A candidate to be a Grobian in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. He tells Hunch that they will both be admitted to Grobian Hall and not to fear.


See also "JACOMO," "JACHIMO," "IACHIMO," "GIACOMO," and related spellings.


A long-time soldier weary of peace in Fletcher's The Captain. Jacamo complains to Fabritio that no woman could ever love him, and he has no way of making a living except as a soldier. Encountering Lelia's father disguised as an old solider, Jacamo insists that Lelia's father accompany them. Jacamo and Fabritio meet Frederick, and together they hear Franck and Clora making music at a window above. Unimpressed, Jacamo sleeps (or feigns sleep), while the women discuss him upstairs. Later, Fabritio persuades Jacamo to visit Franck and Clora, but Jacamo wrongly believes that the women speak only sarcastically of him. He is particularly vituperative against Clora, who responds with spirit. He is convinced that he has been the butt of their mockery. The next time he meets Fabritio, he challenges him to a duel. Under the pretext of measuring their weapons, Fabritio takes Jacamo's sword and laughs at him until Jacamo admits that he should not have drawn on his friend. Jacamo spends the night drinking with Lodowicke, Piso, and the Host, until Lodowicke says that they are not friends, whereupon Jacamo beats them. Next, warmed by the alcohol, Jacamo goes to see the women. He kisses Franck and declares that he loves her, then kisses Clora, and finally kisses Frederick in the mistaken belief that he is a woman. When the others laugh, Jacamo draws his sword and attacks Frederick, who falls. Jacamo surrenders to the Servants and is taken to his lodging. In the morning, having forgotten the events of the previous night, Jacamo goes back to the house with Frederick and Fabritio but refuses to go inside. After the Maid pours a bucket of urine on his head, he throws stones at all the windows in the street, then sets about breaking the lower windows with his sword before leaving. Greeting Fabritio, who follows him, Jacamo demonstrates an ability to laugh at himself until Fabritio boxes his ear. Jacamo chases Fabritio into the house, where Frederick, Clora and the Maid force him into a chair and listen as Franck swears her love for him. Jacamo believes he is being made a fool of, but Franck's tears finally convince him otherwise. Jacamo eagerly accepts Fabritio's suggestion that he should marry Franck quickly, and they go to get married. At the nuptial celebrations, Jacamo once again meets Lodowicke and enjoys seeing Lodowicke's discomfiture at being the butt of another's plot. Jacamo rejoices at Frederick's news that war is coming, but reassures Franck that rather than leaving her, he will teach her to be a soldier.


Alternative spelling of Jacquenetta in Brome's The Novella.


An alternative spelling of Iachimo in Shakespeare's Cymbeline.


Jacinta is the daughter of the Spanish general, Julianus in William Rowley's All's Lost by Lust. Jacinta knows that King Roderick lusts after her, and she tries to tell her father of the danger, but he does not listen. Roderick's agents Lothario and Malena attempt to corrupt her. When Jacinta responds with anger, Roderick rapes her and imprisons her in his castle, leaving Lothario to guard her. Lothario falls asleep, so Jacinta steals his keys and escapes. She travels to her father's military camp, and tells him what has happened. Julianus is infuriated, and recruits his former enemy, Muly Mumen, in a rebellion against Roderick. After the successful rebellion, Muly Mumen demands Jacinta's hand in recompense for his aid. Jacinta rails on him, and Julianus refuses his request. Muly Mumen thus orders Jacinta's tongue to be cut out and Julianus to be blinded. He then tricks the blinded Julianus into stabbing Jacinta to death.


Ascanio's mother in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. She had Ascanio with Henrique without benefit of marriage. Henrique's plan was to use Ascanio to thwart Jamie's claim to inherit after Henrique. Jacinta was tossed aside in favor of Violante and lives under the fiction that she is the widow of a deceased captain. Octavio, her supposed present husband, assists in this deception and has helped Jacinta to rear Ascanio. She is seized along with Octavio, Ascanio, and Henrique as part of Henrique's plot to reveal Violante's treachery.


Jacinta is sister to Lady Bellamia Peregrine and niece to Sir Solitary Plot in Shirley's The Example. She finds men generally laughable; she claims she doesn't want to marry, and she questions exactly what men are good for. She sets up suitors Vainman and Pumicestone, commissioning them to follow ridiculous courtship rules. In the end she chooses neither gentleman, instead claiming a love for Fitzavarice.


Daughter of Don Carlo and Alsimira, sister to Luys in Shirley's The Brothers. Jacinta loves Francisco, the younger son of Don Ramyres, but her father wants a wealthy match for her, and so betroths her first to Francisco's elder brother, Fernando, and then, as Luys introduces them, to Alberto and finally to Don Pedro, the latter of whom was formerly betrothed to the widowed Estefania. To help her, and to rid herself of an unwanted suitor, Jacinta exchanges clothes with Estefania before setting out for her wedding with Don Pedro. On the way, Estefania is abducted by Alberto (whom she ultimately marries), but the trick works smoothly for Jacinta, who elopes with Francisco and is privately married to him.


Iacke is servant to Carisophus and deplores Aristippus' rapid rise to the king's favor in Edwards's Damon and Pithias. Iacke does not intervene to help his master when Stephano catches Carisophus rummaging in Damon's trunk. When Carisophus gets a good beating, Iacke justifies his non-interference as a form of help, since the aggression would have been deadly had he brought in a sword. Ironically, Iacke advises Carisophus to explain his head injuries to the doctor as "a knave's blessing." Before the palace gate, while waiting for their masters, Wyll threatens Iacke for dispraising Aristippus, and the two lackeys argue over which of them insulted their respective masters most. Eventually they make peace, on condition that none of them should speak ill of the other's master. The two servants eavesdrop and make sport of Grimme the collier's education. Iacke and Wyll pretend to be the porters at the court gate, and set about to rob the collier of his well-lined purse. They bring in wine and pump the increasingly drunken Grimme for hearsay information regarding the Damon and Pithias story. The two lackeys devise a trick to pinch the collier's purse. While pretending to wash and shave him, Iacke and Wyll sing to Grimme and steal his purse. Both rascals exit to share the spoil.


A disguise assumed by Neronis in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. Though she never calls herself Jack, the shepherd Corin dubs her thus when he takes her into his service.


Only mentioned in the anonymous July and Julian. Fenell mentions him almost at the end of the play, when he says "Jack shall have his Jill, and Julye Julian." Jack and Jill is a nursery rhyme. Jack is a generic name for man, husband, or master. Fenell is referring to a popular phrase which says: "Every Jack shall have his Jill", meaning that "every man may find a wife if he likes." This figure is likewise referred to in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream when Puck reunites the Athenian lovers.


The name the King of Gaul eventually settles on for Mumford (after discarding Denapoll) while they are in England disguised as palmers in the anonymous King Leir.


Jack is the novice attached to Friar Hugh ap David in Peele's Edward I.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave. One of the two poor old men suggests that his boy Jack could write down what the other old man's horse will speak.

JACK **1597

Nickname of Sir John Falstaff, the lovable reprobate who frequents the bars and bawds of London, providing a poor role model for Prince Hal, in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV, 2 Henry IV, Henry V, and The Merry Wives of Windsor.

JACK **1599

Possibly a “ghost character" in Ruggle’s Club Law. Brecknocke’s boy, who is no bigger than the “little ape" that struck Brecknocke on the head with a club and called it club law then held him at bay with a knife (perhaps a reference to Cricket). The name is used throughout the play by several characters who mean nothing more by it than “young man" or “saucy fellow." It may not be a proper name even in Brecknocke’s context. His Jack could possibly be a reference to his boy, Peter.


The alias assumed by the French King's Daughter in Thomas Heywood's The Four Prentices of London when pretending to be a page and following Guy to the Holy Land.


The name of the First Child/Prologue in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels.


Jack is the Juggler's apprentice and a "mute character" or possibly a "ghost character" in the anonymous Wily Beguiled. When the Juggler wants to show the Prologue some of his tricks, he calls in his apprentice Jack, but immediately says that he is gone. Jack is possibly the image of the play Spectrum that the Juggler causes to vanish.


Jack is a page in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. At the beginning of the play he talks to Will about the money that their lords owe to them. He is Hyppolita's servant. He will tell the gentlemen that the ladies will not welcome them any more. As a soothsayer he is compared to Merlin because he tells what is to happen.


Amoretto's page in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus. Jack hears his master's report of the way he scotched Academico's request for help, and describes a way to better the jest. In asides, he scoffs at his master's vanity and ignorance, and at the vain attempt of Ingenioso and Phantasmus to attract Amoretto's patronage. He and Sir Raderick's page make sport of the fiddlers.


The disguise adopted by Second Luce throughout much of the play in Thomas Heywood's The Wise Woman of Hogsdon.

JACK **1605

Servant to Tailby, not to be confused with the Mitre Vintner of the same name in Middleton's Your Five Gallants. Busy on his master's behalf, the day after Tailby looses his clothes in Goldstone's crooked dice game, in receiving serendipitous gifts of rich attire from Tailby's various married mistresses. Jack mentions that he gets no standing wage in Tailby's employment, but currently lives well on tips as his master's go-between. He cautions that the gigolo's career will be short: if Tailby survive the current plague, he will be out of business at forty.


A gamester in William Rowley's A New Wonder: A Woman Never Vexed. When Stephen claims that there has been cheating in a game of dice, Jack and the other gamesters attack him, but they are beaten off by Robert and the Host. During the fight, the Bowlers sneak in and steal Stephen, Robert and the Host's cloaks.


A boy who lives in Blackwall in Webster and Rowley's A Cure for a Cuckold. With Rafe, he tells the returning Compass that his wife has had a child in his absence. Jack also appears as a drawer in the Three Tuns, where Compass's paternity suit is debated.

JACK **1632

As Lord Rainbow rails at Bostock for claiming a familial relationship in Shirley's The Ball, "Jack" is among those common names he uses to identify both Bostock and his social standing.


Jack is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. Though he is a courtier, he is illiterate, coarse, and vulgar. He brawls with Jack, whom he has kicked, and is only reconciled to him when the courtier offers to take them to the tavern.


Jack, Quibble's boy, sings a song in Quarles' The Virgin Widow.

JACK **1641

Homily’s disguise name in Wild’s The Benefice. He has Hob–nail call him Jack when they go in disguise to Marchurch for the benefice.


A wittol in Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside. He allows his wife to bed and breed with Whorehound in return for the standard of living it provides him as husband to the wealthy man's kept woman. When his wife gives birth to a baby girl, he names Whorehound one of the godparents (to avert suspicion) and also elects Moll and Touchwood, Jr. as godparents. He is called Jack only once, by Whorehound, as they leave the christening. When Davy informs him that Whorehound is to marry Moll, Allwit attempts to thwart the marriage. Posing as Yellowhammer's cousin, Allwit tells Yellowhammer of Whorehound's lechery with the Allwits. When Whorehound is wounded and remakes his will cutting out the Allwits, Allwit orders him from his house. The Allwits decide that, as they are well provided with a house and elegant furnishings, all of which are paid for, they should hire it out and take apartments in the Strand—that, or turn the place into a bordello.


A friend of Shirke's in Randolph's(?) The Drinking Academy, Bidstand helps to terrorize and steal from Worldly and Knowlittle. He dresses up as both Alecto, a ballad seller, and Pluto.


Butler to Lady Tub in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub.


Jack Bellamont, a poet and dramatist, is the central character in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho, masterminding (and finally combining) the revenge actions in the main plot (around Maybery, Greenshield, Featherstone and Kate) and in the subplot (around Doll Hornet and his son Philip). Bellamont does not believe Greenshield's and Featherstone's story about the infidelity of Maybery's wife - he can convince his friend Maybery that they lie, and he suggests a way of revenge by inviting the two slanderers into Maybery's house. He releases his son Philip from prison by paying his debts, and he then tries to get him away from Doll, the trickster who is responsible for these debts. Doll wants to get acquainted with him by playing a gentlewoman and ordering twelve love poems from him, but her charms do not work on him. When Captain Jenkins comes to Bellamont to order a love poem, Doll tries a second attack. Bellamont tells Jenkins to hide behind a curtain, and he then hears Doll confessing her tricks. Together with her two other victims, Hans van Belch and Allom, he follows her to Ware to have her arrested. In the meantime, Maybery has arranged a plot to take his revenge on Greenshield. Greenshield has been led to believe that Mrs Maybery will meet a gentleman in Ware, and he wants Maybery to go there, surprise them, and show himself openly as a cuckold, but Greenshield would then only discover his own wife, Kate, in bed with his friend Featherstone. Maybery wants as many people as possible present at this occasion, so he asks Bellamont, Philip, Leverpool and Chartley to follow him and Greenshield. Bellamont suggests a small bet for their entertainment on the way: They should play practical jokes on each other during their journey, and the victim of the best joke would then have to pay for all the expenses of the party. During a short visit to Bedlam (mental hospital), Bellamont talks with one of the patients, and Greenshield tells the keeper that Bellamont is mad and should be kept there. When he is relased again, Greenshield is convinced that he has won the bet and that Bellamont now has to pay for their travel. But when they arrive in Ware, Bellamont overtops Maybery's revenge plan with an extra twist that leads Greenshield to offer his own wife as a companion to Maybery, so that both he and Featherstone show themselves as cuckolds in front of the whole party. They cannot find Mrs Maybery, because Bellamont has told her to hide. Greenshield is told that she is in Puckridge, and he wants to go there immediately, but Maybery pretends to be tired and melancholy and does not want to go any further. Bellamont tells Greenshield that he should provide a prostitute for him to make him happy. During a short absence of Featherstone, Greenshield, disguised as a fawkner, goes to his inn to look for a suitable prostitute for Maybery. He does not recognize his own wife because she is wearing a mask, and she follows the "stranger" willingly to be presented to Maybery. When all is discovered, Greenshield has been cuckolded by his friend Featherstone, but he has now also cuckolded himself. As Featherstone finds himself also cuckolded by Kate, he agrees to marry the prostitute Doll, whom he believes to be Maybery's niece, and he has to pay for everything in the end, and Greenshield is left with his own unfaithful wife and without money.


A china merchant, formerly a barber surgeon, friend and landlord to Sir Hugh Moneylacks in Brome's The Sparagus Garden. (See "JOHN (or JACK) BRITTLEWARE").


Encouraged by Richard, Duke of York, Jack Cade foments rebellion in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, promising to reform the realm with such enticing innovations as the abolition of money, and, famously, the death of all lawyers. Cade calls himself by the pseudonym Sir John (or Lord) Mortimer, claiming to be the long-lost secret son of Edmund Mortimer, Duke of March and the Duke of Clarence's daughter. The Duke of Buckingham and Lord Clifford attempt to end the rebellion by promising that Cade's supporters will be pardoned if they relent, but Cade persuades the rebels that such promises cannot be trusted. When Clifford warns the rebels that they are making England vulnerable to a French invasion, they recognize the danger of the rebellion and transfer their support to King Henry. When Cade escapes, the commoners who had been his supporters become his hunters, promised a reward for his head. After five days of hiding following the failure of his rebellion, Jack Cade is hungry enough to risk being caught. He ventures into a garden looking for sustenance, but is captured by the landowner Alexander Iden, who kills him, and takes his head to Henry.


Constant is Mistress Pleasant's leading suitor at the beginning of Killigrew's Parson's Wedding. Pleasant finds him extremely boring, and indeed he does little more than profess his devotion and engage in debates extolling the virtues of romantic love. Along with Will Sadd and Secret, he makes up a story that Lady Wild's house has been infested by the plague, in the hopes that she and Mistress Pleasant will leave London and not fall under the spell of Careless and Wild. Their schemes fail when the Captain devises a plane to trick the ladies into marrying Wild and Careless.


Also identified as Daynty in Brome's Court Beggar. He presents himself as a painter, but is in fact a pickpocket. He helps rescue Lady Strangelove when Ferdinand attacks her. He courts and wins Philomel, but when Citwit is finally provoked into fighting him, he concedes and confesses that he is a pickpocket. He returns the stolen goods, and his victims pardon him. Mendicant even allows him to keep his purse, blaming himself for its theft. Lady Strangelove puts him in charge of painting the scenery for her masque, in which he also plays an Agent of Mercury.


A gallant of London, and son of Sir Davy Dapper in Middleton and Dekker's Moll Cutpurse, The Roaring Girl. Jack Dapper wastes his money on his companions and prostitutes. He even loses money while gambling by forgetting to use his own loaded dice. His father files a false arrest warrant on him, thinking that time spent in jail will tame his spirits. Moll Cutpurse saves Jack from being arrested. Moll rescues him again when he is held ransom for his gambling debts. Later, Jack is with Moll, Sir Thomas Long, and Sir Beauteous Ganymede when Ralph Trapdoor and Tearcat, disguised as poor soldiers, accost them along with the group of cutpurses. Moll explains to Jack and the others the practice of canting and the profession of cutting purses.


Jack Denten is hired by Miles Forest on behalf of James Terrell in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III to murder the two princes in the Tower. Denten agrees to the job, but has second thoughts once he sees the princes. Denten regains his resolve after his partner Will Slawter threatens to stab him to death. Denten and Slawter smother the boys and bury them within the Tower.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Blepsidemus cries against Penia-Penniless, "Jack Dolophin and his kettledrum defend us!"

JACK DRUM **1599

Only mentioned in Ruggle’s Club Law. While waiting to catch Colby with the corn, Cricket says he will get up to something rather than to stand about like Jack Drum.


A servant of Sir Edward Fortune, who calls Drum "a knave" in Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment. Jack Drum opens the action of the play. He entertains the Morice dancers and then tells Fortune that they should not be hospitable to Mamon, but they should give him "Jack Drum's Entertainment;" in other words, they should send him on his way with nothing. Drum recognizes Mamon's greed and warns Sir Edward repeatedly about the dangers of associating with usurers. Winifred uses Drum in her plan to humiliate both Drum and the Frenchman, fo de King. She tells Drum that she wants to have sex with him, but she needs him to hide in a sack and be carried to her. Instead, fo de King picks up the sack and carries Drum to the inn. Both men are surprised to discover that Winifred is not there. Drum attends a celebratory entertainment at Sir Edward's after Katherine and Pasquil are reunited.

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley allegedly involved with Stukeley in various gambling exploits throughout London.


Falkner is a servant to Morris, the Bishop of Winchester's secretary in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. Arrested for taking part in a melee in Paternoster Row, he is brought before More, who orders the man to be taken to Newgate. Falkner begs to be sent instead to one of the "Counters" (prisons for lesser offenders), and More sends for Morris. As they wait for the secretary, More calls Falkner a ruffian and asks about the prisoner's extraordinarily long hair. When the latter claims that he has taken a vow not to be shorn for three years, More orders him to Newgate for three years unless he submits to a haircut, in which case the sentence will be reduced to one month. Falkner refuses and is led off. Morris arrives a short time later to plead for Falkner's release, saying the man has had his hair cut and promises to live a quiet life. More has Falkner brought in, likes the reformation he sees, and orders the man released. When More leaves to attend to guests, Falkner begins to rant so uncontrollably about his lost hair that Morris discharges him, only to relent when Falkner begins to weep.


The leader of the consort of viols in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus that Studioso and Philomusus have joined claims that the waggish pages have promised to pay the group to perform; the imps laugh in his face.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Arden of Feversham. Black Will tells Bradshaw that it was Fitten who stole the plate from Lord Cheiny that Bradshaw is accused of stealing.


Only mentioned in Edwards's Damon and Pithias. Spelled "Jacke" in the original, Aristippus parallels the impossibility of his friendship to the stupid Carisophus with the impossibility of friendship between Jacke Fletcher and his Bowlt (the arrow-maker and his arrow).


Jack Freshwater returns unexpectedly from travels abroad in Shirley's The Ball, immediately dunning Rainbow and Winfield, who owe him money, with interest. His stories of his travels are bogus; they are also fantastic, ridiculous, and full of errors. He ends by admitting he has not traveled at all and requires now only the principal amounts that he lent.


Hadland is a cheat in the service of the Cardinal in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green. With Canbee and Snip, he steals Tom Strowd's cloak, but is forgiven. In disguise as a highwayman, he helps Canbee steal money from Tom and Swash, and then pretends to happen upon him and help him. Later, he meets Tom, again in disguise, but this time Tom recognizes him and beats him and Canbee while Swash handles Snip. When Canbee and Hadland fight the disguised Mumford, they are soundly beaten. When the two sides fight in the final scene, Tom passes up any weapon but a cudgel and uses it to soundly beat the two again.

Captain of the English Garrison in Dundalk in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. Troubled by Stukeley's overweening ambition, he considers the captain "some desperate pirate, that thinks to domineer on the land as he is used among his mates at sea." Against his wife's better judgement, he expels Stukeley from Ireland.


A trickster ("cony-catcher") in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho, one of Doll Hornet's companions. He gives out to be Doll's father, but he is not related to her.


Captaine Complement's Page and "Count Booke" keeper in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Implement is Complement's constant sidekick and partner in crime who feeds his Master's hunger for compliments. Near the play's beginning, Complement orders Implement to recite the titles which he received from "the great Mogull" and chides his Page for having initially left them out of "the Alphabet of [his] Titles." Novice is impressed by the Captaine and offers Implement various bribes in order to entice the Page to speak on his behalf to "the mighty man." Implement presents Novice's "suit" to Complement - that Novice may "be [his] schollar for an houre in a day"– and, after much ado, Complement agrees "to entertaine" Novice "upon probation." For bringing "a pretty fat fowle to [their] net," Complement thanks Implement. When Complement expresses "griefe & anger" over Sir Orgolio's acceptance of his dinner invitation and proceeds to make much fuss with Implement over the issue, the Page comes up with some possible solutions to the problem and the matter is forgotten about. Complement sends a "Broker" (presumably Implement) to "proffer" Lauriger with a "pension" if he can "procure a patent from Apollo" that will allow the Captaine to "hold on his apish trade" which Lauriger identifies as a "trap" and refuses. For this reason, Lauriger vows to "accuse them both anon at Apollos Judgement seat." He comments on Complement's lengthy lesson to Gingle on what to do if the boy finds "a Lady weeping and mournfull, for that her Monkey is sicke of the mumps," and makes various remarks under his breath concerning Complement's exaggerations of the truth, his own hunger, and their poverty. During this lesson he "rides upon Gingles backe" as they imitate Apes. When the Captain chides Gingle for carrying a knife Implement claims that he'll take it. He is also present during Complement's second lesson to Gingle on the art of shrugging, which is borne out of a dispute over money and the number of months in the year. When it is "high time" for Complement to "appeare" before "the Session" of Apollo, Implement accompanies him "up the hill on foot." He is present at the sentencing of disobedient characters at the play's end, and when his name is called by Preco he begs Museus to "be good to a poore Page" since he "had but a hard service under [Complement]" and "would faine goe to schoole againe." Museus gives him "Apollos doome" when he states that his "lot is for the schoole again: but there for one whole yeere [he] must smooth out the dogs eares of all [his] fellowes bookes." He also must "vow to ply [his] booke as nimbly as ever [he] didst [his] Masters Apery," which he agrees to readily.


A court page and nephew to Sacrilege Hook in Hausted’s Rival Friends. He can find an attractive quality in every woman and so love her. He is the opposite to the misogynist Anteros, yet they like one another. He and Anteros make sport by setting William Wiseacres, Noddle Empty, Mr. Mongrel, and Hammershin to insult one another. Loveall convinces Noddle that he has killed Hammershin by falling against him and giving him an internal injury with his hilt. He next convinces Wiseacres that he is an accessory to the murder. Noddle hides in a foul dog kennel when Loveall pretends the constables are coming and Wiseacres hides in another one beside it. He finds Anteros tied to a tree, unties him, and watches the fun as Anteros convinces Stipes that it is a magic tree that turns knaves to gentlemen and ties the shepherd to it. Loveall fetches a bedlam to impersonate Oberon to season the jest but must hurry him off again when Hook and Terpander appear. He saves his friend from marriage with the news that Ursely is really Anteros’s sister and therefore they cannot wed. When he believes Constantina, his sister, is dead, he drags the ‘boy’ Isabella out to accuse him of killing her. He discovers, however, that is sister lives and is furthermore already married to Cleopes, and he is content. At play’s end, he discovers that the fools he shut in the dog kennels are still there, and he leaves Anteros to dispose of them with a final jest.


A "term-driver," or lawyer in Massinger's A New Way to Pay Old Debts. Marrall is Overreach's pupil in extortion and evil deeds until he unwittingly becomes a pawn in Welborne's charade, which causes his relationship with Overreach to deteriorate. Switching his loyalty from Sir Giles to Welborne, Marrall punishes Overreach for his corrupt deeds by making a deed between the two become "nothing" through the use of some "quaint means." Although he has high hopes of being adopted permanently into Welborne's favor as his bailiff for this act he is, instead, completely dismissed from Welborne's service because he has proven himself to be a "false servant."


A non-speaking character in Chettle, Dekker and Haughton's Patient Grissil. One of the beggars, he is urged not to take bread while Gwenthyan is speaking.

JACK (or WILL) PLOD **1639

A student of law at the Inns of Chancery in Sharpe’s Noble Stranger. He and Fledwit join with Mercutio in gulling Pupillus. Early in the play, Mercutio refers to him as Will Plod but later calls to him by the name Jack. After all his work getting Pupillus to fancy and then marry Flavia, he and his friends find they have been gulled when Flavia refuses to split Pupillus’ wealth with them. Plod goes off to study mischief while Mercutio resolves to live better and go sober to bed.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. He is from Shooter's Hill and is brother to Ill Will, who owns Hick Scorner's ship, The Envy. His name suggests a robber (or plunderer), and Shooter's Hill was notorious for highwaymen.


Pumicestone is one of Jacinta's suitors in Shirley's The Example. He and Vainman agree that whichever of the two suitors wins Jacinta will pay one thousand pounds to the loser–to cover courting costs.


A "ghost character" in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Jack Raker is a ballad maker whose efforts evidently are unsuccessful because Merrygreek sarcastically likens Roister Doister's ridiculous attempts at songs and ballads to them.


One of the meaner members of the Twibill Knights in Glapthorne’s Hollander. He is on hand at Sconce’s initiation into the order.


A country fellow in the dancing scene in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness.


Referred to as "the Tyler" by the Tax Collector in the anonymous Jack Straw. Jacke Strawe kills King Richard II's Tax Collector for lewdly examining Strawe's daughter and for demanding more money. He joins with the other aggrieved commoners to petition King Richard II for redress of their grievances. This intention quickly escalates into an attempt to replace the nobility and the major church officials with commoners. He expresses irritation that King Richard II does not keep a promise to meet with the group personally. Later, after King Richard II has met with the commoners, Strawe rejects the general pardon because he wants loot. In a second meeting with King Richard II, Strawe demands both a dagger and a sword from Sir John Newton. Newton contends that the sword belongs to the King and he cannot surrender it. In the ensuing scuffle, Newton kills Strawe.

JACK the VINTNER**1605

Vintner at the Mitre, named Jack (not to be confused with Tailby's servant of the same name) in Middleton's Your Five Gallants; appears to host a weekly dice-game for the Gallants, but as an honest man is another of Goldstone's victims.


He declares his desire for Carol in Shirley's Hyde Park, and boasts that he has received a ring from her. But he is angered when he realizes that the ring was actually given to Carol by his rival for her hand, Rider. And he learns that the pearl necklace that he gave to Carol has been passed onto Rider. He suffers some verbal abuse from Carol. He wishes that she was a whore, so that he could prosecute her–but she is chaste. He makes a bet with Bonavent about the foot race. He loses, but does not pay up, causing a fight. He declares that he will ride his own Mare in the horse race. He worries when he hears the Cuckoo, fearing bad luck. But he gees himself up with bravado and confidence. He sings a song, celebrating great race horses of the period. His singing is praised (with possible sarcasm) by the company. He does, in fact, lose the race, ignominiously falling from his Mare (offstage). He returns crestfallen and humiliated–he may have been slightly injured, as Lord Bonville later asks him about his shoulder. He realizes that he is again a loser, when he sees that Carol and Fairfield are betrothed. A willow garland is placed on his head by Bonavent.


Jacke Wildbraine is a rake in Fletcher's The Night Walker. He is the cousin of Maria and the ward of her mother, the Lady. At Maria's wedding, he convinces an inebriated Frank Hartlove to seduce Maria in the cloister before she can lose her maidenhead to her husband Algripe. Wildbraine then takes Algripe to the cloister to witness the attempt. The ensuing fracas results in Maria's apparent death. After the wedding, Wildbraine attempts to seduce Mistress Newlove and in the dark accidentally makes advances on Toby. When Maria's mother cuts off her support and throws him out of doors, Wildbraine fights with Hartlove and his wounded. Lurcher's mistress takes him in and dresses his wounds. She gives him money and jewels that she has received from Lurcher. With Toby and several others Wildbraine goes bell-ringing; while doing so, Lurcher and Snap rob him and the others of their clothes and possessions. Wearing only a rug borrowed from the sexton, he encounters Lurcher, who returns the stolen items and concedes to him his mistress.


Almost bestial in his reckless cravings for unchaste sex in Shirley's The Gamester. Wilding seeks inappropriate congress with his wife's relation, Penelope. He gets her to agree that she will be his new wife when Mistress Wilding dies. Wilding tells his wife of all the defects that he perceives in her. She is horrified by his suggestion that he should keep Penelope as his paramour under her nose. He takes an interest in the wounding of Delamore by Beaumont. He is allowed to kiss and make much of Penelope, who is tolerating his advances at his wife's request. He tells her that his dallying with her punishes his wife's 'jealousy'. Later, Wilding says that he wants Penelope to marry another man–so that he can experience the thrill of cuckolding her husband. He arranges a clandestine meeting with Penelope, celebrating his putative good fortune. He joins the gamesters at the tavern, where he is mystified both by Hazard's new-found wealth and by the countenancing of Young Barnacle's verbal affronts to the company and physical attack on Hazard. At the ordinary, he listens to Hazard pass comment on the gentlemen who will compete for money, and gambles himself with the more familiar gamesters such as Acreless and Sellaway. He complains that he has lost a great deal of money. Excited by rumours of a rich merchant's arrival at the ordinary, he borrows money from Hazard, who will take Wilding's place at the secret meeting with Penelope. Later, he hears that his wife substituted herself for Penelope: by a combination of errors, it appears that Hazard has unwittingly set himself up to be cuckolded by Hazard. Wilding gets temporary relief when Hazard and Penelope finally agree to marry, but he still must endure the thought that his wife has had a hugely pleasurable sexual meeting with a boastful Hazard. Wracked by his cuckolded status, he attacks his wife with misogynist rage, but is placated when he hears that Hazard never fornicated with Mistress Wilding nor with Penelope. Hazard was one more player that Mrs. Wilding recruited for her scheme to turn her lustful husband away from adulterous dives and towards matrimonial grace. He resolves to love his wife in a secure, exclusive manner from the present onwards.


Yongrave is a gentleman who in the past has courted Eugenia in Shirley's Changes. Used by this lady as a messenger to carry a letter to her true love Thornay, Yongrave finally overcomes his desire to duel with Thornay, discovers a great affection for Chrysolina, and wed that lady by the end of the play.


A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Jackson of Rotheram supplied bows to Scarlet and Scathlock when they became outlaws.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Moses as an example of God's mercy and guidance.
Jacob is the younger twin son of Isaac and Rebecca and brother of Esau in ?Udall's Jacob and Esau. He is loved by all who meet him (except Esau). He first appears responding to his mother's wish that he try to improve Esau's behavior. He tells her that if he reprimands Esau for bad behavior, Esau turns on him and explains it as God's will that his mother has such a son. Jacob rejects his mother's suggestion that he buy Esau's birthright, until she points out that she knows it is God's will that he will be Esau's lord. When Esau, who is nearly dead from hunting for over a day without food and drink, sends Ragau to ask Jacob to help, Jacob at first refuses and then offers to exchange food and drink for Esau's birthright, an exchange which Esau accepts. Jacob addresses God, explaining that buying Esau's birthright was not done from evil intent and explains to Rebecca what he has done. Under her direction they sing a song to God explaining how they are fulfilling God's will. Rebecca develops a plan because although Jacob has the birthright he needs Isaac's blessing, too. She tells Jacob she will cook Jacob's goats for Isaac so well that Isaac will want to bless him. Jacob sees a problem. He explains that Isaac might touch him and because he has smooth skin while Esau is rough, Isaac will discover the truth. Rebecca tells him to do as she says and let God do His work. Jacob fetches a goat, gives it to Rebecca, and addresses God on the happiness of children who are loved by their parents, on how grateful he is for his mother, and on how he wants God's will to be done for evermore. Rebecca arrives with goatskin gloves and goatskin for Jacob's neck. She also has Esau's best clothes which she insists Jacob wear. Jacob expresses deep embarrassment that anyone would see him dressed like that. He appears before Isaac and tells him he is Esau. Isaac feels Jacob's skin, and though acknowledging the voice is Jacob's, Isaac is satisfied that he is talking to Esau. Isaac explains that the meal was delicious, so Jacob asks for and receives Isaac's blessing. When Esau reacts violently to what Jacob has done, Rebecca warns Jacob to go to her own brother Laban and hide from Esau for a while. Isaac instructs him to marry one of Laban's daughters, and live in Mesopotamia. The final twelve lines have Isaac, Rebecca, Jacob and Esau praying respectively for the clergy, the Queen, the Queen's counselors, and the Queen's subjects.


Jacob is the host of the disguised Lodowick, Duke of Bullen, his wife, daughter, and Bunch in the anonymous Weakest Goeth to the Wall. All are taking refuge from the fighting in France at his house in Flanders. Unknown to Lodowick, Jacob tries to seduce Lodowick's wife, Oriana. Bunch dislikes him because he can't understand his Flemish accent. When Lodowick falls behind in his payment, he asks for time to pay. Jacob refuses and demands that Lodowick leave the house, leaving behind his wife and daughter as surety. Lodowick leaves for London. Bunch takes Jacob down to an inn where a batch of English ale has just arrived. When they return Jacob is violently drunk. Bunch offers all his money to Oriana and Diana so they may escape. Diana urges her mother to do so. Soon after, Oriana announces to the drunk, fat, lustful Jacob that she and Diana are leaving him, now that their debt has been paid When Bunch returns, Jacob tells him that the women have left for London.


See also "JACAMO," "JACHIMO," "IACHIMO," "GIACOMO," and related spellings.


Jacomo is in love with Celia in Marston's What You Will. He, along with her brothers-in-law, concocts the plan to dress Soranza as Albano, convincing her that her husband is still alive, and thus preventing her from marrying Laverdure.


Jacomo, a follower of Gonzaga in Massinger's The Maid of Honor.


Actually the brother to Count Orsinio in Carlell's The Deserving Favorite. He is disguised as a servant to Count Utrante. He desires revenge on his nephew Lysander, who has won a dispute over possession of Count Orsinio's lands. He tells the Duke of Clarinda's love for Lysander but makes him promise to follow his council. He then leads the Duke to the arbor where the two overhear Lysander's suggestion that Clarinda cuckold or poison the Duke. When the Duke recognizes Jacomo as a villain and refuses to follow his council, Jacomo plans to poison the Duke and throw blame on Lysander. These plans are not carried out. After the Duke's disappearance, Jacomo informs the King of the Duke's quarrel with Lysander. Later, Clarinda tells Jacomo that Lysander is recovering at Gerard's lodge and asks his help in disguising herself. He assists her, but once they are in the forest, he tells her that unless she has sex with him, he will tell the King of Lysander's location. When she refuses, he tells her that he will rape her and reveal Lysander's location to the King anyway. He leaves her tied to a tree while he fetches the King to Gerard's lodge. Clarinda escapes and accuses Jacomo of attempted rape. Her story is corroborated by the Duke (in disguise), and Jacomo agrees to be sent to the galleys, vowing to escape and poison his enemies. After it is discovered that he is Orsinio's brother, he is brought back before the King. It is determined that he is, in fact, Orsinio's lawful heir, and that his proof that Lysander was Count Utrante's child had been unfairly overlooked in court (for which the Duke apologizes). Nonetheless, he is guilty of implicating Orsinio and Utrante in a poisoning of which they were innocent. For this crime, he is condemned to life in prison.


Jacomo is Cleona's ambitious but foolish steward in Shirley's Grateful Servant. He very much wants his lady to wed the duke, expecting to improve his own status in the process.


A eunuch Moor who is given as a servant to Victoria by Fabritio in Brome's The Novella. He disguises as a woman, Jacquenetta, and accompanies Victoria (disguised as the Novella) to Venice. When Pantaloni wins his way into the Novella/Victoria's bed, she pulls a "bed trick" on him by replacing herself with "Jacquenetta." The humiliation of finding the eunuch inspires Pantaloni's revenge upon the Novella.

JACOMO **1636

Melintus’s servant in Killigrew’s Claricilla. He is sent to hold the horses in preparation for Melintus and Claricilla’s (thwarted) escape to Messina. He learns that Manlius has “betrayed" Melintus and runs to warn Timillus that he is in danger. He promises to meet Timillus at midnight with horses for his escape.


A "ghost character" in Davenport's The City Night Cap. Father Jacomo used to be Dorothea's confessor, but he passes away. He used receive twice weekly visits. Now, he is to be replaced by Father Anthony.


Jacomo is a friar in Malta in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. He helps move the nuns to their new home in Barabas' house, and supports Abigail's desire to enter the nunnery. He is less eager to help her when she desires, after Mathias' death, to reenter the nunnery, but is finally convinced to help her. When the nuns are poisoned, Jacomo goes in search of Maria, who asked for his confession. Abigail asks for him, but since he is absent, she confesses to Bernadine instead. Bernadine asks Jacomo to go with him to confront Barabas for his crimes, but will not describe them since the information was given under the confessional seal. He is swayed by Barabas' apparent contrition and his promise to give all his goods to Jacomo's order. He returns later and finds the corpse of Bernadine propped up as if alive. Angry that Bernadine is apparently still trying to gain Barabas' wealth for his own order, Jacomo strikes the corpse and, when it collapses, Barabas and Ithamore accuse him of murder and take him to the magistrate. It is reported by Ithamore that Jacomo faced death very willingly.


Jacqueline (known as Minch in the beggars' company) is the daughter of Gerrard (who is disguised as the beggar king Clause) in Fletcher's Beggars' Bush. She is also the sister of Florez (the rightful earl of Flanders who has grown up thinking that he is a merchant named Goswin). Jacqueline is the beloved of the loyal nobleman Hubert, who in his disguise as a huntsman, recognizes her among the beggars. They are reunited and formally engaged at the play's end.


The name adopted by Jacomo, Victoria's Moorish eunuch in Brome's The Novella, when he disguises himself as a woman to accompany Victoria to Venice. It is "Jacquenetta" who is switched for the Novella/Victoria in the "bed trick" with Pantaloni.


Hieronimo's servant in the additions to the play, Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's All's Well. A commander in the Florentine army.


Studioso as Philomusus's supposed servant in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus adopts the name Jacques—the pun on jakes is sustained by much talk of laxatives.


One of Roderigo's band of outlaws in Fletcher's The Pilgrim, he is described along with Loper as two "[l]ads / That know their quarters, as they know their knapsaks; / And will not off." Although a relatively hardened criminal, he refuses to kill Pedro when Roderigo demands that he do so, citing the young man's status as a pilgrim; he does not wish to have "religious blood" on his conscience along with all his other sins. When one of his fellows suggests that perhaps Roderigo hates Pedro because the latter "bounced one of [Pedro's sisters'] belly-pieces," Jacques retorts that this would be a perfectly allowable Christian action. He applauds the mysterious Boy for saving Pedro's life, but is soon set to pursue the Boy when it is discovered that 'he' is actually Alinda in disguise. Frustrated in their search by Juletta's machinations and frightened by the drums of the King's soldiers, Jacques and his fellow outlaws abort their search and are not seen again.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry V. Admiral of France. He is reported among the French dead on the Agincourt battlefield.


Conceives of a plan in ?Greene and Chettle's John of Bordeaux by which Ferdinand can seduce the chaste Rossalin, and convinces him to carry it out. Once she is banished, he attempts to conjure a nearly naked Rossalin. His attempt fails when Bacon intervenes and uses his own magic and connections in the underworld to block Vandermast's spell. He agrees to help the innkeeper get revenge on Perce and the young scholars.


Amurath's younger son in Goffe's The Courageous Turk, Jacup is summoned by Baiazet after their father's death. Lala Schahin and Eurenoses urge Baiazet to follow "the Turkish law" that calls for an eldest and succeeding son to kill his younger brothers to prevent any division of subject loyalties. Understanding that there is no hope for himself, Jacup determines to die bravely. He claims his death will be superior to Baiazet's because he will have a king for an executioner, and wrapping a scarf around his neck, he gives one end to his brother, pulls on the other himself, and is strangled.

JADES, FOUR **1615

“Ghost characters" in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Trincalo wonders whether Albumazar can turn his four jades into two Dutch mares as easily as he has turned Trincalo into Antonio.


Chamberlain Jailbird is one of the prisoners in the Counter in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden, seen conducting a mock-parliament in the prison, hence his mock-honorific title of "Chamblerlain".


See also JAILOR, GAOLER and related spellings.


Andrugio's jailer in Whetstone's 1 Promos and Cassandra. When Promos orders him to behead Andrugio and bring his head to Cassandra, the jailer disobeys. He spares Andrugio and brings the mangled, unrecognizable head of another, recently executed prisoner instead. He urges Andrugio to flee and keep hidden from everyone for his own safety.


Imprisons Prince Harry at the Fleet prison at a judge's behest in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V.


The Jailor is Marius' keep after Favorinus and Pausinus imprison him in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. The Jailor agrees that he should be killed so that the town of Minturnum can win favor with Scilla. When talking with Marius, the Jailor first says that he would mourn the loss friends, power and wealth, but Marius rejects all of these trifles and says only fame is worthwhile. The Jailor then says that since Marius has lost everything, he should be happy to die, but Marius points out that no man is willing to die. When Marius goes to sleep, the Jailor admits that Marius' noble words have caused him to feel remorse.


He is placed in charge of Allcyane and Statyra in the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune when they refuse to marry the men that their fathers have chosen for them. When the women overhear a plot to drug them and force them to marry, the jailor is prevailed upon to summon their true loves, Eschines and Laertes, who effect the rescue.


A jailer in Sharpham's The Fleire who attends the trial of Havelittle and Piso.


A comic jailer who tortures Thomas Sherley Jr in the Turkish prison in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers.

JAILER **1608

Keeper of the royal prison in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. The jailer accepts a bribe from Mariana to allow her to visit Philocles. During the visit, the lovers exchange clothing, enabling Philocles to escape from the prison.


When Paulina wishes to visit the imprisoned Hermione in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, the jailer refuses her entry but agrees to bring Hermione's attendant Emilia to Paulina.

JAILER **1613

This unnamed Athenian Jailer in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen complains that his jail is designed for great ones who seldom reside there. Inmates of his jail during this drama include the two noble kinsmen from Thebes, Palamon and Arcite. The Jailer also has a daughter who rebuffs her Wooer and becomes deranged over an unrequited love for Palamon.


The Jailor in S.S's Honest Lawyer asks Gripe what he will have for dinner and when Gripe replies "a rope" the Jailor corrects him and says that they will keep for his supper.


He laments Frederick's unjust sentence of death in the anonymous Costly Whore, and is scorned by Valentia for none the less yielding his prisoner.


Jailor keeps the company of Antiochus while he is imprisoned in Massinger's Believe As You List. He lays out all of the instruments of torture and attempts to bribe a confession out of Antiochus with food.


He escorts the Oldcastles and Harpool to court in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle.


The Jailor meets Warman after the latter has been banished in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. When Warman asks for help, the Jailor first offers some meat that he has for his dog, but then pauses and reconsiders, noting that his dog is faithful and loyal, but Warman is a traitor. He therefore refuses to hand over the meat and leaves.


On Cymbeline's orders, two jailers take hold of Posthumous Leonatus, who at this point in Shakespeare's Cymbeline is disguised as a British peasant. After Posthumous Leonatus is visited by the ghosts of his family members and receives a promise from Jupiter, a jailer arrives to tell him that he will soon be hanged.


In Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI they watch Mortimer, who had been heir presumptive to the throne under Richard II. The First Jailer ushers in Mortimer's nephew, Richard Plantagenet. At the conclusion of II.v the Jailers remove the body of Mortimer.


See also JAILER, GAOLER and related spellings.


A non-speaking character in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. Although addressed by both Shylock and Antonio, the Jailor who takes Antonio to prison is silent.


A jailor accompanies Edward in the scene where he is in prison in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany.


The comically venal supervisor of Pike's captivity in the anonymous Dick of Devonshire.


He pleads with his pretty wife in Verney’s Antipoe to be allowed back into her good graces. He must leave, and entrusts watching the prisoners to his wife and her new servant ‘Sorcam’ who is really Macros in disguise. He is hung up to die when Antipoe is found to have escaped.


She loathes her husband as a lecher in Verney’s Antipoe. She takes Sorcam as her servant, not knowing he is Macros in disguise. She sings a song with Macros/Sorcam which begins, ‘Come mourn, come weep, come lower’. She is hung up to die when Antipoe is found to have escaped.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David as an example of an upright, virtuous man.


A "ghost character" in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. Barabas describes him as a Jew of great wealth who lives in Greece.


Jake is the boy who rings the summons to evensong that Sir John ignores in (?)Johnson's Misogonus. Jake comes personally to urge Sir John to attend the prayer, and when Sir John says he will not come and please to cover for him, Jake tries to entice him to church by reporting that "Susan Sweetlips" is in attendance.


Only mentioned as "the king" in Jonson's The Alchemist. When Face and Subtle are quarreling, Dol Common reminds them they must be united and able to trick the gullible and stern neighbors of Blackfriars. According to Dol, these people have never smiled since the King came in, seven years ago. The reference is to King James, who succeeded to the throne in 1603, while the King's Men first acted the play at the Globe Theatre in 1610.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. King James I is part of a hypothetical elect audience at a Fair in real life. The stage-keeper in the Induction complains that the Author of the play does not observe the characteristics of real life in his theatrical Fair. Among other things, the stage-keeper says the poet does not have a Juggler with an educated ape to come over the chain for the King and the personalities attending the Fair. In the play, the King's authority is invoked when Overdo says he has taken the disguise of a madman to spy on the wrongdoers and take them to justice, in the name of the King and the Commonwealth. The play's Prologue and Epilogue are addressed to the King, and he was in the audience of Bartholomew Fair. The comedy was first acted by the Lady Elizabeth's Men at the Hope Theatre, Bankside, on 31 October 1614, and was played at Court the following day.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. King James is mentioned by Bill Bond when, asked by Master Caution if there was a "law against usury" he states: "the statute of vicesimo primo of King James." King James was king of England (1603-1625). Being also king of Scotland, he found great difficulty in gaining acceptance from the English society. Besides, he did not summon Parliament as often as expected: his extravagant expenditure and his ignoring the nobility's problems caused him serious trouble with Parliament. As a monarch, he lacked the dignity of the Tudors. According to Nelson's A Critical Edition of the Wit's Triumvirate ... (1975: 169-170, note corresponding to lines 4-12), that statute of 21, in its chapter 17 (1623-24) reads: "no person or persons ... shall take directly or indirectly, for the loans of any Moneys Wares Merchandize or other Commodities whatsoever, above the value of Eight pounds for the forbearance of One hundred pounds for a yere, and so after that rate for a greater or leaser some or for a longer or shorter time, (whoever does) ... shall forfeit and loose for every such offence the treble value of the Monies Wares Marchandize and other things so lent bargained sold exchaunged or shifted." Later, King James is mentioned again by Master Caution, in the course of the same conversation. King James is also mentioned by Narrowit when he is telling Master Silence how he is going to recompense his services, offering him "five pounds lawful money of Queen Elizabeth her shillings, King James'; and our good king Charles', and one sovereign of Edward the Sixth."
See also WHITE KING.


A "ghost character" in Greene's James IV. The father of the present King of Scots is mentioned as having left him a good council and as having ruled peacefully. Historically, this would be James III, though in fact that king's reign was far less successful than that of his son, the real James IV.


Greene's King of Scotland bears little relationship to the historical James IV, being weak-willed and vicious in Greene's James IV. He falls in love with Ida during his marriage to Dorothea and is subsequently persuaded to arrange for Dorothea's murder. Eventually he repents and promises to behave better in future.
James IV is portrayed as a young king seeking to do what is best for his country in Ford's Perkin Warbeck. When Warbeck presents a promise of alliance between England and Scotland, he supports the young pretender. But when Henry presents more immediate amity between the countries by offering the Scots king his daughter, Margaret, and adds Spain's friendship besides, James is willing to reject (but not betray) the pretender whom he had supported.


James is the Earl of Pembroke's man in Marlowe's Edward II. He is leader of the four soldiers guarding Gaveston on his final visit to Edward II. James is overpowered by Warwick's company when the latter breaks his word by seizing and executing Gaveston. Warwick sends James and the other three to announce Gaveston's death to Pembroke.


Master James is at the Buttery at Court in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women when George Browne appears after murdering George Sanders. Browne drinks heartily and James asks if had come in such haste from London. James notes that Browne has blood on his hose, to which Browne concocts a story about it being hare's blood from a hunt that morning. Later, when the Lords hear testimony for the arrest warrant, James identifies Browne's attire and confirms the blood stain on Browne's hose. Later still, James is with the Mayor of Rochester at Butcher Browne's and identifies George Browne as the suspect. He convinces the Mayor to convey Browne to Master Barnes' house and accompanies him there, where he hears Bean positively identify Browne as the killer. Next, at court, James announces that the Mayor has brought Browne, and soon brings a letter from the Sheriffs of London written by Drurie and Roger stating that Anne Sanders had consented to the murder of her husband. Finally, on the day of execution, James rebukes the Minister for declaring Anne Sanders innocent and seeking her pardon, accusing him of so doing only because he wanted to marry her. Because of this impiety, James has the Minister placed a pillory near the gallows.


A ‘ghost character’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. At play’s opening, he has taken his black nag to carry a letter to Harwich. Later, Doucebella refers to James saddling horses for herself and Joice as they make their ways to find Claribel’s hiding place.


A "ghost character" in (?)Heywood's How A Man May Choose A Good Wife From A Bad. One Master Fuller's mistress' lovers.


James is the Lady's former husband in Armin's The Two Maids of More–Clacke. He is a knight that is thought to be dead when he writes to the Lady that he is very sick. When he comes back from his travels, he finds out that his wife is remarried and he wants to recover her. He attends the wedding and picks up the glove that the Lady drops. There, the Lady tells him that she will not sleep with Sir William. In the dance at the wedding, he stops Toures and Filbon who wanted to fight with Humil. In spite of defending his kid, Humil betrays his father telling Sir William about his affair with the Lady. James is caught in bed with the Lady and later forgiven by her second husband. At the end of play, he accuses Sir William for having poisoned the Lady with the help of Humil.


Name used by Scribonia for the Clown in Heywood's The Captives.


James the butler in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge is the Third Servingman and asks for Sharkino's help in locating some missing spoons and napkins.


A wild young gentleman of the Inns of Court in Nabbes' Tottenham Court, friend of Sam and acquaintance of Changelove. James loves dancing schools and playhouses, and is one of the play's foremost proponents of the sensual pleasures of which Nabbes disapproved. He goes to Cicely, believing her to be a prostitute, but ends up locked in a trunk of feathers as part of Cicely's gulling of Frank and George. He emerges from the trunk just as Frank and George are about to fight a duel, and goes off with Changelove to drown their sorrows in a cup of sack.


James is a quick-witted and antiauthoritarian servant in Cavendish's The Variety. His master is Simpleton. James loves the old ballads that form such a large part of the music of the play. He exposes Simpleton's plot to abduct Lucy.


A supporter of Richmond's campaign for the crown of England in Shakespeare's Richard III. Blunt is a captain of Richmond's army during the Battle of Bosworth.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. Son of the Earl of Glencorn, he is one of the Scottish lords taken hostage to the English at the battle of Dunbar.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker, an English knight. With George Howard, he is one of Lord Grey's assistants in the Scottish campaign and is charged by Lord Grey with showing Queen Elizabeth's grievances to the Queen Regent of Scotland.


Gurney is an attendant on Lady Falconbridge in Shakespeare's King John. He enters with her, but is dismissed almost immediately by the Bastard so the latter can question his mother about his parentage.


James, King of Scotland, has been sending messages to the rebels to arrange a meeting in Greene's George a Greene, but he enters England in order to woo Jane a Barley. He, John and Lord Hume meet first with Edward a Barley, and then James tries to convince Jane to let her in since her husband is gone. Jane refuses and James threatens to kill Edward. His plan is interrupted by Musgrove's attack, and James is captured by Musgrove. James is taken to London where he is treated more as a guest than a prisoner, and when Edward decides to visit the North and meet George, James goes along. The two kings travel in disguise, and they first meet the Shoemaker, who orders them to trail their staffs, as is the custom in the town. They agree, not wanting to start a fight, and so when they meet George and Robin, they are taken for peasants pretending to be yeoman. It makes sense that he should reveal himself when Edward does, but it is not specified in the stage directions, and in fact, James does not speak again, even when Musgrove gives Edward the sword he won from James. Historically, there was no James on the throne until the mid-fifteenth century. William I of Scotland (The Lion) was the Scots king during the period of Robin Hood.


A "ghost character" in ?Brewer's The Country Girl. James is Lady Mosely's dead husband. He was an honest gentleman. He competed with Captain George for the love of Lady Mosely, whom he won.


Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. Joan uses his name as an exclamation. The character A uses it thrice thereafter.


St. James is one of the six champions of Christendom imprisoned in the cave of Calib the witch in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. George releases the champions, and they make him their seventh member. They vow to travel the world, doing battle with unbelievers. St. James, St. Denis and St. Patrick try to slay the enchanter Argalio but he escapes from them on an ascending throne. Nonetheless, they are satisfied to have rid the land of him. Later, they join with St. Andrew, St Anthony, and St. David, in an attempt to slay Brandron the giant and rescue the King of Macedon's daughters. But they are betrayed by Suckabus, who tricks them into disarming and then imprisons them. They are forced to support Brandron or die, and so, when St. George arrives, they are obliged to fight him. George defeats all six of them. When Brandron commits suicide, the champions are free to join with George again. When the King of Macedon's daughters (who had been transformed into swans) are changed back into women, Denis, James and Patrick marry them, and the champions perform a dance to celebrate.


James Terrell is hired by Richard in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III to oversee the murder of the two princes in the Tower of London. Terrell is motivated entirely by a desire for money. Terrell hires Miles Forest to hire assassins. They are Will Slawter and Jack Denten. Terrell coerces Sir Robert Brokenbury into giving him the keys to the boys' cell in the Tower. Terrell informs the assassins that Richard wants the murders to be bloodless. He instructs them to smother the boys. After the murders, Terrell reports back to Richard.


Tiril is a man of few scruples in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV and is hired by Gloster as a murderer. He is given a warrant ordering the deaths of the two young princes held in the Tower. He carries the warrant to the Tower; his confederates Dighton and Forrest commit the actual murders. (See also "JAMES TYRRELL, SIR")


Supporter of Richard III in Shakespeare's Richard III. Richard hires Tyrrell to murder Prince Edward and Prince Richard. Tyrrell orders his servant Dighton, along with Forrest, to commit the murders. (See also JAMES TERRELL, TIRIL, or TIRIL).


Don Henrique's younger brother and heir apparent to his estate in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. As the younger of the brothers, Jamie must depend upon Henrique's pitiful allowance. Jamie constantly reminds his brother of his fruitless marriage to Violante. Henrique decides to claim his legitimate son, Ascanio, whom he fathered with Jacinta, in order to thwart Jamie's claim. This angers Violante, who promises to share her bed and her wealth with Jamie if he kills Henrique. Jamie creates a ruse instead which results in Violante confessing her murderous intentions in front of Henrique and the Assistant. Henrique, overcome, mends his relationship with Jamie, promising to share his fortune in the future.


Captain Jamy is a Scots officer in Henry's army in Shakespeare's Henry V. In I.ii, when Henry and his advisors are debating the desirability of invading France, the Scots are seen as a potential threat, who may attack England while Henry's forces are engaged abroad.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. Along with Cate, Besse, and Sibley, Free Will refers to her as his "sweet trully mully." Possibly the same character as Jane True mentioned elsewhere in the play.


Twilight's daughter, though she is believed to be Sunset's in Middleton's No Wit, No Help Like a Woman's. Along with Grace, Jane is moderately alarmed by Goldenfleece's riddle at the play's outset that she refuses to elaborate on. Concerned, Jane seeks the assistance of Kate Low-Water in deciphering Goldenfleece's cryptic statements. At the behest of her supposed father, Sunset, she is betrothed to her erstwhile servant, Sandstone. When Goldenfleece reveals the riddle that she had hinted upon earlier, Jane discovers that she is, in fact, the daughter of Sir Oliver Twilight, a fact that markedly improves the financial situation of both her and her new husband.


Non-speaking role in Rowley, Dekker and Ford's The Witch of Edmonton. A maid in Old Carter's house who brings Frank's dinner.


Jane is the daughter of Bruyne, a rich merchant in William Rowley's A New Wonder: A Woman Never Vexed. She is pursued by two gentlemen, Speedwell and Lambskin, who wish to marry her. But they are only interested in her money. When her father realises this, he allows her to marry the virtuous citizen Robert Foster.

JANE **1626

Jane is the daughter of Justice Landby in James Shirley's The Wedding. She loves Haver and has received amorous notes from him. Her father, upon discovering this romance, pledges Jane to Rawbone. But Justice Landby is also privy to deleterious details about Rawbone's life. He has been informed by Captain Landby that Rawbone, who challenged Master Lodam to a duel, will exchange clothes with Haver at that duel. When Haver wins—impersonating Rawbone—Jane is given to him to be his wife.

JANE **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. The names Kate, Ciss, and Jane are used several times throughout the play as the names for generic young maids to be loved and kissed.

JANE **1632

Jane is a friend of Katherine's in Ford's Perkin Warbeck. She is with her when they first see the pretender Warbeck.


Joyce takes the name Jane while at the New Academy in Brome's The New Academy. Although she fears for her reputation and safety, she sees little option but to aid in her uncle's scam by teaching dancing, singing and courtly behavior. She falls in love with Papillion (Philip Matchil in disguise).


Jane is Bumpsey's daughter in Brome's The Damoiselle. She will inherit 10,000 pounds from her father and marry Valentine. Jane tells her mother that her husband had informed her of the arrival of a Damoiselle in the city. She is going to the brothel with her mother to learn manners.


In Cowley's The Guardian, "Jane" is the name taken by Lucia in her disguise as the new maid for Aurelia. When Aurelia is under pressure from her father to marry Lucia's beloved, Young Truman, she asks "Jane" to take her own place, disguised in a long veil; thus Lucia is reunited with her lover.

[In Cowley's own 1658 revision of this play, Cutter of Coleman Street (performed 1661), Jane is an actual character: the maid of Lucia, whom Aurelia attempts to use in her plot to avoid marrying Truman. Aurelia asks Jane to take her own place, disguised in the veil. Jane is thrilled, but spends so long arranging her "lozenge and half-moon" cosmetic patches that Lucia is able to slip into the disguise herself. At the end of the play, Aurelia plans to marry her to Worm, the only man left unpartnered; Jane is now "agog" for a husband, says Aurelia, and she herself will try to provide some money as a dowry, so it should work well enough.]


Jane is the wife of John a Barley and is wooed by King James in Greene's George a Greene. She rejects his advances. When she refuses to let him into the castle, James threatens to kill her son, Edward. At first, she is torn, saying she cannot live if her son dies, but when Edward tells her to die with honor, she agrees that it is better for him to die than for John to have a dishonored wife. This moral dilemma is solved when Musgrove attacks the Scottish party. At the very end of the play, King Edward suggests paying a visit to Jane to see if she really is as fair as James claims.


A diligent seamstress and the faithful wife of the shoemaker Rafe Damport in Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday. Jane is separated from her husband when he is conscripted in the war against France, but receives from him as a parting gift a pair of shoes made specially for her. These play a crucial role in the couple's subsequent reunion. She agrees to marry the wealthy citizen Hammon after he has falsely led her to believe that her husband has died in battle. Thanks to the violent intervention of the London shoemakers under the leadership of the cunning Firk, she is reunited with her husband, who in the meantime has returned from France, on the day of her own wedding with Hammon.


The daughter of the Duke of Suffolk and beloved of Guildford Dudley in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt, Lady Jane Grey is named in the dying Edward VI's will to succeed to the throne. A pawn in an ambitious game being played by her father and the Duke of Northumberland, she nonetheless is willing to assume the throne if that is her duty. When the royal council that had briefly supported Edward's will reverses itself and proclaims Mary to be queen, Lady Jane finds herself under arrest in the Tower along with Guildford Dudley. Denied mercy by the Bishop of Winchester, she goes to her execution with dignity and expressions of joy that soon she and Guildford will find themselves united in eternity.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. Lady Jane Gray is mentioned as having been executed along with her rebel husband Guilford.


Disguised as a widow in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One, Jane Medler is supposedly possessed of an annuity of £400 per year. She strikes a bargain to pose as Witgood's betrothed for their mutual financial advancement. The rivalry and jealousy that this potentially lucrative match arouses in Witgood's creditors, his uncle Lucre (who holds Witgood's mortgage), and especially his rival Walkadine Hoard makes her such a sought after commodity that she is "haunted by suitors" upon her arrival in London with her husband-to-be. Hoard is so attracted to the prospect of the easy wealth that marriage to her would provide that he persuades her to marry him rather than the spendthrift Witgood. In order to dissuade this match, Lucre, desirous for a portion of Medler's alleged wealth and to outdo his rival Hoard, promises to nullify Witgood's mortgage and make him his heir in order to improve his estates in the impending marriage. Agreeing to the latter proposal, she marries Hoard anyway, thereby guaranteeing herself an "equal share" of Hoard's wealth. It is only after this marriage that her true identity as Witgood's former whore is revealed by Kix, Lamprey, and Hoard's brother, Omnipherous, who have traveled to London at Walkadine's behest. (See also "COURTESAN" for additional information).


The daughter of Sir Thomas Bitefigg in Cartwright's The Ordinary. While she is being courted by Andrew, she is in love with Littleworth and proves to be faithful to him after some testing. She marries him at the end of the play.


Jane Nightwork is a female acquaintance of Falstaff and Shallow in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. She does not appear on stage in the play but is discussed by the two men as Falstaff reviews the recruits brought by Shallow.


Jane's father expects her to marry a rich fool, Chough in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel. But Jane is secretly married (by a de praesenti contract) to Fitzallen, and is pregnant by him. Her father has Fitzallen arrested for debt. Then, thinking Jane is ill, he hires a Physician to diagnose her. Jane confides in the Physician about her pregnancy, and he delivers the child, which is given to a Dutch Nurse to keep in hiding. But the Physician then threatens to ruin Jane's reputation unless she sleeps with him. Jane faces a dilemma, but the Physician's sister, Anne, encourages her to speak the truth rather than submit to the Physician. So Jane refuses to sleep with the Physician, and he therefore tells Chough about the baby. Chough refuses to marry Jane, and Jane admits to her father that she has had a child. Russell decides to marry Jane to Fitzallen, but Chough warns Fitzallen that Jane is a 'whore.' Russell, in desperation, offers Fitzallen a large dowry, which Fitzallen accepts before revealing that he was married to Jane all along and the baby is his.


A "ghost character" in Udall's? Thersites. Miles appears at the end of the play to offer a prayer to the king [Henry VIII], his wife, Jane [Seymour], and her baby son [Edward].
Called Queen Iane throughout Rowley’s When You See Me. She sends thanks to Wolsey for his prayers during her time of pregnancy. Before the embassy from France can arrive, she goes into labor and must leave the court. Her delivery is such that either the mother or child must die, and she sends word to Henry that she wants the child to live. She dies giving birth to Edward. Historically, her date of death was 24 October 1537, which was twelve days after the birth.


Mrs. Shore is Edward IV's mistress at the time of his death in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. Unlike in Shakespeare's play, Shore's wife and Queen Elizabeth Gray are not the same person. After Edward's death, Mrs. Shore laments the cruelty of fortune and sees her own doom ahead. She is concerned that all of the people she has favored with her influence over Edward will abandon her. She is also certain that the new Protector Gloucester is determined to ruin her. She proves to be prophetic on both counts. Richard comes and throws her penniless into the street to starve as a condemned whore. After being accused by Richard's page of leading a wicked and naughty life, Mrs. Shore condemns Richard's hypocrisy and turns her fate over to God. She repents for all of her sins.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Richard III. The wife of Shore and lover of Edward IV and later of Lord Hastings. As an excuse for executing Lord Hastings, Richard makes an absurd claim that Mistress Shore, along with Edward's queen Elizabeth, deformed his body through witchcraft.
Mistress Jane Shore is the wife of Matthew Shore, a London goldsmith in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV. Persistently wooed by King Edward, Mistress Shore eventually goes to the king's court, taking up the dual role of courtesan and mistress beneficent, offering relief to the poor and redress to the injured through her influence with King Edward.
Jane Shore in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV has left the home of her husband and entered the court of King Edward IV as courtesan. Her easy access to and influence upon the king enable her much-lauded beneficence to the poor and imprisoned; much of the work Jane takes on is part of her self-appointed penance for infidelity. Thrown out of court and disgraced when Richard of Gloster comes to power, Jane seeks refuge at Mistress Blages' home only to be rebuffed by that woman in the face of Gloster's no-aid edict. Set upon the street garbed in a white sheet, Shore suffers hardships only slightly lessened by those who try to aid her and who are arrested for their charity. Matthew Shore also offers aid but refuses to take her back as wife-the condition offered by Gloster. Jane dies beside her ex-husband on the street, and they are buried together.
Only mentioned in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. A rare beauty of yore whom Grobiana disdains.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's As You Like It. Touchstone mentions that he has once been in love with a woman named Jane Smile.


A country wench in the dancing scene in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. One of the "three wenches" that Hick Scorner keeps upon his brothel-ship, The Envy.


Jane Tryman is an assumed identity of Jeremy's in Brome's The City Wit. "She" is a prostitute who is in turn disguised as a wealthy but sickly widow. As Jane Tryman, Jeremy schemes with Crasy to fleece his debtors. At the end of the play, Jeremy casts off the disguise and reveals himself.


‘Waiting woman to Aruania’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. She is heartbroken to lose Rooke when he must return to Maldon when Claribel leaves Aruania. After they are turned out of Floradin’s house, she suggests that Aruania and she go to London and beg. She takes up a whole bottle of Rosa Solis and sings a song after Aruania determines to go with her to London and embroider. Janekin and Joice become friends and interpret their dreams to one another.


An aged maker of baskets and the father of Grissil and Laureo in Chettle, Dekker and Haughton's Patient Grissil. He fears that Gwalter seeks Grissil to be his concubine. When Gwalter asks to marry Grissil, however, Janicola agrees and becomes a member of Gwalter's court. Later, he is banished from court along with Laurio as part of Gwalter's test of Grissil. He endures this and other trials stoically and, like his patient daughter, is eventually rewarded for his steadfast faith.


A French minister in Chapman's The Conspiracy of Charles, Duke of Byron.
A French minister in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron. He informs King Henry in the opening scene of Byron's renewed perfidy. He travels with a second message (following that from D'Escures) from the King to Byron in Dijon, requesting his return. Byron refuses and he leaves. In IV, scene two, he arrives after Vitry and urges Byron to give himself up.


"Ghost characters" in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. The Janissaries are the soldiers given to Abdelmelec by Amurath.


Non-speaking characters in Kyd's Soliman and Perseda. An unnamed number appear in some of the Turkish court scenes and the assault on Rhodes in V. Two Janissaries execute Erastus by strangulation.


Under the command of Crosman in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk, they are reported as occupying the castle formerly gifted to Ward as a reward for his conversion. They confirm Francisco's warning of Turkish treachery when they arrive to arrest Ward, who hides from them.


In Goffe's Raging Turk these renowned Turkish warriors are faithful to their general, Achmetes, and when Baiazet gives him the black mantle they come to his aid and threaten to kill the emperor, and then carry their hero through the city in triumph. They may be identical with the Soldiers.


"Ghost characters" in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1. Bajazeth has ten thousand of these mounted Turkish infantrymen, and the Basso informs Tamburlaine that his Tartar forces cannot withstand them.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. In Roman mythology, Janus is a two-faced god of the door and good beginnings, whose double-faced statue usually guarded the crossroads. When Carlo Buffone greets Macilente, he uses two different attitudes. He tells Sogliardo that Macilente is a shallow fool, while to Macilente he behaves as if he were his friend, greeting him warmly. Macilente notices Carlo's double approach, he concludes that Carlo Buffone is double-faced, and greets him with the name "good Janus." In another instance of conversation, Carlo Buffone realizes that Shift uses two names, Apple-John and Whiffe. Carlo makes a classical reference, calling Shift a Janus who looks every way. In his drunken solitary dialogue at the Mitre Tavern, Carlo Buffone uses the Janus-like double impersonation when he dialogues with himself as First Cup and Second Cup.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. In Roman mythology, Janus was the god of doors and good beginnings. He was sometimes portrayed as facing two opposite directions. Janus was often the god whose name was invoked in worship rituals, and the month of January was named after him. Ovid Senior lectures his son on the benefits of studying law instead of writing poetry. Ovid advises his son to send Janus home his back face again, and look only forward, to the law. Ovid Senior alludes to the fact that his son should start a profitable profession in law and the mention of the two-faced Janus points to Ovid's apparent indecision in the choice of a career.
Only mentioned by Cleantha in Verney’s Antipoe.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Ghost. Procus mentions Janus when he refers to Engin, when he calls him "Janus with a double face." According to Roman mythology, Janus was the god of gates, doors, beginnings, endings and doorways. He was usually portrayed with a key. He had two faces which represented the sun and the moon.
Only mentioned in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. Trimalchio promises to make Capritio into the image of the statesman Janus.


A Roman God performed by Titterus at Pan's festival to symbolize the change from winter to summer in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder.


Laelia uses the name Janus while disguised as Philadelpha's page during her lover Marius's exile in the anonymous The Faithful Friends. She remains disguised up to the point where her distress at Marius' apparent death discloses her true identity.


Sir Janus Ambodexter is a guest at Bloodhound's 'wedding' in William Rowley's A Match at Midnight. He is a Justice of the Peace, and escorts Mistress Coote and Sue to Bridewell.


Only mentioned in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV, Japhet is one of the sons of the biblical Noah. Prince Henry uses this term in conjunction with Falstaff, who has written a letter calling himself a poor cousin of the King.


Isabella's clever maid (also spelled "Jaquenet") in Fletcher's Women Pleased. She agrees to substitute herself for Isabella in order to receive a beating from Lopez intended for her mistress. Participates as a dancer in the wedding masque for Silvio and the hag.


Jaquenetta is a country wench in Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost who is courted first by Costard and then by Armado.


Jaques is a Frenchman (complete with comedy French accent) in Greene's James IV. He is hired by Ateukin to kill Dorothea, whom he wounds and leaves for dead. When he hears that Ida is married, he leaves for France.


Verone's servant in the tavern in Chapman's An Humourous Day's Mirth. He squabbles with Jaquina, the maidservant. At Lemot's request, he reveals to Labesha that Martia is at the tavern in the company of the King.


Two characters of this name figure in Shakespeare's As You Like It.


Challenger's man in the anonymous The Fair Maid of Bristow.


Jaques and Pedro are both Petruchio's servants in Fletcher's The Woman's Prize, but Jaques behaves as though he is the senior. Jaques brings in wine at Petruchio's wedding banquet and asks Moroso when he would marry. He summons Maria to Petruchio's marriage bed and is vocally appalled when the bride goes off with Biancha instead. He informs Petruchio and his master's new father-in-law, Petronius, that Maria's door was locked and guarded, and later he and Pedro describe the march by the City and Country Wives in support of Maria's strike, making fun of the drunken ones. He dispatches Pedro for doctors and apothecaries when Petruchio appears at death's door. Although he constantly criticizes Maria's stance, ever ready to all her devil and other names, he alternately urges Petruchio to have patience with her.

JAQUES **1612

Jaques, a Moor, servant to Giovanni in Webster's The White Devil. He is a ghost character (non-speaking role).


Jaques, the clown character in William Rowley's All's Lost by Lust, is the brother of Margaretta. Jaques is delighted when Margaretta decides to marry Antonio, since it will make him a 'lord's brother,' and he takes to wearing lordly attire. Margaretta sends him to Alonzo's castle, ostensibly to deliver a letter to Antonio, but also to observe his behaviour. Jaques sees Antonio with Dionyzia, and although he promises not to tell, he cannot keep a secret, and Margaretta resolves to murder Antonio. At the end of the play, Jaques laments his sister's actions, which have lost him his newfound gentility. But Jaques' fortunes are restored when Lothario asks him to be his executioner, and Jaques inherits Lothario's possessions.


Servant to Sulpitia in Fletcher and Massinger's Custom of the Country, her right-hand man in the running of her male brothel. He gives her the current news of the failing workforce at her disposal and seconds her appraisal of Rutillio as a promising stud for her establishment. Having been bought into her service, Rutillio is grossly overworked and Jaques attempts to intercede for the debilitated man. His pity for Rutillio's exhaustion is overborne by Sulpitia's immediate greed and she ignores Jaques's repeated warnings not to wear out yet another prize attraction too quickly for her long-term investment in him. He is not present when Duarte bails Rutillio from his bondage, nor when Sulpitia performs her other function as a witch in Hippolyta's employment.


The Gentleman (Godfrey Marine)'s elderly servant in Fletcher's The Noble Gentleman. He disapproves of the Gentleman's plan to become a courtier by selling land and urges Cleremont to tell him that his wife is giving the money to her lovers. However, he believes the gallants' story that the Gentleman is to be made a Duke, and plans to become Secretary to the Gentleman. Convinced by Shattillion that he is being pursued by the authorities, he dresses as a woman and is mistaken for a whore by Bewford. Dressed in armor, he ceremonially defends the Gentleman's title, but refuses to fight Shattillion, who he claims saved his life.


Serving man to the rich widow Vandona in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady. Jaques becomes the confidant of Lorece, Vandora's suitor. Praised ironically for his wit and discretion, Jaques reveals that the widow spends most of her time reading plays and love poems. Jaques supports Lorece's suit, hoping that Lorece will be a kind master if he is successful. Jaques enters drunk and banters with Vandona, pretending to be a great sultan. He enters while Lorece woos Vandona, and offers an entertainment for the lovers. He returns with Hymen and a Boy, and they all perform a masque, requesting that the lovers kiss as a tribute. They are rewarded for their efforts with the keys to the wine cellar. He procures the marriage license for Lorece and Vandona, and arranges some of the details of their wedding feast. Jaques appears briefly at the end of the play, expressing amazement that Phyginois was disguised as the witty Draculemion.


Jaques de Boys, not to be confused with the other Jaques in this play, is the second son of the late Sir Rowland de Boys in Shakespeare's As You Like It. He is the middle brother of Orlando and Oliver. Near the end of the play he enters to announce that Duke Frederick had been on his way to the forest intent on killing Duke Senior, but met a religious man in the woods and was persuaded to renounce his dukedom and the world in favor of a rustic life.


A miser posing as a beggar in Jonson's The Case is Altered. He is the former steward of the elder Chamont. While Chamont was at war nineteen years ago, de Prie stole his treasure and daughter, and passes Rachel off as his own. He is made frantic by the numerous men who wish to marry Rachel because he believes (erroneously) that they have discovered his hidden treasure. He takes the sudden arrivals and departures of Christophero and Count Ferneze as proof that they are not really interested in Rachel but in his gold, and hides his treasure in a pile of horse dung, unaware that he is observed by Onion, who steals it. When de Prie rapturously follows Angelo and Christophero's golden trail, only to discover the loss of both his treasure and Rachel, he runs mad. As Count Ferneze raves about his lost son, Jaques joins the scene, raving about his lost gold. Complaining to the Count, he admits Rachel is not his daughter. Too late, he realizes his error in admitting he lost a treasure and tries to recant, but is forced to confess by the Count. He confesses his thefts and that his name is really Melun, steward to the elder Chamont. Chamont, happy in his betrothal to Aurelia, forgives Melun and allows him to keep what treasure he can recover from Onion and Juniper.


Vandermast is a magician in service to the Emperor of Germany in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. He has defeated learned men all over Europe in disputations and magical contests. The Emperor has him engage the scholars at Oxford, and although he bests Friar Bungay by summoning the Spirit in the Shape of Hercules to destroy the golden tree and its fire-shooting dragon which Bungay has created, Vandermast concedes defeat to Friar Bacon when the latter makes both the tree and the Spirit disappear.


Maidservant at Verone's tavern in Chapman's An Humourous Day's Mirth. She is also Verone's mistress. She portrays Queen Fortune in the play's final scene and is revealed to be with child.


Maid to Samathis in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. She accompanies (and encourages) her mistress in the courting scene with Leon (Irus in disguises).


An old shepherd in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. He speaks with an accent exchanging v for f (‘vive’ for five, &c.), z for s (‘zongs’ for songs) and employs archaic constructions (‘moughten’ for might) in his speech. He agrees to lead the disguised Alcinous and ‘Alexis’ into the place of shepherds, mentioning along the way how each stone of Salisbury Plain commemorates some great figure from the Bishop of Salisbury, The Earl of Salisbury, William Longespee to Uther Pendragon, Constance, and even sports a mark left by the Devil. The reference to stones likely refers to Stonehenge. He leads them to where Palaemon is putting on a feast in honour of Castina. He is later set upon by Autolius and Conto, but when they find nothing worth stealing from him, they daub his face with his sheep-marking tar. When at last the conerted Autolius and Conto ask for his forgiveness, he gives it.


A "ghost character" in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. Spelled Iarningham in the text. As Norfolk arranges his troops to attack Sir Thomas Wyatt, he orders Alexander Brett and his five hundred Londoners in the vanguard while he, the Earl of Arundel, and "stout" Iarningham make up the second line. The reference is almost certainly to Sir Henry Jerningham, a firm supporter of Queen Mary, who was later made vice chamberlain and a member of the Privy Council.


The Widow's servant, skilled in subterfuge in William Rowley's A Match at Midnight. He helps her to find better marriage partners than Bloodhound. Jarvis asks the Widow to consider taking him as her lover after she remarries, and puts on the clothes of a gentleman to demonstrate his good looks. He gulls Bloodhound into taking Mistress Coote the Bawd home, instead of the Widow. He helps to convey Alexander under the Widow's bed and blackmail her into agreeing to marriage. At the end of the play, he reveals that he is in fact her husband Wagge in disguise; his behavior can thus be understood as a test of her constancy.


A Servant in Shirley's Hyde Park. He fetches Lacy, bringing him to his mistress' (Lady Bonavent) house.


The local lord of Clifton in Nottinghamshire in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker, his first name is also spelled "Gervase." Described by Lord Grey as a lamb in peace but a ravening lion in war, he is an aged yet still flamboyant soldier who habitually punctuates his speech with the oath, "My holy dame." As the play begins, he is organizing an expeditionary force to serve the Queen in the wars against the Scots at Leith, and takes Young Bateman into his service. Arriving in Scotland, he assures his commander, Lord Grey, that he will happily fight alongside his five-hundred-and-fifty Nottinghamshire lads. Having helped to secure the English success on the first day of battle, he is reluctant to let the gallant Young Bateman return to Nottinghamshire, but finally accedes to his request and sends him home with letters. He rallies his men after the attack of the Frenchmen in women's clothing by taunting Mortigue and declaring that "England's Royal Bess" surpasses her cousin, Mary Stuart, in beauty and virtue. After the two fight in single combat, Clifton takes Mortigue prisoner but sets him free. He holds the "green bulwark" opposite Doysells' position during the Battle of Leith, and takes Doysells' armour as a prize. He is not pleased when the fighting at Leith is halted by the message of the peace commissioners in Edinburgh. Nevertheless, when news of a definitive peace arrives, he proclaims it to the soldiers and welcomes it. He returns to Nottingham to greet Queen Elizabeth, who makes him her deputy Lieutenant and Lord Warden of Nottingham Castle.


In the dumb show introducing V of the anonymous Locrine, Jason enters with Creon's daughter (Creusa). Medea follows with a garland, puts it on her head, sets it on fire, kills Creusa and Jason, and leaves. Creon's Daughter, according to Ate's commentary, stands for Estrild, Medea for Gwendoline, Jason for Locrine.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. In an attempt to convince the skeptical Surly of the benefits of alchemy, Mammon claims that he has a piece of Jason's fleece, which is a book of alchemy. Alchemists traced connections between classical mythology and alchemical lore. They created a legend according to which the true object of Jason's quest was an alchemical treatise. Mammon sees Jason's helm as an alembic.
Only mentioned in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. Rhodaghond swears that never was Medea revenged upon Jason as she will be upon Fulvia for striking her in front of Sir Jeptes.
Only mentioned in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. Late in the play, Amurath claims that he is better protected from his Christian foes than the Greek hero Jason ever was by the magic of Medea. The irony here is that shortly after this boast the Turkish leader is stabbed to death by the wounded Christian captain Cobelitz.
Only mentioned by the Fairies invoked by the Magician in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant during the creation of a love potion that Antigonus intends to use to make Celia fall in love with him. In classical mythology, Jason of the Argonauts is the lover of Medea, a foreign sorceress.
Jason serves Meleager and is the captain of the Argonauts in Heywood's Brazen Age. He accompanies Meleager in the hunt for the Caledonian Boar. After Meleager causes a bloody uproar by giving credit for the successful hunt to Atlanta, the female huntress he loves, Jason helps to restore order. After Meleager is killed by his mother Althea, Jason proposes that the men head out on an adventure on the Argo. After Hercules slays Neptune's whale in Troy, Jason urges Hercules on to Colchus in the hunt for the Golden Fleece. Jason uses Medea's affection for him as a tool to secure the fleece. He convinces the witch to render helpless the bulls and dragon that guard the Fleece. Medea then helps Jason flee from her father Oetes. Jason travels to Lydia to rescue Hercules from Omphale.


Jaspar is one of Castabella's servants in Tourneur's The Atheist's Tragedy. After D'Amville decides to seduce Castabella, he sends Jaspar to fetch the lady. When she arrives and learns that her father-in-law wishes to walk with her, she orders Jaspar to accompany her. D'Amville objects on the grounds that he has a private communication for her, and Jaspar is then ordered to remain in the house.


The name by which Camillo Ferneze is called during his nineteen years in France in Jonson's The Case is Altered. The situation came about after he was found abandoned in the confusion of battle by the elder Chamont, who adopted him as brother and companion to his son, also named Chamont. Captured along with Chamont by Maximilian in the same battle in which Lord Paulo is captured by the French, Jasper and his adopted brother exchange identities in order to protect Chamont. Jasper as "Chamont" pretends to find Maximilian's offer to exchange him and "Jasper" for Lord Paulo insulting, but remains as an honored guest at Count Ferneze's court while "Jasper" (actually Chamont) returns to France to retrieve Lord Paulo Ferneze. Phoenixella is struck by "Chamont's" (actually Jasper's) resemblance to her mother, but Aurelia jokingly accuses her of being in love with him. When it is revealed that Jasper and Chamont have switched identities, Jasper hastens to assure Count Ferneze that Maximilian was unaware of the switch, and that Chamont will surely return with Lord Paulo as promised. Count Ferneze, furious, orders him imprisoned and tortured. He is almost executed when Chamont is late in returning, but Count Ferneze spares his life and is overjoyed to learn from Chamont that Jasper is actually his long-lost son, Camillo. (Also spelled "Gasper" in d.p. and text)


Servant to Penitent Brothel in Middleton's A Mad World, My Masters, Jasper reinforces the frightening, but morally rehabilitating, presence of the succubus by attesting not to have witnessed the devil's entrance into Penitent Brothel's chamber despite being in the next room.

JASPER **1607

Venturewell's apprentice and factor in the The London Merchant portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. He protests that he has been honest to his master but cannot deny his love for Luce not hers for him. Venturewell discharges him. He hatches a scheme with Luce before he leaves, one to which the audience is not privy. His mother refuses her blessing to him, but he receives his father's along with ten shillings. In Waltham Forest, he casts away the money to "grow and multiply" only to find the fortune of one thousand pounds that his mother dropped while fleeing Rafe. He comes upon Humphrey and Luce in the woods and claims her. When Rafe challenges him, Jasper takes away his golden pestle and beats him from the stage. Lost in the woods with Luce, he tests her love by drawing his sword and pretending a desire to kill her for being daughter to the man who ruined him. Just then, Venturewell and Humphrey appear to reclaim Luce. Jasper sends a letter to Venturewell begging his forgiveness. The Boy to carries the letter tells Venturewell that Jasper is dead, and the letter begs Venturewell to allow Jasper's corpse to be taken to Luce. Once the "corpse" is in Luce's room, Jasper rises, and the two are reconciled, Jasper's death having been a ruse. He arranges for her to escape by hiding in the coffin. Jasper then goes to Venturewell with meal on his face and pretends to be Jasper's ghost. He says Luce is also dead and, to appease his spirit, Venturewell must take care of Old Merrythought and beat Humphrey out of doors. He reveals himself to his father and asks him to forgive his mother, Mistress Merrythought. He and Luce are blessed in their marriage by both fathers.

JASPER **1626

Jasper is the name Haver assumes in James Shirley's The Wedding while in the service of Master Rawbone.


A servant to Count Utrante in Carlell's The Deserving Favorite. Bernardo tells him that Lysander is to be executed, and the two go to watch the event.


Earthworm's servant in May's The Old Couple. He delivers to Theodore the letter from Euphues, and more importantly agrees to serve his young master in his attempt to cure the old one. Jasper pledges secrecy to Theodore and is entrusted with the preparation of mysterious disguises and reinforcements. In a soliloquy, Jasper explains his seeming disloyalty to Earthworm. He justifies it in morality, as Theodore seems entirely honest and not intent on endangering the old man; the welcome novelty of a beer-money bonus from the son has also had an effect on his decision. Earthworm later blames Jasper for the fire in his barn; it is unclear whether the fire was an accident or indeed set by Jasper or Theodore as part of the plan to cure Earthworm of his obsession.


Alsemero's friend in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling, Jasperino is surprised when Alsemero falls in love with Beatrice, but takes the opportunity to form a relationship with Diaphanta the waiting-woman. Later, Jasperino reports to Alsemero that he has overheard Beatrice and DeFlores together. Alsemero's suspicion of Beatrice's chastity is initially calmed by Beatrice's cunning. But Jasperino then shows him a "prospect from the garden" that confirms her adultery.


See also IASPARO, IASPERO and related spellings.


A courtier and the object of Flavia's affection in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort; he refuses to entertain Gisbert's lawful suit against the newly installed senator Lucius.


An attendant to Theander in Davenant's The Platonic Lovers.


Jaspro is a lord of Verona who attends the trial in Act Two.


