, but is saved when Marian-May-Be-Good, Hob's wife, enters, beats and eventually chases off Ambidexter.

LOB **1596

Nickname first fairy uses for Puck (Robin Goodfellow) in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. She refers to him as "Lob of Spirits."


Only mentioned in Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. A giant and child of a witch.

LOBSON **1599

One of the twenty-four Electors for the Burgomastership in Ruggle’s Club Law.


Loceus is a "ghost character" in Daniel's Philotas. According to Dymnus, Loceus is part of a plot to kill Alexander.


Only mentioned in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus. Henry Locke (Lok), a religious poet, is dismissed by Iudicio to well-earned obscurity.


The Third Neighbor of Lovewit is a locksmith in Jonson's The Alchemist. He attests to the strange comings and goings at Lovewit's house. When Lovewit asks the Third Neighbor about his trade, he says he is a locksmith, and he promises Lovewit to go presently and fetch his tools to break the door open. When the Third Neighbor returns with his tools, he is told that they are no longer needed, because Jeremy has answered the door. See also NEIGHBORS, FORTY COMPLAINING.


Son of Brutus, brother of Camden and Albanact in the anonymous Locrine. According to his father's and his uncle Corineus' wish he must marry his cousin, Gwendoline, and he wins the crown. When he has won the battle against Humber, he meets Estrild and falls in love immediately. He promises her marriage, although he is already married to Gwendoline. Although she is married to Humber (whom she believes dead), she accepts his proposal. His uncle (Gwendoline's father) Corineus and his brother Camden warn him against the marriage. He builds for Estrild a subterranean palace in a cave, with walls of precious stones, where he visits her as long as Corineus lives. After seven years, when Corineus has died and Gwendoline goes to her father's funeral in Cornwall, he takes Estrild together with Sabren, their daughter, to his palace. But Gwendoline and her brother Thrasimachus swear revenge. They attack Locrine with their army, and Locrine loses the battle. He kills himself and Estrild follows him, using the same sword.
Only mentioned in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. A former king of Britain, mentioned in the Bards' song in act II.


Only mentioned in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. Latin form of Locrine. A former king of Britain, mentioned in the Bards' song in act II.


Locuples is a rich suitor of Dorothea in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. He tries to seduce her with seductive letters, but she refuses him. The letters are read by Hobab, who admires Dorothea's chastity. We then see Locuples accost Dorothea in person, but she still refuses him. At this point, he realizes that sailors' wives are not as bawdy as he'd assumed, and begs "a gracious pardon for my bad opinion."


Locusta is employed by Nero in May's Julia Agrippina to poison Britannicus.


Master Lodam is a fat man in James Shirley's The Wedding, who competes with Rawbone for the attentions of Justice Landby's daughter Jane. Challenged by Rawbone to a duel, Lodam loses the challenge and any hope of claiming Jane.


Family name of John and Lady Lodestone in Jonson's The Magnetic Lady.


A gentle and tolerant woman in Jonson's The Magnetic Lady. She has enlisted Compass's aid in gathering together a selection of suitors for her niece, Placentia, the daughter of her dead sister and brother-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Steele. Her brother, the miser Sir Moth Interest, is withholding her niece's estate as long as she remains unmarried. She prefers the lawyer, Practice, but is dismayed when Polish announces that he is pre-contracted to her daughter, Pleasance. After the quarrel between Captain Ironside and Sir Diaphanous Silkworm, she retires to her room, distraught, and is unaware of Placentia's labor and delivery. She comes out to hear Sir Moth Interest's accusation that Compass has fathered a child on Placentia, but is pleased when Compass tells her that he has married Pleasance, who is her real niece. She tells Sir Moth that she can't accuse Placentia when there's no evidence of a child; moreover, there are no witnesses to the birth willing to admit to it. Once everything is sorted out, however, she offers herself in marriage to Captain Ironside, in gratitude for his help in pressuring Sir Moth Interest into giving the inheritance to Pleasance.


A "ghost character" in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. Lord Lodevico Caesar has the chief charge of the Portuguese battalions–the fourth legion that consists solely of Portuguese soldiers.


Master of the debtor's prison where Staines is detained in Cooke's Greene's Tu Quoque. Lodge reverses the stereoptypical image of the prison keeper; despite making his charges beg for scraps (which he equates to earning a living), he is not malevolent and views his role in didactic terms. For instance, he is overjoyed when he is able to release Spendall after he repents his crime, viewing his reformation in allegorical terms as typographically related to mankind's fall and eventual redemption through Christ.


Only mentioned in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus. Lodge's medical degree and practice, and his imitation of Lyly, are offered as grounds for the relatively low esteem in which Iudicio holds his work.


Lodovica, one of the four Wenches in the anonymous Wit of a Woman, is daughter to Ferio and sister to Rinaldo. She flirts with Filenio when he is disguised as a doctor. In what is clearly an authorial slip, she is then apparently wooed by Ferio, but tricks him and finishes the play married to one of the gallants: presumably, to Filenio. N.b. The four Wenches are Erinta, Gianetta, Isabella, and Lodovica.


Lodovico is Lorenzo's nephew and the main actor in much of the action in Chapman's May Day. As Aurelio's friend, he assists in his suit of Aemilia. Though both flee from their first arranged encounter, Lodovico sets up a second at Aemilia's home while her father will be away. He baits Lorenzo, disguised as a chimney sweep on his way to Franceschina's home, and encourages Honorio to join him. He then facilitates the lovers' meeting. Later, when Temperance mistakes him for Leonoro, he attempts to make love to Lucretia who draws a rapier and assaults him. When Leonoro challenges him at Honorio's party, he offers his version of events. As his various machinations are revealed to all, he blames those whose plots he aided and then says Temperance trained him in all his skills.


Kinsman of Brabantio in Shakespeare's Othello. He travels to Cyprus with a message from the Duke of Venice instructing Othello to return and leave Cassio in charge of Cyprus. He is shocked when he sees Othello strike Desdemona. He recovers letters from Roderigo's pockets that incriminate Iago.


Lodovico is the simple revenger in Webster's The White Devil. He has his motives (he loved Isabella; he is Francisco's hired man; he is angry for being banished) and he carries out his vengeance. He succeeds along with his co-conspirators (Gasparo, Carlo, and Pedro) in killing Flamineo, Vittoria, and Zanche. He his killed while attempting to escape Hortensio and his militia.


Lodovico is husband to Dorothea in Davenport's The City Night Cap. In Act One, being asked about his wife, he says that she stays at home with his servant. On this respect, he says that he invited an English gentleman to his house the other day and that she had shown him very modest and proper respect at home. However, when Lodovico finds Francisco in his chamber, he is confused and does not know what to do. Instead of punishing the offender, he appoints him his Steward. But, to find out the truth, he decides to take the disguise of Father Anthony to hear his wife in confession. Also, he has a project: he wants to write down his wife's virtues and send a letter to the Duke of Verona to advise him to choose the right wife. Later, in Act Four, his wife tells him about her dream and so Lodovico sends her to the Monastery of the Matrons, where she is going to spend the rest of her life.


Lodovico is an Arragonian nobleman and a close friend to General Velasco in ?Ford's The Queen. He mocks Alphonso's sycophantic followers, but seems to support Velasco's pleas for Alphonso's life. He appears more disturbed by Velasco's unmanly adoration of Salassa than by Alphonso's ascendancy as King. To keep Velasco from dying for love, he visit Salassa to ask her receive his friend. However, he shows his own leanings toward misogyny when he openly accuses Salassa of feminine levity, cruelty and looseness. In all his dealings with women he behaves as a blunt soldier might, dismissing "compliment" and deriding women as "frail commodities." Hence, he is utterly horrified and ashamed when Velasco suddenly renounces all fighting at Salassa's request and submits to the insults of Alphonso and his follwers. Revolted by Alphonso's behaviour, Lodovico openly describes him as "the scourge of Arragon" in the Queen's hearing. He then determines to bring Velasco back from the brink of cowardly degradation, demanding that Salassa release the general from his vow. When Salassa fails in her attempt and is condemned to death as a traitor by Collumello and Almada, Lodovico declares the sentence just. He colludes with Herophil to punish Bufo and helps to goad Velasco into returning to his martial duty. Having played these important roles in bringing about the play's happy ending, he is rewarded with the hand of Herophil; his comments on the occasion suggest that he, like Alphonso, has abandoned his former misogyny.


A courtier loyal to Queen Eulalia in Brome's The Queen and Concubine. At her trial, he expresses the disgust for the King and sympathy for the Queen that many of the courtiers feel. His friendship with Horatio is strained by the latter's sycophancy. Disguised, he accompanies Eulalia's fool, Andrea, into the wilderness in search of her. On witnessing her curing of the Palermian refugees, he venerates her as a saint and offers to help her do the good work of rescuing her native land. He informs the Curate of Eulalia's true identity and guards her constantly, sending a letter of entreaty to the King. When King Gonzago and Alinda visit, Lodovico finds it impossible to resist voicing his hatred of Alinda, and is arrested at the King's order, but released when the King pardons Eulalia.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Guicciardini is mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he is giving Sir Cupid Phantsy a possible cure for his disease: "and when you read, read Guicciardini or our Speed's chronicle." Lodovico Guicciardini (1521-1589) was a Florentine historian, author of–among other historical works–Storia d'Italia (1561), translated by George Fenton as The Historiae of Guicciardini (1579).


Lodovico is a courtier attached to Count Hippolito in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore. Because he has such a wide circle of acquaintance (with Hippolito's gentlemen, Candido the draper, and even the Duke of Milan) he frequently is a catalyst for the action of the play. Believing that Candido's Bride may be as much a shrew as the first wife (Viola of Part One), Lodovico arranges to help Candido tame her. Disguised as a new apprentice in the shop, Lodovico encourages the draper to cross his new wife, often aiding him in the process. The taming sequence is cut short, however, when the Bride surprises everyone with the announcement that she has no desire to wear the breeches in the marriage, and she submits to her husband. Later, Lodovico attempts to help his friend Matheo by providing him with satin for a new suit, and Matheo's refusal to pay the tailor further indicates the unreliable nature of Bellafront's husband. Finally, the Duke employs Lodovico in arranging some of the components of the final scene in which all the confusions may be settled. It is Lodovico who accompanies the Constable in the arrest of Matheo and the search of his house, and it is Lodovico who informs Hippolito that Bellafront has been arrested for prostitution, thus sending the count to the prison to correct this injustice.


Like Sextorio, he betrays the usurped King of Lydia in Act One of T.D.'s The Bloody Banquet. In Act Four, Armatrites declares that as Lodovicus was once a lawyer, he cannot be trusted to obey an instruction. However, he is ordered to take part in the quartering of Tymethes' body and display it to the Queen of Cicilia. He duly carries out these grisly orders.


See also LODWICK and related spellings.


Lodowick is the son of Ferneze in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. He meets Mathias just after Abigail enters the nunnery and his curiosity is aroused by Mathias' description of her beauty. After Abigail has left the nunnery, Lodowick approaches Barabas and expresses his interest. Barabas pretends that he is willing to give her to Lodowick, and has Abigail flirt with him and lead him on, until Lodowick asks for her hand in marriage. Once Abigail is engaged to both Mathias and Lodowick, Barabas sends a forged challenge to both, and they meet and fight to the death.


Lodowick is King Edward's secretary in the anonymous King Edward III. After the rescue of the Countess of Salisbury, he recognizes that Edward has fallen in love with her and fears this will disrupt the plans for war. Edward enlists his aid to write love poetry (although without openly stating who the poem is for), but Lodowick upsets Edward with his continual focus on chastity. Later, Lodowick delivers a message to Edward from the Countess that she wishes to see him, causing Edward instantly to abandon his plans to invade France.


Lodowick is Hastings' servant in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. Lodowick informs Mrs. Shore that her husband Edward IV has died and that Richard; Duke of Gloucester has been named Lord Protector. Lodowick's lands had previously been restored to him due to Mrs. Shore's intervention. Lodowick offers Mrs. Shore safe haven at his estate, but rescinds the offer after Richard III commands that she be left to starve without comfort or aid.


When the king of France leaves on a pilgrimage to Palestine in the anonymous Weakest Goeth to the Wall, he leaves France to be ruled jointly by Mercury, the Duke of Anjou and Lodowick, who has just become Duke of Bullen. The Duke of Anjou murdered the previous Duke of Bullen and also, as he believes, Lodowick's baby son, Frederick. Lodowick laments the king's decision but, out of loyalty to the king, accepts it. When Mercury feigns repentance for what he has done to Lodowick's family, Lodowick embraces him. Mercury leaves immediately on some business. When two petitioners ask Lodowick for a patent for their recent help in defeating the English, Lodowick says all such decisions can only be made jointly by him and Anjou. The petitioners reveal that Anjou has hired a vast army to invade Burgundy (Bullen). After granting the petitioners' suit, Lodowick leaves to protect his wife and daughter whom he has left behind. Lodowick orders the citizens to take up arms to defend themselves. A messenger persuades Lodowick to flee. Incognito, he and his family go to Flanders and the house of Jacob. Time passes and Jacob shows Lodowick how much the latter owes him. Lodowick is poor and asks for time to pay. Jacob refuses, demanding that Lodowick leave the house but leave behind his wife and daughter as surety. Bunch offers all his money to Jacob on Lodowick's behalf but it is not nearly enough. Lodowick leaves, planning to cross to London where he will earn enough money to rescue his wife and family. Lodowick reaches Picardy and meets Sir Nicholas, the local vicar, who is reading a letter in Latin. Hearing Latin, Lodowick addresses the vicar in Latin, and asks for some relief. Sir Nicholas who likes plain language reprimands Lodowick for using Latin and inkhorn terms. Lodowick laments that these days everyone is suspicious of a man who is poor, that the weakest go to the wall. Sir Nicholas offers him the job of parish sexton and gravedigger, explaining that though it will not pay much, it will provide him with a rent-free house. Lodowick accepts. Ferdinand, Odillia and Bunch arrive at the village and meet Lodowick dressed as a sexton. Ferdinand asks Lodowick, as a representative of the church, to arrange for him to marry Odillia. Sir Nicholas the vicar agrees to perform the ceremony. Alone with Bunch, whom he recognizes, Lodowick discovers that his wife and daughter have set out for London to find him. When, after marrying, Ferdinand must leave for France to become a soldier in the wars, Lodowick agrees to look after Odillia in his small cottage. Sir Nicholas persuades Lodowick to read a paper that will be read in all churches in France, offering a reward to anyone who can find Duke Lodowick (with Anjou's treachery exposed, all Lodowick's lands and property are to be returned to him). Lodowick the sexton says that he knows where Lodowick the duke is, and consequently must leave, persuading Sir Nicholas to let Bunch replace him as sexton. Odillia reveals to him that she is in fact the daughter of Emmanuel, Duke of Brabant. Lodowick responds that, unhappy as Odillia is, his wife and daughter are even less happy in London. He will not send for them yet, though, because his first duty is to his country that is being invaded by the Spanish. In the battle between the Spanish and French armies the Spaniards are defeated and Duke Lodowick, who challenged the Hernando, the Spanish general, to single combat and killed him, is a hero. Epernon thanks Lodowick allows Lodowick to deal with Anjou, as he wishes. Lodowick says he'll leave all decision about Anjou to the king when he returns. He then asks Epernon to identity the brave gentleman who killed Don Ugo. Discovering that it was Ferdinand, Lodowick, remembering Ferdinand from when he left Odillia in his trust, knights him. In rage, Brabant insults Ferdinand, saying that this is the man who has run off with his daughter. He wants Ferdinand tried. Lodowick agrees to stand bail for him. When they are alone Lodowick identifies himself to Ferdinand as the sexton of Ards, explaining that he can vouch for Ferdinand and Odillia's marriage and that he has sent for Odillia to protect Ferdinand from her father's anger. Lodowick and Epernon both try to dissuade Brabant from having Ferdinand executed. Brabant accuses Lodowick of wanting to destroy the justice system. Brabant describes the lowly circumstances in which he found Ferdinand. Lodowick recognizes in the description his own lost son, even down to the F embroidered on his clothes. In which case, Brabant's indictment fails because Ferdinand is the son of a prince, and Brabant accepts Frederick as his own son. Accompanied by Oriana and Diana, Villiers the merchant brings a suit to Lodowick. Lodowick recognizes his wife and daughter but says he will not identify himself until he sees what the suit is about. Villiers describes how he looked after the two women well when their boat was wrecked off Rochelle and how Oriana had agreed to marry him when she became a widow. Although he has a document calling her a widow, she has refused to marry him. Oriana describes how she had lived in the house of the Duke of Bulloigne, but now, a weak person, she has gone to the wall. Lodowick declares who he is and reveals that Oriana and Diana now have a son and brother (Frederick/Ferdinand). Villiers is delighted. A messenger announces that the king has returned from the Holy Land. Lodowick is glad because the king can now sentence Anjou. Time helps the weak who have been thrust to the walls, he announces.


Lodowick is the son of the Duke of Saxony and is in love with Lucybel in Chettle's Hoffman. Hoffman, disguised as a monk, convinces Lodowick that Ferdinand lusts after Lucybel and, thus, wants Lodowick dead. Adopting a Greek disguise provided by Hoffman, he runs away with Lucybel. His brother Mathias, thinking that a Greek lover has run off with his brother's bride, kills him.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's All's Well. A commander in the Florentine army.


Lodowick is a gentleman in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped. He vows to help his friend Valentius conquer Flora. Julio tricks him into lending him money. Lodowick and Tomaso help Valentius by presenting him to Vanderman as a lunatic. This done, the gallants go to the Leaguer, and get so drunk that Julio tricks them into thinking they have eaten a banquet. He, Stultissimo and Lodowick tell the sergeants to arrest Julio. Julio escapes, but when they later see him with Arbaces and soldiers, they decide to follow him. They are furious when they see Fransiscus arrested by Arbaces.


The disguise assumed by Duke Vincentio in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure that allows him to observe Angelo's governance of Vienna while the Duke is believed absent.


An Italian ally of the French King in Barnes's The Devil's Charter. Lodowick recognizes that Rome, and as a result, all of Italy, has deteriorated into corruption because of the malignant reign of the present Pope, Alexander VI. He supports Charles VIII in his invasion of Italy and hopes to remove Alexander from the Vatican. When Charles's troops win the battle and are on the verge of occupying Rome, Lodowick encourages Charles to press forward with the attack and not negotiate with Alexander, But Charles believes that the Pope will honor his word and so he agrees to Alexander's terms for a truce. Lodowick honors the truce and salutes the Pope.


Lodowicke believes in using women rather than marrying them in Fletcher's The Captain. Along with Piso, he asks Lelia's father if he is Lelia's pander, retracting the saucy question quickly when Lelia's father beats Piso. He gets in trouble again when he and Piso warn Frederick that Franck is in love with Jacamo and mock Jacamo. Frederick forces Lodowicke and Piso to admit that they are rascals and refuses to be friends with them any longer. Despite Frederick's reaction, Lodowicke and Piso plot to make Jacamo drunk and lead him to Franck, where they expect him to disgrace himself. Lodowicke, Piso, and the Host fail to out-drink Jacamo, who reveals that he knew their plot and beats Lodowicke and Piso. Finally, Lelia's father tells Lodowicke that a rich, beautiful, young, and virtuous widow has fallen in love with him, and he sends him to procure all the necessary accoutrements for a wedding. When Lodowicke completes the preparations and returns, however, he discovers that Piso is the true groom, and Lodowicke is forced to bear the expense. He finds some relief, however, in the discovery that the widow is in fact the dishonest Lelia.


Lodwick is the wild and lascivious brother of the Duke of Savoy in Shirley's Grateful Servant. Wed to Astella, a virtuous and long-suffering woman whom he neglects, Lodwick tries to trick Astella into a forced divorce by asking Pietro to seduce her. He also believes Grimundo's promise of a chance at revelry with a lady, and he accompanies Grimundo to a grove where supposed satyrs play. All of Lodwick's ambitions are foiled by the play's end. In the grove he finds what he thinks is a shape-changing devil instead of an easy female conquest, and his friend Pietro fails to seduce Astella. Lodwick confesses his sins to the Abbot, promising a complete reform for the future.


Father to Dorigene in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids, Duke Earnest installs him as an Earl at his daughter's request. Despite protestations to the contrary, he encourages Frederick's suit for an unnamed Lady in Dorigene's service.


A ‘ghost character’ in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. Mentioned in the false letter that Rhodaghond writes in order to lure Tremelio out to see the assignation between Fulvia and Affranio. Loelio is apparently Affranios ‘quondam enemy’ from whom Tremelio desires to protect Affranio.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Epicoene. Lord Lofty is Lady Haughty's defunct father. When the foolish La-Foole narrates to Clerimont and Dauphine his lineage and life-exploits, he says that he was a younger son and was employed as a page to Lord Lofty. Later, he became Lady Haughty's gentleman-usher. The lady got him knighted in Ireland and, when his elder brother died, La-Foole came to the title.


Logick accompanies Peace in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.


Logicus gets into a fight with Melancholico in Holiday's Technogamia and afterwards seeks legal redress from Cavsidicus. Logicus is chided by Polites for spinning fantastic webs of logic, but settles down and becomes a useful civil servant although he refuses to marry, preferring the single life.


Logire is the pseudonym of Gerillo when he is impersonating a dancing-master in the anonymous Wit of a Woman.


A "ghost character" in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Lewis Loiterer is one of the individuals Merrygreek admits to having sponged from before taking up with Ralph Roister Doister.


One of Pennyboy Senior's dogs in Jonson's The Staple of News. It is put on mock-trial by his insane master for making messes.


Fulvia’s name in the earlier draft of Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium.


The wife of Prate the Orator in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. Lollia has aristocratic aspirations and allows her friend Collaquintida to serve as a go-between with Alphonso, a courtier who lusts after Lollia. Despite Lollia's complaints about her husband and his poor clothing, Prate arranges for her to watch the double combat from a good seat. When Prate is called to appear before the Senate, Lollia arranges an assignation with Alphonso. Prate returns home unexpectedly, spies Alphonso's extravagant clothing on Lollia's bed, and demands an explanation. When Lollia claims the rich suit is one she intended to buy for her husband, he wears it to the Senate. Alphonso confesses his attempted infidelity to the King; when Prate suspects his wife has been unfaithful, the King declares Lollia a chaste wife.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina. Lollia Paulina was formerly the wife of the Emperor Caligula and had hoped to marry Claudius. Agrippina therefore had her banished from Italy. During the action of the play, she sends servants to bring back Lollia Paulina's head, which they do.


Callimela's stupid brother in the anonymous Timon of Athens, a country clown. His father Philargurus has kept him away from the city and its luxury. On his way to the city for his sister's wedding he meets Gelasimus, Timon and his friends. They laugh about his rustic behavior, Gelasimus complains that he stinks of garlic. Lollio is crowned as a "prince" at Timon's bacchanalia (II.5), and he is proud that he may wear Hermogenes' cloak, Eutrapelus' hat, and Gelasimus' sword. He gets so drunk that he thinks he is Achilles, that Blatt is Hecuba, and that all the others are his Myrmidones.


Lollio is Alibius's comic servant, and the source of much 'low' humour in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling. He interrogates the newly arrived Antonio, and is asked by Alibius to guard Isabella, to prevent her from being seduced by gallants. When Isabella gets bored, Lollio takes her on a tour of the madhouse, but he is distracted by disturbances among the madmen, during which Antonio takes the opportunity to declare his love to Isabella. Lollio spots Antonio's second attempt at seduction. He tries to blackmail Isabella for sexual favors, but she discourages him by saying she'll ask Antonio to cut his throat. Isabella and Lollio then learn that the madman Franciscus is also a disguised gallant, when he sends her a love-letter. Lollio now thinks of Isabella as a curer of madmen, and assists her plan to 'cure' Antonio by lending the key to the wardrobe. After Isabella has bewildered Antonio, Lollio inspires further mayhem by telling both Antonio and Franciscus that Isabella will love them if they get rid of the other.


He is played by Sancho in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy. Lollio is a servant of Avero in the prodigal son play staged by the gypsies.


One of the plague-ravaged refugees from Palermo that Eulalia meets in Brome's The Queen and Concubine. He is among the men who prevent Eulalia's assassination and who help her arrange her new life in Palermo. They attempt to lynch Fabio and Strozzo, Eulalia's attempted assassins, but are prevented by her and are impressed when she wins their confession and allegiance. Upon learning that their beloved Holy Woman is in fact their Queen, they swear allegiance to her in spite of the King's proclamation (and against her wishes). He and Poggio resolve to be her bodyguards without her consent, and conduct a ludicrous trial of Flavello (disguised as "Alphonso"), but are prevented from lynching him by Eulalia.


Only mentioned in Cokain's Trappolin. The Mantuans are the enemy against whom Tuscany has just triumphed.


London is represented in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London by "a lady, very richly attired", accompanied by two Angels. She speaks the Preface to the play.


"Ghost characters" in the anonymous Arden of Feversham. Alice suggests they hire such men to murder Arden for his gold.


The disguise taken on by Carrack in Davenant's News From Plymouth in an attempt to win Cable.


Beech's landlord in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies. Awakened by the Neighbour's cries, he grieves over the murder of Winchester. He doesn't think that Beech could be guilty of such a deed and vows to begin investigating the murder in the morning. Later, four neighbours call upon Loney and ask him to report on Winchester's condition. He tells them that Winchester remains unconscious and so cannot provide them with any information. Loney and the Neighbours witness Winchester brought in on a chair with the hammer still in his head, and later are joined by Merry, who questions them about the boy's injuries. Later, Loney is asked by three Neighbours for further news concerning Winchester's health when the two Watermen arrive bearing Beech's head and legs. Loney and the Neighbours identify the remains as Beech's and reward the Watermen. They then greet a Gentleman and his Porter who bring in Beech's torso, which the Gentleman found while walking his dog. When Salter's man arrives, Loney and the Neighbours escort him from house to house in hopes that he can identify the maid to whom he sold the bag.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Caradoc compares Penia-Penniless with several great Amazons, including her.


Friend of Moll Cutpurse in Middleton and Dekker's Moll Cutpurse, The Roaring Girl. Sir Thomas and Sir Beauteous Ganymede overhear Ralph Trapdoor saying that Jack Dapper was being held for ransom for his gambling debts; they tell Moll, who saves him. Sir Thomas joins her, Jack Dapper, Sir Beauteous, and Lord Noland when they are accosted by Trapdoor and Tearcat disguised as poor soldiers and by the cutpurses. Moll explains to him and the others the practice of canting and the profession of cutting purses.


