A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a prophet.


A hat-maker of Verona in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. the Haberdasher is commissioned by Petruchio to make a hat for Katherine. When he brings the hat he has made to Petruchio and Katherine for inspection, Petruchio refuses to let Katherine have it as part of his plan for taming her.


At Deliro's house, Haberdasher enters with Fungoso newly attired and wearing a new hat, together with Shoemaker and Tailor in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Fungoso admires his new hat, asking Tailor if it suits him. At Tailor's laudatory comments, Haberdasher adds his own and presents Fungoso with the bill. Fungoso pays Haberdasher, who exits.


The hat maker in Jonson's The Staple of News providing Pennyboy Junior with his first hats as an heir.


This unnamed Haberdasher in Marmion's A Fine Companion is summoned to help design a new and elegant suit for Careless.


A gull in Lyly's Mother Bombie. The Hackneyman, accompanied by the Sergeant, attempts to have the servant Dromio arrested over the issue of a hired horse. He eventually agrees to enter into a bond with the four witty servants (Dromio, Riscio, Lucio and Halfpenny). They enlist the aid of the Scrivener to draw up the contract. The servants get them all drunk and cheat them with a useless bond. All ends well when Memphio offers to pay for the hire of the horse at the end of the play.


There are two Hacksters in Whetstone's 1 Promos and Cassandra. The First Hackster is one of the condemned prisoners and recites a prayer for mercy with the other prisoners. Implores onlookers to reform their faults lest they end up hanging. The Second Hackster is also a condemned prisoners and recites along with the First Hackster.


A youthful gallant in Tailor's The Hog Hath Lost His Pearl. Lives in London and when he meets his relation Lightfoot at the start of the play he laments his fall into poverty by means of his expensive lifestyle. He tells Lightfoot that he plans to recover his fortune by marrying the daughter of Hog the Usurer: she had loved him before, but he had scorned her, thinking her too low socially for his attention. When Lightfoot offers to help, Haddit suggests that Lightfoot buy him an expensive outfit and mortgage some land to Hog in return for cash. After Lightfoot leaves, Haddit meets with the Player who has come for a jig Haddit has promised to him and his company. Haddit shows the Player the beginning of the jig, entitled Who buys my four ropes of hard onions, and receives a down payment of 2 angels from the Player. When Haddit expresses his fear that the Player has memorized the plot and will bribe another writer with ale to complete the jig, the Player adds another pair of angels to the down payment. Haddit promises the Player a jig that will attract large audiences and asks the Player to leave so that he can continue to compose his work. Later, Haddit appears in his expensive clothes and, when Lightfoot raises the possibility that Rebecca might already be betrothed, Haddit expresses confidence in his manly ability to seduce any woman; they continue on to Hog's. Later, he discusses with Rebecca his plan to rob Hog, and asks her to assist him, Lightfoot, and the Player to enter Hog's house that evening. After Rebecca exits, Haddit is joined by Hog, Lightfoot, and Peter, Hog and Lightfoot having completed the arrangements for the mortgage of some of Lightfoot's land. Hog leaves them to take the papers to the scrivener's, and orders Peter to fetch them some beer. After Hog leaves, Haddit and Lightfoot develop a plan to get Peter drunk so that he will pass out: Lightfoot will quarrel with Peter, and Haddit will intervene, restoring peace between them through drink. Peter enters and they begin to put their plan into action; Young Lord Wealthy then enters and is called upon by Haddit to judge the merit of his proposed solution to the quarrel. Haddit tells Peter and Lightfoot to go to the cellar and drink several mugs of beer together; he invites Young Lord Wealthy to join him in the cellar as well. Later, Haddit appears in Hog's chamber disguised as the spirit Bazon. Following the orders of the spirit of King Croesus, who is Lightfoot in disguise, Bazon takes all of Hog's gold away to transform it into pearl. Having escaped with Rebecca from Hog's residence, Haddit next appears giving payment to the Priest who has married him to Rebecca. Haddit sends Rebecca to Atlas' house while he and Lightfoot go to Old Lord Wealthy's. He instructs Rebecca to join them shortly, by which time he promises to receive Rebecca as his wife from Hog's hands. At Old Lord Wealthy's Haddit greets Carracus and learns of Hog's robbery. When Rebecca enters, Hog is overjoyed and Haddit tells Hog that his daughter is worth more than all of his treasure. Haddit offers to marry Rebecca despite her poverty, and when Hog agrees Haddit asks everyone assembled to bear witness to Hog's agreement. At the end of the play Haddit celebrates their new-found wealth, which, although stolen, has saved Hog's soul from damnation, which outweighs their crime. Haddit, Lightfoot, and Rebecca exit to Old Lord Wealthy's feast.


Hadland is a cheat in the service of the Cardinal in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green. With Canbee and Snip, he steals Tom Strowd's cloak, but is forgiven. In disguise as a highwayman, he helps Canbee steal money from Tom and Swash, and then pretends to happen upon him and help him. Later, he meets Tom, again in disguise, but this time Tom recognizes him and beats him and Canbee while Swash handles Snip. When Canbee and Hadland fight the disguised Mumford, they are soundly beaten. When the two sides fight in the final scene, Tom passes up any weapon but a cudgel and uses it to soundly beat the two again.


Master Hadland is a citizen of London in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV. He gives forty shillings to Howard toward the king's war effort.


Eteocles, in thanks for Creon's support in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta, pledges to give his sister Antigone in marriage to Creon's son Haemon.


He serves Clearchus in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy and is making ready the ships that have been driven to Creta in the storm. He is with Clearchus when he comes accidentally upon Hianthe and her ladies. He and Clearchus disguise themselves as holy men to see Hianthe with Aratus’ assistance. He appears with Clearchus in succeeding scenes but plays little part in the forward movement of the plot.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a prophet.


Toby Haggis is a member of the watch in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Haggis appears with Bristle to restore order at the Fair, apparently at Whit's summons. After having proved their superior intelligence in front of the Fair people, Haggis and Bristle leave. Later, Haggis and Bristle bring in the madman (alias Overdo) to be put into the stocks. When Trouble-all keeps asking for a warrant from Justice Overdo, Haggis discusses with Bristle the stern justice that Overdo delivers. When Poacher and other officers bring in Busy to be put on the stocks, Haggis says they will take both prisoners before Justice Overdo. Haggis and the officers leave with Overdo/Madman and Busy, but they cannot find Justice Overdo. Wasp manages to get away by using a trick, and Haggis and Bristle must run after him, leaving the two prisoners in the stocks. When they return, Bristle says he forgot if he had locked the stocks. Since Trouble-all is confusing them with his questions, Bristle and Haggis leave the lock open and the prisoners escape while the officers are fighting with the madman. Seeing that the prisoners have escaped Haggis and the other members of the watch blame it on witchcraft, and they do not follow the runaways.


One of the Three Suitors to the Widow in Fletcher's Wit Without Money. None of them distinguishes himself as an individual. While important to the plot development as a group, they are treated in the play almost as a single personality.


Haircut is serving man to Lord in Shirley's The Lady of Pleasure . He attempts to court Celestina without telling her his true connection to the court. When Scentwell dupes him into revealing himself as Lord's barber, Haircut vows revenge. He exacts his vengeance by requiring Scentwell to stand for half an hour without his periwig.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Hakluyt is mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he is listening to Sir Conquest Shadow tell him about his imaginary bravery and his real cowardice: "And did not Hakluyt and Purchas's Pilgrimages put you into the humor of sea voyages?" Richard Hakluyt (1552?-1616) was a lecturer in Geography at Christ College (University of Oxford). He traveled to North America and, on his return to England, he published several books on exploration–among them: Discourse Concerning Western Discoveries (1584) and The Principal Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation (1589).


Hal is the nickname for Henry, Prince of Wales and son of King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. The nickname is used most often by Falstaff and company.
Hal is again the diminutive for Prince Henry of Wales, son of King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.
Hal is the common name for Henry Monmouth, the Prince of Wales, Henry IV's heir to the English throne in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. At the beginning of the play, Hal spends the majority of his time with a group of debauched companions at a tavern in East Cheap. Hal frequently spars verbally with Sir John Falstaff. He also plots pranks with Ned Poins. Hal uses his money and influence to bankroll his wild life away from court. Hal's delinquency torments his father and amuses disloyal nobles such as Harry Percy, who threatens to poison the wayward prince with a pot of ale. Hal and Poins scheme to catch Falstaff in an elaborate lie surrounding a robbery at Gads Hill. Falstaff first holds up a group of travelers. Falstaff is, in turn, robbed by a disguised Hal and Poins. Back at the tavern, Falstaff claims to have fought a hundred men and killed a dozen. Poins and Hal revel in confronting John with his lies. Hal protects Falstaff by hiding him from the sheriff. Hal also pays the money from the robbery back to its rightful owner, the treasury. In a soliloquy, Hal shares with the audience that he is just pretending to be a derelict in order to lower expectations for him. Hal is honest with Poins about his contempt for the common men he drinks with so often. When the Percies threaten Henry IV, Hal is called to the court. Before reporting to his father, Hal and Falstaff take turns impersonating Henry IV in a mock interrogation of Hal. When Hal plays the king, he lets it be known that he plans on banishing Falstaff. When Hal appears before his father and is accused of gross neglect of duty, Hal apologizes and promises to mend his ways and prove his enemies wrong. The Prince returns to the tavern to recruit his drinking companions. Hal takes Poins with him to battle and gives Falstaff money to raise a company. At Shrewsbury, Hal fights valiantly, even after he is injured. He chases Douglas away from his father and kills Hotspur in single-combat. Hal allows Falstaff to try to reap the credit for the slaying of Percy. After Henry falls ill, Hal mistakenly believes the king has died. When Henry IV wakes up and accuses Hal of prematurely snatching the crown, Hal again apologizes to his father. Henry IV dies soon after, and Henry V comforts his brothers. Henry then rejects Falstaff's company and banishes him with meager provisions.


These are silent soldiers holding halberds in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell who appear in the scene where Gardiner arrests Cromwell.


A "ghost character" in William Rowley's All's Lost by Lust. A Moor who fights to rescue Mahu Mahomet.


Brother of Soliman in Kyd's Soliman and Perseda. In I, he expresses his concern about Soliman's plan to conquer Rhodes. His brother Amurath, who supports the plan, is roused to anger and murders him.


He is Master of the Rolls, a high position of state in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell. He appears with Cromwell, now Hales's servant, after Cromwell's return from years of travelling. He explains to that the banquet he is providing is very important and costs far more than is usual. He explains that Cromwell is far above the usual common men and that he will do what he can to find a position for him working for the state rather than just for him. At the banquet he explains to Wolsey that the difference between the Spanish and English appetite (that Wolsey had alluded to) was the result of the English being "freer souls"; the Spanish using all their money to buy fancy clothes. The three great evils of the Spanish , he states, are pride, the Inquisition and their problems with eating. He grants Wolsey's request to take Cromwell onto his staff. In Act 4 after the Chorus has announced Wolsey's death, Gardiner (formerly Wolsey's man and now Bishop of Winchester), discusses Wolsey's plots against the state with the Duke of Norfolk, the Duke of Suffolk, Sir Thomas More, Sir Christopher Hales, and Cromwell. Hales, More and Gardiner comment on how the wheel of state brought the proud Wolsey down.


One of the twenty-four Electors for the Burgomastership in Ruggle’s Club Law.


As the smallest and wittiest of the four witty servants (Dromio, Lucio, and Riscio) in Lyly's Mother Bombie. Halfpenny was probably played by the smallest boy actor and was given the sharpest lines for comic effect. There are many jokes and puns on his name in reference to his size and worth. The servant of Sperantus, Halfpenny is enlisted by his master to arrange a marriage between his son Candius and wealthy Stellio's daughter Silena. Instead, Halfpenny joins with his servant friends and plots with them to cozen their respective masters. After concocting a plan over sack at the local tavern, the co-conspirators consult the cunning woman Mother Bombie to see if their plan will work. They are told cryptically that they will succeed even though they will be revealed as cozeners. Halfpenny and his compatriots arrange to have Livia and Candius meet dressed as Accius and Silena, thus eliciting the unwitting blessings of their fathers for their marriage. Sperantus is furious with both his son and Halfpenny when the clandestine marriage is revealed, and Halfpenny is threatened with a bare-bottomed spanking, but because Sperantus can do nothing about the marriage, he reconciles himself to the match and Halfpenny is forgiven. Despite his recent brush with punishment, Halfpenny remains irrepressibly cheeky at the end of the play.

HALI **1615

Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Albumazar’s magical cant includes this allusion.

HALI **1632

Only mentioned in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. Demetrius, disguised as an astrologer, rattles off a list of "the learned Cabalists and all the Chaldees." The list includes Asla, Baruch, Abohali, Caucaph, Toz, Arcaphan, Albuas, Gasar, Hali, Hippocras, Lencuo, Ben, Benesaphan, and Albubetes.


Two characters of the same name appear in ?Greene's Selimus I:


Cushain Halibeck is a Persian lord who is angry at the favours shown to Anthony and Robert Sherley (q.q.v.) in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers. He is personally offended when Robert prevents him from killing a prisoner. He is made ambassador and accompanies Anthony on his travels. In Russia he tells lies about Anthony to the Emperor. In Rome, Halibeck is offended when Anthony prevents him, as a pagan, from ascending the stairs to the Pope's throne. In Venice, he intercepts the Sophy's payment for a jewel, so that Zariph the usurer imprisons Anthony. Halibeck then returns to Persia, and tells more lies about Anthony, but when Robert reveals the truth about Halibeck's behaviour, the Sophy demands that Halibeck be executed. Halibeck is moved when Robert requests Christian forgiveness, but the Sophy will not back down, and Halibeck is executed.


Haltersack and Hempstring are two soldiers in Pickering's Horestes who quarrel and fight each other for trivial reasons. A haltersack was a bag placed over the head for hanging on a gallows.


The evil favourite of Abbas, and the villain of Denham's The Sophy. Encouraged by Mirvan, he works on the old King's natural jealousy to destroy Prince Mirza, using the prince's noble treatment of the Turkish bashaws against him. With Mirza in prison, Haly, who has command of the palace guard, is able to discard his pretence of devotion to Abbas, and for a brief time he takes control of the state. After Abbas's death, however, Mirza's friends Abdall and Morat lead the army to the palace and put an end to the favourite's reign. Despite some frenzied last minute plotting, Haly is condemned to death, a fate he meets with haughty courage.

HALY **1637

An aspiring traitor in Carlell’s Osmond. He advises the king to put Despina in the care of eunuchs who will teach her to serve the king. By seeming virtuous he has corrupted many in the army. He convinces two captains that Melcosbus dotes too much on Despina and neglects his duty to his people. He conspires with them to overthrow Melcosbus and make him king. He most fears Odmer’s faithfulness to the king. He tricks Odmer into telling the king that he has grown neglectful of his kingdom in his dotage over Despina. When the king slays Dispina before his men, Haly is shocked and fears his plans for the throne have been vanquished. He sneaks into Melcosbus’ private arbor in the dark with the captains to kill the king. Osmond discovers him and kills him and the captains as they are wounding the king.


A spirit in Percy's Arabia Sitiens. He was killed by his enemies and had a revelation of Mahomet's virtue. He comes to pledge his loyalty to the Prophet. Mahomet seats him in the place of honor, on his left.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by God as an example of man's sinfulness.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. Fourth son of Duke Robert Douglas and brother to Lord James Stuart, he is one of the Scottish lords taken hostage by the English after the battle of Dunbar.

Friend of Vernon in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. He encourages him not to act so complacently when Stukeley marries Nell, Vernon's intended wife. It is this kind of pragmatic advice that Vernon refuses to follow throughout the play.


An attendant on Lady Sensuality in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates. Her name means "familiarity." She attends Lady Sensuality to King Humanity's court and enjoys the revelry with his courtiers, but is banished along with her mistress and sits with her among the Spirituality.

Often confused with Mully Mohamet in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley, Hamet joins the alliance led by Don Sebastian, King of Portugal in the Battle of Alcazar against Abdelmeleck. His forces, despite initial success, are eventually defeated.


A pewterer in The Grocer's Honour portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. He is one of Rafe's men at the Mile End muster. He wears a corslet and carries a Spanish pike. At Rafe's command, he rushes at Rafe, but hi is criticized for his weakness.


Prince Hamlet is the son of old King Hamlet in Shakespeare's Hamlet. He continues to mourn his father publicly despite his mother's marriage to his uncle Claudius. At the urging of Claudius and Gertrude, he agrees to stay in Denmark rather than return to Wittenberg, but he reveals in soliloquy that he is deeply depressed about his mother's remarriage. His close school friend, Horatio, and the two guards Marcellus and Barnardo arrive to tell him that they have seen a Ghost that appears to be his father. Hamlet agrees to watch for the Ghost that night, and, while waiting, muses on the drunkenness of Claudius and the Danish in general, and the way a single flaw can destroy a man (a passage present only in Q2). When the Ghost appears, Hamlet follows it to a private place and there hears that his father was murdered by his uncle, and he is given the task of revenging that murder. Hamlet is joined by Horatio and Marcellus, but refuses to tell them what the Ghost said. However, he insists that they swear not to reveal what they know, and claims he may find it necessary to act mad or put on an "antic disposition." Whether from real or feigned madness, or still reacting to his interview with the Ghost, he seeks out Ophelia, disheveled and pale, and terrifies her into seeking her father. Polonius immediately reports that Hamlet's madness is based in love, and attempts to find out more from him, but Hamlet only insults him under the guise of insanity (in Q1, this scene is preceded by the nunnery scene). Hamlet is next approached by Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, schoolmates of his who have been summoned by Claudius to try to discover the cause of Hamlet's madness. They are no more successful than Polonius was in getting Hamlet to reveal himself, but they do interest him with the imminent arrival of a group of actors from Wittenberg. Hamlet asks them to play The Murder of Gonzago and, in soliloquy, muses over his delay in revenging his father, and his fear that the Ghost is really a devil sent to tempt and trap him. He decides to seek proof by staging a murder like his father's and seeing if Claudius reacts. In the next scene, in soliloquy, he considers whether or not to commit suicide, deciding that fear of the unknown is what keeps people alive. He is then confronted with Ophelia, who has been instructed by her father and Claudius to seek out Hamlet while they watch in secret. Hamlet becomes enraged at her apparent lack of faithfulness and accuses her of lechery, telling her to seek out a nunnery (in Q1, this scene precedes Polonius' attempt to confront Hamlet). Hamlet gives advice to the players on how to act their play. He asks Horatio to keep watch on Claudius during the play to see how he reacts. Hamlet taunts both his mother and Ophelia during the play, and is thrilled when Claudius rises and stops the play. On the way to visit his mother, Hamlet sees Claudius alone, praying, and considers killing him, but decides that sending Claudius's soul to heaven is no revenge. In his mother's chamber he kills Polonius, who is hidden behind an arras, and then berates his mother for her lust and sinfulness. For the murder of Polonius, he is sent to England, accompanied by Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. In Q2 only, after meeting Fortinbras's captain on the way to fight in Poland, Hamlet declares, in soliloquy, that he will take the first chance he can to complete his revenge. On board the ship, he discovers his death warrant and changes it to request the death of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern instead. He escapes from them on a pirate ship and returns to Denmark in time to witness Ophelia's funeral. Enraged by Laertes' ostentatious display of grief, Hamlet attacks him and they struggle in the grave before being separated. Hamlet agrees to fence with Laertes, despite some misgivings, and wins the first two touches. In the third pass, Hamlet is wounded by Laertes' unbated and poisoned sword, and then wounds Laertes with the same sword. Gertrude, who has drunk from the poisoned cup meant for Hamlet, dies and Laertes reveals that Claudius is to blame. Hamlet stabs the king and forces him to drink the rest of the poisoned wine. He then begs Horatio, who is planning to commit suicide, to stay alive and report his story so that his actions might be understood.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Hamlet is mentioned by Doctor Clyster, when he catches Sir Cupid Phantsy versifying again, when he had made him assure him he would not do it again. Sir Cupid, in an attempt to avoid being reprimanded, replies he was at his prayers, but the Doctor, ironically, asks him: "What, so loud, and acting, as if Burbage's soul had newly revived Hamlet and Jeronimo again, or Alleyn, Tamburlaine?" Hamlet is the leading role in Shakespeare's play of the same title.


Hamlet is the footman waiting on Gertrude and Mistress Touchstone at the inn in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!. Preparing to leave for Sir Petronel's fictional country castle, Mistress Touchstone and the new "lady" are impatient. Hamlet orders the coach for the ladies and Potkin sends him back to brush the old mistress. The reference is probably to a mare, but the ironic allusion is to Mistress Touchstone. When the coach arrives, Hamlet prepares to take his place at the back. When she sees him running behind the coach, Mistress Touchstone, in her naïveté, asks if this man is going to run after the coach all the way. Since Gertrude shows similar little knowledge of the footman's duties, Mistress Touchstone suggests that the poor man should have at least a hobbyhorse to ride on.


A countryman who steals thatch from Mother Sawyer's cottage, to use it in a witch-test in Rowley, Dekker and Ford's The Witch of Edmonton. Like W. Mago, this is probably the name of an actor, rather than a character.


A goldsmith in Jordan's Money is an Ass. He arrives in act IV, accompanied by Silver and his mistress. These characters, who appear only briefly and are not included in the 1668 cast list, would require actors in excess of the eight referred to by the Prologue. They may, therefore, be vestiges of an earlier text.


A bachelor of arts and Lively’s nephew in Hausted’s Rival Friends. Anteros and Loveall attempt to set him at odds with Noddle Empty. Offstage, he cracks Noddle’s head open with his chamber key. Anteros gulls Hammershin into believing he has killed Noddle Empty and gets him to hide in a rabbit chest and hides Mr. Mongrel in a pig sty. A long time later, at play’s end when the trick is quite forgotten, he humorously calls to be released. Anteros and Loveall release him and the others but also tell Placenta that they are the ones that tied Stipes and Merda to the tree, and he is cudgeled away with the others. He returns for revenge, but Anteros mollifies him with promise that he may marry Ursely, his sister, and have the parsonage.


Master Hammon is a wealthy city gentleman in Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday. Having been rejected by Rose Oatley, the daughter of the Lord Mayor of London, he tries to win the heart of the seamstress Jane Damport, whose husband, the shoemaker Rafe, has been conscripted in the war in France, by leading her to believe that her husband has died in battle. The match is thwarted by Rafe, in the meantime returned from France, with the aid of Firk and the London shoemakers, who violently protest his marriage with Jane. When the loyal Rafe rejects Hammon's offer of buying Jane off him, Hammon generously gives the couple the money as a wedding gift.

HAMOND **1619

Captain of the Guard to Rollo in Fletcher’s Bloody Brother. He enacts Rollo’s order to behead Gisbert. He also obeys the order to behead Baldwin. He pleads with Rollo for his brother Allan’s life in vain. Latorch requests him to go along to Rome to be messenger between him and Rollo when Latorch goes to visit his “Mathematicals." He brings news from Latorch in Rome that Aubrey is a threat to Rollo. When Aubrey tests him by ordering him to cut off Aubrey’s head because he is named as traitor, Hamond refuses. Instead, Hamond goes to Rollo to murder him. Despite Rollo holding Edith as a shield, Hamond stabs him to death. He has himself been wounded by Rollo’s knife, however, and dies.


Hanan is a neighbor of Isaac in ?Udall's Jacob and Esau. He complains of the racket Esau makes early in the morning. He explains that Isaac cannot be blamed for the way his son Esau is behaving since Jacob and Esau were brought up by the same father. The fault is in Esau's disposition, he says.


A "ghost character" in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador. Mentioned by Edmond as being the brother of Morrogh Mac Breean, King of Leinster.


See also HAUNCE, HANS, and related spellings.


Hance Beerpot is a drunken Fleming, and is the sometime companion of Ill-Will and Shrewd Wit in the anonymous An Interlude of Wealth and Health. He also goes by the name of War. He asks Ill-Will and Shrewd Wit for a place to stay in England; they direct him to go to court and ask for Wealth. During Wealth's disappearance, he tells Good Remedy that he has taken Wealth to Flanders and away from England.


Possibly present as a corpse in Chettle's Hoffman. Lord of Burtholme, former Admiral to Ferdinand, Duke of Prussia. The executed father of Hoffman was compelled by outstanding debts to become a pirate. He does not have any lines in the play; his body does, however, hang in plain view of the audience for acts one and five. (This is an inference, as the stage directions concerning the hanging bodies in both acts are absent.)


A non-speaking character in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. The Hand With a Hammer appears and breaks the Brazen Head after Miles fails to wake Friar Bacon when the Head speaks a third time.


Four mute handmaids accompany Jocasta at all times in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta.


Handsaw is a carpenter hired for work on Temple restoration in Markham's Herod and Antipater. He is also hired by Salumith to lie about an attempt on Herod's life supposedly concocted by the king's younger sons.


According to Gilbert in Brome's The Sparagus Garden, the second of the three "Graces of the court" who appear with three Courtiers at the Asparagus Garden and whose beauty impresses Sir Arnold Cautious. They dance and walk with their partners, but do nothing more questionable.


Hangs the prisoners that Promos orders executed in Whetstone's 1 Promos and Cassandra. In a soliloquy, he expresses pleasure in his work. He expresses particular pleasure at the opportunity to hang a gypsy, for he characterizes the gypsies as despicable swindlers.


Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. He carries out execution upon Pedringano and discovers the confession in Pedringano's pocket implicating Lorenzo in Horatio's murder.


Enters with the Officers, Merry, and Rachel in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies. Brings a ladder. Hangs Merry and Rachel by turning both of them off of the ladder.


The Hangman is More's executioner in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. Technically, in this play, he is a headsman, but the term hangman can be used generically for anyone performing an execution. He follows the conventional behavior of those in his occupation: he asks More's forgiveness and assures the condemned man he will strike true. In the short exchange between the two, More constantly jokes (for example, calling the Hangman the "doctor" sent by the king to cure him of a "headache"), thus continuing to the very end the characterization of More as a man of extraordinary good humor.

HANGMAN **1600

He asks Cromwell's forgiveness as he prepares to execute him in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell.


Byron's executioner in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron; he appears in the final scene.


The executioner of Pusher and Clinton in Heywood and Rowley's Fortune by Land and Sea.


A "ghost character" in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort. He is summoned by Gullman to execute Lucius for the murder of her daughter Flavia.


A hangman appears to execute Alphonso for treason at the beginning of?Ford's The Queen. He makes the requisite jokes about "close shaving" his prisoner, but does not seem unduly disturbed when the Queen pardons Alphonso.


Disguise assumed by Howlet in the anonymous The Wasp. He falls in with Grig Brandwell, Dampit, Kenwell, and Huntit and learns that they mean to woo the "lust widow" of "walltamstowe", his mistress Countess Claridon.


A "ghost character" in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Hankin Hoddydoddy is one of the individuals Merrygreek admits to having sponged from before taking up with Ralph Roister Doister.


Wife to Rafe Camelions, daughter to Captain Hardyman in Brome's The New Academy. She is an honest and virtuous woman, but she fears that Rafe's complete lack of jealousy is causing people to assume that he is a wittol. He refuses to alter his trusting behavior, so she devises a plan to make him jealous. She begins a non-sexual relationship with Valentine Askal by staring at him desirously and giving him money. One day before Rafe leaves for the ducking pond, she asks him to write a word or sentence that he will recognize later on a letter that has arrived for her. She then agrees to rent lodging in their personal residence for Stigood to found the New Academy. When Valentine brings Rachel to the Academy, he takes Hannah aside and asks her for more money. Rafe overhears this conversation and finally erupts in jealously. Hannah then reveals that (unbeknownst to all but her), Valentine is her half-brother from whom she has been separated and the money that she has been giving him has actually come from their father. To prove this, she reveals a letter from her father containing a bill of charge for £100 and instructions to supply her brother with the money as she sees fit. This is the same letter upon which Rafe has written Honi soit qui mal y pense (Shame to any who think evil of it).


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man in His Humour. Hannibal (247?-183? BC) was the son of the great Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca. In 218 BC, he crossed the Pyrenees Mountains and crushed the Roman army. Hannibal's name has become synonymous with a brave general. However, Cob uses the name inappropriately. In Kitely's kitchen, Cob delivers one of his lectures, drawing on his homespun philosophy, regarding the insufficiency of feasting days. He complains that the poor cobs, his family lineage, become martyrs on such days. Cob tells Cash that the maids at Kitely's house knew he descended from a family of cobs and yet they gave him a herring to eat. Thus, Cob argues, the maids would have him turn "Hannibal" and eat his own flesh and blood. Cob uses the word inappropriately, since he means "Cannibal."
Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. Hannibal (247?–183? BC) was the son of the great Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca. In 218 BC, he crossed the Pyrenees Mountains and crushed the Roman army. He defeated the Romans in the Second Punic War, but ultimately his city, Carthage, was reduced to a position of a vassal state after the battle of Zama (202 BC). Hovering over Catiline's head, Sylla's Ghost invokes the evil powers to help him inoculate the germs of destruction in Catiline's mind. Sylla's Ghost makes an incursion in earlier Roman history, implying that Hannibal, Rome's former arch-enemy, would have been pleased to see the seeds of the city's destruction sown into the minds of its politicians.
A "ghost character" in Marston's Sophonisba. It is to distract Hannibal from his campaigns in Italy that Scipio attacks Carthage.
Only mentioned in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. Agurtes plans to praise the role-playing Autolicus as more worthy than Hannibal, the Carthaginian general who hated Rome.
Only mentioned in Burnell's Landgartha. Historical soldier with whom Reyner's commanders are compared to encourage them to fight. Hannibal fought bravely against the Romans whom he almost defeated, but he was finally killed.
Only mentioned in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge. Carthaginian general and enemy of Rome, Hannibal is described by Sharkino as having carried medicines in the pommel of his sword.
Carthaginian general and one of two main characters in Nabbes' Hannibal and Scipio. He represents the destructiveness of unchecked passions, in contrast to the dignity and restraint represented by Scipio. Hannibal first appears in Capua, rebuking his men for their hedonistic excesses after capturing the city. However, he is almost immediately enchanted by a passing lady, and only stops his wooing when word comes that he has been recalled to Carthage. In Numidia, he is initially upset when Syphax decides to ally with Rome, but conspires with Piston and Crates to change Syphax's mind by promising him the hand of Sophonisba. After Hannibal is defeated by Scipio at the battle of Zama, he returns to Carthage and is insulted by Hanno and the rest of the senate, whereupon he loses his temper and flees just before Scipio arrives. Having arrived at the court of Prusias, king of Bythinia, he becomes alarmed when Scipio and his entourage arrive. When Himulco reports that the court is surrounded by armed soldiers, Hannibal becomes convinced that Prusias has betrayed him, and commits suicide by taking poison. Played by William Allen in the original production.
Only mentioned in the anonymous The Wasp. Archibald, disguised as Percy, likens his crossing from France to Hannibal's crossing the Alps.
Only mentioned in Kyd's Cornelia. Cornelia mentions him as another great general who was killed by a Roman sword.
Only mentioned in Rowley’s When You See Me. Wolsey compares himself to the great general.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Pathomachia. Laughter says that he can laugh for anger as Hannibal did Asdrubal.


High Constable Tobie Turfe's man, a logic-chopping clown in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub. After the arrest of John Clay, he proposes to Audrey, who refuses him. He reports her abduction by Basket Hilts to her father and the Constables. He alsodiscovers John Clay hiding in a barn, but mistakes him initially for the Devil. Chosen as Dido Wispe's Valentine by Lady Tub, he marries her after Audrey's wedding. (Listed in d.p. as "Ball Puppy")


Hanno, one of the Carthaginian Senators in Massinger's Believe As You List who, along with Asdrubal and Carthalo, find Antiochus innocent of treason and treachery.


A Carthaginian senator in Nabbes' Hannibal and Scipio who, at the outset of act four, describes to his fellow senators their plan to betray Hannibal to the Romans as part of the peace settlement. When Hannibal arrives shortly thereafter, Hanno insults him in a heated exchange and is physically attacked by him. After Hannibal has fled from the approaching Scipio, Hanno falsely tells Scipio that they have banished Hannibal, a plan which backfires when Scipio rebukes them for their ingratitude. Played by Richard Perkins in the original production.


Hanno Magnus, the Carthaginian captain in Marston's Sophonisba, conspires with Bytheas and [H]asdrubal[l] to betray Massinissa.


The Ammonite king Hanon, aided by Machaas, the king of Gath, struggles with David's forces at Rabbah and is defeated in Peele's David and Bethsabe.


See also HANCE, HAUNCE, and related spellings.


Hans is one of the two boors in the woods in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. His speeches are mostly in German. He and Jerick come across numerous letters promising rewards to the killer of Richard, and then find Richard in the woods. They fight him and knock him to the ground, but then fall out with each other in an argument about the spoils. Jerick kills Hans with a hatchet.


A Dutch tavern-drawer in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's The Staple of News. The emissary or reporter to the Staple of News for the Royal Exchange.


The pseudonym in Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday under which Rowland Lacy becomes one of Simon Eyre's journeymen so as to pursue and marry his middle-class lover, Rose Oatley.


A German in Brome's The Novella. He goes to the Novella's lodging with the intention of haggling for her. There, he helps prevent Pedro from raping her. When he learns that she means to save herself for a husband, he leaves. He returns disguised as an English factor with 2,000 ducats to test her honesty. When she refuses the money, he attempts to reveal his identity but is interrupted by Fabritio, who is dressed in Swatzenburgh's Dutchman costume from the previous scene. The two quarrel over which is the real Swatzenburgh, and he leaves to find a Zaffi to vindicate him. When Fabritio's true identity is revealed, Swatzenburgh is pleased with the match and puts aside his animosity.


One of Doll Hornet's duped lovers in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho, a Belgian merchant, who only speaks Flemish. Doll presents one of her companions, Jack Hornet, as her father, and Hans is convinced that she is a gentlewoman. He gives her his gold watch. Captain Jenkins finds him and informs him about Doll's tricks. Together with Allam and Jenkins he follows her to Ware with a warrant, but her new husband Featherstone agrees to pay her debts.


A Dutch sea captain in Davenant's News From Plymouth. He drinks a toast with Warwell to the King of England, thus angering Furious Inland. The quarrel is quickly broken up, but Bumble vows vengeance and later sends Inland a challenge to combat at sea. The combat never takes place because Inland does not have a ship.


Sir Richard Hapce attends the young King Edward V in Northampton at the beginning of the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. Hapce is arrested by Gloucester, charged with high treason and condemned to death.