Signor Jealousia is a jealous man in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. He goes to visit Doctor Clyster because he is terribly jealous of his wife, to the extent that he tries to avoid anything related to horns–from hunting to even staying at the Bull's Inn, or at the Saracen's Head, just because both the Bulls and the Saracens have horns. The cure Clyster offers for his patient's disease is to find his wife in the act, but he reacts affirming that he would "rather be still in doubt than know that." Then the doctor tries another solution, and promises to prepare a cure for him. Signor Jealousia, very grateful to him, offers him ten pieces of gold. Later, Signor Jealousia comes back to Doctor Clyster, in search of his cure–but it is not ready yet. Instead, the doctor explains he needs more information from him, so that he can "add or diminish my ingredients according to the accidents." Thus, his patient tells him he has strange dreams, and the doctor offers him "the devil's ring" as a cure. In fact, Clyster guesses the suspicions, problems and even conversations that Signor Jealousia may have with his wife, so precisely, that the former starts to think that the doctor may have been spying on them. But Clyster urges him to dismiss that thought, since his words are just intended to cure him. And, to that aim, he inquires about the origins of his illness, to which his patient replies his disease began when he was a knight bachelor: he was jealous of the husband of a married lady he was in love with. Now, he explains, the problem is that he does not trust his wife because she is a widow–in fact, he does not trust woman's nature. After listening to him, Doctor Clyster offers him a solution: "to wear a purse of a cuckoo's skin [...] and have a stag's head in your chamber to hang your hat on and other things." He wants him to be surrounded by horns "to make them familiar to you." Furthermore, he asks him to acquaint himself "with country knights and gentlemen, that bring up their fair wives and daughters to a lodging in the Strand," so that he gets accustomed to that place, and take a lodging for his wife in the Strand. He assures him that, if he follows his prescription, he will be cured. But Signor Jealousia would rather take a medicine than follow the doctor's advice. Nevertheless, Doctor Clyster assures him that, should his advice fail, he would have a medicine ready for him the next time he came. Then Signor Jealousia rewards the doctor with ten extra pieces of gold for his services. Later, when he realizes he has been cozened, he threatens to "have him indicted for a man-witch presently." Encouraged by Damme de Bois, he and the other cozened victims siege the house of the three cheaters. Finally, Master Algebra, who was passing by, offers to act as a judge, and he actually solves the case satisfactorily for all the parties involved, cures the cozened people and he is recompensed both by the victims and by the cheaters.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Mundus et Infans. Mundus tells Infans/Manhood that he must swear fealty to seven kings. The kings are the seven deadly sins.


Jealousy is an allegorical figure residing in the court of Venus in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy, who plays music with Folly, Niceness, Newfangle and Dalliance, while Venus sings a lullaby to Mars.


One of the twenty-five vices that are the extremes of the eleven virtues in the anonymous Pathomachia. Malice, Self-Love, and Jealousy are extremes of Charity. She disguises herself as Zeal, but Justice sees through the disguise at once and commits her to a close prison.


One of the characters in Evanthe's and Valerio's wedding masque in Fletcher's A Wife for a Month. Only Cupid speaks, but Cupid's attendants include hopeful characters of Fancy, Desire, Delight, Hope, and also the dire characters Fear, Distrust, Jealousy, Care, Ire, and Despair, suggesting that in the lovers' marriage, misery will outweigh happiness. Valerio finds this to be the case when shortly after the wedding the king forbids him from consummating his marriage.


Jealousy is an attendant of Discord in the masque with which Brome's The Antipodes concludes. Played by Blaze, Jealousy wears a black and yellow suit and is half man and half woman, with one horn and one ear.


Jean, Count Dunois in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, illegitimate son of the Duke of Orleans and thus King Charles's first cousin, is referred to as the Bastard of Orleans. He is the first to introduce Joan on stage, presenting her as a heaven-sent prophetess.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a sinful man.


Jeer Major is a man whose stock insults and trendy talk are vacuous. He is almost indistinguishable from his constant companion, Jeer Minor in Cavendish's The Variety. The two pretend that they are officers and try to arrest Manley when he is dressed as the ghost of Leicester, but Manley is rescued by Newman and gentlemen with drawn swords. The Jeers then join Newman and accompany him to the tavern, where they take part in the revelry. Jeer Major is given money by Newman at the end of the play so the tavern bill may be paid and Formal released. Speeches are assigned to the two Jeers as Jeer 1 and Jeer 2.


Hugh Jerker's young cousin and boon companion, displaying the same libertine sensibility to an even more extreme degree in Nabbes' Covent Garden. He makes advances on every woman he meets in the play, all the while expounding Jerker's epicurean philosophy.


Crack is the "brother" of Jane Tryman (Jeremy in disguise) in Brome's The City Wit. He poses as her page/bawd, sings bawdy songs, and, in the end, marries Bridget.


Quibble, Quack's man in Quarles' The Virgin Widow, initially reminds him of the demands of conscience, but soon desists and advertises Quack's wares, pretending, among other things, that he has stabbed himself and then healed himself with Quack's magic ointment.


See also GEOFFREY, JEFFERY, JEFFEREY, JEFFRY and related spellings.


Possibly a "ghost character" in Chettle's(?) Looke About You. Son of the old King and brother to young Henry, Richard, and John. One stage direction refers to the entrance of "3. Bro" and could refer to Jeffrey entering with Richard and John to meet young Henry, but this is not at all certain. If Jeffrey does appear on stage, he has no lines to speak.

JEFFREY **1599

Jeffrey is a companion of Jocky in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV. The two are arrested for giving food to the disgraced Mistress Jane Shore.


A clown in Brome's The Queen's Exchange, Jeffrey convinces four laborers whose masters have denied them enough wood to make a bonfire in celebration of Osriick's intended marriage to Bertha that they should burn their tools instead. Alfride selects him as court fool to entertain the melancholic King Osriick. Jeffrey sharply criticizes court life and suggests that he should be granted a monopoly to provide the King with fools. Under Anthynus's command (whom he believes to be Osriick), he searches the wood and finds Segebert.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave. According to the Cobbler he is the mayor of Goteham.

The bailiff of Finsbury in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. Assists Stukeley's various creditors in recouping their debts after Stukeley's fortuitous marriage to Nell Curtis, daughter of the wealthy alderman Sir Thomas Curtis.


Jeffrey Lord Powesse is a lord betrothed to Marian in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. Near Chester, Powesse and Sir Griffin debate the crisis created by the imminent marriages of their ladies. Marian, Powesse's sweetheart, has been promised to Pembrooke and Sydanen, Sir Griffin's lady, has been promised to Moorton. Powesse suggests a subversive attack on Chester castle by plotting against the Earl of Chester and inciting the inhabitants to mutiny. Powesse and Sir Griffin engage the help of Gosselin and Evan, who have a small army of men ready for them in the woods. John a Kent promises Powesse and Sir Griffin he will help them by luring the ladies outside Chester castle. In the woods beyond the castle, Powesse and Sir Griffin meet Marian and Sydanen and confess their marital intentions to them. When the ladies consent to follow their lovers, the party retires to Gosselin's castle. At dawn in Gosselin's castle, Powesse and Sir Griffin are up very early, eager for their impending weddings to Marian and Sydanen. The lords know that John a Kent is preparing an entertainment for the ladies, so they are not suspicious when John a Cumber (disguised as John a Kent) introduces a pageant of Antiques. Only when they see that the rival party is already in the castle do Powesse and Sir Griffin realize they have been tricked and leave with Gosselin and Evan. Because the ladies have been sent to Chester, Powesse and Sir Griffin must lure them away from their guardians as they make their way through the woods, while their guardians are put to sleep with hypnotic chimes. During the performance on the lawn before Gosselin's castle, Powesse acts as himself and tells Chester how he resents having been rejected in his suit for Marian. Thus, Powesse makes Chester see his side of the story. At Chester Abbey, Powesse and Sir Griffin enter disguised as Pembrooke and Moorton, the expected bridegrooms. John a Cumber is deceived and lets them inside the church, where they are married to Marian and Sydanen.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John. Younger brother of Richard I and older brother of John, Jeffrey's death before that of Richard and before the beginning of the play leaves his son, Arthur, as a legitimate aspirant to the English crown.


Sir Jeffrey Wiseacres is a comic justice of the peace in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot (although his comic nature does not emerge until the second half of the play). He is present at all the meetings of the commissioners. After the massacre of Lavercke, he stabs Friar Gertrid to death. Later, he and his clerk, Bolt, find a trunk full of food and wine washed up on the seashore. Then Wallace washes up, too, and gulls them out of the food by pretending to be an anonymous Scot. He then reveals his identity and they run away. Sir Jeffrey and Bolt then arrest Haslerig in error for Wallace and Bolt kills him. They are disappointed to miss out on the bounty when they realize their mistake.

JEFFRY **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Pond, Booker, Allestree, Jeffry, Neve Gent, and Merlinus Anglicus were good astronomers, according to Carion, who nevertheless cannot predict so well as Chremyla's corns.


Jeffry is a servant of Philautus in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. He has been responsible for most of the important management efforts for the estate, for Ardelio has taken to removing items from the home and has installed a mistress in Jeffry's home. When Ardelio loses his position at the play's end, Jeffry hopes to profit by Ardelio's loss, but he is arrested by Snarl for aiding and abetting Ardelio.


One of the three Seditious Captains in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. Ambitious for personal power but content to conspire with Eleazer and Skimeon in the early stages of the civil war. Pardoned for his previous treasons by the High Priest Ananias and allowed to stay in Jerusalem and lead his own troops. He plots the invasion of the city by Skimeon's forces with the aid of Zareck and defies Josephus's moderate aims in his fanatical opposition to Rome. He later quarrels and duels with Eleazer, but he is apparently reconciled to him. He is the most outspoken of the Captains in persuading the citizens to mutiny. He assaults and bullies Miriam. His demands for food lead to her resort, in desperation, to cannibalism. He gives the order to torture Gorion and later to burn the Temple. Brought as a prisoner before Titus, refused mercy he is condemned to death. His downfall, like the other Captains', is partly contrived by Zareck's rather vague agenda of revenge against them for previous injuries, but Jehochanan remains unaware of this.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Isaiah as an example of a wicked king.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Isaiah as an example of a God's mercy and power.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Isaiah as an example of a God's mercy and power.


Only mentioned in Peele's David and Bethsabe. When Semei curses David, Joab suggests killing him. David responds by asking why the "sons of Zeruia" (i.e. Joab and Abisai) should interfere with "the son of Jemini," who may well be inspired by God, when David's own son Absalon is seeking his father's life with the same rage. Apparently Jemini is to be taken as Semei's mother because David identifies Joab by reference to his maternal parent (David's sister Zeruia) and the account of this episode in 2 Samuel 16 refers to Semei's father as Gera.


Jenkin is George a Greene's man and a clown figure in Greene's George a Greene. He tells George ridiculous stories of his attempt to woo Madge and how he was forced to let Clim stand his horse on Jenkin's coat. Jenkin's claims that he got his revenge when he cut holes in the coat so that the horse had to stand on the ground anyway. Jenkin leads Kendall, Bonfield and Armstrong to the magician (really the disguised George), and after George has killed Armstrong and captured the other two, Jenkin shows his own magic by making Beatrice appear. Jenkin is challenged by the Shoemaker Will Perkins, for carrying his staff over his shoulders, but he refuses to fight, and instead offers the Shoemaker ale. When he finds King Edward drinking with the Shoemakers, he begs a boon, that instead of Shoemakers, the guild should be known as the trade of the gentle craft, which is granted.


A chief servant in Frankford's household in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness. Jenkin is a clown-like figure, who utters cheeky asides to the audience, and comically deflates Wendoll's anguished soliloquy. He accompanies Anne in her banishment.


A tiler in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Enters with Hugh Tiler as well as roof tiles and a ladder. Before beginning work, leaves with Hugh Tiler for a pot of ale and a toast to warm up. Returns with Hugh Tiler to meet Clunie and the watch searching for Sands; denies seeing Sands, and is arrested by Clunie for aiding Sands' escape. Brought by Clunie before Bonner and Gardner, who readily accept Clunie's charge of aiding Sands' escape and demand that he be burnt at the stake. After arrival of news concerning the Duchess, Jenkin and Hugh Tiler are forgotten; Foxe advises them to go home rather than wait for Bonner and Gardner's return.

JENKIN **1625

Jenkin, master of Jocarello in Shirley's The School of Compliment, is a Welshman who loves Selina. His brogue is incredibly thick, and he sometimes misunderstands what is said to him or in his presence. He flits in and out of the play, appearing at the Compliment School, becoming lost in the forest, and eventually discovering the shepherd's festival near the end of the play.


Also spelled Iynkings in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho. One of Doll Hornet's duped lovers, a sea captain from Wales. His mistakes in English are a constant source of verbal comedy. He provides Doll with a coach and two horses. When he visits Bellamont to order a love poem, Doll's visit is announced. Bellamont tells him to hide behind a curtain, so that he can overhear Doll's confessions. He then sets out to find her other victims, Allom and Hans, and together they follow her to the inn at Ware with a warrant, but her new husband Featherstone agrees to pay her debts.


The Tailor's daughter in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates. She informs her mother, the Tailor's Wife, that she has seen the Tailor drinking with a "fair young maiden," not realizing the maiden is Chastity.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous King Leir. Apparently the owner of an alehouse. The First and Second Watchman leave their posts and go to him for ale and bacon.


Jenny is the sister of Scarlet and Scathlock in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. She is first mentioned by Much in conversation with Scathlock's Mother; he asks her to send Jenny to the forest, which she promises to do. When Robin asks his followers to abstain from women, Much asks what he will do with Jenny then. However, when Jenny enters, she is met by Tuck, who is with Doncaster. Jenny helps Tuck alert Robin and Marian to Doncaster's plan to capture the outlaws, although it is unclear whether she is newly persuaded by Tuck or already part of a prearranged plan.
Jenny is first mentioned by Much in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. He asks for King Richard's help in securing a living so that he can marry her. Jenny herself helps Marian prepare for dinner while the men are hunting. Marian scolds her for her untidy dress and sends her off to tidy herself before the king arrives.


‘A scholar’ in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium, whom Florimel describes as a ‘beggar’, ‘Alchemist’ and a ‘conjurer’ who ‘deals with sprights’ and is but a boy who has yet grown his beard. In love with Rhodaghond, he is teaching Florimel Greek and Spanish. Clodio enlists his aid to discover whom Florimel affects. He promises to help Clodio to Florimel and foil the hopes of any other suitor. He is annoyed that Florimel, since falling in love, has ‘played fast and loose’ with him, calling then dismissing him twice already. He takes the opportunity to court Rhodaghond, first squabbling with and then singing a song to her. At Clodio’s behest, he brews a poison of mercury, palm-water, antimony, strychnine (stribbinon), and arsenic with which to kill Amadour before Amadour can marry Florimel. In the woodland party, he proposes that the women each name a flower most like herself and uses the occasion to offer a pretty compliment to Fulvia, who embodies all of the named virtues. Jeptes proclaims that a vision that he and Fulvia have of three mourning women presaging doom is but a warning from God that will turn to their good as Jonah’s warning to Nineveh did. He later tries but fails to prevent Fulvia’s suicide. Realising that he and Rhodaghond are responsible for the tragic outcome and deaths, they agree to drink the poison themselves and so die.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David as an example of an upright, virtuous man.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a prophet.


Possibly a disguise but probably Face's actual identity in Jonson's The Alchemist. Jeremy the butler is Face's persona when he is with Lovewit. When Dol Common warns Face and Subtle that the master of the house is outside, the resourceful Face announces to his associates that he intends to revert to his persona of Jeremy the butler, instructing Subtle and Dol to pack all the goods they had swindled in two trunks. Face asks Dol to bring him some water, and Subtle to shave his Captain's beard, because he must appear to Lovewit as the smooth-faced Jeremy, his butler. He deals well with Lovewit's questioning and the neighbors' complaints. Jeremy answers that the neighbors are delusional–he says that the house has been closed and the key was in his pocket all the while. Jeremy tells Lovewit that the cat died of plague, that he had to put the house in quarantine and that is why he has not been seen for a month or so. He denies all accusations of the cheated dupes, saying they have mistaken the house. Mammon and Surly do not recognize Face but believe that Jeremy is part of the confederacy of tricksters. Jeremy tells Lovewit that the furious men, Kastril, Tribulation, and Ananias, are escapees from the madhouse. Jeremy takes Lovewit inside and there offers him a young and beautiful rich lady (Dame Pliant) in marriage–if he agrees to put a Spanish cloak on. Lovewit supports Jeremy's story that he had let the house to a bogus Doctor and a certain Captain Face, who are now fled.


Jeremy is Crasy's honest apprentice in Brome's The City Wit. After Crasy's friends refuse to pay him what they owe, he discharges Jeremy and commands him to wrong all men at every opportunity. Jeremy returns disguised as Jane Tryman, a prostitute disguised as a wealthy but sickly widow. "She" comes with a small entourage including two "keeping-women," Isabell and Joan, and a "brother/pimp," Jeffery Crack. As Tryman, Jeremy schemes with Crasy to trick his friends and family out of the money they have either borrowed or stolen from him. Jeremy reveals his true identity to Crasy and the others at the end of the play.


Sir Geoffrey’s son, newly arrived from Cambridge, and Thorowgood’s cousin in Glapthorne’s Wit in a Constable. He has a passion for his books and orders Tristram down to buy copies of Suarez’ Metaphysics, Granadas’ Commentaries, Booker’s new almanacs, and John Taylor’s ‘nonsense.’ Thorowgood convinces him to become a libertine of the city, and he orders Tristram to sell all of his books and burn Greene’s Groatsworth of Wit. He presents himself at Alderman Covet’s, newly dressed and speaking as a city wag, only to be turned away. When Valentine is discovered in Clare and Grace’s chambers, masquerading as Sir Timothy’s niece, he is forced to agree that the women who have so entertained a man in their chambers would not be fit for his wife. Covet convinces him that the women are proper, and he cannot decide whether he should take Clare or Grace, so Jeremy and Sir Timothy engage in a dialogue of “whichever you like, I’ll have the other" that only makes both look more foolish. The women assure Sir Timothy and Jeremy that they will make them terrible wives. Thinking they jest, both men take them at their word and agree to be complacent cuckolds and to marry the women immediately but in such secrecy that absolutely no one will know of it. He bribes the four watchmen sixteen pence to keep quiet as he, Sir Timothy, and Grimes make their way through London by night with a sedan chair. When Busie suddenly inquires what’s in the sedan chair, Jeremy offers him another ten shillings, but in the end they are obliged to retreat. He marries Nell by mistake when the women disguise themselves as Clare and Grace. He is happy with the match when Nell says she will allow him to come home drunk.


A gallant naturalized Dutchman and a “Twibill Knight" in Glapthorne’s Hollander. He speaks in a comic stage accent and claims he has an itch picked up whilst fighting in the Low Countries for Artless to cure. He is possessed of a thousand pounds per annum. He takes lodgings at Artless’ house. He wants Urinal to procure for him Artless’ salve for curing wounds without surgery. He addresses Lady Yellow and Mistress Know-worth in French. He kisses them in the Dutch manner, as a compliment, only to have the jealous Sir Martin Yellow stab him in the arm. Far from being angry, Sconce is delighted to have a chance to test Artless’ weapon salve and takes Yellow’s sword with him as the salve requires him to treat the weapon rather than his arm. He woos Dalinea at her parents’ urging and imagines himself soon to be wed. Drunken from celebrating with the Twibill Knights, he marries ‘Mr. Lovering’ whilst Dalinea marries the disguised Popingay. He discovers that Mr. Lovering is actually now his wife, Martha.


Jerick is Hans's friend in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. He fights Richard in the woods, and then, thinking him dead, argues with Hans about the spoils. Jerick kills Hans with a hatchet, and is then attacked and killed by Richard.


Family name of Hugh and Jefferey in Nabbes' Covent Garden.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Isaiah as an example of a wicked king.


Only mentioned in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England. When the play opens, Rasni, the king of Nineveh, is celebrating a military victory over Jeroboam, the king of Jerusalem.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's A Maidenhead Well Lost, the Clown's fellow servant, charged by the Clown with slyly drinking all the latter's wine.


The foolish son of Ferdinand in Chettle's Hoffman. He was educated at Wittenberg. He challenges Mathias to a duel and trains for the match with Stilt. He raises an army to kill Otho, but the latter convinces him to surrender peacefully. Soon after, Lorrique, disguised as a French Doctor, sells Jerome poison (real) and an antidote (fake). Jerome plans to poison the wine and then to give everyone except Otho the antidote. No one drinks, except Jerome and Ferdinand, who both die.


A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Father Jerome is reported by a servant to be the replacement choice of Prior after the Prior of York has fallen out of favor.


See also under HIERONIMO, JERONYMO, and related spellings.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Jeronimo is mentioned by Doctor Clyster, when he catches Sir Cupid Phantsy versifying again, when he had made him assure him he would not do it again. Sir Cupid, in an attempt to avoid being reprimanded, replies he was at his prayers, but the Doctor, ironically, asks him: "What, so loud, and acting, as if Burbage's soul had newly revived Hamlet and Jeronimo again, or Alleyn, Tamburlaine?" Jeronimo (or Hieronimo) was the leading character in Thomas Kyd's play The Spanish Tragedy.


A fictitious character in Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. It is a part that Rafe was to have acted for a wager. Apparently there was a wager with a shoemaker about Rafe's abilities, but Rafe never played the part. We are not told why.


A servant to Katherine, friendly to Fitsgrave in Middleton's Your Five Gallants. He is sent to search for the pearls stolen from her, when he meets Fitsgrave and mentions the theft, he alleviates Fitsgrave's guilt for having had his own gift from her also stolen. This is his only named scene. Fitsgrave subsequently alludes to the madness implied in his name, but it is hard to see in this one brief encounter what eccentricities are manifest. It would be appropriate for Bedlam to be present at other scenes in Katherine's house, especially the finale, when many hands are needed to apprehend the guilty Gallants.


A "ghost character" in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom. Ieronimo Guydanes is mentioned as the author of a letter to Iacomo Gentili. Guydanes is amongst Iacomo Gentili's "bosome friends." In his letter, he asks Iacomo to employ the foolish gentlemen Asinius Buzardo.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Blepsidemus believes Penia-Penniless looks like Jeronymo, Don Andrea, or perhaps the Ghost in Hamlet in her rage. Later, Anus uses Orlando and Jeronymo as types of madmen who would be so cruel as Neanias.


Another name for God in the anonymous Everyman, who is also called Adonai, Messiah, Jupiter, and Redeemer in the play.


A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Hollander. One of the sisters of the order of the Twibill Knights. She is the ‘mother’ of the maids of Lambeth Marsh.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by God and Isaiah as an ancestor of Christ.


Jessica is the daughter of Shylock, and in love with Lorenzo in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. She dresses as a boy and escapes with Lorenzo taking a large amount of money and jewels. Tubal later reports that he has heard of her spending extravagantly. She travels with Lorenzo to Portia's house, and when Portia decides to follow Bassanio in disguise she leaves Lorenzo and Jessica in charge of the house.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned multiple times by Bale and God as the ultimate example of goodness and mercy, and foretold to Moses, David, Isaiah and John Baptist by God. God also tells John that he will be the one to baptize Christ, and that he will recognize him in the flesh because the Holy Spirit will appear in the form of a dove when Christ arrives to be baptized.
Jesus in Bale's John Baptist's Preaching in the Wilderness first gives the audience the story of his birth and mission, and then tells them that he is here to be baptized and that they should follow his example. He asks John to baptize him, and when John protests that he is unworthy, Jesus insists, stating that he must not break any of God's laws, and being baptized is one of those laws. John is persuaded, and baptizes Jesus. When The Heavenly Father appears and blesses Jesus, John rejoices at the coming of the Son, who will purify all of us.
When Jesus first enters in Bale's The Temptation of Our Lord, he directly addresses the audience, describing how God wishes him to be tempted as a lesson to Man, and how this does not mean he wishes Christians to fast as he has fasted. Although he knows Satan is coming to tempt him, when Satan does enter, disguised as a Religious Christian, Jesus talks with him. When Satan tempts him to turn stones into food, Jesus says that to do so is unnecessary, since God will provide him with meat when the time is right. He also says that others, such as Moses and Daniel, have been preserved by God's word, and he expects no less. Satan tempts him the second time, saying that it is written that if he throws himself off a mountain, God will send angels to catch him. Jesus points out that Satan is reading the Psalm incorrectly, since he protects those who are godly in all ways, and to test God is not godly. Further, he points to other biblical passages that say not to tempt God and asks why Satan does not quote first, the verse about crushing the serpent underfoot. Satan tempts Jesus a third time, offering him all the cities of the world if Jesus will worship him. At this point, Jesus becomes angry, and reveals that he knows who Satan is. He promises to destroy Satan's kingdom and bring God's word to the whole world. Two Angels then bring Jesus food, which he gratefully receives. He ends by speaking directly to the audience, stating that the only way to know God is through him.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a virtuous man.


Jethray is Amnon's page in Peele's David and Bethsabe.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David as an example of an upright, virtuous man.

JEW **1620

A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage. He supplies costumes and cosmetics to disguise Sesse, the Master, the Boatswain, and the Gunner as they enter Naples to wreak their revenge on Martia.


A "ghost character" in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. It is thought that Julio bought a mask from him.


Three Jews comes to see Barabas in the first scene of Marlowe's The Jew of Malta:
  1. The First Jew is one of the three Jews who comes to see Barabas for advice. He describes the arrival of a Turkish fleet and fears that its purpose is war. When Ferneze demands half the estate of each Jew to pay the tribute, the First Jew protests that most Jews are poor, but Ferneze is not impressed. He, with the others, then agrees to give half. The First Jew also tries to counsel patience to Barabas, reminding him of Job, but only angers him more.
  2. The Second Jew is also one of the three who visit Barabas. Before meeting with Barabas, the Second Jew describes him as best able to give counsel in matters of war, and then expresses his fear that the Turkish fleet will cause trouble for all. He announces the required meeting of all Jews at the Senate-house. After Barabas has lost all his goods, the Second Jew counsels patience, and states his misery at seeing Barabas so afflicted.
  3. The Third Jew is present with the other two when speaking first with Barabas and then Ferneze, but he seems much more timid than the others. His only comments are to praise the wisdom of Barabas and, in concert, to agree to give up half his goods to the state.
Two of these Jews are referred to by name, Termainte and Zaareth, but the text does not indicate which is which.


A disguise in Jordan's Money is an Ass. To gain access to Clutch's house, Penniless disguises himself as Precious Jewel, brother to Gold, and assures Credit that he is married to Beauty, sister to Lady Portion.


The jeweler serving the affected courtiers is summoned at their party together with the tailor, perfumer, barber, milliner, and feather-maker in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. Mercury, disguised as a Frenchified Gentleman, uses and abuses these merchants, thus showing the gallants how ridiculous they are. Mercury demands the feather from the feather-maker and the jewel from the jeweler to pin the feather on his hat. When Mercury asks for the price of hiring the precious stone, Jeweler says it is six crowns. Mercury pretends to be outraged, saying that, at this price, he had better borrow it and never let the owner see it again. Jeweler expresses the opinion that the customer would not do that, adding that the stone is worth a hundred crowns. Mercury starts abusing Jeweler, calling him an impostor that should be hanged. He adds that thieves are not comparable to these people. However, Mercury orders Jeweler to pin the feather on the hat with the precious stone. In fact, Mercury's intention was to find fault with everything and look for a minor reason for abuse. It is understood that Jeweler and the other dealers attend the scene in which the pretentious gallants and nymphs are being disgraced through Mercury's over-reaction in elegant courtly manners. Jeweler exits with the rest of the party.


One of Timon's false friends in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens, a flatterer. He appears in the first scene, together with the merchant, the mercer, the poet and the painter. He offers Timon a jewel and receives much more than the usual prize in return.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Just Italian. A jeweler who shows Alteza jewels, but will not take her credit note because of her husband's orders. This leads to her declaration that Altamont is divorced from her bed.


The Jeweler's Wife is the daughter of Falso in Middleton's The Phoenix. She is having an affair with the Knight, whom she says is her husband's brother and whom she refers to as "Pleasure." This lascivious woman has no qualms about bringing her illicit lover into her father's house. Her shameful story arrives at court with her through the subterfuges of the disguised Phoenix.


An English gentleman in the anonymous Dick of Devonshire. He carries the General's offer of ransom for Pike to the Spaniards, and surmises that Pike's courage and bearing seem to have suggested that the Cornishman is of greater social consequence than is, in fact, the case.


Three Jews in the anonymous Godly Queen Hester bitterly complain about Aman's pride, covetousness, and cruelty and wail over their approaching end.


Only mentioned in the anonymous July and Julian. Fenell mentions her almost at the end of the play, when he says "Jack shall have his Jill, and Julye Julian." Jack and Jill is a nursery rhyme. Gill or Jill is a generic name for a wife or female servant. Jill or Gill is also a contraction of Julienne (here Julian) or Gillian, a common Norman name. Fenell is referring to a popular phrase (see JACK). This figure is likewise referred to in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream when Puck reunites the Athenian lovers.

JILLIAN of BURY **1607

A fictitious character in one of Old Merrythought's songs in Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. She "hath good beer and ale to sell."


The wife of Pecunius Lucre in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. She is also birth mother to Sam Freedom (Lucre's stepson), and aunt of Witgood.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Golden Age. She is mentioned as one of Jupiter's mistresses.

JO **1636

Fortress’ nickname for Sconce in Glapthorne’s Hollander.


Nephew to David and brother of Abisai in Peele's David and Bethsabe. Joab serves as the king's chief military commander. He wages the siege of Rabbah that leads to the defeat of Hanon, and when Absalon becomes estranged from David because of the murder of Amnon, Joab employs the Widow of Thecoa to work a reconciliation between father and son. In the later battle between David and Absalon, Joab shares command with Abisai and Ithay, and he is present when David urges them to spare Absalon's life if he is taken. In the event, however, Joab finds Absalon hanging by his long hair from an oak, and enraged at the young man's perfidy, stabs him several times. When the traitor is finally dealt the death blow by some of David's soldiers, Joab approves of their intent to take down the corpse and bury it under a heap of stones in the dark thicket of Ephraim. In the final scene of the play, he threatens to leave David's service if the king (who is grieving excessively for Absalon), fails to resume his proper function as ruler of Israel.


Joachim Carolus, Marquess of Brandenburg, is one of the seven Electors of Germany, and Treasurer to Alphonsus in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. He and Trier are described as "simple men that wish the common good", and he himself is an aged man. He supports the election of Bohemia as co-Emperor; is physician in the revels; and fights for Alphonsus against Richard.

JOAN **1497

Handmaid to Lucrece in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. Both characters A and B woo her and vie over this ‘flower of the frying pan’. She tells B that, before she agree to any handfasting, the man must guarantee her ‘twenty pounds land in jointure’. When A and B squabble over her, she insists that she will go with the one who can show the most mastery over something, whether it be “cookery”, “pastry”, “arts of war” or “chivalry.” They sing and wrestle for her but demonstrate only that they are not good at either. At last they joust ‘at fart prick in cule (buttock)’ and B throws A down. When B claims her in victory, Joan informs them that she is already promised to another man but will spin them each a pair of breeches as a consolation prize. She then beats them.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. Conventional name for a prostitute. When Free Will cannot find the noble he took from the friar, he believes that she later stole it from him.


Spelled Jone in the original of (?)Johnson's Misogonus. Joan is Cacurgus' love interest, his "wench."


Friend to Margaret in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. Joan accompanies the fair maid, Richard, and Thomas to the fair at Harleston. There, she accepts gifts from Thomas, and when she perceives that Margaret is drawn to the disguised Lacy, who has brought her Edward's offer of an affair, the earthy Joan assures her that maids must have their loves.


An innkeeper in ?Greene and Chettle's John of Bordeaux who is cheated by Perce and the two young scholars.


One of Audrey Turfe's bridesmaids in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub.


Joane, also spelled Jone in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women, Old John's maid, is with him on the road when they meet John Bean, her sweetheart, heading toward George Sanders' house. Joane tells Bean of her dreams about him, and they speak lovingly to each other. The three travel a way together, and she asks him to buy her a ribbon and urges him to be careful on his journey. Later, she is thinking out loud with Old John about Bean being married, when they come upon the bloody, nearly dead Bean. She almost swoons, but Old John insists that she bind Bean's wounds and help move the corpse of George Sanders. When Old John has her help carry Bean home, Joane says her "joy is laide to sleepe."


Joan (also spelled Jone or Joane; and also known as Jug) is a virtuous "country maid" beloved of Grim the Collier in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. She is also subject to the attentions of Clack the Miller and Parson Short-hose, but, as she confesses in an aside, it is really Grim she loves. When Grim catches Clack wooing Joan, Parson Short-hose promises to work to bring Joan and Grim together; but when they all go nut-gathering and Grim and Clack fall to fighting, the Parson himself tries to run away with Joan. The devil Akercock, as the invisible Robin Goodfellow, drives off Clack and the Parson, and Joan becomes betrothed to Grim. Finally, Joan and Grim share a merry "mess of cream" with Robin Goodfellow and the Parson.


A servant of the Widow in William Rowley's A New Wonder: A Woman Never Vexed. Joan brings in the fish in whose stomach has been found the Widow's wedding ring.


Jone is a "keeping-woman" in Brome's The City Wit. She attends Jane Tryman (Jeremy in disguise).

JOAN **1632

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. The Sexton says death "makes no distinction betwixt Joan and my lady." Death destroys each.


A fictional character in Wilde's Love's Hospital. Comastes (in his disguise as a Rustic) informs Lepidus and Facetia that he would be best served by "A country Joane" who "can veede on beanes and bacon."


A simple country girl, sister of the Clown in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father. She is pregnant after a hazily-remembered encounter with a well-dressed gentleman, and, with the help of her brother, searches for the father. It transpires that the father is the Devil, and the child is Merlin. In the latter half of the play, Joan's comic innocence changes into eloquent repentance for her sin. The Devil tries to claim Joan for his own, but Merlin rescues her, and builds her a bower where she is expected to repent until her death. He promises that when she is dead, he will build Stonehenge in her memory.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. A local girl whom Corin reports as smitten by "Jack" (Neronis in disguise). She has fought with Gillian Giffray over "him."


Also called Joan of Arc in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI. She is a shepherd's daughter who claims that God has chosen her to lead the French forces to victory against their English foes. She is heralded by the French as a 'holy maid' but condemned by the English as a witch and a strumpet. She proves her mettle by defeating King Charles in single combat and then leads an ill-fated attempt to recapture Rouen, redeeming this failure by persuading Burgundy to support France against England. At first the French meet with success by following her guidance, but as the French fortunes wane they begin to lose faith in her ostensible holiness. She is deserted by the fiendish spirits which have been helping her, and captured by Richard of York. When Joan's father visits the English camp to comfort her, she rejects him, claiming to be descended from kings. In the hope of preserving her life, she also claims she is pregnant with a child that may belong to Alençon or Reignier. Nevertheless, she is burnt at the stake by the English as an enemy and a witch.


Joan la Pucelle's father in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, a shepherd, visits the English camp to comfort his captured daughter, but she rebuffs him and claims to be of nobler birth.


A country wench in the dancing scene in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness.


The putative daughter of Edward and Elinor in Peele's Edward I. Joan of Acon is in love with Gilbert de Clare, the Earl of Oxford. Aided by her mother, she gains the king's permission to marry the earl. Near the end of the play, Edward informs her that Elinor has confessed that her natural father was in fact a French friar with whom the queen had an affair, and stricken with grief, Joan dies of shock.


Also called Joan de la Pucelle in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI. She is a shepherd's daughter who claims that God has chosen her to lead the French forces to victory against their English foes. She is heralded by the French as a 'holy maid' but condemned by the English as a witch and a strumpet. She proves her mettle by defeating King Charles in single combat and then leads an ill-fated attempt to recapture Rouen, redeeming this failure by persuading Burgundy to support France against England. At first the French meet with success by following her guidance, but as the French fortunes wane they begin to lose faith in her ostensible holiness. She is deserted by the fiendish spirits which have been helping her, and captured by Richard of York. When Joan's father visits the English camp to comfort her, she rejects him, claiming to be descended from kings. In the hope of preserving her life, she also claims she is pregnant with a child that may belong to Alençon or Reignier. Nevertheless, she is burnt at the stake by the English as an enemy and a witch.

JOAN of OLEANCE **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Caradoc compares Penia-Penniless with several great Amazons, including her. This blunder for Joan of Arc, the Maid of Orleans, is probably intentional.


Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. The character called B uses her name as an exclamation.


She and her husband are humble inn keepers in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell. They arrive to watch Cromwell passing by, discussing how they had helped Cromwell when he was young, and provided him with the cheese cakes he loved do much. Hodge who is clearing the way for Cromwell's grand procession makes them move. Cromwell recognizes them in the crowd, remembers he owes them money, repays it there, promises the amount of the former debt every year and invites them to dinner that day. They are delighted calling him Old Tom, and my good Lord Tom. At the banquet Cromwell again thanks him.


The wife of Old Seely, mother of Gregory and Winny Seely, and aunt of Master Arthur in Heywood and Brome's The Late Lancashire Witches. Joan Seely is one of the victims of the witchcraft that upsets the Seely household. In an inversion of normal family dynamics, Joan has become deferential to her daughter Winny, who lords over her. Both she and Winny are, in turn, ruled over by the Seelys' maidservant Parnell. During the wedding celebration of Lawrence and Parnell, Joan is appalled to see the feast she has prepared become transformed into inedible slop. Her attempts to perform traditional marriage rites go horribly wrong. The witches' mischief at the wedding also causes the family's relationships to undergo abrupt changes; Winny becomes penitent and Joan forgives her, then Joan becomes tyrannical and refuses to forgive her, and finally she becomes submissive to her daughter again. In the final scene normal, happy family relations are restored, and it is revealed that the family is no longer bewitched because the witches responsible have been arrested.


A ‘ghost character’ in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. After characters A and B fight over Joan, and B wins, she informs them that she is already promised in marriage to this other man.


Joan Trash is a gingerbread woman in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. In the morning, while people at the Fair begin to erect their booths and stalls, Trash argues with Leatherhead about the location. Leatherhead tells her not to settle too close to him, threatening her to disclose that her gingerbread is made of stale bread and honey. Trash does not relent and claims that she has paid for her ground, so she is entitled to sell her wares. Leatherhead threatens to report her to Justice Overdo, but Trash is not intimidated. Trash is on hand when Knockem provokes a fight in order to distract Quarlous and Winwife's attention and have Edgworth rob them. When Ursula is hurt in the fight, Trash goes to fetch some cream for the burn. Later, Trash, Leatherhead, and others sit at their booths and stalls, when Whit, Haggis, and Bristle enter. When Bristle wants to know the time, Leatherhead answers with contempt, while Trash responds ironically. When the Cokes party enter, Cokes wants to buy everything on offer, including Trash's entire gingerbread basket. Angered at Leatherhead's competition, Trash alludes to his other impersonation as a puppeteer. Cokes decides to buy Leatherhead's entire shop, whose contents shall furnish the masque at the puppet-show, and Trash's gingerbread basket, which shall provide the banquet. Trash says her basket costs four shillings and eleven pence, ground and all, and the foolish Cokes gives her five shillings more. Trash is again present when Cokes is being duped. Afterwards, she packs up her wares and leaves with Leatherhead.


A vintner's widow in Cartwright's The Ordinary. Well advanced in years, she is the target of the "complices" individual attentions in exchange for free food and wine and claims each of them as a fiancé. Each of them manages a way to get out the relationship and finally palm her off on the antiquary Robert Moth.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a virtuous man.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Isaiah as an example of a wicked king.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Moses as an example of God's mercy and guidance.

A "ghost character" in Bale's The Temptation of Our Lord. Bale quotes Job as reporting that the devil is busy and works always for the damnation of all people.
Only mentioned in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV, Job is a biblical character plagued at the behest of Satan. Falstaff, when set upon by the Lord Chief Justice, compares his own financial situation with that of Job.


A "ghost character" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Novice names Jobbart in a list of boys who have left "the satchell" and "turne[d] fine gentlemen" while entreating Complement to "consider" tutoring him, and Implement claims that each boy in this list has "profited very well" under Captaine Complement and himself.


Jocarello is Jenkin's page in Shirley's The School of Compliment. He confirms to his master that it is indeed Selina they have seen wearing breeches in the forest, and he is reunited with his master at the play's end after a period of separation in the forest.


The Queen of Thebes in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta, Jocasta tells Servus the sad tale of her marriage to her son Oedipus, the birth of their two sons and two daughters, her husband's discovery of his crimes of parricide and incest, his blinding of himself, his imprisonment by his sons, and his curse that they should kill one another. She has asked the two brothers to negotiate a peace, welcomes Polynice dressed in mourning, and urges both her sons to settle their dispute amicably. She tells Polynice to check his ambition and assures him that he will gain no glory by bringing misery to Thebes should he be victorious, and lose his Greek wife if not his life if he fails. The parlay founders on Eteocles' intransigence; in the ensuing battle, the Greeks are repulsed, and Eteocles challenges Polynice to settle the issue man to man. Jocasta calls Antigone and the two women make for the battlefield, hoping to prevent the fight. We learn from a messenger that they fail, and that when the brothers kill each other Jocasta seizes Polynice's dagger and plunges it into her own throat.
Only mentioned in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. In Greek mythology, Jocasta was the Theban queen who unknowingly married her own son Oedipus. Aladin's Wife compares her pleas that Amurath spare the lives of her husband and children to Jocasta's pleading with Polyneices and Eteocles on behalf of Oedipus (in Euripides' treatment of the Theban story).


One of Prince Harry's rowdy companions in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V who rob in jest and fight in taverns. They laugh with the prince at the king's illness, wishing him dead so that they would all be kings through their close friendship with the Prince of Wales. He and his companions are ultimately rejected by Harry after he is crowned Henry V of England.

JOCKEY **1599

Jockey in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV is among the group of petitioners who ask for funds or some form of redress from Jane Shore.


A "ghost character." A person whose Scottish horse Lady Ruinous uses during the false robbery in Middleton and Rowley's Wit at Several Weapons.


The Jockey is supremely confident that he will beat Venture in the Hyde Park horse race in Shirley's Hyde Park. He is right. He wins very easily, and receives great acclaim from the gamblers who backed him.


A "ghost character" in Greene's George a Greene. When Edward hears that James means to try to cuckold his father, he urges his mother to keep the castle closed and says he will sleep at Jockie Miller's house.


Jocky serves Jane Shore in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV. He runs to Marshalsea Prison announcing that a last-minute pardon for Captain Stranguidge and company is coming via Jane. He is later arrested for providing food to the disgraced Jane. The same character as Jockey from 1 Edward IV?


Rumford's son in Ruggle’s Club Law. He is on hand to help the townsmen beat the “Athenians."


Ioculo is Ascanio's page in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. He is a young boy who loves his master dearly, to such an extent that he decides to go deep into the forest to search for his master's beloved Eurymine. In the course of his quest, he meets Frisco and Mopso, who are also looking for their respective parents' beloved shepherdess, who is Eurymine, and they become friends. Then, they meet some fairies, and they sing and dance with them. Their search is unfruitful for some time, and they decide to visit a wise old man, Aramanthus, and ask him for help. The wise man tells Ioculo that his master will find his lady in the shape of a man, and he also indicates him how to find his master. Ioculo is responsible for some comic and witty remarks when, at his master's amazement and disbelief when hearing that Eurymine had turned into a boy, he tries to make him understand that this is a leap year and, therefore, it should not be surprising that women wear breeches. Later he will even point out how well the breeches become the lady. But Ioculo's gaiety turns to ire when he sees Phylander, the Duke's servant, since he thinks the Duke has been unfair with his son and his beloved Eurymine, and he even wants to punish him by asking his servant to take him some accorns instead of venison. Thus, he proves faithful to his master, Ascanio, from the beginning to the end of the play.


Joculo first encountered Emilia in the Turkish galleys in Day's Law Tricks. They escaped and arrive together in Genoa, where he agrees to help her in her plan to trick her brother, Polymetes and the Genoan court. When Ferneze returns, Joculo assists Polymetes by delaying him with a baffling comic monologue about current affairs. He helps Polymetes again in his attempt to summon Emilia, appearing in disguise as 'Emilia' and fooling Ferneze into temporarily thinking that 'she' is his daughter. The real Emilia uncovers the deception and reveals Joculo's disguise, whereupon Ferneze recognizes the boy who delayed him.


Joculus is a satyr who dances with Pandora in Lyly's The Woman in the Moon.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Hondius is mentioned by Bill Bond at the end of the play, when he is asking Master Algebra to accept some presents from them–after having acted as so fair a judge: "our request is that you would be pleased to suffer us to present you with a pair of Hondius globes, a glass of Galileo's with brass mathematical instruments of Elias Allen making." Jodocus Hondius (1563-1612) was a Dutch engraver who fled to London in 1584 to escape religious persecution. He married into the van den Keere family, which introduced him to the leading scientists and geographers of his time. He then learned with the English cartographers Richard Hakluyt and Edward Wright, and reached an international reputation as maker of globes and mathematical instruments and engraver of charts and maps.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a prophet.