Longavile is a character in "The Triumph of Death," the third play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He appears in the wedding procession of Lavall and Hellena.


A loyal servant to Montaigne in Fletcher's The Honest Man's Fortune. Longavile pretends to be Duboys' enemy in order to take service with Amiens while continuing to serve Montaigne's interests. Longavile also effects the reconciliation between Orleans and Lady Orleans by pretending to shoot Orleans.


With Berowne and Dumaine, Longaville is a lord attending King Ferdinand and a member of the Academe that Ferdinand founds as Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost opens. As Ferdinand explains, the men will achieve an immortality of sorts, living on in the memories of future generations. Longaville agrees to adhere to Ferdinand's statutes, which bind the academics for a period of three years and include a vow to eschew the company of women. When the Princess of France arrives in Navarre, the men's vows are soon forgotten, and Longaville begins courting the princess' attendant Maria. At the end of the play Longaville, like the other men, agrees to resume his courtship after a year-long hiatus.


French lord at the court in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. He receives gifts from Andelocia. Later, he buys fruit (from the tree of Vice) from Andelocia and Shadow. Like Montrose, he grows horns. He agrees to give the disguised Andelocia all his money in exchange for the removal of his horns. Along with Montrose, he arrests Ampedo, Andelocia and Shadow.


He is one of Madam Marine's gallants in Fletcher's The Noble Gentleman. He assists her in her deception of her husband. He offers to help Maria trap Bewford into marriage in return for sexual favors, and witnesses their private marriage.


Only mentioned in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. Earl of Salisbury who founded a Carthusian monastery in 1222.


One of a number of attendants to the arriviste Bubbles in Cooke's Greene's Tu Quoque. Unlike Staines, who uses his position to gull his master, Longfield plays a significantly more reassuring role, being new to London society himself. He also acts as an agent of "liberty" when he informs Spendall that a wealthy widow (who he eventually marries) will ransom him out of debtor's prison.


A bandit in Shirley's The Sisters, follower of Frapolo. Longino and his comrade Strozzo hand over Piperollo to his parents, Fabio and Morulla, whom he had attempted to betray to the bandits.


Lucius Cassius Longinus is a patrician of senatorial rank and a member of Catiline's conspiracy in Jonson's Catiline. At Catiline's house, Longinus enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. Longinus and Lentulus accompany Catiline to the Senate. Since Catiline's plan has failed, and Cicero has been elected consul, Longinus and Lentulus express their dissatisfaction privately. After the plot was exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. Longinus and Statilus have the specific charge of starting the fire, prompted by a trumpet sounded in twelve places at once. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, Allobroges testify that they have letters signed by all the members of the conspiracy, except for Longinus, who said he would not write because he was to come in person to see Catiline. It seems that, by not having provided material proof against him, Longinus might have saved himself. However, in his address to the Senate, Cicero includes Longinus's name among the conspirators and it is understood that he shares their punishment.


Longshanks is the sobriquet used for Edward in the speech headings of Peele's Edward I.
The nickname of King Edward I in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot.


One of the gossips in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker who attends Ann at the birth of her child. Despite Ann's pleas, she gets drunk and falls asleep, allowing Young Bateman's ghost to enter. She then joins in the search for Ann after Ann disappears from her childbed.


This character's limited function is to enter at the moment when Clod and Gettings would duel in Shirley's Contention for Honor and Riches. Long-Vacation's entrance ruins Gettings' appetite for fighting.


One of Roderigo's band of outlaws in Fletcher's The Pilgrim, he is described with Jacques as one of two "[l]ads / That know their quarters, as they know their knapsaks; / And will not off." Like Jacques, Loper refuses to kill Pedro when asked to do so and applauds the mysterious Boy for saving Pedro's life, but is soon set to pursue the Boy when it is discovered that 'he' is Alinda in disguise. Frustrated in their search by Juletta's machinations and frightened by the drums of the King's soldiers, Loper and his fellow outlaws abort their search and are not seen again.


"A sordid Usurer, the jealous husband of Isabella" in Fletcher's Women Pleased. A miser, he starves his wife and servant; he also keeps Isabella locked up and ignores her complaints. When Isabella pays Jaquenett to receive Lopez' beating and then uses the deception to prove her innocence to Bartello, the Gentleman, and Gentlewomen, Lopez is forced to forgive her. He believes her tale that she was merely trying to expose Bartello's unwanted advances, and pretends to make love to Rodope in his own parlor to entrap Bartello. When he is discovered, Lopez forgives him and is reconciled with Isabella. He agrees to her plan to entrap Claudio, and, upon learning that Claudio is her brother, promises to love his virtuous wife henceforth. Participates as a dancer in the wedding masque for Silvio and the hag.


The title character of Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. Lopez is a corrupt yet comic curate who first appears with his sexton, Diego, just as Leandro has hatched his plan to bed Amaranta. Leandro gives Lopez a fake letter supposedly written by Leandro's father, Alonzo Tiviera, asking for help in placing Leandro as a law student. Though Lopez has never met Alonzo, he quickly "remembers" when offered 500 ducats for his pains. Lopez and Diego then shamelessly invent vivid memories of Alonzo and finally introduce Leandro to Bartolus. The pair executes further mischief. Lopez verbally abuses his parishioners, threatening to leave the parish if the people fail to come up with more money. He also plays a practical joke on Bartolus by pretending Diego is rich, near death, and wants Bartolus to be his executor.


A don in Dekker's Noble Spanish Soldier. He sides with the King against Medina's faction. He attends the wedding of Onælia and Cockadillio.


A "ghost character" in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids summoned by Ferdinand on the Doctor's request.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's A Game at Chess. Roderigo Lopez, executed in 1594 for plotting to assassinate Queen Elizabeth, is listed in the Fat Bishop's Taxa Poenitentiaria as having been awarded 20,000 ducats by the Church for his trouble.


The Governor of Portugal's capital in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. Diego Lopis welcomes the Irish Bishop, Tom Stukley, and Stukley's men to his city, which he calls, "the most reverent primate of the Irish Church."


For named gentry, search under the proper name, e.g. "PERCY, LORD."


Speaking for the Temporality in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates, he and the Merchant ask Good Counsel to help them find a way to improve the commonwealth. When John the Commonweal addresses the Parliament with suggestions for strengthening the Commonwealth, and Divine Correction orders the Three Estates to control thievery of all kinds, he offers the Temporality's cooperation.


Agrees with Cambyses' decision to go to war with Egypt and to leaving Sisamnes in charge for the duration of the war in Preston's Cambises. Later warns Cambyses that the woman he is falling in love with is his own cousin.


The Lord finds Sly drunkenly asleep in the gutter and decides to play a trick on him in the anonymous The Taming of a Shrew. He commands his servants to treat Sly as their lord, and orders the Boy actor to dress as a woman and pretend to be Sly's wife. He himself pretends to a servant, named Simon or Sim (as Sly calls him) and answers Sly's questions about the players and the play during the interlude. At the end of the play-within-the-play, he orders Sly redressed in his own clothing and returned to the street where he was found.


The unnamed Lord attends upon Rasni in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England. It is he who discovers the corpse of the First Ruffian, and at the king's order, he tries to make the drunken Clown explain how the man died.


A lord accompanies King Athelstone to Guy and Phillis' wedding in the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick. The Lord testifies to Guy's brave acts of the past.


In the induction to Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew, the Lord finds Christopher Sly, a drunken tinker, asleep outside a tavern. To amuse himself and his hunting party, the Lord decides to play a practical joke on Sly. Sly is taken to the Lord's house, dressed in the Lord's clothes, and put in the Lord's bed; when he awakes, he is told that he is a Lord who has been ill and is just now recovering his memory. To complete the illusion, the Lord orders his young page, Bartholomew, to dress as a woman and pretend to be Sly's wife. He also has the players perform for Sly the play within the play, which is The Taming of the Shrew.


An unnamed lord (or possibly there is more than one) praises Caesar in the anonymous Caesar and Pompey for his victory at Pharsalia and accompanies him to Egypt, where he comments detachedly on Cleopatra's power over men. Later he encourages Caesar to think himself the equal of a king.


Unnamed in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV, this primly dressed and perfumed lord comes to Hotspur bearing the king's demand for Hotspur's prisoners; Hotspur calls the man a popinjay.


In Q2 only of Shakespeare's Hamlet, after Osric has approached Hamlet about the duel with Laertes, and left to return his answer, a Lord enters to ask if Hamlet will have the duel now or later. After Hamlet agrees to play the bout immediately, the Lord further reports that Gertrude has requested that Hamlet speak gently to Laertes and ask his forgiveness before the bout.


A friend to Antifront in Sharpham's The Fleire.


A Welsh lord who attends on Hugh and tries to persuade Winifred to renounce virginity in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman.


A nobleman in Middleton's More Dissemblers Besides Women. He gives Andrugio the news that Aurelia is being forced to marry the Governor of the Fort.


A Sicilian Lord in the anonymous Swetnam, sometimes referred to as 'Third Lord' in comparison with Nicanor and Iago, enters at the opening of the play to tell Nicanor and Iago about King Atticus' grief-stricken state at the death of Lusypus and the disappearance of Lorenzo. He is present when the Captain comes to report Lorenzo's fate to the King.


Announces to the king the return of Demetrius from battle in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant.


The Lord cheated by the depraved young gentlemen is a fictional character in Jonson's The New Inn. When Host rails against the current decayed ways of the nobility, he says that the young gentlemen play dice and cheat at cards, taking the cloak from the Lord's back and pawning it. As if cheating the gullible Lord at cards is not enough, the rascals pinch his watch and jewelry as well.


This is another one of the silent gamblers in Shirley's The Gamester. His unseemly characteristics are commented on by Hazard.


A Spanish Lord brings news of Lord Bonavida's return to Queen Isabella in Heywood's A Challenge for Beauty.


An acolyte of Ormandine in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom; possibly one of the 'Friends' who live in his cave.

LORD **1635

Lord is an honorable widower who has remained true to his departed wife in Shirley's The Lady of Pleasure . He is Haircut's master. When Kickshaw and Littleworth test his constancy to his wife by betting him he will not fall in love at first sight with Celestina, Lord wins the bet. He later, however, does forget himself and declare his love for Celestina. She chastises him for being untrue to the memory of his wife and he is ashamed.


Eugenius's "Captaine [. . .] to whom [he] did commit the keeping of the Westerne-gate of the City" in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. The Lord promises to "assist" the "flight" of Eugenius and Artemia and "provide trusty Servants to be [their] guides." However, the Lord reveals Eugenius's plan to Sinatus, Sinatus discloses the information to the King, and the King disguises himself and accompanies Artemia and her father on their journey to Arviragus. For leaking Eugenius's plan to Sinatus the King orders his "Embassadour" to "send straight to fetch that Captaine to [him]," presumably for the purpose of rewarding him.


He goes to Agenor in Act Three to tell him that the king's army is close in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers.

LORD **1639

A lord disguises himself as the Prince of Portugal in the final scene of Sharpe’s Noble Stranger when the princess is to be given in marriage. He attempts (in his disguise) to woo the princess, but she is steadfast in her love of Honorio.


The Lord Admiral in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Along with Lord Hunsdon and Lord Clinton, he greets the Duchess, Bertie, Sands, Cranwell, and Foxe as they return to London from Europe after Queen Elizabeth comes to the throne.


Lord Admiral Hobab visits the shipyard and admires the model of the Mary, which is being built in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. Captain Fitzjohn and Naupegus invite him to watch the workmen. When the Governor of the East India Company arrives with his colleagues, the Lord Admiral quizzes them on the claim that their business practices undermine the state. The Company members refute this claim at great length, and the Lord Admiral is convinced. Later, he comes across the seductive letters written by Locuples to Dorothea, and also her chaste replies. He admires Dorothea's chastity, and when he starts to soliloquize about her chastity, an Echo tells him that his image of her is correct. There then follows two more lengthy debates with the Governor and his colleagues, in both of which the company members convince Hobab of the justness of mercantilism. At the end of the play, Hobab and the company members celebrate the launching of the Mary


He counsels Alexander against arrogance in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. He reminds his king that Alexander's father, Philip, hired a child to enter his chamber each morning and remind him that he was but a mortal man. Alexander accepts this as wise advice.


The Lord Ambassador is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. He receives grave instruction from the natural fool.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Pedler's Prophecy. At the very end, one of the characters praises "that honorable T.N. etc. of N," their "lord and master."


The Lord Archbishop observes that the commoners should be happy to pay taxes since the government uses the money to benefit society in the anonymous Jack Straw. He urges the councilors to advise the King that the people of Kent are in revolt and should be met before the rebellion grows. When the councilors appear before the King, the text identifies the person accompanying the Lord Treasorer as the Bishop. The church official wonders who the leaders are and observes that should they be noble, they should deserve pity. After learning that the rebellion consists of commoners, the Bishop tells King Richard II that he must be resolute in defeating the rebellion in order to maintain his authority. The Archbishop is named in the King's retinue in a later scene but has no further lines. Historically, one of King's supporters beheaded during the revolt but no direct mention is made of this event though King Richard II and others allude to the loss of followers.


Discusses the battle and "the discovery of [the King's] daughter's love to Arviragus" with Sinatus in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia.


A "ghost character" in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. The players who offer to perform The Marriage of Wit and Wisdom for More and his guests are in the service of the unnamed Lord Cardinal.


Alternative name of Lord Hastings in Shakespeare's Richard III.


Lord Chamberlain announces that Cardinal Winchester, the Lord of Tame, Lord Shandoyse, Lord Howard, and Sir Henry Beningfield are in council with Queen Mary in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me.


In Shakespeare's Henry VIII, Lord Chamberlain feels the British have gained little in attempting friendly relations with the French, making fun of French fashion and walking style. He brings news to Norfolk, Surrey, and Suffolk of Henry's marriage to Anne Bullen and the order for her coronation.


Lord Chancellor is one of several titles held by Wolsey in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. Upon Wolsey's disgrace, we learn that the title has passed to Thomas More.


The Lord Chief Justice in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. Early in the play he warns Falstaff not to brag about the sullied past. He orders Falstaff and company to prison near the play's end. He is mildly upbraided and then praised by the newly made Henry V for once having sent Prince Hal to jail for defying the king's order. The Lord Chief Justice embodies the play's main theme of Justice.


The Lord Constable is a harsh jailer at the Tower in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. He strictly follows Winchester's orders and refuses any niceties for Elizabeth during her stay there. He sees Elizabeth as a heretic and is dismayed when she is released, yet he bears the Cap of Maintenance at Elizabeth's coronation.


In 5.2 the opening stage direction in Day's Humour Out of Breath reads "Enter Anthonio, Lucida, Hermia, and Lords", and in the scene that follows there are two speeches totaling nine lines headed "Lord" (Bullen pp. 474-5). On p. 477 these Lords presumably go in with the lovers and Duke Antonio, for they re-enter above with them; but they speak no further lines. The Mermaid editor divides the two speeches between "1st Lord" and "2nd Lord" (as well as starting a new scene, 5.3, at the re-entry above). This is not unreasonable but it is just as possible that one Lord delivered both speeches and the other one or more Lord[s] stood mute.


Two Lords of Pelagia figure in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter:
  • Originally subjects of King Lycaon, the lords of Pelagia immediately transfer their allegiance to Jupiter, acting as King of Epirus, when he drives Lycaon out. The 1st Lord offers him the crown, which he accepts. Later, he identifies the princess Callisto to the smitten god.
  • The Second Lord only gets one line, in which he attempts to recall the attention of Jupiter from the charms of Callisto to the state business of his new kingdom, Pelagia.


Appearing at the end of Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia, The First Lord informs the Prince that Eugenius and Sinatus "are taken by th'guard" and, later, expresses his confusion over the King's murder. The Second Lord pledges his support for the King and, later in the play, expresses his confusion over the King's murder.


Three lords of London in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me.


One of Lewes' companions in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John, he agrees with the plan to kill the English lords once they have helped the French prince achieve the English crown.


Isabella's uncle in Thomas Middleton's The Witch. He represents law and order. Overseeing the wedding ceremony between his niece and Antonio, he is seduced by the Duchess after she believes her husband to be dead. He pretends to be taken by her advances, but his responses to the Duchess turn out to be a ploy, part of the Duke's test of her virtue.


Appointed commander-in-chief of Charles VII's French army in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V. He is defeated at Agincourt by an English army that is drastically outnumbered.


Lord High Constable is one of the titles held by the Duke of Buckingham in Shakespeare's Henry VIII.


An honor that the King of Naples bestows upon Honorio in Sharpe’s Noble Stranger.


The Lord Justice in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women, presiding over the trials of George Browne, Anne Sanders, Anne Drurie,and Roger with four other Lords also on the bench, calls first for Browne to be brought before them and the indictment read by the Cleark. When Browne pleads guilty, he tells the Sheriff that no jury would be needed, and he asks Browne whether he had any reasons why he should not hang. Browne asks only that he not be hung in changes and that Anne Sanders be spared. In response, the Lord Justice is reassuring but makes no promises. Instead, he asks whether Anthony Browne, also in Newgate, is Browne's brother. When Browne says they are, he declares them "two bad brothers." He also condemns Browne to death and sends him away. When the indictment against Anne Sanders is read and she is accused by Drurie and Roger, he urges her to to tell the truth. After he condemns her to hang alongside Drurie and Roger, he again calls on her to repent.


Announces the arrival of Sinatus to the King at the beginning of Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia and, later, the arrival of Eugenius.


A "ghost character" in Cavendish & Shirley's Country Captain. He made Underwit a Captain of the Trained Guard in return for a land deal. Underwit has sold him 200-300 acres between their houses.


A "ghost character" in Barnes's The Devil's Charter. He was the third husband of Lucretia Borgia.


The Lord Marshall in Kyd's Soliman and Perseda arrests Erastus on Soliman's orders. After Erastus's execution, Soliman kills the Lord Marshall.


Also known as Lord Mowbray, this nobleman is in charge of troops under the Archbishop of York as part of the faction against the king in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.


For named officials, search under the proper name, e.g. "CROSBY, LORD MAYOR."


The "Lord Maior" recites the evils that the rebels have committed including frightening the Queen Mother, killing noblemen, and burning records in the anonymous Jack Straw. He believes that the greatest harm is to England for challenging the king at all, thereby treating the king as if he were a person. He promises to protect King Richard II with a guard while he is in Smithfield. Later, he reports that the rebels from Essex have gone home, leaving only the worst of the group, i.e. those from Kent. The Lord Mayor kills Jacke Strawe because of Strawe's disrespect for the King and his nobles. He urges the soldiers to remain loyal to the king. After the rebels are defeated, the Lord Mayor explains that he helped defeat the commoners out of his sense of duty and loyalty. King Richard II expresses appreciation and knights him for his service as Sir William Walworth, which prompts the Lord Mayor to vow perpetual loyalty to the king.


The Lord Mayor in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women enters the judgment room with the Lord Justice and four other Lords. Since the trial of George Browne is to begin, the Lord Mayor asks the others to take their places.


The Lord Mayor of London is a "ghost character" in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!. When the two rascals Sir Petronel and Quicksilver are judged before Golding, the new deputy alderman, Touchstone says he will go presently to the Lord Mayor and get a warrant to confiscate Security's assets for the benefit of the crown.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. The Lord Mayor of the city of London is given no name in the play. He is sent by the king to allay public rumor about the supposed separation of Henry and Katherine. He also carries the mace during the procession for Anne's coronation.


Non-speaking role in William Rowley's A New Wonder: A Woman Never Vexed. Accompanies the King on his visit to Spitalfields.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III.Gloucester's page reports that the Lord Mayor of London offers the crown to Richard after hearing that Edward IV's sons are bastards.


The Lord Mayor in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More presides over the Court of Sessions when More, then a Sheriff of London, plays his practical joke on Justice Suresby. During the May Day riots, he give orders in an attempt to rein in the commoners, and when More's speech to the crowd calms the situation, he praises More for having saved the City from fire and murders. After More is knighted and made Lord Chancellor, the Lord Mayor leads a group of aldermen and their wives to visit More at his town house in the City and praises him for having set "a gloss on London's name."


A "ghost character" in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. The Earl of Arundel charges the Porter to bring the Lord Mayor of London with selected aldermen and leading citizens before the royal council. As the plan to install Lady Jane Grey as queen falls apart, Ambrose Dudley reports to his father (the Duke of Northumberland) that the Lord Mayor has decided to proclaim Queen Mary as rightful monarch.


In Rowley’s When You See Me, Henry orders a message sent to have the Lord Mayor of London proclaim the king’s new title of defender of the faith. He enters at play’s end escorting the Holy Roman Emperor.


Alternate name for Dalua in the anonymous A Larum for London.


A lord in Heywood's The Golden Age. Informs Jupiter of Danae's pregnancy and the subsequent birth of his son, Perfeus.


He fails to persuade Clitophon to join the battle against the Egyptians in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. He may be the same Lord who utters a comment while watching the 'fight' between Miranda and Lysander.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. The Lord of Canterbury is asked by King Henry to prepare the summons of Queen Katherine.


The French Duke of Burgundy in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV sends the Lord of Conte to tell Edward of Count S. Paul's treachery.


The Lord of Florence is in the Duke of Venice's company when they come upon Bordello standing over the corpse of Timoclea in Mason's Mulleasses. The Lord arrests Bordello and charges him with Timoclea's murder. The Lord then calls guards to attend Julia as she resists Mulleasses. The Lord leads the questioning of Mulleasses and Borgias as the play unwinds and intersperses his queries with condemnations. The Lord reminds the Duke of Venice at the end of the play that Julia is free and available for matrimony.


Also spelled Lord of Millaine in Heywood's A Maidenhead Well Lost. This lord is Parma's friend, and tells the prince of Julia's betrothal to the Prince of Florence.


A lord attending Lysimachus in Shakespeare's Pericles. The Lord suggests that Marina might be able to improve the state of the melancholic Pericles.


At the beginning of the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V, he accompanies King Henry IV and asks him to be lenient with his son. When Henry V becomes king, he fights with him against the French and advises him to attack the French prior to the Scots, contrary to the Archbishop of Canterbury's suggestion. During the war, he asks for the king's permission to lead the army, but the king has already appointed the Duke of York for that task.


A "ghost character" in Ford's The Fancies Chaste and Noble. Mentioned by Troylo-Savelli as having been sent away so that another nobleman could have an affair with his wife.


A lord in Shakespeare's Pericles who brings news of Pericles' arrival in Tharsus.


Three Lords appear in Tyre as part of Pericles's court in Shakespeare's Pericles.
  • The First Lord flatters Pericles. Later, he, along with other Lords, challenges the rule of the absent Prince and urges Helicanus to become ruler of Tyre.
  • The Second Lord also flatters Pericles. Later he supports a plan to find the absent Pericles or, if he cannot be found, to replace Pericles with Helicanus.
  • The Third Lord supports the rule of Helicanus.


Lord Winchester is one of several titles held by Wolsey in Shakespeare's Henry VIII.


Alternative name of Richard III in Shakespeare's Richard III. After Edward IV's death, Richard is named Lord Protector, the guardian of the young king Edward V who governs until the boy is old enough to rule on his own.


The First Scottish Lord in Peele's Edward I attends upon John Baliol and assures the Scottish king that Lord Versses will deliver Baliol's message of defiance to Edward with all vigor.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. He is one of the first group of Portia's suitors, described by Nerissa, who leaves without attempting to find the correct casket.


The unnamed Spartan Lord in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age informs Helen of the impending arrival of her brothers Castor and Pollux, a circumstance that Helen realizes she can use to cover her departure with Paris. She tells the Spartan Lord that she has a special reason to go to the port the next day and that he should not worry if he sees her board a ship. After she departs for Troy, the Lord informs Castor, Pollux, and other Greek nobles of Helen's elopement, and he is then dispatched to summon Menelaus from Crete.


He establishes that King Richard II needs tax money to conduct war against France in the anonymous Jack Straw. He offers to hold the King's Manor House at Greenwich against any attack. Historically, the Lord Treasorer is one of King's supporters beheaded during the revolt, but no direct mention is made of this event though King Richard II and others allude to the loss of followers.


The Lord Treasurer in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt (the historical William Paulet, Earl of Wiltshire and Marquess of Winchester) was a supporter of Queen Mary. Uneasy at the royal commission's early support for Lady Jane Grey, he attempts to flee, only to be brought back to face the council. At first he claims only to have been pursuing some private family business, but he eventually admits his dislike for the council's willingness to disinherit the princesses Mary and Elizabeth in favor of Edward VI's wish to see Lady Jane take the throne. Because he has the courage to speak the truth as he sees it, the council reinstates him.

LORDS **1540

Also referred to as Temporality in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates. They are a group representing the Second Estate of Scotland, the barons. They process onto the stage at the beginning of the play and remain there as auditors throughout, exiting during the interlude between the parts. The Lord sits among them. When they re-enter for the Second Part, they are led by Public Oppression, or Flattery, and walk backwards. When John the Commonweal addresses the Parliament with suggestions for strengthening the Commonwealth, and Divine Correction orders the Three Estates to control thievery of all kinds, they vow to cooperate and welcome John the Commonweal among them.


Two sets of Lords appear in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One.
  • Advisors to Gorboduc. Appear in the first playlet.
  • Advisors to Tereus in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appear in the third playlet. They hunt with Tereus and witness Philomele serve Itis' head to the King.


Two Lords of Edward III's council in Marlowe's Edward II. They urge the teenage king to stand up to Mortimer and Queen Isabella in his desire to avenge his father's death and dismiss his regents. The First Lord then escorts Mortimer to his traitor's death, returning with the earl's head for the king, and the Second Lord leads the Queen to the Tower.


Appear in scenes 4 and 8 of the anonymous plot of Frederick and Basilea, played by Ledbeter (Robert Ledbetter) and Thomas Hunt.


Four Lords appear with Master James and three messengers at Court when arrest warrants are being issued in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women. They hear that John Bean has identified Browne, and they learn from a waterman that Browne used his hat to cover a bloody spot on his hose. Convinced of Browne's guilt, they have warrants drawn up for Browne's arrest, the ports notified, and the Sheriff sent to search for the murderer. After Browne is captured, the Lords at Court send messengers to the Justices in London to have indictments prepared. When the Mayor of Rochester brings Browne by the Court, the four Lords question him and one remarks that Browne had been respected by them all but was overthrown by "wanton lust." They send him on to Westminster, where the Lord Justice and four other Lords sit in judgment, questioning Browne, Anne Sanders, Anne Drurie, and Roger.