The Vice in [?]Bower's Apius and Virginia. Introduces himself by means of a long catalogue of occupations, some serious, some nonsensical, but in all of which he has a part, either advancing or destroying fortunes by "hap" or chance. He meets Mansipulus and Mansipula, breaks up their brawl and convinces them to join him in a song in praise of "hazard":
Hope so, and hap so, in hazard of thretninge,
The worst that can hap, lo, in end is but beating.
Haphazard next appears in counsel with Apius and suggests that, if he is willing to take the chance, he could find someone to claim that Virginia is not Virginius' legitimate daughter but was rather kidnapped by Virginius when she was a child. When Justice and Conscience challenge Apius over his plans for Virginia, Haphazard dismisses them as just thoughts and fables. Haphazard continues to encourage Apius as Apius arranges to have Claudius make the accusation against Virginius. After leaving with Claudius, Haphazard joins again with Mansipulus, Mansipula, and Subservus in a song in praise of good company. Haphazard next appears with Apius as they await the arrival of Virginius bringing Virginia into Apius' custody. After Apius is condemned to death by Justice and Reward, Haphazard outlines all of his service and demands compensation from Justice and Reward also: Justice and Reward give him a rope and tell him hanging will be his reward. Haphazard tries to escape his punishment, but Reward sends him away under Virginius' supervision to be hanged.


Haraldus is the sweet-dispositioned son of Marpisa in Shirley's The Politician. He would prefer study at a university to life at court. Suddenly suspicious of his heritage after overhearing Cortes and Hormenus talking, Haraldus pries an admission of paternity from Gotharius. Becoming ill after a drinking bout, Haraldus is broken in spirit; even though his mother assures him that Gotharius is not his father, Haraldus still dies of fever combined with grief over his mother's shame.

Captain of the English Garrison in Dundalk in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. Troubled by Stukeley's overweening ambition, he considers the captain "some desperate pirate, that thinks to domineer on the land as he is used among his mates at sea." Against his wife's better judgement, he expels Stukeley from Ireland.


Harbert, Sentloe's friend in the anonymous The Fair Maid of Bristow, first cautions him against the courtesan Florence and then follows him disguised as a servingman. He pretends to agree to kill Sentloe for Florence, but instead gives him a sleeping draught. Finding that he has gone to sleep next to Vallenger, he smears both with blood and calls the Watch. He confesses his part in the supposed plot and is sentenced to death, but this is repealed when he is able to produce Sentloe alive.


The family name of Sir John and Clare in Wilkins's The Miseries of Enforced Marriage.


Harcor is a messenger in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. He brings Henry IV the news that the Earle of Northumberland has been overthrown.


Harcourt is a nobleman in King Henry's court in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. He brings news that Northumberland and Lord Bardolph have been overthrown by the Sheriff of Yorkshire.


A lord attending Alfonso and father of Leander in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll. When he discovers Lassinbergh and Haunce near the spot where Alberdure had been left, he suspects foul play and arrests them both.


A "ghost character" in Brewer's The Lovesick King. Father of Canutus and Elgina.


The family name of Old Harding, Philip, William, and John in Heywood and Rowley's Fortune by Land and Sea.


Hardydardy is the Vice of the anonymous Godly Queen Hester and a servant to Aman, who engages him as his fool.


Father to Hannah Camelions, stepfather to Valentine Askal in Brome's The New Academy. Prior to the action of the play, he married Valentine's mother and fathered Hannah, whom he sent to live in London. He refuses to supply money from his wife's estate to her spendthrift son Valentine; however, he sends Hannah £100 instructing her to relieve Valentine's debts as she sees fit. After he and Old Lafoy conduct business on the Isle of Wight, the two men travel to London to locate their children.

HARE **1601

Latro’s man in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. He helps Latro attempt to catch Claribel and Floradin, but when it seems that his mistress, Olivel, has killed herself, he agrees to flee with Latro to Colchester, pausing only to collect his cap case.

HARE **1605

A "ghost character" in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me whose murder was attempted by Doctor Parry.


A non-speaking character in Wilde's Love's Hospital. One of four "Beasts" which dance with the 4 "little boyes" and 4 Satyrs in the antemasque that Himen presents near the play's end.


A London citizen in Middleton's A Mad World, My Masters. He, along with his wife, is designed to portray the materialism of Londoners. After acquiring a valuable jewel, Harebrain and his wife become prisoners of their own home in effort to protect it from theft. Meanwhile, Harebrain allows his paranoid jealousy to get the better of him. He believes his wife is carrying on an adulterous affair with Penitent Brothel. In fact, such an affair is in the offing, but it is thwarted when Penitent Brothel is visited by a succubus and repents. Harebrain's fears are allayed and he is reconciled with his wife when he overhears a conversation between his wife and Penitent in which she declares her love for her husband. Along with many characters, he is present at the feast given by Sir Bounteous at which Owemuch's players perform The Slip and Follywit's marriage to the courtesan are revealed.


Wife of the paranoid and jealous Master Harebrain in Middleton's A Mad World, My Masters. She is briefly privy to the adulterous advances of Penitent Brothel. These advances end when a succubus (devil) comes to Penitent under the guise of Mistress Harebrain. Harebrain hears his wife confess her love for her husband and the couple is happily reunited.




One of the witches mentioned by name in Heywood and Brome's The Late Lancashire Witches. Although there are no lines assigned under this character designation, it is possible that Hargrave is the surname of either Gill or Maud.


Haringfield is the acquaintance of Young Chartley and Boyster and also friend to Sencer in Thomas Heywood's The Wise Woman of Hogsdon. Haringfield is a civil and mannered gentleman. He accompanies Sencer on his ill-fated attempt to woo Gratiana and testifies on his friend's behalf to Sir Harry. While Sencer is turned out of the house, Haringfield becomes a welcome guest in Sir Harry's household, and he momentarily piques the amorous interest of Gratiana. Haringfield's presence in the play does not have any direct impact on the plot, but his character serves as a contrast to his friend Sencer's less appropriate conduct, and the friendship itself signals that Sencer may possess more merit than first meets the eye.


A judge in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron. He is one of the four judges in Byron's trial. He and the other judges deliver their sentence to Byron in his cell and also appear at the time of his execution to read the sentence again. Harlay reads the sentence.


One of the three executioners in Fletcher and Massinger's Sir John Van Olden Barnavelt. The others are from Leiden and Utrecht. He throws dice with his fellow executioners to determine who will behead Barnavelt and loses.


An Italian actor, who engages in an improvised comic routine with Will Kemp in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers.


Non-speaking role in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers. Assists her husband in his comic routine with Will Kemp, during which Kemp steals a kiss from her.


He is the blind father of Lenchy and Martin in the anonymous A Larum for London. He comes upon his children as they are pleading with soldiers and berates the soldiers for attacking his children. The soldiers kill him along with his whole family.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the underlings of Harman van Speult, listed by Sheathing-Nail.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. Harman van Speult was the Dutch commander who massacred British sailors at Amboyna, in the East Indies; the workmen talk about these events (their discussion was deleted by the censor).


Harmony is a character in the masque with which Brome's The Antipodes concludes. Mercury, Cupid, Bacchus, and Apollo attend her. Harmony vanquishes Discord and her attendants.


Harold is Canutus' trusted captain in Brewer's The Lovesick King. Though appalled by Canutus' behavior, he serves him loyally and attempts to defend York for him, although he is unsuccessful.


A "ghost character" in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. King Richard, out hunting with Robin Hood's men, sends Little John to find Robin and Scarlet to help him catch a deer. It is discovered that the deer had a ring around its neck, put there (apparently) by Harold Harefoot.


An angel of Justice in Percy's Arabia Sitiens. Mahomet sends him and Maroth to spy on the people of Arabia. Disguised as traveling minstrels, Haroth and Maroth find sin and vice in every city they visit. They decide to search the desert for virtuous people. They join Epimenide's retinue and both fall in love with her. In the presence of her waiting women, they implore her to answer their suits, but she mocks and rejects them. When she tells them she would only take angels as lovers, they reveal their true identities and teach her the prayer that leads the way to Olympus/Heaven. When Haroth and Maroth reach Heaven, they confess their lust and betrayal. Mahomet banishes Epimenide into the moon and orders Maroth and Haroth to support the moon as it turns.


He, Melampus and others were hired by Timeus to kill Pallantus but the shipwreck prevented them in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. When they assault Pallantus on the shore, he kills them.


Harpax is one of Ralph Roister Doister's servants in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Early in the play, he is present when the braggart sends his letter to Dame Custance, and later, he is among those invited to the feast Goodluck orders for the widow and himself. At the end of the play, he is one of the characters who deliver short speeches (or lines of a song) in praise of Queen Elizabeth.

HARPAX **1615

A thief in Tomkis’ Albumazar. It is first Harpax’s job to second Albumazar in everything he says. After Ronca “returns" ten pounds to Trincalo (to convince him he is now Antonio), Harpax appears claiming that Antonio owes him ten pounds. He settles for five pounds now and a promise to return for the rest tomorrow. Once Pandolfo’s goods are collected, Ronca, Harpax, and Furbo turn on Albumazar and refuse him a share, taunting him with his own counsels, and the astrologer vows to be revenged upon them. Offstage, Upon intelligence from Albumazar, Cricca takes a Constable to a tippling house where Ronca, Harpax, and Furbo are arrested and all of the stolen goods is recovered. Pandolfo, however, pardons them all because they brought about the right ending to the family’s difficulties.


Harpax, an evil spirit in Massinger and Dekker's The Virgin Martyr. He follows Theophilus in the shape of a secretary. After Theophilus converts to Christianity, he tries to force the convert into blaspheming, but he disappears after the spirit of Dorothea appears.


A "ghost character" in Marston's Dutch Courtesan. The blind harper does not appear in the play, but Freevill speaks him of as one of the two people who were nearby when Cockledemoy and Mary Faugh stole three of Mulligrub's bowls. The drawer had left the room so that Cockledemoy and Mary Faugh could have their privacy, leaving behind the couple and the blind harper, who was none the wiser as Cockledemoy and Mary Faugh collected the loot and escaped out the window.


A harper accompanies the Chorus of five Bards in Fisher's Fuimus Troes.


At first a follower of Sir Thomas Wyatt in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt, Sir George Harper is charged with giving the herald Norroy safe conduct as he bears Queen Mary's offer of pardon to the rebels, but he uses this task to defect to the queen's forces led by the Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of Arundel. He appears briefly later at London, telling Norfolk that Pembroke and Arundel have fled, an error corrected at once by the arrival of the two earls.


Four Harpers are called forth by Fortune to reawaken the Bardh in The Valiant Welshman. The Harpers also appear during the masque of the Fairy Queen, in which they dance and one of them sings a Welsh song.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Harpocrates is the Greek name for the Egyptian sky god Horus. He was represented as a small boy with his finger held to his lips and came to be considered the god of silence. His cult, combined with that of Isis and Serapis, was very popular in the Roman Empire. When Truewit enters Morose's house in a flurry, blowing a post-horn, he pretends to wonder why everyone is so silent. Though Truewit is aware of Morose's noise-hating idiosyncrasy, he pretends to be amazed. Truewit calls Morose's servants Pythagoreans, thus alluding to their muteness, which he compares to the philosophers' vow of silence. In addition, Truewit asks if Harpocrates has been there with his club among them. The allusion is to the representation of the Egyptian god of silence.

HARPOOL **1599

He angrily dismisses the beggars and old man who come to his door, and later rebukes the Sumner in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle. Upon hearing the business of the Sumner, plies him with drink and tricks him into forgetting the summons. Confronts Wrotham about his relationship with the prostitute Doll and, after a heated debated, befriends him. He attempts to prevent the Bishop from arresting Oldcastle, but fails, but he does manage to help Oldcastle escape from the Bishop once they arrive at the Tower. While sleeping in the Bell Inn's barn he is robbed of his clothes by the Irishman, and is himself arrested for the charge of murder while he is wearing the Irishman's clothes. Upon the confession of the Irishman, and the testimony of Wrotham, he is freed, along with the Oldcastles.


A disguise assumed by Ariel to frighten the men shipwrecked by Prospero's art in Shakespeare's The Tempest. After the banquet magically appears to attract the men, the Harpy rises to chastise and terrify them. The creature recalls the sins they have committed against old duke Prospero before causing the banquet to disappear "with a quaint device." Shakespeare borrows this image from the Argonautica in which Jason comes upon Phineus the blind Thracian king tormented by harpies sent by Zeus that despoil his daily meals.


Harrold is a competitor for Denmark in Burnell's Landgartha. He is supported by Valdemar against Reyner to reclaim his right to the throne. His brother, Eric, also helps him. He also asks Lewis the Debonaire for help. Harrold tells his brother that they will have 12,000 soldiers in Germany. With Lothaire and Eric, he wants to defeat Reyner before Landgartha arrives. Harrold attacks Reyner but he is surprised by Landgartha who hits him. Having lost the battle, Harrold rests with his brother when an Angel appears to them to suggest they return to the emperor.


Familiar form for "Henry," Rafe uses Harry with speaking of King Henry in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay.


Harry appears in one of the deleted scenes of Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. He is an apprentice participating in the May Day riots of 1517. Conversing with his fellow apprentice Robin, Harry claims to have broken the head of the usher at Garrett's fencing academy.

HARRY **1599

A "ghost character" in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV. Harry, or Henry VI, is mentioned by Hobs as the "other" king besides King Edward and likely the more honest of the two.


Harry plays a game after school with his friend, Young Sanders, in the front doorway of the Sanders home in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women. This blocks George Browne's attempt to visit Anne Sanders after he killed her husband. Browne enlists Roger to remove the boys, and they leave when Roger promises not to tell their fathers that they were playing forbidden games.

HARRY **1604

Will Sommers’s nickname for Henry VIII in Rowley’s When You See Me.


The nickname of Henry Clare in the anonymous The Merry Devil of Edmonton.


Thomas Cromwell's son in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell. Talks to his father in prison just before his execution.


An elderly London usurer in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. Suffering from senility and alcoholism, he refuses to extend credit to Witgood's three creditors when they ask for the money to cover Witgood's debts. Dampit's servant, Audrey, is perpetually chiding her master.


The "bread and meat man" at the debtor's prison administered by Lodge in Cooke's Greene's Tu Quoque. Fox is disdainful of Spendall's condescending attitude while interred.


Harry Gruedgen in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV is among the London citizens asked to subscribe funds for the king's war efforts. He grudgingly donates twenty pounds


Sir Harry Isley is the member of Wyatt's rebellious party in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt who reports Sir George Harper's defection to the queen's army. A short time later, he appears (without explanation) at the Duke of Norfolk's side with an erroneous report that the Earl of Pembroke has withdrawn.


Harry Monmouth is a name used by Hotspur to refer to Henry, Prince of Wales in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV.

Harry Monmouth remains another name for Prince Henry, son of King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. And again, enemies of the royal house generally use this nomenclature more often than do the loyalists.


Sir Harry Morton is Vice-Admiral to King Edward in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV. At the execution of Falconbridge, Morton urges the rebel to discharge his conscience, confess, and die a Christian.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Harry Nicholas was a religious fanatic. The timid Drugger enters upon a scene in which all the cheated people complain of their hardships before the authorities. The puritans are loudest among them. When Drugger enters, Lovewit thinks he is one of the extremist puritans and chases him away yelling, "you, Harry Nicholas!"


Son of the Earl of Northumberland, follower of Bolingbroke in Shakespeare's Richard II. He turns up again as "Hotspur" in 1 Henry IV.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. "Stout Harry Percy," an English knight, guards the English tents to the east during the battle of Leith. Clifton says he has many barbed steeds, all baying for action.


A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Hollander. Popingay’s father and Sir Martin Yellow’s brother-in-law.


Richmond is a "ghost character" in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV, but Buckingham pledges that Richard will be deposed and that Richmond will be seated as king.


Father to Gratiana in Thomas Heywood's The Wise Woman of Hogsdon. Sir Harry is an ignorant but well-meaning knight. He is unimpressed with Sencer's bad reputation and inappropriate attempt to woo his daughter. He bans Sencer from his house, vowing that the day he bids Sencer welcome and invites him to enjoy his hospitality is the day he will give consent for Sencer to marry Gratiana. Sir Harry hires Sir Boniface to tutor his children, including Gratiana, but routinely misunderstands Sir Boniface's Latin. Sencer, disguised as "Sir Timothy" a rival scholar to Sir Boniface, insinuates himself into Sir Harry's household by making Sir Harry believe Sir Boniface's Latin is obscene. Meanwhile, Young Chartley presents Sir Harry with a forged letter allegedly from his father Old Chartley, indicating Old Chartley's desire to have their children wed. Sir Harry is pleased with the idea and urges Gratiana to accept Young Chartley as her husband. Witnessing this, Sencer doffs his disguise and lays claim to Gratiana himself, having satisfied the conditions of Sir Harry's oath by being welcomed into the household. Instead, Sir Harry declares the claim invalid because trickery was used. When Sir Harry encounters his friend Old Chartley in the street, he is incensed to discover Old Chartley's ignorance of the impending match between Gratiana and Young Chartley, and confronts him with the forged letter. Sir Harry and Old Chartley quickly realize Young Chartley has cozened them, but Sir Harry, having earlier been called to the Wise-Woman of Hogsdon's house, leaves to meet his appointment. Sir Harry becomes one of the party that confronts Young Chartley about his wrongdoings. When he discovers Sencer's role in preventing Gratiana's wedding and eventual ruin, he welcomes him as his future son-in-law.


Only mentioned in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. Harry the Fourth, an English king, is mentioned by Agurtes in his guise as Justice.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. When Face quarrels with Subtle, he threatens to indict the bogus alchemist within the statute of sorcery, tricesimo tertio, of Harry the Eighth. The reference is to the statute against witchcraft issued in Henry VIII's thirty-third year, 1541.


A "ghost character" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Complement quotes his "fellow Knight and Philosopher" Sir Harry Tottle when he states that "anger is the whetstone of fortitude."


Works for Merry in his tavern in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies. After hearing Rachel's outcry, Harry ascends the stairs and discovers the murder of Beech by Merry. He criticizes Merry's cruelty and refuses to stay any longer in the tavern. Merry makes him promise not to reveal the crime, and Williams leaves, expressing his fear that Merry will murder him as well in order to ensure his silence. He later meets Merry who asks him if he has still kept the crime a secret. Merry gives Williams money and his cloak and promises to offer further help so long as Williams remains silent. He agrees and exits. He meets his friend Cowley and resists Cowley's attempts to discover the source of his melancholy behavior. When Cowley insists on knowing, Williams vows to flee where no one can see or hear his lamentations. Williams, still pursued by Cowley, eventually reveals that Merry murdered Beech and Winchester. Williams is urged by Cowley to tell what he knows to the officers in order avoid being charged for concealing the murders. Williams confesses to the officers and after being convicted for concealing the murders, pleads benefit of clergy and is branded as punishment.


Frank Hartlove is a suitor to Maria in Fletcher's The Night Walker. At her wedding to Algripe, he becomes drunk, and, at Wildbraine's bidding, attempts to seduce Maria in the cloister before she can lose her maidenhood to Algripe. Wildbraine then leads Algripe to the cloister, and, in the ensuing fracas, Maria apparently dies. Hartlove plans to kill Wildbraine in revenge but is stopped by Maria, pretending to be her own ghost. A repentant Hartlove goes to Maria's mother and meets Maria disguised as Guennith, the nurse's Welsh niece. Hartlove asks Maria's mother for permission to marry Guennith as a substitute for Maria but later recants his proposal. When he does so, Maria reveals herself to Hartlove, and the lovers are reunited. They become engaged when Algripe reveals that his marriage to Maria is void due to a previous engagement.


This gentleman admirer of Frances falls upon financial hard times, releasing his servants in Shirley's Constant Maid. He soon finds Bellamy, mother of Frances, claiming affection for him and urging him to stop his pursuit of Frances. Told by Close of the plan to sneak Frances' new suitor, Startup, into Frances' chamber, Hartwell dons Startup's clothes and enters the chamber instead. He is dismayed when Frances apparently thinks he is indeed Startup and promises marriage. Later accused of killing Startup, the heartsick Hartwell confesses to a crime he did not commit. The truth, however, is that Startup still lives; additionally, Bellamy is found to have been testing the constancy of Hartwell and Frances, who soon will wed.


Always referred to as the Widow in Fletcher's Wit Without Money.


Although figures such as the Harvest-men are often supernumeraries in the drama of this period, Peele uses them purposefully in his The Old Wives' Tale. They enter to sing and dance twice, interrupting the tale Madge is trying to tell. Their intrusions, unconnected either to Madge's story or to the frame that encompasses it, call to the attention of the audience both the extraordinary artificiality of this play and the artifice of theater generally.


Harvey, also spelled Harvie, is the impoverished English suitor of Marina in Haughton's Englishmen for My Money. Pisaro holds the mortgage on his father's lands. He is a colleague of Ferdinand and Ned whose land has been similarly pawned and who are suitors to Pisaro's other daughters. Anthony, who has been dismissed by Pisaro, directs Harvey and his colleagues to send Frisco, Pisaro's servant, to St. Paul's Church where Anthony, disguised as a Frenchman, will be waiting to be hired. This stratagem succeeds in placing an assistant to the Englishmen in Pisaro's house. Later at the Exchange, Pisaro, pretending to be friends with Harvey, invites him with Ferdinand and Ned back to his house between two and three. Harvey and the suitors plan to arrive at Pisaro's house before they are expected and so meet their three foreign rivals. Harvey insults Delio, one of the foreigners and a general exchange of insults ensues. When Anthony (now disguised as a French tutor) appears, Delio (the genuine Frenchman) insists on speaking French to him. Harvey is one of those who intervene to preserve Anthony's disguise. Anthony develops a plot to get the English suitors into the girls' rooms. This involves Harvey along with Ferdinand and Ned directing the three merchants away from Pisaro's house. Anthony tells Harvey to pretend to be ill, using Browne, the man with whom he is lodging, to confirm his illness. Harvey tells Pisaro that he is dying and wishes Marina happiness. Browne later arrives to tell Pisaro that Harvey is at the point of death. This causes Pisaro great distress because Pisaro will have to surrender his mortgaged lands if he does die. Browne reveals that Harvey has made a will and that Marina is to receive all his lands on his death. He tells Pisaro that he should allow Harvey to come to the house to make sure it is enforced. Harvey enters in a chair, surrounded by the three merchants. Pisaro sends for Marina. Moore advises that Harvey marry Marina to stop his younger brother inheriting the land. This will ultimately make Marina a wealthy widow. Pisaro refuses to accept this but Alvaro persuades him otherwise. Pisaro announces that he freely gives Marina to Harvey in marriage. Harvey pretends to be past caring, saying that he is more interested in heavenly matters. He wishes Alvaro and Marina happiness, but Pisaro and Alvaro insist that they marry. Harvey thanks everyone, marries Marina, and then recovers. Later Marina and Harvey mock Vandalle when it transpires that his Laurentia has run off.


Ralph Harvey, an apothecary in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame, is a friend of Musgrave, Miles Forrest and Captain Clinton. He conspires with Clinton and Forrest to gain access to the house of Castiliano the Spanish doctor (actually the devil Belphagor in human shape), under color of supplying him with drugs and medicines. There they can turn the doctor's garden into a trysting spot for the various secret lovers. After his introduction to Castiliano in II.v, Harvey hints that he too will have a go at the lustful Mariana, but he never appears again. However, Mariana later credits him with making the poison she feeds to Castiliano.


The Carthaginian senator [H]asdrubal[l] is the father of Sophonisba in Marston's Sophonisba. He agrees to the abandonment and betrayal of Massinissa to secure his own position, but the people turn against him after the subsequent defeat and he is either killed or commits suicide. His ghost appears to Syphax as a warning.


An English commissioner who rules Scotland, with Selby and Thorne in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot. He holds the office of Sheriff of Ayre, formerly held by Old Wallace. The commissioners humiliate Old Wallace, forcing him to give up his lands, and they refuse to help Sir John Graham when Young Selby abducts his daughter Peggie. Haslerig is infuriated when Wallace kills Young Selby. He goes to England and warns King Edward that the Scots are rebelling. When he returns to Scotland, Peggie is ordered to be executed unless Wallace gives himself up. Wallace does so, and Peggie is duly exchanged for him, but Wallace is then released by Grimsby, who defects to the Scots. After the massacre at Lavercke, Haslerig stabs the recaptured Peggie to death. Later, after a long period of revolution, Haslerig and Selby are poor and wretched, and Haslrig kills Selby in a fight over some food. He is then killed by Sir Jeffrey and Bolt in mistake for Wallace.


Hasmond is Frollo's attorney in Burnell's Landgartha. He tries to convince Frollo that they should attract Landgartha to their favor and make her their troop commander. He asks Frollo for 20 soldiers and also Elsinora or Scania as their leader, but Frollo gives him 30 soldiers and one of the Amazons. He fights for Frollo in his war against Landgartha and Reyner.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. Florida mentions Hasparus when she sees Narcissus, praising his beauty calling him "most brightest Hasparus."


When in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI the newly crowned Edward is beset from all sides with criticism of his decision to marry Lady Grey even at the risk of French resentment, Lord Hastings wins Edward's gratitude by agreeing with Edward that French support is not worth seeking. Later, Hastings is in Edward's tent when Warwick's forces raid it and capture the king, but Hastings is allowed to escape. Historically, this was William Hastings.
Lord Hastings is an independently minded nobleman in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. At the beginning of the play, Hastings is summoned to Edward IV's deathbed and ordered to reconcile with his enemy, Lord Marcus, son of the Queen. Hastings refuses the command at first, but submits to Edward's will after the king speculates that the kingdom will disintegrate after his, Edward's, death. Hastings notably submits to Edward's directive before Marcus does. Hasting and Marcus shake hands, embrace and then promise not to break the peace between them. Hastings is recruited by Buckingham to support Richard's claim to the throne. After Richard dispatches of the Queen's brothers and gains custody of the two princes, he decides Hastings is too dangerous to keep in the fold and decides to kill him. Hastings is dragged before Richard and accused of plotting to maim Richard via witchcraft with the Queen and Mrs. Shore. Hastings is immediately taken away and killed.
Two characters share this name in Shakespeare's Richard III:
  1. Also known as Lord Chamberlain, William Lord Hastings is a supporter of the Yorks and is loyal to Edward IV. An enemy of the family of Edward's queen Elizabeth, she used her influence on Edward to have Lord Hastings imprisoned in the Tower of London. Lord Hastings is released by having Edward's (and later his own) lover Mistress Shore use her influence to have him freed. Before his death, Edward forces an uneasy reconciliation between Lord Hastings and Elizabeth's family. Richard III has Catesby sound out Lord Hastings to see if he would support Richard's usurpation of the crown, and Lord Hastings resists; he is determined to see Prince Edward crowned. When Lord Hastings goes to the Tower to discuss the Prince's coronation, Richard has him arrested and executed on charges of protecting his lover, Mistress Shore, whom he absurdly claims deformed his body through witchcraft. Lord Hastings' ghost visits Richard and Richmond on the night before the Battle of Bosworth, cursing Richard and blessing Richmond.
  2. It is also the proper name of the Pursuivant, but he is not to be confused with Lord Hastings.


A nobleman allied with the Archbishop of York in the faction against King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. Lord Hastings urges his compatriots that King Henry's power is weak enough to fall to an opposition attack without the Northumberland troops' participation. Historically, this was Sir Ralph Hastings.


Lord Hastings joins Bishop Scroop in a rebellion against Henry IV after the defeat of the Percies in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. The rebellion is put down by Prince John. Hastings never appears on stage.


Hatam is the daughter of the Phrygian king Germaine Ogly in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. She is married to Amurath's eldest son Baiazet in order to cement the ties between her father's kingdom and the Turks.


Haterius (Quintus), a senator of Sejanus' faction in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall .


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. One of "the devil's officers" among Hick Scorner's company on his recently returned ship. Listed among a large group of "thieves and whores" and "other good company" of "liars, backbiters, and flatterers . . . brawlers, liars [sic], getters and chiders, walkers by night [and] great murderers."

HATRED **1617

One of the fifteen affections and the subject of the play in the anonymous Pathomachia. This Hatred is defined as turning away from evil. The queen of the affections who now ‘wears the breeches’. Urbanity reconciles her to King Love. Love gives his queen Disdain and Clemency as her guard while taking Reverence, Zeal, Desire, Pity, Justice, Charity, and Affability for himself. When she objects, he points out that as he and she are husband and wife, and therefore one flesh, all guards belong to both of them. She is satisfied by that.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Pater, Filius et Uxor. Humfrey does not physically appear in the fragment of this interlude that has been preserved. He is mentioned by Servus, who affirms that Humfrey was beaten by his wife, sometimes even twice a day.


Brother of the Duke of Saxony in the anonymous Costly Whore, he plots with Alfrid to exploit the poor. He licenses the export of corn to France even though the resulting dearth will mean the death of many poor Saxons. He seconds the Duke's tyrannical behavior toward Frederick, Euphrata, and Constantine, but is exposed by Valentia and condemned by her to servitude in the mines.


Lady Haughty is the founder of the college, a league of society ladies in Jonson's Epicoene. They live at their husbands' expense and patronize the wits in town. At Morose's house in London, Haughty enters with Centaure, Mavis, and Trusty. During the conversation, Truewit discloses that Epicoene has agreed to take part in the plot devised by Dauphine to dupe Morose. Considering Epicoene's husband-deceiving qualities, Haughty considers her eligible for her club of determined females. The collegiate ladies deride Morose's horror of noise and welcome the loud musicians. As the party continues, the revelers interact, and the ladies retire at some point to debate Mistress Otter's doubtful right of membership in their select club. At Morose's house, Haughty enters with the other ladies. When Mistress Otter enters rather ruffled for having been chased away by Morose, Haughty dispenses her invaluable guidance regarding how women should pin off their husbands. She tells the others that ladies should be mindful of the aging process and avoid getting pregnant, because many births make a woman old. After debating on the advantages of having lovers as the best cure for melancholy, Haughty exits with her party. Haughty and the collegiate ladies witness the scenes of La-Foole and Daw's humiliation. When they come forward, all the ladies admire Dauphine's looks and ingenuity. When Morose enters furiously chasing everybody away, Haughty and her party run off. In a room at Morose's house, Haughty enters with Dauphine, whom she is courting ardently. Haughty tells Dauphine to come to her chamber and she gives him a ring. When Centaure enters, Haughty pretends to be looking for Mavis and exits. Haughty re-enters with the collegiate ladies and attends the final revelation scene. Truewit warns the ladies against placing their trust in indiscreet men such as the foolish knights.


See also HANCE, HANS, and related spellings.


A witty servant to Flores in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll. Haunce buys clothes from a Peasant who had switched apparel with Alberdure, but refuses to pay for them. With his new clothes, he claims to be a gentleman, but is quickly arrested on suspicion of harming Alberdure. Haunce later appears in court, claiming to be Alberdure since clothes make the man.


A "ghost character" in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green. Hauce Beaumart is a captain who consented to help the French win Guynes, part of the plot that caused Mumford's banishment.


A "ghost character" in Marston's Dutch Courtesan. Haunce does not appear in the play. Mary Faugh lists him, along with the Irishman Sir Patrick, the Italian Master Beieroane, and the Spaniard Don Skirtoll, as one of the members, presumably representing the Dutch contingent, of the wide-ranging international clientele that Franceschina entertained before she met Freevill.


A gamester at the ordinary in Cartwright's The Ordinary. Like Caster, he is the victim or gull of a confidence trick conducted by Heare-say, Meanewell, and Slicer.


A "ghost character" in Quarles' The Virgin Widow. Pertenax has a bond from him.


A poor knight in Sharpham's The Fleire. He falls in love with Felecia who insists that he and Piso murder Ruffel and Sparke. He agrees and plots with Piso to poison the two men. Although Felecia testifies against him, he forgives her and promises to marry her before their executions, after she is implicated and repents. When Sparke and Ruffel are shown to be alive, he is happily united with Felecia.


Called Jasper by his employer, Haver serves Master Rawbone, filling the post recently vacated by Camelion in James Shirley's The Wedding. Haver loves Justice Landby's daughter Jane but faces competition for her hand from both Rawbone and Master Lodam. Haver manages to get Rawbone to challenge Lodam to a duel at Finsbury. Because Rawbone is a coward, Haver is presented as Rawbone at the duel. Haver's honesty and valor, coupled with Rawbone's niggardly cowardice, wins Haver the hand of Jane.

HAWKINS **1637

Only mentioned in Mayne’s City Match. The captain tells the onlookers that the fish can speak and, when caught, already knew to say Drake and Hawkins, undoubtedly learning those names when the men sailed around the world.


A "ghost character" and possibly an imaginary one as well in Baylie's The Wizard. When Shallow asks Delia who she has loved, she responds that she first loved Lady Hawties Lackey.


A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. He was sent with sixty ships to attack Normandy but has been recalled since Henry and France have begun negotiations for a marriage between the French king and Henry’s sister.


The Gamester of Shirley's The Gamester. Hazard is appalled when he hears that Hazard has asked for his wife's approval to keep a mistress–he fears for his careless friend's safety. He says that sword-fighting is a necessary means for men to maintain honor for themselves and for their women. However, he persuades Acreless, Littlestock and Sellaway not to attempt a foolish rescue effort for Beaumont. He is sought by Old Barnacle. He accepts the rich old man's gold: his task is to allow himself to be beaten by Young Barnacle in a contrived, sham fight. At the tavern, he shows off the copious money that he has taken from Old Barnacle. He spends lavishly and throws wine over a character that is seeking to entertain the company. He tells the other gamesters to countenance the bad behavior of Young Barnacle. Allowing himself to be verbally affronted by the young man, he also fails to retaliate to a blow from him–he has kept the bargain struck with Old Barnacle. Later, he enjoys the company of Penelope, who takes an immediate shine to him. He comments knowledgeably on the miscreant nobles who play at gambling in the ordinary. His money proves to be lucky–he keeps on winning. He then lends money to Wilding; for this, he gets to go to the rendezvous with the young woman instead of Wilding. He boasts to Wilding about his great time with the woman, who we are later told was not Penelope, but actually Mistress Wilding. So, it seems that Hazard has unknowingly cuckolded Wilding. Later, he accepts more money from Old Barnacle. This time, he is to beat Young Barnacle, to humble him and to render him submissive once more. With the help of the other gamesters, he aggressively executes this task, successfully curbing the young man's reckless machismo. At first, he rejects Wilding's suggestion that he should marry Penelope. But it turns out that Hazard has in fact been privy to Mrs. Wilding's husband-reforming scheme. He did go out to meet Wilding's woman on that night, but there he met both Penelope and Mrs. Wilding–their virtuousness convinced him to play along with their scheme to show gentleness and genuine love to Wilding. By the end of Act Five, he has been married to Penelope.