Among the first in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV to dub Falconbridge bastard, and remarkably defective in proper language use according to the Lord Mayor, King Edward nonetheless knights Joffelin for meritorious service in the defense of London.


Joffer is a bashaw (pasha) in service to Mullisheg, King of Morocco and Fez in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part One. He encourages the King's plan to collect European women for service as concubines in the palace, a plan that leads directly to Mullisheg's desire to see Bess when he learns that an "English lady" has recently landed in Morocco.
Joffer arrests Spencer as he tries to escape in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part Two, but because he admires the fight the Englishman has put up, he allows him to visit Bess aboard her ship The Negro in order to talk her out of committing suicide. Joffer does this knowing that, should Spencer not return as agreed, his own life will be forfeit. He makes this gesture in order to show the Englishman that Moors are capable of noble behavior. Later, Joffer is taken captive by the Florentines, and Spencer and his party offer all they have to ransom him. The Duke of Florence is so taken with this gesture that he frees the captive without ransom, and Joffer is so impressed with European honor and magnanimity that he determines to convert to Christianity.


In Wilson’s fragmentary The Corporal, one Jogalon enters to Eurick and appears to approve his melancholic misanthropy.


See also "JOHN."


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Hamlet. The First Clown/gravedigger tells the Second Clown to get ale from Johan, presumably a local innkeeper.


Johan Johan is the foolish, henpecked, and cuckolded husband of Tyb in J. Heywood's Johan Johan, the Husband; Tyb, His Wife; and Sir Johan, the Priest. Although he suspects that his wife is having an affair with Sir Johan, the village priest, and wishes to confront her about it, Johan Johan capitulates at once in the face of Tyb's shrewishness, and he allows himself to be abused. When Tyb returns home, she announces that she, the priest, her best friend Margery, and Anne, the daughter of a neighbor, have procured the ingredients for a pie and have had one made. Because he seems to be docile, Tyb invites her overworked and ill-fed husband to dine on it, but she also manages to procure his acquiescence in their being joined by Sir Johan. After Johan Johan works feverishly to make the house ready for the priest's visit, Tyb sends him to invite the clergyman to dinner. When they arrive, she promptly orders Johan Johan to attend to various chores (including the sexually-charged mending of a hole in a leaky bucket by using the melting wax from a candle) while she and the roguish parson eat all the pie. After Sir Johan entertains them with three stories purporting to describe miracles (but two of which actually describe instances of human sexual infidelity or promiscuity cloaked in a veil of piety), Johan the husband comes looking for his supper, only to discover that nothing has been saved for him. When Tyb and Sir Johan protest that they were certain he had eaten, Johan Johan explodes, threatens violence, and drives his wife and the priest out of the house. Almost immediately after the couple's departure, the long-suffering husband realizes what the two might well be bound for, and he hastily follows in an attempt to prevent any further cuckolding.


Sir Johan (the honorific "Sir" implies his status as a clergyman; it is not a marker of aristocratic condition) is Johan Johan's and Tyb's local priest in J. Heywood's Johan Johan, the Husband; Tyb, His Wife; and Sir Johan, the Priest. His connection to the wife Tyb, demonstrated by his consuming the pie for which he and his circle of female admirers have paid, suggests his individual debauched behavior and the general sexual license that prevails in the village.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Kepler is mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he offers Master Algebra a cure for his disease: "I shall beseech you not to taste Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, or Kepler, but especially Galileo." Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was a brilliant German scientist and astronomer who discovered the three laws of planetary motion, and contributed to prove the theory of heliocentric astronomy.


Historical King of England in Bale's King Johan, Part 1. In Bale's play King Johan, who was depicted as a monster in the medieval chronicles, becomes a Protestant Saint. He is made the embodiment of the ideal monarch who sacrifices everything for his country. King Johan is also a complimentary figuring of King Henry VIII. In "Part 1" he reprimands Clergy for having misused England, now reduced to poverty, and decides to help her; but the Pope and his supporters devise a plan to depose him, that starts with King Johan's excommunication.
Historical King of England in Bale's King Johan, Part 2. In Bale's play, King Johan, who was depicted as a monster in the medieval chronicles, becomes a Protestant Saint. He is made the embodiment of the ideal monarch who sacrifices everything (even his own life) for his country. King Johan is also a complimentary figuring of King Henry VIII. In "Part 2", an International League and the disloyalty of the three estates force King Johan to submit to his enemies. He gives the crown to Cardinal Pandulphus, the Papal representative, who also extorts money from him. But the Pope is not satisfied yet, and Simon of Swynsett is engaged to poison the King. After his death, King Johan's memory is redeemed by Veritas.
Prince John is on a quest for power in Chettle's(?) Looke About You, but he stands in the shade of his brother Henry. On a visit to the Fleet to see his cousin Moorton, John pays a visit to Gloster's cell to advise him of his immanent death. Thinking himself on top of the situation he even suggests a game of bowls with the Earl. What John does not know is that his bowling partner is really the rogue Skinke in Gloster's clothes. In fact, Gloster has managed to flee prison disguised in Skinke's clothes, who had arrived at the prison disguised as Redcap. In a moment when the prince is absent, Skinke helps himself to John's robes and flees, leaving the prince to a brief spell in the Tower. John begins his hunt for Gloster, but is led astray on several occasions by Skinke who operates in a number of disguises. When John finally meets Gloster, the target of his hunt, he manages not to recognize him. Gloster has at this point taken over the disguise of a holy Hermit doubling Skinke.
John is the brother of King Richard in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. He enters when Little John is defending his box against Warman and the Sheriff. When Little John claims that the box is full of his goods, John sides with him, but it is Ely who actually dismisses him, causing John to remark how he wishes to bring Ely down. John then admits to Warman that he is Robin's enemy only because he is in love with Marian. When Marian and Queen Elinor arrive at the meeting place, having switched clothes, John is fooled, and declares his love to his mother, thinking it is Marian, while the real Marian escapes with Robin. John then strikes a Messenger from Ely, and tells Leicester that he will do much more to Ely himself. When Hugh Lacy and Lord Lacy enter, arguing, John kills Hugh for his loss of Marian (although it is not at all clear why John blames Hugh). He then produces letters that he claims shift the regency from Ely to him. The next time John appears, Ely has been declared a traitor and John accepts the regency which Queen Elinor and Salisbury ask him to, although it clearly was his idea all along. John privately asks Fitzwater for Matilda/Marian, and Fitzwater refuses, partly because she is engaged to Robin and partly because John is already married to the Earl of Chepstow's daughter. They fight, and John falls, but Fitzwater will not kill him because he is of royal blood. John then banishes Fitzwater. John assumes the crown, and then is told by Warman that Ely has escaped. He accuses Warman of taking bribes and banishes him. He also banishes the Prior after letters from Warman convince John that the Prior is treacherous. At this point, Leicester enters and expresses his shock that John would assume the crown. John claims he is only viceroy until Richard's return, but Leicester is not convinced and falls into a passion. At this point, Richmond enters to announce that Richard has returned. All of John's supporters, including Queen Elinor, immediately desert him. Fearing his brother's anger, John flees to the forest and takes on the name Woodnet in order to join with Robin Hood. He meets with Scathlock and Tuck, but they do not believe he is an outlaw. Scathlock and John fight, and John wins. Tuck and John then fight, and during that fight, Marian enters and recognizes John. She sends Scathlock for Robin, who arrives with Ely and Warman. John's identity is revealed, but he finds forgiveness on all sides rather than the hatred he expected. Richard then enters the forest and Robin asks him to forgive John and take him back, which John does because Robin asks it.
John is identified by his first name while Richard is still king, and as "King" thereafter in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. He is hunting with Richard at the opening of the play and, unlike Doncaster and the Prior, is truly reconciled with Robin Hood and his brother. When Robin is dying, he asks John to give up his lust for Matilda and instead love her respectfully and chastely. John swears that he will and hopes that if he lusts after Matilda, he shall also die by poison. In a sort of entr'acte, John is seen in a dumb show, as Tuck narrates his refusal to go to war in Austria, the attempt to put Arthur on the throne and an attempted rebellion by Hugh le Brun and the French King. All of this is shown while John is asleep, with Tuck suggesting that he was successful more by luck than by skill. John then awakes from a dream of Matilda and the rest of the play begins. He is immediately dreaming of Matilda, and feels insulted when Salisbury reminds him of his own, beautiful wife. His praise of Matilda is misinterpreted by Salisbury as praise of Isabel, and he rushes off to bring the Queen in for a reconciliation. John allows the mistake to stand, and asks the Queen to travel to Guildford and convince Lady Bruce to give up her sons (in later scenes, only one son) to him as pledge of loyalty. When she agrees, he orders Hubert to follow and take the castle while pretending to be protecting the Queen. John then plots with Mowbray to attend a feast at Fitzwater's, and woo Matilda in disguise, which he does. Matilda rejects him while he is disguised, and even more so after he is revealed. John then turns on Fitzwater, Leicester, Richmond and Bruce, accusing them of plotting against him, and threatens Bruce specifically. John then travels to Guildford and asks the Queen and Salisbury to go arrest Matilda. When Lady Bruce will not say where her son is, John orders Mowbray to burn down the castle, and Lady Bruce is forced to reveal her son. John sends them to Windsor. When John discovers that Old Bruce has rescued Matilda, he sends Brand to Windsor to lock up Lady Bruce and her son, and starve them to death. His passion over Matilda's injuries is such that Salisbury realizes the Queen is right, and John is still in love with her. John wins the battle, but Matilda has been taken to Dunmow Abbey. He tries to speak to her, but when he is not allowed entry, he bribes the Monk to try to win Matilda over. He also commands Brand to poison Matilda if she will not submit, which is of course what happens. John arrives at Windsor to find that most of the nobles have turned against him for his treatment of Lady Bruce and her son, now both dead of starvation. He defends himself, claiming he had second thoughts and ordered Brand to give them food. Blunt supports his story. Matilda's body is brought in, and John mourns over it and through his grief a rebellion that would have sought to put the French Dauphin on the throne is avoided. John swears to be a better king and man in the future.
Having succeeded his brother Richard, King John scorns the French king's claim that the English crown belongs to Arthur in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John. He initially decides to suspend Robert Fauconbridge's argument and listen to the mother and her bastard son. Then he accepts Philip as Richard's son, and announces that he will seize church lands to pay for the war against France. He reaches France on Chattilion's heels, announces his right to Angiers to Philip's face, and insists on his rights through the first inconclusive battle. Then, however, his mother persuades him to accept the marriage of Blance and Lewes and the loss of five French provinces in order to gain peace. He backs the Bastard's challenge to Lymoges by making him Duke of Normandy. Having captured Arthur he appoints Hubert de Burgh as the boy's keeper, whom he subsequently commands to put out the boy's eyes. Over the objections of his advisors he orders that he be crowned a second time. When this is done, he offers to grant the assembled lords their requests. When they request that Arthur be freed, he assents, but at that moment all are startled by the appearance in the heavens of five simultaneous moons. When Peter the Prophet sees here an image of John's resistance to Rome, but then foretells his deposition before Ascension Day, he not only condemns the prophet to death, but also retracts the liberation of Arthur. Hubert enters to report (falsely) that Arthur was blinded according to the king's command and died of pain and shock. When the lords condemn the act and abandon him, John laments, but is revived when Hubert admits that the boy still lives.
Terrified by Peter's prophecy in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John that he will be unkinged, John offers to pardon the prophet if he will deny his proclamation of doom, but Peter declines, and his veracity is supported by news of Arthur's death and the revolt of the lords. Seeing his resistance to the papacy as the prime source of his troubles, John tells Pandulph that he will submit to papal authority, even to the point of surrendering his crown to the Pope. Pandulph restores him to grace, and although Lewes and his English allies scorn the legate's curse, Dover Castle remains in English hands, and the King is able to escape toward the north. Ill and in despair, he seeks refuge in Swinstead Abbey. As he, the Bastard, and the Abbot dine in the abbey orchard, he drinks from the cup poisoned by the Monk, repents his crimes and errors, and dies, though not before the remorseful barons and his son Henry pay him homage.
King of England in Shakespeare's King John, but at the beginning of the play his right to the crown is challenged in favor of Arthur, only child of John's dead elder brother Geoffrey. After dismissing the Chatillon, John encounters the Falconbridges and discovers that the eldest is actually the bastard son of Richard I. He knights the Bastard, giving him the name of Richard Plantagenet after the Bastard rejects the name of Falconbridge. John travels to France and appears before the gates of Angers, where he meets Philip, Austria and the Dauphin, who all support Arthur. After the Citizen refuses to open the gates until the claim to the throne is settled, England and France fight an inconclusive battle. John is then swayed by the Citizen's suggestion that the Dauphin marry Blanche, despite the Bastard's disgust. Immediately after the wedding, Cardinal Pandolf arrives and chastises John for not allowing the Pope's choice of Archbishop of Canterbury to stand. John, in anachronistic language, defends the right of the monarch to have control over the church and rejects the Pope's authority, at which point he is excommunicated. First the Dauphin and then, reluctantly, Philip, turn against John and another battle breaks out. John is victorious and captures Arthur, whom he gives over to Hubert with orders for his death. He then returns to England, where he has a second coronation ceremony, despite his lords' objections. Hubert enters and declares that Arthur is dead, but when the lords turn against John for his cruelty, John wishes the deed undone. Hubert tells him Arthur is indeed alive. John then receives a prophecy that he will give up his crown on Ascension Day. This proves to be true when John submits to the Pope and gives his crown to Pandolf as a sign of that submission, then receiving it back again. The Dauphin's invasion is quelled, but John is unable to celebrate because he has been poisoned by a monk. He dies without realizing that England has won and peace reestablished.
Volatile and unreliable King of England in Davenport's King John and Matilda. He has already reneged on the promises of Magna Carta, provoking a party of nobles to rise against him, six years into the papal interdict against him for disloyalty to the Church. He is, however, preoccupied with his thwarted passion for Matilda. The king is obsessed with Matilda, in fact, to the detriment of making any political decisions intelligently. His various attempts to compromise and seduce her fail, and he is embroiled in campaigning against the rebel nobles led by Matilda's father (Fitzwater) and uncle (Bruce). He sends Oxford and Mowbray to spy on and capture the Bruces's castle. He fails, however, to seduce Matilda when she defends herself at knifepoint and flees. He follows her to her father's castle, where he denounces the disaffected lords as rebels and traitors. He never accepts their protestations that their actions are to reform, not usurp his rule. He has to decide whether to accept the Pope's offer of reconciliation, which the rebel lords oppose. John sends his Queen, Isabel, in pursuit of Matilda. He also sends Lady Bruce and her son into captivity while he negotiates with the papal legate, Pandulph. He submits to Rome and agrees to pay a massive annual tribute to the Pope. Pandulph is convinced of the king's true repentance, and so he regains his status as absolute ruler of England, with a papal blessing. This greatly strengthens his resolve to defeat his opponents. He demands Matilda from her father and threatens to imprison all his enemies in the Tower. He is delighted at the news of Matilda's capture, but he becomes equally distracted by news of her escape. He leads his party, disguised as masquers, to abduct Matilda. He captures Fitzwater and tries to persuade him that he wishes to divorce his wife and marry Matilda, and he believes he has convinced Fitzwater to support him. The Lady Abbesse defies him, however, and refuses to surrender Matilda to him, and this causes him to realize that Fitzwater's 'persuasion' of Matilda was only a successful test of her chastity. He therefore contrives to have Matilda murdered in the abbey by enlisting his Confessor, Eustace, to write a letter persuading the Abbess to admit Brand with a note in which the king relinquishes Matilda and wishes her well. His token is a poisoned glove that kills her when she kisses it. Before learning of the success of his plot, he tries unsuccessfully to enter Windsor Castle, but the rebels repulse him. His lords bring news of hostile reinforcements vastly outnumbering his army, and he is persuaded that he will loose his crown if he does not promise to uphold Magna Carta and leave Matilda in peace. Upon this advice, he rescinds the murder, but it is too late. Matilda's cortège arrives in general mourning. John professes complete repentance and acknowledges her as a martyr. His sincerity is generally accepted with relief.
A "ghost character" in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. King John is mentioned as the father of Richard and Isabella.


King John of France in Smith's The Hector of Germany. He is recruited by the Bastard and Saxon to dissuade King Edward of England's involvement in the war between the Bastard and Savoy over the throne of Germany. John agrees to support the Bastard in an attempt to mend France's pride, having been recently pummeled by the English in battle. John remembers being placed on public display by Edward. When Floramell is cast upon France's shore, John and the Queen offer to take the young woman into their care. John is instantly sized by lust and devotes himself to bedding Floramell. He offers to kill the Queen in order to make a place for Floramell. When Floramell refuses, John physically threatens her, thereby coercing a single kiss. When the Queen confronts Floramell and charges the young woman with being a whore, John regains his senses and clears Floramell's good name. When Floramell is indicted for adultery with the king; John clears her name by confessing his misdeeds. After the Palsgrave slays Saxon in a duel, John recognizes the rightfulness of Savoy's claim to the throne; therefore, John withdraws his support of the Bastard and orders him to surrender the throne to Savoy. Historically, he was known as John the Good.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Bale as the one who wrote about Christ and salvation.


John is a Scot of indeterminate rank in Greene's George a Greene. He serves as a messenger between Kendall and King James, and then is seen in James' company as a friend to the king.


Given to witty remarks in Peele's Edward I, John is the manservant to the Potter's Wife and accompanies her on the stormy night when they encounter Queen Elinor rising from the ground at Potter's Hive (which thereafter becomes Queenhith).


A priest of London in Shakespeare's Richard III. John meets Lord Hastings as Hastings is about to go to the Tower of London to discuss Prince Edward's coronation. John's profession makes Lord Hastings think of the execution of his enemies Rivers, Gray, and Vaughan that will happen later that day.

JOHN **1599

One of the three colliers (also called Porters) who help Colby steal the students’ corn in Ruggle’s Club Law. Philenius and Musonius arrest him on the warrant from Rector.


John is a foolish gentleman in Armin's The Two Maids of More–Clacke who stays in a hospital where a nurse takes care of him. He was brought up by an old woman called Ales until she passed away. Then, he was taken to the hospital where he has been fed. He talks nonsense when he plays with a Boy. He will be interrupted by the nurse in his games to tell him that they are leaving for London where they will meet Sir William and the Lady.


A "ghost character" in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. Prate and Lollia's servant who is summoned but never appears during the near-discovery of Lollia and Alphonso's assignation.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas. According to Dorothy, the son of Blanch and one of her brother. He is one of Thomas' many bastards; in what may be a direct reference to the bastard in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, she snidely describes him as "your young rear Admiral, Don John."


One of the Widow's servants in William Rowley's A Match at Midnight. He serves the suitors when they invade her house, and pretends to be 'Nicholas Nemo' when Jarvis gulls Bloodhound.


A disguise assumed by Puny to exact revenge upon Captain Blade in Cowley's The Guardian. John is the name of a manservant belonging to Captain Blade's long-lost brother. Intending to play a trick on Blade, Puny and Dogrel dress themselves up as John and the brother; they are foiled by two of Blade's servants, Ralph and William, who disguise themselves in the same way and scare them off.


A "ghost character" in Greene's George a Greene. Sir John a Barley is the husband of Jane as is gone from the castle when James arrives and tries to woo her.


John a Cumber is a Scottish magician in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. He arrives incognito with Llwellen at the house where the bridegrooms are lodged only to find the great commotion caused by the ladies' disappearance. John a Cumber informs the bereaved lords that the ladies had been betrothed to Powesse and Sir Griffin, describing how the magician John a Kent helped the lords to abduct the ladies through deceit. When the bridegrooms cry for revenge, John a Cumber reveals himself, saying he wanted a confrontation with his rival John a Kent, and he will now help them retrieve the ladies. At Gosselin's castle, John a Cumber arrives disguised as John a Kent and introduces the Masque of Four Antiques to Powesse and Sir Griffin, who think this is the wedding entertainment. Thus, the false John a Kent introduces Llwellen, Chester, Moorton, Pembroke, and himself into the castle. When the real John a Kent appears at one door, the false John a Kent appears at another, creating confusion. The false John a Kent introduces all his party as if by magic through the walls: Llwellen, Chester and his Countess, Moorton with Sydanen, Pembrooke with Marian, Oswen and Amery. John a Cumber prepares a play meant to mock John a Kent. When the play starts, John a Cumber does not know that John a Kent is now disguised as John a Cumber. In the play within the play, John a Cumber (as John a Kent) must endure all of the abuse addressed to his rival from the other characters while the real John a Kent smiles on. John a Cumber admits that John a Kent has bested him in matters of impersonation. At Chester Abbey, where the marriages of Marian/Pembrooke and Sydanen/Moorton are to take place, John a Cumber acts as the guardian to the only door into the church. He expects John a Kent to try to deceive them again and to come disguised as the Abbot. Yet, John a Cumber is tricked once more when he lets into the church Sir Griffin (disguised as Moorton) and Powesse (disguised as Pembrooke). And thus John a Cumber is twice outwitted by John a Kent.


John a Kent is an English magician in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. He engages to help Sir Griffin and Powesse retrieve their promised ladies Sydanen and Marian from the rivals Moorton and Pembrooke. Disguised as an old Hermit, John a Kent persuades the Countess to accompany Marian and Sydanen to a secret meeting in the woods. The false Hermit is supposed to lead them to a sacred spring. In fact, the false Hermit leads the ladies to an encounter with their lovers Sir Griffin and Powesse. When he secures the young ladies' approval to follow their lovers, John a Kent reveals himself, and the entire party goes to Gosselin's castle. John a Kent sends Shrimp to tell the bridegrooms and the fathers about the ladies' disappearance. At the castle, John a Kent is unaware that John a Cumber (now disguised as John a Kent) has managed to introduce the rival party into the castle in the form of a pageant. Seeing that John a Cumber has outwitted him through disguise, John a Kent sends Shrimp to spy on his rival. John a Kent is eavesdropping while John a Cumber instructs the amateur actors to perform a play in mockery of his rival. On the lawn before Gosselin's castle, John a Kent (now himself disguised as John a Cumber) arrives as if ready to perform the play and invites the lords Llwellen, Chester, Moorton, and Pembrooke to act as themselves. When John a Cumber appears disguised as John a Kent, the lords believe this is part of the performance and abuse the false John a Kent. Then, the actors enter and fire their share of invective at the false John a Kent, according to their script. Considering that his honor has been restored, John a Kent reveals himself, but accepts John a Cumber's challenge to have one more confrontation. At Chester Abbey, where the marriages of Marian to Pembrooke and of Sydanen to Moorton are to take place, John a Kent anticipates that his rival John a Cumber will guard the only gate into the church, expecting him to come disguised as the Abbot. Instead, John a Kent advises Sir Griffin to disguise as Moorton and Powesse as Pembrooke. Thus, the ladies' marriages to their lovers are effected and John a Kent outwits John a Cumber once more.


Name given to Charity by Pride in the anonymous Youth. It means peeping John.

JOHN a STILES **1636

A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Hollander. The knight of the post. Urinal mistakes that Sconce is referring to John a Stiles when he mentions a city captain, but Sconce assures him that he means another man, who is an honest gentleman.


John-a-Water is one of four servants that represent all that is left of the foolish servant / courtier by Ford's day in Ford's Perkin Warbeck. He offers some slight amusement and an opportunity for other characters to inform the audience, by informing them, what is occurring. He is relegated to an unimportant role and is cheered on by his lord, Warbeck, as he is led to the scaffold at play's end.


A country clown in Whetstone's 2 Promos and Cassandra. Rapax and Gripax arrest him for kissing his father's servant, an offense punishable by death. He fights with them and Phallax intervenes. Phallax has mercy on him and instructs him to bribe Rapax and Gripax, thus buying his freedom. Later, he wanders into the woods searching for his horse and meets Andrugio, although he does not recognize the supposed dead man. In an amusing scene of repeated miscommunication, he tells Andrugio about the King's sentence on Promos. He then heads into Julio to witness Promo's execution.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. A former mayor of London whose portrait is admired by Doctor Nowell.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


An English merchant in Heywood's The Captives who has been ruined financially and at the start of the play oversees Gripus' small fishing operation in a village outside Marseilles. After wandering outside in a severe storm, overhears Raphael complaining of his loss at the hands of Mildew. Raphael questions Ashburne regarding Mildew and the two women, and, after Ashburne reveals that he has lost a daughter and has been ruined financially, Ashburne offers to send word to Raphael if he discovers Mildew or the women. After Raphael and the Clown exit, John Asburne climbs up on some rocks with Godfrey and witnesses the ship carrying Mildew, Sarleboys, and his women wrecked in the storm. They both attempt to rescue two women (Palestra and Scribonia) they have seen swimming from the wreck towards the shore. Later, John Ashburne and Godfrey meet the Clowne, who is seeking help to rescue Palestra and Scribonia from Mildew and Sarleboys. Ashburne, recalling both his lost daughter and his promise to Raphael, agrees to help and sends the Clown to bring Raphael to them while at the same time promising to raise the villagers to assist the rescue. When Mildew and Sarleboys enter with Palestra and Scribonia as captives, he promises, with the aid of the villagers, to protect the women as if they were his own children, despite Mildew's claim that they are his property. After the arrival of Raphael and Treadway, John Ashburne agrees to shelter the women until a judge can determine what is to be done with them as well as with Mildew and Sarleboys. Later, while Mildew and Sarleboys are on trial, John Ashburne has an argument with his wife, who accuses him of keeping Palestra and Scribonia as his mistresses within their home; Ashburne counters that his actions were motivated by charity and the memory of their lost child. When his wife orders that the two women leave, he instructs Godfrey to take Palestra and Scribonia back to the monastery. The Fisherman Gripus and the Clown bring their argument over ownership of Mildew's bag to Ashburne; as they argue, Ashburne sends Godfrey to fetch Palestra and Scribonia again. After the women identify the bag as Mildew's, Palestra requests that she be given the casket in the bag containing the items which reveal her true identity. Ashburne has Palestra name everything in the casket and gradually he discovers that she is in fact Mirabel, his long lost daughter. He sends Godfrey to fetch his wife to join in the family reunion. Later, roused by the collision between Friar John's and Friar Richard's horses, he asks Godfrey to describe the occurrence. Ashburne is brought by Godfrey and Gripus to return Mildew's bag to its rightful owner. When Mildew receives the bag but refuses to pay Gripus the agreed upon sum, Ashburne orders him to pay or return to court. Ashburne then takes half of Gripus' money to buy Scribonia's freedom from Mildew. He reunites Raphael with Palestra/Mirabel and consents to their marriage, and then asks Mildew to reveal the parentage of Scribonia. As he is about to give Scribonia to Treadway in marriage, Thomas Ashburne steps forward and the brothers are reunited. John Ashburne receives a letter from his brother which informs him that his fortune has been restored and that he has inherited a small fortune. With his financial recovery, John Ashburne passes on all of the fishing equipment he owned to Gripus. He then invites Raphael, Treadway, Mirabel and Winifred to accompany him to London where he can receive them in a more luxurious manner. The departure of the Ashburne brothers, Raphael, Mirabel, Treadway, and Winifred is delayed, however, by the resolution of Friar John's murder amongst the Sherrif, the Abbot, Friar Richard, the Duke of Averne and Dennis.


John Ball is the given name of Parson Ball in the anonymous Jack Straw.


Selected by King Edward from among the nine claimants to the Scottish throne to be the next King of Scotland in Peele's Edward I. Baliol ultimately rebels and attempts to shake off the English yoke. Following his defeat at the hands of Edward's forces, Baliol pleads for mercy with such rhetorical skill that the English king spares his life while noting that he intends to keep a careful watch on the Scotsman hereafter. Late in the play, Baliol revolts a second time, and Edward marches against him.


John Baptist is the seventh and last human to plead for God's mercy in Bale's God's Promises. He offers God two lists of men, one good and one bad, and asks that God let the latter fall from his memory. God promises to do so, and tells John that he was predestined to show the coming of God's son, Christ. John protests that he is unworthy, but God insists that he is ready because he, God, has made him so. He tells John that he will know Christ because the Holy Ghost will descend in the shape of a dove when Christ comes to be baptized. John rejoices and sings praises to God.
John Baptist begins by preaching to representatives of the population in Bale's John Baptist's Preaching in the Wilderness. His preaching wins over most of the audience and, in turn, he is approached by the Common People, the Publican and the Soldier, who repent their sins and ask to be baptized, which John does. Each person then asks for guidance or precepts, and John gives each rules to obey. He is then approached by the Pharisee and the Sadducee, who question him on his teachings and his authority to preach. He condemns them in turn, the Pharisee for twisting the laws of Moses and the Sadducee for having no forgiveness and placing their emphasis on outward signs of holiness. When they argue that they are blessed because they are descended from Abraham, John rejects the idea of a special tribe, and claims that following God is all that matters, not the actual tribe. The Pharisee and Sadducee leave, and Jesus arrives to ask to be baptized. John refuses at first, saying he is unworthy, but is finally persuaded by Jesus' argument that he must be baptized to fulfill God's law. When the Heavenly Father appears and blesses Jesus, John rejoices at the coming of the Son, who will purify all of us.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. John Baptist is mentioned by Master Fright when, on his second visit to Doctor Clyster, he tells him about more episodes of fear of darkness he suffered: "Methought one night, lying in bed, I saw John Baptist's head in a platter." According to the Bible, John the Baptist was son to Elizabeth and Zachery, and second cousin to Jesus. He went to live in the desert and, there, he led the life of an anchorite. After some time, he came back to deliver his message to the world, and he was followed by men of all conditions, whom he baptized in the River Jordan to confirm their good disposition. Even Jesus approached him, to be baptized by his cousin. But John dared to accuse King Herod Antipas of public adultery–among other evil deeds. Thus, the monarch, encouraged by his niece and lover, Herodias, resolved to punish John apprehending him and sending him to prison. Herodias's daughter, Salome, danced for Herod in the course of his birthday feast, and the king, who was pleased with her danced, made her a rash promise: he would grant her whatever she asked for. Then, the girl, urged by her mother, asked for the head of John the Baptist in a dish, and, thus, he was executed.


John Bates is an English soldier in Henry's army in Shakespeare's Henry V. On the eve of the battle at Agincourt, when Henry puts on Sir Thomas Erpingham's cloak and wanders among the soldiers incognito, he speaks with Bates, Williams, and Court about his responsibilities in battle and their own. Still unrecognized, Henry quarrels with Williams about the king's promise not to be ransomed if the English lose, Williams mistrusting the vow and Henry defending it. Bates reminds them that they should be fighting the French, not each other.


John Beane, a yeoman, is servant or "man" to Master Barnes in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women. Fearful of the dangers of going by land route to London, Bean nevertheless obeys Barnes' directive walk to George Sanders' residence to ask Sanders to visit Barnes. In route Bean meets his friend, Old John, and his sweetheart, Joan, Old John's maid. Since George Sanders is at court when Bean arrives, Anne Sanders invites Bean to stay until her husband returns. When Sanders comes home, Bean insists that he and Sanders start immediately for Barnes' house but then wants to turn back when the two arrive after dark at the forbidding wood. Sanders makes them continue through the wood, where George Browne, ambushes them, killing Sanders and leaving Beam seemingly lifeless. Somehow Bean Bean survives and crawls, barely conscious, to the path where Old John and Joan discover him and carry him home. Unconscious for two days, he comes to life long enough to identify Browne as the murderer; then he dies. Because of the class consciousness and hortatory intent of this morality tale, neither judges nor populace nor even Barnes seemed much concerned that Bean and been slain or courageously held on to life. Judges and public opinion spoke only of the murder of Gentleman Sanders.


John Beaufort, the Duke of Somerset in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, is a Lancastrian supporter. Shakespeare imagines a fictitious debate in which the Yorkist and Lancastrian factions choose the symbols of their quarrel, the white and the red roses. Suffolk sides with Somerset and the Lancastrians, plucking a red rose from a nearby bush, while Warwick and Vernon choose a white rose to show their support for Richard Plantagenet's Yorkist side. Henry warns Somerset and Richard Plantagenet that their quarrel risks dividing the English when they should be united against the French.


Sir John Belfare is the father of Gratiana in James Shirley's The Wedding. He plans a large wedding with lavish feast for his daughter's wedding, and he is crushed when Beauford's accusations that Gratiana is unchaste cancel the nuptials. He becomes unstable in mind when Gratiana disappears. He wishes he could summon Ptolemy to examine the stars and discover the condition and whereabouts of his daughter. He is naturally overjoyed by the play's end to find Gratiana alive, chaste, and reconciled with her beloved Beauford.


Sir John Blunt appears on stage at the end of ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth and does not have any lines. He is a young man loyal to Henry IV/Henry V.


'John Boe Peepe' is an insulting name Master Slightall uses to addresses his former servant Geffrey when the latter offers to kick him in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Booker is mentioned by Bill Bond when he is warning Master Algebra against his "dangerous opinions": "Did you hear how Booker was punished, though but an almanac maker, for some of these tenets?" John Booker (1603-67) was an astrologer who published the first number of his almanac–the telescopium Uranium–in 1631. Three years later, in October, he was brought before the Court of the High Commission and he was ordered not to print any more almanacs without the Archbishop of Canterbury's or the Bishop of London's licence. He was even imprisoned in the Gatehouse.


A loyalist to the crown in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV, Sir John Bracy is sent by King Henry to the Boar's Head Tavern with a message requiring Prince Henry to come to court for discussion of the forthcoming Percy war.


A china merchant, formerly a barber surgeon, friend and landlord to Sir Hugh Moneylacks in Brome's The Sparagus Garden. He quarrels constantly with his wife, Rebecca: he is obsessively jealous while she is consumed by endless 'longings' for expensive commodities, and for one reason or another they have been unable to have a child after five years of marriage. He indulges her craving for asparagus, but she continues to accuse him of impotence and declares herself determined to take a lover. He lends his house to Sir Hugh's efforts to make money by 'civilizing' Timothy Hoyden, but on hearing the report that his wife has escaped to the Strand in a Sedan Chair he runs off in pursuit of her. When he finally finds her in respectable circumstances at Annabel's wedding, he realizes the foolishness of his jealousy and is reunited with his wife.


Brocket had hoped to be the first to bring Elizabeth the news of her succession in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. He is Captain of Queen Elizabeth's Guards.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Calvin is mentioned by Master Bead when he is revealing his Roman-Catholic religious scruples to Silence: "Sir, that lodging where the pictures of Luther and Calvin hang did so much trouble me that I was once in mind to have broken them, for I doubt that for the sin of us Romans, suffering those heretic pictures, we were after punished by the fall of Blackfriars House." John Calvin (1509-1564) was a lawyer, but he soon became saturated with the ideas of Northern Renaissance Humanism. He devoted himself to reform the church and got his chance to build a reformed one in Geneva, in the 1520s, when its citizens revolted against their rulers.


A tile-maker in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub. He is chosen by her parents as Audrey Turfe's husband solely on the basis of her drawing his name as her Valentine. This was engineered by Clay's sponsors, the "Counsel of Finbury," Clench, Medlay, To-Pan, and Scriben. Just before the wedding, Basket Hilts falsely accuses Clay of robbing the pseudonymous "Captain Thumb," and has Clay arrested. Squire Turfe and his Constables, however, believe Clay's protestations of innocence. Clay disappears while Turfe is retrieving Audrey from Justice Preamble, and his absence makes Turfe suspect he really is guilty of the crime, especially when Canon Hugh, disguised as "Captain Thumb," accuses Turfe of allowing Clay to escape. He hides in a barn and is not discovered for some time, until Hannibal Puppy finds him and mistakes him for the Devil. After learning that, although his bride has been married to another man, Tobie Turfe expects him to pay back the 100 pounds he sent to "Captain Thumb" for restitution, he spends the wedding dinner at Squire Tub's weeping.


A poor shoemaker in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V, neighbor to Lawrence Costermonger and Robin Pewterer. He is impressed by the English captain and joins Henry V's military campaign in France. During the war, both he and Derrick constantly try to escape the battlefield, rob the shoes of the dead French soldiers, and eventually return to England disguised as members of the Duke of York's funeral procession.


John Copland is an English soldier in the anonymous King Edward III who captures the Scots king David in a battle. He refuses to turn over his prisoner to Edward's regent, Queen Phillipa, thereby insulting her. She travels with him and David to France, and John turns David over to Edward directly. Edward rewards him for his loyalty by knighting him.


Master John Correction, the schoolmaster, is married to Mistress Correction, a midwife and bawd in Sharpham's Cupid's Whirligig. Correction leads four of his unruly pupils in their lessons, then agrees to Wages's request to perform the marriages of the four mismatched couples. When Correction's wife decides she wants Wages for her new husband, she claims Correction has several other wives, but Lord Nonsuch refuses to believe her and restores her to Master Correction.


Only mentioned in Marmion's A Fine Companion. Lackwit has done some historical research on the Lackwit name and found it equal in status to the name of John Daw.


A "ghost character" in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling. The deceased father of Alsemero, a former acquaintance of Vermandero.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. John de la Car, or John Car, is the Duke of Buckingham's chaplain, arrested on the same warrant with Buckingham but also testifying against him.

JOHN de MAZO **1604

Bishop of Paris, alternately called Lord of Paris in Rowley’s When You See Me. He has promised to help Wolsey to the papacy in return for his help with Henry.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. When Drugger pays Subtle to find a suitable name for his tobacco firm, the bogus alchemist creates an anagram that incorporates the name Dee. Dr. John Dee was a reputed astrologer and mathematician, who died in 1608.


Never appearing on stage, John Doit is mentioned as a Staffordshire crony of Shallow from the justice's law education days in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.

JOHN, DON **1598

Don John is Don Pedro's illegitimate half-brother in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, sometimes called the Bastard. A man of few words, he is a malcontent, orchestrating the rift between Claudio and Hero out of sheer malice. He flees Messina after ruining the couple's wedding. Afterward, a messenger announces that Don John has been apprehended. In the final lines of the play, Benedick defers Don John's punishment until after the double wedding festivities, when he vows to devise a suitable punishment.

JOHN, DON**1610

A name of convenience in Jonson's The Alchemist. Surly appears as a Spaniard, complete with ruff and hat, and Face and Subtle call him ironically Don John or Don Diego. Face reports to Subtle that Surly did not come to the appointment at Temple church, but he met a Spaniard instead, who looked like a person easily to be duped. The Spanish nobleman is Surly's impersonation when he intends to trap Face and Subtle.

JOHN, DON **1611

Prince of Spain and brother to the king in Dekker’s Match Me in London. He aims at his brother’s throne and has closed with Portugal to help him. First, though, he must gain Valesco’s approval and then the Spanish people’s. Unable to win Valesco to his side, he bribes the doctor to poison the old man. After pretending that they have both been poisoned with grapes, he has the doctor administer a fatal draught and kill Valasco. When brought to the king on charges of killing the old man, he claims Valasco is the traitor but is confined to his chamber. The king discovers that the prince conspired with Portugal against him and sends Valasco to oversee the prince’s execution. Asked to choose his manner of death, Prince John chooses the halberd, which Valasco says is the hardest of all. He appears at play’s end, miraculously unexecuted, and swears love and loyalty to his redeemed brother the king.

JOHN, DON**1623

Don John is the son of Francisco de Carcomo and a suitor to Pretiosa (Constanza) in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy. She consents to marry him on the condition that he becomes a gypsy for two years. He agrees to the proposition, posing as a gypsy named Andrew. Don John rejects the advances of Cardochia, who gives him a jewel and then accuses him of stealing it. At Cardochia's request, Diego challenges Don John, who, in turn, wounds him. Don John is arrested for theft and condemned to death but later acquitted.

JOHN, DON**1625

Don John is a Spaniard studying in Bologna with his friend, Don Frederic in Fletcher's The Chances. Although he pretends to lead a very healthy lifestyle, evidence emerges that he is in fact a frequent client of prostitutes. He and Frederic have just sworn off their search for Constantia, a woman whose beauty and virtue are renowned but who cannot be found. At night, John sees a lit house standing open and worries that something might be wrong; when he goes to investigate, a Woman mistakes him for a Signior Fabritio, gives him a bundle (which he hopes is full of jewels) and departs suddenly. As John soon discovers, the bundle is not treasure but a baby boy, which he takes to Gillian and begs her to foster. While searching for Frederic, he finds the Duke beset by Petruccio, Antonio, and the Duke's two gentlemen and defends the Duke. They return to their lodgings, where Petruccio arrives looking for John because he has letters of recommendation from a mutual friend. After hearing Petruccio's story, John agrees to deliver a challenge from Petruccio to the Duke. John also discovers that the woman is in fact Constantia, the woman for whom they had been searching, although it appears that her honor is not as great as reported. John goes, accompanied by Frederic and Petruccio, to deliver Petruccio's challenge to the Duke. He accuses the Duke of a breach of honor in regard to Constantia, but when the Duke denies the dishonor, explaining that he was secretly contracted in marriage to her, John reconciles the Duke with Petruccio. He and Frederic overhear Francisco accusing Constantia of being false and fleeing with a stranger; John and Francisco accuse each other of being the seducer. Frederic finally realizes that the way to test this is to go to their lodgings and see if she is in fact gone. As she and Gillian are both gone, John and Frederic are worried that the Duke and Petruccio will think that they were dishonorable and determine to investigate Peter's report that he saw their landlady at a different house. There, they see the Bawd and Second Constantia but believe that they are seeing Gillian and Constantia drinking wine, performing music, and pledging themselves to pleasure. They also see Francisco, Constantia's lute teacher. John and Petruccio bring down Second Constantia, Bawd, and Francisco, at which point John and Frederic have to apologize to the Duke for appearing to mock him by bringing him to this house; the Duke gives them until the next day to produce the real Constantia and prove their honesty. John accompanies Frederic to Peter Vecchio's house as a supposed conjurer who could find Constantia for them, despite John's skepticism. They, with the Duke and Petruccio, watch the "summoning." Don John volunteers to appear as a diabolical spirit in a "summoning" for Antonio. In this role he says that he is the one who wounded Antonio and is hit before Petruccio and the Duke can stop Antonio.

JOHN, DON**1626

A Spanish colonel in the anonymous Dick of Devonshire. He is defeated by Pike in single combat in the second phase of the battle, but rescued by a party of Spanish soldiers, and treacherously wounds the disarmed Pike in the face to avenge his defeat. Further infuriated by the respect shown to Pike by his wife, Catelina, he looks to Pike's trial as his means to achieve full revenge.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Doctor Donne is mentioned by Sir Cupid Phantsy when, considering the words Doctor Clyster is using in order to cure him are cruel, the former describes, in verse, how hard the latter is: "... and in our similes dawn Doctor Donne." John Donne (1572-1631), the most outstanding of the English Metaphysical Poets, was a churchman famous for his hard and threatening sermons. His poems, impregnated with wit ingeniously mixed with seriousness, mark a transition from classical models towards a more personal style.

JOHN DORY **1607

Only mentioned in Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. A character from a ballad that Humphrey mentions upon Jasper stealing Luce and beating him.


A supporter of Richard III in Shakespeare's Richard III. Norfolk is the captain of the watch the night before the Battle of Bosworth; during the night, a message is left on his tent warning him that Richmond has bought off part of Richard's army. Along with Surrey, Norfolk leads the first wave of Richard's soldiers during the battle and is killed.


An alternate name used for Prince John in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. There appears to be no pattern as to which characters use the name, or when.


John, Earl of Lancaster is Henry IV's second son in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth; however, he is a senior member of Counsel at the beginning of the play due to his older brother Hal's delinquency. John first comes onto the stage to inform his father of Hotspur's battle in the North versus Douglas' Scottish forces. Lancaster fights bravely at Shrewsbury. Hal is markedly impressed by his younger brother's mettle. After Shrewsbury, John puts down a revolt by Bishop Scroop and Hastings.