There are several lords who figure in Shakespeare's As You Like It. In the forest of Arden, besides Jaques and Amiens, several unnamed lords attend Duke Senior during his exile and one is depicted as having bravely killed a deer. In court, several unnamed lords, including two who report that Celia is missing also attend Duke Frederick, in addition to Le Beau.


In Q2 only of Shakespeare's Hamlet, when Hamlet and Laertes struggle in Ophelia's grave, the Lords remonstrate with them.

LORDS **1604

An undisclosed number of Lords in Rowley’s When You See Me escort Prince Edward to meet the Holy Roman Emperor at play’s end.


Noblemen who are false friends in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens. They are Lucius, Lucullus, and Sempronius (but not Ventidius who is a false friend but not a Lord). The names of Timon's false friends and flatterers are not always given in the speech headings. Others such as the Jeweler, Mercer, Merchant, Painter, and Poet have no proper names at all.


Throughout Shakespeare's Cymbeline, Cloten is accompanied by two lords who act as his confidants and flatterers. The second lord's asides to the audience often mock Cloten. When Cymbeline threatens to torture Pisanio for information about the missing Imogen, a lord intervenes to speak on Pisanio's behalf. Another lord announces that the Roman legions have landed on British soil. Posthumous Leonatus tells a lord that three men–he does not know that they are Arviragus, Guiderius, and Belarius–have saved the Britons from defeat.


Following Leontes' public accusation of Hermione in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, an unnamed lord defends her chastity and urges Leontes not to be rash. Later, when Leontes accuses Antigonus of instigating his wife Paulina's excoriating defense of Hermione, the lords attending Leontes try to exonerate Antigonus.


There are three Lords in Middleton's More Dissemblers Besides Women. They suggest to the Cardinal that the Duchess's constancy be tested. Lord 1 is particularly pleased because he has designs on the Duchess, although nothing comes of this plotline. Later, the Cardinal tells the Lords that they ought to try to persuade the Duchess to marry, and they sycophantically agree.


Attendants of the rebel Oswell in his overthrow of the rightful King Ferdinand of Thessaly in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort.


Non-speaking characters in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker who attend on Queen Elizabeth in Nottingham.


Four Lords attend Osriick in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. They carry out various orders such as announcing his intended marriage to Bertha.


Roles assumed by Hartwell's dismissed servants in aid of gulling Hornet in Shirley's Constant Maid. They convince Hornet that once he is "knighted" he must purchase more appropriate, expensive clothes.


Councellors to King Sigismond in Suckling's Brennoralt.


Two noblemen in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. When Polidor begs to be banished so that the way will be clear for his brother Memnon to pursue the princess Calis, the First Lord reports that Memnon has already died, but that false report is corrected by the king Astorax. The Second Lord comments that a man must be mad to want to see the woman he loves marry someone else, and he argues that Polidor in fact is a gentleman "descended nobly" enough to aspire to the princess.


Lords in Marianus' court in the anonymous The Wasp. They trade quips with The Wasp in the final act.


Four lords attend the King in Shakespeare's All's Well.
  • The first is a friend of Bertram's. He is passed over by Helena before she chooses Bertram as her husband. Later, he encourages Bertram to test Parolles' honesty and loyalty. Also called Dumain.
  • The second is also passed over by Helena before she chooses Bertram as her husband. Later, he encourages Bertram to test Parolles' honesty and loyalty. Together with a group of soldiers, the Second Lord ambushes Parolles, blindfolds him and convinces him he has been taken captive by the enemy; all in order to demonstrate that Parolles is a coward and a traitor.
  • The third lord is a non-speaking part. He is passed over by Helena before she chooses Bertram as her husband.
  • The fourth lord is likewise passed over by Helena before she chooses Bertram as her husband.

Unindividuated "ghost characters" in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley involved in defending their land from Stukeley and the rest of the English invasion force.


Men of Crete in Heywood's The Golden Age. A conversation between these lords introduces the audience to the conflict between Titan and Saturn, the sons of King Uranus informing the auditory of their relative merits: Saturn, the youngest, "hath the hearts of all the people," while Titan, the eldest, is proud and insolent. They also inform Saturn of the oracle that prophesies that his son will eventually usurp his throne. All three lords eventually swear allegiance to Jupiter.


An unspecified number of Danish lords are present at the deaths of Huldrick and Cartesmunda in Brewer's The Lovesick King.


Mute characters in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. They attend the King and Queen of Denmark in the final scene (xxiii).


Brief companions of Jupiter in Heywood's The Golden Age.


Attendants on the Duchess in Fletcher's Women Pleased who inform her that Belvidere has fled.


Advisors to King Thrasellus in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. They counsel him not to attempt a martial assault upon the well-defended Isle of Strange Marshes. Rather, they advise him to disguise as a merchant and trick Neronis onto his ship and kidnap her.


Companions of Lycaon in Heywood's The Golden Age. They encourage Jupiter to rule the kingdom of Pelagia.


Three Lords appear attending Simonides in Shakespeare's Pericles.


"Ghost characters" in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. The King claims that (in order "to flatter with the Lords of Pictland") Arviragus was brought up with his "own sonne and daughter" after he had "usurpt" the throne of Arviragus's father.


Two Polish Lords figure in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris:
  1. One is a non-speaking part. This Lord accompanies the First Lord who discusses the throne of Poland with Anjou.
  2. A lord of Poland. He brings the news that Anjou has been elected King of Poland.


Attendants on the Duke in Fletcher's Women Pleased who witness Silvio's betrothal to the hag.


The King of Swavia orders them after Clyomon in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes when he steals Clamydes's knighthood. They cannot catch the Knight of the Golden Shield but instead return with his servant, Subtle Shift.


The Lord of Tame bears the purse for Queen Mary in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. Part of the council that interrogates Elizabeth, he later bears the Collar at Elizabeth's coronation.


Two lords who are with Neronis when she discovers Clyomon, who is seasick on their shores in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. They carry (or assist) the stricken knight off stage at Neronis's request.


Attendees at the King's wedding banquet in Preston's Cambises, they plead with Cambyses to show mercy to his new wife. The three end the play celebrating the justice of Cambyses' accidental death.


They attend King Egereon in the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune at the execution of Tesephon and Allgerius.

LORDS, TWO **1617

They rush in when Mysander cries murder in Goffe’s Orestes and arrest the disguised Orestes and Pylades. Later, they are saddened by Orestes’ madness and pity him. They go to Tyndarus to beg him to take pity on the prince for Agamemnon’s sake.

LORDS, TWO **1619

In the final moments of Fletcher’s Bloody Brother, they declare Aubrey their new duke and suggest that he take Matilda as wife to strengthen his claim upon the throne.


Falorus's wild brother in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady. Lorece woos and wins the widow Vandona. Early in the play, he banters with Anclethe about his insufficient masculinity, then sings a song rejecting Diana and favoring Bacchus as the god who defeats virginity. Lacking the means to woo the widow, he seeks advice from Jaques, her servant. Lorece and Jaques encounter Phyginois disguised as Draculemion, whom they mistake as a necromancer. Lorece gives a donation to Draculemion for reciting an oration. Lorece confesses his love freely to Vandona, and woos her with love poems and outrageous tales of his travels. She finds him suitable as a husband, if rather wild, and when he asks for her hand, she indicates that she might agree in a month or two. He continues to woo her, and she continues to put him off, but finally agrees. Nevertheless, she refuses to set a date. They are finally brought together through the masque of Jaques, Hymen, and Boy, after which they exchange a kiss. They send Jaques for a license, and put him in charge of the wedding preparations. They plan to invite Polidacre and his household to celebrate with them. They arrive to make the invitation, and Lorece announces his good fortune. His brother Falorus responds with is own announcement, of Lucora's agreement to marry him, despite her lack of love or enthusiasm. Lorece expresses amazement that Carionil is alive.


A protestant minister murdered by Guise in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris.


the Duke's son, Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. The Machiavel of the play. He conspires with Balthazar to murder Horatio. He is also responsible for tricking Pedringano to his doom. He is murdered by Hieronimo during the play-within-the play.


Lorenzo is friends with Antonio and Bassanio, and in love with Jessica in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. He elopes with her while Shylock is out, and they sail with Bassanio to Belmont. There, he and Jessica are left in charge of the household while Portia follows Bassanio to Antonio's trial. Lorenzo is overjoyed to find that the result of the trial makes him Shylock's sole heir, although Jessica has no verbal reaction to the news.


Lorenzo is an old Venetian gentleman and the father of Aemilia in Chapman's May Day. He has promised his daughter to old Gasparo. He opens the play by saluting the May Day singers, then reveals his plans to pursue his passion for Franceschina, the wife of Quintiliano. He asks Angelo to carry a message to her, and Angelo arranges for him to meet her, disguised as a chimney sweep, while Aemilia meets Aurelio at her home. Franceschina thrusts him into her coal-house, where Quintiliano discovers him upon returning home. Quintiliano releases him and he runs home, cursing disguises, only to find Aemilia with someone. Shortly thereafter, Franceschina appears in the suit of Aurelio, and Lorenzo is persuaded that she has pursued him home. At the evening festivities, he blesses his daughter's love match with Aurelio.


Lorenzo de Cypres, also referred to as Lorenzo de Toledo, is secretary to Alphonsus in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. He is a Machiavellian scholar, whom the emperor visits in his bed. Lorenzo gives Alphonsus advice on plotting, and shows him various poisons: Alphonsus immediately puts him to sleep with one of them, and then poisons him with another of them.


A Spanish courtier, brother of Belimperia in the anonymous First Part of Jeronimo. He becomes angry and envious when Andrea is chosen as ambassador to Portugal. Andrea loves his sister Belimperia, and because of that Lorenzo plots his death. With Lazarotto he plans that Alcario should woo for Belimperia, and Lazarotto will kill Andrea when he comes back from Portugal. He tells Alcario to wear Andrea's clothes in order to impersonate Andrea in front of his sister, Belimperia, while Andrea is still in Portugal. Alcario does this, and Lorenzo then speaks to him as if he were Andrea who had just returned from Portugal. Belimperia comes and is duped by their charade; she mistakes Alcario for her lover Andrea, talks to him and kisses him goodbye. Lazarotto sees this and kills Alcario, mistaking him for Andrea. When the real Andrea, Rogero, Ieronimo, Horatio and others discover the body and the murderer, Lorenzo has to act quickly. He promises Lazarotto to get him a pardon from the King. Lazarotto then swears that he had been paid by Alcario to murder Andrea, who had been his rival in the suit of Belimperia. But without telling him, Alcario took advantage of Andrea's absence and disguised himself as Andrea. Lazarotto should be executed immediately, demands the King. Lazarotto now asks Lorenzo to get his pardon, otherwise he will tell everything. Lorenzo manages to discredit him as a liar before he can reveal the truth, and sees to it that he is immediately executed. Before it comes to the battle with Portugal, the two parties attack each other verbally, and they agree who is going to fight whom. Lorenzo should fight with Alexandro, when he doesn't find him he kills Don Pedro, while Andrea fights with Balthazar. After two Portuguese soldiers have killed Andrea, Horatio fights and defeats Balthazar. But Lorenzo comes, seizes his weapons and claims to have won the prince as his prisoner. After a long quarrel they decide to leave it to their King to judge who had really won against the prince.


Prince of Sicilia, younger son of King Atticus and brother to Leonida and the dead Lusypus in the anonymous Swetnam. Believed either killed or captured after a valiant fight in the Battle of Lepanto, he reappears at the court of Sicily in disguise, revealing his true identity only to Iago. He declares that as he is now the heir to the throne, it behooves him to observe the chief weaknesses of the court when none can recognize him and attempt to deceive him. Discovering his sister Leonida's plight in having been accused of treason, he disguises himself as the Amazon Atlanta in order to help her. In Atlanta's guise, he defends women against Swetnam's slurs; takes charge of Leonida's 'execution' and rescues her from it; rescues Lisandro from death at his own hand; and thoroughly punishes Swetnam for his presumption and hypocrisy. He then reappears in the guise of an Old Shepherd after the Masque of Repentance, presents Leonida and Lisandro to Atticus as Claribell and Palemon, and finally, having brought a blessing on their marriage, reveals his own identity and is received with joy as a worthy future King of Sicily.


He is played by Roderigo in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy. Lorenzo is the prodigal figure in the prodigal son play staged by the gypsies.


A servant of Margarita in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife. Leon orders Lorenzo to pack his mistress's belongings when he learns that he has been sent to the wars.

LORENZO **1631

Lorenzo is the grandson of the Morality Vice and the direct descendent of the Renaissance revenge-tragedy Machiavel in Shirley's The Traitor. Unlike his predecessors, however, Lorenzo has great difficulties making his evil plans work. At one point he even laments the loss of villainy sufficient to do his work. This lamentation works as a fitting eulogy for the Renaissance Revenge play. His minions desert him or betray his plans to the Duke. Only Petruchio remains loyal to him, but even he as killed "but one man" and is thus ill suited for the planned assassination of the Duke. He spends a great deal of energy in this play not in devising new treacheries but in keeping the Duke from discovering his old plots. He finally manages along with Petruchio to kill the Duke but is immediately set upon by Sciarrha whom he mortally wounds while receiving his own death blow.

LORENZO **1635

Lorenzo is an old gentleman of Pisa who is rebuffed by Petrutio when offering Lucretia as wife in Marmion's The Antiquary. He arranges an engagement between Lucretia and Moccinigo but fails in this endeavor when Moccinigo proves ungentlemanly and a would-be criminal. He helps take revenge upon Petrutio at the play's end.


Lorenzo Celsi is the dissolute, tobacco-smoking Duke of Venice in Marston's What You Will. It is he who recognizes the real Albano.


Lorenzo goes to war with Mantua in Massinger's The Bashful Lover. Officially, he goes to gain the hand of Matilda, whom he has seen in picture only. However, he admits in a soliloquy that his real aim is to enlarge his dukedom. After defeating Gonzaga's forces, he searches for the old Duke, anxious to punish him further with tortures. Yet when Martino presents Matilda (who is traveling in disguise as a peasant) to him, he is immediately enamored. He decides that it would be dishonorable to rape her, and he professes his love instead. He is so honorable that he breaks off all war with Mantua, returns all territories gained, and pays restitution, just to please her. For obvious reasons, her father favors the match, but Lorenzo himself bows out when he learns that Matilda is in love with the impoverished Hortensio. Alonzo is afraid of his changeable humors, which are often violent. However, Matilda's presence seems to ennoble him.


Lorenzo is a gentleman of Verona, husband to Abstemia in Davenport's The City Night Cap. He asks his friend Philippo to court Abstemia one more time to know if she is truly virtuous. Lorenzo thinks that, as any other woman, she is a smooth flatterer and a cunning injurer. Thus, despite not having any evidence, Lorenzo believes that Abstemia has slept with Philippo as Lorenzo is the best representative of the proverb Crede quod habes et habes, which governs the development of the events in the play. So, Lorenzo plans to take her to the Duke of Verona to administer justice. He is to bring two slaves to him, who will bear witness against his wife at a trial in front of the Duke of Verona and other lords and authorities. They are to say that they saw Abstemia having sex with Philippo. He is granted divorce from his wife. But, in Act Three, when the Duke of Venice comes to avenge his sister, Lorenzo is founded guilty and expelled from the two dukedoms and his own family. He will go to Milan, where he finds his wife, who has not forgotten him, and he makes up with her.


Pert maidservant to Princess Leonida in the anonymous Swetnam, she also speaks the Prologue to the play, in which the audience is invited to witness the triumph of women over the misogynist Swetnam. She pretends to support both Lisandro and Nicanor in their efforts to win the heart of Leonida (collecting a number of bribes in the process), but her real allegiance lies with the Princess' own preference for Lisandro, and she reveals Nicanor's plans to Leonida in order to help her thwart them. She is delighted when Lisandro manages to reach the Princess in the guise of Friar Anthony, but then makes the cardinal error of betraying the trick to her own lover, Scanfardo. Although she swears Scanfardo to secrecy, he passes her confidence on to Nicanor, bringing out the arrest and trial of Leonida and Lisandro. She tries to help to defend her mistress at the trial, and is incensed by Swetnam's misogynist arraignment of her. She likely makes one among the women who attack him after he is trapped by Atlanta.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. The Gentleman brings a letter from the Marquis de Loretta asking that Lucio and Foreste help the Gentleman gain a captaincy. The suit is denied.


Lorraine is a French Duke sent by King John to demand that Edward do homage him for the Guienne dukedom in the anonymous King Edward III. Lorraine meets with King David of Scotland and receives promises that the Scots will never make peace with the English and thereby keep Edward from attempting to invade France. After Crécy, Lorraine flees with John, blaming the Genoese garrison that was too tired to fight.

LORRELL **1641

A cook in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. He and Pamphagus are called to prepare the Grobian feast.


Lorrique is servant to Otho, but he is really aiding Hoffman in Chettle's Hoffman. After Otho is murdered, he is instrumental in convincing everyone that Hoffman is really Otho. He has no real reason to do so, except the sheer "fun" of villainy. Lorrique, disguised as a French Doctor, gives Jerome poison (real) and an antidote (fake). He offers to kill Martha when Hoffman's vengeance begins to slacken, but soon after confesses his crimes to her and promises to help her kill Hoffman. Sensing that Lorrique has betrayed him, Hoffman stabs Lorrique–but the wound, while fatal, is not quick. Lorrique exposes Hoffman, who remains unrepentant for his crimes.


Losarello yearns for the days of King Arthur's Court and is therefore easy prey for Craft and his band of cheaters, Snap and Swift in the anonymous Oberon the Second. He knows Politico and his evil ways. Craft convinces him to become "enchanted" by a witch and a devil in order to fight the evil giant at Covet's house. Upon arriving to fight the giant, Losarello takes Spendall and his servants prisoner at Covet's house. Believing that he will forever serve King Oberon, he gives over all his land to the "fairy witch" who enchanted him (Swift in disguise).


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. God promises Abraham that Lot will be saved.


Lothaire is a German nobleman in Burnell's Landgartha. He helps Harrold and Eric against Reyner.


The privado, or confidante, to King Roderick in William Rowley's All's Lost by Lust. Lothario, aided by Malena tries to persuade Jacinta to yield to Roderick's lusts, but she resists. After Roderick rapes Jacinta and imprisons her, he leaves Lothario in guard. Lothario falls asleep, and Jacinta escapes. Roderick is furious, and when Julianus' army attacks the castle, Lothario decides to end his life. He hires Jaques to be his executioner.


Lothario is a self-important courtier and comic figure in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. He believes that he is much more important than he really is. He dresses ridiculously, believing it is the height of fashion. He is easily convinced by Castruchio and Cosimo first that he is actually one of the Duke's favorites (despite never having spoken to the Duke) and then that Foreste has destroyed that favor. He threatens Foreste with a false pedigree, showing Foreste to be the son of hangmen and whores, but Foreste quickly has him thrown in jail. He is released by Castruchio and, despite the pleas of his servant Borachio, agrees to seek revenge on Foreste. With Castruchio and Cosimo, he waits in the palace for Foreste and Lucio, who are coming to confront the Duke, but in the dark Castruchio mistakes the Duke for Foreste. Lothario attacks and kills the Duke, and is then killed by Cosimo on Castruchio's orders.

LOTIUM **1641

A “ghost character" in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. A physician and Grobian. He is on the list of invitees Oyestus is sent to cry into the Grobian feast.


Lotti, often called by his first name, Angelo in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom, is the banished lover of Fiametta. Banished from Florence for his supposed treasonable dealings with the Genoway's, Lotti first appears with his servingman, Baptista. He confronts Piero, the Duke's son, and his friend Iaspero, and Piero accuses Lotti not only of having stolen his sister's heart, but also of making her reject a marriage proposal from the Prince of Pisa. Lotti acknowledges the accusation, but denies responsibility for Piero's rage. They briefly fight, but Lord Vanni suddenly enters and appeases them, asking Lotti the reason for his return to Pisa in spite of his banishment. Angelo replies that he came back only to take his leave. He then exits, but soon returns, disguised as a physician from France. He is received by the Duke of Florence, who, thinking Lotti to be a real doctor, appeals to him to cure his daughter from an unknown illness. Lotti's diagnosis is that the Duke's daughter has a "great desire of a man," that is, she is lovesick. The only cure for Fiametta to overcome her love is for Angelo to kill the man she loves, take his heart, grate it, mix it with wine, and finally administer the resultant potion to her. Shortly after his discussion with the Duke, Angelo secretly reveals himself to Fiametta and attempts to explain his plan to escape with her when the Duke enters. Lotti, who is still disguised as a doctor, continues his part, whilst Fiametta reveals the truth to her father, who believes she has gone mad. Lotti reaffirms that the potion made of Angelo's heart is the only cure with which to save Fiametta's wits. After the Duke leaves, Lotti decides to abandon the court and seek sanctuary with a friar. Dressed as a friar, Lotti is discovered by Piero, who brings him back to the Florentine court. There, Lotti meets Fiametta again and asks her whom she seeks among the people present. She questions him about his love for her, but when he is asked whether Angelo would marry her, he publicly refuses. A heart-broken and enraged Fiametta decides to marry the Prince of Pisa, but asks her father to take the friar with her, so he could be her confessor for the night. On the next morning Fiametta reveals to her father and the Prince of Pisa that the friar has secretly married her to Lotti. After some dispute, the Duke reluctantly agrees to Lotti and Fiametta's marriage


See also LEWES, LEWIS, and related spellings.


The French king in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI. When Edward assumes the throne, he sends Warwick to France as an ambassador to broker a marriage between Edward and the French queen's sister Lady Bona. At the same time, Margaret journeys to the French court, seeking support for the Lancastrian cause. When news arrives that Edward has married Lady Grey, the French king becomes Edward's enemy and Margaret's ally. Shakespeare spells the name LEWIS.


A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. King of France. Spelled Lewes in the text, an old and bedridden man whom Wolsey has proposed to marry Henry VIII’s sister. This comes to pass, but the king dies shortly thereafter. His death causes Henry to recall his sister, the French queen. It also hampers Wolsey’s plot to gain the papacy. Historically, Louis XII died 1 January 1515, twenty-two years before the main action of the play.


A "ghost character" in Bale's King Johan, Part 2. Cardynall Pandulphus, Privat Welth in disguise, brings to England the eldest son of King Philippe of France, Louis, to make war on King Johan.


Also spelled Lewis, the Dauphin of France, is with his father Philip when England and France meet before the gates of Angers in Shakespeare's King John. He does not speak until after the first, inconclusive battle. When the Citizen suggests that peace be made by marrying Blanche and the Dauphin, he quickly finds her everything he could want in a wife. When Pandolf arrives and excommunicates John, the Dauphin immediately urges his father to war, and ignores his new wife's pleas that he consider her conflicting loyalties. When the Dauphin hears that Arthur has been taken, and presumably killed, he is despondent, until Pandolf points out that he can now claim the English throne through his wife. The Dauphin goes to war and subverts many of the English lords. However, John submits to Rome, and Pandolf returns to the Dauphin to make peace, only to find that the Dauphin refuses to stop. He swears to continue even after he hears that his supplies have been shipwrecked and the English lords returned to John, but in the final scene, Salisbury reports that Pandolf has at last persuaded the Dauphin to make peace.


A "ghost character" in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. When the deaths of Lady Bruce and her son, and then Matilda, are revealed, Leicester suggests to Young Bruce that they put Louis the Dauphin of France on the throne.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


Lord Louse-Proof is one of the prisoners in the Counter in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden, seen conducting a mock-parliament in the prison. It is to be presumed that he is only a mock-Lord.


Love is, along with Conscience and Lucre, one of the eponymous ladies of London in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. She and Conscience are fearful that Lucre will take over London. They refuse to take on Dissimulation, Simony, Usury and Fraud as servants. Love is brought into poverty by Lucre, and becomes her waiting-maid. She then agrees to marry Dissimulation. After the marriage she regrets it, because she has turned into 'lascivious Lust.' Lucre tries to cheer her up with frivolous pleasures. When Love appears in court, she is deformed, and protests that Lucre has corrupted her. For her punishment, Judge Nemo sends her to the same place as Lucre.
In Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London Love, Conscience and Lucre have been in prison since the end of The Three Ladies of London. Various men have petitioned for Love's release but Nemo only releases her when the three lords of London arrive to claim all three ladies. Love, Conscience and Lucre are released from prison by Sorrow, who places them, veiled, on three stones on which they lament. Love's stone is marked 'Charity' in leaden letters. There, the spots and deformities of the ladies disappear, symbolizing their moral rebirth. They refuse to be cajoled into accepting Fraud, Dissimulation, Usury and Simony into their service. Nemo then leads in the three lords, who are awed by the beauty of the ladies. Double-Dealing tries to give presents to Love, but Nemo warns her that he is an envoy of Fraud and Dissimulation. Love is brought new clothes by Pure Zeal. In the final scene, she marries Policy.


Love's character in Kyd's Soliman and Perseda appears in the first scene (induction), in scenes between acts, and in the final scene; Fortune, Love, and Death discuss their respective parts in the on-going events and serve as a chorus to the action.

LOVE **1617

One of the fifteen affections and the subject of the play in the anonymous Pathomachia. He is four score years old and the king of the affections but grown old and weak. He craved a subsidy from Parliament, which the Upper House spoke in favor of but the Lower House denied. He wishes in addition to his allied armies that the intellectual Virtues would join him: Faith, Wisdom, Opinion, Intelligence, Science, Prudence, and Art, but Justice informs him they are fighting their own war with their ‘home-bred’ enemies Ignorance, Error, and Hypocrisy amongst others. Urbanity renews his vigor. After the war, Love pardons the Virtues of their proposed rebellion and puts all of his kingdom into proper order. Love gives his queen Disdain and Clemency as her guard while taking Reverence, Zeal, Desire, Pity, Justice, Charity, and Affability for himself. When she objects, he points out that as he and she are husband and wife, and therefore one flesh, all guards belong to both of them.


"A virtuous virgin" in Fletcher's The Noble Gentleman. She is beloved of Shattillion but unable to marry him because the King wishes to control her title. She attempts to cure his insanity even though he doesn't recognize her, and asks the Lady to keep him safe at her house. Her presence heals him at the end of the play.

LOVE **1635

A character in Shirley's Coronation appearing in a masque that Polidora arranges to have performed for Arcadius.