A "ghost character" in ?Skelton's Old Christmas. He is mentioned by Good Order when describing the "vnthryfty company" that forced him to flee during Old Christmas's absence. After the king's return, Hasarder, Glotonye, Ryot and Periury and are banished from England on Good Order's advice.

A tennis-keeper in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. Along with many other tradesmen, he gossips about the impending marriage of Captain Stukeley and Nell, daughter of the wealthy Sir Thomas Curtis. Immediately after the wedding, they seek to abscond with Stukeley's newfound money, citing debs both real and fabricated.


All that we see in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker of an unfortunate Englishman who is killed in a raid on the English camp by the Frenchmen in women's clothing.


A magical representation in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. After seven years of necromantic labor, Friar Bacon has all but completed the talking head of brass that is to be one of his greatest accomplishments. For the final sixty days of the process, Bacon and Friar Bungay share the duty of monitoring the Head so that the last tasks may be attended to when the Head begins to speak. Nearly overcome by fatigue, Bacon assigns Miles the duty of watching the Head and reporting to him when it finds its voice. Because the lean-witted Miles has heard that the Head will be capable of delivering long speeches, he fails to wake Bacon when the object utters the words "Time is." A brief while later, the Head speaks the words "Time was," and still Miles fails to call the friar. Finally, the Head says "Time is past," and the Hand With the Hammer breaks it into pieces. Only then does the foolish student wake the friar.

HEAD in the WELL of LIFE

The Head appears from the Well of Life to Celanta and Zantippa with a request to have its beard combed in return for great wealth in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale. The shrewish Zantippa refuses, breaks a pot over the Head, and is deprived of a reward. The kind-hearted Celanta obliges and is rewarded; a second Head appears and the young woman's combing results in a shower of gold.


After the death sentences for Guildford Dudley and Lady Jane Grey are handed down in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt, the Headsman appears for the executions. He makes the customary gesture of begging forgiveness from those to be beheaded, and shortly after leading Lady Jane off, he returns with her head for the traditional exhibition so that there is no question about a possible substitution. He then leads Guildford Dudley off to be executed.


A “ghost character" in Fletcher’s Bloody Brother. Rollo regrets that his own headsman was not called to take off Gisbert’s head with a sword rather than the axe that was used.


A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. A guest at the wedding of Dissimulation and Love.


Health is a friend of Wealth and Liberty in the anonymous An Interlude of Wealth and Health. He agrees to stay in England with Wealth, although he maintains that he is superior to Wealth because without Health, a man is in pain no matter how wealthy he is, but with Health, he can earn a living through labour. Upon meeting Ill-Will, who is disguised as Will, he repudiates him; however, he agrees after some argument to admit Will and Shrewd Wit, disguised as Wit, into his service. After Ill-Will and Shrewd Wit beat him, he begs Good Remedy to heal him, and asks for help in rescuing Wealth and Liberty. Health reports that Wealth has fallen into decay through association with War, and that Liberty is being held in prison. After Good Remedy intervenes to release Wealth and Liberty and imprison Shrewd Wit and Ill-Will, Health promises to mend his ways and to pray for the preservation of Good Remedy.

HEALTH **1635

A character in Shirley's Coronation appearing in a masque that Polidora arranges to have performed for Arcadius.


An intelligencer or spy in Cartwright's The Ordinary and also one of the "complices" of the Ordinary. He is a confidence trickster who fools Caster and Have-at-all, the Surgeon and Mercer, and as many others as possible.


Hearty is a decayed gentleman and a friend of Oldrents in Brome's A Jovial Crew. He serves principally to bring Oldrents out of his melancholy and into a state of mirth. Hearty is also the uncle of Martin, and the soldier plays him in the inset play before Oldrents.


After John baptizes Jesus in Bale's John Baptist's Preaching in the Wilderness, The Heavenly Father descends to declare that Jesus is his son and that his law, not Moses' is now all that matters.
God or Pater Caelestis, appears in Bale's God's Promises seven separate times, complaining about the sinfulness of man. His first complaint is about Adam, who ate the apple. God's second and third complaints are against the sinfulness of humanity in general, and his third, fourth and fifth are against the sinfulness and ungratefulness of the Israelites. In each case, after threatening to destroy humanity all together, a human comes forward to beg for mercy. In each case, God eventually grants that mercy, and establishes a new promise, or covenant. With Adam, God establishes hatred between man and the serpent, and the pain of woman in childbirth. With Noah, he establishes the rainbow as a sign he will never again destroy humanity. With Abraham, he establishes the covenant of circumcision. With Moses, David and Isaiah, God foretells the coming of Christ. Finally over his anger, God appears, now amiable, before John Baptist and tells him of the coming of Christ, and that he has chosen John to prepare the way for Christ and to baptize him.


Because both Gallathea and Phyllida have been disguised and other girls have been hidden in Lyly's Gallathea, this unfortunate young woman is selected as the sacrifice to Neptune. She mourns her early death, but then she is rejected as not beautiful enough, something she also laments.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Silver Age, cupbearer to the Olympian gods, Jupiter compares her with Semele as the latter tries to inveigle him to come to her in his full divinity.


The chief witch and title character in Thomas Middleton's The Witch. She is a focal point in the play, providing first Sebastian, then Almachildes and finally the Duchess with charms and hints for their schemes. An impressive authority, she nevertheless is a mortal, and her powers are limited. With her concoctions, dances and spells, she reflects the Jacobeans' morbid fascination with the supernatural and allows for elaborate and eerie stage effects.
Queen of the Witches in Shakespeare's Macbeth. Hecate helps conjure the Apparitions for Macbeth. Scholarship has suggested that the Hecate and latter witch scenes may be contributions (or appropriations) from Thomas Middleton.
Only mentioned in Heywood's Brazen Age. Medea of Colchus possesses the magic of Hecate.
Only mentioned in Kyd's Cornelia. Calling her "Queene and Goddesse," Cornelia asks Heccat to help her die. Heccat is an Egyptian figure of magic with a heart of wax.
A “ghost character" in Goffe’s Orestes. She is “triformed" and has put on her “Styx-dyed" mantle of night, making it time for Canidia and the three witches to do their work.


Only mentioned in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. The Trojan prince Hector is one of the famous individuals Merrygreek claims all women think of when they see Roister Doister pass by.
Only mentioned in ?Rastell's Calisto and Melebea. Praising Calisto to Melebea, Celestina compares him to Hector as to strength.
He first appears in Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida entering to meet Deiphobus, Menalaus, and Diomede, they are in turn met by Cassandra. In the next scene, amid alarms and excursions, he and Antenor meet. In the next scene, he is on the wall and sees Antenor pursued by Diomede and met by Ajax. He later appears with Priam, Deiphobus, Paris, Helen, and Cassandra, and meets Ulysses and other Greeks. In a badly damaged portion of the fragment, he is beaten in, apparently beaten back into Troy about midway in the play while Diomede and Menalaus are on stage, but who does the beating (Achilles?) is lost. In the next scene, he meets with Antenor–this is immediately before the scene wherein Patroclus is carried in on his back. If the play follows Homer, Hector will have met and killed Patroclus somewhere in this area of the play. He later appears again with Priam, Paris, Helen, Cassandra, Polixina, as they are met by Antenor. In the last scene, he appears with Achilles and Deiphobus. It is not beyond reason to surmise that Deiphobus is now Athena in disguise, and the final scene depicts Hector's death at the hands of Achilles.
Son of Priam and one of Troy's finest soldiers in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. Having grown tired of the war, Hector offers a courtly challenge to any Greek willing to do battle with him. Fearing that Hector means his challenge for the love-struck Achilles, Ulysses ensures that Ajax will meet Hector in a duel, but the duel ends when the combatants discover that they are related. After Hector betters Achilles in battle the following day, Achilles vilely murders him with the help of his Myrmidons. Achilles then drags Hector's body through the battlefield, humiliating the Trojans.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. In the Iliad, Hector is the son of the Trojan King Priam and the greatest of the Trojan heroes. When the Greeks besieged Troy, Hector's wife, Andromache, begged him not to fight, but Hector embraced their child and left to join the battle. Hector killed Patroclus, a friend of the Greek hero Achilles, and in revenge, Achilles killed Hector. Achilles then drove his chariot around the walls of Troy, dragging Hector's body behind him. Priam finally begged his son's body from Achilles. The Trojans, mourning, burned Hector's body, and buried his ashes. When the fighting resumed, Troy fell to the Greeks. When Tucca enters Albius's house as his guest, he calls Albius the Hector of citizens, probably alluding flatteringly to the jeweler's leading position among tradesmen.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. At the banquet in Camillo's house, Hipolito asks whether Fontinel, Camillo's French prisoner, drinks well, and Camillo denies it. Hipolito uses the common stereotype that any Frenchman should be addicted to drinking or whoring, since they are as resolute as Hector and as valiant as Troilus.
Hector, son of Priam and Hecuba in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, is the Trojan prince most renowned for prowess on the battlefield. He is married to Andromache and is the father of Astyanax. At first, he speaks against his father's suggestion to send a force to Greece to recapture Hesione, remarking that it was his grandfather Laomedon's dishonorable behavior (in denying Hercules his promised reward for rescuing Hesione from Neptune's sea monster) that led to the princess's having been sent to Greece with Hercules's friend Telamon. However, upon hearing of the disgraceful treatment of Antenor by the Greeks when he attempted to negotiate Hesione's release, Hector too urges sending a force. When Helen arrives at Troy, Hector admits that he was not entirely in favor of her being brought there, but he promises to be her champion, and along with other members of the Trojan royal family, treats the Greek queen with respect. When the main body of the Greeks arrives at Troy, Hector offers combat to anyone who dares confront him, and by drawing lots, the Greeks decide Ajax will have the honor of accepting this challenge. Their duel is broken off by Agamemnon after a fight in which both warriors lose their weapons. Because they are first cousins, the two part on good terms and exchange gifts. On the day after his triumph over Patroclus, Hector is intent upon taking to the field and ending the Greek threat once and for all, but Andromache, Priam, and Hecuba convince him not to hazard himself at that time. Only the death of his young brother Margareton at the hands of Achilles brings him back into the fight. After killing a number of Greeks and routing others, Hector is surrounded by the troops of Achilles, overwhelmed, and slaughtered on the orders of the Greek fighter. Achilles commands the corpse be taken to his tent so he may drag it around, but a short while later Paris informs the leading Trojans that, although Hector has died, they have killed many Greeks and rescued the fallen hero's corpse. Oddly enough, the play ends with a dumb show in which the body of Hector is ceremoniously returned to Troy by the Greeks in exchange for the corpse of Achilles.
Only mentioned in the anonymous The Faithful Friends. Sir Pergamus, the braggadoccio, boasts that he will outdo Hector in valor against the Sabines.
Only mentioned in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. Mytho-historical character, son of Priam and Hecuba, who was the chief defender of Troy against the invading Achaeans.
Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Hector is mentioned by Slightall when he is instructing his friends on how to love any creature, even if it is the "loathed'st", by taking no notice of their imperfections. He illustrates his point with the following words: "Andromache was of too large a stature, / One loving Hector praised her gifts of nature." According to Greek mythology, Hector was Andromache's loving husband.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Ghost. Pinario mentions Hector when he identifies Engin with an "honest Hector".
Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Caradoc asserts that his own lice are descended from the "magnanimous lice of ap Shinkin ap Shon ap Owen ap Richard ap Morgan ap Hugh ap Brutus ap Sylvius ap Æneas ap Troilus ap Hector."
A “ghost character" in Goffe’s Orestes. Agamemnon remembers seeing Hector’s slaughter.


Armando's role in the Pageant of the Nine Worthies in Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost.


A peculiar "ghost character" in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho. One of Captain Jenkins' misunderstandings when Bellamont talks about his tragedy of Astyanax and Hector: "Hector was grannam to Cadwallader, when shee was reat with child".


Non-speaking role. An apparition of Hector of Troy, conjured by Proximus in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father.


A non-speaking character in Burnell's Landgartha. In the masque, he is killed by Achilles.


A mute character in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Hector's Armor-Bearer is upbraided by the Trojan hero for dressing him too slowly the day after Hector had spared the Greek ships (at the request of his cousin Ajax). Hector's irritation with the servant stems from his recognition that he has made a mistake by not burning the fleet when he had a chance and from his desire to be first in the field this day to finish with the Greeks once and for all.


The shade of the dead Trojan hero encounters Æneas in the midst of the Grecian assault in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age and tells him to escape so as to found a greater city, Rome.
A mute character in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. The Ghost of Hector appears in the second masque presented to Amurath by Lala Schahin. Like the Ghost of Achilles, he is symbolic of the type of heroic focus that Lala Schahin and others wish to instill in Amurath after he begins to dote upon his Greek mistress Eumorphe.


Callimela's nurse Blatt is called "old Hecuba" by Lollio and Gelasimus in the anonymous Timon of Athens.


Wife of Priam and mother to Hector, Paris, Deiphobus, Margareton, and many others in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Hecuba welcomes Helen into the Trojan royal family when Paris brings the Greek queen to Troy. With Priam, she attempts to arrange a match between their daughter Polyxena and Achilles as a way of keeping the Greek fighter off the battlefield. Following the deaths of Hector and Troilus, she encourages Paris to assassinate Achilles when he comes to Troy to marry Polyxena.
Priam's queen in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, she watches Pyrhus kill her son and husband, then is pitilessly slaughtered by Thersites.
Only mentioned in Shakespeare's Hamlet. Hecuba was the wife of Priam and Queen of Troy. She is described in the speech by the First Player as crying out to heaven as she sees her husband killed by Pyrrhus. Hamlet then refers to the passion the First Player exhibits for her, despite her fictional nature, and compares it to his own passivity in the face of his father's death and mother's adultery.
A “ghost character" in Goffe’s Orestes. Aegystheus says that even Hecuba would pity him. Cassandra calls upon her to glory in the Greeks enacting Troy’s revenge.


Hedewick is daughter of the Duke of Saxony in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. She plays the goddess Fortune during the first part of Fortune's revels, and then draws the lot of Empress. Embarrassed by Edward's over-familiar courting of her, she nonetheless falls in love with him and marries him, but devises a strategy to preserve her virginity as long as possible: on her wedding night she escapes from the marriage-chamber through a trapdoor and hides in an inner bedchamber in the dark. There, she is surprised by Alexander, whom she mistakes for her husband, and is raped and made pregnant. Edward, who denies fathering the child, is imprisoned. Hedewick gives birth, and Saxony brings her and her child before Edward. He dashes the child's brains out and kills Hedewick.


Hedon or the Voluptuous is a gallant at Cynthia's court in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. It is possible that the character represent the poet Samuel Daniel, Jonson's contemporary. Mercury describes Hedon as a vain courtier, who keeps a barber and a monkey, he is a poet, and likes to beat everybody he owes money to. According to Mercury, Hedon pawns his old suits and organizes parties to show off his new attire. At court, Hedon enters with Anaides and Gelaia. Hedon shows off his wit, in an attempt to seem intelligent, and he exits with Anaides, followed by Gelaia. In an apartment at court, Hedon enters with Anaides. On seeing Crites walk in meditation, both courtiers deprecate the poet, calling him a candle-waster. Having decided to defame the poet publicly, Hedon exits with Anaides. In an apartment at court, Hedon enters with Anaides, joining the party of vain nymphs and gallants. After courteous conversation and games, Hedon and the other members of the party of nymphs and gallants drink of the miraculous fountain water and become even more self-conceited than they already were. Eventually, the party disperses. In an apartment at the palace, Hedon enters with the nymphs and gallants to have a party, but he is finally disgraced, like the others, when Mercury ridicules their affected ways. At Cynthia's revels, Hedon is disguised as Eupathes in the Second Masque. In the end, Crites pronounces the punishment for the self-infatuated nymphs and gallants. Hedon exits with the others singing a Palinode. The song is an invocation of the god Mercury, who is asked to defend them against the dangers of counterfeit and vanity. As part of the penance, the affected nymphs and courtiers must go to Niobe's stone and repent. After being purged, they are invited to taste of the water of the Well of Knowledge and then report of Cynthia's grace.


A "ghost character" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. She is apparently "neere allyed to Manto, Cassandra, Aspasia, and the ancient Roman Tanaquil" and "might pretend to be the tenth Muse," Queen Hedone is "the Goddesse of delight and pleasure." Siren claims to be Queen Hedone's messenger throughout the play, and informs Amphibius that Hedone would have attended Apollo's Court "but that she knew not the set day, and now resideth in one of the fortunate Ilands in the Atlantique sea farre oft from Thessaly. And besides all this, she is invited to a feast of foure or five gods by Mercury into Ethiopia." Amphibius claims that he "cannot divorce" himself from her at the play's beginning, and describes her to Philoponus as "all-conquering" and "that high and mighty soveraigne of delights." The two scholars discuss Amphibius's desire to "untwist" himself from his "bond of service to Apollo"–the result of Amphibius's encounter with Siren and his receipt of what he sees as a very convincing letter from Queen Hedone encouraging him to give up his scholarly goals. Siren advertises the Queen's virtues and, in Hedone's name, tries to tempt various characters from their work. For Hedon'es mischief and interference in the affairs of Apollo's school, Museus gives the banished Siren a message "to carry to Dame Hedone, if ere they meete againe" - "that Hedone shall ever unseparably bee manacled to Lupe."


Hegelochus is a "ghost character" in Daniel's Philotas. Under torture, Philotas confesses that Hegelochus incensed Parmenio against Alexander after Alexander took on the title of 'son of Jove'.


He is the impoverished English suitor of Laurentia in Haughton's Englishmen for My Money. Ferdinand is also called Heighton and Fraunce. Pisaro has chosen Vandalle, the Dutchman, for Laurentia. Ferdinand's father has pawned his lands to Pisaro. He is a colleague of Harvey and Ned whose land has been similarly pawned and who are also suitors to Pisaro's other daughters. He joins in Anthony's plans to be revenged on Pisaro. He and his two colleagues direct Frisco to St. Paul's Church where Anthony, disguised as a Frenchman, is waiting to be hired back into the Pisaro household. Laurentia tells Ferdinand to spend money because he will get back his lands after marrying her. On this advice, he and his colleagues to go the Exchanger to raise money. At the Exchange, Pisaro, pretending to befriend Ferdinand, invites him and the other two back to his house. Ferdinand persuades them to arrive early and meet the three foreign merchant-suitors there. At dinner, when Delio, the Frenchman, insists on speaking French to Anthony, the disguised Englishman, Ferdinand and others rescue Anthony from exposure. That night, along with Harvey and Ned, Ferdinand stands outside Pisaro's house to misdirect the three merchants, Ferdinand pretending to be the proprietor of a shop selling glasses. He accuses Alvaro of being drunk and of breaking his glasses, and threatens to call the constable. He tells Alvaro that he is in the wrong street and tells him how to get to "Crocked-friers," where the girls live. He accuses Delio, who arrives next, of breaking his glasses and of going to visit his mistresses. All three mock Delio's English. Ferdinand also gives Delio directions to "Croshfriers." The clown Frisco arrives imitating the Dutchman. Ferdinand tells Frisco that he too has the wrong street. Frisco leaves too. Anthony, instigating a plan, sends Ferdinand to his chamber to remain there until Anthony greets him. The "Anthony" that arrives is Laurentia in disguise, and Balsaro marries Ferdinand to Laurentia believing from "Anthony" that they have Pisaro's permission, thus defeating both Vandalle and Pisaro.


King of the Lombards in Davenant's The Unfortunate Lovers. He takes over Verona and tries to seduce Amarantha, then Arthiopa. Briefly persuaded by Arthiopa to respect her virtue, he changes his mind and ravishes her instead. He fights with, and is killed by, Artophil, wounding him fatally in the process.


The heirs who are cozened by Busy are "ghost characters" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. When Dame Purecraft wants to prove her love for the madman Trouble-all (Quarlous in disguise), she makes a complete confession of her transgressions. Besides telling him she is a rich widow, Dame Purecraft says that the Puritan Elder Busy would marry her, but she knows him to be a capital knave. According to Dame Purecraft's report, one of his illicit ways of gaining his fortune is by making the rich Brethren of the Puritan congregation appoint him a guardian to their estates. When the owners die, Busy is left in trust of the estate, and he converts the trust into his own property.


The young heirs in the city of London, prospective husbands to Kastril's sister, are "fictional characters" in Jonson's The Alchemist. Face says that a young gentleman, who wins wealth through his wits and gambling, will look at the faces of all the young heirs in London, methodically setting their names and commodity in rubrics, indexing their wealth and liabilities. The fictional young gentleman (an appealing picture of the future Kastril) will not limit himself to the eligible heirs of the city but will also send people all over England to prospect for wealthy eligible husbands for his widowed sister.


See also HELENA, HELLENA, and related spellings.


Imogen's maid in Shakespeare's Cymbeline.


Helen, reputedly the world's most beautiful woman, is summoned briefly by Venus, just as Paris is about to make a decision about the golden apple in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris. The brief glimpse he gets of her as she sings (in Italian) prompts him immediately to award Venus the prize, thereby arousing the implacable hatred of Juno and Pallas for him and all things Trojan.
Also spelled Helena and Hellena in Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida. She first appears about one third into the play with Paris and meets Pandarus. In the next scene she enters with Paris, Priam, Hector, Deiphobus, and Cassandra as they meet Ulysses and other Greeks. Near play's end she enters with Paris, Priam, Hector, Cassandra, and Polixina to meet Antenor. She is with Paris and the Trojans on the wall at play's end and descends with them to Ulysses, Menalaus, and the Herald. Interesting to note that, at least in the plot, she appears only with Paris.
Wife of Menelaus in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. She is living with her Trojan lover Paris. She is the source of the war because the Greeks desire her return.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. According to Homeric legend, Helen was the most beautiful woman in the world. She was the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta. Aphrodite, the goddess of love, promised her to Paris, son of Priam of Troy. During Menelaus's absence, Paris persuaded Helen to flee with him to Troy. Agamemnon, the brother of Menelaus, led an expedition against troy to recover Helen, which started the Trojan War. When the Greeks finally recovered Helen, Menelaus took Helen back to Sparta. When Tucca enters Albius's house as his guest, he calls Albius noble Menelaus, asking him about his wife, Helen. Tucca's allusion seems to refer to the jeweler's leading position among the tradesmen in Rome, but also to his situation of a cuckold, since Helen committed adultery.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. Florida mentions Helen when, declaring her love for Narcissus, she refers to her faithfulness in the following terms, "as true as Helen was to Menela / so true will be thy Florida." According to Greek mythology, Helen, the most beautiful of women, was daughter to Zeus and Leda. She married Menelaus, King od Sparta. However, while he was absent, she was abducted by Paris, Prince of Troy. This event led to the Trojan War. When Troy fell, Menelaus recovered his wife, who had not ceased to love him–she had only deserted him for another yielding to Venus's might. Thus, she became reconciled with her husband, and they reigned happily in Sparta for years.
Only mentioned in Fletcher's The Captain; the legendary wife of Menelaus whose beauty indirectly caused the Trojan war; used here by Lodowicke as the quintessential beautiful but unfaithful wife.
A "ghost character" in Pickering's Horestes. Clytemnestra and Egistus refer to her courtship of Paris. She is reported to have arrived in Athens with Agamemnon's brother (Menalaus) after Horestes has taken Mycenae.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. According to Homeric legend, Helen was the most beautiful woman in the world. She was the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta. Aphrodite, the goddess of love, promised her to Paris, son of Priam of Troy. During Menelaus's absence, Paris persuaded Helen to flee with him to Troy. Agamemnon, the brother of Menelaus, led an expedition against troy to recover Helen, which started the Trojan War. In the Iliad, Helen she loathes herself for the misery that she has caused so many Trojan and Achaean men. Although her contempt extends to Paris as well, she continues to stay with him. When the Greeks finally recover Helen, Menelaus takes Helen back to Sparta. When Cupid describes Moria's self-conceit and loquacity, he says that she admires herself very much and would tell anyone who would listen that, in her youth, she was thought to be the dame Dido and Helen of the court.
Helen (called Hellena in the text) is the wife of Menelaus and supposedly the most beautiful woman in the world in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. When she meets the Trojan prince Paris, she at first pretends to be offended by his crude (that is, non-Greek) manners, but it is plain from her asides that she is as instantly taken with him as he with her. Agreeing to accompany Paris to Troy, Helen uses the departure of Menelaus for Crete and the arrival of her brothers Castor and Pollux as a cover for her flight from Sparta. Arriving at Troy, she expresses some fear at being unprotected in a strange land, but Hector and the Trojan royal family welcome her warmly and promise to protect her. During the feast Priam holds for the Greeks, Helen is forced to make a public declaration for Menelaus or Paris, and she chooses the young Trojan in large part because he has the sweeter kisses.
During the Greek attack on Troy in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, Hellena (so spelled throughout) and Cressida are threatened with death by Pyrhus and Menelaus but saved by the intervention of Agamemnon as a favor to his beloved, Cassandra. After the slaughter of the Trojan royal family she mourns her responsibility for so much death. She returns with the other Greeks to Mycene and is reconciled with her husband, but when Cethus' plot succeeds and most of the Greeks are killed she laments anew that her beauty and the folly it fostered have had such fatal consequences, and hangs herself.
Only mentioned in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. In Greek mythology, Helen was the wife of Menelaus. Abducted by Paris, she became the cause of the Trojan War. Helen's name is associated with a paragon of female beauty, but also a symbol of feminine treachery. When Gondarino is alone with Oriana in his house, after the Duke is gone, Gondarino says that the Duke has left his Helen with him. Expressing his contempt for women, Gondarino adds that adders and scorpions on his naked breast seem to him more tickling than the embraces of women.
Only mentioned by Humfry Bowdler in [?]Heywood's The Fair Maid of the Exchange. Helen of Troy is used by him to represent Mall Berry when she informs him of her intention to marry Barnard. Bowdler likens himself to Menelaus, Helen's abandoned husband, as he leaves, saying he will mourn until Troy is sacked and Helen is returned.
A "ghost character" in Heywood's Brazen Age. Helen of Lada is daughter of Tyndarus and sister to Castor and Pollux.
A “ghost character" in Goffe’s Orestes. Cassandra glories in the Greeks enacting Troy’s revenge by the hands of Helen’s sister, Clytemnestra. This is the only suggestion of Clytemnestra’s prophetic gifts as no one has yet discovered that Clytemnestra is guilty.


A non-speaking character in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. Mephostophilis produces the Spirit of Helen of Troy, called "Helen of Greece" in the play, upon Faustus' command after the Scholars ask Faustus to show her beauty to them. Later Faustus has Mephostophilis bring Helen to him as paramour "to glut" his "heart's desire."


See also HELEN, HELLENA, and related spellings.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet who is invited to the Capulet feast. She is described as "lively."


Helena is the Athenian daughter of old Nedar in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. In an attempt to win back Demetrius, she reveals to him the secret that Hermia plans to elope with Lysander through the woods. She is ridiculously in love with Demetrius, offering even to be his "spaniel" despite his scorn of her. At one point Helena is pursued by both Demetrius and Lysander as the Athenian youths labor under the influence of love-flower essence applied by differing members of the fairy kingdom. Helena exhibits some fine moments in the wood with Hermia, her childhood friend, as the two clash over one another's size, the current state of their affection for one another, and the actions of Demetrius and Lysander in both seemingly preferring Helena and despising Hermia. She is alternately referred to as a dove and a maypole, suggesting that she is both taller and fairer than Hermia. At play's end, she wins Demetrius (who is still under the spell of the love-flower essence). They marry in the same ceremony with Lysander and Hermia and Theseus and Hippolyta, and the wedding party watches the play Pyramus and Thisbe.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. Lazarillo falls prey to Imperia's trick and falls through a trapdoor into the sewers of Venice. When he hears the disconcerting music and birds' singing, Lazarillo calls for the "bright" Helena of the house, probably Imperia, and wishes her Troy should be on fire, so that she might come to his rescue. Lazarillo prays for a Trojan Horse to ride away from that haunted place.


The daughter of Gerard de Narbon in Shakespeare's All's Well. Helena is in love with Bertram. To win Bertram for her husband, Helena travels to Paris and presents herself to the King. She informs the King that she will cure his fistula if, in return, she may choose a husband from the King's court. When her cure is successful, Helena chooses Bertram. Helena is heartbroken when Bertram rejects her saying that he will not accept her until she can obtain his ring and bear a child by him. Further, and when Bertram vows he will not return from the wars while Helena is in France, Helena concludes that she is putting his life in danger and departs on a pilgrimage. On the way she meets and befriends the Widow of Florence and her daughter Diana, who, in turn, help her with a plot to trick Bertram out of his ring and into sleeping with Helena. The plan is a "bed trick" and on an appointed night Helena waits in Diana's bed for Bertram, who mistakes her for Diana. Helena spreads the false news that she has died from heartbreak on her pilgrimage. At last, Helena returns to France, pregnant by Bertram and with his ring, and claims him a second time by the terms of his own letter. They are thereby finally united.


Daughter of Guinever and Caradoc in The Valiant Welshman. She and her mother are captured by Ostorius and taken to Rome. They are freed when Claudius Caesar recognizes Caradoc.


Helena is a character in "The Triumph of Death," the third play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. She is the second wife of Lavall. After his death she expresses her desire to join a monastery.


A fictitious character within the story of Paris and Enone which the Chorus intends to perform before the king in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday.


Son of Priam in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. He argues on behalf of reason against Troilus' passion during the council scene in II.ii.


Helga, along with cohort Sueno, is a court parasite in Shirley's The Politician. Helga seeks glory and favor, preferably at little cost to himself. He and Sueno accept Gotharius' commission to get Haraldus drunk; Helga receives his comeuppance when he is arrested and hung.


A variant of Beli Maur or Beli Mawr in Fisher's Fuimus Troes.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Isaiah as an example of a God's mercy and power.


An honest counselor to Pericles in Shakespeare's Pericles. Understanding the possible threat from Antiochus, Helicanus advises Pericles to leave Tyre until it is safe to return. During Pericles' absence, Helicanus rules in his stead. After some time, Helicanus is urged to take Pericles' place permanently, but he resists, calling for twelve months' delay during which time Pericles might return or be found. Helicanus remains a loyal friend and advisor to Pericles after his return to Tyre.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. Heliodorus was a third-century Syrian Greek writer. He wrote the romance Aethiopica (Ethiopian Story) one of the oldest and best of surviving Greek romances. Little is known of his life except that he was a Phoenician from Emesa, Syria. Lady Frampul shows her admiration for Lovel's eloquent speech on love, and she says his words breathe the true divinity of love, as if they were inspired from the writings of all the great fathers who wrote of this subject. Lady Frampul mentions Heliodorus among these great writers of love romances. It seems that Lady Frampul's idea about great names in the literature about love is restricted to the writers of romance.


See also HELEN, HELENA, and related spellings.


A "ghost character" in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Hellena (so spelled, perhaps punningly, on its only appearance} was the wife, when he lived, of Malbecco's ghost. Malbecco claims that Hellena drove him to suicide, with the result that the devil Belphagor is sent into the world to find out the truth about women.


Hellena is the sister of Ferrars in Heywood's A Challenge for Beauty. Bonavida selects her as the equal of Queen Isabella in virtue and beauty, and persuades her to accompany him to Spain, but only after he has first proven her virtue. To prove her virtue, he gives her a ring and makes her promises not to give it away; she gives him a carcanet in return. Bonavida leaves for Spain. Hellena takes off the ring while washing, and her maid Rosara steals it and gives to Pineda and Centella, pretending she has thrown it out with the water. When Rosara admits the truth, Hellena, Rosara and their servant (the disguised Manhurst) travel to Spain. They arrive in time to see Bonavida on the scaffold, cursing Hellena and all women. Hellena saves the day by pleading to the King and Queen for justice, and by revealing the duplicity of Pineda and Centella.


Lethe's pander in Middleton's Michaelmas Term, Hellgill encourages the Country Wench to travel to London without her father's consent and become the mistress of Sir Andrew Lethe. Upon her arrival in the city, he, along with Mistress Comings adorns her in the extravagant continental fashions popular among London gallants.


A “ghost character" in Tomkis’ Lingua. Appetitus initially mistakes Mendacio for Hellno, but Hellno is dead.


Two characters share this designation in Killigrew’s The Prisoners during the act four storm.


Helvetius is the father of the Lady in [?]Middleton's The Second Maiden's Tragedy. He supports the Tyrant's usurpation, and hopes that he will wed his daughter. He tries to persuade the Lady to become the Tyrant's mistress, if not his wife, but she refuses. He is 'cured' of his unnaturalness by Govianus, who fires a pistol to frighten him, and upbraids him. Helvetius returns to the Tyrant and defies him. He is imprisoned, but is released by the other Nobles at the end of the play.


Hem is a pander in Richards' Messalina. He is eventually swallowed by the earth during the attempt to abduct the vestals.


Mr. Hemlock, of the Harrow Tavern in Little Wood-Street in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden, is described by the dramatis personae as a "cheating vintner". He is suborned by Trimwell into helping to arrange the arrest of Rivers. During the arrest of Flylove for debt, Hemlock contrives to be wounded by Rivers, so that Rivers will be arrested.


Mrs Hemlock is the wife of Mr Hemlock in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden. She helps her husband before and after he is injured by Rivers.


Hempstring and Haltersack are two quarrelsome soldiers in Pickering's Horestes who fight each other for trivial reasons. A hempstring was a hangman's rope.


A captain and confidant of the usurper Wolfort in Fletcher's Beggars' Bush. Before the action of the play begins, Hemskirk placed the young Bertha, the young heiress to Brabant, in the home of the burgomaster Van-dunck where she lives under the name of Gertrude until her maturity. He accompanies Hubert to Bruges in order to identify the honorable lords who have taken disguise there. Hemskirk is captured along with Wolfort at the end of the play, and like his master is sent into banishment until such time as he repents his misdeeds.


Hengist is a Saxon warrior who comes to Britain and offers Vortiger help in putting down a rebellion in Middleton's Hengist. In return he asks for land; seeing Simon the tanner with a hide, Vortiger offers Hengist as much land as the hide can cover. Hengist has Simon cut the hide into thongs and stretch them, thus entitling him to the entire earldom of Kent, where he builds "thong castle." Eventually Hengist forces Vortiger to name him King of Kent and cede to him the lands of Norfolk and Suffolk. When Aurelius leads the rebellion against Vortiger, Hengist comes to Vortiger's aid but is captured by Devon and Stafford. Aurelius sentences him to death.