John, Earl of Lincoln is named Richard III's legal heir in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III even before the murder of the princes in the Tower of London.


The Duke of Saxony in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids. He invites Julia and Dorigene to court after taking a fancy to the two women disguised as milkmaids. When he believes that his wife and Dorilus are having an affair due to false information disseminated by Raymond, Dorilus is imprisoned and Dorigene and her family are bainished from the court. Dorigene is subsequently tried, at the Duke's behest, by Raymond but is interrupted by a disguised Dorilus who explains the true facts of the proceeding, advocates mercy, and procures the Duke's pardon for Dorigene. The duke, at Raymond's behest, pleads forgiveness of Dorigene and, in turn, exiles Raymond for his deceit. The duke hosts a masque at the play's conclusion to celebrate the reconciliation with his wife.


One of Camelia's courters in Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment. Foolish and self-indulgent, Ellis is given to speaking in ridiculous similes in the belief that they make him sound weighty and important. Instead, he sounds like a self-righteous fool. He bribes Camelia's maid, Winifrede to plead his case with Camelia. When the very fickle Camelia responds, he presses his advantage in front of Brabant Junior but is then too cowardly to fight his rival–this does not go unnoticed by Camelia although she continues to believe that she will marry him. Once Winifrede convinces Camelia that she deserves a better man than John Ellis, Camelia quickly drops him. She calls him an idiot and laughs at him in front of Planet and her father. Sir Edward offers Ellis some "sack and sugar" to comfort him. Ellis enters the last scene with Sir Edward and drinks to the health of the family.


Sir John Falstaff is blamed for Talbot's capture early in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI. According to a messenger, Talbot would have vanquished the French but for Falstaff's cowardliness. Later, Falstaff is caught deserting Talbot's forces at Rouen. At Henry's coronation, Talbot tears Falstaff's garter from him because Falstaff does not merit the knighthood that the garter symbolizes. After listening to Talbot's report, Henry retracts the knighthood and banishes Falstaff. [Note: this is not the same Falstaff who appears in Henry IV. He was presumably inspired, at least in name, by the historical Sir John Fastolfe.]
Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Master Changeable mentions Sir John Falstaffe when he is urging Treatwell to speak before his wife, his daughter and Master Slightall. On his wife's claim that the message Treatwell has to deliver comes from a great man, Master Changeable says: "Came it from on[e] of the Guard, from Sir John Falstaffe." Sir John Falstaffe was an experienced knight of great renown, who participated in the Battle of Agincourt (October 25, 1415). He is the origin of Shakespeare's Falstaffe in the Henry IV plays, is mentioned in Henry V and appears again in The Merry Wives of Windsor.


Also known as Jack, Falstaff is a lovable reprobate who frequents the bars and bawds of London, providing a poor role model for Prince Hal, who often companions Falstaff in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. Falstaff shows little respect for royalty; to him, Prince Hal is just another drinking companion who happens to have the advantage of one day being able perhaps to pass preferment along to Falstaff. There is no reverence whatsoever in Falstaff's charade with Hal; Sir John depicts King Henry as mean and graceless, and he does not quite realize how close to the truth Hal touches when the roles are reversed and Hal provides a foreshadowing of how he will behave when he is sovereign himself. Much given to food and drink, Falstaff is a "tun" of a man. He arrives at Shrewsbury without a sword, having sold it to buy sack. He comes into unhappy contact with the Douglas in battle and falls. When Hal finds his fat comrade lying on the battlefield, he delivers a moving eulogy in which he claims that he could have better spared a better man. It is all a ruse of Falstaff's however, who has played dead to avoid injury or capture. He rises and claims (falsely) to have killed Hotspur. In a play whose theme is honor, Falstaff is honor's antithesis.
Continually in debt and forever promising marriage to Mistress Quickly, in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV Sir John continues the type of lovable yet rascally capers we saw of him in 1 Henry IV. When given a captain's commission to impress an army (of foot, a joke on the old fat knight), Falstaff uses his power to extort money from men who do not wish to fight. Later, in a part of Gaultree Forest, Falstaff "captures" the rebel Colevile, bragging loudly of his exploit even though Colevile surrendered merely out of courtesy. Falstaff urges the newly arrived Prince John to shower him with fame and recognition for taking Colevile; the Prince, however, primarily notes Falstaff's habitual tardiness. Falstaff makes the mistake of assuming Prince Hal will offer preferment based upon their long acquaintance. His overly familiar greeting to Hal after the coronation is ignored, and King Henry V insists no advancement will come to Falstaff without major character reform. At play's end he is banished from the king's presence and ordered not to come within ten miles of Henry V.
Falstaff is a fat, cowardly knight in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. He devises a plan to obtain money from the Page and Ford families by wooing the Mistresses of each house. His discharging of Bardolph causes ill will between him and Pistol and Nym, starting their revenge. When he then fires Pistol and Nym for not carrying his letters to Mistresses Ford and Page, they reveal his plans to the husbands. The discovery of his plan by the Mistresses starts another revenge. Each time he is nearly discovered, the fat knight is either hidden in laundry baskets (only to be dumped into the Thames) or else disguised as Mother Prat, who is persona non grata at the Ford home, and beaten in that disguise. At last he is tricked into Windsor Park, at Herne's Oak, ridiculously disguised as Herne (complete with buck's head and antlers). There he is set upon by a "satyr" (Evans) and "fairies" (William and Anne Page with children), who pinch him mercilessly.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry V. Falstaff was a major figure in the Henry IV plays, where he was Henry's constant companion, but he does not appear in Henry V. His death is described by Nell Quickly, who suggests that Henry's rejection has killed Falstaff.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Sir John Falstaff is a character in Shakespeare's Henry IV, Parts 1 and 2, Henry V, and The Merry Wives of Windsor. When Macilente has the final speech, he empowers the audience with the ultimate critical judgment. If they like the play and applaud, they can turn the lean and envious Macilente into a person as fat as Sir John Falstaff.
Sir John Falstaff is an old fat cowardly witty knight in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. He is Hal's drinking companion and the target of Hal's pranks. Sir John is Shakespeare's greatest comic character and Dering preserves most of his lines verbatim. In the play, Falstaff has no discernable income other than Hal's purse. He has no discernable skills other than drinking, eating and talking. From his conversations with Hal, it is apparent that Falstaff hopes to secure a lifelong patron when Henry V ascends the throne. In a hysterical scene, Falstaff is gulled by Poins and Hal into taking part in a highway robbery at Gads Hill. Falstaff, Peto and Bardolf first rob the carriers and are then immediately robbed in turn by a disguised Poins and Hal. Unlike in Shakespeare's play, Dering has both actions executed off stage. Falstaff returns to the tavern and claims to have fought off a hundred men and killed a dozen before losing the booty. When Poins and Hal reveal the fact that they rob Falstaff, Sir John brilliantly counters that he knew instinctively not to kill the heir apparent. When the sheriff arrives at the inn to arrest Falstaff, Hal allows John to hide while he, the prince, gets rid of the officers. When Hal goes to tell Falstaff the coast is clear, he finds Falstaff fast asleep. Poins and Hal go through John's pockets and find nothing except a number of unpaid grocery bills. Falstaff awakens, finds his pockets bare, and accuses the Hostess of allowing him to be pickpockets of cash and jewelry. Again, Hal confronts Falstaff with his lie. In the funniest and most politically profound scene in the comic subplot, Falstaff and Hall take turn impersonating Henry IV in a mock interrogation of the delinquent prince. When Falstaff is the king, he dismisses all of Hal's comrades save for a virtuous knight named Sir John. Even more remarkable is Falstaff's turn as Hal, when he mounts an active defense of his lifestyle. If the king banishes Falstaff, Sir John as Hal concludes, he will, in effect, banish the world. When Hal learns that the Percies are in revolt, he commissions Falstaff to raise a company and report to the battlefield. Falstaff abuses the authority by conscripting a number of wealthy young men eager to buy their way out of service. He then drafts a number of inferior troops that he does not need to pay well. Falstaff then pockets the difference in pay along with the bribes he received. Falstaff does lead his troops to battle, but he does not fight. Instead, he hides for the majority of the conflict. When Hal approaches Falstaff and asks to borrow John's sword, he finds that a skin of wine rests where the blade should. When Hal duels Hotspur, Falstaff plays dead. After Hal kills Percy and wanders off, Falstaff gets up, stabs Percy and claims that he, not Hal, killed Hotspur. When Hal becomes Henry V, Falstaff visits Henry, no doubt expecting a windfall payment from his drinking companion. Instead, Hal, now Henry, tells Falstaff that he does not know the old man. Falstaff is banished from the court until Henry degenerates or Falstaff repents.


The Bishop of Rochester in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More, Doctor John Fisher is a friend of More's, and like him, unwilling to submit to Henry VIII's claim to be the head of the Church of England. Arrested by Sir Thomas Palmer, Fisher is imprisoned in the Tower of London, where the Earls of Surrey and Shrewsbury visit him in an unsuccessful attempt to convince him to sign the articles of submission. More is informed of Fisher's execution shortly before his own.


Only mentioned in Wild’s The Benefice. Invention reads some praise for Beaumont and Fletcher (‘the Muses’ twins’) but Furor Poeticus finds fault in his works (‘a couple of cowards . . . one find rhyme, and another reason’) and calls for an imaginary Jailor to take them away.

JOHN fo de King, MONSIEUR**1600

Called "a goatish Frenchman," by Drum in Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment; he has an overly-French accent when he speaks English–he is a great fool and has been "burnt" by love more than once. Mamon hires him to kill Pasquil; he tells Pasquil that he won't kill him, but he will keep Mamon's blood-money. Pasquil asks him to tell Mamon that he has done the deed and that Pasquil is dead. The Frenchman agrees. After a bawdy scene with Tweedle, Drum, and Winifred, he agrees to come back later that night and get Winifred who tells him she will be in a great sack. Later Tweedle gives him the sack that is supposed to contain Winifrede–but it is only Jack Drum. She has fooled both fo de King and Jack Drum. His disappointment is further taken advantage of by Brabant Signior, who promises him a woman, but will get him only Mistress Brabant–a woman who, Brabant believes, will not please fo de King. But Signior Brabant has made an error of judgment–and fo de King sleeps with Mistress Brabant and praises her lusty sexuality to her husband at dinner that night.


This wild young scamp's primary goal in Shirley's The Witty Fair One is to bed Penelope. He urges his suit to her unsuccessfully, eventually feigning illness in hope of gaining her sympathy. His plan backfires when she accepts his indecent proposal, only to trick him into agreeing to bed the chambermaid before being allowed access to Penelope. Fowler's friends join with Penelope in pretending that Fowler is dead. The wild gent witnesses his own funeral, and when he promises to be virtuous, Penelope and friends again recognize Fowler as living and now worthy of Penelope's love.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Foxe is mentioned by Narrowit, when he is explaining to Master Silence wherein his faith was shaken. He states: "in not believing all the stories in our beloved Foxe his Book of Martyrs." Later his also mentioned by Master Silence when he is giving Master Fright a cure for his fear: "then, to blow him up (your subtle enemy, the devil) do but take Foxe's Martyrs and read him over once a quarter and believe him, and I will warrant you the cure will be perfect." John Foxe (1516-1587), educated at Magdalen School and College (Oxford), became an extreme Reformer early in life. Thus, he had to flee to Germany when Mary reached the throne. When he returned to England in 1539, he devoted to his martyrology and published his Acts and Monuments or The Book of Martyrs round 1554. He also wrote sermons and translations and, despite his kind and charitable temper, he addressed harsh controversial attacks on Catholicism.


John is the king of France in the anonymous King Edward III. John demands that Edward III do homage to him for the Guienne dukedom. When Edward invades, John is at first convinced that the French navy will prevent the English army from ever landing, and he is devastated when told that his navy has been routed. After losses of several cities, he arrives outside of Crécy to offer Edward cash and jewels to withdraw, appearing to believe that the English are only after treasure. After losing Crécy, he attacks Prince Edward at Poitiers with a vastly superior army. At first the battle goes his way, and the Earl of Salisbury is captured with forty other English knights. John wants to hang Salisbury, but is persuaded otherwise by Prince Charles, who has provided the Earl with a safe-conduct. John and Prince Philip are eventually captured by Prince Edward and brought to Edward. Edward declares that he will take John back to England to await ransom, thus fulfilling the third part of a prophecy given to Prince Charles, that John would advance as far into England as his foe does into France.

JOHN, FRIAR **1595

He is sent in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet to inform Romeo of the plan to make Juliet appear dead; Friar John is detained in a plague house and is unable to deliver the crucial message.


Has an ongoing dislike of Friar Richard in Heywood's The Captives and also is in love with the Lady of Averne, the young wife of his order's patron, the Duke of Averne. Outwardly accepts the Abbot's order to stop his fighting with Friar Richard, but keeps the fight going in his asides. Secretly agrees to meet with Friar Richard in the orchard after evensong to settle their differences. Cynically answers Palestra's and Scribonia's questions about charity when they arrive outside the monastery walls after the shipwreck by imitating an echo. Joined by Friar Richard who was awakened by the voices outside the gate; they discuss their fight in the orchard the previous evening. After the Abbot arranges for shelter for the women and they exit, the Duke of Averne, his wife, and Dennis pass by on their way to matins: John pays special attention to Lady Averne and she returns his compliment. In soliloquy, John plans to write a love note to Lady Averne, reasoning that her favor towards him can only mean love on her part. He secretly delivers his note to her by means of her Maid, and later receives the reply to his note composed by the Duke of Averne but written by Lady Averne instructing him to visit her in her chamber that evening. He arrives and is met by the Maid, who leaves him to fetch a light. As he waits for her return, he is strangled by the Duke, assisted by Dennis, who had hidden themselves waiting for his arrival. The Duke orders Dennis to put Friar John's body in the monastery grounds in order to throw suspicion for the murder on Friar Richard. After Dennis does this, Friar Richard encounters the body but, unaware that John is dead, he strikes the body and assumes that he has killed Friar John. He carries Friar John's body back to the Duke of Averne's residence and leaves it on the porch. Dennis and the Duke of Averne discover Friar John's body and are shocked at its mysterious return; the Duke resolves to dress the body in a suit of armor, tie it on a horse, and turn it out of the gates. Once the Friar's armed corpse has been turned loose, the horse begins to pursue the horse of Friar Richard: they collide and Friar Richard confesses to murdering Friar John.


Also called Frier Jacke in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Fryer John is another cloistered friar. He has been visiting the weak and sick with Fryer Bernard, and it has become too late to go to the cloister, and he realizes they will not have time to get there before the gates are shut. Thus, he decides they should knock on one door, that of a house whose host and hostess he knows. They knock, but the lady is reluctant to let them in, explaining that her husband is absent. Finally, upon their insistence, she lets them sleep in the garret–though, in order to avoid suspicion, she will lock them and keep the key. They agree to it. But he cannot sleep because his friend is snoring. And it is by keeping awake that he finds out that the hostess is being unfaithful to her husband with the Constable. But the host soon arrives, and Fryer John is then released from his 'imprisonment' in the garret by him, who is glad to see the friars. Then, in order to recompense his friend and punish his unfaithful wife, Fryer John–aware of the fact that his friend is hungry, and that he thinks there is no food in his house, and having seen the banquet the Constable has brought for his wife, which, on the Husband's unexpected arrival, was hidden in the cupboard–tells the Host he can conjure a spirit that will offer them a banquet. When the Host sees all the food, he is really glad and amazed. Later, the friar tells his friend he can make the spirit appear in the shape of a Constable, for him to kick the spirit out of his house immediately. The Host agrees to it, and he actually kicks the Constable out, in the belief that he was a spirit. Thus the friar made his friend eat the Constable's food and kick his wife's lover out. Later, due to his reputation for having made the Host kick a spirit out of his house, he is called to exorcise the spirit haunting the chamber at the Changeables. But when he finds out that he will have to exorcise a she-devil, he goes away, leaving them stranded. At the end of the play, Fryer Bernard and Fyer John are going to marry Slightall and Anne.


Sir John is a moneylender, and elder brother to Luke in Massinger's The City Madam. He is married to Lady Frugal, and is father to Anne and Mary. Sir John also paid to have Luke freed from debtors prison. Sir John is a strict creditor but does show mercy and compassion when Luke asks him for leniency to Fortune, Penury and Hoist. He is upset by his daughters' arrogant, demanding behavior. Sir John leaves a letter stating that he has joined a monastery, making Luke the sole inheritor of his estate. He returns later in the play, along with the spurned suitors Lacy and Plenty, disguised as Indians. While disguised as an Indian, Sir John convinces Luke to participate in devil worship, and suggests that Lady Frugal, Anne and Mary to be sent to Virginia, the former to marry the devil, the two latter to be human sacrifices. Luke agrees. Sir John reveals himself to Holdfast, and orders Holdfast to summon actors dressed as Cerberus and of Charon (he calls them pictures, but the stage direction has them entering), and place them at either sides of the house. He also employs a chorus, which plays sad music. Pretending to be an Indian demon-worshipper, he raises the spirits of all of Luke's victims, and watches his brother for signs of pity. Luke remains unmoved. Sir John reveals his real identity, and reestablishes his control over the household. Luke is banished to Virginia.


A "ghost character" in Massinger's The Bashful Lover. John Galas is the Duke of Milan. Upon his death, Hortensio takes the crown. John Galas does not appear in the play, except by announcement of his sudden demise.


Mistresse Indulgence Gingle's son and "a disciple of Captaine Complements" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Philoponus claims near the play's beginning that he does not envy the "spruce gallant Gingle, that now forsooth scornes to be our schoole-fellow any longer." Novice claims that "master Gingle" is his "forme-fellow" and Ludio mourns the loss of a playfellow in Gingle since "hee's growne so proud" and tells the gamester that "hee's not for boyes play now." His mother helps to ready him for his lesson with Complement and expresses her love for her son, sends the Captaine extra money for his "favour" by Gingle, and has instructed her son to "obey him, and follow his instructions." He praises his mother and implores her to refer to him as "Master John, or Master Gingle my sonne" so that "Others will do [him] the more honour." He claims to like the Captaine better than Museus and reminds his mother that he is the "heire apparent" to "a man of great worth, and lands." Gingle also reminds his mother that she is Complement's "suiter to Apollo [. . .] that he may continue his schoole of fine feats." He receives a lengthy lesson from Complement on what to do if he finds "a Lady weeping and mournfull, for that her Monkey is sicke of the mumps" during which time Implement "rides upon Gingles backe" as they imitate Apes, and he is chided by his Tutor for wearing a knife. Gingle is sent as the "Remembrancer" to his mother, and claims that if she does not "protect" the Captain then "she is no mother for [him]." He later receives a lesson on the art of shrugging from the Captaine, which is borne out of a dispute over money and the number of months in the year, until it is "high time" for them to "appeare" before "the Session" of Apollo. Indulgence and her son ride in their Coach to "the Session" while Complement and Implement "march up the hill on foot." Although Indulgence's suit on Complement's behalf fails, Ludio informs Thuriger that "Yong Gingle in his triall stood much upon his gentry, and carried himselfe like a fine dancing Courtier." Gingle is not present at the sentencing of disobedient characters at the play's end and Drudo informs the crowd that, after her appearance in Court, Indulgence "scowred away in her Coach with her sonne, and said she would dwell no longer in Thessaly, if her sones best instructor be not suffered here." However, "as she fled, her Coach overturned." After Preco calls the boy's name as "John Gingle, Gentleman Woo'd-be," Museus pronounces his sentence from Apollo - "Apollo pronounceth that his lot must be, before he be forty yeeres old, to spend all his five Mannors upon the five Sences: Except the Mansion house of Foolingham, which is intailed to the heires of his body woefully begotten."


A country pedlar and customer of Hobson in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. Also called Tawniecoat and Rowland. Accidentally leaving Hobson's shop without paying and returning to pay later, he is angered when the apprentices will not take his money since they are not able to find his correct name in their account books. Eventually the matter is sorted and Hobson befriends him. Later, fallen into poverty, he is assisted by Hobson.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. When several petitioners make their cases to Margaret and Suffolk, one man complains that John Goodman, Cardinal Beaufort's man, has appropriated his house, lands, and wife.


Only mentioned in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus. One of the poets Ingenio is to imitate in writing the poem for Gullio is John Gower—the only one for whom no sample of the imitation is provided.


Sir John Graham is a friend of Wallace and the father of Peggie in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot. He goes to the English commissioners for justice when Young Selby abducts Peggie, but they spurn him. He then spreads rumors that the Scottish rebels have disbanded in order to slow the English troops, and he delivers Wallace, bound to the English commissioners, apparently in exchange for Peggie's life. But later he is able to reunite Peggie with Wallace.


John Gray is the late first husband of King Edward's queen in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV.


Nephew of Gresham in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. Gresham doubts the morality of his nephew's behavior, but John defends his actions with scripture. Later he runs off with a large sum of his uncle's money and lives extravagantly in France. When his money has run out, he returns and seeks the hand of the recently widowed Lady Ramsey. His suit is rejected, but she helps him with his debts nevertheless.


Sir John is a landed gentleman of Yorkshire and father to Clare, the trothplight wife of William Scarborrow in Wilkins's The Miseries of Enforced Marriage. He is understandably distraught by Clare's suicide caused by William's seeming duplicity at marrying Katherine when he is bound to Clare.


John is a younger brother of Philip Harding in Heywood and Rowley's Fortune by Land and Sea. He and Will Harding(q.v.) are delighted when their father plans to disinherit Philip in favour of them. When Old Harding forces Philip and his wife into servitude, Will and John take pleasure in humiliating them. But they are horrified when Old Harding dies before he can change the will, and Philip inherits the estate. Philip generously gives a large portion to Will and John, but they spend it all on drink and gambling, and are reduced to poverty.


A "ghost character" in Quarles' The Virgin Widow. Pertenax has a bond from him.


A poor knight in Sharpham's The Fleire. He falls in love with Felecia who insists that he and Piso murder Ruffel and Sparke. He agrees and plots with Piso to poison the two men. Although Felecia testifies against him, he forgives her and promises to marry her before their executions, after she is implicated and repents. When Sparke and Ruffel are shown to be alive, he is happily united with Felecia.


John Hobs is a tanner of Tamworth and the father of Nell in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV. He mistakes the Queen for a "Mistress Ferris."


John Holland, Dick the butcher, Smith the weaver, a sawyer, and Michael are all followers of the rebel Jack Cade in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Stiff praises him and Thomas Sternhold for joining the Psalms to the Book of Common Prayer in "David's time." So beautiful is the meter that Stiff can sleep by it "as well as any in the parish."


The country disguise assumed by Arnold at Quicksands' feast in Brome's The English Moor. A fictional brother of the guardian with whom Quicksands placed his idiot bastard.


A priest in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. At Eleanor's behest, the duplicitous priest Hume arranges a séance in which Roger Bolingbrook, the priests Hume and Southwell, and the witch Margery Jourdain conjure a spirit who will ostensibly help Eleanor to become queen. Hume is secretly working for Cardinal Beaufort and Suffolk, who plan to use Eleanor to discredit her husband, the Duke of Gloucester. With Hume's collusion the séance is interrupted and the participants arrested. King Henry condemns the three men to the gallows, Margery Jourdain to Smithfield where she will be burnt as a witch, and Eleanor to the Isle of Man where she will live in exile after a public humiliation.


Along with John Sholar, John Irische is one of three men who Shrewd Wit and Ill-Will claim will bear witness for them when they are finally caught and confronted by Good Remedy in the anonymous An Interlude of Wealth and Health.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. John Knox was the Scots' religious leader. When Mistress Littlewit calls her husband a fool-John, Quarlous takes the allusion to refer to the Puritans' excessive religious zeal. Quarlous launches in a long speech about the sexual unattractiveness of the widows Winwife pursues. These widows lead a religious life full of deprivation. At one point, Quarlous describes the life of the Puritans, who listen to arid sermons on the issue of predestination, while their strict wives moderate the discussion with a cup of wine and a sentence out of Knox. These wives provide the pool of rich widows available for Winwife's selection.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Pater, Filius et Uxor. Sir John Kose does not physically appear in the extant text of this interlude. He is only mentioned by Uxor, and we infer he may be one of her probable lovers.


When the Usurer in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England confiscates all of Thrasibulus's land, Alcon jokingly refers to the youth as having been newly dubbed Sir John Lackland.


Only mentioned as an epithet in Jonson's The Alchemist. When Face announces Subtle that he has procured other potential customers for his alchemical tricks, Subtle tells him he will come right away, only to dispatch the two little John Leydens. Subtle refers to Tribulation and Ananias, who are in another room inspecting the goods they have purchased for their Anabaptist Brethren. John Brockholdt or John of Leyden was the leader of the Anabaptists.


John Lincoln, a broker by trade, is one of the leaders of the May Day uprising against foreigners in 1517 in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. It is he who convinces the Bettses (George and Ralph), Doll Williamson, and the others who have suffered abuse to rouse the commons of London by having Doctor Beale read a list of charges during the Easter week sermons. When the riots begin, Lincoln assumes command of the insurgents and urges them against the hated foreigners. When More, whom he respects, arrives to address the crowd in his capacity as Sheriff of London, Lincoln helps still the mob, and when More convinces them to lay down their arms and submit to the king, Lincoln agrees to the recommendation, provided More will attempt to procure pardons for them. Condemned along with the other ringleaders, Lincoln patiently submits to the law, and climbing the scaffold accepts his fate as just, forgives all who have played a part in his undoing, and is hanged only moments before the Earl of Surrey arrives with the pardons More has procured from the king.


A "ghost character" in Greene's George a Greene. Scarlet describes himself as second only to Little John among Robin's followers. When Robin orders Scarlet and Much to find bats (staffs) to take with them to seek out George a Greene, Much says he will take Little John's.
Little John is Robin's servant and best friend in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. He is with Robin when the latter discovers he has been banished, and helps him plan his escape, counseling him to restrain his grief lest he upset Marian. Little John attempts to remove Robin's goods, claiming that they are his own while Warman and the Sheriff insist that they be allowed to inspect the box containing them. Little John fights with the Watch and knocks them down, but before anything else can happen, Prince John arrives and allows Little John to go free. Little John then helps Robin rescue Scarlet and Scathlock. After Robin decides to become an outlaw, Little John announces a list of articles they should follow. When Doncaster arrives to arrest them, Little John helps Robin fight him off, and later is with Robin when Ely enters the forest and is discovered. Little John meets with Richard, who is searching for Robin, and when he recognizes Little John, he rewards him immediately with a hundred marks a year and the title of squire. Little John is "played" by Eltham, who breaks character twice during the play, first to complain to Skelton/Friar Tuck about his tendency to fall into Skeltonian rhyme and second to complain that the play contains none of the traditional merry jests or songs associated with Robin Hood. (See also "ELTHAM").
Little John is the servant and close friend of Robin Hood in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. He is hunting with Robin and King Richard and is sent by Richard to seek Scarlet and Tuck so they may help track a deer Richard has been unable to kill. He is not present for Robin's death, but presumably goes with Richard on crusade, as Richard promises that all Robin's men shall go with him.


John Littlewit is a Proctor in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. According to the stage-keeper in the Induction, Littlewit is an officer at the Court of Arches, the ecclesiastical court of appeal, and he lives near St. Bartholomew Hospital in Smithfield. At his house, Littlewit reads the marriage license he has drawn between Bartholomew Cokes and Grace Wellborn. When Cokes comes to retrieve his marriage license, Littlewit ridicules the foolish young man. When the Cokes party goes to the Fair, Littlewit tells his wife to join him there. Littlewit is the author of a puppet-play, which is a burlesque of the genre, and he wants to see it performed at the Fair. At the Fair, Littlewit enters with his party to eat pig at Ursula's. When he exits Ursula's booth, Littlewit pays Leatherhead to rid him of Busy. When the officers arrest Busy on the charge of impeding the trade in the Fair, Littlewit feels free to enjoy the Fair alone. Telling his wife to stay with Knockem and Whit, whom he considers trustworthy persons, Littlewit goes to check on the puppet-show. Littlewit enters the puppet-theatre at the Fair and sees Cokes, to whom he lends some money. Littlewit introduces the puppeteer to Cokes, and presents his version of the parody of Hero and Leander as a puppet-play. Littlewit exits to fetch his wife to see the show. He re-enters the puppet-theatre only when the play is no longer on, asking everyone if they have seen his wife. When Overdo reveals Mistress Littlewit under the disguise of a lady of pleasure, Littlewit remains wisely silent. Littlewit and his wife will be among the guests for supper at Overdo's house.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's The Magnetic Lady. Lady Lodestone's dead husband. His fortune was made as Governor of the East Indian Company.


Sir John Loveall is a "ghost character" in Field's Amends for Ladies. He sends a love-letter to Grace Seldom via Moll Cutpurse.


John Lowin, an actor of the King's Men at the Globe Theatre, argues with Sly and Sinklo about the play, and theatrical issues in general, in the Induction to Marston's Malcontent.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Sir John Mandeville is mentioned by Master Fright when, on his second visit to Doctor Clyster, he tells him about more episodes of fear of darkness he suffered. He describes the monsters he sees are those which appear "in Purchas' Pilgrimages or Sir John Mandeville." Sir John Mandeville was, in the early fourteenth century, the most popular writer in England. In fact, Shakespeare, Milton and Keats were influenced by him. In 1322 he announced he was leaving on a journey to find the holy city of Jerusalem–he returned to England in 1356 and revealed that during that time he had visited Jerusalem, India, China, Tibet, Java and Sumatra. He reported his experiences in his book The Travels (c. 1356), which was printed by Pynson in 1496 as The Book of John Mandeville, Knight.
Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Lingua. Mendacio claims he is three thousand years old and helped many writers and philosophers pen their lies.


A cotquean and nephew to Marchurch in Wild’s The Benefice. He reads books on housewifery to learn how to keep the staff in line and complains that they call him cotquean and other vulgarities when he looks over their shoulders and denies them money and proper ingredients for their dinners. He brings his uncle news that the parson is dead. When he sees Ursley is pregnant, she threatens to tell everyone the child is his. To keep her from spreading such a rumor, he agrees to give her the pantry keys.


Sir John Montgomery supports Edward's claim to the throne in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI.


When Jack Cade mounts a rebellion in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, he calls himself by the pseudonym Sir John (or Lord) Mortimer, claiming to be the long-lost secret son of Edmund Mortimer, Duke of March and the Duke of Clarence's daughter.


Sir John Mortimer and Sir Hugh Mortimer, uncles of Richard, Duke of York in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI, die defending him against the forces which Queen Margaret has assembled to defend her son Edward, Prince of Wales's right to inherit the throne from Henry.


Morton is noble, specifically a knight in the anonymous Jack Straw. He brings the news to King Richard II that the commoners of Kent are in rebellion. The commoners hold his wife and children as hostages. Morton urges the king to meet with the rebels to learn their intentions. He expresses support for the king but is able to speak with the commoners, whom he urges to talk with the king. He labels the commoners as unnatural because they are in rebellion and thus involved in incest against their country. Morton worries that the commoners' experience with blood will end badly for the country. He speaks the judgment that even though the commoners deserve hanging for rebelling against the king, that King Richard II is going to pardon all of them except Wat Tyler and Parson Ball.


In one of the deleted scenes of Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More, Sir John Munday informs More that he has been beaten by a group of unruly apprentices and fears they have gone to join Lincoln, Sherwin, and the rest of the May Day rioters.


A knight in the anonymous Jack Straw. Sir John Newton reports to Spencer that King Richard II did not keep his first promise to talk with the rebels because the commoners made so much noise that the king was afraid that they were involved in a plot against him. Later, Newton tells the rebels that they need to select a spokesperson so that the king can hear their grievances. After some of the rebels have ignored the king's instructions to go home, Newton asks the group to speak with the King. When Jacke Strawe demands Newton's sword, the nobleman refuses. In the ensuing fight, Newton kills Strawe, which leaves the mob leaderless. King Richard II quickly appoints himself leader. Newton acknowledges the benefits of mercy, but he suggests that the king is pardoning too many people, too quickly and has special reservations about allowing Tyler and Ball to go free.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


With the help of Friar Bacon in ?Greene and Chettle's John of Bordeaux, he wins several decisive battles for the Germans. However, he is framed by a lustful and jealous Ferdinand (with the help of Jacques Vandermast) and is banished by Frederick. Sad and hungry, he is fed through magic and entertained by nymphs conjured by Friar Bacon. He overhears the speech by Correbus and Damon describing the fate of his wife and of Bacon, and vows to save his wife. Along with Bacon and Rossacler, he frees his wife from the Emperor.


Duke of Lancaster in Shakespeare's Richard II. He is King Richard's uncle and Bolingbroke's father. He is very old at the start of the play, and on his deathbed in II.i he accuses Richard of murdering the Duke of Gloucester and asserts that the shame the King's actions bring on his family will eventually kill him. His deathbed speech is a Shakespearean showpiece, often called Shakespeare's love letter to England. Gaunt's death gives Richard the opportunity to seize his lands to use in his campaign against Ireland. The seizure of lands gives Bolingbroke a reason to return from banishment to reclaim his birthright and so sets up the main confrontation of the play.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. John of Gaunt is Prince Henry's deceased grandfather. He is mentioned in passing by Falstaff.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. The deceased father of King Henry IV. Shallow mentions that John of Gaunt loved his friend, the deceased Double, well.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. John of Gaunt (1340-99), duke of Lancaster was the fourth son of Edward III of England. He served under his brother, Edward the Black Prince, in the Hundred Years War. After the accession (1377) of his nephew, Richard II, John remained the most powerful figure in the government, but he devoted himself primarily to military matters. In 1396, John of Gaunt married Catherine Swynford, many years his mistress, and had his children by her, under the name of Beaufort, declared legitimate. He died soon after the king had exiled his eldest son, the duke of Hereford, later Henry IV, first of the royal line of Lancaster. John is also remembered as the patron of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer. When Nurse is about to discover Laetitia's true identity to Beaufort, she says that her daughter has more and better blood running through her small veins than all the race of the Beauforts has, although they are descended from the left rib of John of Gaunt.


A knight in Marlowe's Edward II. When the French king and nobility reject Queen Isabella's plea for help against Edward's sycophants, Sir John of Hainault offers his estate in Flanders as a base against King Edward II. He joins her forces in crossing the channel and is heard urging them on into battle with Edward's knights. The historical Edward III married a relative of Sir John's, Phillipa of Hainault, at Queen Isabella's urging.


Olde John, employer of Joan and friend of John Bean in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women, is a comic rustic who reacts with vigor when he overhears Bean cry "false knave" on the trail to Greenwich near the dangerous wood. Once Joan tells Olde John that Bean is the speaker, he calms down and suggests that the three of them walk a way together. It is near this same spot a day or so later that Olde John and Joan encounter the mortally wounded Bean and the corpse of George Sanders. Olde John then acts with great sense as he directs Joan to help him to protect the corpse from birds and beasts, to bind Bean's wounds as much as possible, and to carry Bean home.


One of Prince Harry's rowdy companions who rob in jest and fight in taverns in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V. They laugh with the prince at the king's illness, wishing him dead so that they would all be kings through their close friendship with the Prince of Wales. He and his companions are ultimately rejected by Harry after he is crowned Henry V of England.


A Country Knight in Middleton's(?) Puritan. He is a Suitor to Mary, who, despite Pyeboard's machinations, marries Mary.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. A former mayor whose portrait admired by Lady Ramsey.


A "ghost character" in Edwards's Damon and Pithias. Grimme explains to Jacke and Wyll the advantages of a collier's life over a courtier's changing fortune. Grimme declares that, when coming home content every night to sit down with his wife, he feels as merry as ever Pope John was in his papal seat. When Jacke enlarges on the subject, saying that Pope John is said to be a jovial fellow, Grimme replies the pope can certainly be joyful with so much gold in his purse.


A "ghost character" in ?Greene's Selimus I. Mentioned by Selimus as an enemy he has defeated in Bajazet's service.


A "ghost character" in Chettle, Dekker and Haughton's Patient Grissil. Referred to by Babulo as an authority for wonders in the world.


Prince John of Lancaster is one of King Henry's sons and brother to Prince Hal in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. John deports himself well in general—far better than does his brother Hal—and does well in battle at Shrewsbury. He becomes an object of Hal's respect by the end of the play.
Prince John is the Duke of Lancaster, younger brother of Hal, and a son of King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. Though not the heir apparent, Prince John takes a strong role in rule, war, and governance in this play. He speaks honestly to the Archbishop of York, arguing that the churchman has "misused the reverence" of his place. At Gaultree Forest, John performs a trick that saves hundreds of lives. He parleys with the rebels, establishing a troop disbandment with his personal promise for redress. When the rebels disband and the battle is won without bloodshed, John reneges on his promise, claiming traitors are owed no faith, and orders the arrest of the traitors Hastings, Mowbray, and the Archbishop of York. Perturbed that he is expected to speak better of Falstaff than Sir John deserves, Prince John is pleased with newly-crowned King Henry V's decision to send Falstaff and company to Fleet prison pending a more courtly behavior on the part of those gentlemen.
John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford in Shakespeare's Henry V, is brother of Henry, Clarence, and Gloucester, and is present at Agincourt. Historically, he remained in England as Lieutenant of the realm and was therefore not at Harfleur or Agincourt.
John, Duke of Bedford in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, uncle of King Henry VI and Regent of France, ransoms Talbot by relinquishing Lord Ponton de Santrailles to the French. Even on his deathbed, Bedford refuses to desert the battlefield, hoping to revive the English forces battling to keep Rouen out of French hands. He welcomes death only after he has seen the French flee Rouen.


John is a servant to Dr. Caius in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. Mistress Quickly laments his worst fault, which is being somewhat addicted to prayer.


Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. Publius Cornelius uses his name as an exclamation.


John Scarborrow, younger brother of William Scarborrow and sometime student at the Inns of Court in Wilkins's The Miseries of Enforced Marriage. He desires his part of the inheritance that his oldest brother, William, is intent on squandering.


A "ghost character" in Barnes's The Devil's Charter. He was the second husband of Lucretia Borgia.


Along with John Irische, John Sholar is one of three men who Shrewd Wit and Ill-Will claim will bear witness for them when they are finally caught and confronted by Good Remedy in the anonymous An Interlude of Wealth and Health.


John Sinklo and Sly try to sit on the stage during the Induction to Marston's Malcontent. They exchange banter with the actors about the rival Blackfriars theatre and argue with them about the play that is about to be performed, and over theatrical issues in general. They are finally taken to a private box, and the play is allowed to begin.

JOHN, SIR **1513

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. A priest that Free Will knows of who sleeps with one Sibley, who comes willingly to his bed. Free Will says that both he and Imagination have caught the two in bed together. Later, Free Will suggests that Sir John has also made Imagination's father a cuckold, which occasions a fight between them.

JOHN, SIR**1570

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. The shepherd Corin's parish priest. Corin says that more people will look at "Jack" (Neronis in disguise) on Sunday than will look at Sir John.

JOHN, SIR**1570

Sir John, a shameless priest in (?)Johnson's Misogonus, joins Misogonus and his friends for an evening of gambling and dancing at the courtesan Melissa's, rejecting a call to required prayer (evensong). Sir John supplies both the cards and the dice for the raucous gathering. He also has eyes for "Susan Sweetlips," a parishioner.

JOHN, SIR**1599

The parson of Wrotham in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle. Calls members of the growing Protestant movement heretics, rebels and thieves. Reveals to the Bishop that Oldcastle is a key player in the movement. Reveals that he keeps a prostitute named Doll, and after admitting the fact to Harpool, he befriends Harpool. Out of money to support himself and Doll, in a moment of desperation he mistakenly attempts to rob the disguised King. Despite his promise to the King, he soon finds himself again in need of money and robs the Irishman, who is himself robbing his dead master. At the end of the play, he helps clarify the confusion of mistaken identities by pointing out that he witnessed the Irishman murder Richard Lee, not the disguised Oldcastle. He again promises to reform and is freed by the Justice of Hertford.

JOHN, SIR**1602

The vicar of Enfield, a village between Waltham and Edmonton in the anonymous The Merry Devil of Edmonton. He goes poaching in Brian's Wood together with Banks, Blague and Smug. They are disturbed by the gamekeeper Brian and his men, by Milliscent and Raymond, and by the two knights pursuing the eloped young lovers. They flee from the wood and hide in the churchyard of Enfield, where they frighten themselves with their own noise. Next morning he goes to Waltham and marries Milliscent and Raymond at the St. George Inn.

JOHN, SIR**1602

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Wily Beguiled. The vicar of the local church. He won't be able to call the banns at evening service the next Sunday because a band of players will be present, and Sir John will not leave their company. He will be working with them to build a stage.


A Lancastrian in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI. In Coventry, he reports to Warwick that Clarence and his troops are two hours away.


A "ghost character" in Barry's Ram Alley. Sir John Sommerfield was the husband of Lady Sommerfield and the father of Constantia Sommerfield. He died six weeks before the opening of the play.


A priest in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. At Eleanor's behest, the duplicitous priest Hume arranges a séance in which he, Roger Bolingbrook, the priest Southwell, and the witch Margery Jourdain conjure a spirit who will ostensibly help Eleanor to become queen. Hume is working for Cardinal Beaufort and Suffolk, who plan to use Eleanor to discredit her husband, the Duke of Gloucester. With Hume's collusion the séance is interrupted and the participants arrested. King Henry condemns the three men to the gallows, Margery Jourdain to Smithfield where she will be burnt as a witch, and Eleanor to the Isle of Man where she will live in exile after a public humiliation.

Known alternately as John Sparing/Spring, a vintner in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. Along with many other tradesmen, he gossips about the impending marriage of Captain Stukeley and Nell, daughter of the wealthy Sir Thomas Curtis. Immediately after the wedding, they seek to abscond with Stukeley's newfound money, citing debs both real and fabricated.


When Eleanor is banished to the Isle of Man in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, Henry appoints Lord Stanley as her jailer. In history his name was Thomas, not John.


There are two John Talbots in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI.
  • Lord John Talbot is called the 'scourge of France' and other similar epithets for his bravery in England's service. Henry VI makes him Earl of Shrewsbury as a reward for his triumphs against the French. At Henry's coronation, Talbot tears Falstaff's garter from him because Falstaff does not merit the knighthood that the garter symbolizes. After listening to Talbot's report, Henry retracts Falstaff's knighthood and banishes him. Talbot dies in the attempt to take Bordeaux.
  • John Talbot, Lord Lisle, son of Lord John Talbot, shows that he takes after his valiant father when he repeatedly refuses to desert Talbot's troops even though their defeat seems inevitable. Joan la Pucelle challenges him in battle, but he refuses to fight with a woman and is slain immediately thereafter by French soldiers.


Appears before King Humanity's Parliament in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates to accuse the Three Estates of neglecting the public welfare in their "backwardness." He identifies the Three Vices as the cause of this evil. Invited to address the Parliament of the Three Estates, he (seconded by the Poor Man) requests that they control common thieves, beggars, and vagabonds, and especially corrupt monks and friars. Welcomed among the Temporality and the Burgesses, he then complains against the excesses of Church taxation, again seconded by the Poor Man. Accused of heresy by the Abbot, he recites the creed but refuses to express faith in the bishops and friars. He then suggests reforming the ecclesiastical court and accuses the Spirituality of simony. After the expulsion of the Spirituality, he is rewarded by Good Counsel and Divine Correction with a beautiful suit of clothes, and is received into the Parliament.


A "ghost character" in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2. A mighty Christian priest of Machda on the Nile. He was defeated by Techelles.


Frank Golding disguises himself as "trusty John" the porter in [?]Heywood's The Fair Maid of the Exchange in order to intercept love messages to Phillis from his brothers Ferdinand and Anthony.