Lady Love-all is an "excellent woman," in the Captain's opinion, in that "'tis but going in to her, and you may know her" in Killigrew's Parson's Wedding. An older widow who describes herself as a "young woman," Lady Love-all spends part of her day reading romances translated from the French and the other part of it having liaisons with town wits, including, in the play itself, Jolly and the Captain. Her strategy seems to be to pretend to be taken against her will. She enjoys playing out "rape" (to use Lady Love-all's word) scenarios in which she is the victim, and when we first meet her, it is Jolly whose advances she is feigning to resist. "Three words and four deeds" later, Jolly emerges from Love-all's house with a pearl necklace. The Captain, not to be outdone, pretends to call on behalf of Ned Wild, and persuades Love-all to give him a chain and a letter. In act three, the Captain accidentally addresses a letter meant for Wanton to Lady Love-all. Since the subject of the letter is the Captain having duped Love-all, whom the Captain describes as a "whore," Lady Love-all is understandably angry. She arrives at the Devil, the tavern where the Captain is drinking with his cohorts, and confronts the Captain, but he easily deserts her, leaving her to pay the tab. At the end of the play, Lady Love-all finally catches up with the Captain and prepares to tell him off, but the Captain claims that he has already changed characters and is now Epilogue. He advises Lady Love-all to go in to the Parson and encourage him to seek revenge from the playwright for the way he's been unfairly represented in the play.


A court page and nephew to Sacrilege Hook in Hausted’s Rival Friends. He can find an attractive quality in every woman and so love her. He is the opposite to the misogynist Anteros, yet they like one another. He and Anteros make sport by setting William Wiseacres, Noddle Empty, Mr. Mongrel, and Hammershin to insult one another. Loveall convinces Noddle that he has killed Hammershin by falling against him and giving him an internal injury with his hilt. He next convinces Wiseacres that he is an accessory to the murder. Noddle hides in a foul dog kennel when Loveall pretends the constables are coming and Wiseacres hides in another one beside it. He finds Anteros tied to a tree, unties him, and watches the fun as Anteros convinces Stipes that it is a magic tree that turns knaves to gentlemen and ties the shepherd to it. Loveall fetches a bedlam to impersonate Oberon to season the jest but must hurry him off again when Hook and Terpander appear. He saves his friend from marriage with the news that Ursely is really Anteros’s sister and therefore they cannot wed. When he believes Constantina, his sister, is dead, he drags the ‘boy’ Isabella out to accuse him of killing her. He discovers, however, that is sister lives and is furthermore already married to Cleopes, and he is content. At play’s end, he discovers that the fools he shut in the dog kennels are still there, and he leaves Anteros to dispose of them with a final jest.


Sir John Loveall is a "ghost character" in Field's Amends for Ladies. He sends a love-letter to Grace Seldom via Moll Cutpurse.


Always referred to as Uncle in Fletcher's Wit Without Money. He is the uncle of Valentine and Francisco. He has inherited the responsibility for them from his deceased brother.


Herebert Lovel is a romantic lover, smitten with Lady Frampul in Jonson's The New Inn. At the New Inn, Host welcomes Lovel as a guest, only if he wants to be merry and have a light heart. When Host exits, Lovel confesses in a soliloquy that he is in love and, therefore, melancholy. Prudence brings Lovel an invitation from Lady Frampul, but Lovel declines ironically. Finally, Lovel accepts the invitation. Lovel confesses to Host his apparently unrequited love for Lady Frampul and exits. Lovel enters to pay his visit to Lady Frampul. At Prudence's mock-authoritative command, Lady Frampul kisses Lovel, and he falls into a state of ecstatic admiration. Prudence decrees a mock court of love, in which Lovel would spend a couple of hours with Lady Frampul discussing love, then receive two kisses from the lady. After these two hours, the condition binds them never to speak of love again. Faced with a difficult choice, Lovel hesitates, but Host makes his decision for him and appoints the assignations. Lovel exits with Host's party. Lovel is the appellant in the mock court of love set up at the New Inn. After Lovel and Lady Frampul take their oaths, Lovel embarks upon a Neoplatonic disquisition on love, which he defines as the most noble and pure affection. After receiving his due kiss, Lovel declares himself happy. In the second session of the love court, Lovel is asked to define valor. He says it is the greatest virtue of mankind, springing out of reason and honesty. When Lady Frampul gives him his second kiss, Lovel feels it is half-hearted and exits, declaring he will go to bed and dream away the illusion of love. In the final reunion scene, Lovel enters and finds out that Host is Lord Frampul, who gives his daughter's hand in marriage to Lovel. Lovel thinks he is still dreaming and proposes to sing a song of happiness.


Family name of Elder Loveless and his brother Young Loveless in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady.

LOVELL **1593

Supporter of Richard III in Shakespeare's Richard III, historically he was Francis, Viscount Lovell. Richard sends Lovell to see to Hastings' execution and also to order Doctor Shaw to give a sermon supporting Richard's claim to the throne. Along with Catesby and Ratcliff, he was the target of William Collingbourne's satiric attack
The catte, the ratte, and Lovell our dogge
Rulyth all England under a hogge.
Lovell is last heard of "in arms" with Dorset in Yorkshire.
In Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV Lovell announces to Doctor Shaw that George, Duke of Clarence has been found drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine.


He interrupts the introductory conversation between the antagonists Sir Hugh Lacy and Sir Roger Oatley in Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday to announce that Sir Hugh's nephew Rowland Lacy has been called up in the war against France and is to leave London without delay.


Alexander Lovell is Lady Marlove's Steward in ?Glapthorne's The Lady Mother. He has risen from the trade class into this aristocratic household, where he pursues Lady Marlove's hand in the hope of improving his status. He is pretentious and flowery of speech, and perceived by Thorowgood to be a competitor for the hand of Lady Marlove. He enters reading from an epistle he intends to drop in her way, which offers a humorous and excessively romantic blazon of her attributes. His love is clearly unrequited. While drinking, he elaborates on the degree of love implied by Lady Marlove's glances, asserting that she cannot miss the worthiness of his manly parts, and exclaiming on his own pride and expectation under what he takes to be her obvious interest in him. He passes out, and while he sleeps, Timothy, Grimes, Crackby and Suckett apply plasters and a bloodied handkerchief to his head. When he awakens, Grimes concocts a far-fetched tale that he had seen Lovell emerge in a drunken stupor from a bawdy house where Lovell had beaten the whores, refused to pay them, and torn up the interior. Grimes concludes that Lovell left the whorehouse and assaulted a Captain who beat him roundly, after which Grimes treated the wayward Steward and brought him secretly home to sleep off his intoxication. Lovell encounters the newly jilted Thurston but is unaware of the agonized suitor's presence. Talking to himself, Lovell works out how Grimes has gulled him, while Thurston takes his monologue as a reasonable response to his own questions. When Thurston claps him on the shoulder to break him from his reverie, Lovell starts and runs off, convinced he's seen a ghost. He encounters the distracted lady Marlove after her rejection by Thurston, and is convinced that she, too, has encountered this ghost. He participates in the search for Belisia and Bonville, and is chastised by Lady Marlove for his impertinence, whereupon he takes refuge in the wine cellar. Upon being rejected by Thurston, she sends him to reward her son with a gold ring and a purse for challenging Thurston to a duel, but Lovell keeps them in case the Young Marlove is defeated. Lovell begs Lady Marlove's forgiveness at the end of the play and receives it, then goes off to the cellar to celebrate in private.


A respected English Lord in Massinger's A New Way to Pay Old Debts. Lovell is a father figure to Alworth and the husband chosen by Sir Giles Overreach for Margaret. He assists Alworth's marriage to Margaret and near the play's close Lady Alworth accepts his own marriage proposal. At the end of the play Lord Lovell prevents Overreach from killing Margaret, appoints himself as "umpire" in the future land dispute between Alworth and Welborne, and promises the prodigal the command of a company of soldiers so that he may serve his country and regain his good reputation.


Lovell in Shakespeare's Henry VIII was supposedly one of several names on Buckingham's "death list" if King Henry had died during a recent illness. Lovell is in attendance at Buckingham's execution and asks the Duke's forgiveness.


A fictional character within Massinger's A New Way to Pay Old Debts invented by Sir Giles Overreach, who is motivated with the thought that he might live to see his daughter bear "a young Lord Lovell" for him to "dance upon [his] knee."


Lord Lovely is a wencher in Brome's A Mad Couple. He is Sir Thrivewell's spokesman. He is in love with Alicia and therefore he sends a tailor and a mercer to make a dress for her. In Act Four, he advises Mistress Crostill to accept Carelesse as her husband.


The Lover is a member of the hungry troupe of actors performing at the Gentleman's house in exchange for food and clothing in Randolph's Praeludium. The Lover uses the lachrymose rhetoric of the romantic lover to persuade the Gentleman to give him half a crown to mend his boots. Playing Thisbe, who apparently languishes in flames for the Gentleman's affection, the Lover complains that the object of his/her affections seems to be deaf to her desperate plea for help, which consists in asking for some money to mend his boots.


A "ghost character" in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore. This maiden's death and burial drove the Third madman insane according to Anselmo.


Niece to Sir Solemn Trifle in Davenant's News From Plymouth. She has inherited an estate worth four thousand pounds a year from an unnamed grandmother, and her father (an earl and a soldier) has left her in control of it without a guardian. She rejects the courtship of the landed gentry and has traveled with her uncle to Carrack's house in Plymouth where she hopes to meet a soldier to marry. To this end, she invites Seawit and his friends to be guests of the house as well. A letter announces Warwell's arrival. When they meet, he tells her that he has divested himself of his money and is training to become a good solider to win her hand in marriage. She tells him that if he becomes the sort of soldier exemplified by her father, she will marry him. After hearing that Jointure has tried to seduce Seawit, she confronts both of them, causing Seawit to reject both women. In the final scene, she prevents Seawit and Warwell from dueling and reveals that she came to Plymouth because she knew that Warwell, whom she intends to marry, would be arriving there and that the intrigue with Seawit was merely an entertainment. She and Warwell agree to marry.

LOVERING, MR. **1636

A disguise assumed by Martha in Glapthorne’s Hollander. Mr. Lovering is Lady Know-worth’s ‘man.’ He goes through the marriage ceremony with Sconce while Popingay, in disguise, actually marries Dalinea. When Mistress Know-worth loses Freewit, she determines to marry her ‘man’ Mr. Lovering. Freewit is stung by her sudden choice of so lowly a husband, but he humbly forfeits all right in her to him. At that moment, Freewit pulls off Mr. Lovering’s wig to reveal that ‘he’ is really Martha. Freewit placed her with Know-worth to test her resolve. Martha, he avows, is honest.


"Ghost characters" in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. Conchylio claims that the Nymph, Cosma, has loved many men: "This for his sprightly wit, and that for Musicke, / Him cause hee's faire, another for his blackness / Some for their bashfulnes, more for their boldnesse, / The wiseman for his silence, the foole for his bibble babble."


Lovewit is a widowed London lawyer in Jonson's The Alchemist. He is master of the house in Blackfriars in which the play is set. Face keeps Lovewit's house when the master is not in London, between the terms at the Inns of Court. Outside his house, Lovewit enters with a crowd of forty neighbors complaining about all sorts of people who go in and out of the house. Face does not allow Lovewit to enter the house, claiming the cat had the plague and the house was contaminated. Lovewit is told that the neighbors are imagining things. Just when Lovewit is about to believe his butler, Surly enters with Mammon. Mammon calls the entire party cheaters, impostors, and bawds. Face as Jeremy denies the accusations and refers them to Lovewit, who is the master of the house. Since Mammon and Surly believe that the butler is of the confederacy of tricksters, they go to get a warrant. Kastril, Ananias, and Tribulation enter in anger, demanding to see the cheaters in the house. Face as Jeremy asserts that they are escapees from the madhouse. When Lovewit demands an explanation from his butler, Face tells him to come inside the house, where a rich widow is waiting to marry him if only he agree to wear a Spanish costume. In the final scene, Lovewit enters in Spanish dress with the Parson. The marriage between Lovewit and Dame Pliant has taken place offstage. When Mammon, Surly, Kastril, Ananias, Tribulation, and officers enter, Lovewit says that this is his property and there are no persons searched by the authorities in the house. Lovewit offers the explanation that Jeremy has invented, namely that his butler Jeremy had let the house to two scoundrels, a Captain Face and a Doctor, but now they are gone. Lovewit tells Kastril he has married his sister, and the brother is content with the match. In his final word, Lovewit addresses the audience, expressing an apology regarding his behavior out of character. As an old man of gravity, Lovewit argues, probably he should have been more serious. Yet, a man with a young wife and a good brain must be excused.


Lord Lowell is sent by Richard to the Queen in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III to propose marriage between Richard and Elizabeth. Lowell reports to Richard that the Queen has accepted the suit and plans to return to the Court with all of her daughters. Lowell is one of the last men loyal to Richard. He is killed at Bosworth Field.


John Lowin, an actor of the King's Men at the Globe Theatre, argues with Sly and Sinklo about the play, and theatrical issues in general, in the Induction to Marston's Malcontent.


Family name of Kate and her husband. As regards the husband, his name implies that this decayed gentleman has suffered a significant fall in his fortunes in Middleton's No Wit, No Help Like a Woman's. Unable or unwilling to attempt to remedy this himself, his wife Kate sets about rehabilitating the family's fortunes by disguising herself as a man and winning the wealthy widow, Lady Elizabeth Goldenfleece. On their wedding night, however, Mistress Low-Water refuses to go to bed with her new bride and sends her brother, Beveril, in her stead. The assembled guests discover the two in flagrante delicto and Kate immediately claims she cannot remain married to Goldenfleece and demands payment. After some negotiation, she says that she will be satisfied with half the widow's fortune. In order to save face, Goldenfleece marries Beveril, instantly improving his fortunes as well. See also "KATE LOW-WATER."


One of the prisoners in the Counter in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden, who is not in the dramatis personae and who speaks only one line.


Ignatius Loyola, The Founder of the Jesuits (1491-1556) appears in the Induction of Middleton's A Game at Chess. He is angry that the Jesuits have failed to take over England. Error invites him to watch a "dream," in the form of a game of chess between their Black side and the White House.


Lubeck is a Danish marquis living in England in [?]Wilson's Fair Em, the Miller's Daughter. He is a good friend of King William. He carries on his shield an image of the Danish princess Blanch (not because he loves her, but as a sign of loyalty to the crown). William is entranced by the image, and visits the Danish court in disguise, accompanied by Lubeck. But William finds that the real Blanch is ugly and instead falls in love with Lubeck's love, Mariana. During a masqued ball, Lubeck scuffles with William and is injured. But his friendship with William is so strong that he tells Mariana that he would prefer her to marry William rather than break his ties with his friend. The two women trick William into eloping with Blanch rather than Mariana, and King Zweno imprisons Lubeck on suspicion of complicity. Lubeck is brought to England with Zweno and shows William how he has suffered for William's actions.


Poet of the Pharsalia, nephew to Seneca and hostile to Nero in the anonymous Tragedy of Nero. He laments the passing of the Roman republic and is one of the conspirators to dethrone the Emperor. He personally resents his own poetry being suppressed by Nero's jealousy. He falls into the conspiracy and is taken into custody with Scevinus by Nimphidius. The play does not depict his historical suicide.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Lucan (or Marcus Annaeus Lucanus) (AD 39–65) was a Roman poet, author of Pharsalia, an epic on civil war between Caesar and Pompey. At his house, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When Clerimont asks him about the classical poets, Daw refers to them in a deprecating manner, including Lucan in the long list of unworthy poets.


The original text's spelling of 'Lucre' in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Every Man in His Humour. Master Lucar is a jeweler in London. When Kitely gives business instructions to Cash, he tells him to take the key to the warehouse from his desk and make some deliveries. Kitely orders Cash to weigh the Spanish gold and see to the delivery of the silver stuff to Master Lucar. Cash is expected to discuss the price with Master Lucar and convey the message that the two merchants are supposed to meet on the Exchange presently.


Princess of Cyprus in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. She is the daughter of Adraste and Demarchus and is in love with Charistus. She is careful about what she says and reluctant to grant any favors to Charistus. Because she insists on conveying this information to Olyndus and not to Charistus himself—and because she cannot think of accepting a man who won't fight for his country (even if it is against her own)—Charistus assumes that she loves Olyndus instead and challenges him to a duel that is nearly fatal to both parties. After Lucasia discovers what they have done by seeing all the blood on the tree-trunks, she upbraids Charistus for thinking that she could be untrue to Eumela, as well as to him, and points out that women wisely don't fight duels over men. She agrees to marry Charistus, and the match is confirmed by their parents.


See also LUCY and related spellings.


Luce is a kitchen maid for Adriana at the Phoenix Inn in Ephesus in Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors. Also known as Nell, Luce is quite close to Dromio of Ephesus and plans that he will someday marry her.

LUCE **1599

A courtesan in Ruggle’s Club Law. She is Tavie’s bribe to have Niphle give him promotion to chief sergeant. When Purcus, Bromly, Trott, and Sponer come to arrest her, she gives them saucy answers and kisses Sponer when she learns he knows Bridget Boulton, who is a friend of hers. She argues bitterly but is at last taken to jail. Tavie reveals later that she was carted out of town.


A prostitute in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho who entertains Honeysuckle, Tenterhook, and Wafer. She demands that Tenterhook give her Clare's diamonds as payment for previous services, and gives them to Birdlime to use for rescuing Clare.


There are two characters named Luce in Thomas Heywood's The Wise Woman of Hogsdon:
  1. The daughter of a goldsmith and the love interest of rival wooers Boyster and Young Chartley. Luce is a virtuous maid chary of her reputation. She accepts Young Chartley as her husband, but he insists on a secret marriage so that he may secure his inheritance before making the marriage public. Luce arranges to have the ceremony secretly conducted at the Wise-Woman of Hogsdon's lodgings. But the Wise-Woman, in collusion with Boyster, arranges a double ceremony in which Luce is unwittingly married to Boyster instead, while Young Chartley is also unwittingly married to Second Luce. Luce and Young Chartley believe they are married to each other, however, and Luce is forced to pretend she is still a maid. Young Chartley neglects Luce and pursues a bigamous marriage with Gratiana. Discovering this, Luce realizes that she cannot prove that the marriage took place and that she is in neither a legal nor economic position to contest Young Chartley's marriage to Gratiana in court. She instead plots with the Wise-Woman to prevent the marriage, and lures Young Chartley to the Wise-Woman's lodgings with the invitation to a last fling before his marriage to Gratiana. The Wise-Woman, meanwhile, has arranged for all those who have been wronged by Young Chartley to be privy to the conversation between him and Luce. One by one they then come forward to confront him with his wrongdoings. Backed into a corner, Young Chartley attempts to reassert his claim to Luce as his wife but is thwarted by the Wise-Woman, who reveals that Luce has in fact married Boyster. Luce happily accepts Boyster as her husband at the end of the play.
  2. "Second" Luce is a clever, rich, and attractive maid. "Second" Luce has traveled to London disguised as a page to track down her wayward fiancé Young Chartley, who fled to London the night before their wedding. She arrives in London in time to overhear Young Chartley propose marriage to Luce and their plan to have the wedding conducted secretly at the Wise-Woman of Hogsdon's lodgings. "Second" Luce resolves to go to the Wise-Woman's herself, and she insinuates herself into the Wise-Woman's service as a boy servant named Jack in order to prevent the marriage. In addition to learning all of the Wise-Woman's cozening practices, she participates in the disguised double marriage plot: as "Jack" "Second" Luce marries Young Chartley, who believes he is marrying Luce. No sooner has "Second" Luce secretly thwarted Young Chartley's marriage plans, however, than she discovers that Young Chartley intends a bigamous marriage to Gratiana. Conspiring with the Wise-Woman and all those whom Young Chartley has wronged, she helps to arrange for these characters to confront Young Chartley with his misdeeds. Rejected by both Luce and Gratiana, and discovering that he has been duped into "marrying" a boy, Young Chartley is humbled. In the final moments of the play "Second" Luce reveals her true identity as the woman Young Chartley was to have married and that she is now truly his wife. The ceremony is binding because her name is also Luce. This revelation provides a happy ending for all but the Wise-Woman, who is horrified to discover that she has been duped into revealing her cozening secrets to "Second" Luce.

LUCE **1607

Venturewell's daughter, in love with Jasper in The London Merchant portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. Despite her father discharging Japser, she remains constant in her love. She pretends to return Humphrey's love in order to trick him into stealing her from the house and taking her to Waltham Forest. In Waltham Forest, she leads Humphrey to her meeting with Jasper, where the two are reunited and Humphrey is run off. Lost in the woods with Jasper, he tests her love by threatening her with his sword. She agrees to die for his love, but Venturewell and Humphrey appear to reclaim her. Her father has her locked in her room and plans to marry her to Humphrey in three days. When the coffin bearing Jasper arrives, she weeps over it and sings, "Come you whose loves are dead." When he proves to be alive, they are reconciled. She escapes by hiding in the coffin. She begs Old Merrythought to forgive his runaway wife. In the end, both of their fathers bless the marriage plans of Luce and Jasper.

LUCE **1613

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen. Luce is one of the local women scheduled to perform in the morris-dances for the Duke.


Lady-in-Waiting to the Widow in Fletcher's Wit Without Money. She consoles Isabel, tells Widow about Isabel's feelings for Francisco and is with Isabel as she encourages the suitors to pursue the Widow. She is distressed by getting caught between the sisters in their rivalry.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas. A daughter of one of Sebastian's neighbours, she does not appear on stage but is mentioned as one of Thomas' sexual conquests. Sebastian is impressed when his son claims that although she was only twelve when they coupled, her will was fifteen.


Romantic heroine of the play's sub-plot in May's The Heir. She is daughter to Franklin, in love with and, apparently, pregnant by Francisco, but reluctantly betrothed to the rich and foolish Shallow. She is forced by her father to swear that the baby is in fact Shallow's and to allege that he was too drunk to remember their pre-marital liaison. Alone, she grieves at her dilemma and plans to commit suicide unless Francisco can devise a scheme to save her. Francisco prevents the first wedding-ceremony and contrives to marry her himself at the second, disguised as the Parson hired to perform the marriage. Her father disowns her for marrying Francisco and persists in his hostility even after she reveals that the pregnancy was a fraud and that she is still a virgin (with a cushion up her dress). Only the surprising news that the poor Francisco is really Lysandro, the son of the rich lord Euphues, reconciles her to her father. She is not listed as accompanying her new husband to the trial of his brother Philocles: this is possibly an oversight, but also possibly in order to focus on Leucothoë as the only female at the arraignment.


Franckford's wife in Webster and Rowley's A Cure for a Cuckold. She is infertile and fully supports her husband's begetting of a child on Urse.


Countess Claridon's woman in the anonymous The Wasp. She is glad not to have moved into a monastery with her lady but rather out to Walthamstowe. She is hungry for a husband–"six husbands in seven weeks."

LUCE **1638

A scribal mistake in which Maudlin is probably intended in Glapthorne’s Wit in a Constable. In act four, Busie refers to the kindness the ladies have shown his daughter. The dramatis personae identifies Nell and Maudlin as Busie’s daughters and does not list a Luce. It seems apparent that Luce is an alternate name for the character Glapthorne also calls Maudlin. This change of name occurs in the same corrupted scene in which Thorowgood’s name is mistakenly changed to Freewit. “Luce" tells Valentine and “Freewit" that Sir Timothy and Jeremy are secretly contracted to marry Clare and Grace. She disguises herself as Clare and marries Sir Timothy.


Sir Lancelot's prettiest daughter, who is besieged with suitors in The London Prodigal. Although she favours Sir Arthur Greenshield, her father matches her first with Oliver, then to Flowerdale, whom she marries. Thenceforth, she acts as en emblem of wifely obedience, expressing loyalty to him despite his indifference. Finally, she pretends to be dead, disguising herself as a Dutch frau, Tannikin. When she reveals that she is still alive, Flowerdale is shamed into repentance by her loyalty.


Luce appears immediately after Mumford is accused of treason in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green, urging the other workers to be bold and ask Mumford to settle their debts. She is sorry for his troubles, but asks for her bill to be settled. Mumford gives her ten pounds (slightly more than is owed) and she praises him as noble man.


Lucea is Celia's maid in Marston's What You Will. The name is also twice applied in error to Celia herself.


The son of Vincentio, a gentleman of Pisa, Lucentio comes to Padua to attend university in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Shortly after arriving with his servant, Tranio, Lucentio sees and immediately falls in love with the mild-mannered Bianca. Overhearing her father Baptista's declaration that she shall not marry before her shrewish elder sister, Katherine, Lucentio devises a plot to woo Bianca secretly. He has Tranio assume his identity and publicly press his suit with Baptista, while he disguises himself as a tutor named Cambio in order to woo Bianca directly. His rival, Gremio, is fooled and presents "Cambio" to Baptista as a gift to tutor Bianca, and, Gremio intends, to act as go between for himself and Bianca. Instead, Lucentio and Bianca elope, and when Vincentio arrives to visit his son and is presented with Tranio as his son, Lucentio is forced to admit the plot. During the final banquet scene, Lucentio along with Baptista wagers that Bianca will be the first wife to come when summoned by her husband; when she fails to answer his summons, Lucentio realizes that she is really shrewish herself.


As waiting-woman and companion to Julia, Lucetta is largely responsible for Julia's attention to Proteus' love letter in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona. She firmly believes Proteus is the suitor that Julia should accept. Her sly but well-intended efforts finally convince Julia of Proteus' worth as well.


Niece and ward of Captain Blade, beloved of Young Truman, and heroine of Cowley's The Guardian. With one exception, she and her lover are the only characters who speak blank verse, while the others all speak prose. (The one exception is Dogrel, which only serves to emphasize the point.) If she marries without her guardian's consent, Blade stands to inherit the money left for her by her father; consequently he opposes her marriage to Young Truman. Old Truman, out of general irascibility, opposes it too. The two lovers try to be resourceful. They slip a mock-poison to Blade in the hope of bringing him to a softer state of mind, and Lucia provides herself with a long, dark veil in order to sidestep Old Truman's order that his son should not see her. Both tricks fail. Blade has Young Truman arrested for his "murder," and while he is in prison, the mischievous Aurelia visits, disguised in the veil, with an immodest letter to which she has forged Lucia's signature, thus destroying his love for Lucia. Next, Aurelia uses her Lucia disguise on the foolish Puny and convinces him that he and Lucia are now betrothed. Rejected by her lover, cast off by her guardian (who is now confident that she will get married without his consent), insulted by her supposed fiancé (who is furious to hear of Blade's plan to confiscate her money), Lucia comes up with a last device. She disguises herself as a non-existent maid, Jane, and hires herself out to Aurelia in order to find out what is going on. Meanwhile, Blade and Old Truman have decided to marry Aurelia to Young Truman. Anxious to avoid this, Aurelia wraps up "Jane" in the veil and presents her to Young Truman as herself. Thus Lucia and Young Truman are united after all—with some thanks to her, none to him, and much to the over-clever Aurelia, who finally admits her tricks and clears Lucia's reputation.