Hengo is the young son of Bonduca, and the heir to the British throne in Fletcher's Bonduca. He is small but feisty. Caratach protects him when the Romans defeat the Britons in battle, and they escape together. Corporal Judas and his soldiers try to capture Hengo, but Caratach saves him. Caratach and Hengo hide out on a rock in the forest. Judas tempts the hungry Hengo into the forest with a piece of meat, and then shoots him dead. Caratach avenges the murder by killing Judas with a stone and then laments over Hengo's body.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Bonduca. Hengo recalls seeing him die.


For French kings named Henri, see also under HENRY.


A "ghost character" in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk. The amnesty offered to Dansiker to leave his life of crime and turn his talents to the service of France is issued on Henri's order, and accepted. Later, his assassination aborts the deal and Dansiker is forced to surrender to the Governor of Provence on the less favorable terms of the new regime, which lead ultimately to his death back in Tunis.


Henrick is the son of King Genzerick in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier. Returning from a battle with the Christians, he disputes with Hubert about whose actions decided the battle. On his father's death, he is crowned King of the Vandals, and continues to purge the Christians. He angrily rejects his friend Bellizarius's attempt to convert him to Christianity. While hunting, he is stung by a scorpion, and believes that bathing in the blood of Christians will cure his injury. He orders the captured bishop Eugenius to be killed. Eugenius offers to cure Henrick in return for his release of all the Christians, and that he turn Christian. Henrick agrees, but once cured, revokes his promise, and orders Eugenius to be stoned to death. Even when the stones miraculously turn soft, Henrick persists in his refusal to turn Christian. He demands that Victoria persuade her husband Bellizarius to recant Christianity, and when she refuses, decides that she must be raped by camel-drivers as a punishment. But the two Camel-drivers and two Slaves that he hires for the job are all miraculously struck mad or blind, so Henrick orders Victoria to be locked up instead. When she emerges from the dungeon all in white, Henrick begins to lust after her and tries to rape her, but two Angels appear and freeze her to death to preserve her virtue. Then a thunderbolt blasts Henrick to death.


Younger son of Don Pedro, betrothed to Eleanora in the anonymous Dick of Devonshire. During the English attack Henrico escorts her to her father's house, and despite her protestations of fidelity is smitten by sudden, irrational jealousy, and, to make her unequivocally his, rapes her, threatening the servant Buzzano with death should the latter reveal the crime. When Eleanora accuses him to her father, he denies the charge, and when his brother Manuel arrives to investigate Eleanora's complaint, Henrico falsely accuses him of murdering their father. He is tried for both crimes, and convicted when Buzzano testifies against him. But both his victims forgive him, and he is restored to grace.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Mary is mentioned by the Prologue before the King and Queen. The Prologue is here addressing to Queen Henrietta Maria (1609-1669), wife to Charles I, who is a member of the audience.
A "ghost character" in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. The Queen is mentioned by Undermine at the end of the play. She would probably be part of the audience, as his address indicates: "[All humble thanks unto our gratious Queene], [That ask'd his pardon and our Kings thus gave it]." Taking into account that the approximate date of the play is 1629, the Queen at that time was Henrietta María, married to King Charles I (reigned 1625-49), and daughter to the French king Henry IV.


The supposedly childless husband of Violante and elder brother of Jamie in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. Henrique inherited their father's entire estate. Henrique gives only a bare allowance to Jamie, far below what is expected for an aristocrat. Henrique takes steps to invalidate Jamie's claim on the family fortune by revealing his paternity of Ascanio, which angers Violante into making a pact with Jamie to murder Henrique. When Jamie foils Violante's plan by tricking her into confessing before Henrique, he subsequently repents of his past bad behavior. He then reveals that he never married Violante, thinking Jacinta would eventually die of grief. Henrique quickly repairs his broken relationships with Jamie and Ascanio, promising to share his estate.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. A neighbor of Theodosia and Philippo. The disguised Leocadia tries to claim that she is the son of Don Henriques, but Philippo knows he has no son.

HENRY I **1604

Only mentioned in Rowley’s When You See Me. A mistake for Henry V. When Henry chooses to save his queen rather than the baby she bears, he imagines God has sent him a weakling son like Henry VI. He says that Henry VI lost all that his father, Henry the first, won.


Still a crowned monarch in Chettle's(?) Looke About You, old King Henry is humiliated and reduced to a mock figure at the Parliament of two Kings. His eldest son Henry has seized power, and instigates the release of the Queen from prison against old Henry's wishes. The old King's other son John is similarly greedy for power and demands the rule over five counties. Only Prince Richard vows penitence for his prior sins against his father. (The fourth son, Prince Jeffrey, although mentioned, does speak in the play). Prior to the opening of the play, the old King had a mistress called Rosamund, who died under suspicious circumstances. It surfaces that Skinke was her murderer acting on the vengeful Queen Elinor's command. The Queen, while temporarily imprisoned for her instigation of Rosamund's murder, is freed on behalf of her sons. Together they form a gloomy alliance against the weak and helpless old king.
A "ghost character" in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. When Doncaster is taken, after Robin is poisoned, it is revealed that he beat and raped a nun, the daughter of Sir Eustace Stutville, and was imprisoned. However, when he escaped, he was forgiven by Henry II.
A "ghost character" in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV. King Henry II does not appear in the play but is mentioned by the Queen to Jane Shore as a monarch who kept his courtesan in a labyrinth.


Father of Prince Edward in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. Henry III arranges a match between his son and Elinor, the daughter of the King of Castile. At the play's end, he is so impressed by Edward Lacy's description of Margaret's beauty and virtue that he has her brought to court so that Lacy and Margaret might marry at the same time as the prince and Elinor.
The English King visits Spitalfields to see the Domus Dei that Bruyne has erected in William Rowley's A New Wonder: A Woman Never Vexed. Robert complains to him of his ill treatment at the hands of Old Foster and Stephen.
A "ghost character" in Peele's Edward I. Henry is Edward's father. Upon Edward's return from crusade, the Queen Mother comments upon how sad it is that Edward's father, uncle, and son have all died while he was away. Edward replies that he is sad for the loss of his uncle, sadder for the son, but saddest of all for his father.
John's son, never mentioned until the end of the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John, arrives at Swinstead with the repentant barons to witness his father's death, and urges the Bastard to pull the abbey down. He is eager to lead the English against Lewes and his French, but Pandulph encourages a peaceful settlement, and Henry is crowned as the third king of that name.
A "ghost character" in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. King Henry III of England is mentioned as father to Edward, and brother to Richard and to Isabella.
Only mentioned in Strode's The Floating Island. Henry III was a medieval king of England who was forced to create a parliament in order to receive funds from the nobles. Malevolo attempts to force Fancie to agree to similar limitations on her power, but Livebyhope stops the plot. When Prudentius returns to the throne, he asks Memor how the rebellion against Henry III was settled and, when Memor describes how Henry III set the capital on fire, asks if he should not do the same. This causes Memor and Malevolo to repent their actions.


The Duke of Anjou takes the title of King Henry III of France following the death of his brother, Charles IX in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris. When Guise raises an army without his consent and builds support in Paris, Henry resolves to have him killed. When that murder is done, he fears Guise's brother the Cardinal and orders his death as well. Meanwhile he repents his role in the massacre of Protestants and reconciles with Navarre. He is killed by a Friar in the service of the Duke of Dumaine. Moments before he dies he names Navarre as his successor.
King of France in Chapman's Bussy D'Ambois. Henry's first conversation is on the subject of the English queen and her court. Henry, Guise and Montsurry agree that the English court is infinitely superior in virtue to the French court. The French lords are amazed that the English are so adamant upon imitating the superfluous fashions of France. Henry hears a report from Nuntius about how Bussy killed Barrisor, L'Anou and Pyrhot in a battle. The king is horrified about the apparent extra-judicial proceedings and seems intent upon condemning Bussy before Monsieur intervenes. Henry pardons D'Ambois, but warns him to cease dueling. Montsurry reports that Henry takes a liking to D'Ambois, a move that converts the Duke's love for Bussy to envious hate. Henry compliments Bussy by lauding D'Ambois' truthfulness. When Monsieur is unable to end a fight between Guise and Bussy, the king steps in and orders the men to reconcile. The king then invites Guise and Bussy to a feast.


Soon to be the English king Henry IV, Bolingbroke is also called Henry (or Harry) of Hereford, Lancaster and Derby in Shakespeare's Richard II. He is the son of John of Gaunt and, like King Richard, grandson of Edward III. Unlike Richard, he is more pragmatic than poetic. He is banished by Richard for six years. After Richard confiscates the late John of Gaunt's lands, Bolingbroke returns to England with an army whilst the King is in Ireland. Bolingbroke gains the support of the common people and many of the nobles and leads a rebellion. Although he at first asserts that he only wants to reclaim what is rightfully his (John of Gaunt's estate) he ultimately usurps the throne and is crowned King Henry IV. However, he deplores Sir Piers Exton's murder of Richard and at play's end decides to lead a crusade to the Holy Land as atonement.
King of England, father of Henry V in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V. The king laments his son's wild character and complains about the unsavory companions with whom he associates. He wishes for his son's correction. To this end, he supports his son's temporary imprisonment for taking part in a robbery. However, when the prince visits his sick father in a "cloak full of needles" (as a sign that he "stands upon thorns, 'til the crown be on [his] head") and a dagger in his hand, he is moved by his father's lamentation and asks forgiveness for his former life, claiming to be "born new again." Thus, father and son are reconciled. The king dies shortly thereafter.
King Henry IV of England, also referred to as Bullingbrook, suffers from unrest over the profligate behavior of his son Henry and from guilt at his own untoward rise to the throne in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. His continual talk of going on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land attests to his discomfort, but political unrest in his kingdom prevents the king's journey. Opposed by the Archbishop of York and a faction involving the Earl of Northumberland, Henry Percy, the king is finally obliged to battle at Shrewsbury, where his forces are victorious and where also he discovers that his profligate son, Henry (Hal), is noble, worthy and valiant. The King plays a surprisingly small role considering that the play bears his name.
As liege, King Henry IV wishes little more than to see peace in the realm and to effect a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. He is sorely upset by both the defection of the Percy faction and the waywardness of his son Prince Hal (who in this sequel appears to have back slid from 1 Henry IV). More and more often subject to fits of weakness and illness, King Henry senses the nearness of death and offers bitter words to Prince Hal upon discovering that his eldest son has removed the crown from the king's pillow. Father and son effect a reconciliation near play's end, however, and the king's deathbed advice to Prince Hal is to keep "giddy heads" busy with foreign campaigns so the recent domestic troubles might be forgotten. He dies in the Jerusalem chamber in fulfillment of a prophecy that he would die in Jerusalem.
Henry IV is the King of England in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. He is father to Hal, John, Thomas and Humphrey. At the beginning of the play, Henry is hopeful that England is emerging from a period of civil unrest, an unrest primarily caused by his own usurping of Richard II's crown. Henry IV is eager for a peaceful home front so that he can prosecute a crusade for Jerusalem. Unfortunately for Henry, he soon learns that the Percy clan, primarily young Harry Percy directed by his uncle Worcester, is planning a revolt. Henry's second concern is that his eldest son, the Prince of Wales, is a delinquent tavern-dwelling petty thief who keeps disreputable company. Henry does not believe that Mortimer is really Glendower's prisoner, so he refuses to allow Hotspur to ransom him. This action spurs Hotspur to rebel against the crown. Eventually, Henry calls his son Hal to the court and accuses him of gross neglect of duty. The talk has the desired effect and Hal serves Henry well at Shrewsbury. Before the battle, Henry offers the rebels amnesty. The rebels, especially Worcester, distrust Henry and refuse the offer. At the battle of Shrewsbury, Henry has a number of men dressed in his colors as body doubles. Henry is almost killed by Douglas, but Hal rescues him. After the battle, Henry condemns Worcester to death and allows Hal to free Douglass. Henry soon falls deathly ill. He is haunted at night by anxiety and cannot sleep. Hal visits Henry at his sickbed and mistakenly believes the king is dead. When Henry wakes up to see his crown gone, he accuses Hal of wanting him dead. He then condemns his son again as a derelict. After Hal again apologizes for angering his father, Henry forgives the Prince of Wales and offers him some practical political advice. Henry IV dies in a chapel named Jerusalem, thus fulfilling a prophecy.
King Henry appears in the last scene of Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green, attempting to reconcile the Cardinal and Gloucester. When the two parties appear before him, the King shows his youth by appealing to Gloucester, the Protector, for advice. He agrees that the two sides will fight, but objects to rapiers, the first choice of weapons, as too deadly. After the battle is over, he again turns to Gloucester for advice on how to deal with the traitors, but himself rewards those who fought beside Mumford.


King of France in Chapman's The Conspiracy of Charles, Duke of Byron. In the opening scene, he received the Duke of Savoy and exiles La Fin. When Savoy extols the merits of Byron, Henry corrects his accounts of various battles, indicating the others who were involved. He decides to send Byron as an ambassador to the English court; when he goes to his house to inform him and sees La Fin leaving, he warns Byron of the risks of listening to flatterers. When Byron returns from England and asks Henry to bestow the keeping of the citadel of Bourg on a man of Byron's choosing, the King refuses. He also reveals, in this conversation, that he believes Byron has been conspiring with his enemies. After Byron goes on a tirade about the King's ingratitude, he leaves. In their next encounter, Henry again chides Byron for his behavior, and this time Byron recognizes his faults and repents, and the King forgives him.
King of France in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron. In the opening scene, he learns from Janin that Byron is once again conspiring against Henry in hopes of attaining the crown for himself. This information is confirmed by La Fin, but Henry still states that he will pardon Byron again if he will submit himself to the king, and fight for France rather than conspiring against her. He sends D'Escures to Byron, asking him to come to court to receive the command of an army Henry will raise against the Italian forces. He also urges La Fin to write to Byron to reassure him, and also sends Janin to persuade him to rejoin the King. When Byron appears and proclaims his innocence of the rumored treason, the King indicates that the charges against him are damaging and that they will discuss them further in private. After consulting with Bellievre (the Chancellor), the Vidame, Janin, Vitry, and Pralin, Henry agrees to have Byron arrested in or near his chambers to preclude any violence. When Byron, D'Auvergne, and others arrive to attend the King, the King attempts to persuade D'Auvergne to reveal Byron's treachery as an indication of his own loyalty, but D'Auvergne asserts he knows of none. The King dismisses those gathered, but asks Byron to remain. He gives Byron one last chance to acknowledge his treason, and Byron again asserts his innocence. The King leaves, but returns after Byron has refused to submit to Vitry and Janin. Henry orders Byron taken away.
A "ghost character" in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk. The amnesty offered to Dansiker to leave his life of crime and turn his talents to the service of France is issued on Henri's order, and accepted. Later, his assassination aborts the deal and Dansiker is forced to surrender to the Governor of Provence on the less favorable terms of the new regime, which lead ultimately to his death back in Tunis.


Son of Henry IV, and later crowned Henry V, King of England in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V. At the beginning of the play, Harry is a wild trickster, frequently carousing with a band of rowdy men including Ned, Tom, John Oldcastle, and Jockey. He assists his friend in robbing carriers–including those of his father–and causes riot outside taverns. When the Judge wants to put Cuthbert Cutter the thief in jail, Prince Henry protects him and orders the Lord Chief Justice to release him. He appears unmindful of his status and the system of social rank generally. He also seems unconcerned about the anxiety this attitude causes his father. When the prince visits his sick father in a "cloak full of needles" and a dagger in his hand, he is moved by his father's lamentation and asks forgiveness for his former life, claiming to be "born new again." After his coronation, Henry V claims the crown of France and prosecutes a military campaign in France culminating in the English victory at Agincourt. After his defeat, Charles VII of France makes Harry regent and promises the French throne to his heirs in perpetuity. He is married to the French King's daughter, Katherine.
The character who will one day become the English king Henry V is introduced as Henry, or Prince Hal, King Henry IV's eldest son and heir apparent to the English throne in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. Referred to by Hotspur as Harry Monmouth and by Falstaff and friends as Prince Hal, Henry has been a profligate, carousing about London and grieving his father. He encourages Falstaff's schemes while making the most of opportunities to cause disorder and play jokes. When Falstaff plans and carries out a robbery upon travelers, Henry disguises himself and (along with Poins) sets upon Falstaff and robs him, thoroughly enjoying the tall tale Falstaff later tells of this escapade. But Henry is growing up and speaks to himself of how his life shall take a turn for the better once he is called upon to reveal his true self. Early in the play, he reveals in soliloquy that his profligate behavior is only part of his elaborate plan. When he casts away his assumed recklessness and the world sees him as valiant, he will win back his father's esteem, and he will also win favor for the Lancastrian House. His act is therefore Machiavellian in the truest sense. We see his future promise in his courageous acts at Shrewsbury as he suffers a wound, rescues the king, and kills Hotspur; we also see a foreshadowing of how he will later behave toward the incorrigible Falstaff.
The eldest son of King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. Henry, also known as Bolingbroke, Hereford, Hal, or Harry Monmouth, seems to have returned to his former reprobate ways. He is again the apparently profligate prince whose escapades have disappointed his father for years. In fact, he seems to have backslid from his gains in 1 Henry IV primarily for the sake of this sequel, for the first three acts are at their heart a reprise of that earlier play. Prince Henry accomplishes a rapid maturity in the course of this drama. He feels remorse at "profaning the time" while his father and Prince John deal so intensely with the rebels. Attending the dying king, Prince Hal begins to recognize something of the burden of rule shortly to be his. Once crowned, he mildly upbraids (and then forgives and praises) the Lord Chief Justice for having once arrested Hal when he defied the king's decrees. By the end of the play, Hal has become King Henry V. He is sworn to renounce his old ways and refuses to render preferment upon Falstaff and friends until they, too, show evidence of reform. He banishes Falstaff ten miles from his presence.
The "mirror of all Christian kings" in Shakespeare's Henry V. Shakespeare shows the completion of Henry's maturation that began in 1 Henry IV. At the beginning of the play, Henry, now king of England, is uncertain whether to invade France. After his advisors reassure him that his claim to the French throne is legitimate, and an ill-timed mockery from the French Dauphin spurs him to revenge, Henry decides to pursue his claim. The governor of Harfleur surrenders his town after listening to Henry's threats, and the English army triumphs there, but by the time they reach Agincourt it is late October, and Henry's soldiers are tired and ill. They face a French army stronger in numbers and in health, but they fight well, and the French capitulate. The terms of Henry's peace treaty include his proposed marriage to the French King, Charles VI's daughter Katherine, and the final scene of the play depicts Henry wooing her in broken French and in English. The match is approved, and the play concludes with the promise of a return to peace, a hope that the epilogue undermines when the Chorus reminds the audience how short-lived Henry's triumphs would be. As Shakespeare had already dramatized in his Henry VI plays, Henry and Katherine's son would lose France and precipitate the Wars of the Roses.
Generally referred to as King Harry in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle. Angered by the refusal of the clergy to lend money to his war in France, he acknowledges their recent generosity. Agrees to the Bishop's desire for an ecclesiastical trial of Oldcastle, Lord Cobham. At the trial he warns Oldcastle that sedition will not be tolerated, and at Oldcastle's request, he pardons Powis. Immediately after freeing Oldcastle, Harry is told by Acton that Oldcastle is the head of the conspirators. In disguise, he travels to Tothill Fields to confront the gathering conspirators. He is robbed by Wrotham, but he wins back his money when Wrotham returns the next day to play a game of dice. He initially orders Wrotham hanged, but then forgives him and sets him free. Likewise, he accuses Oldcastle of conspiracy, but then apologizes when no evidence is provided. He orders the hanging of Acton, Beverly and Murley. He then discovers the plot of Scroop, Cambridge and Gray, and orders them executed.


King Henry VI of England in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. The first scene reveals him sleeping. The plot indicates that there is a tent on stage, but also suggests that Henry is in a room in the Tower. He wakes in the second scene and watches subsequent scenes with Lidgate. The plot does not clarify the relationship between these layers of theatricality. W. W. Greg postulates that the scenes in the Tower that bookend the play are an induction in which Henry is dreaming; his dreams take him to the battlefield (the tent) and through three stories dramatizing the sins of envy, sloth, and lechery. In the final scene before the epilogue, Warwick visits his cell, presumably to free him.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry V. The Chorus' epilogue looks ahead in history to the reign of Katherine and Henry's son, Henry VI, who would lose all that Henry had won in France.
He is the figure of authority controlling the play in Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday. He integrates and legitimates the shoemakers' rowdy subversions of the social hierarchy. His participation in Simon Eyre's Shrove Tuesday feast, while acknowledging the shoemaker's alternative power, also presents the occasion for his vindication of the secret marriage between Rowland Lacy and Rose Oatley. Historically, this was Henry IV.
Henry VI, King of England in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, accedes to the throne in the first scene of the play, which opens with the funeral procession of his father, Henry V, 'too famous to live long' (I.i.6). Henry makes peace between the quarreling Winchester and Gloucester factions, and gives Richard Plantagenet the title of Duke of York that should have passed to him through his father. Henry warns Somerset and Richard Plantagenet that their quarrel risks dividing the English when they should be united against the French. He agrees to marry the Earl of Armagnac's daughter in an attempt to secure a lasting peace with the French, but he subsequently withdraws his promise in preference for a match with Margaret of Anjou. In the subsequent Henry VI plays, Margaret and her lover Suffolk will be among Henry's many hidden enemies.
Much of Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI is concerned with showing how King Henry is manipulated by unscrupulous people around him. Margaret and Suffolk, along with their faction, succeed in wresting power away from the monarch and exerting it for their own ends by driving a wedge between Henry and the Lord Protector, his uncle Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester. When Gloucester is murdered in prison, Henry realizes the price of his weakness, even before Warwick arrives to announce that the commoners blame Suffolk and Cardinal Beaufort and want revenge. Salisbury conveys a message to Henry from the commoners, calling for Suffolk's death or banishment in retribution, and warning that Suffolk is a threat to Henry as well. Henry tells Salisbury that he has decided to banish Suffolk. After facing rebellion led by Jack Cade and instigated by the Duke of York, Henry realizes that he needs to learn to be a better king or give England cause to curse his reign.
King of England in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI. Faced with the Duke of York's challenge, Henry expresses his determination to protect his right to the crown at all costs, even though his asides admit doubt about the validity of his claim. Eventually, Henry agrees that if he is allowed to remain king during his lifetime, York will be heir to the throne. Henry's remaining supporters, including Clifford, Westmoreland, and Northumberland, are appalled by the lack of honour and valor evident in Henry's capitulation. Queen Margaret, too, sees Henry's deal with York as an unmanly deed, and vows to defend her son Edward, Prince of Wales's right to inherit his father's crown. The fugitive Henry is captured by two gamekeepers, who proclaim their loyalty to whichever king is in power. When Henry is freed from prison thanks to Warwick and Clarence's efforts, he abdicates power to them. Later, Henry is recaptured and imprisoned in the Tower of London, where Richard, Duke of Gloucester, murders him.
A "ghost character" in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV. Henry VI is the deposed king of England, held at the Tower of London and dead by the end of the play.
The Lancastrian king of England during the Wars of the Roses. He appears on stage as a corpse in Shakespeare's Richard III. Before the start of the play he was murdered by Richard, Duke of Gloucester. When he lived, he predicted that Richmond would become king. His daughter-in-law Lady Anne escorts his corpse from St. Paul's Cathedral to be reinterred at Chertsey monastery when Richard accosts her; the corpse begins bleeding in his presence. Henry's ghost later visits Richard and Richmond on the night before the Battle of Bosworth, cursing Richard and blessing Richmond.
A "ghost character" in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV. Bourbon mentions King Henry as one who wreaked havoc in past battles with the French.
Only mentioned in Rowley’s When You See Me. In choosing to save his queen rather than the baby she bears, he imagines God has sent him a weakling son like Henry VI and is giving him the choice to abort it now.


Henry Richmond is crowned King Henry VII after his victory over Richard III at Bosworth Field in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III.
Alternative name of Henry Tudor, the Earl of Richmond in Shakespeare's Richard III. Richmond becomes King Henry VII after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth.
The father-in-law of James IV was historically Henry VII, but there is no indication that Greene has remembered this in Greene's James IV. His King of England sails home after Dorothea's wedding and returns at the head of an army when he hears what has happened to her. Eventually the restoration of his daughter persuades him to make peace. Historically, Henry VII's daughter was Margaret Tudor, and her marriage to James IV of Scotland bears little resemblance to that of Dorothea in this play.
Henry Tudor, Henry VII, is portrayed as a man who succeeds not in charisma but in policy in Ford's Perkin Warbeck. Where Warbeck wins James IV with his personal demeanor, Henry wins the Scots king back with political promises and favorable alliances through marriage to his daughter, Margaret. He is a compassionate man who cannot see his friend, Stanley, executed for his treason. That compassion is repeated when he refuses to watch the Cornish rebel leaders executions and when he pardons the other Cornish rebels. He also pardons Simnel, the faux Earl of Warwick when he confessed. His leniency is extended to Warbeck also until it becomes apparent that Warbeck will not be corrected. Only then is he executed as a bid for lasting peace. His success lies in his administrative ability to keep his reign secure.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. Father of Henry VIII, Henry VII restored the Buckingham title and estates, feeling pity for the fall and betrayal of Buckingham's father.
(See also under "ELFILINE VII").


A "ghost character" in Udall's? Thersites. Miles appears at the end of the play to offer a prayer to the king [Henry VIII], his wife, Jane [Seymour], and her baby son [Edward].
A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. In the frame story, Skelton and Eltham several times refer to His Majesty or the King, for whom the present play is intended. This is almost certainly meant to be Henry VIII, who had a great fondness for the Robin Hood ballads, but this identification is never clearly stated. At the beginning of the play, Eltham states that he has been surveying maps for the King. In the midst of the play, the two break character to wonder if the King will enjoy the play despite the lack of traditional jests, and after the play is over, the two discuss this problem again, with Eltham saying he can persuade the King to like it despite the lack of traditional elements.
In Shakespeare's Henry VIII, Henry is well duped by Wolsey's machinations into believing that his marriage to Katherine is incestuous. Urged further by a passion for Anne Bullen, Henry divorces Katherine and marries Anne, who gives birth to Elizabeth. Due to a series of events, such as intercepted letters and overheard conversations, however, the king eventually discovers Wolsey's treason. He deposes the Cardinal and works to fill positions in his realm with people more easily controlled than was Wolsey. Unfortunately, Henry is blind to the power that Cromwell is developing and will eventually wield in England.
A "ghost character," Henry VIII is referred to as "Eight Henry" by his daughter Elizabeth in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. When Face quarrels with Subtle, he threatens to indict the bogus alchemist within the statute of sorcery, tricesimo tertio, of Harry the Eighth. The reference is to the statute against witchcraft issued in Henry VIII's thirty-third year, 1541.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Henry the Eighth is mentioned by Bill Bond when he is asked by Master Caution about ways of escaping legal punishment. On being asked how he could save him "from the penalty of the statute for keeping so many trotting great horses" according to his "degree, quality and calling," Bond replies: "Oh, that of tricesimo tertio of Henry the Eighth?" Henry VIII (1491-1547) was king of England from 1509 to 1547. His reign witnessed the separation of the Church of England from Roman Catholicism. In 1529, he summoned the Reformation Parliament–which passed 137 statutes in seven years, thus exercising an unprecedented influence both in political and ecclesiastic affairs. According to Cathryn Anne Nelson's A Critical Edition of The Wit's Trumvirate, or The Philosopher (1975: 174, note corresponding to lines 84-85): "The statute of 33rd Henry VIII c. 5 (1541) outlined the number of stoned trotting horses trained to the saddle that members of various classes were obliged to maintain; this statute was repealed in 1623-24 by 21st James I, c. 28." Henry the Eighth is mentioned by Bill Bond again when, still talking to Master Caution, he mentions another statute, the "tricesimo secundo of Henry the Eighth," when he is asked about 'perjury.' Apparently, "the statute of 32nd Henry VIII c. 9, which levied a £10 fine for "the procurement or occasion of any manner of perjury." (Nelson, 1975: 176, note corresponding to line 108.) King Henry VIII impersonated the modern idea of ruler as the ideological icon of the state.
(See also under "OBERON").
A "ghost character" in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. On a variety of occasions, Wyatt and others indicate their support for Henry VIII's "issue" (Mary and Elizabeth) over the claims of Lady Jane Grey.
A "ghost character" in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. King Henry advances More's career by knighting him and, finally, making him the Lord Chancellor. When More refuses to sign the articles that will allow the king to be recognized as the head of the church in England (and thus free the way for the divorce he seeks in order to marry Anne Boleyn), Henry has him charged with treason and orders him executed.
King of England in Rowley’s When You See Me. The play takes great liberties with the timeline of Henry’s reign, confusing events that occurred before 1513 with events of 1537 and afterwards. After hearing the French embassy, Henry is brought the choice between saving his laboring queen or the child she bears. He chooses to save the queen. When she sends to him that she wishes to die and save the child, he at first acquiesces but then offers all rewards in his power if both may be saved. The Countess of Salisbury brings in the baby, and Henry’s sister brings news of the queen’s death. Henry names the child Edward because it is St. Edward’s day. He berates Wolsey for glorifying himself and not seeing to his duties at court. After being cured of his depression, he conspires with Brandon and Compton to go in disguise through London to see if the city is secured against rascality. Henry comes upon the Black Will, a city rascal, who shows him how he evades the London watch. Henry fights with Black Will and injures him before the watch takes them both to the counter. Henry sends a watchman to fetch Brandon at Baynards Castle. In the counter, Henry learns the truth behind the prisoners and, upon being discovered as the king, he sends one guilty man to Newgate, Black Will to the wars, and promises recompense to the poor, honest men who have been ruined by cheating courtiers. Upon learning the French king has died, Henry calls her back to England, sends Anne of Cleves home again (the first we hear of her) and sends a ring to Catherine “Parry" to tell her she shall be queen on Sunday and crowned at Westminster (the first we hear of her). He dismisses Rooksbie, a groom of the wardrobe, who cheated a citizen named Hopkins. He pretends to be angry with his sister, Mary, and Brandon for their marriage but relents and blesses it. He sends Wolsey to France to treat for peace between the young French king and Holy Roman Emperor Charles. Bonner and Gardner, acting for Wolsey, convince Henry that his queen, Catherine Parr, is the ringleader of Lutheranism in England. Henry has her barred from his presence. He calls for a warrant to be drawn sending Catherine to the Tower. He banishes Cranmer from the court and from Prince Edward. Prince Edward begs on bended knee for his father to listen to Catherine and pawns his word for her, which melts Henry into agreeing. He is quickly converted by Catherine’s protestations that she is no traitor. Henry discovers through Will Sommers that Wolsey is hiding great treasures in his wine casks (stolen from Henry’s people through church taxation). Henry learns from the Emperor himself that English forces faced him in France at Wolsey’s order. With this intelligence, Henry VIII condemns Wolsey and dismisses him from his sight.


Henry is a priest in Putney that marries Filbon and Mary in Armin's The Two Maids of More–Clacke.


Henry Beaufort, Bishop and later Cardinal of Winchester in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, is the great-uncle of King Henry VI. His faction and Gloucester's are in conflict over who will control the realm now headed by the boy king Henry VI. At Henry's command, he shakes hands with Gloucester, although it is uncertain whether this gesture will be sufficient to achieve a lasting peace. Along with York, Winchester brokers a peace treaty between the French king Charles and Henry.
Cardinal Beaufort, the Bishop of Winchester, is King Henry's great uncle in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. With Margaret, Suffolk, and the Duke of York, he conspires against Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester. He also conspires to eliminate York as a potential competitor for power, nominating him to lead the defense against the Irish rebels. After Gloucester is murdered in prison, the cardinal suddenly becomes ill and dies, but not before revealing his guilt in hysterical symptoms including seeing Gloucester's ghost, blaspheming, and confessing his misdeeds to his pillow.


Sir Henry Bedingfield, a supporter of Queen Mary in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt, brings her the news of Edward VI's death.


Beningfield is a staunch loyalist to Queen Mary in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. He is appointed Elizabeth's guardian after her release from the Tower and pledges to do evil to the princess under the direction of Winchester.


A "ghost character" in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV. Bolingbroke does not appear in the play but is mentioned as he who deposed King Richard.


Sir Henry Carew brings news to Elizabeth that Queen Mary has died and Elizabeth is now queen in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. Elizabeth grants Carew the title of Baron.


Sir Arthur Clare's and Dorcas' son and Milliscent's brother in the anonymous The Merry Devil of Edmonton. He is on his sister's side and helps Peter Fabell, Frank Ierningham and Raymond Mounchensey to organize Milliscent's escape from the nunnery and her marriage to Raymond.


Henry Condell, an actor of the King's Men at the Globe Theatre, argues with Sly and Sinklo about the play, and theatrical issues in general, in the Induction to Marston's Malcontent.

A fencer in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. Along with many other tradesmen, he gossips about the impending marriage of Captain Stukeley and Nell, daughter of the wealthy Sir Thomas Curtis. Immediately after the wedding, they seek to abscond with Stukeley's newfound money, citing debs both real and fabricated.


Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond is present in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI when King Henry is freed from the Tower, and Henry blesses the young man, predicting that England's future happiness resides in him. When Edward's escape is reported, Somerset and Oxford agree that Richmond should be sent to Brittany, out of harm's way. King Henry's prediction comes true in Richard III, when Richmond conquers the tyrant Richard on Bosworth Field.


Brother and supporter of Maurice in Fletcher and Massinger's Sir John Van Olden Barnavelt.


Leading "minion", or favorite, of Richard II in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock. With the others favorites, Bagot, Bushy, and Scroop, and the lawyer Tresilian, Greene encourages the King to resist his uncles, especially Woodstock, and to hand over power to the favorites instead. At the coronation, Richard, stung by Woodstock's reproaches, makes Greene his Lord Chancellor. When Richard divides up the country for his favorites to run, he gives Greene the best bit: the south-eastern area including London, Oxford, and Cambridge. With Scroop, Greene prevents the King from reprieving Woodstock at the last minute. In the final battle, he is killed by Arundel and bitterly mourned by the King.


Henry Guilford, along with Lord Chamberlain, is to be master of ceremonies at Wolsey's dinner in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. He is also more familiarly called Sir Harry.