A priest in the anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave. One of the four sons of the Bailiff of Hexham, he is also the brother of Walter, the farmer; Cutbert Cutpurse, the Coneycatcher; and Perin, the courtier. He is a hypocrite who only lends money against securities. A colleague of his must give him his horse till he can repay 50 shillings. When a beggar asks him for a penny, he denies it. But he sends a petition to the King asking to be allowed to deal in tin, wool and clothes overseas. For his punishment at the end of the play, Honesty decides to have him shot to death in Finsbury Fields north of London.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Turner is mentioned by Signor Jealousia when, inquired by Doctor Clyster whether he had been a striker when he was a bachelor, Jealousia replies: "Indeed I did use the stock sometimes, Turner's stock." John Turner was a famous fencing master who kept a school in Whitefriars. He was said to have developed considerable skill in dispatching adversaries with thrusts to the eye. He was murdered by several assassins paid by Robert Creighton, Baron of Sanquire (or Sanchar) in 1612.


This nobleman originally sent Travers, a servant of Northumberland's, with a mistakenly good report of Shrewsbury for the Percy faction in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.


Advocate of Holland and West-Friesland; elder statesman [he was seventy years old] and charismatic villain in Fletcher and Massinger's Sir John Van Olden Barnavelt. Barnavelt is fiercely jealous of the new, rising star, Grave Maurice, and determined to bring him down even if this means overthrowing the government. In defiance of Maurice, a Calvinist, Barnavelt declares himself an Arminian, and urges the other Arminian leaders to win over the burghers and enroll new companies to resist Maurice's soldiers, who are garrisoned at Utrecht. He then persuades the lords of the States to exclude Maurice from their assembly until they have decided on the form his oath of loyalty should take. Maurice submits patiently to this, but afterwards the two leaders confront each other with mutual accusations of pride. Their next trial of strength takes place at Utrecht, in a town where Barnavelt has enlisted mercenaries against Maurice. Helped by the English forces, and the disaffected mercenaries themselves, Maurice enters the town. He arrests Leidenberch, one of Barnavelt's principal supporters, while another, Modesbargen flees to Germany. Barnavelt's position is thus weakened, but he defends himself fiercely and refuses to submit to Maurice when his son, William Barnavelt, brings news of his supporters' defection. He is worried, however, by the arrest of Leidenberch, lest his old friend should betray his treacherous plans against Maurice. He visits the prison and is furious when Leidenberch confesses that he has already betrayed some secrets. Barnavelt urges him to kill himself in order to thwart Maurice, and later, in anguish, Leidenberch does so. News of this suicide cheers Barnavelt somewhat, but immediately afterwards a captain (whom he had refused to help earlier on) arrests him at home. He stands trial, where he is faced unexpectedly with evidence of his treachery obtained from the dead Leidenberch. Still undaunted, he reminds his hearers of his past services and engages in a vigorous dispute with his accuser, Maurice. Even when his old friend Modesbargen, now a captive, is brought in to testify against him, Barnavelt maintains his nerve. Condemned to death, he continues to relate his past glories on the scaffold (one of his hearers describes it as "bragging"), but he ends with an unexpected burst of humility, commending his family to Maurice and himself, as a "naked poor man," to Heaven. His last words are cut short by the brutal executioner, who also hacks off his fingertips by mistake [a historical detail].


The Earl of Essex in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. A member of Prince Edward's inner circle and a friend of Lacy's, Warren comments sarcastically on the variableness of women when Margaret suddenly gives up her plan to enter a convent and accepts Lacy's marriage proposal.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus. Gullio foolishly takes pride that a poem addressed to him has been included in John Weaver's (or Weever's) book of epigrams.


A "ghost character" in Massinger's A New Way to Pay Old Debts. Old Sir John Welborne is the late father of Frank Welborne and brother of Overreach's wife (Margaret's mother), who was once the "quondam master" of Timothy Tapwell as well as a "justice of peace, and quorum" who "stood fair to be custos rotulorum."


Sir John is the uncle of Eugenia in Shirley's Changes. He would like to marry Eugenia to Jack Yongrave but manages approval when Eugenia arrives already married to Thornay at the end of the play.


Sir John Worldly is the father of Bellafront, Lucida and Katherine in Field's A Woman is a Weathercock. He is keen for his daughters to marry their wealthiest suitors, and therefore promotes Bellafront's marriage to Count Frederick and Katherine's marriage to Strange; he is also keen for Lucida to marry Sir Abraham Ninny. When Pouts claims that he has had illicit sexual relations with Katherine, Sir John advises Strange to take revenge by the law. Strange rejects his advice on the grounds that it would be thought that Sir John's money and social status had influenced the court. Sir John organises the entertainments for the marriage of Bellafront and Count Frederick. He is surprised by the revelations concerning the true marriage of Bellafront to Scudamore and the news that Katherine and Strange were not properly married, but takes them with equanimity.


‘Waiting woman to Doucebella’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. She is heartbroken to lose Rafe when he must return to Harwich when Floradin leaves Doucebella. When Doucebella is forsaken, she accompanies her mistress from the Tarlton tavern on her journey. Joice and Janekin become friends and interpret their dreams to one another.


Also identified as Joynture in Davenant's News From Plymouth. Cousin to Carrack and possessed of a substantial estate. She criticizes Lady Loveright's choice to stay in a port town and court poor sailors. Nonetheless, she attempts to lure Seawit away from Loveright on a walk through the orchard during which she explains the benefits of being married to a wealthy woman instead of being a poor sailor. Loveright learns of this encounter and confronts both Jointure and Seawit, causing Seawit to reject both women. She and Loveright subsequently break up the duel between Warwell and Seawit, and Seawit agrees to marry her.


Brother to Jolina in Suckling's Aglaura (first version), Aglaura's lady in waiting, and a lord of the council. He pretends to be loyal to the Prince, but in reality he is plotting with Ariaspes against both the King and the Prince. He is in love with Semanthe, but she is in love with Zorannes (who has disguised himself as "Ziriff") and also a platonic, and refuses him. He is with Ariaspes and "Ziriff" at the cave, planning to ambush the King, and also planning with Ariaspes to kill "Ziriff." However, Zorannes kills him first.
In the "happy ending" second version, the character engages in much the same action. Brother to Jolina in Suckling's Aglaura (second version), Aglaura's lady in waiting, and a lord of the council. He pretends to be loyal to the Prince, but in reality he is plotting with Ariaspes against both the King and the Prince. He is in love with Semanthe, but she is in love with Zorannes (who has disguised himself as "Ziriff") and also a platonic, and refuses him. He is with Ariaspes and "Ziriff" at the cave, planning to ambush the King, and also planning with Ariaspes to kill "Ziriff." However, Zorannes takes him prisoner, and the King sentences him to three years of banishment.


Sister of Romelio in Webster's The Devil's Law Case. Jolenta desires to marry Contarino and is horrified at being forced to marry Ercole instead. Hearing that both men have died from wounds suffered during a duel, she is distraught, but believing Romelio's slanders about Contarino, she agrees to a plot to get Ercole's fortune. When the plots have dissolved, she plans to flee to Rome with Angiolella, but returns, finally agreeing, along with Angiolella and Leonora, to build a monastery.


Jolas's sister and Aglaura's lady in waiting in Suckling's Aglaura (first version) and also Aglaura (second version), she is apparently innocent and unaware of her brother's plotting.


A consummate man of court in Killigrew's Parson's Wedding. Jolly's first dialogue with Sadd and Constant is a diatribe against the horrors of country house life. People who live in the country, according to Jolly, are overzealous and make it their primary business to slander the court and the pope; in short, they're parliament men. Indeed, Jolly is so devoted to the crown that he brought the king's letter patents with him when he proposed to Lady Wild. This was, in Lady Wild's opinion, a mistake, and she told him that she wasn't interested. Jolly then moves on to Lady Love-all, from whom his sexual favors earn him a pearl necklace and bragging rights, up until the Captain, another of Lady Love-all's lovers, earns a better necklace and an affectionate letter from Love-all. At that point, Jolly agrees to join forces with the Captain, Wild, and Careless against the women in the play, though his new union with the Captain does not stop him from trying to seduce the Captain's wench, Wanton, on several occasions. Wanton refuses, though she gives Jolly permission to say that she slept with him.


Jonadab is one of David's nephews and a friend of Amnon in Peele's David and Bethsabe. He encourages Amnon to satisfy his passion for Thamar, even if it means rape, and is present later at the country festival when Absalon murders Amnon for that crime against his sister. It is Jonadab who brings the report of Amnon's death to David at Rabbah.

JONAH **1602

Only mentioned in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. Jeptes proclaims that the vision he and Fulvia have had of doom is but a warning from God that will turn to their good as Jonah’s warning to Nineveh did.


Jonas is another captain in Stukley's service in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar.


The Hebrew prophet Jonas (more commonly known as Jonah) is visited by the Angel in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England and told that God has ordered him to preach in Nineveh so that the people there might turn from their evil ways before God destroys them all. Knowing the erring behavior of his fellow Hebrews, Jonas worries that, should God destroy the population of Nineveh (people who have not been informed of what God expects from humans), other people in the world will think less of the deity because they know the equally sinful Hebrew nation has not been punished. Troubled by these reflections, Jonas decides to hide in Joppa, hoping that God will have some second thoughts about destroying Nineveh, and he takes to sea on the vessel carrying the Merchant of Tharsus and his companions. When the ship is overwhelmed in a storm, Jonas has the Ship's Captain throw him overboard to placate God. He is gently taken into the mouth of a whale and eventually deposited on the shore near the river Lycus. This miraculous deliverance and the Angel's admonition that he heed God's orders spurs him to go to Nineveh and warn the people of the devastation God intends unless they repent quickly. His subsequent activities lead to the conversions of many of the lower class offenders (among them the Usurer, Thrasibulus, Alcon, and Samia) and eventually Rasni, Aluida, and the court. Jonas briefly worries that his massive successes will spare the whole city and lead others to think that his warnings of punishment were false, but the Angel assures him that God is most pleased with what has happened in Nineveh. Jonas goes to the court to certify the sincerity of the conversions and to approve of Rasni's plan to marry Aluida. His soliloquy after all have left serves as an epilogue for the play. In it, he urges the theater audience to see ("as in a looking glasse") Nineveh's narrow escape from God's wrath as a warning for London and England. He further warns the English that, although the great love which God has for their Queen Elizabeth has protected them heretofore, the virtuous queen will not save them indefinitely. Finally, he concludes with the wish that Elizabeth continue to be a bulwark against Roman Catholicism.

JONAS **1599

A “ghost character" in Ruggle’s Club Law. Though mentioned in the dramatis personae and in the text, he does not actually appear on stage. One of the twenty-four Electors for the Burgomastership. The name suggests a reference to Richard Jones, who was one of the Cambridge town officials when the play was presented. Jonas was drunk at Tavie’s house in the morning but is not at the roll call of electors and is fined.


There are two characters named Jonathan in Peele's David and Bethsabe.
  • Jonathan is the son of the priest Abiathar. With Ahimaas, he brings to David the intelligence gathered by Cusay and his recommendations for the attack on Absalon.
  • A "ghost character." Hanon, the Ammonite king, points to the death of Saul's sons Jonathan, Abinadab, and Melchisua, as indicative of what will befall David in the assault upon Rabbah.


Quicksands' servant in Brome's The English Moor, fired as part of the cover-up of Millicent's "disappearance." The rakes get him drunk and press him for details; he reveals that Quicksands has an idiot bastard son, kept secretly in Norfolk, whom he can imitate accurately. Passing out, he is shaved by the rakes and disguised as Quicksands' son. He arrives at Quicksands' feast accompanied by Arnold, also disguised, and sings madly. He unmasks in Testy's court and delights in his revenge on Quicksands.


Jones is a cobbler and wit in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden, whom the gallants invite to the tavern to entertain them with repartee.


Priam was played apparently by Mr. Jones in Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida. The name Jones appears several times in the plot fragment, always in association with Priam. His boy also appeared in the play and is so listed. Jones' boy apparently played Cressida's waiting maid.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Jonson is mentioned by Sir Cupid Phantsy when, talking to Doctor Clyster about poetry, the latter tells him his attitude is "not worthy of a poet," and he replies: "Not of our kingdom's immortal honor and his own, our learned and most famous Jonson, our best poet." Ben Jonson (?1572-1637) was a great seventeenth-century dramatist, wit, and poet–in 1619 he was the first ever Poet Laureate to be appointed to that post. His fine sense of form proves that he was a literary artist.
A "ghost character" in Jonson's The Magnetic Lady. Quoted on several occasions by characters in the play, as an epigrammist and the playwright of The New Inn, and also by the Prologue as this play's author.
Only mentioned in Shirley's Love's Cruelty. Jonson is the English playwright mentioned by Hippolito in trying to win Eubella for the duke.
Only mentioned in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus. Iudicio and Ingenioso scorn Ben Jonson as a mere observer who would be better off if he returned to the bricklayer's trade. Burbage and Kempe, however, rate him, with Shakespeare, more highly than their university-trained competitors.
Only mentioned in Wild’s The Benefice. Invention reads some praise for him (The ‘great brick-bat Ben’ and the ‘only English brow [that[ deserves the bays’) but Furor Poeticus finds fault in his works (any ‘ordinary wit would make him piss and stink . . . like an old bear’ and ‘sack must be sent . . . into his guts to tell his brains they must come up quickly and help out with a line’) and calls for an imaginary Jailor to take him away.


Jordan is the servant in charge of the chambers and beds at the New Inn in Jonson's The New Inn. Jordan enters with Ferret, Stuff/Trundle, Peck, Jug, and Pierce, finding Tipto and Fly in absorbed worship of the wine jug. The merry group of servants indulges in gossip and drinking, patronized by Tipto and Fly, who join them in libations. Tipto greets Jordan ironically, calling him a good comely vessel, an allusion to his name, which denotes a piss-pot. When the whistle sounds for dinner, the drunkards disperse and all servants go to wait on their masters. Jordan re-enters in the final scene, when Beaufort announces his marriage to Frank/Laetitia. When Host and all present mockingly congratulate Beaufort on his marriage to a boy, Jordan joins in the merriment. It is understood that Jordan attends the final revelation scene.


A "ghost character" in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom. Doctor Iordon is mentioned, once, by the Nurse, as the doctor with whom Fiametta finds most comfort during her pretended illness.


Jordan Knockem is a horse-dealer and a ranger of Turnbull in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Knockem is an accomplice of Edgworth in stealing the customers' purses. When Knockem sees Quarlous and Winwife, he invites them for a pipe of tobacco. In the ensuing fight, spurred by Knockem and Ursula, Edgworth attempts to rob Quarlous and Winwife, but he reports they had no money. After the fight, Knockem leaves with Mooncalf and Leatherhead. When Knockem spies the Cokes party approaching Ursula's booth, he invites the customers in, praising the cooking and the ale. While Ursula thinks they are not good drinking clients, Knockem tells her they are hypocrites and good gluttons. At the Fair, Knockem is in the company of Wasp, Cutting, Northern, Puppy, and Whit. They play a game of "vapours," which is nonsense: every person has to oppose the last person that spoke, whether it concerned them or not. During the commotion created by the drunken brawl, Knockem and Whit steal all the men's cloaks. After the brawl, Knockem leaves. Knockem, Whit, and Ursula plot to persuade Mistress Overdo and Mistress Littlewit to disguise as ladies of pleasure for the gallants. Knockem enters the puppet-theatre with Whit, Edgworth, and Mistresses Overdo and Littlewit, masked. In the final scene, when Overdo reveals himself, Knockem and Wasp want to steal away, but Overdo tells them to stay. Knockem will be one of the guests for supper at Overdo's house.


Fransiscus calls Julio "Joretzo" at one point in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped; perhaps this is his real name.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a virtuous man.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Moses as an example of God's mercy and guidance.


One of Petruchio's servants in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Joseph, along with fellow servants Curtis, Nathaniel, Peter, Nicholas, Philip, Walter, and Sugarsop, remains in Verona while Petruchio and Grumio travel to Padua to find a wife for Petruchio.


The apprentice to Luce's father but more often the companion of Luce in Thomas Heywood's The Wise Woman of Hogsdon. Joseph is a loyal servant who spends most of the play either minding the goldsmith's shop or consoling Luce, who is unhappily neglected by Young Chartley and forced to endure blows to her reputation as a result of keeping her marriage a secret. Joseph appears a few times in the play but his presence has no real impact on the plot.


Joseph is husband to Salumith and brother-in-law to King Herod in Markham's Herod and Antipater. The King charges Joseph with re-vitalizing the Temple. In the course of his duties, Joseph overhears a plot between Herod and Antipater. Fearing for the safety of the Queen, Joseph tells her that Herod has ordered Antipater to kill Marriam if Herod should be killed while visiting Caesar Augustus. Joseph is executed when false accusations of illicit relations between himself and Queen Marriam are believed.


A Puritan preacher in Cowley's The Guardian whom the Widow is anxious to send to Captain Blade when he seems to be dying. Blade succeeds in keeping him out.

[In Cowley's own 1658 revision of this play, Cutter of Coleman Street (performed 1661), we are told that he performs the marriage of Colonel Jolly (Blade) and Mistress Barebottle (Widow). In The Guardian, that cleric is unnamed.]


Alias Misogynos in the anonymous Swetnam. According to his servant, Swash, Swetnam is a poor English scholar who ran away from the university and masqueraded as a fencer in Bristol, although he actually lacks any skill at fencing. In Bristol he wrote his book, The Arraignment of Lewd, Idle, Froward, and Unconstant Women and was hounded first out of Bristol, then out of London and England on its account. He has now set up shop as a fencer at the court of Sicily, and dedicates himself to converting young men such as Nicanor's servant Scanfardo away from their affection for women. When Princess Leonida and Prince Lisandro are accused of treason and a trial set up to discover whether the woman or the man is more guilty of causing temptation, Swetnam happily takes the job of prosecuting women. His bitter taunts against them at the trial seem effective, as Princess Leonida is condemned to death. Well pleased with his work, Swetnam nevertheless loses some face when he falls in love with his courtroom opponent, the Amazon Atlanta (actually Prince Lorenzo in disguise). He invites Atlanta to a romantic assignation, but is horrified when her sweet demeanour changes to aggression and she easily beats him at fencing. Atlanta, Aurelia and a number of Sicilian women beat Swetnam to punish him for his insolence to their sex, and declare their intention to destroy his book and to publish their own arraignment of him as a disgrace to the male sex.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Joseph Taylor was an actor who was probably in the original cast of Bartholomew Fair at the Hope Theatre in 1614. John Taylor was a poet who had won a wit combat (by default) at the Hope Theatre. When Lantern/Leatherhead shows Cokes the puppets as the "actors" of the play, he says they are dumb, and he is the voice for all of them. Cokes replies that, since one man is the mouth for all of them, one Taylor could beat all these helpless actors with a hand bound behind him. The allusion is threefold. First, it refers to any tailor (and tailors were supposed to be timid) who could beat the defenseless actors. Second, it refers to Joseph Taylor, who played in Bartholomew Fair, probably the part of Lantern/Leatherhead. Third, it refers to the poet John Taylor, who won a fight of wits, and therefore was not expected to be particularly strong, being able to beat the puppet-actors easily. In all situations, Cokes imagines a scene in which much quarreling and beating is involved, which is not far from the actual representation of the puppet-play.


The Jewish historian Josephus serves as the chorus in Markham's Herod and Antipater. He is mentioned first in the Prologue and afterwards serves as a bridge to explain intervals in the action of the drama.


The Jewish hero of the play in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. He is priest on his father's side and of royal blood on his mother's. He is loyal to the moderate rule of Ananias. Appointed to lead the defense of Galilee, he doubts the wisdom of defying Rome. He wins honour in the first battle but is wounded. His men despair and commit mass suicide, which Josephus shrewdly avoids. He negotiates a safe conduct to Vespatian and is welcomed by the Romans. He attends Vespatian's coronation and is taken as an honorable hostage to Rome. He returns to partner Titus in negotiations with the rebels within Jerusalem. The rebels reject his moderation, denounce him as a traitor, torture his father in front of him and stone him from the city walls. He is hurt but rescued by Titus and re-appears in the final scene of Roman Triumph. He advises Titus in judging the prisoners-of-war and Titus henceforward commits power in the city to him.


One of the Nine Worthies mentioned in Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost but not appearing in the pageant before it is interrupted. When Sir Nathaniel asks Holofernes if there are enough men to play the nine worthies, Holofernes begins by naming Joshua. The punctuation could lead to the conclusion that Holofernes is giving Sir Nathaniel the part of Joshua, but later Sir Nathaniel performs the part of Alexander the Great.


An intriguing "ghost character" in Heywood's The Silver Age, mentioned by Jupiter as he prepares to enjoy his long night with Alcmena, explaining that this action accounts for the stoppage of the sun above Jericho.


A self-described "painter-stainer by art, and a limner by profession" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. He objects strenuously to being pressed into service by Sir Jarvis Clifton on the grounds that he "do[es] fructifie among the brethren"–which, judging from his later behavior, may be a reference not only to his undoubted Puritanism, but also to rather more bawdy activities. He is shocked to hear that men are killed in the wars without time say their prayers, and is convinced that guns were invented by evil Papists. His greatest concern in the wares is for his cat, Tybert; he is offended when Miles suggests that he tie the cat behind him so that it will take the bullet if he runs. He fights valiantly at the Battle of Leith, and is one of the Englishmen cozened by Mortigue and Doysells' force of Frenchmen in women's clothing, trying hard to convert one of them to "live among the familists." His strict Calvinism causes him to become incensed with his beloved cat for killing a mouse on the Sabbath day, and he is only dissuaded from hanging her when Lord Grey declares her pardoned. He gets thoroughly drunk after peace is concluded, and sings a song in praise of the conduct of the English at the Battle of Leith. After the soldiers' return to Nottinghamshire, Ball suggests him as someone who can speak in the nose and who could thus lead a puppet play for Queen Elizabeth, but Miles dismisses this suggestion on the grounds that a Puritan cannot speak a play.


Josina is the unfaithful wife of Crasy in Brome's The City Wit. Her mother, Pyannet, enforces a separation from Crasy after he loses all his money. Josina attempts to seduce Jeremy, flirts with Crasy disguised as Pulse-Feel, the doctor, and is the object of attempted seductions by Ticket and Rufflit. She and Crasy are reunited at the end of the play.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Described by God as a righteous man who will enter the Promised Land.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Isaiah as an example of a wicked king.


A witch in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. At Eleanor's behest, the duplicitous priest Hume arranges a séance in which he, Roger Bolingbrook, the priest Southwell, and the witch Margery Jourdain conjure a spirit who will ostensibly help Eleanor to become queen. Hume is working for Cardinal Beaufort and Suffolk, who plan to use Eleanor to discredit her husband, the Duke of Gloucester. With Hume's collusion the séance is interrupted and the participants arrested. King Henry condemns the three men to the gallows, Margery Jourdain to Smithfield where she will be burnt as a witch, and Eleanor to the Isle of Man where she will live in exile after a public humiliation.


Jovani is a lord of Verona in Davenport's The City Night Cap. He attends the trial in act Two.


A "ghost character" never appearing in the play, this is the supposed great-grandfather of Veterano the Antiquary in Marmion's The Antiquary.


A "ghost character" in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta. Jove is repeatedly invoked by the Chorus and several of the characters as the leader of the gods and the final arbiter of human destinies.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. In the love-song Imperia sings to Fontinel when he pretends to declare his love for her, Jove is mentioned in relation to his cup-bearer, the youth Ganymede. The lyrics say that, if Jove/Zeus had seen the lover's bright eyes, Ganymede would no longer serve wine to the gods. Violetta begs Imperia to let her spend the night in the courtesan's bed with her husband Fontinel. Imperia answers she will not make her suffer, even if Fontinel were Jove's own favorite, Ganymede.
Only mentioned in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants.
Only mentioned in Verney’s Antipoe.
Only mentioned in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!. When she is deserted and penniless, Gertrude sings a sad song about Jove's seduction of Danae. Gertrude gives a personal interpretation to the classical myth. She sings that Jove fell into Danae's lap in a shower of gold, and that is how Danae got the clap.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In Roman mythology, Jupiter (Jove) was the supreme god. Cupid calls him his "uncle." In trying to incite Mercury's anger and curiosity, in order to win him for his plan, Cupid calls Mercury a mere pander to his uncle Jove's wishes. The allusion is to the fact that Mercury used to carry messages for Jove's amorous transgressions. Cupid calls Mercury a mere attendant that runs errands for Jove and whispers a light message to a loose wench. When Cupid enumerates Mercury's famous actions of legerdemain, he says that Mercury stole Jove's scepter while he was laughing. Cupid says that Mercury would have stolen Jove's thunder too, but that was too hot for his itching fingers. Reporting that Mercury stole Jove's most symbolic possession Cupid emphasizes his cousin's ability as a deceiver.
Only mentioned in Day's Humour Out of Breath. Jove is mentioned four times. In 1.1 and 1.3 Jove is offered as an example of a lover; and in 4.1 he is cited in his role of king of the gods: Francisco claims that, powerful as he is, Jove cannot destroy his love, and by Octavio, who claims that Jove "smiles at lovers' perjuries."
Another name given to Jupiter, Saturn's son in Heywood's The Golden Age.
Only mentioned in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. Jove (called Iove and Ioue in the text) is another name for Jupiter, the king of the gods. Both Ajax and Ulysses claim the right to the armor of Achilles in part because they are descended from this chief Olympian god (Ajax through his grandfather Aeacus and Ulysses through his grandfather Acresius).
Only mentioned in Armin's The Two Maids of More–Clacke. Jove was the god of the sky in the Classical mythology. He came to see his lover Danae disguised as a shower of gold.
A "ghost character" in the anonymous Narcissus. Tyresias mentions Jove when he reveals the reason for his blindness. He explains that it was Jove's wife and sister, Juno, who turned him blind. Jove is later also mentioned by Eccho, when she comments that, instead of doing the same as other nymphs, that is, "lay allways under Jove," she used to go away, telling tales. Afterwards, he is mentioned by Clinias when, teased by Eccho, he exclaims "I trust in Jove." Eccho will repeat "Trust in Jove," and Clinias will retort, "Jove helpes then if we fight." According to Roman mythology, Iove or Jupiter (or Greek Zeus) was the supreme ruler of gods and goddesses.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. In an attempt to convince the skeptical Surly of the benefits of alchemy, Mammon claims that Jove's shower is a parable of the alchemical secrets. When Jove seduced Danaë, he came down to her in the form of a golden shower. The parable is repeated when Mammon says he will court his mysterious lady like Jove, who dropped into his Danaë's lap in the form of a golden shower.
A "ghost character" in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. According to Roman and Greek mythology, Jove or Jupiter (or Greek Zeus) was the supreme ruler of gods and goddesses. When he was born, his mother, Ops, rescued him from his father, Saturn, who had already swallowed his sisters–Ceres, Vesta and Juno (who was also his wife)–and his bothers–Pluto and Neptune. In this play Iove is Apollo's father. The former is mentioned by the latter when he compares the affection he felt for Hiacinth with the one Iove felt for Ganimede.
Only mentioned in the anonymous The Faithful Friends. Jove is worshipped by Martius, and invoked by Martius and by Philadelpha to guarantee their good faith.
Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Jove is mentioned by Slightall when he is instructing his friends on how to love any creature, even if it is the "loathed'st", by taking no notice of their imperfections. He illustrates his point with the following words: "be she growne, / By Jove, Minerva up and downe." According to Roman mythology, Jove was father to Minerva. She was born from his brain, full grown ("growne ... up and downe") and already dressed in her armour.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Praeludium. When the hungry Captain actor performs to the Gentleman for food and clothing, he uses references to classical mythology to demonstrate the extremity of his hunger. The Captain declaims that in vain would someone use Jove's thunders to oppose him, because nothing will impede him to eat the piece of pastry before him.
Only mentioned in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. He is first mentioned by Brainsicke, when, as he is trying to make Undermine drunk, he refers to "Ioves Nectar." Later, Sir Wittworth also mentions Jove when he laments that his beloved Modestina has been raped and abused, and that now she is too ashamed to go back to him. Incensed, he addresses to the god in the following terms: "Iove, I defie thee, t'art the Pagan god, / All rape, and Incest."
Jove is another name for Jupiter in Heywood's Brazen Age.
Only mentioned in Goffe's Raging Turk. The Olympian deity is identified by Selymus as a model of a son who overthrows his father.
Only mentioned in Dekker’s Match Me in London. Dildoman often compares the king to Jove.


Like Spendola, Narcisso, and Brisco, Jovinelli is a Count of Naples in Dekker's If It Be Not Good. He reports that the Scholar, Soldier, and Mariner have turned against Naples during the Duke of Calabria's attack. During the Duke's seige, he hides with the other courtiers in the merchant Bartervile's cellar. He is betrayed by Bartervile to the Duke of Calabria, captured, and beheaded.

JOVIO **1635

The clown, servant to Charmia and Gratiano in Rider’s The Twins. He overhears his lady talking to herself of her dishonest love of Fulvio. Later, Lurco has him watch the stairs to see Fulvio go to Charmia’s bedchamber. He sees the chambermaid, the scullery boy, and a monkey running loose before Lurco shows him Fulvio (in fact, it is Gratiano in Fulvio’s clothes). Jovio is upset to think his mistress is lying with Fulvio and encourages Lurco to ride for his master.

JOY **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the fifteen affections and the subject of the play. One of the ringleaders in the battle who have always hated Hatred. Like air, Joy is moist and warm. Arguing with his brother, Hope, he maintains that he is chief in Heaven.


One of Audrey Turfe's bridesmaids in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's Royal King. A prostitute in the Bawd's brothel.


A "ghost character" in Marston's Dutch Courtesan. Mistress Joyce does not appear in the play. Tysefew refers her to as someone who laughed at Crispinella for being short and wearing extremely high heels. Crispinella says that Joyce is beautiful on the outside but ugly on the inside.


The daughter of Walkadine Hoard, niece to Onesiphorus, she is most often referred to as Hoard's niece in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. Moneylove and Sam Freedom seek her, but their suits fail due to the machinations of Witgood, who outmaneuvers them and marries her himself.


Sister of Gartred in Cooke's Greene's Tu Quoque. She is unenthusiastic about a prospective marriage to the newly wealthy Bartholemew Bubbles encouraged by her father, Sir Lionell. Along with Gartred, herself betrothed at her father's behest to Geraldine and later Scattergood, two arriviste gallants, the sisters commiserate and conspire to undo their prospective marriages and marry husbands of their choosing. Dead set against marriage to the bumbling Bubbles, Joyce prefers Staines, an erstwhile gallant fallen on hard times. The couple is eventually married despite her father's protestations when Staines' extorts Bubble's fortune and Bubbles returns to his servitude.


Old Matchil's daughter in Brome's The New Academy. Gabriella was raised with her. When Matchil (in a rage over his son's supposed death) throws Gabriella out of the house, Joyce refuses to abandon her. Matchil responds by throwing her out as well. The two women agree to go to Lady Nestlecock's house in hopes that Matchil's anger will subside. Strigood steals away with the two women and uses them to establish the New Academy at the Camelions lodging. There, Joyce takes the name Jane. Advertising lessons from the women in dancing, fashion and courtly behavior, Strigood collects money from men under the impression that they are purchasing sex. Although Gabriella and Joyce remain chaste, they wish to escape Strigood because they fear their true identities will be discovered and their reputations ruined. Eventually, Strigood attempts to prostitute her to Papillion (Philip Matchil in disguise), but he assents to her objections and refuses to do so and instead contracts to marry her. The couple gives the impression that they have in fact been married in secret, but when it is revealed that they are brother and sister, they reveal that they have not actually carried out the marriage yet. In the end, Joyce agrees to marry Frances Lafoy.


The Duke of Joyeux leads the French army against Navarre in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris. He is killed in the battle and his troops defeated.


Joyless is the father of Peregrine, husband of Diana, in Brome's The Antipodes. Joyless seeks a cure for the mental disorders of his son and daughter-in-law, who have ceased sleeping together (primarily because of Peregrine's desire for travel). He also seeks a cure for his own obsessive sexual jealousy. He is himself cured after Diana resists Letoy's seduction and Letoy reveals himself as Diana's father.


Don Juan Antonio, referred to on most occasions as Antonio, is the Prince of Tarent in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman.


An honest, wise colonel in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife. Although displeased with Leon when he interviews him, he is later impressed by his ability to rule his wife, and informs him of the Duke's plan to gain access to Margarita.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Swetnam. According to the Captain, he is the Spanish general under whom Lorenzo fought manfully at the Battle of Lepanto.


Another name for Cardochia in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy, a young woman who serves as host to the gypsies. She falls in love with Don John but accuses him of making obscene advances and stealing a jewel when he, being in love with Pretiosa, rejects her advances. She retracts her accusations at the end of the play and marries Diego.


Apparently a non-speaking part in Dekker's Noble Spanish Soldier. She is included in a stage direction with Cornego in the final scene. She may be Onælia's maid. See MAID, ONÆLIA'S.


King of Numidia in Kyd's Cornelia. Juba is befriended by Cornelia's father, Scipio who, with his troops, vainly attempts to defend Numidia against an invasion by Caesar's troops. Juba fights Petreus and they kill each other in the duel.
A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. Juba is described by Caesar as one of the men opposed to him, and also as the murderer of his friend (unnamed in the play, but referring to Curio). After Caesar falls in love with Cleopatra, Scaeva wishes that Cato, Juba and the sons of Pompey would attack and rouse Caesar from his romantic lethargy.


A "ghost character" in Holiday's Technogamia Cheiromantes predicts that Music will have three sons, Melancholico, Timido, and Jucundo. The third is predicted to be cheerful and attractive to women, but in danger from surfeit and fire; if he escapes those, he will live to be an old man.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by God as an example of man's sinfulness.


Judas emerges from hell as an exemplum of the corrupting power of money in Lupton's All For Money: he betrayed Christ for money and died without repenting.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Sogliardo and Shift compare their friendship with the classical symbols of friendship, Orestes and Pylades, Carlo Buffone suggests different relations of elective affinity. He says that Shift will be Sogliardo's Judas, and Sogliardo his elder tree. The Bible states that Judas hanged himself on a tree after having betrayed Christ. Carlo's comparison suggests self-interest and disloyalty instead of sincere friendship. In another scene, when she hears that Deliro intends to claim Fastidious Brisk's bonds and have him arrested for debt, Fallace calls her husband a Judas. According to Fallace, Deliro is not content to vilify his friend Fastidious Brisk, but he must also betray him. Fallace criticizes Deliro for heeding the counsel of traitors, such as Macilente, who warned Deliro about Fallace's infidelity.
Only mentioned in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. Just as the officers arrive to arrest the Duke of Suffolk, the Sheriff sees Holmes kiss the duke's hands, and he observes that Holmes has kissed his master just as Judas did while betraying the Christ.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Birthe of Hercules. Dromio mentions him when he realizes he has been cheated by Sosia–who was really Mercurius in the shape of Sosia. He actually exclaims: "Thou Iudas misbegotten face: that are a traitor to thy owne master" when Sosia/Mercurius cheats him in order to get the ring Amphitruo had given Dromio as a token for Alcumena.
Only mentioned in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject. When Boroskie unjustly arrests Archas, the old general compares Boroskie to Judas, who kissed him and welcomed him when he came victorious from the war only to betray him.


'Judas' is an insulting name Master Slightall uses to addresses his former servant Geffrey when the latter offers to kick him in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. According to the New Testament, Judas was the apostle who betrayed Jesus Christ.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a virtuous man.


Corporal Judas commands four starving soldiers in Fletcher's Bonduca. They sneak off to the British camp and steal food, but they are captured. Caratach, an admirer of Romans, prevents them from being executed. Judas then lets slip that a Roman officer, Junius, is in love with the Second Daughter of Bonduca. He and the soldiers return to camp with a letter for Junius from the Second Daughter. After the battle, Judas and the soldiers try to capture young Hengo, but Caratach prevents them and beheads a soldier. Later, when Caratach and Hengo are hiding in the forest, Judas and Macer tempt Hengo with some food, and Judas shoots Hengo dead. Caratach then kills Judas with a stone.


Only mentioned in Shirley's Contention for Honor and Riches. A Biblical character, Jude is mentioned in passing by Clod.

JUDE **1630

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. "Jumping Jude" is one of Justice Nimis' "subsidy-women" along with Incontinence, "heroic Doll," "bouncing Nan," and Cis, all of whom he sets free because of his relationship with them.


The Judge in the anonymous Pedler's Prophecy, like the Interpreter and the Justice, is looking to arrest the Pedler for his unsolicited preaching. Like the others, he is deceived into thinking the Pedler is someone else, and moved by the sermon he claims was told him by the Pedler. All three men are eventually convinced that the Pedler is actually speaking truth and that they and all men should be more honest. The Justice states that they must go their separate ways, but first they should praise God and the Queen, which they do.


He refuses to release Cuthbert Cutter the thief despite Prince Henry's intervention on his behalf in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V. When the rash prince strikes him, he orders him to be taken away to the Fleet prison. After his coronation, Henry V appoints him protector of the realm in his absence.

JUDGE **1590

An example of the social, political, and moral corruption in Nineveh in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England, the Judge happily accepts a bribe from the Usurer to decide against Alcon and Thrasibulus. When the rigged proceedings are over, he invites the Usurer and the equally corrupt Lawyer to dine with him.


A disguise Perin adopts in front of his brother Cutbert in the anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave.


The "Iudge" will decide on the case of Prodigalitie in the anonymous The Contention Between Liberalitie and Prodigalitie. When he hears that Prodigalitie declares himself guilty of the charges of theft and murder, he sentences him to death. But on hearing Prodigalitie's plea for mercy, he decides to leave it to the Prince to decide, and he makes a petition to the Prince in that respect.


Entering Middleton's Michaelmas Term during its dénouement at the end of the Michaelmas legal term, the judge decrees that Quomodo's property and extorted land will revert to Easy. He also determines that Lethe must marry his mistress, the Country Wench, paving the way for the marriage of Susan Quomodo and Rearage. He banishes Shortyard and Falselight from the city.


They sit in judgement of Younger Son in [?]Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy. They are pronouncing a sentence of death when the Duke defers their judgement.


The two judges try the case of Samorat and Orsabrin at the end of Suckling's The Goblins. They are about to pass the death-sentence on them for killing Torcular; on discovering that he is still alive, they maintain that the same sentence applies for escaping from prison. But further discoveries bring the heroes safely to a happy ending.


He is left in charge by the Bishop of prosecuting Oldcastle, the Irishman and Harpool, all on false and mistaken charges in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle. He hears the testimony of Wrotham and sentences the Irishman to death and then frees Harpool and the Oldcastles, and pardons John Wrotham.


The Turkish judge in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London tries Mercadore for his refusal to repay debts to Gerontus. But Mercadore outwits them by converting to Islam; under Turkish law, converts do not have to repay any debts they have incurred.


Two judges besides Caius and Ferrio figure in Sharpham's The Fleire.
  • One judge presides over the trial alongside the disguised Antifront (also a judge).
  • After reviving Ruffel and Sparke, Antifront poses as a judge and presides at the trial of Piso and Havelittle. At the trial, he produces a letter showing that Felecia and Florida planned the murders, motivating their repentance. Then, he reveals that Ruffel and Sparke are not dead, clearing the way for the marriages he had planned.


In the final scene of Tourneur's The Atheist's Tragedy, the First and Second Judges oversee the proceedings against the prostitution ring (Cataplasma, Soquette, and Fresco), Languebeau Snuff, and finally Charlemont and Castabella.
  • The First Judge calls attention to Cataplasma's having assumed dress above her station (thus being in violation of the sumptuary laws) but he admits there is no direct evidence that she and her companions were directly accessory to the deaths of Sebastian and Belforest. However, her trade in flesh did provide the occasion for the killings, and that allows the Second Judge to sentence the group on other charges. Later, the First Judge personally sentences Languebeau Snuff to return to his proper trade (he is a candle maker) where he will provide more light to the world than ever he did by his preaching or his life's example.
  • In the trial scene that ends the play, the Second Judge is responsible for sentencing Cataplasma, Soquette, and Fresco. After the First Judge finds that, although the actions of Cataplasma, Soquette, and Fresco are not sufficient to warrant charges as accessories to murder in the deaths of Belforest and Sebastian, their actions did provide the occasion for the killings to occur, the Second Judge sentences the offenders to be whipped, carted through the streets, and set to hard labor. Further, he orders Cataplasma's property confiscated and used to provide support for hospitals.


These unnamed characters in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids preside over a court convened to indict Dorigene after her alleged affair with Dorilus. The Duchess is acquitted.


Two judges in the anonymous Swetnam preside over the trial of Princess Leonida and Prince Lisandro. They initially encourage King Atticus not to be too hard on his daughter, "the only hope of all Sicily." When he demands that they try the case to the death, they are stymied by the question of which party, the man or the woman, committed the worse treason by tempting the other. They therefore propose that two advocates be found–one male, one female–to argue the case of each sex. Although they are swayed in turn by the arguments of both Swetnam and Atlanta, they finally decide that "women are the first and worst temptations / To love and lustful folly," thus condemning Leonida to death. At this, Atlanta declares them "partial" because they are both men, and demands a more indifferent and representative panel of judges that would include women. Her request is denied, and the judges condemn Leonida to death and Lisandro to banishment.


The unnamed Judges who preside over the arraignment of Philocles in May's The Heir. [The text is inconsistent–three Judges are listed at their entrance, but '4IU' (Forth Judge?) is given lines.] The Judges regret that they cannot lawfully pardon him, especially as he has openly confessed to the abduction. Their verdict is interrupted by the arrival of 'Irus,' who brings proof of Virro's commission to murder Eugenio. The Judges sentence Virro to death for this. When Eugenio reveals the truth, the First Judge rejoices that comedy has triumphed over a tragic situation.


The two judges appear initially in the scene in which Chabot is taken away to be arraigned in Chapman's The Tragedy of Chabot, Admiral of France. At the trial, and despite the Provost's attempts, they state that they cannot find Chabot guilty of any capital crime. The Chancellor, however, forces them to sign a stronger verdict, but they indicate that they did so under pressure by initialing it "Vi." They reveal this information to the King, who then orders the arrest of the Lord Chancellor. In the fifth act, they sit in judgment on the Lord Chancellor.


Disguises assumed by Snap and Swift in the anonymous Oberon the Second. They pose as judges to help carry out their deception of their various gulls (Politico, Covet, Spendall, and Losarello).


They order the arrest of Davy, Gough and Owen in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle.


Iudicio discourages Ingenioso from writing satire in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus, and laments his own work correcting badly written manuscripts for the press—specifically, Belvedere, a popular anthology. Together, they discuss the leading authors of the time.


One of the "faithfull followers of young Intellect" in Zouche's The Sophister. Judicium informs Invention at the play's beginning that Topicus and Demonstration are to be married "e're night," and Invention presents an Epigram that he has written "to celebrate this day." Fallacy desires to "inchant" Judicium and Invention, since he claims that they are "the Dragons that so duely keepe / The golden fruit which [he] so long[s] to crop." Thus, he (falsely) informs them that Intellect "is departed from the Court, and fled" and then advises them to search for their Lord in Rhemes and Verona and not to return until they find him. After they exit, Fallacy informs the audience that Judicium and Invention may neither meet nor return again since his own "hope / Stands resolute of quickly taking" Intellect. Because Fallacy is confident in his new position and thinks that he can "stand alone," he contrives the ruin of both Contradiction and Opposition. Fallacy (separately) informs each of his two "sworne supporters" that that Scientia–"notwithstanding all her promises / To Demonstration"–has promised to "place her best affections" upon him if Judicium is killed, and that Judicium has, "for his noble friend," bid Fallacy to "combate." On receiving this information each of the men vows to fight on Fallacy's behalf. He bids them each (separately) to disguise themselves, to keep the plan a secret from the other, and to meet at a certain place and time where each will apparently meet Judicium. However, unbeknownst to Opposition and Contradiction, Fallacy plans for them to meet and kill each other instead. Contradiction enters disguised upon Ignoratio (who is, himself, disguised as a captive at Ambiguity's encouragement), thinks (initially) that Ignoratio is Judicium, and proceeds to strike him and exit after he realizes that he is not Judicium. Judicium talks to Proposition about his search for Intellect and of Fallacy's rule, and Proposition informs him that "Opposition and Contradiction contending for the rule, / Have wounded each the other wilfully"–at which news Judicium expresses his concern for Contradiction. He is present at Intellect's return with Distinction, and is informed of where Intellect has been for the majority of the play. When Judicium discovers from Distinction that a drug can cause "madnesse" and that, likely, Discourse's madness was brought about in such a way, Judicium claims that Discourse "may be help't again by Art." When Judicium asks for a "cunning Chirugeon" in order to let the blood of Discourse, Proposition identifies "one well practis'd skillfull, fortunate / Analysis, who hath well nigh recur'd / the life-despairing brothers, Topicus and Demonstration." Thus, Judicium and Proposition set out to bring Analysis to Discourse. Judicium informs Analysis that Fallacy is likely "the cause of all" who "forc't his fathers madnesse," and Analysis comments to Judicium on the state of Discourse's blood as it is let. Judicium and Analysis lead the revived Discourse in to "rest a while upon his pallet." Discourse appears at the play's end "leaning upon Invention and Juicium." Judicium is present as Discourse thanks his friends, punishes the play's offenders, pronounces the forthcoming weddings of his two sons, and invites his friends to "associate" him "in feasting and delight." Judicium asks Invention to read the "verses" which he had, at the play's beginning, "profer'd to [Judicium's] view." At this, Invention delivers the Epilogue.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a virtuous woman.