[In Cowley's own 1658 revision of this play, Cutter of Coleman Street (performed 1661), Lucia's final act of resourcefulness is removed because Aurelia really does have a maid named Jane, who is set to marry Worm at play's end.]


Only mentioned in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. Lucian (c117-180) is a Greek satirist and rhetorician. He made his name as a peripatetic speechmaker, but eventually settled in Athens, where he studied philosophy. Lucian introduced a new form of literature - the humorous dialogue. He wrote at a time of increasing decline of old faiths, old philosophy, and old literature, and this provided the subject matter of his satire. Amorphus praises the waters of the fountain of Self-love, saying they are better than the wine Demosthenes used to drink when composing his splendid orations. Crites argues that Lucian, in his Encomium Demosthenis, affirms that Demosthenes never drunk but water while producing his compositions. Amorphus replies that Lucian is absurd and he knew nothing about Demosthenes. Amorphus affirms that he would believe his own travels rather than rely on all the Lucians of Europe, because the scholars feed people with figments of their imagination and borrowings from others' writings.
Only mentioned in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. Sir Jeptes is teaching Florimel in Lucian’s Dialogues, a book described in the s.d. as bound in vellum with gilt leaves and a ribbon.
Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Lingua. Mendacio claims he is three thousand years old and helped many writers and philosophers pen their lies.


Luciana is the sister of Adriana, who is the wife of Ephesian Antipholus Sereptus in Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors. She is with Adriana when she first mistakes one Antipholus for the other. When she urges the wrong Antipholus to be kinder to his wife, she is quite taken aback when the supposed husband of her sister practically propositions her.


Lucianus is the murderer in the play within the play in Shakespeare's Hamlet. Hamlet, whether subconsciously or to threaten Claudius, states that Lucianus is the nephew, rather than the brother of the king/duke of the play.


Lucibel is the daughter of Cardona in James Shirley's The Wedding. Disguised as Gratiana, she went at her mother's bidding into the embraces of Marwood hoping to catch him as husband. When no marriage offer came, Lucibel left home and unbeknownst to her mother assumed the disguise and name of the male page Milliscent, and attached herself to Jane Landby. Sent to assist Gratiana after her wedding is cancelled, Lucibel/Milliscent is aware that Marwood's accusation of Jane is false. At the end of the play she is revealed as Cardona's daughter and is to wed Marwood.


Alternate name for Lucybel in Chettle's Hoffman.


Alternate name for Lucybel in Chettle's Hoffman.


Alternate name for Lucybel in Chettle's Hoffman.


Lucida is Lelio's daughter in the anonymous Knack To Know An Honest Man. She weeps as the guard enters her house to search for her father, rejecting the advances of Fortunio, the Duke's son, with "I am wedded to my woe." Later Fortunio tries to seduce her with gold. Again she rejects him. Later she is physically attacked by Fortunio and defended by Brishio's sons. When the disguised Lelio returns from exile to allow Lucida to claim the reward for capturing him, Servio enters and takes over Lelio himself. Lucida says she will allow him to claim the reward money if he will lock Lelio up in Servio's prison for three days. At Lelio's trial she pleads for mercy for her father and claims the reward for the capture of her father, explaining that Lelio had discovered himself to her, not to Servio and that Servio had kept Lelio locked up for three days when the law demanded that Lelio be brought to court as soon as he was discovered. The Duke awards her the reward. At the trial where Lelio, Orphinio and Zepherius are sentenced to death and Brishio steps forward offering himself up to death, a senator points out that a hundred crown fine, not death, is the proper punishment. When Lucida offers to pay the fine herself, Brishio rejects her offer. At the end Lelia's hand is offered to Sempronio.


Lucida is one of the daughters of Antonio, banished Duke of Mantua, and her brother is the revengeful Aspero in Day's Humour Out of Breath. In exile she and her sister Hermia live as country maids with their father who is now a fisherman. While fishing, Hermia and Lucida encounter Francisco and Hippolito, sons to their father's enemy Duke Octavio, now disguised as shepherds, and the couples flirt extensively, Hermia with Hippolito and Lucida with Francisco. After further wooing the couples decide to wed and they obtain Antonio's blessing; but Octavio who, disguised as a servingman, has been spying on his sons, thinks they are in love with real peasant girls and reveals himself, forbidding the matches and banishing the disguised Antonio and his daughters. In the mean time loyal Mantuan Lords have retaken Mantua in Antonio's name. He and his daughters have re-entered their city when word is brought that Octavio and his army are on the way to attack Mantua. Francisco and Hippolito are in the advance guard but when they scale Mantua's walls they are met by Hermia and Lucida who they recognize as the shepherdesses they had loved. When Octavio arrives with the rest of his army he discovers his sons and daughter paired off with Antonio's daughters and son. Chastened by their loving example, the two Dukes reconcile and weddings are announced as the play ends. In this play Hermia and Lucida are not very well differentiated-in fact they are virtually interchangeable (as are their lovers Hippolito and Francisco]. This is demonstrated by what appears to be a confusion in speech prefixes that is perpetuated even in the heavily edited Mermaid edition. All through the early acts, it is Hermia with Hippolito and Lucida with Francisco, and this is the way they are paired off at the very end. But when the brothers scale Mantua walls to discover their lovers among the defenders (Bullen p.479; Mermaid 5.3), it is Francisco who speaks of a "goddesse in my Hermiae's shape."


Lucida is the daughter of Sir John Worldly and the sister of Bellafront, and Katherine in Field's A Woman is a Weathercock. She is in love with Count Frederick despite his forthcoming marriage to Bellafront, and is loved in turn by Sir Abraham Ninny. Sir John urges her to marry Sir Abraham, but she declares that she will remain single until either Count Frederick is dead or she is married to him. Lucida later finds herself attracted to Nevill and regrets her vow. During the masque Count Frederick partners her, and when it is revealed that Bellafront is married to Scudamore, he finally asks her to marry him.


Lucidor is a lord and friend to Agenor in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers. In Act One, Lucidor tries to comfort Clindor, his friend, although he does not lend him money. Nevertheless, he steps forward to defend Clindor when he is ill-treated by Senon. Later, he will follow Agenor in his exile. He goes with him to Neustrea where he gets the disguise of Agenor's father.


Lucifer, prince of hell, tells Faustus in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus that Christ cannot save his soul from damnation, because Christ is just. On two occasions during the play, Lucifer persuades Faustus to renounce Jesus and think on the devil. As the play closes he comes again with Belzebub and Mephostophilis to bring everlasting damnation to Faustus.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Lucifer is mentioned by Master Fright when he is describing his disease to Doctor Clyster: "I mend my pace and leapin amongst them, thinking how near Lucifer was scratching my hinder parts." Then, he is mentioned by Master Silence when, hearing Master Ominous report his bad luck, he exclaims: "But fough, Lucifer's gun and gunpowder!" Later, he is mentioned by Signor Jealousia who, obsessed with horns–because he believes his wife is being unfaithful to him–says: "and Lucifer with his horn major and his regiment of horned devils will revenge my quarrel." He is also mentioned by Master Fright who, explaining––to Doctor Clyster–his episodes of fear of darkness, narrates: "in a windy night I was awakened with such a clapping and rushing as I thought Lucifer had been in the act of procreation with his succuba behind the hangings." Lucifer is another name for the Devil, as well as the Old Juggler, the Great Deceiver, Satanas or Satan.
Lucifer in Dekker's If It Be Not Good is the first to arrive at the devils' meeting at the black tree in Naples grove, where he hears the progress reports of Ruffman, Shacklesoule, Lurchall, and the other devils.
A "ghost character" in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. The Witch claims that Lucifer has "promist [her] power by vertue of [their] contract" as long as she has "being on the earth." Furthermore, when Adrastus kills her, the Witch claims that "false Lucifer" has "deceived" her.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's Your Five Gallants. Briefly mentioned as one of Frippery's clients.


The she-devil raised by Delphia to punish Geta for his abuse of power in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess. Lucifera sits on Geta's knee, kisses him, causes his chair to do a dance, and whispers in his ear, after which the merry knave repents and decides to return to a life as a tiler.


The daughter of Flores in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll. She marries Lassinbergh, but is distressed to find that he is unhappy in marriage. When he departs, she desperately follows him. She is briefly ensnared by the Enchanter, but rescued by her father. Still following Lassinbergh, she encounters Katherine whose help in winning back Lassinbergh she reluctantly accepts.


Lucilius is a friend of Cassius and Brutus in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. He serves in the legions fighting against the triumvirate, noting that Cassius seems to receive him less warmly than he did prior to Caesar's murder. When captured, Lucilius pretends to be Brutus, but Mark Antony identifies him and orders that he not be killed.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Gaius Lucilius (c.180–102? BC) was a Latin satiric poet, considered the founder of Latin satire, born at Campania, Italy. About 1,300 fragments survive from his 30 books. He influenced Horace, Persius, and Juvenal. He was a friend of Scipio Aemilianus and of Laelius. Satire had been already cultivated in dramatic form and, with Ennius and Pacuvius, in the polymetric composition of various arguments. With Lucilius, satire takes the form of hexameter, which remains the typical meter of satire. His satires, of which we have fragments, consist of scenes and character sketches from life, and are generally, though not always, aimed at the folly and wickedness of mankind, particularly as found in the party opposed to the clique of Scipio and his friends. In his dialogue with Trebatius, which is part of Author's apology, and which quotes Horace's Satire 1, Book II, Horace says he cannot praise Caesar's victories in his poems, because Caesar's wars cannot be fought with words. Then, Trebatius, who advocates for Horace writing verses that praise Caesar instead of satires, gives Horace an alternative. Horace could write of Caesar's virtue, showing him in a favorable light, as wise Lucilius does. Similarly, when Horace expresses his preference for writing verse, he says that he likes to close his words in feet, just like Lucilius, who is better than both Horace and Trebatius. According to Horace, Lucilius holds his books as his trusted friends, sharing all his secrets with them. Thus, Lucilius's life was described in his verses and could be seen as a votive table. Horace says that his genius inclines to Lucilius's authority.


One of Timon's servants in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens. He is in love with an old Athenian's daughter. Her father is against their marriage, but agrees when Timon supplies a generous dowry for Lucilius.


Supporter of Antonius in May's Cleopatra; along with Aristocrates, the only person admitted by Antonius in his fit of melancholic depression after Actium. With Aristocrates, Lucilius tries to warn Antonius about the duplicity of Cleopatra. After Antonius's death, he surrenders to Caesar.


A "ghost character" in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Satire mentions this Roman satirist in demonstrating his own superiority over Mime.


A "ghost character" in Suckling's Brennoralt. She is named twice (once with an alternate spelling of Lucilia). She is the daughter of a forester, but disguised herself as a man in order to fight on the side of Brennoralt, whom she loved. After her death, Marinell discovers and reveals the truth, and Brennoralt reflects that love can make even women brave.


Beloved of Ferdinando in Kyd's Soliman and Perseda. She receives a chain from him in pledge of his love. It is the chain Persida gave Erastus and he lost in the games. When the mummers appear, she willingly gambles with them, wins gold, but loses the chain. She mistakes the disguised Erastus for Ferdinando. With Perseda, she mourns Ferdinando's death, and Perseda mourns Erastus's self-exile. She is captured along with Perseda during the Turkish assault on Rhodes, and taken to Turkey. Soliman gives her to Brusor. She travels back to Rhodes with Brusor, where she remains with Perseda when Erastus is called back to Turkey. She attempts to persuade Perseda to accept Soliman's love. When Perseda discovers her treachery and Basilisco refuses to kill her, Perseda kills her.


The 'Queen of the Shades', summoned by the Devil to prophesy Merlin's future in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father.


A woman of great beauty and chastity in Fletcher's Valentinian. The wife of Maximus, a Roman soldier of equal nobility, she resists the attempts on the part of the Emperor Valentinian to make her his mistress but is finally lured to the court with the aid of a ring that the Emperor won from her husband during a game of dice. Valentinian rapes her and, mortified by her disgrace, she dies after having confessed to her husband. Her death sets off Maximus' vendetta against Valentinian and everybody who stands in the way of his revenge, which leads to his usurpation of the throne and subsequent death at the hand of Eudoxa.

LUCINA **1632

This rich young widow in Shirley's The Ball enjoys jokes at the expense of her several suitors. She praises Travers for industries he does not own, urges Bostock to decrease his level of nobility, and tricks Lamount (and the others) into obtaining marriage licenses that will never be used. She does, at least, ascertain the true spirit and credibility of Winfield, for when she urges him to prove he has been chaste and honest, he plainly admits that as a soldier he can make no such claims.


Lucinda is a Turkish prisoner in Fletcher's The Knight of Malta. She is about fourteen years old and very beautiful. Norandine's men capture her. He at first tells the men to dispose of her as they wish, but when she begs for protection, he turns her over to Miranda, who was the one who first captured her. At first, she is not allowed to see Miranda, and this makes her curious to meet him, a desire Collonna cautions against. When Miranda does send for her, Collonna tells her to make herself as ugly as possible, as protection against his lust, but Lucinda argues that defacing the beauty given her by heaven is as sinful as augmenting it (with cosmetics). At first, she seems willing to flirt with Miranda and give him kisses, but when it seems that he wants more, she points to his cross and asks why he is sick with lust if he wears it. She tells him if he attempts to take her, she will make the sign of the cross to curse him, and Miranda is recalled to his duty as a Maltese Knight. Once Oriana has been rescued from her tomb, Lucinda waits on her and helps her with her newborn son. In the final scene, after Oriana is revealed as alive to all, Miranda asks that Lucinda be allowed to serve Oriana. At this, Collonna steps forward and reveals that he is actually Angelo, the fiancé of Lucinda, and they are thus reunited.


Sister to Adrastus in Carlell's The Fool Would Be A Favorite. She rejects Agenor's love, claiming that she will only marry someone who proves to be as worthy as her brother Adrastus, whom she idolizes. In the woods, she encounters friends of Adrastus who claim he has been murdered by a knight. She directs them to the house she saw the knight stop at and discovers that the man they are pursuing is Philanthus, who is sound asleep. She promises to murder him herself but actually only cuts her hands to make them appear to be soaked in his blood. Adrastus's friends then admit that Adrastus has not been killed. Having fallen in love with the sleeping Philanthus, she takes him to her house and makes him believe that he has been captured by a witch so that his actual situation will look better by comparison. She proclaims her love for Philanthus, but he tells her that he loves Aurelia and she releases him. She then travels to the court with the Moor. The Morr promises to give Philanthus a vision of the woman who held him prisoner, and Lucinda reveals herself, unaware that Agenor is in the room. She unsuccessfully tries to prevent the jealous Agenor from stabbing Philanthus and is wounded in the process. When Agenor is tempted to kill himself, she tells him that were she to love anyone other than Philanthus's memory, it would be him. Philanthus, pretending to be a ghost, appears to her and commands her to marry Agenor, which she ultimately agrees to do.


After Philanthus is brought to Lucinda's house in Carlell's The Fool Would Be A Favorite, a servant tells him that he has been captured by a witch and that horrors await him. This story is devised by Lucinda to make his actual situation seem better by comparison.


A shepherdess of Delos, in love with Aristée in [?]Queen Henrietta's Florimène. She falls briefly in love with the disguised Lycoris, and loses interest in Aristée after he at last becomes infatuated with her. She is finally paired off with him anyway by Diana.


A servant to Prisius in Lyly's Mother Bombie. Lucio is enlisted by his master to arrange a marriage between his daughter Livia and wealthy Memphio's son Accius. Instead, he joins with his servant friends (Dromio, Riscio and Halfpenny) and plots with them to cozen their respective masters. After concocting a plan over sack at the local tavern, the co-conspirators consult the cunning woman Mother Bombie to see if their plan will work. They are told cryptically that they will succeed even though they will be revealed as cozeners. Lucio also asks Mother Bombie to interpret his dream about food, and is informed that he is either in danger of a beating or that a wedding is imminent, both likely possibilities considering his meddling in the marriage plans of the play. Lucio and his compatriots arrange to have Livia and Candius meet dressed as Accius and Silena, thus eliciting the unwitting blessings of their fathers for their marriage. Prisius is furious with both his daughter and Lucio when the clandestine marriage is revealed, but because he can do nothing about the situation, he reconciles himself to the match and Lucio is forgiven at the end of the play.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet who is invited to the Capulet feast.

LUCIO **1599

Friend and follower of Andrugio in Marston's Antonio and Mellida. The "weak old" Lucio and Andrugio's page are the only characters with Andrugio who survive the defeat by Venetian fleet. He urges Andrugio to remove his armor and assume a disguise, and he finds the former duke some roots for food. Later he urges Andrugio to have patience when the latter insists upon fighting to the death. Finally, it is the faithful Lucio who shows up at the prenuptial dinner bringing a coffin containing Antonio's purported corpse.
Lucio is Maria's servant in Marston's Antonio's Revenge. He travels with her from Genoa to Venice at the beginning of the play. Lucio suggests to the duchess that she should freshen up before meeting her husband; it is a suggestion Maria declines. Antonio brushes off Lucio and Alberto when they try to console the young gentleman over the death of his father and the alleged infidelity of Mellida. During a dumb show, Lucio and Nutriche are seen accepting a payment from Piero in exchange for their help in convincing Maria to marry the Venetian Duke. It is Lucio who summons Antonio to Mellida's trial. He is present when Alberto is told to rumor Antonio dead. He is present at the masque when Piero is killed.


Described as a "fantastic," or a playboy, a gentleman who dresses and behaves ostentatiously and flouts social conventions in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. Lucio is a friend to Claudio and frequents Mistress Overdone's brothel. He is said to have fathered a child by the prostitute Kate Keepdown. When Claudio is arrested for fornication, he sends Lucio to Isabella to ask her to plead with Angelo on his behalf. During Isabella's conference with Angelo, Lucio repeatedly prompts her to try harder to convince Angelo. Later, Lucio visits the prison where he meets and converses with the disguised Duke Vincentio; Lucio slanders the Duke, saying that he failed to enforce the laws against fornication because he was a fornicator himself. In the end, the Duke punishes Lucio by forcing him to marry Kate Keepdown, thereby legitimizing her child and making Lucio a cuckold.


Lucio, son to Alvarez, was reared to dress and act as a girl in Fletcher, Beaumont, and Massinger's, Love's Cure. When his father returns, he is forced to become a man again. At first he is a coward and inept in swordplay. He is forced to take sword-fighting lessons from Piorato. Told by his father that he must beat the first man he sees or bed the next woman, he beats Anastro and then kisses Genevora. Before he can complete his conquest of Genevora, Lamorall, whom he will soon defeat in a duel, takes her away. He proposes to Genevora, who is attracted to his feminine manner, and acts as his father's second in the final duel.


Lucio is a weak formal statesman in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. According to Valore, he was made a lord at his friend's request, for his wife's sake. In a street at night, Lucio enters with Arrigo following Duke in disguise. When Duke asks for their opinion regarding his intention of disguising himself, Lucio says he supposes it is to see the corruption in the state. Duke discloses his plan to see a girl, and Lucio responds his aim is laudable. After discussing the advisability of a prince accepting his subjects' flattery, Lucio exits with Arrigo following Duke. At Gondarino's house, Lucio enters with Arrigo and Duke. They attend the scene in which Duke accuses Gondarino of duplicitous attitude, and when Gondarino promises to prove that Oriana is a whore. In his apartment, Lucio gives audience as aspiring head of secret intelligence. After Gentleman gives him ironic advice on diplomacy, Lucio receives Intelligencers, who denounce Lazarillo as a traitor. Lucio concludes that Lazarillo is guilty and orders him to be taken before Duke. Unaware of Intelligencers' failure in their ambitious plans to be advanced by denouncing Lazarillo, Lucio enters expecting promotion. However, Valore admonishes Lucio for his naïveté in handling the situation and advises early retirement. Lucio exits crestfallen.

LUCIO **1615

A “ghost character" in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Antonio took four score and fifteen pounds with him to Barbary. Had Lucio kept his word, he would have taken a just hundred. Lucio, therefore, had promised but reneged on giving him five pounds for the journey. This information proves to Lelio that the Antonio before him is actually his father.

LUCIO **1620

Page to Virolet and Juliana in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage. Lucio is a devoted servant whose efforts to be of use range from worrying that his master is not dressed warmly enough on a raw morning to attempting a rude dismissal of Juliana's rival Martia when she comes to call. When Juliana is released by the tyrant Ferrand and returned home still suffering from the tortures he inflicted, Lucio is put in an awkward spot when he must tell his mistress that her husband is home but has refused to come out to meet her. Lucio serves as an escort when the divorced Juliana goes to visit Virolet. After Juliana inadvertently kills Virolet then dies of sorrow, Lucio sees to the careful handling of the corpses of his master and mistress.


Lucio is a young courtier, much beloved of the Duke, and friend to Foreste in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. Lucio is in love with Corsa, Foreste's sister, and wins her hand despite Foreste's fears that she is not worthy of him. Lucio and Foreste appear before the Duke to ask pardon for Lucio's marriage, and the Duke grants it, while teasing Corsa about using up Lucio's health and beauty. The Duke then sends Lucio to Lucca, ostensibly to greet the Papal Legate, but really to allow the Duke a chance to seduce Corsa. After the rape, Corsa sends for Lucio, asking him to return immediately, which he does, but he finds her dead. Foreste explains that he himself killed her because she had been stained. Lucio is not at all impressed with his argument, and states instead that since she was forced, her thoughts are pure. He attacks Foreste, who refuses to fight back and instead says that he killed a sister to keep a friend, but since he has done wrong he deserves to die. Lucio refuses to kill him, and Foreste then suggests that they take revenge on the Duke. After Foreste has confronted the Duke about Luinna and been satisfied, Lucio prepares to kill him, a death which the Duke seeks. Lucio, however, cannot bring himself to kill his prince. When Foreste points out that the Duke will surely have them killed to secure himself, Lucio responds that he welcomes death. After leaving the bedroom, they find the Duke killed by mistake, and Lucio attacks the men who killed his prince. In the final fight, Lucio fights with Cosimo and wounds him, but is killed himself.


One of the boy singers in Davenant's The Just Italian. He, with Pytho, performs on Alteza's command.


Lucio is a courtier in the duchess' court at Urbino in Shirley's The Opportunity. He is the first to mistake the visiting Aurelio for Borgia.


Steward to the haughty Paulina in Shirley's The Sisters.


Lucippe is one Calis's serving women in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. She corroborates the princess's assertion that odd things happen whenever Cleanthe begins to behave in a particularly strange fashion.


Appears in the first playlet in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One.


Lucius, a son of Titus in Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus, helps to initiate the play's cycle of revenge when he demands the execution of Alarbus as a ritual sacrifice to the gods. Lucius later leaves Rome to join the Goths, and after capturing Aaron, returns to Rome in charge of the Goth army. During the banquet scene Lucius kills Saturninus, is declared the new Emperor, and sentences Aaron and Tamora to be punished for their crimes.


Lucius is Brutus' servant in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. He brings Brutus a paper found at the window-a letter urging Brutus to "Speak, strike, redress." Lucius plays the David to Brutus' Saul at Sardis, playing soothing music for his master.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Antony's brother and a consul. He is reported as first fighting against Fulvia and then joining with her against Caesar.


The name Lucius applies to two characters in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens:
  1. Lord Lucius is one of Timon's false friends, a flattering lord. In I.ii he sends him four milk-white horses trapped in silver, for which he is richly paid. The three strangers tell him that Timon has lost all his money. When Servilius comes to ask for a loan, he declines (III.ii). The same Lucius is probably also one of Timon's moneylenders, and Timon owes him five thousand crowns.
  2. It is also the name of a usurer's servant in III.iv. Most of the servants are given the names of their masters, so "Lucius" is probably a servant of Lord Lucius. Timon owes Lord Lucius five thousand crowns.


One of the senators in Fletcher's Valentinian who aid and legitimize Maximus' ascent to the throne.


A nobleman of Thessaly in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort. He is forced to flee to Arcadia and adopts the identity Lisander when King Ferdinand is overthrown by Oswell. Working as a servant to the poor shepherd Gisbert for seven years, the master makes him his heir and gives him his daughter, Urania, in marriage despite the protestations of two competing and neighboring shepherds Alexis and Surdo (sons of Lisippus and Cosmo respectively). On his wedding day, however, he is informed of the change of power in Thessaly, that he is again a Lord, and his wealth restored. He promptly leaves Arcadia and his wife, dispenses with his disguise as Lisander, and sells Gisbert's possessions to his rival Cosmo. Upon arrival in the Thessalian Court, Lucius renounces his former life, is installed as Senator, claims to have been a crusader for the previous seven years, promptly falls in love with Flavia (daughter of the bawd Gullman), and, in a scene reminiscent of Hal's rejection of Falstaff in 2 Henry IV, dismisses his former master when he comes to court. Fallen on hard times when King Ferdinand and Prince Sigismund entertain Gisbert's accusations against him and Flavia rejects his advances after learning of his previous marriage, Lucius seeks the comfort of Urania (disguised as Castadora). When Gullman and her daughter summon the constable, he murders Flavia and, along with his wife, is sentenced to death by Gisbert (now a senator). The sentence is communted by King Ferdinand when his son Sigismund is united with Princess Adelizia.

LUCIUS **1632

Friend to Neander and rival to him for Pandora’s love in Hausted’s Rival Friends. He refuses to woo Pandora for love of his friend who also loves her. Both Lucius and Neander have asked Lively to win Pandora for the other, but because Lively most favors Lucius, he tells Neander to pretend to marry another girl so Lucius might believe himself free to marry Pandora. He has heard Neander plot with Lively to “marry" him falsely to a boy dressed as a girl, and when Lively tells Lucius that Neander is married indeed to Constantina, Lucius claims that all is wasted because he can never marry Pandora because he is a born eunuch. When he learns that Endymion is Pandora’s new love, he and Neander threaten to kill the boy until Pandora tells them it is a jest. When Neander then offers Pandora to Lucius (as Neander is already wed), Lucius surprises them by declaring himself a eunuch. Laurentio finds him and curses him for ruining Isabella, whom he loved and left. At play’s end he takes Isabella to wed (but strangely the question of his being a eunuch is not mentioned again).