Henry, King of Bohemia, is one of the seven Electors of the German Empire, and Churfurst and Sewer to the Emperor in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. He is power-hungry and intrigues successfully to be made co-Emperor with Alphonsus. He draws the role of taster in Fortune's Revels, and during those revels Alphonsus administers to him a slow poison in his drink. Bohemia grows sicker and sicker, and dies from the poison.


Henry is the most obvious villain in Chapman's The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois. He has placed the treacherous Baligny in Guise's faction to spy on their activities, and he surrounds himself with supporters who will do his bidding. He commands the capture of Clermont, but then releases him at Guise's urging. He then arranges the murder of Guise, which precipitates Clermont's suicide, thus decimating the court faction that opposed the King's excesses.


See also HENRY V and HAL.


Hal is the common name for Henry Monmouth, the Prince of Wales, Henry IV's heir to the English throne in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. At the beginning of the play, Hal spends the majority of his time with a group of debauched companions at a tavern in East Cheap. Hal frequently spars verbally with Sir John Falstaff. He also plots pranks with Ned Poins. Hal uses his money and influence to bankroll his wild life away from court. Hal's delinquency torments his father and amuses disloyal nobles such as Harry Percy, who threatens to poison the wayward prince with a pot of ale. Hal and Poins scheme to catch Falstaff in an elaborate lie surrounding a robbery at Gads Hill. Falstaff first holds up a group of travelers. Falstaff is, in turn, robbed by a disguised Hal and Poins. Back at the tavern, Falstaff claims to have fought a hundred men and killed a dozen. Poins and Hal revel in confronting John with his lies. Hal protects Falstaff by hiding him from the sheriff. Hal also pays the money from the robbery back to its rightful owner, the treasury. In a soliloquy, Hal shares with the audience that he is just pretending to be a derelict in order to lower expectations for him. Hal is honest with Poins about his contempt for the common men he drinks with so often. When the Percies threaten Henry IV, Hal is called to the court. Before reporting to his father, Hal and Falstaff take turns impersonating Henry IV in a mock interrogation of Hal. When Hal plays the king, he lets it be known that he plans on banishing Falstaff. When Hal appears before his father and is accused of gross neglect of duty, Hal apologizes and promises to mend his ways and prove his enemies wrong. The Prince returns to the tavern to recruit his drinking companions. Hal takes Poins with him to battle and gives Falstaff money to raise a company. At Shrewsbury, Hal fights valiantly, even after he is injured. He chases Douglas away from his father and kills Hotspur in single-combat. Hal allows Falstaff to try to reap the credit for the slaying of Percy. After Henry falls ill, Hal mistakenly believes the king has died. When Henry IV wakes up and accuses Hal of prematurely snatching the crown, Hal again apologizes to his father. Henry IV dies soon after, and Henry V comforts his brothers. Henry then rejects Falstaff's company and banishes him with meager provisions.


Henry Mumford, Earl of Kendall, is a rebel against King Edward and plots to meet with King James in Greene's George a Greene. The reasons for his rebellion are ambiguous; he claims repeatedly that he seeks to help the oppressed poor, but all the other characters see him as a traitor and he does boast that he will make himself king, Bonfield Duke of Lancaster and Armstrong Lord of Doncaster. When he hears that the towns refuse to provide provisions, he sends Mannering with a commission to demand food. He is both amused and angered when he hears that George made Mannering eat the commission seals, and he vows to kill George, telling Grimes to shut up his daughter until they return. He orders Bonfield and Armstrong to disguise themselves and annoy George by loosing their horses in the corn. When Jenkin and George arrive, Kendall refuses to remove the horses and George strikes him. At that point, Bonfield reveals who they are and Kendall calls forth his men to surround George. When George stands fearless, Kendall is impressed and asks him to join the rebellion, claiming he is willing to reconcile to Edward if the king will help the poor. He also claims a prophecy promises he and King James will meet in London. George pretends to be impressed and asks Kendall to meet with a local magician to have the prophecy confirmed. Kendall agrees, and meets with the disguised George, who tells him he will be beaten by George. This prophecy is immediately fulfilled when George captures Kendall and sends him to Edward. He arrives there when James is with Edward, thereby fulfilling the original prophecy. Thanks to George, Kendall is allowed to live, but Edward confines him to the Tower for the rest of his life.


Earl of Northumberland. He reveals that Bolingbroke is returning to England with an army and, along with Lord Ross and Lord Willoughby, decides to fight against King Richard in Shakespeare's Richard II. He is the father of Harry Percy ["Hotspur" of 1 Henry IV].
The name of Henry Percy refers to two different but related individuals in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV:
  1. Henry Percy the elder is the Earl of Northumberland and father of
  2. Henry Percy/Hotspur, the young and valiant warrior whose theme is Honor.
Both are part of the faction opposing King Henry IV. The father claims illness and does not bring his troops to support the campaign at Shrewsbury; the son fights valiantly at Shrewsbury but is killed by Prince Henry.
Henry Percy, The Earl of Northumberland and father of the slain Hotspur is still part of the faction opposing King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. In spite of his sorrow and anger over his son's death at Shrewsbury, Northumberland is convinced by the women in his family to flee to Scotland and there await news of the success or failure of other opposition troops before committing his own forces.
Hotspur is the nickname of Henry Percy, the Earl of Northumberland's famous warrior son in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. At the beginning of the play, Hotspur is Henry IV's most dependable military figure. Percy repels a number of dangerous challenges to the crown, most notably a rebellion by Douglas' Scottish forces. Percy angers Henry when he demands to use the ransoms of his Scottish prisoners to free his brother-in-law Mortimer from Owen Glendower. Henry believes Mortimer plans to claim the throne as Richard II's named heir, so Henry rejects Percy's demands. Hotspur feels betrayed, since it was the northern nobility that supported Henry's rise to power. Hotspur is convinced by his uncle Worcester and his father Northumberland to rebel against Henry IV. Percy is a quick-tempered immature Mars who shows his lack of shrewdness when he repeatedly underestimates Hal and when he insists upon insulting Owen Glendower. Percy, Mortimer and Glendower go so far as to pre-determine how the kingdom will be divided into three after Henry's defeat. Unfortunately for Percy, his friends begin to back out of the plot. Just before Percy is accosted by his wife, Percy reads a letter from an anonymous lord who refuses to assist the plan. Hotspur soon after learns that his father Northumberland is ill and will not send his forces to the field. As the day of battle nears, Percy also learns that Glendower will not appear in his protection. Hotspur interprets the mass desertions as an opportunity to gather more glory for himself. At the battle of Shrewsbury, Hotspur meets Hal on the battlefield. They fight and the Prince of Wales kills Percy.


John's son in Shakespeare's King John. Prince Henry appears in the final scene with his father as John dies of poison. He mourns his father's passing and gives orders for the burial. He is the future Henry III.


Henry is the king's eldest son and heir apparent to the English throne in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. Referred to by Hotspur as Harry Monmouth and by Falstaff and friends as Prince Hal, Henry has been a profligate, carousing about London and grieving his father. He encourages Falstaff's schemes while making the most of opportunities to cause disorder and play jokes. When Falstaff plans and carries out a robbery upon travelers, Henry disguises himself and (along with Poins) sets upon Falstaff and robs him, thoroughly enjoying the tall tale Falstaff later tells of this escapade. But Henry is growing up and speaks to himself of how his life shall take a turn for the better once he is called upon to reveal his true self. Early in the play, he reveals in soliloquy that his profligate behavior is only part of his elaborate plan. When he casts away his assumed recklessness and the world sees him as valiant, he will win back his father's esteem, and he will also win favor for the Lancastrian House. His act is therefore Machiavellian in the truest sense. We see his future promise in his courageous acts at Shrewsbury as he suffers a wound, rescues the king, and kills Hotspur; we also see a foreshadowing of how he will later behave toward the incorrigible Falstaff.
The eldest son of King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. Henry, also known as Bolingbroke, Hereford, Hal, or Harry Monmouth, seems to have returned to his former reprobate ways. He is again the apparently profligate prince whose escapades have disappointed his father for years. In fact, he seems to have backslid from his gains in 1 Henry IV primarily for the sake of this sequel, for the first three acts are at their heart a reprise of that earlier play. Prince Henry accomplishes a rapid maturity in the course of this drama. He feels remorse at "profaning the time" while his father and Prince John deal so intensely with the rebels. Attending the dying king, Prince Hal begins to recognize something of the burden of rule shortly to be his. Once crowned, he mildly upbraids (and then forgives and praises) the Lord Chief Justice for having once arrested Hal when he defied the king's decrees. By the end of the play, Hal has become King Henry V. He is sworn to renounce his old ways and refuses to render preferment upon Falstaff and friends until they, too, show evidence of reform. He banishes Falstaff ten miles from his presence. (See listing under "HENRY V" for more on this character.)


Henry Richmond is Stanley's son in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. He is convinced by his mother Margaret that he is the direct descendent of King Henry IV. When Richard is made Lord Protector, Richmond flees England and travels to Brittany. He is brought back to England due to the efforts of Buckingham, before the Duke is arrested and killed. Richmond proposes a suit for marriage to Elizabeth, the Queen's daughter. The suit is granted and Richmond states his intention of ridding the royal family of its brambles, briars and thorns. In essence, he promises to rid the nation of Richard III. In direct contrast to Richard's past behavior, Richmond nearly aborts his planned invasion upon hearing that his brother George Stanley might be murdered on account of it. Lord Stanley convinces Richmond that the battle must be fought, regardless of the dangers to all involved. Although Richmond is concerned about his prospects when Stanley is unable to send men in support, he is encouraged by Stanley's assurance that Richard's men will switch sides and fight for Richmond once the battle begins. Richmond kills Richard in battle and orders for his body to be publicly desecrated. Stanley arrives to report that the Peers have elected Richmond King. He becomes known as Henry VII.


Town Clerk in Ruggle’s Club Law. He is verbose and tiresome to the others when he speaks. After the fight, he attends and protects Niphle as he leaves prison. He proves a milquetoast when he will not draw up Niphle’s compromise plan to appear to make peace with the students and look for an opportunity for revenge.


A "ghost character" in Quarles' The Virgin Widow. Pertenax has a bond from him.


Proper name of the Earl of Richmond in Shakespeare's Richard III.


At the parliament of two Kings in Chettle's(?) Looke About You, the young King appears crowned next to his father whom he has practically deposed. Overriding his father's wishes, he instigates the release of the Queen (who is imprisoned for her part in the murder of the King's mistress, Rosamund). He also commits Gloster to prison, and later seeks his death along with John. Henry is under the control of the spiteful Queen Elinor until the very end of the play. At the final Court gathering he offers to make Skinke a lord, and goes as far as offering to kill the captured Gloster with his own bare hands before he suddenly turns and repents. While the Queen and John watch in disbelief, Henry frees Gloster and reinstates the old King to full power. His deed inspires Richards's crusade, Skinke's departure to fight in Portugal and the new alliance between the Queen and John.


A "ghost character" most usually called Hopkins in Shakespeare's Henry VIII.


A "ghost character" in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Heorston was the father of Saint Dunstan.


Hephestion is Alexander's general in Lyly's Campaspe. He is horrified when Alexander falls in love with Campaspe.


Appears in scenes 2, 4, 5, 6, 12, 14, 15, 18 of the anonymous plot of Frederick and Basilea; played by the young actor Sam (Samuel Rowley).


The herald in Pickering's Horestes announces that he will have a trumpet blow before the walls of Mycenae on Horestes's behalf. He speaks over the wall to Clytemnestra announcing that Horestes wants her to surrender, a request she disdainfully rejects, information that he returns to Horestes.


A messenger in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V serving various French nobles, including Charles VII and the Dauphin.


A herald appears to the Duke of Buckingham in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III, informing him that he is under arrest by order of Richard III. Although Buckingham's men attempt to rescue him, Buckingham goes willingly with the herald.


He summons Gloucester to the parliament at Bury St. Edmunds in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI.


A Herald in Marlowe's Edward II brings a message to Edward II from the lords who have taken up Arms and executed Gaveston saying that, if he will rid himself of the pernicious upstart flatterer, Spencer, and make England's hereditary nobility his advisors, they will support him and the bloodshed can stop.


A herald tells the bailiffs of the city (of London) that they should accept Canute as their king in the anonymous Edmond Ironside. The bailiffs refuse, and in the ensuing battle Canute's army is dispersed and Canute has to flee to Worcester.


The Herald in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington enters to announce formally to the Prior that John has exiled him and that he will be hanged if he is found in England.

HERALD **1599

Heralds appear throughout Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida, but their specific function is unrecoverable.


In a dumb show in Marston's Antonio's Revenge, a herald brings Andugio's sword and helmet to his coffin.

HERALD **1600

He is present when Cromwell is arrested in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell, proclaiming to all present except Cromwell, who has not yet arrived, that Cromwell is declared a traitor.


Wishing to gauge public support for Lady Jane Grey in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt, the Duke of Northumberland orders the unnamed Herald to make a public proclamation that Jane as their new queen. The response from the people is silence. When the duke then orders the Herald to proclaim Mary the new queen, there is an approving shout from the crowd and a flourish of trumpets indicating widespread support for the daughter of Henry VIII, and Northumberland knows he cannot look for any popular backing for Jane.

HERALD **1604

He leads in Prince Edward at the end of Rowley’s When You See Me to meet the Holy Roman Emperor. He exits to usher in King Henry afterwards.


A herald appears in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon to read the edict of the Empress of Babylon, which states that no one, high or low, should dare to depart for the war on Fairyland before the Empress has blessed him on the forehead.


Announces the arrival of Cadallan before the first battle in The Valiant Welshman.


A Roman herald in Fletcher's Bonduca reads out a proclamation against love in the army, directed at the melancholic Junius.


An English Herald informs Edward that the preparations are complete for the Palsgrave's induction into the Order of the Garter in Smith's The Hector of Germany.


A herald at the duel between Ercole and Romelio in Webster's The Devil's Law Case.

HERALD **1618

At Baiazet's behest, the herald in Goffe's Raging Turk proclaims that Achomates is to succeed his father as emperor.


The herald is sent to Demetrius during the battle in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant with a request from the opposing kings who want to meet with Demetrius in order to resolve the conflict.


The Babylonian Herald in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer brings the challenge from the Caliph to the Soldan and reads the articles of the single combat between Lysander and 'Armidan.'


A herald is entrusted with the task of sounding the trumpet in ?Ford's The Queen to declare Alphonso's challenge to the Queen's champion. He sounds again when Velasco accepts the challenge, and again when Petruchi, too, enters the lists.


A "ghost character" in Zouche's The Sophister. Distinction claims to have met with "an Herauld" the day before who "intreated [Distinction] to helpe him to pacifie two incensed Citizens, who since the yeare 1610 [. . .] fortuned to light both upon the same Coate-armour, and now were ready to fight, who should have it most proper, if [Distinction] lent him not some difference to put betwixt them." Distinction proceeded to supply the Herald with a solution to this matter.

HERALD **1633

The Herald is a disguise assumed by Vittori in Shirley's The Young Admiral to facilitate getting in to see the Neapolitan king. He carries the message that Vittori has become general for Sicily, and learns that Vittori's father Alphonso will be executed if Vittori attacks Naples.


A "ghost character" in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. the King informs Adrastus that he has "sent a Herald to desire an enterview with Arviragus" in order to "gaine time till" Adrastus and Cratus "returne" from the Witch's cave.


A "ghost character" in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Oswald informs Cartandes that a Herald "from the besieged King desires safe conduct for an Embassadour" who is, most likely, Sinatus.


He delivers Philanthus's challenge to Adrastus in Carlell's The Fool Would Be A Favorite. He announces only that Adrastus has offended a knight, and Adrastus accepts the challenge without questioning further.


The English Herald in the anonymous King Edward III arrives (just after Salisbury has delivered his mistaken message that the French have won at Poitiers) to announce to Edward the ultimate victory of Prince Edward and the arrival of the Prince with King John and Prince Philip as captives.


The English Herald in Greene's James IV calls the King of Scots to parley.


After the first, inconclusive battle between John and Philip in Shakespeare's King John, the English Herald appears before the gates of Anger to announce that England has won and that therefore John is king.


After Agincourt in Shakespeare's Henry V, Henry sends heralds to collect the tally of casualties on both sides. One herald returns with a letter that he delivers to Exeter and Henry. The letter indicates that Orleans, Bourbon, and Bouciqualt along with fifteen hundred Frenchmen not including commoners are captured; ten thousand French are dead; one hundred twenty six of the dead were nobles with coats of arms and another eight thousand four hundred knights and gallants; sixteen hundred were mercenaries. On the English side, only York, Suffolk, Sir Richard Ketly, and Davy Gam, gentleman are named. Beside them, a mere twenty-five English died.


The English herald at the Scottish camp after the first battle in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot. He tells Mentith and Coming that King Edward has offered ten thousand crowns for Wallace's head.


Before the battle of Poitiers, three heralds from the French deliver messages to Prince Edward in the anonymous King Edward III:
  1. The First Herald delivers a demand to Prince Edward from King John that the Prince and one hundred nobles should kneel at his feet to save themselves from death.
  2. The Second Herald delivers a horse to Prince Edward from Prince Charles as well as a taunt that he should use the horse to flee the battle.
  3. The Third Herald delivers a devotional book to Prince Edward from Prince Philip as well as a taunt that he should prepare for his death.


After the first, inconclusive battle between John and Philip in Shakespeare's King John, the French Herald appears before the gates of Anger to announce that France has won and that therefore Arthur is king.


In the second act of Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur, this herald accompanies Gawin, King of Albany, on the mission to convince Mordred not to oppose his father Arthur.


In the third act of Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur, the herald conveys Mordred's threat to kill Arthur.


Edward sends this unnamed Herald to Lewis of France in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV. He announces that Edward is coming to France to take his rightful crown.


Now that his master resides at the court of Venus in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy, the Herald of Mars is reduced to devising coats of arms to distinguish gentlemen from knaves. He shows Raph and Sateros the way to the court of Venus.


After the duel between Hector and Ajax in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Priam's Herald arrives to arrange a truce so that the Greek and Trojan dead may be buried. He also invites twenty of the chief Greek leaders to a banquet hosted by Priam.


An imaginary character in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Trincalo imagines buying a pedigree from a Welsh herald for his ungotten son, Transformation, and the Knight’s daughter he imagines marrying to the boy.


Welsh Herald is the fictional husband of Nurse/Sheleemien Thomas in Jonson's The New Inn. Host informs Beaufort and Tipto about Lady Frampul's new female companion, Lady Laetitia (Frank in disguise). Host explains that the woman accompanying the young lady (Nurse in disguise) is an old Welsh Herald's widow, who lives with Laetitia and studies law.


Assistants to Diligence in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates.


A herald is part of Visus’ grand entrance of III.vi in Tomkis’ Lingua. He leads in Color. Afterwards, he is treated as heraldry itself, and Phantastes upbraids him for stealing so many of his symbols to deck the arms of families.




He is injured in the opening moments of Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle in a fight with Powis' faction. Later, news arrives to the Bishop of Rochester that he died of his injuries.


Herebert Lovel is a romantic lover, smitten with Lady Frampul in Jonson's The New Inn. At the New Inn, Host welcomes Lovel as a guest, only if he wants to be merry and have a light heart. When Host exits, Lovel confesses in a soliloquy that he is in love and, therefore, melancholy. Prudence brings Lovel an invitation from Lady Frampul, but Lovel declines ironically. Finally, Lovel accepts the invitation. Lovel confesses to Host his apparently unrequited love for Lady Frampul and exits. Lovel enters to pay his visit to Lady Frampul. At Prudence's mock-authoritative command, Lady Frampul kisses Lovel, and he falls into a state of ecstatic admiration. Prudence decrees a mock court of love, in which Lovel would spend a couple of hours with Lady Frampul discussing love, then receive two kisses from the lady. After these two hours, the condition binds them never to speak of love again. Faced with a difficult choice, Lovel hesitates, but Host makes his decision for him and appoints the assignations. Lovel exits with Host's party. Lovel is the appellant in the mock court of love set up at the New Inn. After Lovel and Lady Frampul take their oaths, Lovel embarks upon a Neoplatonic disquisition on love, which he defines as the most noble and pure affection. After receiving his due kiss, Lovel declares himself happy. In the second session of the love court, Lovel is asked to define valor. He says it is the greatest virtue of mankind, springing out of reason and honesty. When Lady Frampul gives him his second kiss, Lovel feels it is half-hearted and exits, declaring he will go to bed and dream away the illusion of love. In the final reunion scene, Lovel enters and finds out that Host is Lord Frampul, who gives his daughter's hand in marriage to Lovel. Lovel thinks he is still dreaming and proposes to sing a song of happiness.


Supporter of Richmond in Shakespeare's Richard III. Herbert predicts that Richard's forces will desert him during the Battle of Bosworth.


Only mentioned in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Hercules is another of the many heroes Merrygreek asserts all women think of when they behold Roister Doister.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Hercules was the strongest and most celebrated hero of classical mythology. The goddess Hera hated him and she caused him to be seized with a frenzy during which he killed his children. To atone, Hecules had to serve his cousin, King Eurystheus, who ordered him to perform the tasks known as the twelve labors of Hercules. The second task was to slay the Hydra, a terrible serpent with nine heads. When Horace wants to disentangle himself from Crispinus's irritating conversation, he invokes Hercules, asking him to come down and perform the thirteenth labor, that of rescuing Horace from Crispinus, who is described as a hydra of discourse. Hercules is also called Alcides. After having completed the twelve tasks, Hercules was now free. The centaur Nessus tried to carry off Hercules's wife, Deianeira, and Hercules shot Nessus with a poisoned arrow. The dying centaur had Deianeira keep some of his blood as a love charm. When Hercules fell in love with another maiden, Deianeira sent him a robe steeped in the blood. Hercules put it on, and the poison spread through his body, tormenting him. Horace compares Crispinus's insistence with poison, saying that the poetaster cleaves to him like Alcides's shirt, tearing at his flesh and sinews. Horace tells Aristius he has been tortured by Crispinus so badly that his torments can be compared to those of Hercules in his poisoned shirt, pleading with Aristius to find some means to take the pest Crispinus off his back.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. When Camillo and Fontinel argue over Violetta's love and are about to start a fight, Hipolito invokes the powerful Hercules to stand between them. The braggart Lazarillo is confused with all the strange sounds coming from the room in Imperia's house and he swears by Hercules that he will fight the evil spirits with his sword.
A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Golden Age. He is mentioned once at the end of the play by Homer, who claims that he has prepared "an ampler field" for such a hero, since time does not permit him to narrate his story at the moment. Hercules' exploits are the subject of Heywood's Brazen Age (1613).
Son of Jupiter and Alcmena in Heywood's The Silver Age, when still an infant he kills the snakes sent by Juno to kill him. He grows to manhood; returning in triumph from the Olympic games, he boasts of his readiness to undertake the series of daunting tasks set for him at Juno's urging by his king, Euristeus. He kills the Nemean lion and the Eremanthian boar, leads the heroes in their victory over the centaurs at the wedding of his friend Perithous, then agrees to attempt to rescue Proserpine from Pluto. He arrives at the gates of Hades too late to prevent Cerberus from killing Perithous and wounding Theseus, but defeats the giant dog and then harrows the underworld. Confronted by Pluto's forces, he defeats them, rescues Prosperpine, and threatens the god himself, but is restrained by the arguments of Rhadamant.
A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Hercules rescued Hesione, the daughter of the Trojan king Laomedon, from Poseidon's sea monster, but when the Trojan monarch refused to give the reward he had promised, Hercules attacked Troy, and aided by his friend Telamon, devastated the city. To recognize Telamon's bravery, Hercules gave him Hesione.
Only mentioned in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. The hero in Greek mythology is mentioned in relation to the fact that he has been finally vanquished by female treachery. Valore attends the scene in which women publicly humiliate Gondarino by sexually arousing him. Duke asks what this fellow would do if he should find himself in bed with a young lady, and Valore responds that, if he could get a knife, sure he would cut her throat. In addition, Valore says he would do as Hercules did by Lycas. Valore wants to say that Gondarino has such hatred of women that, should he be in bed with one, he could swing out her soul, just as Hercules did with Lycas's body.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen. Also referred to as Alcides late in the play, Hercules is called cousin by Theseus and was supposedly a guest at the First Queen's wedding.
In the dumb show to IV of the anonymous Locrine, Omphale, the Daughter of the King of Lydia, has a club in her hand and a lion's skin on her back. Hercules follows her, Omphale turns and strikes Hercules on his head. Like Hercules for Omphale did Locrine fall in love with Estrild, is Ate's commentary.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Asper rails against the follies of the time and threatens to expose vice in his play, Mitis tries to temper him, telling Asper not to be so rough as his name. Asper rages on, promising to expose the crimes of the time with the words of Hercules. The comparison is incompatible, since the legendary Greek hero was not reputed for the strength of his words, but his physical force. Probably Jonson's self-complacent image of himself makes him try to induce the illusion that the power of his words in the play has the same dramatic effect as Hercules' exceptional stamina. Hercules is mentioned when Carlo Buffone realizes that Shift uses two different names, Apple-John and Whiffe. Carlo Buffone calls Shift a Hercules, who has traveled all countries. Indeed, the Greek mythological hero traveled extensively to accomplish his renowned labors.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Mammon expects to discover the Philosopher's Stone by alchemy and to unveil the secret of the elixir of eternal youth and exceptional sexual prowess. Mammon hopes to become as potent as Hercules, the legendary Greek hero, and to encounter fifty at night.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Hercules was the strongest and most celebrated hero of classical mythology. Eurystheus ordered him to perform the tasks known as the twelve labors of Hercules. In the final revelation scene, Justice Overdo reveals himself under the Porter's disguise. He prepares to deliver his exemplary justice to the people at the Fair, and compares his great labors in the field of delivering justice with the labors of Hercules.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. Hercules was the greatest hero in Greek mythology. In trying to incite Mercury's anger and curiosity, in order to win him for his plan, Cupid says ironically that Hercules might challenge both of them, because he can throw the bar farther and lift more joined stools at the arm's end. If Hercules can claim superiority over their powers, Cupid says, then they can rebel and put on a masking suit, enjoying Cynthia's revels. When Anaides splashes abuse at the party of courtiers and nymphs, Hedon wonders rhetorically at the changes that appeared in Anaides's attitude after only half a year of life at court. According to Hedon, Anaides came with a pair of penniless hose to town the other day, and now he is turned Hercules, he wants but a club. The ironic allusion is to Anaides's pugnacious and impertinent attitude, in total contrast with his physical power.
Only mentioned in Fletcher's The Captain; the mythical hero whose mother Zeus would choose Lelia to be if Zeus had to choose a mother for Hercules again, according to Julio.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. Hercules was the strongest and most celebrated hero of classical mythology. When he wants to regain the favors of his discontented mistress, Fulvia, Curius invokes Hercules to his aid. Seeing that Fulvia pretends to be angry with him, Curius tells her she would hate herself, should she look into the mirror and see her own angry face. By invoking Hercules, Curius implies he is a strong lover, like the famous hero.
Only mentioned in Fletcher's The Chances. Don John refers to him as an epitome of sexual endurance.
Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Sometimes spelled Hurcules, Hercules is mentioned by Master Changeable when he is urging Treatwell to speak before his wife, his daughter and Master Slightall, explaining that: "Hercules himselfe with bumbast limbes, / It should have publique audience." Later, he is mentioned by Master Changeable again when he describes Slightall, once he has convinced him to go and sleep in the haunted chamber in order to rid them of the evil she-spirit: "One like enough, were Hurcules [sic] alive/ With him in Thesius [sic] stead to enter Hell." According to Greek mythology, Hercules, famous for his extraordinary qualities–specially his great strength and courage–was the most popular of all Greek heroes.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Praeludium. When the Gentleman complains of the paucity of comedies in London, Histrio laments that actors are poor and hungry due to the closing of the theatres because of the plague. Histrio gives graphic examples of the troupe's hunger saying that the actor who was big enough to play Hercules has grown so thin that all the clothes in the wardrobe cannot stuff him up to his former stature.
A warrior and half-god from Thebes that battles Achelous for Deianeira's hand in marriage at the beginning of Heywood's Brazen Age. Hercules boasts that he will defeat Achelous to demonstrate his love, since he cannot write poetry. Hercules beats Achelous, even though his enemy shape-shifts repeatedly during the battle. After the battle, Hercules releases Achelous without demanding treasure as payment. Al Hercules wants is Deianeira. Although Meleager offers to pay for a lavish wedding in Calidon, Hercules insists that he and Deianeira must return to Thebes on account of the fact that Hercules' stepmother Juno has charged him with a number of further trials. On the way to Thebes, Hercules and his new fiancé meet Nessus, a Centaur that Hercules had defeated in combat before. Hercules believes that Nessus has gotten over his loss and humiliation. Hercules allows Nessus to carry Deianeira on his back across the Euenus flood. After Nessus takes Deianeira across the river and attempts to rape her, Hercules shoots the centaur with a poisonous arrow. Hercules joins Jason and the Argonauts and kills the giant whale Neptune has set against Troy. Hercules turns against Troy after King Laomedon refuses to pay Hercules for saving Heloise. Hercules leaves Troy to help Jason secure the Golden Fleece, but Hercules soon returns to kill Laomedon and destroy Troy. Somehow, Hercules becomes the servant of Omphale, who completely feminizes the hero. Hercules seems to repent his fall and vows to return to his wife, but he is driven insane by Nessus's tainted shirt. He first goes on a bloody rampage and then kills himself, with the assistance of his father. At his death, Hercules is made a star.


Hercules is a captain in Tom Stukley's service in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar.


Duke of Ferrara in Marston's Parasitaster, or The Fawn. Worried about his son Tiberio's avoidance of women (and the fate of the succession), he sends him to woo Dulcimela in his name, and follows him to Gonzago's court disguised as Faunus. Observing his son's faint praise of his advanced years to Dulcimela, he is grateful for the chance to find out what people really think of him. Pretending to be a commoner seeking preferment at court, he quickly gains favor at the court, to the envy of the other courtiers, whom he taunts while appearing to flatter them, revealing his superior wit. He makes certain that Don Zuccone hears the rumor that his wife is pregnant, and pretends to urge him to divorce her. Tiberio, confides in Hercules/Faunus that he is falling in love with Dulcimel, but is distressed at the idea of betraying his father; Hercules/Faunus advises him to be truthful with his father, but Tiberio decides against it, in spite of Hercules/Faunus' sarcasm about Tiberio's selfishness. He becomes intrigued by Dulcimela's companion, Philocalia, who has a reputation for virtue and scholarship. When Tiberio confides his plan to accept Dulcimel's invitation to marry secretly, Hercules ponders how best to "correct and please" all the interested parties. Standing below Dulcimel's window, he blesses the young couple's union. He presents and narrates the Masque of Cupid's Council, acting as the bailiff who calls offenders of love to the bar, and sentences each offender to banishment on the Ship of Fools. When he calls to the bar all who foolishly attempt to seem wise by impeding a daughter's love affair, Gonzago does not recognize himself in the description and becomes embarrassed when Hercules/Faunus reveals all the ways in which Gonzago unwittingly enabled his daughter's secret marriage. He then reveals his true identity to bless the union of Tiberio and Dulcimel.


A "ghost character." Cornish father of the foolish young gentleman, Young Master Solomon Nonsense in Brome's The Northern Lass.


During the magical competition at Oxford in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay, Jaques Vandermast summons the Spirit in the Shape of Hercules to tear the branches from the tree that Friar Bungay had caused to appear. Friar Bacon later orders the Spirit to take Vandermast back to his school at Hapsburg and to remove Bungay's tree entirely.


Wounded by the Nemean Lion in Heywood's The Silver Age, he inspires Hercules to hunt that beast.


An English lord who fights in the battle against the rebel Scots in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot.


Herman is a Flemish courtier in Fletcher's Beggars' Bush. His conversation with the Flemish Merchant in the opening scene provides the complete background for the play, including the details of the war between Flanders and Brabant, Wolfort's usurpation of the Flemish earldom, and the continuing resistance of the city of Bruges.


Messenger of Jupiter in Marlowe's Dido, Queen of Carthage. He bids Neptune calm the seas so that Aeneas might land in Carthage. In V, he is dispatched by Jupiter to chide Aeneas for his dalliance and to urge his immediate resumption of his journey to Italy.
Mercury calls himself "Hermes" in the introduction to Fisher's Fuimus Troes.


One of the disguises of Irus, in it he is a "mad-brain" count in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. In this guise, he woos and wins Elimine, serves as a witness against Antisthenes, attempts to seduce Samathis, and murders Prince Doricles. He then disappears and is later reported dead, swallowed by the Earth, leaving his widow with a child.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. When Face acts as the alchemist's apprentice Lungs before Mammon, he describes the alchemical process. Face says that the retort broke because of too much heat, and what was saved was put into the pelican, the alembic, and signed with Hermes' seal. The reference is to Hermes Trismegistos or Hermes the "thrice greatest." The Greek name refers to the Egyptian god Thoth, reputed author of hermetic books, encyclopedic works on Egyptian religion, art, and science.


Hermia is the daughter of Egeus and childhood friend of Helena in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. Deeply in love with Lysander, she cannot bring herself to wed the man her father has chosen-Demetrius. She flees at night into the woods with her chosen lover, only to be separated from his love when Puck mistakenly applies love-flower essence to Lysander's eyes instead of to those of Demetrius. As the two men both struggle to win Helena, Hermia becomes the victim of everyone's spite: Lysander and Demetruius' because they are both under a spell and love Helena, and Helena's because Helena believes that Hermia is ring leader of a cruel plot to mock and jeer Helena's devotion to Demetrius. Hermia is referred to as a raven, an Ethiope and a Tawny Tartar, indicating that she is dark haired and possibly dark complexioned. She is also called a dwarf and a minimus, a bead and an acorn, and takes exception herself to Helena's "tall personage," by which we learn that she is a shorter woman. By the end of the play, Lysander has returned to Hermia, and the two wed in a triple ceremony with the Duke and Hippolyta, Demetrius and Helena. The wedding party watches the play Pyramus and Thisbe.