Honeysuckle's wife in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho, a malicious wit. She and Mabel Wafer invite Clare Tenterhook to share their "writing master" (Justiniano in disguise). She welcomes his fondling and accepts his invitation, along with her friends, Mabel and Clare, to meet the gallants at an afternoon tavern-party. There, she agrees to the assignation at Brainford. Left alone with the other wives, she agrees to Clare's suggestion to abandon the gallants. She and the other wives ungratefully condemn Birdlime for enticing their husbands, and then forgive and reconcile with the men.


A nickname for Joan in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame.


Jug is the drawer at the New Inn in Jonson's The New Inn. Jug enters with Ferret, Stuff/Trundle, Jordan, Peck, and Pierce, finding Tipto and Fly in absorbed worship of the wine jug. The merry group of servants indulges in gossip and drinking, patronized by Tipto and Fly, who join them in libations. Tipto calls Jug the alferez. In the mock military hierarchy instituted by Fly, alferez is a Spanish military rank immediately inferior to that of lieutenant. Tipto also implies that Jug has a round belly. When the whistle sounds for dinner, the drunkards disperse and all servants go to wait on their masters. Jug hears the whistle calling the servants to their duties, but he shows his displeasure at being interrupted from his Bacchic merriment. It seems that most servants have this feeling, because they continue their merry conversation long after they have heard the whistle. Jug re-enters in the final scene, when Beaufort announces his marriage to Frank/Laetitia. When Beaufort orders his marriage bed to be prepared, Jug says he cannot do that, because his master thinks the marriage is not valid. When Host and all present mockingly congratulate Beaufort on his marriage to a boy, Jug joins in the merriment. It is understood that Jug attends the final revelation scene.


Jug is mentioned on two occasions by Mrs. Generous and is one of the witches who harass the Soldier at the mill in Heywood and Brome's The Late Lancashire Witches; Jug is not given lines and is driven off by the soldier.


Lady Kix's maid in Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside. She tells the Kixes of Touchwood Senior's wonderful water by which he has got nine children. Kix desires to employ that water, but Jugg warns him it is very dear.


The "maid-servant to Mistress Gingle" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Jugge Rubbish is ordered about and insulted by Indulgence. She helps her Mistress to prepare for her appearance in Apollo's Court on Captaine Complement's behalf and, after Indulgence expresses her hate for scholars, Jugge claims that she does not feel the same and "could fine in [her] heart to marry Philoponus at a venture."


The Juggler enters just when the Prologue prepares to deliver the opening of a play entitled Spectrum in the anonymous Wily Beguiled. Seeing that the Prologue looks depressed for having to introduce a poor play, the Juggler offers to cheer him up by some trick of legerdemain or deceptio visus. When the Prologue sends him away to fetch the actors for the play entitled Spectrum, the Juggler responds that he is no intermediary but rather a juggler skilled in many tricks. Since the Prologue wants to see some of his tricks, the Juggler magically conveys away the image of the play entitled Spectrum and conjures the figure of the comedy entitled Wily Beguiled.


The Juggler gulls Morion by dressing as a conjurer and introducing him to 'The Fairy Queen' in The Valiant Welshman. Morion is ordered to strip off his finery and walk to the Fairy Queen on hands and knees. While Morion is led away to fall into a ditch, the Juggler steals his clothes.


The Juggler in the Induction is a "fictional character" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. the stage-keeper in the Induction complains that the Author of the play does not observe the characteristics of real life in his theatrical Fair. Among other things, the stage-keeper says the poet does not have a Juggler with an educated ape to come over the chain for the King and the personalities attending the Fair.

JUGGLER **1631

This unnamed entertainer in Shirley's Love's Cruelty seeks to amuse Bovaldo and Sebastian in the tavern.


Accompanies the Juggler during his gulling of Morion in The Valiant Welshman and presumably takes the role of the Fairy Queen, although the text is unclear about this.


Jugurth or Iugurth is the nephew and loyal supporter of Massinissa in Marston's Sophonisba.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as having been made captive by Rome.


Pert and witty young maid to Alinda in Fletcher's The Pilgrim, she encourages her mistress to be cheerful and to seek a young, handsome husband. When Alinda takes up her advice and escapes from her father's house to follow Pedro, Juletta is surprised, but defends her mistress' actions. She utterly refuses to help Alphonso in his search for her, even at the cost of her own job. Instead, she embarks on a mission to frustrate Alphonso and to help Alinda. Disguised as a boy, she repeatedly leads Alphonso astray in his search for his daughter. She meets with Alinda, but as both women are disguised neither recognizes the other and they part again. Juletta eventually traces her mistress to Segonia, where she meets her in the guise of a madwoman. Because she identifies the ring given her by the madwoman as one of her own that she had given to Alinda, the two are finally reunited. Juletta encourages Alinda first to disguise herself as an old woman in order to persuade Pedro and Roderigo to attend the King's birthday celebrations, and then to attend the celebrations herself in the guise of a shepherdess. In this guise Alinda is reunited with Pedro and her father. Juletta herself then confesses to all her plotting, is forgiven by Alphonso and is offered a husband, but she declares that her mistress is her husband and that she will stay with Alinda until death.


Juletta is one of the Portuguese women who were shipwrecked on the island and have set up their own Amazonian society in Fletcher and Massinger's The Sea Voyage. She is first seen on a hunting expedition with Crocale and Hippolita; they have been separated from Clarinda. They encounter Albert and, supported by Clarinda, demand that Rosellia let them make contact with the French party. Rosellia agrees that they can each pick one man for a husband and enjoy him for one month. Crocale, Hippolita and Juletta recognize their own jewels in the treasure offered to them by the men, and obey Rosellia's order to draw their weapons on them. Juletta is given charge of Lamure, Franville and Morillat, who disgust her with their abject behavior. Juletta and Hippolita help Crocale to set up the banquet for the men, and attend Rosellia's sacrificial ceremony.



JULIA **1593

Though at first firmly resisting and belittling Proteus' love (and letters) in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona, the Veronese maiden Julia warms to her suitor and exchanges rings with him. Travelling in the disguise of the male page, Sebastian, she arrives at court to find Proteus besotted with Silvia. She is welcomed with renewed love by Proteus when she reveals herself near the play's conclusion.


Sister to Gwalter in Chettle, Dekker and Haughton's Patient Grissil. Though she has many suitors, she speaks harshly towards marriage. As the men repeatedly flatter her, she repeatedly rebuffs their advances saying that both the excessive shrewishness of Gwenthyan and the excessive patience of Grissil in the face of horrible abuse make her abhor love and marriage.


Julia is Caesar's daughter and in love with Ovid in Jonson's Poetaster. He praises her in verse under the name of Corinna. At Ovid's house in Rome, Tibullus brings Ovid a note from Julia, summoning him to a meeting in Albius's house. At Albius's house, Julia enters with the poets and their ladies. Julia greets Chloë, pretending to favor her and alluding that she is in the Emperor's graces. When Albius calls Chloë out on some household pretext, the guests feel free to speak openly about love. When the hosts re-enter, Julia wants to see Albius's famous jewelry. After some musical entertainment, Julia exits with the guests to the banquet hall. Julia disguised as Juno enters an apartment in the palace, together with the entire party of poets and their ladies, each characteristically dressed as gods and goddesses. All the masks play their assigned roles. During the entertainment presided by Ovid/Jupiter, Julia/Juno enjoys the revelry. She shows jealousy when Ovid/Jupiter pretends to court Chloë/Venus, and alludes to her feelings for the well-nosed poet, Ovid. When Caesar enters and rails at the debauched party and banishes Ovid, it is understood that Julia and the other women adopt an attitude of silence and submission. While Ovid laments his unhappy situation in the palace garden, Julia appears at her chamber window, expressing her wish to share his fate. Ovid deters her, the two lovers say farewell, and Julia retires from the window.


Julia is a courtesan in Milan in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. She finally marries Lazarillo. In a street, Julia enters asking Pandar if he managed to bring her any customers. When Pandar proposes to Julia to get her married to a rich fool, meaning Mercer, Julia refuses, saying she could have married a poor knight but she declined the offer. Julia exits to pass on the proposal of marriage to a coworker, Francissina. In a street before the brothel, Julia is introduced to Lazarillo and she entertains him. When Lazarillo is arrested as a traitor, Julia tells the Intelligencers that her partner did not look trustworthy because he asked for a fish-head for dinner. When Lazarillo proposes marriage to Julia in exchange for her keeping the fish-head safe for him, Julia accepts. She comments pragmatically that this is an all-win situation: if he lives, she will be married, if he is hanged, there is no loss in it. When Lazarillo is set free, he demands his promised dinner, but Julia requires going to church first to be married, as promised. Julia exits with Lazarillo to the altar.


Julia Augusta, mother of the Emperor, widow of Augustus in the anonymous Tragedy of Tiberius. She has conspired with Tiberius to see that he, and not Germanicus, will become Emperor of Rome. Upon Augustus' death, she sent Sejanus immediately to Rhodes to free Tiberius from exile and so undermine Germanicus in Germany. When she tries to wield her son's power, Tiberius plots to have her murdered. When she learns of her son's plots, she plots to have him killed instead. Sejanus gives her poison in a pomegranate and so kills her.


Julia is the Duchess of Florence in Mason's Mulleasses. Following her father's death, she has been placed under the protection of her Uncle Borgias, Governor of Florence. Julia is as beautiful as she is highborn. Julia is wooed aggressively by the Dukes of Ferrara and Venice. She is placed under the protective custody of her cousin Amada. Borgias publicly states that Julia has died; however, she is actually Borgias's prisoner. A fake funeral is held for Julia, where her suitors pay tribute. Borgias tries to convince Julia to marry him, but she refuses. When Timoclea returns as a ghost, Julia convinces Amada to confer with the ghost alone, leading to Amada's death. Mulleasses plots the deaths of Borgias's family so that he might possess Julia himself. Julia refuses Mulleasses's advances, professing that she could never love a Muslim. At the conclusion of the play, Julia is engaged to the Duke of Venice.


Wife of old Castruccio in Webster's The Duchess of Malfi. She is also Delio's one-time lover and now is mistress to the Cardinal. When she loses the confidence of the Cardinal, he murders her by having her kiss a poisoned cross on a Bible.


The sister of Dorilus and friend of Duchess Dorigene in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids, she disguises herself as a milkmaid and repairs to Duke Earnest's court where she is pursued by numerous citizens and courtiers. Overheard by the invisible Frederick, Julia agrees to marry Raymond, on the condition that he mends the rift between the Duke and Duchess that his false rumors have created. Summoned by Raymond, she breaks her oath to him and reveals his treachery in attempting to inflame the Duke against Dorigene.


Euphrata's waiting gentlewoman in the anonymous Costly Whore, she is privy to her lady's love of Constantine, and assists her in obtaining the banishment of the jealous Montano. She joins Otho in the attempt to rescue the condemned lovers, substituting herself for her mistress, and agrees to become Otho's wife.


A "ghost character." Lady Julia is the "bawd-major to the army," whom Margarita is known to visit in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife.


Julia is Domitian's niece in Massinger's The Roman Actor. Prior to the action of the play, Domitian has seduced her by promising her the title of Augusta. Forced to act as waiting woman to Domitia, Julia joins with Aretinus and others in the plot to reveal Domitia's love for Paris, for which Julia is cast in the dungeon. Condemned to death, she joins in the final plot against Domitian.


A court lady in Ford's Love's Sacrifice, daughter to Nibrassa, in the service of the Duke's sister Fiormunda. Julia is one of Ferentes's many gullible lovers. She is already melancholy at the start of the play, made pregnant by him and discarded, despite his promises of marriage. Her father angrily disowns her when he learns of her disgrace, only relenting, together with Colona's father, on condition that the women avenge themselves on their seducer. Together with the equally abused Morona, they succeed in planning a public revenge on Ferentes. They participate in the masque he arranges as part of the ceremonial welcome for the visiting Abbot. Disguised as 'female antickes', they murder him. They present the Duke with their infants, and Julia is bold enough to be their spokeswoman, stressing that the Duke has failed to give them public justice and forced them to desperate private revenge. He is unmoved, and first condemns them to death for treachery. The extenuating circumstances of their revenge allow them to be pardoned later, after their fathers plead for their lives. Julia continues to serve Fiormunda, and is enlisted to spy by D'avolos. He has already promised her a new gown for her services, and also offers her marriage, which she is again gullible enough to believe. She agrees to spy for him, but makes no further overt contribution to the action. She is not subsequently mentioned by name, but her attendance at the Duchess's tomb with the rest of the court, may be inferred.


Daughter and heir of the Duke of Millaine in Heywood's A Maidenhead Well Lost, she loves the Prince of Parma, to whom she has yielded her virginity, but is told by Stroza that the Prince is having an affair with Lauretta, the daughter of Sforsa. Encountering Lauretta, she strikes her, then charges the Prince with inconstancy, but when he responds by vowing to abjure her, instantly repents, realizing that unless she marries him her pregnancy will bring her to shame. She asks her father to banish Lauretta from court. She tells Parma about her condition, but hardened against her by Stroza, he scorns her. She then reveals the truth to her father. After the baby is born and sent away, she agrees to marry the Prince of Florence. When he charges her at the altar with being unchaste, she protests, and is eager to do her part in the bed-trick. She is duped in turn by the suspicious Prince, however, and when the plot is revealed and disgrace looms, she is glad to be saved by the reappearance of Parma and the baby, and the Duke of Millaine's approval of their marriage.

JULIA **1635

Julia is a waiting-woman at Petrutio's banquet in Marmion's The Antiquary. With Baccha, Julia dresses the drunken Petro in women's clothing.


Named as one of her women by Aphelia in Hemming's Fatal Contract, but she is not specifically identified in dialogue.


Agrippina is the wife (and niece) of the Emperor Claudius and the mother (by her previous marriage) of Nero in May's Julia Agrippina. She was sister to Caligula and daughter of Germanicus. For Nero's succession she schemes mercilessly with her lover Pallas, poisoning Claudius to ensure it. She is also responsible for several other murders. She is, however, kind to Octavia, and when Nero turns against her she also attempts to protect Britannicus. She is unsuccessful in this and, after surviving a boating accident, she is stabbed by Anicetus on the orders of Nero. n.b. In Roman history, she is known as Julia Agrippina minor. Her mother, Julia Agrippina major, was married to Germanicus.


Julian, also spelled Iulian, is an honest maid servant to Maud in the anonymous July and Julian. Having agreed to meet her beloved July at night, the moment she learns that her mistress intends to marry her son to a worthy lady, she reveals their plans for a secret meeting to her–even a the cost of her own happiness. Then Maud's cruelty goes as far as to use her to play a part in a plan devised to ruin all her hopes of fulfilling her love: Julian is asked to tell Fenell to bring Misis, in order to make her go to the date in Julian's place. At the date, aware of the exchange, July insults the lady and accuses her of being false. Thus, when a Merchant offers Chremes to meet all his debts–plus a large sum of money–for Julian, he eagerly accepts to sell her as a slave. But then July begs his parents not to take her away from him. In the end, she is freed from the Messenger by a plan devised by Wilkin, and she finally marries July, and is accepted by his parents.


A "ghost character" in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. Prate and Lollia's servant who is summoned but never appears during the near-discovery of Lollia and Alphonso's assignation.


Romero enters with the Spanish group in the anonymous A Larum for London. He reports that Don Emanuel has entered the city through another door and goes into the castle. He participates in the battle, killing Champaigne and threatening Egmont. He reports that the deaths of defenders of Antwerp rise to seventeen thousand and of the Spanish forces to three hundred.


Daughter of the King and Queen of Denmark, heir to the throne since her brother Clyomon's disappearance in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. As the play opens, she gives Clamydes safe harbor from a storm in return for his promise to slay the flying serpent that terrorizes the women of Denmark. She gives Clamydes a white shield and the name "White Knight of the Silver Shield." She promises him marriage is he succeeds. Later, she has a premonition that an unknown knight will claim Clamydes's deed and valor. She is in fact later deceived into believing that Bryan Sans Foy is Clamydes when he appears in court with the beast's head. When the real Clamydes arrives, she thinks that he is the imposter (having seen Bryan in the coat and shield she gave him). When Clamydes challenges Bryan, however, and Bryan runs away, she realizes her mistake and is forgiven. Clamydes see her refusal to believe him as commendable constancy in her. They are reunited and plan a double wedding with Clyomon and Neronis.

JULIANA **1620

Virolet's beloved wife in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage. She begins with complaints about her husband's silences, but, when he confesses they are due to his preoccupation with a plot against the tyrant King Ferrand, Juliana supports the plot and, when it goes awry, reveals the location of a secret cave within the house where Virolet can hide. Arrested by Ferrand and subjected to shocking on-stage torture on the rack, Juliana refuses to reveal her husband's hiding place. After Virolet's return, Juliana is released and Ferrand's guards bring her home "not yet fully recovered" from her tortures. When Juliana asks where her husband is, the First Guard tells her he is back in Ferrand's favor, and her servant Lucio is forced to explain that Virolet has chosen not to come out and greet her. When Virolet does appear, he explains to Juliana that he must divorce her in order to keep his promise to marry Martia. He explains the reasons for the divorce and summons a lawyer, who announces they will use Juliana's barrenness, a consequence of the torture she endured, as grounds for the divorce. Juliana graciously concedes Martia's superior claim to Virolet, and asks Pandulpho to retract the curses he has placed on his son. Pandulpho replies that he will write a book about Juliana's virtues. When Martia comes to call, Juliana orders a banquet prepared for her rival, and is polite and humble as Martia rants about Virolet's refusal to consummate the marriage. Juliana refuses to help Martia take revenge on Virolet, and instead praises her former husband's ability to keep his promises. She then goes to meet Virolet, who proclaims his love for her and asks her to live with him. Juliana reveals Martia's plot against Virolet's life, but refuses to dishonor Virolet by behaving unchastely with him. Later, mistaking the disguised Virolet for the hated Ronvere, Juliana stabs her former husband, who praises and forgives her as he dies. She offers to stab herself, but Virolet begs her not to in the hope that they will be reunited in heaven. When Pandulpho enters with his book of Juliana's virtues, she asks him to burn it, explaining that she has stabbed Virolet. When Lucio and three servants enter, they and Pandulpho at first think Juliana is ignoring them, but they soon discover that she has died. The pitiful corpses of Juliana and Virolet are displayed by Sesse to help garner support for his coup against Ferrand.


A niece of the Duke of Genoa in Fletcher, Ford, Massinger and Webster's The Fair Maid of the Inn. The Duke refuses her permission to marry Baptista. They marry in secret, but the Duke finds out and banishes Baptista. When pregnant, she finds an excuse to travel to Lucca, where she gives the baby to Prospero, and spends many years in a Greek monastery, before traveling to Florence to be reunited with Baptista and her daughter, Bianca.


Juliana in Shirley's The Imposture is Flaviano's mistress sent by him to a nunnery and asked to assume Fioretta's name when Leonoato of Ferrara claims his bride. Because Fioretta has vanished, Juliana takes her place and is kidnapped from the nunnery by Leonato. Deeply ashamed of not only her relationship with Flaviano but of her ruses and deceptions as well, Juliana reveals her identity near the end of the play and willingly enters a house of converts. She speaks the play's Epilogue.


A Spanish nobleman, and father of Jacinta in William Rowley's All's Lost by Lust. King Roderick makes Julianus his general in the wars against the Moors, but does so in order to gain access to Jacinta. Julianus ignores Jacinta's fears about Roderick's intentions. During the wars, the Spanish army captures Mully Mumen, King of the Moors. Julianus is infuriated when Jacinta arrives at the camp and tells him that Roderick has raped her. He leads the army in a rebellion against Roderick, aided by Muly Mumen. But when Julianus denies Muly Mumen's request to marry Jacinta, the Moor orders him to be blinded and then tricks him into stabbing Jacinta to death. The Moor then stabs Julianus to death.


A servant of Theophilus in Massinger and Dekker's The Virgin Martyr.


The daughter of Capulet in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Having fallen in love with Romeo, she secretly marries him. Following Romeo's banishment, and seemingly unable to prevent being married to Paris, Juliet seeks the help of Friar Laurence. Despite serious misgivings, she drinks a potion he gives her designed to make her appear dead—all in the hope of fleeing Verona and being reunited with her husband. When she awakes in her tomb, though, she finds Romeo there dead, and, abandoned by the Friar, kills herself with Romeo's dagger.

JULIET **1604

Often called Julietta to distinguish her from Romeo's love, she is nevertheless listed as Juliet in the dramatis personae of Shakespeare's Measure for Measure, she is usually referred to thus, but Claudio twice calls her Julietta. She is a young woman secretly married to Claudio per verba de praesenti. When her secret husband, Claudio, legitimately impregnates her, Angelo has them imprisoned for fornication and Claudio sentenced to execution. The disguised Duke counsels her, and though she demonstrates contrition over the act, scholars debate whether she is in fact guilty of a moral crime. As Juliet grows close to delivering the child, she is removed from the prison and presumably taken to a convent to give birth.


Often called Julietta to distinguish her from Romeo's love, she is nevertheless listed as Juliet in the dramatis personae of Shakespeare's Measure for Measure, she is usually referred to thus, but Claudio twice calls her Julietta. She is a young woman secretly married to Claudio per verba de praesenti. When her secret husband, Claudio, legitimately impregnates her, Angelo has them imprisoned for fornication and Claudio sentenced to execution. The disguised Duke counsels her, and though she demonstrates contrition over the act, scholars debate whether she is in fact guilty of a moral crime. As Juliet grows close to delivering the child, she is removed from the prison and presumably taken to a convent to give birth.


Julietta expresses her concern about the lack of forwardness shown by her suitor, Trier, in Shirley's Hyde Park. She tells her brother, Fairfield, that she only favors Trier's application because he is recommended by Fairfield. Lord Bonville is foisted upon her by Trier. She receives the nobleman with courtesy, but refuses his evidently sexual flattery. Citing deference and innocence, she walks with Bonville in the Park, but continues to deflect his bawdy remarks. She later walks with Fairfield in the Park, making Carol think that she is Fairfield's lover. Julietta takes part in trivial betting on the horse race. She advises a relieved Carol that she is Fairfield's sister, not a lover. A very crude seduction attempt is made on her by Bonville. With great eloquence, she appeals to Bonville's class status, telling him that he should behave in a way appropriate to a regally-appointed Lord of the state, and that when he is older, he could look back on his life with either pride or shame. Her remarks have a genuine effect on Bonville, who now leaves her alone. She rejects Trier, because she is appalled that he was testing her chastity by exposing her to Bonville. She looks forward to sisterhood with Carol, and will have a chaste friendship with Lord Bonville. She will think only charitably about her failed suitor, Trier.


Charmia and Gratiano’s daughter in Rider’s The Twins. She is a blushing virgin who seems ever sad. Lurco takes Carolo and Clarinda to see Alphonso and Julietta speaking alone and tries to sew the seeds of jealousy in them though it works only on Carolo. When Carolo and Clarinda slip away, Alphonso sees them and also grows jealous, thinking they have dishonest, guilty consciences. When she learns that Alphonso is dead and Carolo has fled, she is distracted and says she must ring the bells upon her lute for joy and go run after Carolo. She becomes ‘as merry as a cricket’ and is as happy as Clarinda used to be. She says she disdains Carolo for running away from her for fear of a dead man. At the shepherd’s festival, she discovers that Carolo has not run away and she confesses her love for him. When Alphonso unmasks and forgives Carolo, all ends happily.


Captain of the guard in Wilmot's Gismond of Salerne. He is ordered by Tancred to apprehend Guishard by waiting at the end of a vaulted tunnel that leads to Gismond's chamber. Julio brings Guishard to the king, who orders that Guishard be confined in a dungeon and that Renuchio be notified of the king's decision.
Julio, the lord chamberlain in Wilmot's Tancred and Gismunda. He accompanies Tancred when he leaves the palace, embarking on a hunt. Later Julio appears in the company of Guiszard as they prepare for a walk. Still later he meets Tancred when the king exits Gismunda's chamber, having seen his daughter with Guiszard. Tancred tells Julio of the secret tunnel to his daughter's room and bids him wait for Guiszard at its end outside the palace. Julio pledges his loyalty to Tancred, apprehends Guiszard, and brings him to the king. Although Julio pleads that the prisoner be treated with mercy, Tancred cannot be moved from his vengeful course. The king tells Julio that Renuchio must convey Guiszard to the dungeon. Later Julio accompanies Tancred when he hastens to the dying Gismunda. After her death Tancred orders Julio to bury Gismunda with Guiszard together and set up an epitaph declaring their love. Julio speaks the epilogue, drawing the appropriate lesson from the tragedy.


A subject of Tereus and Progne in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appears in the third playlet.


Friend of Erastus in Kyd's Soliman and Perseda. In II, he participates in the mummers game with Erastus, Piston, and Iulio, in which they regain from Lucina the chain Perseda had given Erastus. He reports the murder of Ferdinando to Philippo and accompanies him back to the body. He is captured during the Turkish assault on Rhodes then killed when he refuses to convert.


Julio is Piero's young son in Marston's Antonio's Revenge. He is awakened by bad dreams and wanders into a church. Antonio finds the boy and stabs him to death in order to torment Piero. Antonio sprinkles Julio's blood over Andrugio's hearse as a sacrificial offering. His body is dismembered, cooked and presented to a fatally stabbed Piero at the conclusion of the play.


A courtier in Chapman's The Gentleman Usher. He enters in pursuit of the lovers with Alphonso, Medice, Cortezza, and Lasso in V, then accompanies Medice in pursuit of Vincentio. He returns to Lasso's house and reports that Vincentio is seriously hurt.


Julio is the name adopted by Challenger in the anonymous The Fair Maid of Bristow when he disguises himself as an Italian doctor. Vallenger commissions "Dr. Julio" to murder Sentloe and hints darkly that Annabel will be next.


Julio is a gallant courtier and a friend of Polymetes in Day's Law Tricks. He is fond of tobacco, and teases Polymetes about his bookish behavior. Julio falls in love with Emilia, but agrees to give her up when Polymetes also falls in love with her. He joins Polymetes in prodigal behavior, but also helps his friend in trying to conceal its extent from Ferneze. Julio assists with Polymetes' 'conjuring' of Emilia—really Joculo in disguise—pretending to be a merchant.


Julio is a friend of Aminter in Day's Isle of Gulls and with him plots to abduct the princesses Hippolita and Violetta from the fortified island on which Basilius keeps them. They arrive in disguise as a poor soldier and a poor poet, and are about to be dismissed by Dametas before they remove their disguises. It turns out that they have been conspiring with Dametas to win the challenge, and Dametas is to help them seize Hippolita and Violetta during a hunting party. Julio and Aminter disguise themselves as satyrs and snatch the princesses, but Hippolita and Violetta are rescued by Lisander and Demetrius and Julio and Aminter are frustrated. They return in disguise as Lacedaemonian intelligencers, and Basilius orders Dametas to reward them with 200 crowns for the news they bring. Instead, he keeps them hanging on for two months and eventually gives them only 50 crowns. Julio and Aminter are debating their frustrations and planning to inform on Dametas via Zelmane, when they overhear Lisander and Demetrius plotting to elope with the princesses. Lisander and Demetrius decide to hire Julio and Aminter to convey the princesses from the island. Unfortunately for them, this gives Julio and Aminter the opportunity to take Hippolita and Violetta for themselves. Lisander and Demetrius are furious and draw their swords, but Basilius approves the claim of Julio and Aminter within the rules of the challenge.


Julio is Regent of Mantua for the conquering Duke Octavio in Day's Humour Out of Breath. He first enters in 5.1 where he informs Duke Octavio of the Mantuan's revolt. His next appearances are problematic. He is in the stage direction to enter with Francisco, Hippolito and Flamineo in 5.2 (Bullen p. 477; Mermaid 5.3) but does not speak. Then later in the same scene (Bullen p. 481) he enters again with Octavio and others, and speaks one line to Octavio. It is not clear whether his first entrance is an error or whether he exited at some point before his second entry with Octavio. It is perhaps the former save that his one line suggests he may have witnessed the events preceding Octavio's entry.


At first obsessed with Lelia, despite knowing that she is not honest, Julio decides to pretend that he believes her lies in Fletcher's The Captain. When she refers to marriage, however, he leaves abruptly. Julio declares to Angilo that he no longer loves Lelia and insists that Angilo return to her house with him to witness Julio rejecting her, but when they arrive Julio offers to marry her. Angilo challenges the logic of Julio's choice because they both know that she is not honest. He says that he would kill Julio before allowing him to marry Lelia in order to save Julio's honor. Julio decides that Angilo's friendship is more important to him than Lelia's love. Cured of his obsession for Lelia, Julio falls in love with Clora and marries her.

JULIO **1612

Julio is an imposter physician in Webster's The White Devil. He along with Flamineo is hired by Brachiano to murder Isabella and Camillo so Brachiano may have Vittoria. He along with Christophero burn poison before a picture of Brachiano, which Isabella later kisses and dies therefrom.

JULIO **1615

A “ghost character" in Tomkis’ Albumazar. When Harpax importunes Trincalo/Antonio for ten pounds he lent before Antonio went into Barbary, he produces a letter for the debt witnesses by Antonio’s cousin Julio (doubtless forged).


Son of Crispiano in Webster's The Devil's Law Case.


Julio, a courtier in Massinger's The Duke of Milan.


A nobleman whose household is at enmity with the Bellides clan in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill. Julio welcomes the aristocrats to his country estate, and the play-within-the-play is staged in his house. When Florimell is abducted, Julio is angry, but the girl's father's request for assistance in rescuing her results only in Julio's self-pity because he is reminded of his own lost daughter. When Bustofa makes up a story about Antonio fighting the Bellides clan, Julio is not fooled for long, but the story makes him realise the dangers of the feud between the families. Bellides shares these fears, and the two fathers make friends. Having learned via Martine that Ismenia and Antonio plan to marry, they agree to pretend they are still enemies until the last minute. Both pretend to be angry at Antonio, and they force him to marry the shepherdess 'Isabella'. When she reveals that she is Ismenia in disguise, both Julio and Bellides admit that they knew all along and are happy to unite their households in marriage. It is then revealed that Florimell is Julio's long-lost daughter.

JULIO **1633

Julio is a Neapolitan noble and friend of Cesario in Shirley's The Young Admiral who knows that Cesario plots against Vittori. He is unsuccessful in his mission to retrieve Vittori and Cassandra following their banishment; he reports that the two lovers are have escaped by sea.


A courtier in the duchess' court at Urbino in Shirley's The Opportunity, Julio is the third person in the play to mistake Aurelio for Borgia.

JULIO **1635

Alphonso’s father in Rider’s The Twins, banished by Sforza when Frederico plotted against him. Disguised in woodsman’s clothes, his first speech is a near paraphrase of Duke Senior’s first speech from Shakespeare’s AYL. Julio overhears Carolo’s confession to the ‘ghost’ of Alphonso (Corbo in Alphonso’s clothes) and, realizing that the ‘murder’ was honorable (Carolo’s dagger to Alphonso’s sword), allows him to remain in Pale’s wood. In his sleep, Carolo confesses in Julio’s hearing that it is Alphonso he has slain. Julio will not kill him dishonorably in his sleep, but he swears vengeance. At the shepherd’s festival, he challenges Carolo, intending to allow himself to be killed and join Alphonso in death. His plan is averted when Alphonso reveals himself and all ends happily. He even forgives Lurco when he reveals that he is actually Frederico that caused Julio’s banishment ten years before.


Julio is a page serving Galeazzo in Massinger's The Bashful Lover. As the play opens, he asks his master why he is taking the disguise of a poor man, and further asks why he wishes to risk his life in wars. Yet he himself steals away from the court to join his master at the wars. He carries with him a ring from Matilda, hoping it will inspire him.


Julio is a Mantuan lord that pretends Valentia in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. Being afraid of not becoming the ruler of Mantua, he plots against the Duke, whom he tries to murder. In his attempt, he wears a mask that he bought to a Jew. However, he is stopped by Prospero so Julio pretends to chase the imaginary murderer before asking the rest of the courtiers for help. Later, he will go to tell the Duke that he has seen Antonio with Valentia in the tower. He fails but that does not deter him to inform the Duke about what he has heard Antonio saying to the Architect. He wants to surprise them. Nevertheless, he fails again and he is scorned by the rest of the courtiers. In Act Four, he announces the presence of a Necromancer at the court and tells his equals that he may help them to know the future so they agree to pay a visit to him. The Necromancer will tell him how to get Valentia's love. He disguises himself as a Smith and is arrested together with the other two suitors.


Julio is the eponymous knave in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped. After being banished for his father's treachery, Julio returns to Venice. He pretends to be poor, and his old friend Fransiscus gives him money. He then shows Lodowick a box of gold and tricks him into lending him more money by allowing him to keep the box of gold on his person as long as he promises not to open it. He decides that the way to riches is to marry Phemone. But she loves Antonio, so Julio slanders Antonio to Fransiscus, saying Antonio is having an affair with Fransiscus's wife. But when Fransiscus stabs Antonio, Crissipus, believing the rumors, blames Cornelia for causing the altercation, and disowns her. Phemone supports her sister and enters disownment with her. This ruins Julio's plans. He then learns that the gallants are all coming to his Leaguer, and that he has no food in stock. Luckily, a Bread and Meat Man passes, carrying food to the local prisoners, so Julio buys all his scraps, and spreads them around the drunken gallants, so that when they wake they think they've eaten a great meal, and pay him for it. Julio then wants to buy some silk; the Mercer says he'll send his Man over to collect payment from Julio. Julio directs the Mercer's Man to his Barber, and tells the Barber that the Mercer's Man has come for treatment of syphilis, but is too shy to admit it, with hilarious results. He then meets Fransiscus, and pretends to be friendly, while actually plotting to betray Fransiscus and claim the bounty on his head. He is accosted by two sergeants sent by Lodowick, Tomazo and Stultissimo, but he tricks a Doctor of religion into supporting his good name and is released. Then he helps Arbaces arrest Fransiscus. At Fransiscus's trial, he acts as witness for the prosecution, to Fransiscus' astonishment. But at the last minute Antonio, Cornelia and Phemone enter; Fransiscus explains to the court how Julio had tricked them all, and Antonio supports him. The Duke orders Julio to be branded with the word "knave" on his brow. Julio leaves, but then returns on a cart, and gulls a Country Fellow into looking like a worse cheat than he is. He then delivers and epilogue that suggests that everyone is a cheat.


Victoria's brother in Dekker's(?) Telltale; sometimes disguised as Corbino, slave to Aspero. Enters as Corbino after Aspero, Cosmo, and Gismond arrest Victoria and Picentio with the Duke's warrant. Aspero orders him to lock up Victoria and Picentio and allow no visitors other than Aspero. Corbino is called by Aspero and offered money and his freedom if he murders Victoria and Picentio. He agrees to the offer and exits with Aspero to plan the deed. He helps Picentio and the Duchess escape prison and secretly conveys the Duchess to Fidelio in Castle Angelo. Julio disguises the Duchess's identity by darkening her face with umber. Julio and the Duchess are both captured and brought to the military camp by two Soldiers. Julio resists both Soldiers' attempts to offer him money to hire the Duchess as camp prostitute. At the end of the play, Julio returns to court with the Duke, Duchess, the Captain, Lieutenant, and Ancient, all impersonating their spirits. Picentio, disguised as the French Doctor, commands them to indicate their approval or disapproval of Aspero. After showing signs of approval the spirits perform a dance, during which the Duke takes the crown and the Duchess the scepter. The Duke resumes his authority and Julio pulls off his disguise as the slave Corbino. As punishment, the Duke condemns Aspero to work as Julio's slave. Julio, however, does not want to taint his mind with Aspero's continued presence and begs the Duke to revoke his sentence. The Duke strips Aspero of his title and freedom instead. Julio listens to Bentivoli's tale, witnesses the purged Garullo's return, and exits with the court to the weddings of Picentio and Isabella and Hortensio and Elinor.


Julio is the Count of Camerino in Ford's The Fancies Chaste and Noble. He is the nobleman who has bought Flavia from her former husband Fabricio. He has married her and dotes on her.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. Julio Lentulus is referred to by Lorenzo. Lorenzo states that he obtained his poisons from Julio Lentulus, a famous Neapolitan poisoner, and then poisoned him himself.


The brother-in-law of Countess Katharine and uncle to her two sons in Barnes's The Devil's Charter. He appears on the walls of Furli with Katharine when she faces Caesar Borgia and his troops.


Julius is a soldier enlisted in Catiline's conspiracy in Jonson's Catiline. During the secret nightly meeting in which the conspirators devise their strategy of retaliation, Catiline informs his fellows of his plans. He says he has already sent Julius to the province of Apulia to raise an army to help the conspirators on the fated day, when they intend to set Rome on fire and kill Catiline's enemies at once.


Caesar has conquered Germany and Gaul and is about to invade Britain in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. In a letter to Cassibelane he demands that Britain pays tribute to Rome and sends noble ladies as hostages. Cassibelane declines to follow these orders. For Caesar, the Britons are worthier enemies than the Gauls. It grieves him to fight his own people, as both nations claim to be descendents of Troy, but the Britons have helped the Belgians, they are rude and must be frightened before they can become friends. In his first attempt to conquer the island he loses a lot of men who drown when they have to wade to the shore in their heavy armor. Cassibelane has managed to raise an army from all the kingdoms of the island. In the battle, Caesar fights with Nennius and wounds him mortally, but he has to flee nevertheless and he loses his sword "Crocea Mors." He decides to leave the country and come back with a bigger army. Mandubrace comes as a messenger to offer the succour of Androgeus and Themantius, and now Caesar can oppose Cassibelane with a stronger force. He encounters Cassibelane's army twelve miles off the coast and remains relatively successful, but in the meantime his fleet gets destroyed by a storm. He has to accept Cassibelane's peace offer, they exchange gifts and become friends, but Caesar can still set up the conditions: Cassibelane remains in power till he dies, Themantius instead of Androgeus shall then wear the crown, Mandubrace shall get Troynovant, and Britain shall pay a yearly tribute of 3,000 pound silver to Rome.
Julius Caesar arrives in Egypt after beating Pompey in battle in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. He is presented with Pompey's head, but is not at all pleased; rather, he mourns the dishonorable death Pompey has suffered and threatens to kill Ptolemy, although he does eventually forgive the king on grounds on of youth. That night, Caesar receives a large package, which turns out to be Cleopatra, who begs for his protection. Caesar is immediately infatuated by her, and promises her anything, even calling her a goddess. However, when Ptolemy invites Caesar to a masque displaying the wealth of Egypt, Caesar is overwhelmed by the display and ignores Cleopatra. After the masque, he comes to see her, but is refused entrance. When he forces his way in and tries to mitigate her anger, she bitterly accuses him of treating her as a mistress only, cast off in favor of a new mistress–:gold. When Caesar promises that she can be queen or anything she wishes, she tells him to make her a maid again, and then leaves, ignoring his command to stay. His captains then appear and tell him that while he was distracted by lust, the palace has been besieged. Antony suggests that Ptolemy and Cleopatra are behind the revolt, but Caesar refuses to believe Cleopatra is a traitor. He parleys with Photinus, and is appalled that he is not respected by the eunuch, and humiliated that he might have to seek help. Septimus approaches him and promises to take Caesar and others to a cave where they can hide, but Caesar rejects this offer as shameful and probably just a way to kill him. Instead, he has Septimus hanged and goes on the attack, entering to rescue Cleopatra from Photinus, kill Photinus and Achillas and hand over Egypt to Cleopatra.
Having just won the battle of Pharsalia as the anonymous Caesar and Pompey opens, Caesar then travels to Egypt, where he promises to restore Cleopatra to her throne, and then falls in love with her, though little is made of this. Returning to Rome, he is murdered. He later returns as a ghost, describes the underworld, reconciles Octavian and Antony, and haunts Brutus.
Caesar is a great general, fiercely ambitious but complex in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. Although Chapman's "Argument" presents him as a villain, the play is much less straightforward. He is cunning: he sets up his henchmen, Mark Antony and the tribune Metellus, to demand that the Senate should allow Pompey to bring his army to Rome, so that they will be unable to deny the same privilege to himself; he is courageous–he insists on crossing the river Anio in order to continue the war, although he knows that Pompey's navy is all around and a storm is raging; and he is highly conscious of being blessed by fortune. He also has the generosity to be impressed by his opponents, e.g. Cato, and to praise them generously in their defeat. The play ends with his repudiation of Pompey's murder, and order that the murderers should be tortured.
Caius Julius Caesar is a politician in the last days of the Roman republic in Jonson's Catiline. In the Roman Senate, Caesar enters with the other senators. Following the election of Cicero and Caius Antonius as consuls, Cicero delivers his speech of gratitude. It seems that Caesar resents Cicero's self-commendatory remarks, and insinuates that he would not put it past Cicero's ambition to have invented rumors of conspiracy in order to pose as a savior. Caesar keeps secret connections with Catiline, assuring him of his and Crassus's support, and prompting him to go along with the plot. In the Senate, just before Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy, Caesar wants to know the allegations. On seeing that most senators do not support Catiline, Caesar also keeps a low profile. In his turn, Cicero does not indict Caesar and Crassus together with Catiline because, he says, they are powerful and popular men and it is dangerous to stir too many serpents at once. Before the final confrontation between the Senate's army and Catiline's troupes, Caesar and Crassus discuss the situation. Seeing that Catiline's boat is sinking, Caesar and Crassus desert Catiline. After the depositions against the conspirators in the Senate, the Consul rules that Statilius should be placed in Caesar's private custody. When the Senate is summoned urgently to decide on the conspirators' punishment, Caesar makes an eloquent plea for moderation, opposing a vindictive and ruthless majority in the senate. However, the conspirators are sentenced to death, but Caesar and Crassus are not involved in the plot.
Julius Caesar is an immensely popular and powerful man in Rome in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Three times he is offered the kingship by Antony and is likely to be made king by the Senate. Caesar shows few overt signs of desiring kingship, yet he is nonetheless slain on the Senate floor by a band of conspirators. Though the play is named for Caesar, Caesar appears only moderately in the drama and is killed in II. His ghost reappears later in the play.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. The adopted father of Octavius Caesar and former lover of Cleopatra. He is mentioned multiple times by characters as a guide for their decisions and behavior.
Only mentioned in Shakespeare's Hamlet. In Q2, after the Ghost visits Barnardo, Marcellus and Horatio for the first time, Horatio describes how just before Julius Caesar was murdered, ghosts were seen walking the streets of Rome and the heavens rained fire. Later, just before the play within the play, Hamlet asks Polonius about his acting at university, and Polonius says that he played Julius Caesar. This is probably an in-joke, since it is likely that the actor playing Polonius did play the title character in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar; and Richard Burbage, the actor playing Hamlet, may have played Brutus.
A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as a great Roman of the past.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Julius Caesar is mentioned by Sir Cupid Phantsy when he is telling Doctor Clyster about 'good men' who have also been writers: "What say you to Julius Caesar, Augustus, and Germanicus, and most of the emperors?" Julius Caesar (c. 100-44 B. C.) formed part, with Pompey and Crassus, of the First Triumvirate, and was later elected dictator perpetuus. His account of his eight years of Gallic campaigns in De Bello Gallico (The Gallic Wars) has become a classic of ancient history and literature, and gained him a reputation as a great writer.
Only mentioned in Markham's Herod and Antipater. Julius, or Julius Caesar, is mentioned by the First Slave as he refuses to kill King Herod on Augustus' order.
Undeclared, but clearly recognized as the Emperor in Kyd's Cornelia, Julius Caesar clearly loves Rome, and is proud of what he has accomplished in the name of Rome. He has conquered Rome's enemies and is building a vast colonial empire. He knows that the people of Rome love him and he can easily be crowned Emperor, but Mark Anthony, who rides by his side, warns Caesar that because Caesar is so powerful, so successful in war, and so loved by the people, there are Senators who will not only oppose him on his return, but will want him dead; a few may act on their desires. Caesar objects that what he has done has only enriched the state and he decides to leave his fate in the hands of the gods. He tells Mark Anthony that an unexpected and unlooked for death, might be the best way to die. After Pompey's murder, Julius Caesar captures Photis and Achillas and beheads them for the crime of murder. Caesar calls Pompey "honorable," but Cornelia does not believe he is sincere. She is one of the characters who longs for Caesar's death.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Pathomachia. Pride boasts of how he aided him.