A Celtic prince from Spain in Nabbes' Hannibal and Scipio, betrothed to the Young Lady, who arrives in Carthage at the end of act four along with Scipio's conquering army. He asks Scipio to release the Young Lady to him, which Scipio magnanimously does as an example to Massanissa.

LUCIUS **1636

Unknown brother to Facertes and Cicilia in Killigrew’s The Princess. He goes under the name of Cilius and does not know his true identity. Terresius took him in infancy and changed his name to protect his identity from the Romans. See CILIUS for a description of his action in the play.


Seneca, Nero's former tutor, is appointed to the Senate at Agrippina's instigation in May's Julia Agrippina. He persuades them to accept Nero as Emperor, but subsequently conspires with Burrhus Afranius to induce Nero to marginalize Agrippina because he thinks women should have no role in affairs of state.


Lucius Bestia is a tribune and an ally to Catiline in Jonson's Catiline. According to Catiline, Bestia is ambitious and therefore he is among those to whom Catiline has promised a rich province, should he become consul. At Catiline's house, Bestia enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot was exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. After Cicero has exposed the incendiary plot in the Senate and Catiline has been exiled, the conspirators plan to go along with their plot. Volturtius is supposed to accompany the Allobroges with a message from the party in Rome, informing Catiline that Lucius Bestia is expected to deliver a speech in the Senate, blaming the war on Cicero's ambition. Bestia's address will be taken as a signal for the beginning of the hostilities. It is not clear what happens to Bestia when the conspirators are apprehended and punished. It is understood that he shares their fate.


Caius Lucius is Rome's ambassador and later the general of Rome's invading forces in Shakespeare's Cymbeline. After the Romans have been vanquished, Caius Lucius begs Cymbeline to ransom his page, Fidele, who is really Cymbeline's daughter Imogen in disguise.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. Lucius Cornelius Cinna was a Roman patrician and consul of the republic between 87–84 BC. He was a principal supporter of Marius against Sylla. When Sylla was at war in Africa, Cinna and Marius declared themselves consuls, and a great slaughter of Sylla's followers took place. After Marius's death, Sylla remained consul. When Sylla set out for Rome, Cinna raised an army to oppose him, but before the civil war began, Cinna was murdered in a mutiny. His daughter, Cornelia, was the first wife of Julius Caesar. When Catiline discloses to Aurelia his plan of becoming consul, he admits the necessity of enrolling dissatisfied Roman generals and patricians to his cause. Among others, Catiline mentions Lentulus, who descended from the Cornelius family. According to the prophecy in the Sibylline Books, a third man from his family shall be king in Rome. Catiline admits to having paid the Augurers to interpret this prophecy as meaning Lentulus, since the other two Cornelii, Cinna and Sylla are dead. The relativity of such an interpretation is obvious.


Only mentioned and later appears as a ghost in Jonson's Catiline. Lucius Cornelius Sulla (or Sylla) was a Roman general. He served under Marius in Africa and became consul in 88 BC. In 83 BC, Sylla was at the origin of a civil war in Rome and in 82 BC he had himself named dictator and began a systematic butchery of his enemies. Sylla's dictatorship was notorious for its cruelty and lack of legality. When Catiline discloses to Aurelia his plan of becoming consul, he admits the necessity of enrolling dissatisfied Roman generals and patricians to his cause. Among others, Catiline mentions Lentulus, who descended from the Cornelius family. According to the prophecy in the Sibylline Books, a third man from his family shall be king in Rome. Catiline admits to having paid the Augurers to interpret this prophecy as meaning Lentulus, since the other two Cornelii, Cinna and Sylla are dead. The relativity of such an interpretation is obvious.


Lucius Cassius Longinus is a patrician of senatorial rank and a member of Catiline's conspiracy in Jonson's Catiline. At Catiline's house, Longinus enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. Longinus and Lentulus accompany Catiline to the Senate. Since Catiline's plan has failed, and Cicero has been elected consul, Longinus and Lentulus express their dissatisfaction privately. After the plot was exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. Longinus and Statilus have the specific charge of starting the fire, prompted by a trumpet sounded in twelve places at once. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, Allobroges testify that they have letters signed by all the members of the conspiracy, except for Longinus, who said he would not write because he was to come in person to see Catiline. It seems that, by not having provided material proof against him, Longinus might have saved himself. However, in his address to the Senate, Cicero includes Longinus's name among the conspirators and it is understood that he shares their punishment.


Along with Rufus Crispinus, Lucius Geta commands the Praetorian Guard until he is dismissed at the instigation of Agrippina in May's Julia Agrippina. He subsequently flees to the country.


A murderer in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. Once a tribune of Pompey's, Septimus is responsible–with Achillas and Salvius–for the murder of Pompey.


Lucius Sergius Catilina is a Roman politician and conspirator in the last days of the Roman republic in Jonson's Catiline. In 63 BC, Catiline set up a conspiracy to be elected consul but was defeated. In his study in Rome, Catiline ponders on his intended scheme, inspired by the evil apparition of Sylla's Ghost. Aurelia enters and Catiline tells her his ambitious dream, instructing her to enroll the dissatisfied Roman matrons to his cause. When the conspirators enter, Catiline delivers his address and they seal the pact by drinking human blood. After Cicero has been elected consul, however, Catiline pretends to congratulate his rival in the Senate, but he meets later with the conspirators to discuss plans for retaliation. At his home, Catiline discusses secretly with Caesar, who tells him that he and Crassus are on his side, and he should go along with his plot. When the conspirators enter, Catiline presents the plan of setting fire to the city and attributes specific tasks to each member. In the Senate, Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy, but Catiline denies the allegations. However, he says he will go to banishment to clear all suspicions against him. When he meets the conspirators later, Catiline tells them to go along with their plan, despite his self-banishment, while he is raising an army abroad. After the conspirators have been arrested and tried in the Senate, the exiled Catiline delivers his final address to the army, inciting them to fight to the death. Later, Pomtinius reports to the Senate that Catiline resisted the assault till he died.


(Also called Silenus in May's Julia Agrippina). Lucius Silanus is a member of the Imperial family who was betrothed to Claudius's daughter Octavia. In order that Nero could marry her instead, Lucius Silanus was deposed from the Praetorship by Vitellius and subsequently killed.


Lucius Statilius is a member of Catiline's conspiracy in Jonson's Catiline. At Catiline's house, Statilius enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot has been exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. Statilius is charged with setting fire to the city in one of the twelve places assigned. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, Allobroges testify that the incriminating letters have been signed by Statilius among others, and he confesses to having signed them. The Senate decides to place Statilius under Caesar's private custody. After reports of the conspirators' further seditious actions, the Senate sentences them to death and Cicero orders that Statilius should be executed with the others.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned by Agrippina as offering a precedent for her ambition to both rule and write.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, or Tarquinius Superbus, was the legendary fifth king of Rome. His son, Sextus, raped the Roman matron Lucrece, who committed suicide for this reason. Curius says Fulvia is a Lais and she has all the attributes of a courtesan, so she cannot pretend to have turned Lucrece, a virtuous woman, all of a sudden. In reply, Fulvia tells Curius to keep off his ravisher's hands, because she he would not kill herself, as Lucretia did, for this Tarquin. By comparing Curius with Tarquin, whose name remained connected with that of a rapist, Fulvia alludes to Curius's brutal sexual behavior.


Lucius Valerius Flaccus is a praetor in Rome in Jonson's Catiline. He is responsible with the law and order, together with Pomtinius. At Cicero's house, Cicero tells his brother to summon a number of senators and loyal officials, among whom he mentions Flaccus and Pomtinius. The praetors witness the scene in which Cornelius and Vargunteius are not admitted into Cicero's house, because he has been warned that they intend to murder him. However, Cicero does not charge the praetors to arrest the would-be murderers because he lacks evidence. At Cicero's house, the consul instructs the praetors on the strategy of war, following the Senate's decision to send an army against Catiline. Flaccus and Pomtinius renew their allegiance to Rome, telling Cicero they will fight under the command of Petreius. Actually, only Pomtinius speaks, while Flaccus acts accordingly. Sanga enters announcing that the conspirators have taken the bait and the Allobroges must be intercepted at the Milvian Bridge. Flaccus and Pomtinius exeunt to execute the orders. The praetors intercept Allobroges, telling them to surrender, which they do easily, despite Volturtius's protests. The praetors arrest the entire party taking them to Rome. After the conspirators are brought to trial before the Senate, the consul rules that the praetors should be given public thanks for their handling of the conspirators' arrest.


Lucius Vargunteius is a patrician of senatorial rank and a member of Catiline's conspiracy in Jonson's Catiline. According to Catiline, he is ambitious and is among those to whom Catiline had promised a rich province. At Catiline's house, Vargunteius enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot was exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. Vargunteius is charged with murdering Cicero in his house, while pretending to be his friend. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. Before Cicero's house, Vargunteius and Cornelius require to be admitted, apparently as the consul's friends, but actually intending to assassinate Cicero. When they are denied entrance in front of witnesses, the conspirators pretend to be angry, but they steal away furtively when Cicero addresses them from above, inviting them to repent. Vargunteius and Cornelius intend to deny everything if accused. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, Allobroges testify that the agent recruiting them for Catiline's conspiracy has named Vargunteius among the confederates. When the conspirators are sentenced to death, it is understood that Vargunteius is executed with the others.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Catiline. Lucius Vectius is a lesser member of Catiline's conspiracy. After the conspirators have been tried and condemned in the Senate, word comes that one Lucius Vectius has been arrested. According to Flaccus, Lucius Vectius confessed that Caesar was implicated in Catiline's plot. Cicero instructs the praetor to throw him out of the court, because he knows that Caesar is noble and would not be involved in such an affair. Caesar implies that such a false witness might have been paid to accuse him, expressing the veiled suspicion that Cicero could have done that, in order to have Caesar under control. Eventually, however, Caesar promises to be silent and the situation is concluded with a tacit understanding between Caesar and Cicero.


Sir Philip is an impecunious young gentleman in Brome's The Northern Lass who plans to marry the wealthy widow, Mistress Fitchow, against his cousin Tridewell's advice. When Sir Paul Squelch's niece, Constance, sends her governess to tell him that she has fallen in love with him, he mistakes her for the prostitute Constance Holdup and marries Mistress Fitchow immediately in order to avoid further entreaties. After Constance and her friends present a masque at his wedding, he discovers his mistake and decides to obtain a divorce by failing to consummate the marriage. He then carries Constance away in a coach. By the time the couple reappears at Sir Paul Squelch's dinner party, Sir Philip's divorce has come through (cemented by the revelation that he and Fitchow were falsely 'married' by a disguised Pate), and Sir Paul's change of heart allows Sir Philip to marry Constance.


The titular obstinate lady in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady. Lucora is daughter of Polidacre and Rosinda, sister to Philander and the long-lost Cleanthe. Carionil and Falorus overhear her as she commits herself to Diana, rejecting marriage in general, and Carionil's suit in particular. Polidacre insists that she must marry, and selects Falorus as a virtuous and worthy husband. Before her response to her father's importunities is made known, she appears in an exchange with Carionil, in which he declares his love, and she vehemently rejects it, criticizing his claims to be dying from unrequited love, dismissing his compliments as idle, and insisting that she will be "anything but a wife." Carionil's jealousy upon hearing that Falorus may be betrothed to Lucora threatens to divide the two friends, but Falrous declares his steadfast devotion, and plots to help Carionil win his suit. Summoned to Carionil's home, Lucora is confronted with his feigned dead body, in the attempt to prod her into showing some affection for her desperate suitor. She is obdurate, declaring that she could never love him, and criticizing him for shaming himself by committing suicide. Falorus begs her to kiss the dead man, but she refuses and exits in irritation. Under pressure from her father, Lucora agrees to marry Falorus in one month, but Falorus still seeks a match between her and Carionil. Acting under Falrous's direction, Carionil disguises himself as Tucapelo, an Ethiopian in order to woo Lucora. As soon as she lays eyes on him, she is smitten, and confesses that, rather than marry Falorus, she had planned to run away. She knows her love for Tucapelo will not be accepted by her father, and she laments that now she will lose her family over love rather than over chastity. When she confesses to Nentis that she loves Tucapelo, Nentis advises her that this is a foolish choice, and recommends Falorus over the foreign suitor. She agrees to aid her mistress in her planned elopement, but having been wooed and won by Phyginois, Nentis refuses to go with her. When Lucora makes her escape and meets the disguised Carionil in the street, he suddenly realizes that he cannot love a woman who has made such a choice, and he cruelly rejects her. She begs him to relent, and threatens suicide. He reveals his actual identity, and she is immediately cured, and swears she cannot love him as himself. She swears him to secrecy about the planned elopement, and returns to her father's house. Falorus, who had previously sworn he hated her, finds himself overcome by Lucora's beauty, and when he finds that Carionil no longer loves her, begins to woo her in earnest. She does not love him, and asks her father to relent and allow her to remain single, once Cleanthe's actual identity is revealed. Cleanthe has a few words with her, asking Lucora to agree to marry Falorus as a favor to her. Lucora submits to her sister's request, and agrees to marry.


Lucre is, along with Love and Conscience, one of the eponymous ladies of London in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. She has taken over the city, and all manner of allegorical figures are hurrying to London to get their hands on the spoils. She hires Dissimulation, Fraud, Usury and Simony to be her servants. She also hires Mercadore to smuggle foreign goods into England. When Sincerity begs for assistance, she offers him the worthless parish of St. Nihil's. She drags Conscience and Love into poverty, and then corrupts them by giving them money to spend on frivolities. She orders Fraud to rob Mercadore. In the final scene she is brought to trial by Judge Nemo, who accuses her of adultery with Mercadore and Creticus; of the robbery of Mercadore; and of consenting to the murder of Hospitality. She is found guilty when a letter from Lucre ordering her silence is found in Conscience's bosom. Lucre is punished with being sent to a "place of darkness."
In Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London Lucre, Conscience and Love have been in prison since the end of The Three Ladies of London. Various men have petitioned for Lucre's release but Nemo only releases her when the three lords of London arrive to claim all three ladies. Love, Conscience and Lucre are released from prison by Sorrow, who places them, veiled, on three stones on which they lament. Lucre's stone is marked 'Care' in leaden letters. There, the spots and deformities of the ladies disappear, symbolizing their moral rebirth. They refuse to be cajoled into accepting Fraud, Dissimulation, Usury and Simony into their service. Nemo then leads in the three lords, who are awed by the beauty of the ladies. Falsehood tries to give presents to Lucre, but Nemo warns her that he is an envoy of Fraud and Dissimulation. Lucre is brought new clothes by Honest Industry. Lucre is initially the favorite of all three lords, but in the final scene, she marries Pomp.


Lucre is a character in "The Triumph of Time," the final play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He fails to serve Anthropos and is unmasked before him at the end.


A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. The mother of Lucre. Old Lady Lucre used to live in Venice, where Usury was her servant. Now she is dead, Usury has come to work for her daughter in London.


As his name suggests, Lucre is a usurer in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. He resides in London, and is uncle and mortgage-holder of Theodorus Witgood, stepfather of Sam Freedom, and sworn enemy and rival of Walkadine Hoard, a fellow usurer. Lucre's greed makes him susceptible to the "trick" hatched by Witgood and the Courtesan (a.k.a. Jane Medler). When Lucre receives word (From the Host, posing as Medler's servant) of his spendthrift nephew's impending marriage to Jane Medler, a supposed widow supposedly possessed of a £400 yearly annuity, he envisions extracting this wealth from Witgood as he had his lands when he forfeit his mortgage. When Lucre hears of Hoard's emergence as a suitor for Medler, he immediately endows Witgood with his former lands and adopts him as heir, improving his nephew's estate without any personal gain in order to make the widow his niece (and so cheat her). Ultimately, however, despite losing the lands he held through Witgood's deed and being forced to accept his nephew as heir, he is able to delight in seeing his rival, Hoard, undone through Witgood's trick.

LUCRECE **1497

Daughter to Fulgens in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. She resembles him in the face. Though many woo her, she has determined to marry either Publius Cornelius or else Gaius Flaminius. She hesitates to choose either until she can receive her father’s approval. When he inclines only to her freedom of choice, she decides to inquire after which of the two men is most honourable and then to marry that man. After the (apparently lengthy) interval, she is accosted first by character B and then by character A, each carrying a message from his master, Publius Cornelius and Gaius Flaminius, respectively, and she shows great patience with each when neither can remember his message to her. When she at last meets with her two suitors, she binds them to use no violence upon one another or words that could inflame their anger. After hearing each of her two suitors declare why he thinks himself more noble, she goes forth to learn what the vox populi have to say of them. She confesses, however, that she is privately persuaded that personal virtue is more noble than the mere argument of blood (though she is quick to add that virtue combined with a noble family would be the best argument). As such, she inclines to Gaius Flaminius over the dissolute libertine, Publius Cornelius.


The sister of Tancred in Wilmot's Gismond of Salerne. She is sympathetic to Gismond's plight as a widow and pledges to intercede with Tancred, arguing that Gismond be permitted to remarry, but to no avail.
Tancred's sister in Wilmot's Tancred and Gismunda. In a dumb show Lucrece, accompanied by a maiden of honor, enters Gismunda's chamber and proffers a golden goblet from which Gismunda drinks; Lucrece then helps her depressed niece out of bed. Tancred's sister hears Gismunda lament a life without a husband and promises to ask her brother to allow Gismunda's remarriage. Pitying her niece, Lucrece explains to Tancred that his daughter is still young and desires a mate, but Tancred is adamant in refusing permission. Lucrece reports to Gismunda her conversation with Tancred and recommends that she subdue her passions. Having failed to ease her niece's sorrow, Lucrece sings a song and enters the palace. In another dumb show Lucrece and Julio, along with Renuchio and a maiden of honor, accompany Gismunda and Guiszard, who follow Cupid in a procession.


Lucrece is the wife of Collatine and daughter to Lucretius in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece. Fearful that her lusty servants Pompie and Mistress Mirable might taint her reputation, she fires them both. This is probably playful or a sign of textual corruption as both remain in her employ. She repeated declines an invitation by Lord Turnus to dine with him because good wives don't go out of the house when their husbands are away. When Collatine, Horatius Cocles', Aruns', Valarius' , and Mutius Scevola arrive unannounced, Lucrece asks whether they will all spend the night, but she is informed that they must return to camp. Half way back to the camp, Collatine asks Sextus to go back to Lucrece, bearing a ring on his behalf. Sextus returns and they have a drink together, Sextus urging Lucrece to drink her wine as fast as possible. Clearly, his intent is to get her drunk. She refuses, but her self-moderation only fuels his lust for her. He delivers the ring and begs for a goodbye kiss. (The lack of stage directions leaves it unclear as to whether she complies.) She states that it is getting late and she doesn't want to be seen spending so much time so late at night with another man and, thus, says her farewells for the evening. When the house is quiet, Sextus sneaks into her bedroom and wakes her, calls her "sweet," and expects his sexual advances will succeed. When she refuses him, he threatens to kill her and one of the grooms and then to say he found them in bed together. This renders her near silent. The scene ends with her invoking Jove's protection and Sextus carrying her off stage. (Lucrece's invocation to Jove is problematic. Since Jove was guilty of many rapes, Sextus might interpret her call to him as a tacit compliance.) After the rape, he begs a goodbye kiss, but she, crying, flies from him. The next time we see Lucrece, she complains to the gods that they are unjust. Lucrece then writes a letter to Brutus, Collatine, Horatius Cocles, Mutius Scevola, And Valarius, asking them to meet Lucrece at her father's house. When they arrive, Lucrece tells her story, blaming Collatine for sending Sextus with the ring. He seems deaf to what she says and forgives her for being raped. Brutus swears revenge. They all agree. Lucrece then kills herself. Brutus orders that her body be taken to the marketplace.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. Lucrece was a Roman matron who committed suicide because she had been raped by Sextus, son of King Tarquin the Proud. When he wants to regain the favors of his discontented mistress, Fulvia, Curius compares her to Venus. Inviting her to yield to his love, Curius appeals to Fulvia's qualities as a Venus. Curius says that Fulvia has too much of Venus's need for sexual gratification not to accept his passionate advances, though he is unable to lavish her with rich gifts. In addition, Curius says Fulvia is a Lais and she has all the attributes of a courtesan, so she cannot pretend to have turned Lucrece, a virtuous woman, all of a sudden. In reply, Fulvia tells Curius to keep off his ravisher's hands, because she he would not kill herself, as Lucretia did, for this Tarquin.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Lucretia was a Roman matron whose suicide, because of outrage inflicted by Sextus, son of Tarquinius Superbus, provoked expulsion of the Tarquins. When Tucca enters Albius's house as his guest, he names Albius after several noble celebrities of classical antiquity, and asks about his wife, his Lucrece. The allusion to Chloë as a virtuous Roman lady is meant to be flattering, though Lucrece was raped and disgraced.
Only mentioned in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. Fidelio compares a promised snowy maiden-one that he plans to present to Philautus-to Lucrece, the virtuous maid raped by Tarquin's son.
Only mentioned in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. Lucrece, a Roman matron raped by the royal prince Tarquin, is mentioned by Eurenoses as an example of the destruction that can follow upon unbridled passion and lust.
Only mentioned in Kyd's Cornelia. The Chorus compares Rome's fall to the fate of Lucrece, "By shameless rape to be defiled."


A ‘ghost character’ in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. The character A reports to B that he has overheard this servant saying that Lucrece will meet with her two suitors and tell them which she has chosen.


A disguise assumed by Lucretio in Chapman's May Day. Lucretia is the ward of Honorio, the daughter of an exiled Sicilian who has died. She is pursued by Leonaro, a young Venetian. When Ludovico attempts to assault her, she draws her rapier and reveals herself to be not Lucretia but Lucretio. In the play's final scene, he is reunited with the woman to whom he was betrothed in Sicily, Theagine, who has been in disguise as the page Lionello.


A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. The proper name given to Chastity.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Lucretia is mentioned by Sir Cupid Phantsy when, after Doctor Clyster tells him that he is longing in love when he has no reward, he replies: "I forbear to play the Tarquin with my Lucretia, thinking I've gained something upon her when indeed I've lost." According to Roman history and legend, Lucretia was a Roman matron who was raped by Tarquin, the son of a Roman king. Since she had been dishonored and abused, she decided to perform the honorable deed of committing suicide.


Lucretia is the daughter of Lorenzo in Marmion's The Antiquary. Originally scornful of the suit of Aurelio, Lucretia quickly re-evaluates his merits when faced with the prospect of wedding Moccinigo, an old gentleman of her father's choosing.


The daughter of Pope Alexander VI and sister to Caesar Borgia and the Duke of Candy in Barnes's The Devil's Charter. She has carried on an incestuous affair with her father and her brother, Caesar. The posters on the statue of Pasquil describe her as Alexander's only "daughter, wife, and daughter-in-law." She has been married to Francesco di Gonzaga, John Sforza, Lord Marquis of Pescare, and now to Gismond di Viselli who keeps her under lock and key because of her promiscuous nature and legendary beauty. Because of this imprisonment, she stabs Viselli repeatedly, later claiming that he killed himself because of his behavior towards her. When Alexander realizes that she murdered Viselli, he decides to murder her and has poison put into her makeup-a symbol of her vanity. She dies screaming in agony with visions of the murdered Vaselli before her.


A young Sicilian, in exile in Venice, disguised as Lucretia, the ward of Honorio in Chapman's May Day.


Lucretius is a supporter of Scilla in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. He speaks for Scilla in the initial debate, pointing out that Scilla has not only fought in many wars for Rome, but has many friends who will help him take Rome. He promises to die with Scilla and leaves with him. In the next scene, there is a stage direction that has Marius chase Lucretius over the stage. When Scilla takes Rome, Lucretius is with him, and cannot believe that any will dare stand against him. When Scilla accuses Cinna and others of plotting against him, Lucretius does not believe it until shown treasonous letters. When Young Marius, after his father's death, makes a stand at Praeneste, Lucretius is in charge of the siege. He appears to pity the defenders and calls a parley hoping to have Young Marius surrender. Young Marius and the soldiers all commit suicide hoping their sacrifice will move Lucretius to spare the town. However, after praising the nobility of the act, Lucretius orders the entire town put to the sword. He then returns to Scilla and tells him how Young Marius died, which causes Scilla to reconsider his desire to be a king.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Titus Lucretius Carus (96–55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher, who preached against the idea of the immortality of the soul. Lucretius temporarily revived the atomic theory of Democritus and Lecippus, explaining the atomic structure of the world in his book De rerum natura. Lucretius was the chief exponent of the idea of numerous worlds. He thought that matter was composed of atoms that combined accidentally. When Ovid praises the immortality of poetry, he says that Lucretius will live forever through his verses. Ovid says that Lucretius's lofty poetry will die only when the earth and the seas perish in flames.


Lucretius is the father to Lucrece in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece. Soon after Tarquin becomes king, he abandons the court, fearing that Tarquin's reign will come to no good. Pompie delivers a letter to Brutus, Collatine, Horatius Cocles, Mutius Scevola, Valarius, asking them to come quickly to Lucretius' house. When they arrive, they met Lucretius and Lucrece. Lucrece then tells her story and kills herself. After her death, he is virtually absent for the rest of the play. He fights in the war but complains of his age and ineffectiveness.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. The term "luculent" means bright of beauty. Fastidious Brisk follows Sogliardo's advice in pretending that he has relatives in high places to show off as a grand gentleman. When he is introduced to Puntavorlo, Fastidious Brisk pretends to be well acquainted with Signior Luculento at court, adding that he shares friendship with other grand personages. In another scene, Fastidious Brisk reports the duel in which he faced Signior Luculento. At Puntavorlo's lodgings in London, Fastidious Brisk enters to sign the insurance documents. True to his vainglorious temperament, Fastidious Brisk starts bragging about his exploits with the ladies at court and his encounter in a duel with Signior Luculento, one of Puntavorlo's acquaintances. According to Fastidious Brisk, Luculento sent him a challenge. When they met for the duel, Fastidious Brisk hurt his leg with his spur and bled a little. At the sight of blood, Luculento is reported to have become scared and left, but Fastidious Brisk went after him, and the two "fierce" fighters made peace at the court gate.


After Scilla takes Rome in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War, he appoints Lucullus the general of the army. Lucullus says he will accept the charge if the army agrees, which it does.