Hermia is one of the daughters of Antonio, banished Duke of Mantua, and her brother is the revengeful Aspero in Day's Humour Out of Breath. In exile she and her sister Lucida live as country maids with their father who is now a fisherman. While fishing, Hermia and Lucida encounter Francisco and Hippolito, sons to their father's enemy Duke Octavio, now disguised as shepherds, and the couples flirt extensively, Hermia with Hippolito and Lucida with Francisco. After further wooing the couples decide to wed and they obtain Antonio's blessing; but Octavio who, disguised as a servingman, has been spying on his sons, thinks they are in love with real peasant girls and reveals himself, forbidding the matches and banishing the disguised Antonio and his daughters. In the mean time loyal Mantuan Lords have retaken Mantua in Antonio's name. He and his daughters have re-entered their city when word is brought that Octavio and his army are on the way to attack Mantua. Francisco and Hippolito are in the advance guard but when they scale Mantua's walls they are met by Hermia and Lucida who they recognize as the shepherdesses they had loved. When Octavio arrives with the rest of his army he discovers his sons and daughter paired off with Antonio's daughters and son. Chastened by their loving example, the two Dukes reconcile and weddings are announced as the play ends. In this play Hermia and Lucida are not very well differentiated-in fact they are virtually interchangeable (as are their lovers Hippolito and Francisco]. This is demonstrated by what appears to be a confusion in speech prefixes that is perpetuated even in the heavily edited Mermaid edition. All through the early acts, it is Hermia with Hippolito and Lucida with Francisco, and this is the way they are paired off at the very end. But when the brothers scale Mantua walls (Bullen p.479; Mermaid 5.3) it is Francisco who speaks of a "goddesse in my Hermiae's shape."


Antonio's well-meaning servant in Thomas Middleton's The Witch. He crosses his master's plan to poison Francisca and Aberzanes during their wedding ceremony by not poisoning their chalice.


Menalaus's daughter in Pickering's Horestes. She is married to Horestes at the end of the play to seal the friendship between Horestes and Menalaus. She encourages Horestes to inquire into the opinions of his people.


A gentleman and son unknown of Bomelio in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune who is in love with Fidelia, and in defense of his love he wounds Armenio, and is banished from the land. He appeals to the court parasite, Penulo, to help him secretly meet with Fidelia in a cave in the woods. Upon arriving at their planned rendezvous site, he meets his father and learns of Fidelia's fate. Left behind at his father's cave, he discovers his father's conjuring books and destroys them on the premise that they are not Christian. His father brings Fidelia to him, and they are reunited, but his father, upon discovering that his books have been burned, becomes violently and insanely angry.


Hermione, the Queen of Sicily in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, is Leontes' wife and the mother of Mamillius and Perdita. Leontes wrongly suspects her of adultery with Polixenes, and his accusation leads to the death of Mamillius and the supposed deaths of Hermione and Perdita. At the end of the play, after Perdita has returned to Sicily and been reunited with her now-penitent father, Paulina reveals a statue of Hermione ostensibly crafted by the Italian artist Giulio Romano. The "statue" comes to life, and Hermione is restored to her husband and daughter.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Hermione is the daughter of Menelaus and Helen. During the banquet at which Helen is asked to choose between returning to Greece or remaining in Troy, Menelaus, hoping to influence his wife, reminds Helen of the daughter she has left behind.
Hermione is daughter of Hellena and Menelaus in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age. Her betrothal to Orestes seems to augur a fair ending to the tale so bloodily begun by her mother's infidelity. But when her father offers her to Pyrhus instead, the hope fades. At the nuptial altar, Orestes' attack on Pyrhus initiates a fight in which she loses both lovers and both parents; she is left with Electra to mourn at the end.


Daughter of Pindarus in Berkeley's The Lost Lady. She is in love with Eugenio, who is exiled, but is also suited by Ergasto, whom her father favors, and prince Lysicles, who suits her on behalf of Eugenio. With the help of Acanthe, she devices a plan to trick her father into thinking she loves Ergasto, so as to do away with Lysicles's claim and gain time for Eugenio to return from exile. Once Eugenio succeeds Lysicles's father as governor, Pindarus accepts him as son-in-law and Hermione and Eugenio become engaged.


A "ghost character" in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. One of the ladies involved in the rebellion but who never appears on stage.


John a Kent is disguised as an old Hermit when he comes to Chester court, begging for alms in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. As a Hermit, he pretends to read the young ladies' palms, prophesying a fatal disaster unless they wash their hands at a sacred spring in the woods outside the city. The false Hermit persuades the Countess to accompany Sydanen and Marian to a secret meeting at midnight presumably to lead them to the sacred spring. The Countess, Marian, and Sydanen meet the false Hermit in the woods outside the city. When he secures the young ladies' approval to follow Powesse and Sir Griffin, the Hermit discards his disguise and appears as John a Kent.


One of Mucedorus' disguises in the anonymous Mucedorus. When Amadine fails to meet Mucedorus in the forest, he decides to disguise himself as a hermit and live in the woods. As the hermit, he is captured by Bremo, who has already taken Amadine prisoner, and even though she does not recognize the hermit as her shepherd-lover she persuades Bremo not to kill him.

HERMIT **1594

Hermit is an alternate name given to Phillip in the anonymous Knack To Know An Honest Man, once, in the stage directions.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Trial Of Chivalry. A hermit lives in the woods, who has skill in physic. He effects a miraculous cure of Bellamira's disfigurement. He never appears on stage.


Disguise adopted in The Malcontent by Pietro after Mendoza believes that he has successfully had him murdered. Pietro goes to court in this disguise and reports his own death. Mendoza tries to arrange for the hermit and Malevole to poison each other in the citadel.


A Christian hermit in Persia in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers. He encourages Robert Sherley to build a church in Persia.


Named Anselm, but referred to as 'Hermit' throughout in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father. A Christian divine with heavenly powers, his miraculous apparitions terrify the Saxons. His divine magic defeats the demonic magic of Proximus, and he supports Modesta and Constantia in their bid to defy their father and become nuns.


In banishment, Count Orsinio disguises himself as a hermit in Carlell's The Deserving Favorite. After the disappearance of Lysander and the Duke, he tells the King that he found the Duke's body and tried to revive him, but he died in his arms and that three pirates forced him to carry the body to their ship where they pillaged it and then threw it overboard. In actuality, he has been secretly caring for the Duke. In the forest, he informs the Duke and Clarinda that the King has captured Lysander and offers them a bed for the night. He and the Duke prevent Lysander's execution with the revelation that the Duke is alive. Orsinio then prevents Lysander's marriage to Clarinda by reminding Lysander of a chest left by his father containing a document that he was to read before his marriage. This document proclaims that Lysander and Clarinda are brother and sister. Orsinio then reveals his true identity and explains that Mariana was his child by a first marriage. His second wife proved barren, and Orsinio feared that he would be forced to accept his villainous brother as his heir. His wife faked a pregnancy and bribed a midwife to give her Countess Utrante's child. His wife confessed this on her deathbed, but Orsinio did not reveal the truth so that Lysander would remain his heir.


In Brome's The Queen's Exchange, Alberto lives as a hermit in the woods, praying and caring for the citizens frequently attacked by outlaws. See ALBERTO.


During the act four storm in Killigrew’s The Prisoners, he finds Theagines washed ashore and offers him succor. As everyone gathers about the signal beacon at play’s end and their true identities are revealed, he is last to reveal himself. He is in fact the lost Memnon, chief priest of Sardinia, and after he tends to the wounded Hipparchus and nearly drowned Pausanes, he promises to perform their weddings.


A hermit is listed in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped as accompanying the shepherd who cares for Antonio, but he says and does nothing.


A "ghost character" in Chettle's(?) Looke About You. A holy man, apparently killed by Skinke, whom first Skinke and then Faukenbridge impersonates.


A country squire and one of the two wise men of the anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. Hermito has retired to a hermit's life because of his disgust at the wickedness and foolishness of the world. When he comes to town briefly to renew his oath of fidelity to the king, he is recruited by his longtime friend and neighbor and the second wise man, Securus, to help in the adjudication of the various controversies; his disgust is only deepened by what he observes from his seat at one side of the stage.


One of Timon's false friends in the anonymous Timon of Athens, a fiddler. Laches, Timon's faithful servant, wants to throw him out of Timon's house, but Timon then keeps a firm hold on Laches and has Hermogenes beat him. Hermogenes is nobly entertained and gets gold for new clothes, while Laches has to leave. The faithful Laches disguises himself as a soldier to return incognito to his master. On his way to Timon's house he surprises Hermogenes, hoodwinks and beats him. Hermogenes thinks that Nemesis or his own evil spirit has blinded him, and he is so relieved when Laches removes the hood, that he invites the unknown soldier to Timon's place. He wants to make him his servant and calls him Machaetes. The gold Timon gave him has made him so rich that he thinks it is now below his dignity to play the fiddle and sing at weddings. He has his page sing a song to Hymen at the wedding of Timon and Callimela. When Timon has lost everything and asks him for shelter, he tells him to go and hang himself, but he reappears again with all the other false friends at Timon's banquet in IV.5, begging for more gold.


Hermogenes Tigellinus is a court musician in Rome in Jonson's Poetaster. At Albius's house, Hermogenes enters with the poets and their ladies. When the poets in Ovid's party want to make light and innocuous conversation, they address Hermogenes. Gallus asks him why he is so sad, and Hermogenes responds he is a little melancholy with riding. After being entreated several times, Hermogenes finally accepts to sing for Chloë's guests, only after he has been challenged by Crispinus, who offered to sing instead. Hermogenes sings with accompaniment about a fickle lady who plays with her lover's passion. After light conversation and music, the guests depart for the banquet hall. Hermogenes disguised as Momus enters an apartment in the palace together with the entire party of poets and their ladies, each characteristically dressed as gods and goddesses. All the masks play their assigned roles. During the entertainment presided by Ovid/Jupiter, Hermogenes/Momus enjoys the revelry. Though Hermogenes plays Momus, the god of criticism and reprehension at the Ovidian party, he sings a song with Crispinus/Mercury celebrating the feast of sense and the delight in the beauty of the eye. When Caesar enters and rails at the ribald party, it is understood that Hermogenes disperses.


A parasite in Ferrex's court fans the flames of Ferrex's jealousy in Sackville and Norton's Gorboduc.


A "ghost character" in John Marston's The Insatiate Countess. He is Isabella's deceased husband.

The governor of Cales for King Phillip of Spain in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. He attacks Stukeley's ships, capturing him, and conspires with Lady Curtis to bring him down. He goes too far, however, and loses her support when he seeks to have the captain executed.


Hernando is a Spanish general in the anonymous Weakest Goeth to the Wall. Hernando with Ugo, his lieutenant, invades deep into France after the French king has left for his pilgrimage and Mercury, the Duke of Anjou, has defeated and expelled Lodowick, his co-regent. He is arrogantly amazed that he has met so little French resistance. He is ready to raze the town of Shamount. When the citizens offer him gold if he will spare their town, he kills them, saying that he does not need gold and they, being so weak, have no right to live in a town with the word "mount" in it. When Mercury arrives to fight Hernando, Hernando easily defeats him. Later Mercury, disguised, discloses to Hernando and Ugo his plan to kill the French general, Epernon, by getting close to him while they are all in parley. Hernando, who is not interested in killing just one person because fame rests on killing multitudes, nevertheless agrees with his plan. The aged French general Epernon arrives at the parley carried in a chair. He vehemently rejects Hernando's demand that he hand over the French crown and offers, old as he is, to fight Hernando in single combat. When Mercury is caught, about to assassinate him, Epernon recognizes him. Hernando reacts in horror at Mercury's treachery, announcing that if Mercury is handed back to him he will leave France with his army. Hernando reveals that Mercury had said he had been wronged by Epernon and thought that Mercury was some discontented man. Epernon refuses Hernando's suggestion that Mercury be dealt with immediately because Mercury is a peer of the realm and entitled to trial by his peers. At such a sign of proper action Hernando announces a truce for the day. Hernando is later killed in battle by Lodowick.


Hernando, a captain of the Emperor along with the other captains Medina and Alphonso in Massinger's The Duke of Milan.


Hernando is the revenger's tool in Shirley's The Cardinal . He develops an enmity against Columbo when he is dismissed from battle for cowardice. Because of the shame, he is willing to plot with the Duchess to kill Columbo, which he does in a duel. He is on hand when the Cardinal attempts to rape the Duchess and succeeds in stabbing him. He stabs himself before he can be arrested, but he has time to reveal the Cardinal's licentiousness to the King before he dies.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Chances. A mutual friend of Don John and Petruccio who sends Petruccio a letter of introduction to Don John.

The cardinal is the pope's representative at the court of Don Sebastian, King of Portugal in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. The cardinal is in league with Antonio's duplicitous plan to have himself installed as the Portuguese King. He arrests Stukeley upon his arrival at the papal court, but soon releases him, recognizing his political utility.


Hero is Leonato's only child in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. She becomes engaged to Claudio, who is duped by Don John and Borachio into believing that Hero has been unfaithful to him. Claudio reveals his 'discovery' during the wedding ceremony, and Hero, publicly humiliated and wronged, faints. Hero's supporters spread a rumor that she is dead, and when the truth is finally revealed Claudio agrees to marry Hero's cousin (supposedly Antonio's daughter) as penance. At the altar, the veiled cousin is revealed to be Hero herself, and the couple is finally married.


The first lady accompanying Violetta to the banquet at Camillo's house in the Anonymous Blurt, Master Constable is called Hero. Before the festivity, the ladies listen to Hipolito bragging about his war exploits and the extreme sexually intense pleasures derived from violence and murder. Hipolito says he has seen more human heads kicked like footballs than are maidenheads in Venice, and more legs of men served at dinner than ever he should see legs of capon on a platter. The First Lady ironically observes that maybe he saw capon's legs and mistook them for human limbs. While Virgilio sustains Hipolito's exaggerations, Violetta tends to disbelieve them. At Violetta's suggestion that they should change the conversation topic, the First Lady recommends beauty as a suitable subject for ladies. When Violetta is falling in love with Fontinel at the dance, she stops dancing with Camillo and invites Hero to dance with Fontinel.


Hero and Cleophila are attendants on Hidaspes in Beaumont & Fletcher's Cupid's Revenge. When Hidaspes lies on her deathbed, dying of grief after the execution of Zoylus, Hero attends to her while Cleophila prays frantically to Cupid.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Hero and Leander were two legendary lovers who died tragically. Though Ovid wrote about Hero and Leander in his Metamorphoses, the puppet play is a travesty of Marlowe's poem Hero and Leander and of Richard Edwards' old-fashioned play. Cokes reads the playbill of the puppet play to be performed at the Fair, which says "The ancient modern history of Hero and Leander, otherwise called The Touchstone of True Love, with as true a trial of friendship between Damon and Pythias, two faithful friends o' the Bankside." When he speaks to Cokes about the play, Littlewit, the author of the puppet-play, imagines Hero as a wench of the Bankside. While she is going to Old Fish Street one morning, Leander falls in love with her. In his imaginary game with the silly objects purchased from Leatherhead as a hobbyhorse seller, Cokes assigns the representation of Hero to the fiddle.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Herod was the King of the Jews and responsible for the Slaughter of the Innocents. Cleopatra several times speaks of wanting his allegiance, and Caesar lists him as one of the kings who has joined with Antony, but finally Enobarbas reports that Alexas has turned him towards Caesar.


Only mentioned in [?]Middleton's The Second Maiden's Tragedy. The Tyrant compares himself to the legendary Herod who preserved the body of his suicidal lover in honey.


Herod is King of Judah by pleasure of Emperor Caesar Augustus in Markham's Herod and Antipater. He is easily swayed by thought of danger to himself and his kingdom; he has caused the deaths of his wife Marriam's father and grandfather supposedly in response to political and physical dangers. He forgives the attempted escape of Alexandra and Aristobulus the Elder, but he is convinced through false testimony that his beloved Marriam has been unchaste and orders her executed. More false testimony causes Herod to mandate the strangulation of his own younger sons Aristobulus and Alexander. When his bastard son Antipater's plotting and treachery are finally revealed to him, Herod weakens physically at the thought of his immense loss. He collapses and dies at the execution of Antipater.


Also known as Baldanzozo in Marston's Parasitaster, or The Fawn. Sir Amoroso's younger brother, "a vicious braggart;" he boasts that he sleeps with many women but loves none. "Herod," "frappatore," and "baldanzozo" are names for ranting braggarts in the English and Italian traditions respectively. He gossips coarsely about everyone at court, including his lover, his sister-in-law, Donna Garbetza. He invites Faunus to gain a place at court, and brags about having gotten his sister-in-law with child. Accused of false love during the Masque of Cupid's Council, he openly and cheerfully admits it.


At the beginning of the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick, King Herod of Arden attests to Guy's brave feats. At the conclusion of the play, Herod returns to honor Guy while the knight lays on his deathbed.


Only mentioned in Ruggle’s Club Law. In the epilogue, Cricket alludes to the writer as one who mentioned Club Law with approval.
Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Lingua. Mendacio claims he is three thousand years old and helped many writers and philosophers pen their lies.


A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. He was once one of Fortitude’s captains but has been banished to the Antipodes. King Love would very much like to have him as his general.


A nymph in the anonymous Tamar Cam. She was played by one of the young actors who doubled as one of Tarmia's two sons.

HERON **1632

Heron is one of four servants that represent all that is left of the foolish servant / courtier by Ford's day in Ford's Perkin Warbeck. He offers some slight amusement and an opportunity for other characters to inform the audience, by informing them, what is occurring. He is relegated to an unimportant role and is cheered on by his lord, Warbeck, as he is led to the scaffold at play's end.


Lady-in-waiting to the Queen of Arragon in ?Ford's The Queen. She is clearly a beautiful woman, for the Queen asks, "Am I as fair as Herophil?" when she wants a favourable description of her looks. Generally seen in attendance on the Queen, she is also pursued by Alphonso's amorous but foolish favourite, Bufo. Herophil is angered by Alphonso's mistreatment of her mistress and earns a rebuke from the Queen for caustically remarking that Alphonso must despise his wife for her crime of saving him from the block. Having been spurned by her husband, the Queen asks Herophil to join her in the female rituals of mourning. Herophil obeys, but when her mistress is accused of adultery she joins in the efforts to save the Queen and destroy her slanderers. Forming a plan with Lodovico to punish Alphonso's flattering followers, she deludes Bufo into believing that she will marry him when in fact he is to be married to a disguised Mopas. At the end of the play, Herophil is rewarded by marriage to the once misogynistic, now penitent Lodovico.


Main character, though mute, of one of the five dumb shows Jupiter orders which features those slain by the machinations of Venus and Fortune in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune.


A lord who appears in the English army in one scene of J.W.'s The Valiant Scot; probably an error for 'Hereford.'


Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Hesiod was a ninth-century BC Greek poet. Except for the works of Homer, the epics of Hesiod are the earliest Greek writings to come down to the present. His Theogony relates the myths about the gods, and Works and Days is a book of wisdom literature that traces the decline of humanity from an early golden age. When Ovid praises the immortality of poetry, he says that Hesiod will live forever through his verses, as long as vines bear grapes. At the end of the play, after Virgil has Crispinus take an emetic to throw up his bad words, he then prescribes Crispinus to observe a strict and wholesome diet. Virgil suggests ironically that Crispinus should read, with a tutor, the best Greek authors, among whom Virgil mentions Hesiod.
Only mentioned in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. Miscellanio comments upon Trimalchio's fine speech and compares him favorably to Hesiod, the early Greek author of Theogony and Works and Days.


Hesione is the daughter of Laomedon and sister of Priam in Heywood's Brazen Age. She is offered as a sacrifice to Neptune's giant whale. Hercules rescues Hesione from the beast, but turns against her after Laomedon refuses to pay Hercules for the service. After Hercules kills her father and destroys her home, Hesione is offered to Telamon as a prize. Hesione asks to be killed instead, but Hercules refuses to allow her to die as an escape.
A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Hesione is the daughter of Laomedon, the sister of Priam, and the mother (by Telamon) of the Greek warrior Ajax. She is rescued from sacrifice to a sea monster by Hercules, but when Laomedon refuses to pay the Greek hero what had been offered, Hercules gives Hesione to his companion Telamon, who takes her to Greece. When Hector is about to fire the Greek ships, Ajax begs him to stop for "Hesione's sake," thus reminding the Trojan hero that he and Ajax are cousins.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Before Puntavorlo's castle, the knight recites a game of poetic romance to his lady, while Carlo Buffone, Sogliardo, and Fastidious Brisk are watching. When the three come forward and speak to the master of the house, Puntavorlo welcomes them and invites them into the castle. He uses flourished metaphors, telling them his orchards are like those of the Hesperides, thus stressing his hospitality and magnificence. In Greek mythology, the Hesperides were nymphs who guarded the golden apples of the Tree of Life, wedding gift to his bride, Hera, from Zeus. In another scene, when Fastidious Brisk extols the pleasures of life at court, he compares the place with other mythological sites of pleasure, such as the Garden of the Hesperides, the Insulae Fortunatae, and Adonis' Gardens.


Hesperus is the evening star and announces Cynthia's entrance at the revels in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. When the revels begin, Hesperus sings a hymn in honor of the huntress goddess. The lyrics describe how the sun is laid to sleep and Hesperus, the evening star, accompanies the goddess's brightness, since Diana is often associated with the moon. Hesperus announces Cynthia's ceremonious entrance. It is understood that Hesperus attends Cynthia's revels and exits with her train.


Hester is the virtuous and educated Jewish girl that King Assuerus chooses as his wife in the anonymous Godly Queen Hester. Having heard of Aman's plan to eliminate the Jews and take their riches Queen Hester exposes his treachery to the king, who immediately puts Aman to death.


Only mentioned in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. While Gawin Goodluck visits Tristram Trusty to seek assurance that Dame Christian Custance has indeed been faithful in his absence, the widow prays to heaven for the kind of support God showed to the biblical women Susanna and Hester (Esther).


Phantastes’ nimble-spirited page in Tomkis’ Lingua. He wears the newest fashion and a garland of bays. Heuresis wishes Phantastes to help him devise a new ruff and tire for Mistress Superbia. She has a bad face and wants suitors and therefore needs fantastical apparel. Heuresis and Anamnestes get into a biting-scratching fight because a quick invention and a good memory can never agree.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. According to Greek mythology, he was a beautiful youth loved dearly by Apollo. The boy was killed accidentally by a discus thrown by the god. Hiacinth is mentioned by Apollo when he is explaining the reason for his gloom to the Charities.


Hialas is a Spanish ambassador in Ford's Perkin Warbeck. He acts as mediator between England and Scotland. He arranges the marriage between Henry VII's son, Arthur, and the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon and thus creates a strong alliance between England and Spain. It is Hialas who patches up the difficulties by carrying the news to James IV that Henry VII will give him his daughter, Margaret. The alliance is made and Warbeck is sent out of Scotland.


He is played by Soto in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy. Hialdo is Lorenzo's "man" in the prodigal son play staged by the gypsies.

HIANTHE **1635

The other princess, the former king’s daughter, held by the usurper as his own in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. She is a virtual prisoner in her rooms and may not even walk in the garden. While she and her ladies read over the poet’s play, Clearchus happens upon their company by mistake. His appearance affects her, and she accepts his wooing when he returns. She joins in the conspiracy against the usurper. Timeus comes to release her from her confinement, and she is standing by when Timeus and the king learn of the growing treason in the country. The war won, the young king, Cleander, is reunited with his sister, Hianthe, and promises her in marriage to Clearchus but only after she has been allowed to sit as queen of her homeland awhile. When Pallantus and Hianthe beg Cleander for mercy in helping Eudora’s misery, the young king allows Aratus to offer clemency to Timeus if he be found worthy of mercy.


A follower of Rebus, suitor to Eudora in Chapman's The Widow's Tears.

HIARCHA **1615

Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Albumazar’s magical cant includes this allusion.


A ship's master in the anonymous Hick Scorner. When asked what country he has returned from, he lists thirty-three places including "three miles out of hell" and "the land of women." He proceeds next to name thirteen ships he has seen sink and drown all the holy persons in the Irish Sea, which has pleased him. He has arrived home with a shipload of sinners. His ship, The Envy, is out of London, and he keeps it as a floating brothel. He encourages Imagination to bear false witness against Pity and then helps to fetter and bind Pity. He then leads Imagination and Free Will to Shooter's Hill to engage in highway robbery. He disappears from the play after that.


Hidaspes is the daughter of duke Leontius, the sister of Leucippus and the cousin of Ismenus in Beaumont & Fletcher's Cupid's Revenge. As a gift for her twentieth birthday, he agrees to grant Hidaspes anything she might request. From the gossip of the lords Agenor, Dorialus and Nisus we learn that she has already turned down a number of proposals of marriage from "great Princes." With the support of Leucippus, Hidaspes asks that Leontius suppress the cult of the god Cupid in Licia. Leontius is nervous, fearing that if Cupid is a god he will take revenge, but agrees to carry out her demand. He then offers to grant Hidaspes any other request she might have, and when she declines to make any, tells her to come to him again in six days' time, when he will deny her nothing. Cupid decides to take revenge, and makes Hidaspes fall in love with Zoylus , her brother's court dwarf. She begs her father to be allowed to marry him; when he refuses and orders Zoylus' execution, Hidaspes is confined to her chamber and dies of grief.


Master Hide is a shoemaker in James Shirley's The Wedding. He is late in delivering shoes for Gratiana on her wedding day.


A lady at court in Chapman's Monsieur D'Olive. At various times supposed to be the mistress of St. Anne and in love with D'Olive.


See also JERONIMO, IERONIMO and related spellings.


Fifty years old, Horatio's father in the anonymous First Part of Jeronimo. The King makes him Marshall of Spain in the first stage direction. Ieronimo and Horatio overhear Lorenzo's and Lazorotto's plans to kill Andrea. Ieronimo then dictates to Horatio a letter that they want to send to Andrea, warning him of Lorenzo's plans. Lorenzo and Isabella interrupt their loud re-reading of the letter, and they are not sure, whether Lorenzo has heard a part of it, but Isabella saves the situation by her belief that it was a love letter to some Spanish lady. Horatio and Ieronimo arrive after Lazarotto has murdered Alcario (mistaking him for Andrea), and, as everybody else does, they believe that Andrea has been killed. Horatio wants to commit suicide because his best friend is dead, but the real Andrea stops him. Their letter has not reached him, but he has now been warned anyway. Before it comes to the battle, the two parties attack each other verbally. Ieronimo, who is much shorter and older, is as loud and aggressive as Balthazar is. Before they start, they agree who is going to fight whom. Ieronimo has no direct enemy and is left to watch his son perform.
Marshal of Spain, Horatio's father in Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. Discovering his son, Horatio, murdered in his arbor, he vows revenge. His wife, Isabella, runs mad, which also spurs him to act. Lorenzo and Balthazar block his way to the King, and he finds he must take matters into his own hands. Ultimately he becomes the hero-revenger of the play. He conspires with Bel-imperia to murder Lorenzo and Balthazar and thus avenge the murders of Don Andrea and Horatio. Devising a play, he casts Balthazar and Lorenzo. In the action of the play, his enemies are killed indeed and Bel-Imperia commits suicide in earnest. When the King demands to know why this was done, Hieronimo bites out his own tongue to prevent being made to confess. He is forced to write out his answer, but he motions for a penknife with which to mend his quill and uses it to kill both Castillo and himself.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man in His Humour. Hieronymo is a character in Kyd's Spanish Tragedy. Mathew visits Bobadill at his lodgings and Mathew reads from Kyd's Spanish Tragedy, while Captain Bobadill is getting dressed. Seeing Mathew with a book in his hand, Bobadill wants to know what it is and he observes that it is The Spanish Tragedy, which he calls Hieronymo. The two admire the play's exquisite structure and poetry. Having two ridiculous characters evaluate the play, this tragedy's merit is ironically diminished by association with the foolish braggart and the gullible gallant.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Hieronimo is a character in Kyd's Spanish Tragedy. Face tells Drugger that he is supposed to marry Dame Pliant disguised as a Spaniard, and therefore he must get hold of a Spanish suit. Face asks Drugger is he has some relations among the actors, and Drugger says he has played the Fool many times. Face indicates that Hieronimo's old cloak, ruff, and hat should do the trick. When Drugger appears with the costume, Subtle takes it from him, giving it to Face. In his turn, Face gives it to Lovewit, who is married to Dame Pliant in it.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, where it is spelled Jeronimo. Hieronimo is a character in Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. When Scrivener in the Induction reads the articles of the contract between the Author of Bartholomew Fair and the spectators, he says that members of the audience are entitled to their own opinions of the play, which must be consistent and objective. The contract includes the examples of the plays featuring Jeronimo and Andronicus as models for the audience's constancy in criticism. The member of the audience who would have sworn that Jeronimo (The Spanish Tragedy) is the best play ever written, should have kept the same opinion for the past twenty-five or thirty years. The article in the contract is ironic, since by 1614 both The Spanish Tragedy and Titus Andronicus were old-fashioned, heavily rhetorical, and over-bloody Elizabethan revenge plays. However, Jonson's "twenty-five of thirty years" deliberately exaggerates the time in which these plays have been
Spelled Jeronimo and only mentioned in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. Jeronimo is a character in Kyd's Spanish Tragedy. When Simperina enjoys her trick of having drenched Curvetto with foul water, she calls the old courtier "Old Jeronimo." By telling Curvetto that he shrinks in the wetting, Simperina probably alludes to the fact that Curvetto looks like a small and wrinkled old man.
Only mentioned in May's The Heir. Roscio invokes the name of the famous tragic hero of The Spanish Tragedy to motivate his master Polymetes's feigned grief for the supposed death of his son Eugenio.


Hieronimo, one of the counselors to the Duke along with Hippolitto and Alphonso in Massinger's The Great Duke of Florence.


Higgen is a member of the beggars' band led by Clause (Gerrard in disguise) in Fletcher's Beggars' Bush. He is the orator of the group and delivers the official welcome address when Clause is selected to serve as their ruler. During the action in the tavern outside Bruges, Higgen pretends to be a sow-gelder and amuses the Boors with his songs.

HIGGEN **1627

An English soldier who follows Penia-Penniless in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. He is an orator of Beggar's Bush. He speaks the cant language of the seventeenth-century London street, using slang such as "there's not a quire cove nobler than I" in his cockney oratory. Though the other soldiers argue over who should lead Penia's "tattered fleece" army, he holds firm, denying even Penia herself (refusing to follow a smock), and is made captain. Nothing is seen of him after this in the play.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Higgenbotham is mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he is telling Damme de Bois that he looks like "a hedge thief or gipsy. Son and heir to Higgenbotham." It seems that the Higgenbotham family went from Germany to England, and there they settled in the English Counties of Chester, Derby, Lancaster, and York. Most of those families were of the landed gentry. Early records of the family in England include those of a Nicholas Higgenbotham (c. 1534- ??) and his sons Anthony (c. 1569-??) and William, but no references to their occupations remain. However, in the early 17th century, the cousins Otwell and Captain John Higgenbotham settled in Barbados, in the West Indies. There are some legends concerning some Higgenbotham being a pirate for the English crown–Doctor Clyster's expression probably derives from that belief.


Daughter of Rufaldo in Shirley's The School of Compliment, Hilaria loves Antonio but is relentlessly pursued by the wealthy Bubulcus. She is privy to the disguises affected by both Antonio and her sister Selina and thereby is fully aware that Bubulcus is lying when he claims to have slain Antonio. By the play's end she is engaged to wed Antonio.


Hilario, a foolish servant of Sophia's in Massinger's The Picture, he is at one point dismissed for making fun of Sophia's concern for the absent Mathias.


Hilario is the son of Amorous in Strode's The Floating Island and the only Passion that seems unaffected by Prudentius' rule. He is perfectly happy, however, to serve Fancie, resisting only her suggestion that he marry Concupiscence. He resists not because she is his sister, but because he wants absolutely no limits on his freedom. He serves mainly as a messenger, taking no part in any of the plots, except that he helps Concupiscence marry Melancholio. When everyone else agrees to kill themselves at Desperato's urging, Hilario declares he will sleep instead.


A lawyer in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. For him, every term is "Hillarie's term." He is overworked and requires more help than his clerk Bond can provide. He hopes the scholar Musophilus can learn the false Latin of Westminster because one word of true Latin can overturn a cause. He hires Musophilus, but when the scholar can neither bridle his horse nor mend a "sursingle" (surcingle), the lawyer dismisses him from service.


An allegorical personage for the winter term at the Inns of Court in Middleton's Michaelmas Term; he pays homage to Michaelmas Term in the play's induction.


The real Hildersome is a Benedictine friar, the nun's confessor at the nunnery in Chester in the anonymous The Merry Devil of Edmonton. We are told that Peter Fabell has disguised himself as Father Hildersome to deceive Sir Arthur Clare, who comes to look for a confessor for his daughter Milliscent, a scene that is not dramatized. Sir Arthur then accompanies Raymond Mounchensey, whom he believes to be Father Hildersome's novice Benedic, to Milliscent in the nunnery. The real Hildersome and his real novice Benedic appear only in the last act. Their appearance heightens the comic confusion and leads to the happy ending.


Hiletus is a lord who chooses to pursue the art of Rhetoric in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.


An English gentleman, member of the raiding party in the anonymous Dick of Devonshire. In discussing Pike's ransom with some Spaniards he observes that the Cornishman has more valor than policy.


A friar in Dekker's If It Be Not Good.


Hilliard is a young gentleman and a childhood sweetheart to one of Oldrents' daughters, Meriel and Rachel in Brome's A Jovial Crew. Along with Vincent, he agrees to accompany Meriel and Rachel in their adventure as beggars. He and Vincent try to conceal their misery during this adventure from Meriel and Rachel, who conceal theirs in turn. In the course of his begging, Hilliard is insulted by Oliver and challenges him via Vincent, to a duel, which goes unfought. When Sentwell arrives and breaks up the festivities of the beggar wedding, Hilliard, along with Vincent, Meriel, and Rachel, gives himself up and reveals his identity. Brought by Sentwell to Clack's house, he plays himself in the inset play before Oldrents.


Hillus is a centurion in service to King Herod in Markham's Herod and Antipater. He brings to court news that Augustus has conquered Egypt and that Antony is dead. Hillus works closely with the traitor Antipater, bastard son of Herod.


Hilts is a blunt fellow in Chamberlain's Swaggering Damsel. He is servant to Sir Timothy, who pays him three pounds and a trencher-cloak a year for his services. In Act One, he is invited by Sir Plenteous´s servants to a drink but he rejects the invitation as he is waiting for his master. Hilts is pretty proud of his work as, in his opinion, his master's property is in a better condition than in his ancestor's time. However, later in Act Three, he is the scorn of his master when he finds out that Valentine has spent the night at his house with his daughter. He is asked to seek for Muchcraft. And, on his way, he attacks Sir Plenteous to take revenge for his son's offence.