Julius Florius, Archbishop of Mentz, Chancellor of Germany and Duke of Pomerland, is one of the seven Electors of Germany in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. He has cause to be grateful to Richard, having previously been captured by the Duke of Brunschweig and ransomed by Richard. However, bribed by Alphonsus, he fails to support Richard in council and instead backs Bohemia. Mentz draws the lot of jester in Fortune's Revels, and witnesses the arrest and killing of the Palsgrave. When Alphonsus feigns to be dangerously ill, Mentz incautiously declares that he would give his own life to make Alphonsus better, and Alexander stabs him to death on the spot as Alphonsus stages a miraculous recovery.


A "ghost character" in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. In the B-text only, Bruno insists that Pope Julius established the Holy Roman Emperor as the ruler over the papacy. Pope Adrian rejects this decree on the ground that Julius abused church rites.

JULIUS the SECOND **1617

Only mentioned in the anonymous Pathomachia. Pride boasts of how he aided him amongst the Christians and infinite other authors of heresies and schisms.


July, also spelled Iulye, is son to Chremes and Maud, and brother to Nane and Dick in the anonymous July and Julian. He laments because his love for Julian seems to be impossible. He feels a burning passion for her, but his parents do not consent to their love, because she is just a servant. In fact, his father has even set spies on him. July, later, goes to Wilkin in distress, because he knows his mother has overheard him when he was arranging to meet Julian that night, and he fears that, in her rage, she should undo him and spoil it all. When he learns–from his brother Dick–her mother's plan to trick him, sending Misis to the date instead of his beloved Julian, he rewards his little brother by talking to his Grammar-School Master and his Song-School Master and making them dispense him from his scholarly duties for the rest of the day. Later, he learns from Wilkin that he–who was supposed to be waiting on him and his dear Julian that night–is also going to be replaced by another person, who works for his father. When the night comes, July goes to his date, but instead of initiating a warm love encounter–aware of the fact that the lady in front of him is not Julian, but Misis, the match that his parents have prepared for him–he actually starts abusing the lady, telling her she has insulted him, his father and his mother. Then he leaves her there, and enters the house again. With his unexpected behavior, he manages to mislead his parents into believing that he felt no affection whatsoever for Julian. He later learns from Wilkin that his wooed lady has been sold as a slave to a Merchant. Torn inside by despair, he wants to take revenge immediately. But Wilking calms him down, and offers to bring back the lady if July promises to grant him freedom. July agrees. Nevertheless, unable to just stay there waiting, he decides to act, and his next step is to beg his father not to take Julian away from him. However, he explains to the old man that he is not doing it because he loves her, but because he would not want her to think that his unkind works were responsible for her departure. To his despair, his attempt is not fruitful. Nevertheless, in the end, Wilkin's plan succeeds and, after his father makes a rash promise, he actually gains his permission to marry Julian, and gets freedom for both Wilkin and Fenell.


Cobbler and intimate of the Ferneze servants in Jonson's The Case is Altered. Sings and enjoys baiting Onion. Accompanies him to de Prie's to woo Rachel, and is invited by Onion to share the buried treasure he discovers there. Becomes drunk and quarrelsome after becoming rich. He spends his treasure on clothes, pages, and a knighthood. Arrives at Count Ferneze's court to show off, but is identified by Jaques de Prie as a thief and ordered into the stocks by the Count.


Junius is a Roman officer in Fletcher's Bonduca. He is melancholy because he loves the Second Daughter of Bonduca, whom he has only seen from a distance. As a result, he has lost his sense of Roman duty, and his regiment is leaderless. The other soldiers, especially Petillius, mock him. Junius then receives a letter from the Second Daughter, inviting him to meet her. He confides in Curius and Decius, and during the battle they sneak off to meet the Daughter. But the two Daughters of Bonduca capture them, intending to kill them in revenge for their rapes by Roman soldiers. Caratach rescues the three Romans because he is an admirer of Rome. The ordeal cures Junius of love, and he becomes a valiant soldier once more. He fights Caratach in the battle until he is exhausted. Later, Petillius falls in love with the First Daughter, and Junius mocks him in a reversal of their previous roles. Junius and Petillius hunt Caratach, and fight him bravely, but they do not kill him.


Brutus is a magistrate and a supporter of Marius in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. He first proposes Marius as general to the Senate and tells Scilla that Marius is replacing him. He exits with Marius to show his support.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Lucius Junius Brutus lived in the sixth century BC and was nephew to Tarquinius Superbus. In order to escape execution at the hands of Tarquinius Superbus, he disguised himself as an idiot. Junius Brutus was also famous as an inflexible judge. When Overdo enters the Fair disguised as a madman, in order to detect the wrongdoers and bring them to justice, he compares himself to Junius Brutus. Justice Overdo's two-fold identification with this Roman personage is manifested in his profession as a judge, and his idea of disguising himself as an idiot.


Junius Rusticus is a senator in Massinger's The Roman Actor. For his opposition to Domitian he is tortured and executed along with Palphurius Sura, though their stoic resolve under torture terrifies Domitian and makes him realize his own guilt. His ghost (and Sura's) returns to haunt Domitian.


A "ghost character" in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta. According to the third messenger, before his fight with Eteocles, Polynice prayed to Juno for her support.
Juno is the Queen of the Gods in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. With Jupiter, she leads the parade of gods in the opening dumbshow.
Juno is Jupiter's wife in Lyly's The Woman in the Moon. She discovers him courting Pandora. In this play, however, Jupiter is identified as the planet rather than the god.
In the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis, Iuno is Iove's wife. She is the goddess that orders Iris to go to a cave in the forest where Morpheus sleeps, to wake him up, and to ask him to appear before Ascanio in a vision in order to reveal him the way to find Eurymine. According to Roman mythology, Juno (Greek Hera) was an ancient goddess and a member of the Capitoline Triad. She was also Jupiter's sister and wife, and the mother of Mars.
Mute character in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Birthe of Hercules. Iupiter mentions her when he explains to the audience that he is Iupiter or Amphitruo when he wants, and that he has, at that moment, gone away from his wife ("I am now stollen from Iuno.") He also boasts that he has pacified Iuno, he shared with his mortal half-twin Iphicles, but Hercules killed them both with his bare hands.
Daughter of Saturn and Sybilla in Heywood's The Golden Age. When Jupiter comes to the aid of his father in his battle with Titan and his sons, he is enamored of his sister and marries her. Juno quickly becomes jealous of her husband/brother's many mistresses and comes to harangue Jupiter's sexual escapades.
Infuriated by Jove's affair with Alcmena in Heywood's The Silver Age, she descends with Iris to break it off, proposes to punish her mortal rival, and disguises herself as an old woman. As she sits, her crossed legs prevent the laboring Alcmena from giving birth for three terrible days, until Juno is beguiled by Galantis into standing up and so undoing the spell. She sends two poisonous snakes to kill the babies; they dispatch Amphitrio's son Ipectetes, but are in their turn slain by Jupiter's son Hercules. After the hero has become a young man, she persuades Euristeus, King of Argos, to set him a series of mortally dangerous tasks. When the quarrel between the heroes and centaurs at the wedding of Perithous and Hypodamia breaks out, her furious interjection turns a mere barroom scuffle with stools and cups into an armed combat in which all the centaurs except Nessus are slain. Learning from Iris of Jupiter's affair with Semele, she disguises herself as the girl's nurse, Beroe, and persuades the princess to request that Jupiter make love to her in his full divinity; she exults as the foolish mortal is consumed by the thunderbolts of Jupiter's love.
Only mentioned in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. Juno (called Iuno in the text) is the wife of Jupiter and had competed with Pallas and Venus for the golden apple, offering the Trojan prince Paris wealth and kingship if he would confer the precious artifact on her. In addition, Ajax tells Hector that his shield is so massive no other Greek can even lift it, but to Ajax it is like a summer fan made from the feathers of "Iuno's bird" (that is, the peacock).
Spelled Iuno in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter. Jealous wife of Jupiter. With the help of Iris, Juno spies on her husband in order to identify his mistresses, and then finds ways to punish them. She disguises herself as Beroe, the old nurse of Semele, in order to persuade the silly girl to ask Jupiter to visit her in his full glory; she plans something similar for Alcmena and her child by Jupiter, but Homer in the final chorus tells us that she will be thwarted by the loyal servant Galanthis and by the strength of Alcmena's child–Hercules.
Wife to Jupiter and inveterate enemy of Troy in Marlowe's Dido, Queen of Carthage. Confronted by Venus as she plans to murder the hidden Ascanius, she appears to make her peace with Venus and pledges to support the love match between Dido and Aeneas. She anticipates that this will foil Aeneas's destiny to found a great empire.
Termed the Queen of Heaven, Juno is the wife of the chief god Jupiter and one of the goddesses claiming the golden apple in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris. In her attempt to influence Paris, she offers him great political power and great riches.
Only mentioned in Fletcher's The Captain; the Roman goddess of female life and wife of Jupiter, to whom Julio compares Lelia favorably.
The Roman goddess Juno, wife of Jupiter, appears in the first masque devised by Lala Schahin for Amurath and Eumorphe in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. As she dances with the other gods and goddess, Juno spies the lovely Eumorphe and assumes Jupiter has come in order to begin an affair with the human. As the masque ends and the other deities leave, Juno pauses to complain about Jupiter's inveterate philandering, and then exits calling down a curse upon Eumorphe.
A "ghost character" in the anonymous Narcissus. Juno is wife and sister to Jove. Tyresias mentions Juno when he explains why he is blind. He just says that she deprived him of his sight, because they were the biggest gods, and they fell out. Later, Juno is mentioned by Eccho, when she reveals that she is daughter to the goddess. According to Roman mythology, Juno (Greek Hera) was an ancient goddess and a member of the Capitoline Triad. She was also sister and wife to Jove (Greek Zeus). According to Greek mythology, Zeus and Hera, discussing about the relative happiness of man and woman, referred the matter to Tyresias, since he had a practical knowledge of both conditions –having been changed into a woman for seven years. He supported Zeus's affirmation that a woman possessed the more enjoyments. Hera, on her part, incensed, blinded him. But Zeus, in compensation, rewarded him with the power of prophecy.
Only mentioned in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. Sir Wittworth mentions Iuno when, lamenting how his beloved Modestina has been raped, and blaming Iove for it, he cries to the Roman god: "court thyne enraged Iuno." According to Roman mythology, Juno (Greek Hera) was an ancient goddess and a member of the Capitoline Triad. She was also sister and wife to Jove (Greek Zeus). Since Zeus's list of lovers after his marriage to Hera is considerable, it could be easily understood that she should be enraged.
A goddess in Heywood's Brazen Age, wife to Zeus and Hercules' stepmother. She witnesses Mars and Venus's shame.
Only mentioned in Dekker’s Match Me in London. The king likens the queen’s jealousy to that of Juno.
In the introduction to Killigrew’s The Conspiracy, Juno reconciles Diana to the idea that the pure virgin has become a pure bride. They are likely alluding to Lady Villers whose nuptial this plays was intended to celebrate. She calls for a play to celebrate the nuptials and at first favors a comedy, but Tragedia convinces her that a tragedy is nobler and better able to bless the viewer.


Julia is disguised as Juno at the masquerade banquet at court in Jonson's Poetaster. In Roman mythology, Juno was the goddess identified with the Greek goddess Hera, wife of Jupiter and queen of the gods. The union was regarded as the divine prototype of earthly marriage, though Jupiter was not always faithful to Juno. Since Ovid takes the disguise of Jupiter, Juno's husband and king of the gods, the mythological associations parallel the love couples in the revelry. During the entertainment presided by Ovid/Jupiter, Julia/Juno enjoys the revelry. She shows jealousy when Ovid/Jupiter pretends to court Chloë/Venus, and alludes to her feelings for the well-nosed poet, Ovid. When Caesar enters and rails at the debauched party and banishes Ovid, it is understood that Julia and the other women adopt an attitude of silence and submission.


Roman queen of the Gods in Shakespeare's The Tempest. A part taken by one of Prospero's spirits in the Masque or "revel" performed for Ferdinand and Miranda. As goddess of the hearth, she blesses their union. The performance also includes spirits disguised as Iris, Ceres, nymphs, and reapers.


Queen of the Gods, performed by Ismenia/Isabella in the play-within-the-play in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Locrine, Brutus' wife.


Another name for God in the anonymous Everyman, who is also called Adonai, Messiah, Jerusalem King, and Redeemer in the play.
Only mentioned in Edwards's Damon and Pithias. Stephano invokes Jupiter, the father of gods, protector of law and order, and god of Revenge. Revolted at the injustice of Damon's sentence, Stephano asks Jupiter the Revenger to send down his consuming fire and destroy all tyrants.
Jupiter is the King of the Gods in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. With Juno, he leads the parade of gods in the opening dumbshow.
In order to end the rancor between Venus and Fortune in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune, Jupiter commands the ghosts of those slain by the machinations of the two to perform five dumb shows (Show Of Troylus And Cressida, Show Of Alexander, Show Of Queene Dydo, Show Of Pompey And Caesar, Show Of Leander And Hero). When this fails to end the debate, he proposes the use of two mortal lovers, Fidelia and Hermione, to try the strength of the two gods. Seeing the chaos which has ensued, he sends Mercury to inform Venus and Fortune to end their strife.
Iupiter is the king of all the Olympian gods, father to Mercurius in the anonymous Birthe of Hercules. He takes the shape of Amphitruo, while the latter is fighting the Teleboians, in order to seduce his wife, Alcumena. To that aim, he makes her believe that he was so anxious to see her that he left his soldiers alone that night, but that he must be back in the morning (aware of the fact that her husband will be home by then). Once he managed to do his will with the mortal lady, Iupiter announces, to the audience, that he will appear in Amphitruo's likeness again, and that he will breed more confusion, but that everything will end well and the truth shall be known. He also reveals that Alcumena will give birth to two "brave boyes": one by her husband and the other by him. Later, the god realizes the grief he has caused to Alcumena and her husband, and he will try to put a remedy to it. Thus, he takes up the shape of Amphitruo again, and apologizes to her (for her husband's cruel words of accusation), explaining that he had just put her to a test. But, realizing that, nevertheless, she is determined to leave Amphitruo, he tells her it will not be necessary, since he will be the one to go, assuring her that he will leave everything to her. He then receives her forgiveness and makes her promise she will be there when he comes back. He even asks Sosia to act as a witness of the fact that, when he was accusing his wife of unfaithfulness, he was just doing it in jest. Still in the shape of Amphitruo, Iupiter asks Sosia to tell Blepharo that he will dine with him. And also in that same shape will the god address to Dromio, when the latter comes expecting to be given some prisoners to be put under his custody. Eager to tease him, Iupiter/Amphitruo asks Dromio for the ring he had entrusted him as a token for his wife–well aware of the fact that his son, Mercurius, in the shape of Sosia, had told him to give him the ring, and go back to Amphitruo to be given the responsibility of keeping the some prisoners in custody. But when he sees that Drumio is getting too angry with Sosia, he explains that he was only speaking in jest, that he had really asked Sosia to take the ring from him, but that the prisoners were still to arrive. And he adds that, from then on, he will receive the treatment of "Monsieur Le Governeur." Back to the house, he makes sure his son, Mercurius, does not let Alcumena's husband in. After a while, Iupiter–still in the shape of Amphitruo–, goes out of the house, and the general and the god face each other for the first time, and ask Blepharo to decide which one is the real Amphitruo. However, that is a difficult task because, no matter the nature of the questions posed by Blepharo, both Iupiter and Amphitruo would answer them correctly. Therefore, Blepharo gives up, not being able to discern who the real one is, and Amphitruo despairs, unable to enter his own house and fearing everyone will scorn him. Then Iupiter addresses to Amphitruo and reveals that he had caused the confusion in his house, and that one of the sons his wife has given birth to had been engendered by him, and the other by her husband. He also adds that one of them is going to crown his mortal head with immortality. He finally asks him to reconcile with his wife, to which Amphitruo consents.
Saturn's son, whose life is endangered from birth in Heywood's The Golden Age. His father orders his death because of an oracle that prophesied that his son will take his crown away from him and drive him into Hell. Saturn has also promised his elder brother, Titan, that he would kill his baby sons upon their birth so that his own offspring might rule the kingdom of Crete. However, his grandmother Vesta spares the child. She sends him away to the two daughters of king Melliseus of Epyre who vow not to reveal his identity. After coming of age, he makes peace with Lycaon, son of Titan. When this accord crumbles, the two young princes fight until Lycaon flees and Jupiter seizes the kingdom of Pelagia. He attempts to ravish Lycaon's daughter, Calisto, who refuses his advances, choosing to join Diana's train as a perpetual virgin. Disguised as a "manly lass" called Virago, Jupiter infiltrates Diana's compound and rapes Calisto who bears him a son, Archas, who later inherits the kingdom of Pelagia (which is renamed Arcadia after Archas). The Clown reveals Jupiter's true identity to him. Jupiter then sets out to help his father Saturn fight against Titan and his sons. Titan is slain; Jupiter kills Enceladus and, fascinated by the beauty of his sister Juno, he marries her. Fearing the oracle, Saturn again tries to kill his son, but Jupiter defends himself and banishes his father, who seeks the help of King Troos and Ganimede. Meanwhile, Jupiter comes to Danae's tower disguised as a peddler, and his clown manages to keep the guardian Beldams busy with gold and precious gifts (supposedly sent by king Jupiter–"the shower of gold"), while Jupiter reveals himself to the young princess. Through this ruse, Jupiter manages to impregnate Danae. Leaving his new bride, Jupiter again repels the attack of Saturn and King Troos and befriends Ganimede. At the end of the play, the three Fates allot him the kingdom of Heaven.
Enamored of the mortal Alcmena in Heywood's The Silver Age, Jupiter assumes the shape of her husband, Amphitrio, and stops the sun's progress for three days to give himself a long night of dalliance (in passing, accounting for the correspondingly long day of Joshua's battle against Jericho). When the real Amphitrio returns while the divine imposter is still in Thebes, much comic confusion ensues, which rises to a climactic confrontation in which Jupiter and Ganimed are adjudged real and Amphitrio and Socia fake. But the god apologizes, urges the mortal to forgive his wife and servants, and announces that all will be well. In dumb-show, disguised as a huntsman, he seduces Semele. Beguiled by Juno, Semele charms him into promising to grant his request; he is appalled when she asks him to make love to her in his divine form, but must comply. As his thunderbolts are consuming her he snatches their child Bacchus from the fire. Summoned with the other gods to judge the dispute between Pluto and Ceres over the fate of Proserpine, he announces the compromise that gives each of them part-time custody of the spirit of springtime.
Only mentioned in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Jupiter (called Iupiter in the text) is another name for Jove, the king of the gods.
Spelled Iupiter in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter. The hero of the play, which follows his swashbuckling progress through four affairs with mortal women: Callisto, Danae, Semele, and Alcmena. In every case, disaster comes or will come to the woman or her family, but Jupiter comes through satisfied and unscathed. Jupiter grows in divinity in the course of the play. He first appears as an envoy to King Lycaon, sent by his adoptive father, King Melisseus; he explains to Lycaon that he does not know his original parentage. After exposing Lycaon as a cannibal, he is acclaimed by Lycaon's followers as the new King of Pelagia. At the beginning of the Alcmena episode, Homer, the chorus, calls him "Iupiter thus deified, and made/Supreame off all the gods", indicating that there has been a change and we are now to consider him as a god. [This rather elusive transition reflects the fact that our play has been boiled down out of two earlier ones, The Golden Age and The Silver Age, in which the situation is made clearer. In fact, Heywood follows the euhemerist tradition that the gods were not originally divine; Jupiter and the other sons of Saturn acquire divinity at the end of The Golden Age, and Saturn himself is not a god at all.] Whatever the status of his godhead, however, Jupiter's behaviour throughout this play remains much the same. [By selecting only the erotic scenes from his two earlier plays, Heywood reduces the character from a martial, heroic philanderer to a philanderer tout court.]After deposing Lycaon, he tries to seduce Lycaon's daughter, Callisto; when Callisto insists on becoming a follower of the virgin goddess Diana, Jupiter disguises himself as another follower, and creates an opportunity to rape her. He reaches Danae, locked by her father into a tower, by means of a pedlar's disguise: Danae at first resists, but capitulates quite quickly once it is clear that resistance will not help her. His relationship with Semele is already in progress when she appears: she is happy with the situation, but is lured to her ruin by the jealous goddess Juno, disguised as an old servant-woman. On this occasion, Jupiter is forced out of disguise, and this proves the destruction of his mistress: he comes to her, at her own request, in all his glory, and she is burned to ashes. For the affair with Alcmena, the only one of the four to be married already, he adopts his most ingenious disguise yet: he comes to her as her husband, Amphitryo, and subjects the latter, on his return home from the wars, to an alarming and humiliating identity-test. But he ends the play "in maiesty", explaining to the kneeling Amphitryo that he, Jupiter, was responsible for the recent victory in battle, and that he will personally attend to any of the family's prayers in the future.
Identified as 'a god' in the dramatis personae of John Heywood's The Play of the Wether. Jupiter descends from heaven to satisfy the people who have been offended by the quarrel between the elements. After listening to the conflicting claims of eight suitors representing the various social groups, he gives his verdict and paradoxically decrees that the weather will remain as it has always been.
King of the gods in Marlowe's Dido, Queen of Carthage. He supports Venus's desire for his assistance in Aeneas's journey, and ultimately foils Juno's plans to keep Aeneas permanently in Carthage by dispatching Hermes to send him on his way.
Husband to Juno and chief of the gods, Jupiter convenes and presides over the arraignment of Paris on the charge of "partiality" in favoring Venus over Juno and Pallas in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. Jupiter or Jove was the greatest of the gods in Roman mythology. He was the father of gods and men, protector of kings, and supporter of law and order. He was sexually libertine and he came to mortal women in various forms. To Leda, he came as a swan, to Europa as a white bull and to Danae as a golden shower. When Fulvia and Sempronia discuss their lovers, Fulvia suggests that they might exchange favorites. Fulvia implies she is tired of Quintus Curius, and Sempronia could have him, adding that the world is full of sexually rewarding men. In fact, Fulvia is dissatisfied because Curius is broke and he cannot pay for her extravagant tastes. Since it is known that Caesar has sent Fulvia a pearl as a gift, probably in exchange for sexual favors, it is inferred that Fulvia refers to Caesar, Sempronia's former lover, who now has turned to Fulvia, lavishing her with rich gifts. Showing her preference for a rich lover, Fulvia adds that she is not impressed with mere sexual prowess, and she would not be taken with a swan or a bull, like the foolish Leda or Europa. Only for the price of bright gold, like Danae, would she endure a rough and harsh Jupiter. Fulvia implies that she prefers material wealth beside sexual potency. Jupiter was also considered the protector of Rome, next to Mars. Commenting on the depraved state of Rome, Chorus invokes the city's great fathers, Mars and Jove, to see Rome's corruption in the last days of the republic.
Jupiter is invoked by characters throughout Shakespeare's Cymbeline, and makes an appearance in V.v when he descends from the heavens on an eagle accompanied by thunder and lightning, armed with a thunderbolt. He silences the complaining ghosts of Posthumous Leonatus' family by telling them that he tests those he loves, and he promises that Posthumous Leonatus will be reunited with Imogen and be happy. Jupiter gives the ghosts a tablet to lay on Posthumous Leonatus' chest. When Posthumous Leonatus awakens, he reads the book, which promises an end to his miseries and Britain's if certain impossible-sounding conditions are met.
Only mentioned in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Jupiter assumed Amphytrio's shape to gain access to his wife Alcmena. Honorea is compared to Alcmena.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. Jupiter is mentioned by Tyresias when he is reading Narcissus's hand–"the hillocke of great Jupiter"–to tell him his fortune. See IOVE.
The supreme Roman god Jupiter appears in the first masque presented to Amurath and Eumorphe in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. He orders a number of gods and goddess to dance, but when Juno sees the beautiful Eumorphe and charges him with desiring an affair with the young woman, Jupiter attempts to assure her he has no such intention. When Juno remains unconvinced, Jupiter orders the deities to return to the heavens so as not to destroy the festive atmosphere among the humans.
Jupiter is a character in "The Triumph of Time," the final play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. Jupiter takes pity on Anthropos's suffering and sends Plutus and Time to help him.
Only mentioned in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. Mythological character, god of the heavens, who broke the obstacle that deprived Danae from any human contact, as Prospero does later with Valentia.
Only mentioned in Carlell's 2 Passionate Lovers. Mythological character with whom Clindor compares himself when he is not allowed to see his mistress by Selina. Jupiter was the Roman equivalent of Zeus, king of the Olympian gods. It is thought that he came as a shower of gold to see Danae when her father, king Acrisius, imprisoned her in a bronze tower.
The father of the gods in Kyd's Cornelia; Jupiter is frequently called upon by Cicero who calls him the "Protector" of Rome and to whom the Romans sacrifice many oxen every year. It is Jupiter's displeasure with the hubris of the Romans that will lead to the destruction of Rome.
Jupiter, or Jove, is the most powerful of the gods in Heywood's Brazen Age. He is father to Hercules and Vulcan. Jupiter witnesses the shame of Venus and Mars, who have cuckolded his son Vulcan. He splits Venus and Mars. At the end of the play, Jupiter sends a lightning bolt to assist in Hercules's suicide.
A "ghost character" in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. He blinded Plutus, god of wealth. He grows angry when Plutus' eyesight is restored and sends Mercurius to threaten Chremylus and his household.


Jupiter is one of the planets who, jealous of Pandora's beauty, take it in turn to rule her behavior in Lyly's The Woman in the Moon. Jupiter causes Pandora to be ambitious and disdainful of those who court her. However, Jupiter falls in love with Pandora himself. Ironically, Pandora disdains Jupiter's approaches and Juno upbraids Jupiter


Ovid is disguised as Jupiter at the masquerade banquet at court in Jonson's Poetaster. Jupiter or Jove was the Roman name of the greatest of gods in classical mythology. He was the father of gods and men, protector of kings, supporter of law and order, and avenger of broken oaths and other offenses. Jupiter ruled over the affairs of humanity. Ovid's disguise as Jupiter probably alludes to his leading role among the poets. Since Julia takes the disguise of Juno, Jupiter's wife and queen of the gods, the mythological associations parallel the love couples in the revelry. As the supreme commander of the gods, Ovid/Jupiter orders Crispinus/Mercury to announce the order of the licentious festival. While pretending to court Chloë/Venus, Ovid/Jupiter wants to make Julia/Juno jealous. He mock abuses his "wife," Julia/Juno, thus disclosing his affection for her in a reversed mode. Ovid/Jupiter pretends to order his messenger, Crispinus/Mercury, to go to Caesar and command him to sacrifice his beautiful and wanton daughter, Julia, because she plays the shrew behind the emperor's back. The messenger does not get to carry out his mission because Caesar enters in person, railing against the debauched party and punishing Ovid. It is understood that the poet sheds his role as the supreme master of the gods and is forced to face the harsh reality of exile and disgrace.


Jupiter is a character in the masque performed in Cokain's Trappolin to celebrate the nuptials of Lavinio and Isabella.


Played by Donella in Shirley's The Bird in a Cage. Jupiter is a character in the inset play. In spite of Acrisius' efforts to protect his daughter, Danaë, Jupiter comes to her in a golden shower. At the point of ravishing her, Jupiter–along with the entire production–is interrupted by the delivery of the birdcage.


A statue of Jupiter in the temple orders the killing of Patrick in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland.


A non-speaking character in Brome's Court Beggar. The champion of Venus played by the Doctor in the masque. He only dances.


A lawyer in Salusbury’s Love or Money; he attempts to talk Pamphilus out of marrying Maria. He notes in regard to Antius that ‘he who marries money marries dirt’ and declines to dance at the end of Act I. In an attempt to spoil the marriage of Pamphilus, he woos Maria, claiming to have loved her before Pamphilus loved her, indeed, he claims to have loved her when she was still in her mother’s womb. Tricked by the disguised Pamphilus, he agrees to call on Maria by 2 o’clock disguised as a porter. He is further tricked into thinking that Maria is hiding in a trunk for him to carry away when it is in fact Medico hiding there. Discovering the trick only after a long, weary lug to a country house, and being taunted by Orlando, Juristis and Medico are duly chastened and agree to slink off and avoid the company of men.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. A sin destroyer. One among the "true religious" men and "holy women" whom Hick Scorner was glad to see drown in the Irish Sea at the Race of Ireland when their thirteen ships foundered and sank.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Canidius lists him as one of the soldiers who is to fight by sea.


A name that is also printed Justicia in the margin of Udall's? Respublica. Justice is sent by God to protect Respublica. The four sisters (Verity, Justice, Peace and Mercy) promise to deliver Respublica from woe to prosperity. With the others she captures Oppression, Insolence, Avarice and Adulation and hands them over to People to guard. At the end she invites players and audience to pray for Queen Mary's Council.


The Justice in the anonymous Pedler's Prophecy enters immediately after the Interpreter, also looking for the Pedler. He and the Interpreter immediately start an argument, each claiming that the other is corrupt and sinful. The Pedler interrupts their debate and, pretending to be someone else, insults both professions, all the while claiming to be repeating the Pedler's words. He, like the Interpreter and the Judge, is eventually convinced that the Pedler is actually speaking truth and that they and all men should be more honest.


A personification of Apius' sense of justice in [?]Bower's Apius and Virginia. Justice along with Conscience both "come out of" Apius after he plans to detain and rape Virginia. After Apius exits, Justice complains that he has been displaced by Lust but looks forward to the punishment of justice's foes. Justice later returns with Reward after Virginius brings the head of Virginia to Apius, and condemns Apius for his lawlessness and sin, orders Haphazard to be hanged, and, at Virginius' request, commutes Claudius' death sentence to banishment.


After the guilty verdict is announced in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More and the death sentence given in the case of Lifter's having stolen Smart's purse, the Lord Mayor asks the members of the Court of Sessions to contribute money for the condemned man's funeral. The Unnamed Justice and the Recorder of London make contributions at once.


Justice enters with Mercy in Dumb Show III of (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women, sits, and promptly falls asleep. Wronged Chastitie wakens Justice, and, after listening to her story, Justice dispatches his Officers who apprehend and bring in Sanders, Drury, and Roger. Chastitie appeals again, and Justice sends Diligence out to find the murderer.


A judge in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Coxcomb. Described in the Cast List as "a shallow one," the Justice receives a message from the Curio concerning the supposed death of Antonio. After reviewing the evidence, the Justice is convinced that Antonio was murdered.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. The Second Hostess tells the Wench to send Oliver to invite the Justice to dinner the next day.

JUSTICE **1617

One of the eleven virtues that regulate the affections in the anonymous Pathomachia. Rigor and Partiality are the extremes of Justice. He vouches to King Love that Fortitude will make a fine general and that, beside the eleven principle Virtues he has four half-Virtues (or imperfect Virtues) at his command: Constancy, Continence, Sobriety, and Bashfulness. Justice goes to rally King Love’s troops. He is the eleventh in the wave of attack against the Vices. When Friendship comes to him disguised as Love, Justice sees through the disguise quickly but forgives him and takes both Friendship and Enmity into the camp of the Virtues. He forces Malice to disclose the Vices’ plot and puts both Malice and Self-Love in prison. One after another, the Vices approach Justice in their disguises of Virtue. Justice sees through each in turn, takes the opportunity with each to berate the Vice for what it has brought into the world, and sends each to prison. Love gives his queen Disdain and Clemency as her guard while taking Reverence, Zeal, Desire, Pity, Justice, Charity, and Affability for himself.


A local law officer in Rowley, Dekker and Ford's The Witch of Edmonton. He interrogates Mother Sawyer, and administers the punishment of Frank, Sawyer and Sir Arthur.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Pilgrim. A madman in the madhouse, described by his keepers as possessed by the devil in the likeness of penal laws.


The Justice in Cavendish's The Variety uses and misuses the language of the law as a cover for his ineptitude and lechery. According to Voluble, he has "done [her] some discourtesy" by believing the complaints "intemperate tongues." Voluble seems to seek his favor by advising him on how to win the hand of the rich widow, mother to Simpleton. While he seems to agree to have Newman hanged in exchange for Simpleton's consent that he marry the mother, he probably would not have been quite so harsh on Newman. In any event, the Justice marries the veiled Voluble, thinking that she is that widow, but he doesn't seem to mind very much when the truth is revealed. During the examination of Newman, he clears the stage so that he may be alone with Lucy in order to make indecent overtures. Just as he forces a kiss on her, Lady Beaufield, her mother, appears. All of this business is brought to a halt when Manley, who happens to be his cousin, reveals that the Justice has been an alchemist and has promised to obtain a reprieve for a condemned man in exchange for sexual favors from the man's wife.


A "ghost character." A magistrate who tries Credulous Oldcraft (according to Wittypate) in Middleton and Rowley's Wit at Several Weapons.


Possibly a "ghost character" in Dekker's Satiromastix. One of the wedding guests invited to celebrate Cælestine and Sir Walter Terill's marriage. Sir Quintilian asks his servant Peter Flash if Justice Crop will attend, and is told that Justice Crop is coming. It is unclear whether or not Justice Crop actually appears in the play, as he is not mentioned again, but it is possible that he is among the "others" listed in the stage directions that attend the celebration.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's Your Five Gallants. Briefly mentioned as one of Frippery's clients.


Justice Landby keeps a strict eye upon his daughter Jane in James Shirley's The Wedding. He even assigns the boy Milliscent (who is really Cardona's daughter Lucibel in disguise) to watch Jane and note how she dispenses her favors. He tests Rawbone's character by asking for a loan, which Rawbone refuses. Consequently, when Landby learns that Rawbone plans to substitute his servant Jasper (Haver in disguise) for himself in a duel with Master Lodam, Landby takes advantage of the switch. He gives Jane to the true winner—the servant impersonating Rawbone, who is really Haver in disguise and the man Jane truly loves.


A "ghost character" in Brome's The New Academy. Husband to Lady Nestlecock and father to Nehemiah. He died prior to the action of the play.


Hears the case in (?)Heywood's How A Man May Choose A Good Wife From A Bad of Old Master Arthur and Old Master Lusam, who bring Mistress Arthur and Young Master Lusam with them, against Young Master Arthur for his behavior towards Mistress Arthur. He offers useless advice to Old Masters Arthur and Lusam as well as to Mistress Arthur, and claims he can do nothing until they bring him Young Master Arthur. He invites Old Master Arthur and Old Master Lusam to join him in a glass of March beer. Later, he is invited to Young Master Arthur's feast and arrives with Hugh. He greets Old Master Arthur, Old Master Lusam, Master Anselm, Master Fuller, and Aminadab when they arrive. He asks Mistress Mary to sit by him, but Young Master Arthur insists that she sit in his wife's place. He then asks Aminadab if Pipkin is his scholar, and admires Pipkin's display of knowledge. He also asks the guests if anyone has a jest, which leads Master Fuller to tell his tale. After Young Master Arthur and Mistress Arthur drink their toast of reconciliation, Justice Reason leaves along with Old Master Arthur, Old Master Lusam, and Hugh. He returns later in search of Hugh, who was sent to find Justice Reason's gloves, and learns of Mistress Arthur's supposed death. At the end of the play, Justice Reason hears the contrary suits of Old Master Arthur, who seeks clemency for his son, and Old Master Lusam, who seeks justice for the death of his daughter. He silences their quarrel as Young Master Arthur enters to face the charge of murder brought against him by Mistress Mary. Although Young Master Arthur admits to murdering Mistress Arthur, Justice Reason continues to pursue the case, threatening to charge Aminadab and Master Fuller with selling poison, and Master Anselm with attempting to justify Fuller's actions. Mistress Arthur's arrival and resolution of the confusion finally eliminates the need for Justice Reason to hear any of these cases.


Justice Suresby in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More presides over the court that had referred the trial of Lifter for stealing Smart's purse to the Court of Sessions. He pretends to have sympathy for the accused and berates the victim Smart for carrying ten pounds around with him to tempt the poor, although his chief pleasure comes from pursuing criminals of all sorts. Acting to help Lifter, More has the thief steal Suresby's purse, and when the loss is discovered, More returns the purse and the seven pounds in it, berating Suresby for carrying such a sum with almost the exact words the justice had used earlier to castigate Smart. By this "jest," More hopes to effect Lifter's release, but the scene ends suddenly and without result.


A "ghost character" in S.S's Honest Lawyer. Bromley tells Benjamin that Gripe has ordered him to take Vaster's wife to appear before Justice Surly. However, they actually appear before the Abbot because Justice Surly is reported to have taken ill.


One of the three title characters of the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. Justina is a virgin princess who escapes the sacking of Antioch and is the sole survivor of the royal family. She is helped away by Doron, but he is killed outside the gates of Babylon. There, Prince Clitophon falls in love with her, and refuses to fight the Egyptians until his father, the Caliph, grants permission for them to marry. The Caliph pretends to agree, but secretly orders Justina drowned as a witch. Cyprian rescues her by raising a freak tide to wash away her executioners. Cyprian introduces her to Lysander, who has been revealed as the long-lost heir to Antioch's throne; they realize that they are cousins. Cyprian lusts after Justina and summons the demon Cantharides to provoke her into carnal desire, but Justina's faith defeats his devilish magic and Cyprian is converted to Christianity. When the Romans subdue the rival armies, Clitophon is reunited with Justina. The Caliph permits them to marry, but Justina decides to remain a virgin; Clitophon is so moved by her faith that he converts to Christianity.


Justinian Goldstone, the cheating-Gallant (confidence-trickster) in Middleton's Your Five Gallants. One of Katherine's mercenary suitors; a predator generally, but not exclusively, on women. Obviously in league with Primero, he takes the initiative of luring the gull Bungler into the general company of the Gallants at the brothel. Swears true love to at least two of Primero's prostitutes, extorting goods and money from them. With the assistance of his servant, Fulk, he cheats the Vintner of the Mitre with an exchange of false 'beakers' for tankards made of precious metals. Runs a crooked dice game there, apparently on a weekly basis. Incautiously steals Fitsgrave's new cloak, which he immediately pawns to Frippery (who wears it in the street and is beaten by mistake by Pursenet). Goldstone is invited to dine with Mistress Newcut by Bungler; he subsequently accosts Bungler in disguise, pretending kinship with them both. He quickly makes off with Newcut's valuable salt-cellar and returns in his own person. After dinner, Newcut and Goldstone seduce each other and he receives the post-coital gift of a ring from her. He finds the chain of pearl dropped by Pursenet in his escape from Pyamont, and is threatened with arrest by Tailby for theft. General recriminations between all the Gallants lead them to hug and join forces in their pursuit of Katherine- the winner to provide a safe house in perpetuity for all. It is Goldstone who has the bright idea of presenting a masque to impress their mistress and humiliate their rival, Fitsgrave, and to commission 'Bouser' (Fitsgrave himself) to write it. After their exposure in his masque, Fitsgrave gives all the Gallants the ultimatum of marrying the Courtesans to avoid further public justice for their crimes. They all concede: having already proposed to Newcut on the death of her absent husband it remains unclear, given her disillusionment with him, whether she, or either of the Courtesans also cheated by him (and cheating on him) will take him as a husband. His final thought, that disgraceful marriage to a whore will at least furnish him with continued immoral earning, is countered by Newcut's reminder to the women that a legitimate husband provides the best cover for future promiscuity.


An Italian merchant in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho, violently jealous of his wife, Mistress Justiniano. He informs her that, having ruined his estate, he will hide out at Stode; actually, he remains in London, posing as a Latin-spouting writing-teacher named "Master Parenthesis," to observe both the follies of other London cuckolds and the unfaithfulness of his wife. He invites Judith Honeysuckle to an afternoon tavern-party along with her friends, Mabel and Clare. He presides over the party, helps the gallants to arrange an overnight assignation at Brainford with the wives, and offers to create a cover story. Disguised again as a collier, he delivers the cover story of Wafer's sick child. The assignation set, he reveals to the audience that he actually does have enough money to get out of debt, and plans to inform the ladies' husbands in time to prevent their being cuckolded. Having seen true unfaithfulness, he also begins to regret his own unfounded jealousy and resolves to accept Mistress Justiniano's offer to prove her chastity to him. As himself, he arrives at Luce's to reveal his disguises and the assignation plot to the husbands. He then attends the Earl, disguised as his wife and, after making the Earl admit that he tried to debauch Mistress Justiniano, claims that he has poisoned her, displaying her apparently dead body. The three Citizens arrive; Justiniano accuses them of being accomplices in her death so that the Earl will allow them to be seized and brought in. Justiniano then admits the ruse, charging the Citizens to be witnesses to the Earl's admission that he intended to corrupt a chaste wife. He then informs the husbands of their wives' assignation, and accompanies them (with Mistress Justiniano) to Brainford. There, he dissuades them from setting the authorities on the gallants, suggesting instead that they confront the wives and gallants privately, forgive the wives, and return home, reputations intact.


Justiniano's young wife (also referred to as "Merchant's Wife" in speech prefixes in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho), who feels she has married down. Sick of her husband's unfounded jealousy, she listens to Birdlime's offer to bring her paying lovers, and threatens Justiniano that his waste of their estate will force her to become the mistress of the Earl. However, when Birdlime delivers her to his castle, she admits that she's only visited to ask the Earl to forgive Justiniano's debts. When he presses her to be his mistress in return, she reluctantly says she'll consider it, but informs her husband of the situation. She assists Justiniano in his ruse to expose the Earl, and agrees to accompany Justiniano and the Citizens to reclaim their wives.


A lord in Brome's Love-Sick Court. He and Disanius advise the King. In the first act, he mocks the rustics for their indecision. When the riddle from Apollo's oracle arrives, he interprets it to mean that the Philargus and Philocles should not contend for Eudyna at the expense of their friendship.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Decimus Junius Juvenalis (55?–127?), commonly known as Juvenal, was the best of the Roman satiric poets. Juvenal's literary masterpiece is the Satires, a collection of 16 satiric poems that deal with life in Rome under the emperors Domitian, Nerva, Trajan, and Hadrian. The main themes of the Satires are the corruption and degradation of life in the city of Rome and the brutalities of humankind. At his house in London, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When Clerimont asks him about the classical poets, Daw refers to them in a deprecating manner, including Juvenal in the long list of unworthy poets.
Only mentioned in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus. Ingenioso enters reading Juvenal and proposing to satirize the open wickedness of his own day.


A fictitious character in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. Juventis is a prodigal character in a play staged by Sir Oliver Owlet's Men.