One of Timon's false friends in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens, a flattering lord. In I.ii he entreats Timon's company to hunt with him and he sends two greyhounds as a gift, for which he will be richly paid. When Flaminius comes to ask for a loan of fifty talents, he declines (III.i).


A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. Achillas, describing the camp of Pompey, says that it is full of delicacies brought in by sea, more like a Roman feast presented by Lucullus and Apicius than a battle camp.


Lucullus is a Roman officer serving Caesar Augustus in Markham's Herod and Antipater.


See also LUCE and related spellings.


Lucy, beloved of the younger Pallatine in Davenant's The Wits, undergoes a substantial transformation in the course of the play. At the beginning, she is in the thrall of a wealthy aunt, who is also a religious bigot. She gives the younger Pallatine all of her jewels and money in order to keep him out of trouble. Her aunt consequently throws her out of the house. Her aunt believes that she has given away her virtue as well. Taken in by Lady Ample, she is instructed to consider her beauty and wit a gift worthy of substantial remuneration, and she learns to ask the younger Pallatine for money to defray her expenses. A full participant in the schemes of Lady Ample and the younger Pallatine, she marries the latter at the end of the play.


Rashly's daughter and Theophilus' sister in Brome's The English Moor. Her new maidservant, Phyllis, encourages her to declare her love for Arthur and heal the breach between the families, but she hesitates, fearing her brother's moods. Along with her brother, she welcomes the disguised Dionisia as Millicent's "kinsman;" when the families are re-united, she is delighted to recognize Arthur as Theophilus' disguised benefactor. She and Arthur are betrothed in Testy's court.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Richard III. A noblewoman who bore Edward IV an illegitimate child. Richard III and Buckingham claim that Edward was legally engaged to her in their attempt to prove that Prince Edward and Prince Richard are illegitimate and therefore unable to inherit the kingship of England.


Lucy, daughter to Lady Beaufield in Cavendish's The Variety, is in love with Newman and sends her servant Formal to extract him from a tavern. Newman dupes Formal but, realizing that tavern life will lead to his own destruction, decides to abandon "wine and noise." Soon after Newman announces his decision to the audience, Simpleton begins to execute a plan to abduct Lucy and keep her in his country house until she agrees to marriage. Newman rescues Lucy but is charged with assault by Simpleton. When the truth becomes known, the Judge first tries to seduce her in private but then threatens to condemn Simpleton to Newgate Prison. Lucy, who has no desire for revenge, intercedes and asks for mercy for Simpleton. Lucy and Newman go off stage to be married as the play ends.


Daughter to Rooksbill in Brome's The Weeding of Covent Garden. In love with Mihil Crosswill whom she met through her brother, Nicholas. The happy union, however, is blocked both by a keen sense of social superiority on the part of Mihil's father and by the possibility that her own father will discover the friendship between Mihil, the prospective groom, and Nicholas, the dissolute son; Lucy is obliged privately to fund her brother to buy his silence. Mihil's bluff of marrying an aging widow proves successful, and she is married to her love.


Sir William Lucy acts as Talbot's messenger in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, visiting Richard Plantagenet and Somerset and urging them to help Talbot before he is conquered by the French. Shakespeare juxtaposes Lucy's encounters with the two leaders to show how their rivalry leads to Talbot's defeat. After the battle, Lucy visits King Charles seeking Talbot, only to learn that he has been killed.


Also called Lucibet, Lucibell, and Lucibella in Chettle's Hoffman. The daughter of the Duke of Austria, she is engaged to Lodowick. Driven mad by his death, she runs around the palace and, later, the forest singing Ophelia-esque songs concerning flowers and lost loves. She discovers the bodies of both Hance Hoffman and Otho.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Wits. Although this character is not named and does not physically appear in the play, her frequently reported offstage cruelty to Lucy and exaggerated piety sets the plot of the play in motion.


A "ghost character" in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. Lud is mentioned in the dramatis personae, but does not appear as a character in the play. He was the former King of Britain, a son of Beli Mawr and the brother of Nennius and Cassibelane. When the play begins, he is already dead and his brother Cassibelane has become Protector of the country, his own sons, Androgeus and Themantius, being too young to rule Britain. King Lud leant his name to Ludgate on the western city wall and, according to at least one tradition, the word London is a corruption of his name.


"Ghost characters" in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. The Ludgathians are the dealers on Ludgate Hill. When Sogliardo tells Carlo Buffone that he wants to be a gentleman, Carlo advises him on the proper gentlemanly behavior. Since being in debt and living on credit seems to be a desirable model for a gentleman, Sogliardo promises he would fall in debt for the title's sake. However, Carlo Buffone advises Sogliardo that he should not trade with bankrupts or with the poor needy Ludgathians. According to Carlo Buffone, they are impudent and turbulent creatures, and do not care how fast they play to lose a gentleman's fortune to make theirs. These rich fellows sleep in their counting houses and would do anything for more gain.


Ludio is a brash and lazy young scholar at St. Paul's in Harrison's Philomathes' Second Dream. He chimes in occasionally with comments that demonstrate his single-minded focus on making his studies easier; in particular, he wishes that the school's Master would take more time off for bowling, bear baiting, plays, taverns, banquets, and other leisure activities, "as others do." His role in the play becomes more prominent in its third quarter, as other characters give him a mild scolding for his attitude toward the Master. By the end of the play, Ludio is thankful for the lesson but not entirely reformed.


"A truantly schooleboy" and a gamester in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Ludio "plaies two gamesters, and wrangles" during his first appearance in the play. He desires "some good playfellowes" and, since he claims that Gingle is "growne so proud" and Slug would not get out of bed, he searches for Novice. However, since Novice is "so taken up with the Captaine" that he cannot play with Ludio, the schoolboy approaches Lauriger. Ludio asks Lauriger to "intreat" Apollo to play with him and also alludes to previous punishment that he's received for foregoing his studies. After a lengthy discussion on school, work, and play, Lauriger agrees to play a game of blind man's bluff with the gamester. Lauriger then proceeds to trick Ludio by leaving the boy after having blindfolded and turned him. Siren approaches Ludio at this time in the hopes of tempting another scholar with her mischievousness and, after Ludio's confusion is dispelled, Siren realizes that the boy is already more concerned with pleasure than with Apollo's service and that her efforts would be wasted on him. She encourages him to seek out Grobiano to play, but Ludio explains that he must study "an oration" if he hopes "to save [his] head from a blow, which Apollos visitation may now bring upon [him]." Geron enters the play late and claims to "have bin mending [his] hedges, which the scurvy boy Ludio broake downe." Ludio is sent, after his appearance before Apollo, to inform Thuriger that everyone wishes to "come down hither" and, thus, for Thuriger to prepare the place for "Apollo and his Actors." Ludio imparts information to Thuriger about the trials presented before Apollo's Court, and recites to the Sexton a small part of his own "Apology" which he had a friend draw up for him (in return for lessons in gaming). He informs Thuriger that his "sachell" was stolen by a Villain while he was presenting his argument, wherein lay all of his "best houshold-stuffe and tooles of [his] trade." He is named as "Ludio Gamester" by Preco at the sentencing of all disobedient characters at the play's end. Museus claims that Apollo sentences him to "play uncessantly." The "fifty daughters of Dinaus" will be his eternal playfellows at dice, but the dice must be put into a "bottomlesse boxe" so that "they fall to the ground" whenever they are thrown, and Ludio must "take them up" each time. He must repeat this cycle for eternity, and at this sentence Ludio's pleasure in "a perpetuall play-day" fades into intense regret that he had spent his time playing rather than studying. Thus, he exits the play.


Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan in Massinger's The Duke of Milan. Sforza has placed himself squarely against the Spanish, whom he hates. The French, freshly funded by Sforza, have taken the field. Should they loose to the Spanish, Sforza will be bankrupt and defenseless before the Spanish. He holds a birthday party for his wife, Marcella, and swears his undying loyalty to her. During the party a courier arrives. His letter is clear: the Duke's French forces have been defeated. The Duke tells his Duchess that he could be taken prisoner, his lands and titles stripped from him, his mother murdered, and his sister ravished, and he'd be fine. But if anything should happen to his wife, he'd be disconsolate. If faced with that circumstance, she promises to kill herself. Perscara councils the Duke to surrender immediately to the Spanish Emperor, and hope for mercy. The Duke agrees. He then makes Perscara promise that should the Spanish Emperor execute him, Perscara will kill the Duchess. Perscara is horrified, but agrees. The Spanish Emperor is surprised by Sforza's surrender, and decides to hear his case. Rather than flatter, the Duke proclaims himself the Emperor's enemy and demands immediate death. The Emperor is so touched by the Duke's courage that he reinstates him as Duke of Milan. The Duke is happy to return to his loving and constant wife. Francisco, however, has convinced the Duchess that the Duke is unfaithful and wishes her death. He also protests his love to her. The Duke is surprised that his wife doesn't rush to greet him upon his return. She replies that her blood is more temperate than he suspects. Graccho sees this as proof that the Duchess is having an affair with Francisco; the Duke is enraged by her cold affection and swears never to think of her again. A trick is planned, and the Duchess is led in. On hearing that Francisco is dead, the Duchess retorts, 'thou hast killed then/ A man I do profess I loved; a man/For whom a thousand queens might well be rivals.' The Duke stabs her. Proclaiming that he was innocent, the Duke then calls for Francisco. Sensing that she has been manipulated, the Duchess says that it was he, not she, who was the sexual aggressor, but the Duke does not believe her. Before the Duchess can be arrested, however, she dies. The King is broken hearted. He learns that Francisco is the villain and calls for doctors to attempt to revive the Duchess. Francisco and his sister, Eugenie (a woman the Duke once wronged), enter disguised as doctors and attempt to fool the Duke into believing the Duchess will revive. They are discovered and arrested but not before Eugenie manages first to poison the Duke. He dies slowly of the poison.


One of the Lord Cardinal's players in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More; Luggins was supposed to perform the role of Good Counsel in The Marriage of Wit and Wisdom, but he fails to arrive on time for the performance because Ogle's Wife will not let him have the false beard he needs for the role. More steps forward during the performance and handles the part extemporaneously.


Tutor to Rosalura, Lillia-Bianca and Oriana in Fletcher's Wild-Goose Chase. Along with his students and De Gard, he hatches a plan which will allow all the women to marry the men of their choice. He disguises himself as a servant to a wealthy lord in love with Oriana. The plan causes Mirabel to reassess Oriana and vow to marry her, at least until the identity of De Gard is revealed. Lugier has another plan, however, which again involves all three ladies. As part of this plan, Oriana pretends she is dying due to her love for Mirabel; Mirabel, however, sees through the act and again vows to never marry her, adding that he will do so only if she can trick him once more. Taking the challenge, Lugier devises the final trick, disguising Oriana as a rich heiress whose brother's life was once saved by Mirabel and who has now inherited her brother's fortune and wishes to marry Mirabel. He falls for the trick and therefore must marry Oriana in the end. In the concluding moments of the play, Lugier admits to his role in the action.


Another name for Luys in Shirley's The Brothers.


Luinna is the wife of Foreste in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. We first see her as Foreste lectures her not to take too much pride in his elevation to Duke's secretary. Apparently Luinna is also responsible for keeping Corsa humble despite Lucio's marriage proposal. Both these things Luinna promises to do. After Corsa's marriage, the Duke gives Luinna a brooch and asks her to deliver another to Corsa. Corsa is concerned that the Duke may have dishonorable motives for the gift, but Luinna has been convinced otherwise. Nevertheless, she decides to hide the brooch from Foreste. Incredibly, after Corsa is raped, Luinna's response is that Foreste has found the jewelry and thinks that she has been unfaithful. Corsa actually has to calm her sister-in-law and give her advice, which is to trust Foreste's love. This turns out to be good advice, but barely. Foreste believes that she is unfaithful and pretends to offer her to Dorido and another man, who are masked, in order to scare her into confessing. Luinna does confess, but to Corsa's rape by the Duke. Foreste seems convinced, although he insists that Luinna stay locked up. When Lucio and Foreste go to confront the Duke in his bedroom, Luinna goes as well, and Foreste asks the Duke what has happened. When the Duke admits that he only gave Luinna a brooch to disguise his interest in Corsa, Foreste seems finally satisfied. During the climactic fight scene, Luinna runs for help and then mourns for her dead husband.


Luke is one of Candido's apprentices in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore and may be the "First Prentice" who irritates Candido's Bride by mistakenly serving her sack instead of claret at the wedding party.


Luke Frugal, younger brother to Sir John, was once wealthy and independent in Massinger's The City Madam. Having squandered his income, he now is steward to his wealthy brother, Sir John. He counsels Sir John to mercy when dealing with the debts of Hoist, Penury and Fortune, yet when alone with Young Goldwire and Young Tradewell, he urges them to begin stealing from his brother. Upon learning of his newly inherited wealth, he then makes another long and impassioned speech is in regards as to how he will teat Lady Frugal and Anne and Mary, but soon has them living in penurious conditions. Like wise, he promises Hoist, Penury and Fortune to forget their debts, but then has them arrested. Luke encourages Tradewell and Goldwire to invite their prostitutes and friends over for a party, and has them arrested for stealing. He dismisses Millicent and Stargaze. In III.iii, Lord Lacy enters with the "three Indians" (Sir John in disguise with Lacy and Plenty), who promise to reveal the secret of wealth. Intrigued, Luke entertains them. But money is hardly an issue; having put out his money at a good rate, and invested in trading ships, Luke sees his fortunes rise. In V.i, Luke agrees to partake in the Indians' devil worship ceremonies. Luke agrees to give the Indians Lady Frugal and her daughters to the Indians, the former to marry the devil, the two latter to be human sacrifices. Luke then informs Lady Frugal and her daughters of their impending trip to Virginia, where they will be worshipped as queens. In V.iii, In the next scene, Sir John, still disguised as an Indian, has shown Holdfast his true identity and directed Holdfast to set up pictures of Cerberus, Charon, and Orpheus on either sides of the house, and obtain musicians. When Luke enters, the musicians play and Sir John presents to Luke all of those he had arrested or fired. While the musicians play sad music, all of those presented beg Luke to show them mercy. Luke refuses. Sir John throws off his guise, and reasserts his position as head of the household. Luke is chastised and exiled to Virginia. After his departure, Lady Frugal asks Sir John to show Luke mercy because of her earlier mistreatments of him.


Tormiella’s lover according to the dramatis personae, but Tormiella loathes him in Dekker’s Match Me in London. Malevento has promised Tormiella to Gazetto, but there has been no contract. They were to be married on St. Luke’s day before she disappeared. Unable to find Tormiella in Cordova, he decides to look in Seville with Malevento. In his disguise as Lupo, he delights in tormenting Cordolente with his cuckolding. He takes a letter as the king dictates and in reflecting his words ironically speaks his own mind not unlike the echo scene in The Duchess of Malfi (IV.iv). The king employs him to kill the queen and Cordolente, but Gazetto privately determines not to kill the queen. He goes to the king to report her death and learns that Tormiella is mad and the king intends to marry her. He disguises himself as a doctor in an attempt to cure her madness. He tricks her into betraying her plan to run away with Cordolente and forces her to swear to marry and then murder the king. He next encourages Cordolente to make ready to kill Tormiella as she’s at the altar marrying the king. In a dumb show, he laughs when Cordolente fails to murder her and is cast out. When Tormiello tells the king of Gazetto’s treasonous plan, Gazetto unmasks and confesses all. He tells the king the joyful news that he has not murdered the queen. The king forgives him and recommends him to Prince John, and then Tormiella forgives him.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. When Ananias enters Subtle's alchemical workshop, Subtle asks if he is a Lullianist, that is a disciple of Ramón Lull, a noted alchemist. Lull (1232-1315) was born in Majorca and founded an influential school of philosophy. His disciples wrote systematic alchemical treatises and attributed them to him. Since Ananias introduces himself as a Brother, Subtle pretends to understand that by "Brother" Ananias meant a fellow-alchemist.

LUMEN **1607

Grandchild of the sun in Tomkis’ Lingua. He makes a grand entrance as part of Visus’ troop in with a crown of bays, a shield with a bright sun on it, appareled in tissue.


Luna is one of the planets who, jealous of Pandora's beauty, take it in turn to rule her behavior in Lyly's The Woman in the Moon. Luna, the last of the gods to influence Pandora, makes her new-fanlged, fickle, slothfull, foolish and mad. Later, Pandora chooses to be placed in Luna's orbs, because fickleness is, she says, her proper form.
Only mentioned by Friar Bacon in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. Luna (goddess of the moon) is said to tremble when Bacon reads from his magical book. The friar calls her "three-formed," a reference to her association with Diana (goddess of the hunt and the moon) and Hecate (goddess of witchcraft).


Luna is a character in the masque performed in Cokain's Trappolin to celebrate the nuptials of Lavinio and Isabella.


A disguise adopted by Face in Jonson's The Alchemist. Lungs is the nickname of Ulan Spiegel, Face's impersonation as Subtle's alchemical servant/apprentice. He admits Mammon and Surly into the house and attends Subtle in performing an alchemical show for Mammon's benefit. When Dol Common attracts Mammon's attention, Face stimulates the lecher's interest by telling him she is a noble lady who has gone mad with too much learning. In order to separate Mammon from the skeptical Surly, who suspects foul play, Face as Lungs tells Surly that a certain Captain Face wants to meet him at Temple church, while he whispers to Mammon to come back in two hours. Face promises Mammon to introduce him to the mysterious lady. When Mammon returns two hours later, Face as Lungs tells him that the mysterious lady is almost in her fit to see him. Face warns Mammon not to entertain the lady with discussions of divinity or Hebrew lore, and talk only of physics, mathematics, or poetry. When Mammon courts his "mad" lady, Face as Lungs eavesdrops. After a while, pretending that Mammon speaks too loudly and Subtle could hear them from the laboratory, Face as Lungs extracts more money from Mammon, who leaves with Dol. In a room upstairs in the house, where an exasperated Mammon cannot stop the mad gibberish of the uncontrollable lady, Face as Lungs enters, reprimanding Mammon for his imprudence. Lungs says the lady speaks out of Broughton and she cannot be stopped. Face as Ulan Spiegel (the alchemical apprentice) enters in agitation, announcing the laboratory has exploded. Face as Lungs manages to extort another hundred pounds from the confused Mammon, before sending him away in a hurry because, he says, the lady's brother is waiting outside to take revenge.


Philotimia's husband in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Roscius characterizes him as "a nasty, sordid sloven." His opposite is Philotimia, and for this reason Roscius refers to him as Aphilotimus.


A "ghost character" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Museus instructs Siren (at the sentencing of disobedient characters at the play's end) to inform Queen Hedone that she "shall ever unseparably bee manacled to Lupe" for meddling in the affairs of Apollo's school.


A "ghost character" in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. Lupinus is the father of Carinus.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Volpone. Mentioned by Mosca as a physician attending Volpone.


A disguise that Gazetto adopts in Seville whilst looking for Tormiella in Dekker’s Match Me in London. Thus diguised, he finds Tormiella, who does not recognize him. After the king has made Tormiella his concubine, “Lupo" offers himself to the king as a “turne broach" advisor. The king accepts him and gives him five hundred pistolets.


Lupus is a monk who accompanies Constantius in Middleton's Hengist.


Asinius Lupus is a tribune in Rome in Jonson's Poetaster. At Ovid's house, Lupus enters with Ovid Senior, followed by Tucca. When Ovid Senior shows his displeasure at his son's inclination to poetry and drama, Lupus agrees, saying that these players are an idle generation and harm the state authority. According to Lupus, players discredit politicians and diminish their dignity by alluding to them on stage and making them the object of ridicule for the plebeians. Lupus believes himself the wisest man that exists, blaming the players' shows, which make politicians look vulgar and cheap. Lupus exits Ovid's house. At his house in Rome, Lupus enters with Histrio. When Histrio reports that the poets of Ovid's party have hired some of the actors' properties (a scepter and crown for Jove and a caduceus for Mercury), Lupus concludes that he has discovered a conspiracy against Caesar. Taking the barely arrived Maecenas and Horace in his train, Lupus exits to the palace to report the case of treason. In an apartment in the palace, Lupus enters with Caesar's train, attends the scene of the poets' disgrace, and exits with Caesar's party. While Caesar holds court with the poets, Lupus demands immediate entrance, pretending to disclose an attempted plot on Caesar's life. When he enters followed by Tucca, Lupus shows Caesar an engraving, which he claims to have found in Horace's study in Maecenas's house. Lupus interprets the drawing as representing an eagle, which symbolizes Caesar, while Horace explains that it represents a vulture and a wolf preying on an ass's carcass. Seeing that his foolishness has made him look like an idiot, Lupus blames it all on Aesop, the player. When Aesop enters, Caesar orders him to be whipped, and banishes Lupus for his credulity. Lupus exits in disgrace.


With Ruffman and Shacklesoule, Lurchall is one of Pluto's devils in Dekker's If It Be Not Good. He is also called Grumball. Under Pluto's orders, he infiltrates the merchant Bartervile's house, although he finds that Bartervile is already more devilish than himself. Lurchall encourages Bartervile as he attempts to gouge his clients, and as he plans to avoid loaning the King of Naples money by changing his identity into that of a Turk. During the seige of Naples by the Duke of Calabria, Lurchall reports the whereabouts of the courtiers, who are hiding in Bartervile's cellar, an act that leads directly to the courtiers' capture and beheading. Carrying Bartervile to hell, Lurchall returns there with Ruffman and Shacklesoule to triumph over the damned souls.


Tom Lurcher is a gentleman in Fletcher's The Night Walker. He loses his money to Algripe who agrees to marry Lurcher's sister Alathe but then reneges on the agreement and keeps the dowry. Estranged from his sister and penniless, he turns to thievery to support himself. Lurcher encounters a Boy named Snap who asks to serve as his accomplice in thievery. Together they attempt to steal a chest from Maria's mother but accidentally steal the supposed corpse of Maria instead; they leave it in the cemetery. They rob Algripe then lure him to a remote area where furies threaten him with damnation and Snap, dressed as an angel, brings him to contrition. Lurcher loses his mistress to Wildbraine and then robs him and Toby while they are bell-ringing. He returns Wildbraine's stolen clothes and possessions and concedes the loss of his mistress. At the end of the play Lurcher receives Alathe's dowry from Algripe, and Sbap reveals "himself" as Alathe.

LURCO **1635

A politician and servant to Gratiano in Rider’s The Twins. He is a malcontent after five years of service in which he has (in his opinion) been abused. Lurco takes Carolo and Clarinda to see Alphonso and Julietta speaking alone and tries to sew the seeds of jealousy in them though it works only on Carolo. When Carolo and Clarinda slip away, Alphonso sees them and also grows jealous, thinking they have dishonest, guilty consciences. Lurco goes individually to Carolo and Alphonso to set up a meeting in Pale’s wood, knowing they will fight. He is delighted when a letter arrives telling Clarinda that Carolo has killed Alphonso and fled Italy. He sets Jovio to watch the stairs on the night he knows Fulvio will go to Charmia’s bedchamber. Lurco shows him Fulvio (in fact, it is Gratiano in Fulvio’s clothes). He takes horse to lord Fidelio’s to fetch back Gratiano to catch them. Not finding him there, he returns to the shepherd’s festival where he tells ‘Petrarcha’ that Alphonso was a fool and a liar and is better off dead. He promises to help ‘Petrarcha’ to Clarinda. He next mistakes Gratiano for Fulvio and gloats with him about helping to pull the wool over Gratiano’s eyes with his wife. At the shepherd’s festival, he is trapped into confessing that he inflamed Charmia’s lust for Fulvio, set Fulvio to her, and enraged Alphonso and Carolo against one another. He counts himself fortunate in his mischief and is increasingly dumbfounded as one after another the heroes unmask to demonstrate his plots have gone awry. At the end he confesses that he is in fact Frederico who ten years earlier caused the banishment of Julio, Lord Celio.


Lurdo is an elderly count in Day's Law Tricks. He began his career as a scrivener, but has risen in status through his knowledge of the law and his marriage to the Countess, sister of Ferneze, the duke of Genoa. He has, however, bribed witnesses and judges in order that he can divorce her. Lurdo claims that the Countess has been unfaithful to him, but his real reason for wanting the divorce is his avarice: he hopes to make more money for himself through successive marriages. He agrees to lodge Emilia at his house, ostensibly as a favor to Polymetes but in fact because he also has designs on her. He has his servant, Win, woo her on his behalf. Pressing his suit to Emilia, he is forced to hide behind an arras when Polymetes and Julio arrive, and has to endure jokes at his own expense. He connives at the plan laid by Horatio to poison the Countess. After the Countess's 'ghost' is conjured by Polymetes, Lurdo is implicated in the murder; he is sentenced, with Horatio, to be immured in the Countess's tomb. When the Countess rises from the tomb alive, Ferneze agrees to pardon Lurdo on the condition that he be reconciled with his wife.


Family name of Old Master and Young Master Lusam and the maiden name of Mistress Arthur in (?)Heywood's How A Man May Choose A Good Wife From A Bad.


Lucius’s boy in Hausted’s Rival Friends. He plays the lute and sings for his master early in the play.


Luscus is Ovid's servant in Jonson's Poetaster. While Ovid meditates on the immortality of poetry, Luscus enters, urging his master to put away his elegy and get a law book in hand because his father is coming to visit him. Luscus thinks that this libertine poetry will undo his master soon. Luscus tells Ovid that he is Castallian mad, a lunatic, and a desperate man. It seems that the pragmatic Luscus does not trust poetry and blames his master for his passion for it. When Ovid Senior shows his displeasure at his son's inclination towards poetry and drama, Luscus adds that he had been telling his young master all this, but he would not listen. Ovid Senior is displeased with the servants' intervention and sends him to get the horses ready. Luscus exits to do the job. Luscus re-enters to announce that the horses are at the gate and makes unfavorable remarks regarding Tucca, whom he suspects of trying to extort money from Ovid Senior. Luscus exits with his master.


A "ghost character" in Davenport's The City Night Cap. Madona Lussuriosa is a lady that is thought to have supported the appointment of Father Anthony as Dorothea's confessor.


Lussurioso, a courtier under the Duke of Ferrara in Middleton's The Phoenix, flatters the Duke by saying that the Duke's son Phoenix is older in virtue than in years.