Squire Tripoly Tub's valet, an irreverent clown in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub. He poses as the servant of the pseudonymous "Captain Thumb" and delays the wedding of Audrey and John Clay by identifying Clay as the leader of a band of thieves roaming the woods outside Totten. He delivers Audrey to Squire Tub and, when Tub is "arrested" by Miles Metaphor disguised as a Pursuivant, threatens Metaphor into revealing Justice Preamble's plot. He does the same later when he and Squire Tub catch Metaphor on his way to pick up the restitution money and Audrey from the Turfe residence.


A Carthaginian captain under Hannibal in Nabbes' Hannibal and Scipio. At the play's outset, he and Maharball are praising the hedonistic pleasures of Capua, which Hannibal's army has just conquered, but then Hannibal comes in and rebukes them for being soft. Later, in act four, Himulco rushes in while Hannibal is arguing with the senate to tell them that Scipio is entering the gates of Carthage, whereupon he flees with Hannibal to Bythinia. There, in the court of Prusias, he investigates and reports back to Hannibal that armed soldiers have surrounded the court, whereupon Hannibal takes poison because he is convinced that Prusius has betrayed him. Played by John Sumner in the original production.


Hind is Sordido's servant in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. While Sordido is consulting his almanac, Hind enters and gives him a letter. When Sordido asks him who brought the paper, Hind explains it is from the justice's men. After reading the letter, Sordido sends Hind home to tell his fellow farm-workers to get ready to thrash the corn and put it away.


See also HIPPOLITA, HIPPOLYTA, and related spellings.


Hipolita has unknowingly won Mattemores's love against his will in Cokain's Trappolin. He is disgusted with his weakness, but when he overhears her claiming to favor liberty over love, and expressing her hope that she will not be wooed, he suddenly sees winning her love as a worthy challenge, and vows to devote himself to the difficult endeavor. Her rejection of his suit only enflames his desire, and his pursuit in the face of this refusal seems to hold all the dangers of the greatest martial challenge. Her harsh rejections drive him to beg Cupid to drive her mad with love of a bestial man who doesn't appreciate or acknowledge her, and transformed by his passion, she admits to having been conquered by him. He pledges his love for her in return.


A freedman in May's Cleopatra. He brings Antonius letters from Rome in I ii.


A centaur in Heywood's The Silver Age, invited to the wedding of Perithous and Hypodamia, killed in the battle.


An Ephesian in disguise in Cartwright's The Royal Slave; he tries to persuade Cratander to take advantage of his temporary royal status for the good of their native city.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. Demetrius, disguised as an astrologer, rattles off a list of "the learned Cabalists and all the Chaldees." The list includes Asla, Baruch, Abohali, Caucaph, Toz, Arcaphan, Albuas, Gasar, Hali, Hippocras, Lencuo, Ben, Benesaphan, and Albubetes.


An apothecary of London in Middleton and Dekker's Moll Cutpurse, The Roaring Girl. Hippocrates is a reference to the Greek physician, and a gallipot was a glazed earthenware jar or pot used by apothecaries for storing medicines. Gallipot's wife, Mistress Gallipot, is enamored of Laxton, who strings her along because she steals money from her husband to give to him. When he demands more money than she can give him without making Gallipot suspicious, she devises a scheme. She claims to her husband that she had been betrothed to Laxton but married Gallipot because she thought Laxton had drowned at sea; now, she claims, Laxton has returned to marry her and must be bought off. Gallipot agrees, but later Laxton returns to extort more money from him, and Mistress Gallipot reveals the truth. Gallipot's money is returned to him and all is forgiven.


See also HIPOLITA, HIPPOLYTA, and related spellings.


Hippolita is the daughter of Basilius and Gynetia and the sister of Violetta in Day's Isle of Gulls. Basilius has become tired with the disruption caused by suitors to Hippolita and Violetta, and has retreated to a fortified desert island. He issues a challenge that any princes who can steal the princesses away will inherit his lands. Basilius keeps Violetta close by him, and puts Hippolita under the charge of Dametas, Miso, and Mopsa. While they are hunting, Hippolita and Violetta are abducted by Julio and Aminter, but they are rescued by Lisander (disguised as an Amazon, Zelmane) and Demetrius (disguised as a woodsman, Dorus). Demetrius woos Hippolita under the cover of wooing Mopsa, and Hippolita agrees to elope with him. However, Demetrius and Lisander make the mistake of trusting the princesses to Julio and Aminter, who are disguised as Lacedemonian intelligencers. Julio and Aminter steal the princesses from Demetrius and Lisander, and Basilius agrees that they have won the challenge.


The wife of Cleanthes in Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law. Hippolita assists her husband in persuading her father-in-law Leonides to avoid execution under the Old Law by hiding in his forest lodge. She and Cleanthes pretend that Leonides has died of natural causes, and fake his funeral. But when Hippolita's cousin Eugenia affects sadness at the ensuing demise of her elderly husband, Hippolita is consumed with pity and reveals that Leonides has been saved. Eugenia tells Duke Evander who orders Leonides' execution. Hippolita feels guilty for bringing about the discovery. In the trial scene she begs for mercy for Cleanthes and Leonides, but her suit is refused. When Evander reveals at the end of the play that the Old Law was a fiction, he makes Hippolita a judge, with the job of ensuring that wives like Eugenia who plot their husbands' death do not immediately remarry.


Hippolita is one of the Portuguese women who were shipwrecked on the island and have set up their own Amazonian society in Fletcher and Massinger's The Sea Voyage. She is first seen on a hunting expedition with Crocale and Juletta; they have been separated from Clarinda. They encounter Albert and, supported by Clarinda, demand that Rosellia let them make contact with the French party. Crocale, Hippolita and Juletta recognize their own jewels in the treasure offered to them by the men, and obey Rosellia's order to draw their weapons on them. Hippolita is given charge of the sailors, who 'sleep soundly and seldom trouble are.' Hippolita and Juletta help Crocale to set up the banquet for the men, and attend Rosellia's sacrificial ceremony.


Hippolita is a wicked, wronged woman in Ford's 'Tis Pity She's a Whore. She is first seen hurling invective at the man with whom she has been cuckolding her husband, Richardetto. Her vitriol against Soranzo revolves around his promise to marry her if her husband should die. When he reneges, she plots with Vasques, her lover's servant, to kill Soranzo. Only Vasques' loyalty to his master, and his subsequent assassination of Hippolita, stops her becoming a blood revenger in this play.


A "ghost character" in Whetstone's 1 Promos and Cassandra. One of Lamia's clients.


Hipolito is a Venetian gentleman and Violetta's brother in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. At a banquet in Camillo's house in honor of the war heroes, Hipolito extols the pride of being a soldier, extracting violent and often sexual pleasure from the furious action of the battlefield. Outside the tennis court, Camillo and Hipolito see Fontinel wear Violetta's colors. When Camillo becomes furious, Hipolito takes his friend's part. Trying to play a trick on Fontinel and his sister, Hipolito sends Doyt to take Fontinel's portrait to Imperia's establishment. Being well acquainted with Imperia's habits, Hipolito knows that she will hang it beside her bed, together with the pictures of other customers. Hipolito comes with a party of gallants to attend a banquet at Imperia's house. After inviting Curvetto to a game of dice, Hipolito sings a bawdy love song. In a street before Hipolito's house, Frisco reports to Hipolito that Imperia has fallen in love with Fontinel's picture. In his usual bellicose terms, Hipolito invites Camillo to renew his assault for Violetta's heart, being sure his sister will surrender to Camillo like a besieged city to its conqueror. At Camillo's house, Camillo incites the Venetian gentlemen Hipolito, Virgilio, Asorino, Baptista, and Bentivolio to take revenge against Fontinel. Claiming that the Frenchman has dishonored Violetta by doting on a courtesan, Camillo sends them to Imperia's house to kill Fontinel. Hipolito declares he will repudiate his sister. In the street before Imperia's house, Hipolito and the other Venetian gentlemen want to kill Fontinel. Camillo speaks to the Duke in their name. Hearing that Imperia's pretended love for Fontinel had been part of Violetta's plot to save the Frenchman from Camillo's jealousy, Hipolito tells Imperia he will stop her mouth with a kiss. After the final reconciliation, it is understood that Hipolito will resume his relationship with Imperia.


Hippolyto is the beloved of Infelice in Dekker and Middleton's 1 Honest Whore, but, because his family is in a feud with the Duke's family, the Duke refuses to allow them to be married and instead stages Infelice's apparent death. Hippolyto enters during the fake funeral procession and accuses the Duke of murder; Matheo must hold him back from attacking the Duke. When he is convinced that Infelice is dead, he swears to hold Monday (the day she supposedly died) sacred and not look at another woman that day. Matheo brings him, still grieving, to Bellafront's house, but he leaves as soon as he realizes that Bellafront is a prostitute. He returns looking for Matheo, and when Bellafront confesses that she has fallen in love with him and will be faithful to him if he will support her, Hippolyto bursts into an impassioned and lengthy attack on prostitution and prostitutes. So fiery and convincing is his tirade that he instantly converts Bellafront to an honest way of life. The next Monday, he is in his study with a skull and a portrait of Infelice, contemplating both and thinking about the nature of death. Bellafront interrupts him, but he does not recognize her because she is disguised as Matheo's page. When it is revealed that she is a woman, Hippolyto is again appalled and again denounces her. He later discovers from the Doctor that not only is Infelice alive but that the Duke has made her believe that Hippolyto is dead, and, further, that the Duke has attempted to persuade the Doctor to poison Hippolyto. The Doctor arranges for Hippolyto to meet Infelice at Bethlem Monastery, which he does. They are secretly married by Anselmo, who attempts to sneak them out of the monastery dressed as friars. Their plan fails when they are discovered by Bellafront. When the Duke draws his weapon, Hippolyto points out that he is now the Duke's son and that Infelice is his by marriage, persuading the Duke (with help from the others) to end the feud.
Hippolito is a count married to Infelice, the daughter of Gasparo Trebazzi, the Duke of Milan in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore. Meeting Bellafront, the former courtesan he had convinced to give up her career, he is overcome with a passion for her and determines to seduce her. When she rejects his gifts, Pacheco (Orlando in disguise) takes them to Infelice and reveals Hippolito's pursuit of Bellafront. When Infelice pretends that she has been unfaithful to him, Hippolito explodes in self-righteous and hypocritical rage, only to be confronted by Infelice with the evidence of his intended infidelity. Nevertheless, Hippolito's passion for Bellafront is unabated, and he pursues her still. When she agrees to an affair, provided he can argue more successfully for infidelity than she can against it, Hippolito uses the same verbal skill in advancing his case to corrupt Bellafront that he had earlier employed (in Part One) to work her reformation. Bellafront counters every point Hippolito advances and then leaves him suddenly. Later, when Lodovico informs him that Bellafront has been arrested for prostitution, Hippolito goes to the prison to defend her from the charge. There, he admits that he has tried to seduce her without any success, and this admission helps both to confirm Bellafront's good character and to open the way for Hippolito's reconciliation with Infelice.


Sometimes referred to as Carlo in [?]Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy. The brother of Vindice and Castiza, son of Gratiana. Lussurioso asks him to hire a pimp to act as go-between for him and a young country virgin who has taken his fancy. Hippolito uses the opportunity to introduce Vindice to court. He assists his brother in his revenge by helping him to lure the Duke to his death. He also takes part in the masque of revengers that succeeds in murdering Lussurioso. In the end, when Vindice crows that they are responsible for ridding the world of the corrupt ducal family, both Vindice and Hippolito are sentenced to death.


Hippolito is one of the sons of Octavio, Duke of Venice and brother to Francisco and Florimel in Day's Humour Out of Breath. Octavio, having just conquered Mantua and exiled his enemy Duke Antonio, invites his children to celebrate and asks them what they would like to do next. Hippolito is in favor of having a tournament and challenging all comers, but his sister and father convince the brothers to set out in search of love and beauty. Francisco and Hippolito disguise themselves as shepherds for this purpose, but unbeknownst to them their father also dons a disguise in order to spy on their wooing efforts. Francisco and Hippolito encounter two beautiful country maids, who are really Hermia and Lucida, the disguised daughters of the exiled Duke, and the couples flirt extensively, Hermia with Hippolito and Lucida with Francisco. After further wooing the couples decide to wed and they obtain Antonio's blessing; but Octavio who has been disguised as a servingman, thinks they are in love with real peasant girls and reveals himself, forbidding the matches, banishing the disguised Antonio and his daughters, and taking Francisco and Hippolito away. In the mean time loyal Mantuan Lords have retaken Mantua in Antonio's name. He and his daughters have re-entered their city when word is brought that Octavio and his army are on the way to attack Mantua. Francisco and Hippolito are in the advance guard but when they scale Mantua's walls they are met by Hermia and Lucida who they recognize as the shepherdesses they had loved. When Octavio arrives with the rest of his army he discovers his sons and daughter paired off with Antonio's daughters and son. Chastened by their loving example, the two Dukes reconcile and weddings are announced as the play ends. In this play Francisco and Hippolito are not very well differentiated-in fact they are virtually interchangeable (as are their lovers Hermia and Lucida]. This is demonstrated by what appears to be a confusion in speech prefixes that is perpetuated even in the heavily edited Mermaid edition. All through the early acts, it is Hermia with Hippolito and Lucida with Francisco, and this is the way they are paired off at the very end. But when the brothers scale Mantua walls (Bullen p.479; Mermaid 5.3) it is Francisco who speaks of a "goddesse in my Hermiae's shape."


Hippolito knows he is committing incest with his niece in Middleton's Women Beware Women. He seems to find nothing wrong in the arrangement even when he combines adultery with incest by sleeping with Isabella after she is married. He gets a child by her. Yet his moral code will not tolerate his sister Livia having a lover. Her lover, Leantio, is not repugnant to Hippolito because of his relationship with Livia but rather because he is indiscreet about it. Hippolito does not blanch at killing Leantio. He feels no remorse in the act. He does say in V.ii.147-48 that all the tragedy springs from Leantio's death, but that is a realization, not remorse. He is murdered by poisonous arrows shot by cupids in a masque. The torture of the poison drives him to throw himself upon a sword


Hippolito, one of the counselors to the Duke along with Alphonso and Hieronimo in Massinger's The Great Duke of Florence.


Hippolito is the son of Bovaldo who attends the duke and who prizes friendship with Bellamente in Shirley's Love's Cruelty. He is tricked by Bellamente's mistress Clariana, who inveigles herself into his affections before announcing her relationship with Bellamente. Commissioned by the duke to court Eubella in the duke's name, Hippolito finds himself in love with Clariana and is caught in her chamber by her now-husband Bellamente. Forbidden Bellamente's house, Hippolito wins the love of Eubella and plans to wed her. Called to Bellamente's house, Hippolito finds Clariana urging him to abandon Eubella. Clariana stabs Hippolito, and Hippolito inflicts a mortal sword wound upon Clariana. Hippolito expires claiming his constant love for Eubella, wishing her by his side at his death.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Silver Age, a beautiful youth, to whom Juno likens Jupiter disguised for his seduction of Semele.


See also HIPOLITA, HIPPOLITA, and related spellings.


Hippolyta is the conquered Amazon queen whose nuptials with conqueror Theseus close Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. In her first scene she is obviously uncomfortable with the wedding preparations and apparently hostile toward Theseus' advances. However, by IV she shows herself remarkably pleasant and amorous toward Theseus despite his position as conqueror. She marries him in the triple ceremony that also includes Hermia and Lysander as well as Helena and Demetrius. The wedding party watches the foolish performance of Pyramus and Thisbe, and Hippolyta despite herself feels sympathy for the bereft lovers of the play.
Hippolyta is the Amazonian bride of Theseus, Duke of Athens in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen. The Second Queen particularly petitions her for Theseus' help in recovering the dead bodies of all three Queens' husbands. She is more than willing to postpone her nuptial solemnities until Theseus has been able to address the pleas of the widowed ladies; with her sister Emilia and with Pirithious, Hippolyta begs Theseus' mercy upon Palamon and Arcite.


A rich and beautiful lady, sister to the Duke of Ferrara (by inference, therefore, of the powerful D'Este dynasty) in Fletcher and Massinger's Custom of the Country. Her residence in Lisbon is not explained further: it seems most likely that she is an independent heiress (if a typical lecherous widow, this is not made clear) now living abroad and indulging her libido freely, as her attempted seduction of Arnoldo suggests. She is loved by the sea captain, Leopold, who sends the captive Zenocia to be her slave and plead for his unrequited cause. She employs the Jew, Zabulon, as her procurer, inviting the destitute but highly attractive Italian refugee to her home. She has huge wealth and greatly sensual décor with which to augment her persistent allure: all her temptations fail to work beyond the point of kissing, and in her anger she attempts to take Arnoldo by force. He escapes and she takes revenge by having him condemned to death as a thief of the rich jewels she actually gave him. Frantic at this hasty decision, she rushes to prevent the execution and confesses. As she is held in great esteem in the city, a munificent benefactress of public works, her sterling civic record allows her to escape without punishment. Arnoldo has seen his bride in her train, and she is fooled into believing his offered attentions. Spying on his reunion with Zenocia, she arranges to have her rival strangled: Zabulon provides the assassins, who are forestalled by the timely arrival of a rescue. She then plots again to murder Zenocia, using Sulpitia, the male-brothel keeper, to perform a murderous magical spell, which will remove Arnoldo's prior love and allow her a second chance to seduce and marry him. When Arnoldo sickens to death in sympathy with his bride, showing his utter devotion to his dying wife, Hippolyta recants her intention, causes the spell to be broken and again escapes the consequences of her crime with impunity, passing as the couple's genuine saviour. The huge sum of money she had lent the city she now gives to Zenocia as a dowry, and the newly-chastened and chaste Hippolyta finally takes the hand of the still-willing Leopold.




Only mentioned in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. Mythological character to whom Hyppolita is compared in relation to her purity. Hippolytus was the son of Theseus and Antiope, queen of the Amazons. He was falsely accused of sexual assault by his stepmother Phaedra and, when his deceived father cursed him, he was killed by a monster from the sea.


One of Antiochus' generals in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus, Hircanus is present for Ctesiphon's embassy, and reads out the letter in which Cyrus reveals Ctesiphon's treachery.


A "ghost character" in Markham's Herod and Antipater. Hircanus is the deceased father of Alexandra. He was both king and High Priest in Judah before King Herod assumed the throne.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a virtuous man.


Hircius, a whoremaster and drunkard in Massinger and Dekker's The Virgin Martyr, serves Dorothea but is not a Christian. He abandons her after he has his fill of her provisions. Theophilus orders that he torture Dorothea, but after his failure to inflict any pain, Theophilus orders that he be executed.


A young soldier, friend of Rampino in Davenant's The Unfortunate Lovers; he is also loyal to the Prince as long as possible and assists Rampino in getting the better of his creditors.


A courtier, kinsman ("nephew") of Cassibelane in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. Lady Landora is in love with him, but he does not care for her because he is in love with another lady, Cordella. When he hears that his best friend Eulinius is deeply in love with Landora, he forces Rollano, her servant, to let Eulinus as "Hirildas" into her room at night. Eulinus then spends the night with her. During the celebration of their victory against the Romans, Androgeus and Themantius start a fencing match. Hirildas and Eulinus fight as well, and Hirildas gets accidentally killed before the eyes of his uncle, Cassibelane. Alternately spelled Hireglas.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. A consul who fought against Antony. Caesar reminisces about Antony's fortitude during the battle.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned by Seneca as having approved of Caesar's Commentaries.


A "ghost character" in Chapman's The Widow's Tears. A person of exalted rank, called a Viceroy. Through letters he is the sponsor of Rebus in his suit to Eudora. Characters comment that his backing seems to constitute the entirety of Rebus's wooing.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. The Duke asks Foreste if letters have been sent to His Holiness (probably the Pope).


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. The Second Hostess tells the Wench to invite Druce (whom she probably also means when referring to his worship), as well as his worship's wife, to dinner the next day.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. The Second Hostess tells the Wench to invite Druce, as well as his worship and his worship's wife, to dinner the next day.


A "ghost character," described as "the princess' gentlewoman" in Shakespeare's As You Like It. According to the two lords who tell Duke Frederick that Celia is missing, Celia's attendant Hisperia overheard her mistress and Rosalind praising Orlando and that she believes they are with him.


One of Cyrus's captains in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus, he enjoys a share of the Assyrian spoils. When Araspus' unwelcome love for Panthea is revealed to Cyrus, Histaspis is made her keeper, and soon thereafter is awarded Alexandra as his wife by the lottery of the thrown turf.


Historia is in love with Poeta, who ignores her in Holiday's Technogamia. She convinces Polites to help her, using her knowledge of history to convince him that Poeta was not always a wastrel, and eventually the reformed Poeta agrees to marry her.


Hystorie scolds Comedie in the Induction of (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women as they both contend with Tragedie to seize control of the play. Hystorie declares, "My meaning was to have been here to day," no doubt because the play was based on actual historical events, but he observes that the stage is hung in black, preparing the audience for Tragedie. In consequence, Hystorie steps aside for Tragedie, but proclaims, "To Morrow here Ile domineere againe."


Histrio is a player in Rome in Jonson's Poetaster. On the Via Sacra, Histrio is accosted by Tucca, who proposes that Histrio should commission Crispinus to write a play for his company. Histrio says he does not have so much money about him, so Tucca has the gullible Minos sponsor the fictional play-writing enterprise. Tucca criticizes the plays in town because they are not bawdy enough, but Histrio assures Tucca that such plays can be seen only on the other side of the Tiber, not their company. Tucca accuses the players of having staged a character modeled after him, and he threatens them with destroying their Globes and Triumphs, but Histrio denies it eloquently. When Tucca has his boys act before Histrio, the player wants to hire them for a week at his company. Tucca declines, but accepts an invitation for supper. Seeing Demetrius, Histrio explains to Tucca that they have commissioned him to write a play to abuse Horace. Histrio admits that they need such plays to gain a great deal of money, because the winter has made all actors poorer than so many starved snakes. After attending a second performance by Tucca's boys, Histrio exits. At Lupus's house, Histrio enters and reports that the poets of Ovid's party have hired some of the actors' properties (a scepter and a crown for Jove and a caduceus for Mercury). Lupus concludes that the poets envisage treason and considers reporting it to Caesar. After Lupus thanks him, Histrio exits. Histrio enters following Caesar's retinue, attends the scene of the poets' disgrace, and exits with Caesar's train. In a street before the palace, Horace and Maecenas follow Lupus and Histrio, calling the actor a poor stager. Histrio is blamed for having been an accessory to Ovid's disgrace. After being exposed to Horace's and Maecenas's contempt, Histrio exits with Lupus.


Histrio is an actor in the poor troupe performing at the Gentleman's house in exchange for food and clothing in Randolph's Praeludium. The name suggests his profession, from the Latin meaning actor, comedian. When the Gentleman complains of the paucity of new comedies and words of wit in the London theatres and taverns, Histrio comments that the actors are hungry and their feet have little else to do but walk away the stomach. Histrio announces they are going to perform a play entitled The Hungry Courtier, but the Gentleman says it is more appropriate to call it The Hungry Actor. Histrio gives examples of how the actors eked out a living during the period of deprivation. Some, he says, begged in blank verse, others acted Timberline to a butcher, and many declaimed speeches in taverns. Histrio and his fellow actors are ready to perform for the Gentleman in exchange for food and clothing. Histrio introduces the Captain, the Lovers, and the two Roarers. When the Gentleman asks him about his life during these past months of deprivation, Histrio responds ironically that he has been speaking the prologue to this play. When the Gentleman invites him to supper, Histrio says he is so hungry he could eat an ox with a pudding in his belly and a dozen calves in a dish.


Only mentioned in Mayne’s City Match. Madam Aurelia prays to Histriomastix to deliver her from the zealous Dorcas.


Both he and his friend Pausanes were prisoners and are now mates on Gillippus’ pirate ship in Killigrew’s The Prisoners. He is the lost son of Memnon. He assists Gillipus in his pursuit of Lysimella. He sees women as wenches to conquer. Gillippus places him in charge of the captive Lysimella. When Pausanes confronts him to release her, Hipparchus defeats him. When Gillippus orders that Pausanes be hanged naked from the trees, Hipparchus’ friendship forces him to Pausanes’ side and they fight the pirates until the King of Sicily and his men arrive. The king places him in Lysimella’s power, and he is reconciled to his friend Pausanes. Lysimella sends the friends, in disguise, to fight on the king’s side against Sardinia. He and Pausanes fight nobly, winning the king’s favor. He falls in love at first sight with Leucanthe and allows her and Zenon to escape, promising to block the way of her pursuers. Her pursuer turns out to be the king. He refuses to allow the king to pass and fights him only to be stopped when Eucratia comes to beg the king’s mercy and protection when she yields in defeat. The king, upon learning that Leucanthe has been taken by Gillippus, sends the noble Hipparchus to rescue her. During the act four storm, he proves a steady sailor. Ashore and waiting by the beacon fire for Pausanes, he finds Gillippus with Leucanthe. He fights the pirate and kills him but not before receiving a grievous wound. Theagines finds him with Leucante and binds up his wounds. He is reunited with his sister Eucratia and father Memnon, who, as priest, promises to marry him to Leucanthe (who is in fact his first cousin) as soon as he has recovered.


A disguise adopted by Roxane in Mayne’s Amorous War. Menalippe and Marthesia, dressed as Amazon warriors, claim that their queen Hippolyta and her sister Antiope offer their army to help defend Bithynia.


Only mentioned in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. Amadour claims that even the gold of Hippomenes would fail to entice Florimel to vice.


Family name of Onesiphorus, Walkadine, and (presumably) Joyce in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One.

HOB **1561

A clownish countryman in Preston's Cambises, who along with Lob, gossips and complains of the King's cruelty, only to be overheard by Ambidexter. He is tricked by Ambidexter into fighting with his friend Lob, but is saved when Marian-May-Be-Good, Hob's wife, enters, beats and eventually chases off Ambidexter.


A fictional character in Greene's James IV, the imagined son of one of the merchants–merchants who have, according to the Lawyer and the Divine, risen too high in the state.


Hob Carter joins the commoners leading a company of men from Essex after the group has successfully challenged the nobility in the anonymous Jack Straw. He is concerned about safety, and urges commoners group to eliminate anyone who opposes Jacke Strawe. He accepts King Richard II's pardon and promises to lead the Essex men home.

HOB–NAIL **1641

Marchurch’s servant, a Scotsman, often called Hob in Wild’s The Benefice. He is ‘a brave scarecrow’ and ‘little Hob.’ He has learned to pare his cheese since coming to England. Marchurch made him constable this year. Marchurch tells Hob–nail that Sir Homily criticized him and sets the Scotsman to whipping the curate. Sir Homily conspires with him, for Hob–nail is monied, to disguise himself and bribe Marchurch for the living. He and Homily go in disguise to Marchurch for the benefice. He calls himself Richmond and is shocked when Marchurch wants fifty pieces for the benefice but talks him down to twenty with ten more to follow in two years. He goes with Homily to the tavern and returns drunk. He awakes to find his beard missing (taken by Homily to impersonate ‘Richmond’), and by the work of the Tinker’s gypsy wife his money is gone, his boots are changed to shoes, and he has a baby. He comically decides the baby is his own, spewed up in his drunken sleep, and realizes that he is ruined. He determines, as constable, to hang himself. He sets up the noose and forgives everyone but Homily. Homily returns and gains his promise to give Homily the benefice if in return Homily can rid him of the baby and return his lost money.


Lord Admiral Hobab visits the shipyard and admires the model of the Mary, which is being built in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. Captain Fitzjohn and Naupegus invite him to watch the workmen. When the Governor of the East India Company arrives with his colleagues, the Lord Admiral quizzes them on the claim that their business practices undermine the state. The Company members refute this claim at great length, and the Lord Admiral is convinced. Later, he comes across the seductive letters written by Locuples to Dorothea, and also her chaste replies. He admires Dorothea's chastity, and when he starts to soliloquize about her chastity, an Echo tells him that his image of her is correct. There then follows two more lengthy debates with the Governor and his colleagues, in both of which the company members convince Hobab of the justness of mercantilism. At the end of the play, Hobab and the company members celebrate the launching of the Mary


A friend of the lovesick shepherd Colin, Hobbinol joins his companions Diggon and Thenot in commenting upon love's fickleness in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris. His name suggests that Peele is borrowing from the pastoral characters of the Shepherds' Calendar by Edmund Spenser.


A non-speaking part in Holiday's Technogamia. Musica suggests that she and the four humor characters perform a Morris entertainment. As the humor characters quarrel over parts, a Hobby horse and a Tabourer enter. The Hobby horse throws everyone to the ground, kisses Musica and dances off.


The hobbyhorse man at a real-life Fair is a "fictional character" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. the stage-keeper in the Induction complains that the Author of the play does not observe the characteristics of real life in his theatrical Fair. Among other things, the stage-keeper says the poet does not have a hobbyhorse man creeping from behind the canvas to take his leap into the she-neighbor's lap. Actually, the play does have a character as a hobbyhorse man (Leatherhead in disguise), but he does no such things.


Hobgoblin is another name for the fairy sprite Puck, or Robin Goodfellow, in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess. Hobinol is the son of a shepherd. The Sullen Shepherd tells Amarillis that he has bribed Hobinol to spread rumors about Amoret in order to call her reputation into doubt with Perigot. Amarillis rejects this plan in favor of magically disguising herself as Amoret.


His name literally means "hobbyhorse" in Middleton's A Mad World, My Masters. Along with Mawworm, he is a frequent comrade to Follywit, described as an "ancient." Posing as one of Lord Owemuch's coterie, he participates in the robbery of Sir Bounteous as well as the ploy to pose as robbery victims and to receive payment for their losses and inconvenience. He also poses as one of the players of Lord Owemuch and, in a performance of The Slip at the home of Sir Bounteous, he helps to steal certain valuable personal affects from their host in order to outfit a play. The false players leave with the stolen goods under the pretext of their theatrical performance (leaving the constable who would arrest them tied to a chair, ridiculed by the audience as a poor actor).

HOBS **1599

John Hobs is a tanner of Tamworth and the father of Nell in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV. He mistakes the Queen for a "Mistress Ferris."


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Narcissus. Hobs is mentioned by the Porter when he tries to make the choir boys stay. He tells them an anecdote that took place at "Hobses" house.

HOBSON **1605

A merchant in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. Gresham places his nephew in Hobson's service. Hobson encourages Gresham to settle his lawsuit with Ramsey. He is initially enraged at Goodfellow, whom he nicknames Tawniecoat, but is quickly reconciled to him, and helps him when he falls into poverty. Learning of John Gresham's riotous living abroad, he travels to France–not even taking the time to change out of his slippers–and confronts him. There, he is manipulated into concealing the whole affair.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside. Yellowhammer identifies the Porter who brings a letter from Cambridge as Hobson's. Thomas Hobson was a carrier located in Cambridge (?1544-1631). As legend has it, he hired out horses with the motto "this one or none" from which sprung the phrase "Hobson's choice" meaning no choice at all.

HOBSON **1627

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Old Hobson the carrier. Godfather of Plutus, god of wealth.


A "ghost character" in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Hankin Hoddydoddy is one of the individuals Merrygreek admits to having sponged from before taking up with Ralph Roister Doister.


Gammer's servant in [?]Stevenson's Gammer Gurton's Needle. He begins the play by rubbing his breeches and accidentally tearing them. Cocke humorously relates Hodge's search of the house. Hodge takes a "straw" away from Cocke and breaks it open only to discover it is one of the cat's turds. He fouls his breeches when Diccon pretends to raise a spirit to find the needle. He is forced to change into the breeches that Gammer had been mending when the needle was lost. Diccon tells him that the spirit mentioned "Chat, rat, cat" in connection with the needle. Hodge believes it refers to Dame Chat, Dr. Rat or Gyb the cat. The needle is found still in his breeches when Diccon kicks him and Hodge believes himself bitten.


Hodge is an earnest but simple countryman in Pickering's Horestes. He fights Vice but is more worried about the damage to this new hat than the blows he receives from him. He refuses to apologize to Rusticus when the latter learns that his dog has worried one of his pigs to death. The two fight until Vice leaves. Then they make up and go for a brown ale at Rusticus's house.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. A neighbor of the shepherd Corin whose maid "had a clap."


Hodge is a clownish servant in Porter's 1 The Two Angry Women of Abingdon. He has, evidently, a high voice, and works in the Goursey household. He is a colleague of Dick Coomes. When all the characters meet at Barnes's house and Mall, her mother, and her potential mother-in-law run off into the dark, Hodge gets permission to follow them and play Blind Man's Buff with Mistress Goursey. In the dark, he exclaims at the fun he has had dressed as Dick Coomes teasing Mistress Barnes. When he finds Dick lying down resting Dick tries to kiss him thinking Hodge is Mistress Goursey. Hodge, pretending to be Mistress Gourcey, invites Dick to kiss her/him and keeps fleeing from him. He meets Boy and watches Nicholas and Coomes preparing to fight. Hodge and Boy plan to wait till the men have started fighting and then run off with their torch. Later, Hodge steals the torch from Boy.


A familiar name for Roger in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women used both by Anne Drewry and by George Browne.

HODGE **1600

He is a blacksmith in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell who works for Thomas Cromwell's father ("Old Cromwell"). He opens the play talking to two colleagues (Will Smith and Tom Smith) about work and drinking. In Act 2, looking for Thomas Cromwell in Antwerp, he talks about the problems of sea sickness sailing there. When he finds him he gives young Cromwell local gossip from home and agrees to travel with Thomas to Italy. He next appears with Cromwell, with whom he exchanges banter, begging in Florence both, having been robbed. After being helped by Frescobald, Cromwell takes Hodge (called "Clown" SD 3.2) to Bononia, to rescue the Earl of Bedford, besieged in an inn. Hodge makes it clear to the Earl that he has shoed Bedford's horse. He and Bedford change clothes, Hodge remaining behind while Bedford pretending to be Hodge, escapes to Mantua with Cromwell. Alone, Hodge, dressed in the earl's clothes, talks of how nobility has grown on him so that he feels the characteristic melancholy of nobles. He sits in Bedford's study and writes a letter full of local gossip explaining he is surrounded by "polonian sausages." He sings. When the Governor of Bononia thinks he is writing about English nobles, Hodge throws comic insults at him. When the messenger arrives announcing that Bedford and Cromwell have reached Mantua and that Hodge should be released, he explains that he is in fact Hodge of Putney. Later, when Cromwell is at the top of his power, Hodge goes before Cromwell's grand procession and gets the destitute Frescoball to stand up and move.