The Duke's eldest son in [?]Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy. A lecher like his father, he has Hippolito hire a pimp for him and is fooled when Hippolito engages his brother, Vindice, disguised as the panderer Piato. Lussurioso has designs on Hippolito and Vindice's sister, Castiza, and wants "Piato" to intercede. Instead, Piato reveals to him that Spurio intends to cuckold the Duke. Unfortunately, when Lussurioso breaks into the Duke's chamber to arrest Spurio he instead finds the Duke and is imprisoned for attempted assassination. Once out of jail, he orders Hippolito to hire Vindice to kill this Piato. He is again fooled when Vindice dresses the dead Duke as Piato and stabs him. He believes that Piato murdered the Duke and then escaped wearing the Duke's clothes. With the death of the Duke, Lussurioso becomes Duke, and in the banquet of celebration he is murdered when Vindice, Hippolito, a nobleman named Piero and a fourth lord enter disguised as masquers and stab him. He lives long enough for Vindice to whisper into his ear, gloating about his triumph over the ducal family.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Mundus et Infans. Mundus tells Infans/Manhood that he must swear fealty to seven kings. The kings are the seven deadly sins.


Possibly a "ghost character" in [?]Bower's Apius and Virginia. Conscience and Justice lament that they have been subordinated to and displaced by Apius' lust.


Lust leads George Browne to the "bloudy feast" in Dumb Show I of (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women, drinks to him, and embraces Anne Sanders. In Dumb Show II Lust brings forth Browne and Roger at one end; Anne Sanders and Anne Drurie at the other. When a tree suddenly grows up between them, keeping them apart, Lust offers an axe to Sanders, but she refuses it. Then Lust offers the axe to Browne, who cuts down the tree, allowing the couples to run together and embrace.

LUST **1617

One of the sixteen banished Affections not otherwise listed in the dramatis personae but included in Madame Curiosity’s list of banditti in the anonymous Pathomachia. She is to be placed behind Pride’s army to watch the baggage. Veracity takes Lust captive and brings her before Justice who sends the strumpet to prison.

LUST **1631

Lust is a masque character in III.ii of Shirley's The Traitor. Sciarrha presents the masque to the Duke to dissuade him from his lust.


This character in the anonymous Mundus et Infans is adolescence in all its hormonal glory. After a brief speech in which he describes living for "game and glee...mirth and melody...(and) revel and riot," he returns to his master Mundus for further instruction, at which time he is transformed into "Manhood."


A Spirit sent by Ormandine in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom to tempt St. David.


The disguise assumed by Courtly Abusyon in Skelton's Magnyfycence to mislead Magnyfycence.


A "ghost character" in Quarles' The Virgin Widow. Quack reads his bill out.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Swetnam. Eldest son of Atticus, King of Sicilia, and brother to Lorenzo and Leonida. A "virtuous and hopeful Prince," he has died some time before the play begins, leaving his father grief-stricken.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Luther is mentioned by Master Bead when he is revealing his Roman-Catholic religious scruples to Silence: "Sir, that lodging where the pictures of Luther and Calvin hang did so much trouble me that I was once in mind to have broken them, for I doubt that for the sin of us Romans, suffering those heretic pictures, we were after punished by the fall of Blackfriars House." Martin Luther (1483-1546) is responsible for the symbolic blow that initiated the Reformation when he nailed his Ninety-Five Theses to the door of the Wittenberg Church. That document attacked both papal abuses and the sale of indulgences by church officials. But, for Luther, the Reformation went beyond a mere revolt against ecclesiastical abuses: it was a fight for the gospel.
A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. Wolsey and Gardner fear the death of Queen Jane may sway the king towards Luther’s doctrines again. Martin Luther has written tracts condemning Henry for siding with Pope Julius. He later writes a series of letters to Henry attempting to convince him of the correctness of the Protestant position.


A Roman nobleman and warrior who attends on Maximinus in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. With Bassianus, he pursues Amphiabel to Wales, and captures him and Winifred. Lutius is blinded when he desecrates the holy well, but even though Winifred cures him, he denounces her as a witch, and leads the Christians away to execution. Lutius also helps to raise the alarm after the Country People report the firing of the beacons.


Luxurioso, the drinker in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus, joins Ingenioso, Philomusus, and Studioso on their journey to London, where he hopes to make a living by writing and selling ballads. In the country, he hires a boy to sing his ballads at the fair. His efforts fail to sell, however, and he takes to the road again.


Son to Don Carlo and Alsimira, brother to Jacinta in Shirley's The Brothers. Luys is a cheerful rogue with an aversion to the company of older, graver people. His one desire is to pursue his pleasures with other people's money. In order to settle his debts to Alberto, Luys promises to arrange a marriage between him and Jacinta. He also agrees to act as a go-between for Don Pedro, a still wealthier suitor. Don Carlos hopes that Luys himself will marry a rich widow, Estefania, but they both avoid this fate. Estefania marries Alberto, and Luys, who does not want to marry anyone, is finally taken on by Don Pedro, who likes "his wit, his spirit, and his humour." Don Pedro offers to look after him and his financial needs.

LYAES **1611

Only mentioned in Dekker’s Match Me in London. The vine where Granada gathered his grapes he says was set by Lyaes.


King of Pelagia at the beginning of Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter and father of Callisto. Jupiter, acting as envoy from King Melisseus, demands the return of an Epirian hostage in exchange for the Pelagian hostage Melisseus is returning; Lycaon's response is to to serve the Epirians the body of their hostage as an entrée and to insult their king. Jupiter, in outrage, leads an attack on Lycaon, routing him and taking his place as King of Pelagia. His interest in that country is restricted, however, to Lycaon's daughter, Callisto. [According to the Classical sources, Jupiter turned Lycaon into a wolf; this Heywood omits. In The Golden Age, Lycaon is identified as Jupiter's wicked cousin.]


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. One of Miranda's eunuchs. It is reported that she makes him "change attire in seeming mirth" and then kills him, so that she can escape, disguised as a man.


Lychas is servant to Deianeira in Heywood's Brazen Age. He presents Hercules with a number of gifts to disrupt Omphale's hold on the hero. After Hercules is sickened by one of the gifts, he kills Lychas.


Only mentioned in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. In Greek mythology, Lycas was the young slave who brought Hercules the envenomed shirt sent unknowingly by his wife. When Hercules realized he was going to die in terrible pain because of the poisoned shirt, he seized Lycas and threw him into the sea, where he was changed into a rock. Valore attends the scene in which women publicly humiliate Gondarino by sexually arousing him. Duke asks what this fellow would do if he should find himself in bed with a young lady, and Valore responds that, if he could get a knife, sure he would cut her throat. In addition, Valore says he would do as Hercules did by Lycas. Valore wants to say that Gondarino has such hatred of women that, should he be in bed with one, he could swing out her soul, just as Hercules did with Lycas's body.


A nurse in Shakespeare's Pericles. She serves Thaisa and attends the infant Marina. In the storm at sea, she brings the newborn Marina to Pericles and informs him, mistakenly, that Thaisa is dead. Lychorida remains with Marina in Tarsus, and dies–perhaps killed by Dionyza–shortly before an attempt is made on Marina's life.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Lycophron was an early third-century BC Alexandrian Greek poet, one of the Pleiad. He flourished at Alexandria in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus (285–247 BC). Ptolemy entrusted him with the task of arranging the comedies in the Alexandrian library, and as the result of his labors composed a treatise On Comedy. His own compositions, however, chiefly consisted of tragedies, which secured him a place in the Pleiad of Alexandrian tragedians. His only extant poem Cassandra is an obscure and difficult work in iambic verse. It is in the form of a prophecy uttered by Cassandra, and relates the later fortunes of Troy and of the Greek and Trojan heroes. The style is so enigmatic as to have procured for Lycophron, even among the ancients, the title of "obscure." The poem is evidently intended to display the writer's knowledge of obscure names and uncommon myths; it is full of unusual words of doubtful meaning gathered from the older poets, and many long-winded compounds coined by the author. It has none of the qualities of poetry, and was probably written as a display for the Alexandrian school. After Virgil has Crispinus take an emetic to throw up his bad words, he then prescribes Crispinus to observe a strict and wholesome diet. Virgil suggests ironically that Crispinus should read, with a tutor, the best classical authors. Among others, Virgil mentions Orpheus, Musaeus, Pindarus, Hesiod, Callimachus, Theocrite, and Homer, but tells Crispinus to avoid Lycophon because he is too dangerous a dish. According to Virgil, Crispinus must not hunt for wild and outlandish terms to stuff out a peculiar dialect, but let the matter run before the words. Virgil's advice is against a sophisticated style and the use of a Frenchified vocabulary.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Lycophron was an early third-century BC Alexandrian Greek poet, one of the Pleiad. His only extant poem Cassandra is an obscure and difficult work in iambic verse. The style is so enigmatic as to have procured for Lycophron, even among the ancients, the title of "obscure." At his house, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When Clerimont asks him about the classical poets, Daw refers to them in a deprecating manner, including Lycophron in the long list of unworthy poets.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Lycoris is the heroine of the love elegies composed by the Latin poet Cornelius Gallus. Her real name was Volumnia Cytheris. She was a freedwoman actress, who had previously been the mistress of Marcus Antonius. Virgil's tenth Eclogue pictures Gallus pining for Lycoris in an idyllic landscape. When Ovid praises the immortality of poetry, he says that Lycoris's name will be known throughout the world.


A shepherdess of Arcadia in [?]Queen Henrietta's Florimène. She disguises herself as a man in the course of her pursuit of Filène, not knowing that she is in fact his sister, kidnapped at an early age. The truth of her identity is revealed to her at the end by Diana, who thereupon assigns her as a wife to Anfrize.

LYCORIS **1638

A nickname in Mayne’s Amorous War that Pistoclerus calls his suburb mistress.


A "ghost character" in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. One of the ladies involved in the rebellion but who never appears on stage.


A eunuch in Fletcher's Valentinian, used by the Emperor Valentinian to lure Lucina, Maximus' chaste and virtuous wife, to the court, with the aim of making her his mistress.


One of the Roman freedmen in Fletcher's Valentinian who help to prepare Valentinian's rape of Lucina, Maximus' chaste and virtuous wife. A coward, he is unable to kill Aëtius at Valentinian's behest and flees the scene of the attempted assassination of Aëtius, where Balbus and Chilax are slain by Pontius. He finally abandons the court to save his skin during the military rebellion that enables Maximus' rise to the throne.


A court gentleman in Fletcher's Valentinian who commissions the poet Paulus to write a masque for Maximus' inauguration ceremony. The exchanges between the two men create a comic contrast to the chain-reaction of violence instigated by Maximus after the rape and death of Lucina, his chaste and virtuous wife.


Eudora's servant and friend of Lysander in Chapman's The Widow's Tears. He aids Lysander in his test of his wife by reporting that bandits killed Lysander. He is also accused of Lysander's murder when the details of his report of Lysander's death prove to be false and his wounds are discovered to be counterfeit.


Lygdus, Drusus Senior's eunuch cup bearer in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall. Though not appearing on stage, he is suborned by Livia into poisoning his master. At play's end Sejanus' wife is reported to be preparing to testify against Lygdus and the other two conspirators, Livia and Eudemus.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. John Lilly (1554–1606) was an English romancer and dramatist, who created a writing style, called euphuism. Lilly wrote a Latin grammar, very popular in Elizabethan schools. When Host speaks to Beaufort about Fly's doubtful Latin, he says he speaks a tainted Latin, after the School. Since Beaufort is acquainted to Fly's flawed Latin, he adds that Fly speaks Latin after the school of Stratford-of-the-Bow, and Lilly's Latin, considered the model, is unknown to him.


Duke of Austria and the principal ally of France in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John, Lymoges wears as his right the lion skin formerly worn by Richard Coeur de Lion, who died Lymoges' captive. In the first battle outside Angiers, the Bastard forces him to relinquish the trophy and fly in fear. During the nuptials of Blanche and Lewes the Bastard challenges him to single combat, but he declines on grounds of a social inequality that John's making Fauconbridge Duke of Normandy cannot undo. But when hostilities are renewed he dies at Fauconbridge's hand.
Lymoges, Duke of Austria is a conflation of the historical Duke of Austria, who imprisoned Richard, and the historical Viscount of Limoges, who actually killed him in Shakespeare's King John. He is allied with Philip in an attempt to put Arthur on the throne. When Constance rages against the marriage of the Dauphin and Blanche, Austria tries to calm her and she taunts him about the lion's skin he wears, claiming he should replace it with a calf's skin. Austria declares that he would never accept such words from a man, causing the Bastard to continually taunt him with those exact words. In the battle resulting from Cardinal Pandolf's excommunication of John, Austria is killed by the Bastard and his head brought on stage.


A Bithynian lord, father to Theagines in Mayne’s Amorous War. He along with Polydamas has prepared an island on which to keep the princesses safe during the war. He is amazed at the Thracian navy’s ability to pick out the one ship that carried the ladies and take only it. Lyncestes and Polydamas report to Archidamus that the ladies have been captured by Eurymedon. Lyncestes and Polydamas enter at plays end to declare that both armies, learning of the nuptials of their kings and princesses, have fallen into a mutual friendship that has made a virtual nuptial between the armies.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. In Greek mythology, Lynceus was one of the Argonauts, famous for his keen eye. After having narrated how he spied on Sogliardo and Shift in the privacy of their room at the inn, where they were smoking tobacco, Carlo Buffone says his friend Sogliardo need never know he was spied on. Carlo Buffone boasts his art of dissimulation, saying that he can oil his tongue and speak nicely, and not even Lynceus can see in his heart. After having spoken for dishonesty and betrayal, Carlo Buffone concludes cynically that the title of a friend is a useless thing, prized only by fools.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. In Greek mythology, Lynceus was one of the Argonauts, famous for his keen eye. When Overdo enters the Fair disguised as a madman, in order to detect the wrongdoers and bring them to justice, he says he defies anyone who could recognize him under his disguise. Even if this person had met Lynceus, the eagle's eye, still they could not have recognized Justice Overdo in his madman's disguise. Overdo's logic is doubtful, transferring Lynceus' excellent seeing quality to someone who only met the legendary hero.

LYNCEUS **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. He could see the motes of the sun and the least things of the world. Chremylus promises to make Plutus' vision as perfect as Lynceus'.


A "ghost character" in [?]Heywood's The Fair Maid of the Exchange, Barnes is a master of arts at Cambridge. William Bennet asks his friend Richard Gardiner to pass along his respects to Barnes when the latter visits Cambridge.


A merchant in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. Lyon-Rash plans to become wealthy through booming trade during the reign of Envy. Along with the other characters, he follows the cycle that begins with the reign of Plenty and ends with Poverty.


One of the four worthy knights of Tartar in Verney’s Antipoe. He conspires with Dabon and Sapos to kill Dramurgon and agrees to take noble Macros into their conspiracy; the conspirators see Macros lying in his prophetic stupor and elect to leave him there for the time being. Upon catching Drupon about to murder the sleeping Macros, he along with Dabon and Sapos capture Drupon and lead him away to torture. He agrees with his friends Dabon, Macros and Sapos that Dramurgon has dishonoured them by refusing to fight the kings of Bohemia, Corinth and Thrace and believes that he will find some trick to avoid the fight on Thursday next. Fearing Antipoe dead by execution, he is delighted to see that Macros has rescued the hero and goes to fulfill his promised love with the king of Bohemia’s daughters. He stands beside Antipoe to kill the men Dramurgon sends to compel the fallen Bohemia from him. He and the other three knights appear before the President of Tartar identifying the four daughters of Bohemia as their ‘contracted wives’ and all go in to supper. He later objects to passing judgement upon Macros for the murder of Dramurgon. He is next to commit suicide after Drabon commits suicide after Macros commits suicide after Antipoe commits suicide for his failure to avenge Dramurgon’s murder. He is later seen as a ghost, clad in white, ascending to the throne with the others at the behest of Brutus.


A fictional character within [?]Heywood's The Fair Maid of the Exchange. When Fiddle is introduced to Racket (Bobbington in disguise), he jokingly says his father is Sir Lawrence Lyre.


Lyriope is a nymph of the sea, married to Cephisus and mother of Narcissus in the anonymous Narcissus. She wears the colours blue–like the billows–white–like foam–and green–like water. She begs her husband to wait for Tyresias, the profet, a little longer. At the end, when he comes, her husband asks him about their son's fortune. When she learns the sad fate that is awaiting Narcissus, she urges the sage to tell them a way of remedying that future. But she cannot understand Tyresias's answer ("If he does not discover himself"). According to Greek mythology, Liriope was a Naiad. The Naiads were nymphs of bodies of fresh water, and they abode in rivers, streams, brooks, springs, fountains, lakes, ponds, wells and marshes. One day, Liriope was clasped by the river-god Cephisus in his winding streams, and taken by force under the waves. Being the fairest and loveliest of nymphs, Liriope gave birth to Narcissus, a beautiful child everyone could fall in love with.


A "ghost character" in Whetstone's 2 Promos and Cassandra. Ulrico mentions him when talking to Pimos, indicating that he is the man with whom Pimos is having a dispute.


See also LISANDER and related spellings.


Lysander is the Athenian youth who loves Hermia but whose suit is refused by her father Egeus in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. He attempts to elope with Hermia to his widow aunt's beyond the Athenian woods, but on the way he succumbs to a love-flower essence that causes him to love and pursue Helena and despise Hermia. He and Demetrius alternately praise their beloved Helena, chide Hermia, and taunt one another as they labor under fairy influences. Released at last from the love spell, Lysander recalls his true love for Hermia and weds her in a triple ceremony with the Duke and Hippolyta, Demetrius and Helena. The wedding party watches the production of Pyramus and Thisbe.


When his brother Tharsalio expresses skepticism about the vows of women to remain faithful after marriage, Lysander decides to test his wife, who has made such a vow in Chapman's The Widow's Tears. He leaves home on a trip and has Lycus, a servant to Eudora, accompany him in order to report that he has been killed, a plan he shares with Tharsalio and on the outcome of which they wager. Unknown to Lycus and Tharsalio, however, he returns disguised as a soldier hired to guard three crucified prisoners and uses the opportunity to woo his wife, fasting in her husband's tomb, who at the urging of her waiting-woman Ero seems to respond to his advances and offered sustenance. When one of the bodies disappears (taken by Tharsalio), the punishment for which is death, Cynthia offers to replace it with her husband's body, even after the disguised Lysander claims to have murdered her husband. Tharsalio, however, discovers the disguise, replaces the body, and informs Cynthia of the test, which allows her to pretend to have known of his disguise all along.


Lysander is an Egyptian lord who secretly loves Miranda in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. He is disgusted when her father, the Soldan, decides to marry her. When Miranda escapes, Colactus persuades the Soldan that Lysander helped her. The Soldan tries to kill him, but Cyprian rescues him by paralyzing his attackers with a magic spell. He and Cyprian leave the Egyptians, and Cyprian then reveals that although Lysander was brought up an Egyptian, he is really the heir of Antioch, and when he meets Justina, they realize they are cousins. When the Caliph of Babylon challenges the Soldan to settle the war in single combat, Lysander becomes the Soldan's champion against Babylon's Armidan. But when the champions meet, 'Armidan' turns out to be Miranda, and the couple announce that they love each other. The Babylonians and the Egyptians are about to kill them both when the Romans invade; they restore Lysander to the throne of Antioch, and Miranda becomes his queen.


He believes himself to be Count Orsinio's son but is, in fact, Count Utrante's son in Carlell's The Deserving Favorite. Count Utrante is a dear friend of his, and he visited him regularly in prison. He loves Clarinda but respects and feels indebted to the Duke, who saved his life. He encourages Clarinda to marry the Duke, upon whom he lavishes praise, and discourages her from using deception. After she tells the Duke she will marry him (secretly planning to use the money from her father's restored estate to flee the country), Lysander suggests that she simply cuckold the Duke or poison him. He hopes that these suggestions will destroy Clarinda's respect for him, but she sees through his deception and promises to kill herself if he does not marry her. He agrees to do so even if it means leaving her father behind if he will not flee with them. When he receives a letter from the Duke asking him to come armed to the great elm in the forest, he suspects that the Duke intends to duel him and writes a letter to be sent to Clarinda if he does not return. In this letter, he encourages Clarinda to marry the Duke. In the forest, he assures the Duke that the conversation in the arbor was not sincere but still duels him for the love of Clarinda. After apparently killing the Duke, the wounded Lysander is discovered and cared for by Cleonarda and Mariana. Lysander tells Cleonarda that he would reciprocate her love for him if he were not already in love with Clarinda. After he is healed, he plans to journey to Florence, but he is prevented from doing so by the appearance of the King. To lessen the King's anger towards Gerard, Lysander claims to have forced him to assist him at sword point. Swayed by neither this nor Cleonarda's promise to kill herself if he harms Lysander, the King takes both Lysander and Gerard back to the court as prisoners. Before his scheduled execution, he proclaims his love both to Clarinda and Cleonarda. His execution is prevented by the revelation that the Duke is alive. Next, his marriage to Clarinda is prevented by Count Orsinio's revelation that Lysander and Clarinda are siblings. He agrees to marry Cleonarda, and, to secure her brother's permission, they stand with swords to their hearts and promise to kill themselves if he denies the match. At first he does deny the match, but while they are deciding who should commit suicide first, the King announces that they have proven their worth and consents to the match.


A courtier whose real name is Pisander in Tatham's Love Crowns the End. Lysander answers Cloë's call for help by chasing off the Lustful Shepherd. Although he says she is fair, he rebuffs the shepherdess Cloë's advances because he is in love with Gloriana. In a place of green myrtles and roses marked "Lovers' Valley," Lysander and Gloriana declare their love for each other and kiss. On another outing together, the Destinies declare that the two "must bleed," and Lysander is stabbed and left for dead. During the struggle he tries to protect Gloriana, but he collapses. Saved by Claudia and Florida and healed by divine intervention, he helps reconcile Florida and Clinton. In the end he forgives Francisco and is preparing to wed Gloriana.


Lysander is Aegidius's nephew, Olimpa's husband, and Facetia's suitor in Wilde's Love's Hospital. He is described throughout the play as Lepidus's parasite. Although at the play's beginning he claims that his ties to Lepidus are "all for [Aegidius's] advantage" since he intends to incline Facetia to his uncle's love, he also promises the mute Piscinus that he will further his suit to Lepidus's daughter and, procuring money from each, pits the two suitors against each other for his own gain at Lepidus's approval. Furthermore, along with Lepidus he attempts to frighten Olimpa (disguised as Nigella) into marrying the oblivious Caecilius but prevents Comastes from killing the "Moore," and informs Facetia that his cruelties towards her other suitors are intended solely to make her merry. Although Facetia promises Lysander that she will be his in time and Lepidus sends Facetia to St Clares where he claims that he has appointed one to marry his daughter to Lysander, Olimpa's true identity is revealed and Lysander, thus, is reunited with his wife, becomes an ineligible suitor to Facetia, and reconciles with Comastes.


Lysander is a gentleman in love with Artemone in Mead's Combat of Love and Friendship. He is descended from a family that hates hers, and so her father is suspicious of him. Lysander suffers the combat between love and friendship of the play's title. This is because his friend Theocles loves Ethusa, but Ethusa is determined to reject his suit unless her sister Panaretta counsels her that she should, and unfortunately Panaretta loves Lysander, and will not counsel so until Lysander shows some love to her. Lysander asks permission of Artemone to woo Panaretta for a bit, which offends her. He begs Ethusa to accept Theocles, and begs Panaretta to persuade her sister, but to no avail. Ethusa's treatment of Theocles casts Lysander is into misery. Ethusa then tells him that she's beginning to yield to Theocles, but expects him to woo Panaretta in recompense. He promises to, and delightedly tells Theocles. Theocles is grateful, but then admits that he deliberately made Artemone think Lysander was unfaithful to her in order to speed up the situation. Lysander is furious at this treachery and they fight; Theocles is wounded. In the final scene, Lysander agrees to marry Panaretta after Artemone rejects him for Philonax.


The true identity of Francisco, younger son of Euphues in May's The Heir. He, along with the audience, is entirely ignorant of his true name and family until his chance reunion with Alphonso. The revelation of his gentle birth works a happy resolution to the sub-plot.


Main character, prince of Thessaly and son to the governor in Berkeley's The Lost Lady. Haunted by the memory of his love, Milesia, who was presumably killed by her own uncle in revenge for loving Lysicles. He seeks Hermione's love on behalf of his friend Eugenio, much to the confusion of the people who think it is the prince himself who fancies her. At the Moor's request, he visits Milesia's tomb at night, where he learns from Milesia's ghost that the Moor was the cause of her death. He vows to revenge his love, poisons the Moor, but later learns that the Moor is Milesia herself in disguise. Upon hearing the news, he orders the Physician to provide him with the antidote, restores her health, and becomes engaged to Milesia.


Governor of Mytilene and a patron of the brothel in Shakespeare's Pericles. Like other potential customers, he is overwhelmed by Marina's virtue and refuses to force her into sex. Later, learning of Pericles' deep melancholy, he agrees that Marina might be able to cure Pericles' profound grief. Following Pericles' reunion with his daughter, Marina is promised to Lysimachus in marriage.


A king, along with Seleucus and Ptolomie, opposing Antigonus in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. The brother of the King of Antioch, and father of Justina, reported dead in the opening scene.


Sister to the King of Sicily in Killigrew’s The Prisoners. She must hide in the woods with Eugene from Galllipus and his pirates whilst Philon attempts to draw them away, but she is captured. She scorns Gillippus’ wooing and is bound. Hipparchus is entrusted with her, but Pausanes fights Hipparchus to release her. When Hipparchus and Pausanes join forces against Gillippus, she calls for aid until her brother the king arrives with his men to drive off Gillippus. The king gives her the running of the country while he is away and also Hipparchus and Pausanes to deal with as she wishes. She disguises Hipparchus and Pausanes and sends them after the king’s fleet (which is waylaid by storm). She hopes they will acquit themselves to the king in battle. Pausanes declares his love for her, but she feels she must (against her heart) scorn him. In act four, she dresses as a boy and pursues Pausanes. She is shipwrecked in the storm and saved by Pausanes, not knowing her for the disguise. She recovers on shore beside the signal beacon to find her brother the king safe and Pausanes recovering. She will tend him and marry him when he recovers.


Lysippus is the King's brother in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Maid's Tragedy. When the King is assassinated, Lysippus becomes King. He goes to the assassins, Melantius, Diphilus, Evadne, Calianax, and Amintor and hears their reasons for killing the King. He determines that they had good reason and gives them his pardon. He ends the play by saying that Kings must be honorable lest God should cut them down.


See also ELIZABETH and related forms and spellings.


Lyzabetta attends on Celia in Marston's What You Will.