Hodge is a country fellow in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen who brings a letter from his master, Mr Zam, to Samuell Brainsicke Esquier, with the news that his father has passed away. He speaks with a peculiar country jargon that Miniona cannot understand (she even asks for an "interpreter"). He will help Brainsicke to marry her.


Hodge Huffle is a drunkard and a guest at the New Inn in Jonson's The New Inn. Pierce says he is a fine gentleman, like Bust, and a friend of Jordan. According to Pierce, Huffle would drink at lunch hour, and then he would call grandly for his Jordan (the piss-pot), so full of self-importance as if he pissed politics. Huffle drinks with Tipto, Burst, and Fly, but does not take part in the discussion, or in the ensuing quarrel. He only orders more wine.


Simon Eyre's "brisk foreman" in Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday. Together with his fellow shoemaker Firk, he urges his master to hire Hans Meulter without realizing that the Dutch shoemaker is Rowland Lacy in disguise. He thus unwittingly paves the way for the reunion and subsequent marriage of Rowland and his middle-class lover Rose Oatley. He also plays a crucial role in reuniting Rafe Damport and his lawful wife Jane, whose marriage to the wealthy citizen Hammon is violently protested and ultimately prevented by the London shoemakers.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Uncle Hodge is said to have accepted a wager that a cat could pull him across a pond. A rope was tied round him and the other end fastened to a cat, but men in hiding did the actual pulling, but they made it appear that the cat was responsible. This was a standard practical joke in Jonson's day. Wasp tells Littlewit, Winwife, and Quarlous about his adventures while he accompanied Cokes and Grace Wellborn to London, since the young man wanted to show the City to his bride-to-be. Wasp says he would never repeat the experience, or he would better be drawn with a cat through the great pond at home, as Cokes' Uncle Hodge was. Wasp makes Uncle Hodge a relative of Cokes to suggest the young man's foolishness.


A variant spelling of Howell in Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur.


Family name of Clois and Hance in Chettle's Hoffman.


Hoffman is a follower of Canutus in Brewer's The Lovesick King.


Madam Aurelia’s nickname for Dorcas in Mayne’s City Match.


A usurer and father of Rebecca in Tailor's The Hog Hath Lost His Pearl. Plans to marry his daughter Rebecca to Young Lord Wealthy despite her preference for Haddit. When Young Lord Wealthy arrives Hog discusses Maria's disappearance with him and then leaves in order to allow Young Lord Wealthy to woo Rebecca and set a wedding date. Later, appears with Lightfoot and Peter, having completed arrangements for the mortgage of some of Lightfoot's land. Hog leaves Lightfoot and Haddit to have the papers drawn up by a scrivener and orders Peter to fetch them some beer. Later, after Rebecca has prepared his bed and exited, Hog uncovers his gold and jewels and praises their worth and power. He is interrupted by a flash of fire and the entrance of Lightfoot disguised as the spirit of King Croesus. The spirit of Croesus praises Hog's wealth and offers him even greater wealth on earth as well as the opportunity to reign in hell alongside Croesus after death. Hog agrees and Lightfoot as Croesus summons the Player, disguised as Ascarion, who is ordered to take away all of Hog's silver and change it into gold, and Haddit, disguised as Bazon, who is ordered to take away all of Hog's gold and change it into pearl. Lightfoot as Croesus instructs Hog to keep his eyes fixed on the west in order to witness the return of the spirits with his transformed treasure. Hog wonders why Croesus has favored him and whether he might be the victim of a hoax, but remains certain that the spirits will return with his treasure. Instead, Peter andYoung Lord Wealthy enter to him, and Hog realizes that he has been robbed of his fortune and that Rebecca has fled. Hog agrees to go with Young Lord Wealthy to Old Lord Wealthy's house, where Young Lord Wealthy promises to do what he can to restore Hog's wealth. Hog arrives at Old Lord Wealthy's with Young Lord Wealthy and Peter and explains his robbery to Old Lord Wealthy. When Haddit and Lightfoot enter, Hog tells them about his robbery. Rebecca enters and Hog is overjoyed to find her safe. Haddit tells Hog that he should be glad that his daughter has been returned, since she is worth more than all his treasure; Haddit also offers to marry her despite her poverty. Hog agrees to their marriage and also returns the lands that Haddit had mortgaged to Hog. Finally, Hog renounces avarice and joins Old Lord Wealthy at his celebratory feast.


Hog is technically the servant of Shallow in Baylie's The Wizard, but he is actually attempting to manipulate Shallow into marrying Delia. After his plot is discovered by Clerimont, he is forced to steal spoons so that the disguised Antonio can "magically" discover their hiding place. Hog successfully manipulates Shallow into agreeing to marry Delia, and even takes a turn as the conjurer, but in the end all his schemes are revealed. His response is to own up to being a dealer in "cracked affairs" but also to promise to amend himself and his profession.


Pensionary of Leiden and supporter of Barnavelt, for whom he stirs up support after the fall of the siege in Utrecht in Fletcher and Massinger's Sir John Van Olden Barnavelt. Like Modesbargen, he is by the end a prisoner whose ultimate fate remains undecided.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Ghost. Philarchus attaches this name to a morris dance.


Hoist, Penury, and Fortune are men deeply indebted to Sir John in Massinger's The City Madam. Hoist is a former gentleman that has fallen into ruin and has pawned his land. He is a gambler (a bad one) and a spendthrift, and as a result now owes Sir John money that he cannot pay back. He still believes himself to be a gentleman, however, and as a result is rather indignant. Initially, Luke makes plea to Sir John to grant Penury and his fellow debtors mercy. Luke later arrests him for debt. The three are paraded in front of Luke, who denies them mercy. Sir John forgives his debt when he reassumes control of the household.

HOLD–FAST **1638

Family name of Sir Geoffrey and Jeremy in Glapthorne’s Wit in a Constable.


An Arminian preacher, corrupt and lecherous in Fletcher and Massinger's Sir John Van Olden Barnavelt. At the siege in Utrecht, he induces the silly Dutchwomen to support Barnavelt and also to compel their husbands to do the same. When Maurice enters, he reveals his cowardly nature by running away. [Holderus was in fact the name of a zealous Calvinist preacher; perhaps a joke on the dramatists' part.]


Holdfast is a guardian at the Counter in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!. While Bramble visits Security in prison, Holdfast announces to the usurer that a gentleman wants to speak with him. Holdfast excuses his prisoner, reporting that the old man is a little crazed with imprisonment. Since that gentleman is Golding, who comes incognito, Holdfast lets him in only after Sir Petronel and Quicksilver exit.


Servant to Lodge, the prison-keeper in Cooke's Greene's Tu Quoque. Like his master, he is not malevolent towards the prisoners and views his job in didactic terms.


Holdfast is Sir John's steward in Massinger's The City Madam. He conducts the family affairs, first for Sir John and then for Luke. He alone dares to question Lady Frugal and her hefty spending on lavish lifestyle. He is loyal to Luke even when Luke turns on everyone, but is nonetheless overjoyed when Sir John reveals his true identity to him. He assists Sir John in setting up the play's masque, which stars Chorus, Cerberus, Charon, Orpheus.


See also "HOLOFERNES."


One of the pupils of the Pedant in Marston's What You Will. He is chosen by Simplicius Faber as a page. He subsequently dresses up as a merchant's wife named Perpetuana in order to fool his master.


Holifernes is a fatherless apprentice surgeon-barber and godson to Mulligrub in Marston's Dutch Courtesan. Cockledemoy, going by the name of Gudgeon, persuades Holifernes to lend him his shaving utensils. Eventually, Cockledemoy uses these gadgets to pose as Andrew Shark the barber and to swindle Mulligrub out of fifteen pounds.


John Holland, Dick the butcher, Smith the weaver, a sawyer, and Michael are all followers of the rebel Jack Cade in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI.

HOLLAND, MRS. **1637

A seamster on the Exchange and Mrs. Seathrift’s gossip in Mayne’s City Match. She gave a groat to see the captain’s last wonderful fish and refuses to pay twelve pence to see the new one. When told that the fish eats five crowns each day in fry, ox livers, and brown paste, she gives the three shillings to cover admission for herself, Mrs. Seathrift, and the prentice. The fish turns out to be Timothy, drunken and asleep, dressed up. She is completely taken in and amazed by the wonderful fish. She is on hand when the footmen bring in the ‘night pieces’ for Dorcas and wishes someone would send her such ‘pictures’ as Bright and Newcut.


Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Lingua. Mendacio claims he is three thousand years old and helped many writers and philosophers pen their lies.


A "ghost character" in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. Peter van Hollock is one of the wealthy foreigners mentioned by the May Day rioters. He resides at the Green Gate in Cornhill.


Wife to "a precise draper" in Brome's The Sparagus Garden. She appears at the Asparagus Garden with an unnamed gentleman who is not her husband, much to the envy of Rebecca. Although they try to skimp on their exorbitant bill, Mistress Hollyhock eventually pays the Servant in order to avoid an argument that might damage her reputation.


Holmes is a trusted follower of the Duke of Suffolk (who refers to Holmes as Ned) in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. He arranges to hide the duke in a cabin after the arrest of Northumberland, and in spite of swearing absolute loyalty to Suffolk, he leads the Sheriff and officers to arrest him. Guilt stricken after the arrest, Holmes procures a halter, buries the gold he has received for betraying his master (so it will do no further harm), and like Judas, hangs himself.


See also "HOLIFERNES."


Holofernes the pedant is a schoolmaster in Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost. He plays Judas Maccabaeus in the Pageant of the Nine Worthies. At the end of the play he rebuffs the others, who have made fun of his pedantry, telling them that they are not gentle.


One of the knights of the order of the Twibill in Glapthorne’s Hollander. He is on hand at Sconce’s initiation into the order.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by God to John Baptist as the sign by which the latter will recognize Christ in human form. The Holy Spirit will appear at Christ's shoulder in the form of a dove.


Holywater is one of Crasy's disguises in Brome's The City Wit. As Holywater he cheats and robs his debtors of the money that they owe him. He is a courtier/court messenger.


Only mentioned in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. Ardelio refers to Homer as the subject of a painting by Apelles.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Homer is the ancient Greek poet who has traditionally been credited with putting the legends of the Iliad and the Odyssey into writing. At his house, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw pronounces one of his sententious maxims, saying that, when he praises sweet modesty, he praises sweet beauty's eyes. Promptly, Clerimont pretends to identify the dictum as originating from one of the great philosophers. Daw denies it, saying that these are his own creations, and he shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When Clerimont asks him about the classical poets, Daw refers to them in a deprecating manner. Daw calls Homer an old tedious prolix ass, a poet who talks only of chines of beef.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Homer is the ancient Greek poet who has traditionally been credited with putting the legends of the Iliad and the Odyssey into writing. Nothing certain is known about him, and some say he was a native of the island of Chios, and he supposedly lived around 850 BC. When Ovid praises the immortality of poetry, he says that Homer will live forever through his verses, as long as the mountains Tenedos and Ide stand on the earth, or the river Simois flows to the sea. When Ovid Senior rails at poets and their non-lucrative art, he dares his son to name a poet of some means. Ovid Senior says that Homer, whom all admire so much that they approach his worm-eaten statue with humble adoration, gained nothing in terms of material wealth. Tucca adds that Homer was a poor blind rhyming rascal, who lived obscurely in taverns and scarcely ever made a good meal in his sleep. At the end of the play, after Virgil has Crispinus take an emetic to throw up his bad words, he then prescribes Crispinus to observe a strict and wholesome diet. Virgil suggests ironically that Crispinus should read, with a tutor, the best Greek authors, among whom Virgil mentions Homer.
The narrator who appears as a prologue to each of the five acts in Heywood's The Golden Age. In addition to fulfilling the traditional role of the prologue by setting the historical scene for the drama's five episodes, Homer acclimates the audience to the world of the play in a manner different from his better-known counterparts (cf. Shakespeare's Henry V). During his first appearance, the blind poet discusses the creations of his "pen": "I was the man that flourished in the world's first infancy." He addresses the audience, telling them that he will show them the state of the world when it was in its Golden Age, thereby placing himself outside the plot, but locating the audience in the historical present by drawing a sharp distinction between the current "decrepit" Age and the Golden Age of the Greco-Roman pantheon. He does not, in other words, seek to "transport" the audience to a distant historical landscape, but forces them to confront the distinction between actor and character rather than attempting to conflate them. The importance of Homer also lies in his several "moral" comments on the actions of the play.
The blind poet acts as the play's chorus in Heywood's The Silver Age, pronouncing the prologue and epilogue and narrating events such as the death of Acrisius and Jupiter's seduction of Semele to introduce each new episode of the play.
Homer acts as chorus to Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter, appearing at the end of each episode to provide a brief conclusion to it.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. Cephisus mentions "the blind poet Homer" when he is praising the beauty of his wife, Lyriope, explaining that she surpassed all the nymphs and goddesses "in his Iliads" and "his Odysses."
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Lovel praises the noble education he received from Lord Beaufort, he distinguishes between the teaching of frivolous courtly manners and the profound righteousness inherited from the great classical epitomes of morality. Lovel illustrates the two types of education with examples from chivalric romance and classical antiquity. In contrast with the superficial courtly manners disseminated by the contacts with chivalric romance, Lovel says that his master taught him the moral strength of the classical heroes, and he mentions Homer. Lovel presents the heroes in the Iliad eulogistically, and says that Homer wrought them in his immortal fantasy as examples of heroic virtue. Homer is the ancient Greek poet who has traditionally been credited with putting the ancient Greek legends of the Iliad and the Odyssey into writing. Nothing certain is known about him, and some say he was a native of the island of Chios, and he supposedly lived around 850 BC.
Only mentioned in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. During the second entertainment Lala Schahin provides for Amurath, Fame alleges that he inspired the Greek poet Homer to write the Iliad so that Achilles and Hector would be remembered for their valor.
Homer speaks at the beginning of Heywood's Brazen Age and tells the audience what follows depicts the third age, the age of brass. According to Homer, the world becomes more debased with each age. Homer ends the introduction by telling the audience that they will see the heroic feats of Hercules and that they will see him succumb to his own fate. At the end of the first act, Homer informs the audience that Hercules completed many feats assigned to him by Juno. He then shifts the attention to the Egyptian tyrant Busiris. Homer returns to the stage at the end of the play to confess that it is difficult to portray all of the important actions in five short acts. Homer also alludes to the fact that some members of the audience is more familiar with the source materials than others. Homer pleads for the affection and approval of the audience and concludes the play. Homer returns to tell of Hercules's labors at the Stables of Augeus. He adds that Hercules decides to join Jason and the Argonauts. Later, Homer reports that the Golden Fleece is returned to Greece. He adds that Medea kills and mutilates her brother to aid Jason in his escape. Homer then shifts the scene back to Troy, where Laodemon awaits the return of Hercules. Homer later shifts the attention back to Venus, who is rekindling an affair with Mars. Before the final act, Homer reports that Hercules has been enslaved by Omphale. Homer delivers an epilogue to bid the audience adieu.
Only mentioned in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus. Ingenioso honors Spencer [sic] by equating him with the great Greek epic poet.
Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Lingua. Mendacio claims he is three thousand years old and helped many writers and philosophers pen their lies.
Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Harpax says all poets plagiarize from one another and ultimately everything comes from Homer. Albumazar then says that Homer got his material from an Egyptian priestess.


Also referred to as Murder in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies. Begins the play lamenting his inability to find any bloody-minded people in London. He meets Avarice, who promises to introduce him to two men who could be led to murder. Homicide leaves with Avarice to create a two-fold tragedy. Returns with Avarice at the end of the first act and expresses his approval at the way Avarice has impelled both Merry and Fallerio to contemplate murder for money. Enters with Avarice after the murder of Pertillo and expresses his satisfaction with the play's progress, but observes that he will not be fully satisfied until he sees the deaths of Fallerio, Allenso, Merry, and Rachel. Enters with Avarice at the end of the play to join Truth. Homicide and Avarice tell Truth that they will move on and commit new crimes. After Truth vows to drive them both from the kingdom, they exit, vowing to continue making tragedies.

HOMILY, SIR **1641

An old curate who’s practiced for twelve years in Wild’s The Benefice. Marchurch once promised him the living when the parson died in exchange for his testimony at the assize, and he comes to collect upon that promise. Marchurch takes away his current living and beats him away. He stops Hob–nail beating him by conspiring to have the Scotsman disguise himself, get the living, and name Sir Homily for his curate. They go in disguise to Marchurch for the benefice, and he helps Hob–nail win the benefice. He puts a sleeping powder into Hob–nail’s drink and changes clothes with him. He reveals that his real name is Richmond, the name that Hob–nail gave as his own when he bought the benefice. He succeeds in filching the benefice for himself. He returns to find the basket of capons the watchmen left behind and Hob–nail with a baby. He promises to retrieve Hob–nail’s money and rid him of the child if in return Hob–nail allows him to have the benefice. He hides the baby under the capons and allows the watchmen to carry the basket away to Marchurch. He rides to the bishop to tell all and return with an Order of Penance to make Marchurch return Hob–nail’s money.


Only mentioned in Zouche's The Sophister. Definition, Division, Opposition, and Description mention Homo while attempting to "draw out" for Discourse "the pedigree, which is a true lineall discent of all the chiefest inhabitants within these provinces." Homo was begat by Rationale and "begat Socrates, Plato, and the rest."


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Hondius is mentioned by Bill Bond at the end of the play, when he is asking Master Algebra to accept some presents from them–after having acted as so fair a judge: "our request is that you would be pleased to suffer us to present you with a pair of Hondius globes, a glass of Galileo's with brass mathematical instruments of Elias Allen making." Jodocus Hondius (1563-1612) was a Dutch engraver who fled to London in 1584 to escape religious persecution. He married into the van den Keere family, which introduced him to the leading scientists and geographers of his time. He then learned with the English cartographers Richard Hakluyt and Edward Wright, and reached an international reputation as maker of globes and mathematical instruments and engraver of charts and maps.


Honest Industry brings new attire for Lucre in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London.


A "ghost character" in Brome's Court Beggar. Presumably a fence for stolen goods. When Citwit's watch is stolen, he says he will see Honest Moll about it. Later in the scene, he suggests that Mendicant should propose a monopoly for selling stolen goods back to their rightful owners.


This is the alias that Avarice gives to Adulation in Udall's? Respublica after Adulation rejects the pseudonym Hypocrisy.


He is a plain man of the country in the anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave who comes to King Edgar and tells him that he is surrounded by flatterers. Honesty, has a "Knack to know a knave" if he does but see his cap. He notices that Perin is a knave, although he will only prove it at the end of the play. He then proceeds to collect knaves for the King: He presents Cutbert the Cutpurse, Walter the Farmer, John the Priest and finally Perin the Courtier to Edgar and Dunstan. He is allowed to punish them in his own fashion at the end of the play.

HONESTY **1605

A Sergeant in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me.


Honesty is a character in "The Triumph of Time," the final play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He accompanies Anthropos along with Poverty.


Honesty is a woman who enters silently as the Soldier and the Courtier bicker in Shirley's Contention for Honor and Riches. The Courtier hates Honesty and therefore will not fight the Soldier.


An honest scrivener's daughter in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Plutus loves her because she is honest. She goes with him at play's end to be married.


A London citizen, husband to Judith in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho, recently returned from living in France. He visits Luce but is dismayed to learn that she also entertains Tenterhook and Wafer. Informed by Justiniano of his disguises and the wives' plot, he accompanies the other husbands to Brainford, where he witnesses the gallants' humiliation and reconciles with his wife.


Honeysuckle's wife in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho, a malicious wit. She and Mabel Wafer invite Clare Tenterhook to share their "writing master" (Justiniano in disguise). She welcomes his fondling and accepts his invitation, along with her friends, Mabel and Clare, to meet the gallants at an afternoon tavern-party. There, she agrees to the assignation at Brainford. Left alone with the other wives, she agrees to Clare's suggestion to abandon the gallants. She and the other wives ungratefully condemn Birdlime for enticing their husbands, and then forgive and reconcile with the men.


Honor is the false name of Ambition in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London.


At the end of "The Triumph of Honor," the first play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One, Honor appears in a chariot drawn by two moors.


Honora is Archas's eldest daughter in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject. For the Duke's visit Archas instructs his two daughters Honora and Viola to prepare a banquet and dress elegantly. When the Duke arrives, he admires Archas's house and the beauty of his daughters and invites them to court as Olimpia's ladies in waiting. Honora tells Archas that they are too old and sophisticated to be lured by the vanities at court. At court, their brother Theodor makes a vulgar introduction of Honora and Viola to Boroskie and two philandering Gentlemen. Showing them off like prize horses, Theodor slaps Honora's buttocks, telling the men they will probably find no bedstraw here. Honora sarcastically thanks her brother for the rude compliment. In Olimpia's quarters, Alinda (young Archas in disguise) receives Viola and Honora, posing as the experienced courtesan and giving them a set of rules about the art of seduction. After Alinda's departure, Honora is revolted and refuses to read the instructions. She tears them up. When the ladies are introduced to the Duke and he makes amorous advances to them, Honora plays the aggressor, kissing the Duke and inviting her sister to do the same. The Duke is put off by her zeal and realizes that she is testing him. Thus, Honora cures him of his vanity and self-indulgence. In the final reconciliation, the Duke asks Honora if she can love him and she responds enthusiastically. Honora is to be married to the Duke as the play closes.


Non-speaking character in the anonymous Tragedy of Nero. Friend to Petronius, named only in the opening scene where Petronius discourses on hedonism and Antonius reveals his passion for Poppaea.


Honorea, the daughter of Morgan Earl of London, has been mute all her life in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Her father arranges for her marriage to the older Lacy, Earl of Kent, and sends for the miracle-working St. Dunston to cure her. Just as Dunston is beginning his cure, Belphagor the devil, in the guise of the Spanish doctor Castiliano, appears and effects the cure himself, claiming Honorea's hand as a reward. Everyone is stunned when the now vocal Honorea (who is really in love with the young gentleman Musgrave) unlooses a torrent of abuse and storms off. Her father then proposes to let her marry Musgrave, while substituting her waiting-maid Mariana in a "bed-trick" to fool Castiliano–but he then pulls a double "bed-trick" and substitutes Earl Lacy for Musgrave as well. When Honorea wakes to find she is married to Earl Lacy after all, she is furious. She rejects her husband and determines on a life of adultery, abetted by Mariana. But when she meets Musgrave for a tryst she finds instead a devil disguised as Musgrave who refuses her advances and advises her to live a life of virtue with her husband. At first she is angry, but on reflection, decides that he is right. When the real Musgrave arranges another tryst (with Dunstan and the ailing Earl Lacy watching from cover) she jilts him instead, which leads in turn to Musgrave's own reformation. In the end she swoons with joy to find that her husband, who she thought had been poisoned by the Spanish doctor, is alive after all.


A "ghost character" in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. Honoria is a lady at Duke's court . At Valore's house, Oriana tells her brother she wants to visit the lady Honoria at court, but Valore tells her there is nothing of value she could learn there. According to Valore, Honoria cares for Oriana as she does for other young ladies and she is interested only in fashion, showing her the privy garden and telling her how many gowns the duchess had. Valore implies that Honoria is only interested in money and corrupting young ladies.


Honoria, the Queen of Bohemia in Massinger's The Picture, is upset that Sophia may be as beautiful and chaste as herself, She decides to tempt Mathias, while sending Ubaldo and Richardo to try their luck with Sophia.

HONORIA **1632

A lady and friend of Rosamond in Shirley's The Ball, Honoria finds that both she and Rosamond desire to wed Lord Rainbow. She and Rosamond play havoc with undesired suitors Sir Ambrose Lamount and Sir Marmaduke Travers; the ladies pass the gentlemen's loves back and forth so that neither appears a clear winner of either lady. It is Honoria who convinces Frank Barker to dance as a satyr near the play's end.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous The Wasp. Sister to Marianus. Varletti wishes to marry her to move himself closer to the Prorex.


Honorio is a Venetian gentleman in Chapman's May Day. He is the father of Aurelio, and protector of Lucretia, the daughter of a Sicilian who had taken refuge with Honorio after fleeing his homeland. He participates in the baiting of Lorenzo when he is disguised as a chimney sweep. At the May night celebration, he learns of Lucretia's true identity and history, and blesses his son's love-match with Aemilia.

HONORIO **1639

The noble stranger who claims to be born a Sicilian in Sharpe’s Noble Stranger. He brought money and servants to the King of Naples’ war and so ensured the victory. He is in love with the princess. When he confesses his love, she tells him that it is a capital offense to profess affection to the heir to the crown. They agree to love secretly for his safety not realizing Callidus has overheard them. The king makes him Lord High Marshall of Naples. When discovered wooing in the garden, he draws his sword against the king to protect the ladies. When the king promises not to harm the women, he yields. Rather than allow him to live eternally in Elysium with the princess, the king banishes Honorio from the country on pain of death by starvation. He takes his leave of the princess and, with Fabianus and Philomusus (who joins them), goes into banishment. He returns in the final scene in disguise as an attendant to the Prince of Portugal. At the crucial moment he unmasks and reveals himself to be the Prince of Portugal and so resolve all troubles. He takes the princess’ hand in marriage.


Honorio is the son of the Duke of Mantua in Shirley's The Imposture. Furious when he hears that his sister Fioretta has been taken from the nunnery by Leonato, Honorio swears revenge and rushes to Ferrara, where he speaks with Leonato without revealing his identity. He discovers Juliana pretending to be Fioretta, and he also discovers the attraction of Leonato's sister Donabella, who reciprocates his interest and who, by the play's end, has promised to marry him.


A character in Shirley's Coronation appearing in a masque that Polidora arranges to have performed for Arcadius.


Lady Honour is also called 'Maid' in speech prefixes of Field's Amends for Ladies. She is the unmarried sister of Lord Proudly. Lady Honour, Lady Bright and Lady Perfect dispute whether it is better to be a maid, a wife or a widow. Lady Honour is loved by Ingen but delights in appearing to be haughty and distant towards him, and swears that she will never marry. Ingen suggests that they might instead 'couple unlawfully', and Lady Honour, outraged, vows that she will never see him again. Lady Perfect and Lady Bright eavesdrop on their conversation and mock Lady Honour's previous praise of Ingen. Lady Honour disguises herself as an Irish footboy, delivers a letter to Ingen and returns the gloves that he sent her. Ingen pretends that he has married, showing his 'wife'–really his brother Frank in disguise–to the disguised Lady Honour. Lady Honour asks to stay in his service, saying that she cannot bear to deliver the news of his marriage to her 'mistress'. In the next scene, Lord Proudly, Lord Feesimple, Welltried, Seldom, Lady Bright, Bold–disguised as Mary Princox–and Lady Perfect discuss Lady Honour's disappearance and the absence of the Husband. They decide to ask Ingen for news of her, and Lord Proudly goes his house, demanding to see his sister. Ingen denies that she is there, and Lady Honour (still disguised as a footboy) offers to go in search of her. Ingen despairs for Lady Honour, and reveals that his 'wife' is really his younger brother Frank in disguise. Lord Proudly continues to berate Ingen, and they agree to duel. Afraid of losing either her brother or her love, Lady Honour goes to Seldom and asks him to arrest Lord Proudly on a debt. With Sergeant Pitts and Sergeant Donner, they encounter Lord Proudly and take him away. Lady Honour meets Ingen and Frank, and tells them that Lord Proudly has been arrested. At that moment, however, Lord Proudly enters, having shaken off his guard, and stabs Lady Honour. Ingen stabs Lord Proudly in the left arm, and they duel while Frank attends to Lady Honour off-stage. Returning, Lady Honour herself between the adversaries, revealing her true identity. Lord Proudly demands that Lady Honour go with him to marry the Count. She refuses; Ingen and Lord Proudly fight again. In order to stop them fighting, Lady Honour agrees to marry whoever Lord Proudly wishes and exits with her brother. At the wedding of Lady Honour and the Count, Frank delivers a message from Ingen, who vows that he will never again trust a woman, and a letter to Lady Honour. Lady Honour reads the letter and swoons, then demands to be taken to her bed: 'My body dies for my soul's perjured sin'. Ingen enters, posing as her doctor and asks everyone to leave except the Parson. The other guests look in the windows and see the Parson marrying Ingen and Lady Honour; Frank draws his sword and prevents anyone from interrupting. Having consummated their marriage, Ingen and Lady Honour present a fait accompli to the Count and Lord Proudly, who are forced to accept the state of affairs.


Lady Honour is presented in Shirley's Contention for Honor and Riches as having recently taken a fall, and she requests an audience with Lady Riches. Lady Honour isn't won with fancy phrases such as those poured out by the Soldier, and she tells the competing suitors Soldier and Courtier that they must fight for Honour. Near the play's end, Lady Honour weds Ingenuity, helping to stop the fighting between the Soldier and Courtier.


A fictional character in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. George's plan to have Rachel come back to her husband Chamlet consists of indirectly revealing that her husband is getting married. The intended bride, of course, is only a fiction. According to George's description, Chamlet's intended bride is wearing a "French hood," a headdress worn by women when they were punished for indecency, and "French Hood" becomes the woman's name through metonymy. When Rachel sees Margarita in Chamlet's shop, she thinks the French bawd is the "French Hood" supposed to marry her husband. She kicks the strumpet out of the shop.


Robert, or Robin is the young Earl of Huntingdon in Chettle's(?) Looke About You. He is also referred to as Robin Hood. He is the ward and chamberlain of Prince Richard and appears in conjunction with him and Block on several occasions. On the plea of Lady Faukenbridge Robert dresses up as a woman, impersonating Lady Faukenbridge when Prince Richard comes to woo her. In this disguise he obtains Richard's help in saving Gloster from Henry and John. Robin Hood is the more frequent name for Robert of Huntingdon. He also is referred to as 'England's Pride' by old Faukenbridge.
Robin Hood asks Marian why she is sad in Greene's George a Greene, and she tells him she is insulted by all the attention paid to George and Beatrice, and that she will not sleep with him until he beats George. He agrees that he and his men will seek out George. After George has beaten Scarlet and Much, he and Robin Hood fight to a draw and Robin asks George to join with him. George does not agree, but is pleased to realize that the man he has been fighting is Robin Hood, and invites all of them to dinner. Robin and George meet with the disguised King Edward and James, and mistake them for peasants because they are not carrying their staffs properly. After Edward reveals himself, Robin asks for a pardon for him and his men, and it is granted.
Robin Hood is the outlaw name of Robert, Earl of Huntington, although he is addressed by both names throughout (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. He discovers he is outlawed at a dinner supposedly thrown for his engagement to Marian, and leaves in a passion. He is followed by Little John, who counsels him to control himself. Robin then tells Marian that he has been outlawed and she is as good as a widow. She faints, and Robin then gains control of himself. He confronts his accusers at dinner in a sort of play-within-a-play, and chases Sentloe, Broughton and Warman out, threatening to kill them. That night, disguised as a Citizen, he meets with Marian. Marian and Queen Elinor have changed clothes to thwart pursuit. The Queen hopes Robin, with whom she is in love, will mistake her for Marian and steal her away and leave Marian behind, but Marian has told Robin of the switch. He pretends to reject Marian in favor of the Queen, and then escapes with the disguised Marian. He next rescues Scarlet and Scathlock from hanging by pretending to be an old man. He tells Warman that the two killed his son and that he wants to kill them himself. He announces that he will blow his horn just as they did when they killed his son, but this is really a signal for Little John and Much to attack. After they chase off Warman and Ralph, Tuck, impressed, asks to join Robin. Robin decides to become an outlaw and hide in the forest until Richard returns. Robin then renames himself Robin Hood (although he has been using that name since the beginning) and renames Matilda Maid Marian. He also establishes rules for his outlaws, including respect for clergy, protection of the poor and chastity, the latter of which, oddly enough, only Much objects to. The Prior and Doncaster enter the forest to try to capture Robin, but he is warned by Tuck and Jenny and they escape. When Fitzwater, Marian's father, enters the forest, he finds Robin and Marian and they give him meat and drink. They recognize him despite the fact that he pretends to be a blind man, but, when he asks that they not question him further, they respect his wishes. In rapid succession, Ely, Warman and Prince John all find their way into the forest and are met by Robin, who forgives them wholeheartedly, causing each man, in turn, to regret his actions against Robin. Richard then enters the forest and seeks out Robin. After being received by King Richard, Robin presents him with Fitzwater and Ely, reconciles him with Prince John and then presents Marian, a "gift" to the king that he hopes to receive back. Of course, Richard returns Marian to Robin and hopes their love will last forever.
Despite the play's title, Robin appears only in the first act of Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. He is part of the hunting party with King Richard, but stops to ask after Doncaster and the Prior, who are still recovering from injury. He urges them to rest, not realizing that they are plotting his death, and also suggests that Warman try to forget his fault and be more merry. When he returns to find Warman dead, he is convinced by the Prior that Warman committed suicide. The Prior offers him a health inducing drink and Robin asks instead that it be prepared for the King. However, he does drink some, and discovers it is poisoned. He drags Doncaster and the Prior before Richard and reveals that they have attempted regicide. True to his nature, he immediately forgives the Prior when the latter shows signs of remorse, even urging him to use benefit of clergy to avoid the death sentence. He asks that Richard take care of Matilda, and Richard responds by granting Matilda Robin's lands and title for herself. Robin then tries to make sure all parties will remain reconciled and that John will respect Matilda rather than lust after her. He arranges his funeral, distributes his gold among his followers and then asks that Matilda close his eyes. He then dies.
A "ghost character" in Davenport's King John and Matilda. He is named as Matilda's late betrothed true love, whose death by poison causes her to swear perpetual virginity. Her committed chastity has frustrated the King's passion since long before the start of the play. (A traditional alias of Robin Hood, though this is not specifically alluded to in the play.)
Only mentioned in Peele's Edward I. When the Welsh rebels decide to assume the roles of figures from the Robin Hood legend, Lluellen assumes the pose of Robin Hood himself.

HOOK **1632

Family name of Sacrilege, Dorothea, Pandora, and Ursely in Hausted’s Rival Friends.


A simoniacal patron in Hausted’s Rival Friends. He cheated Bully Lively’s brother out of the parsonage and will gain possession of it at Lively’s death. He is using the property to gain a promising husband for Ursely and extorts presents from suitors who would have it. Ursely begs him to get her Anteros, and Sacrilege Hook promises to go to Terpander, Anteros’s father, and set the match. Terpander’s is behind in paying Hook for his lands, and Hook threatens him with forfeiture if the old man doesn’t persuade Anteros. The marriage contract costs him dearly, for Anteros tears up the mortgage papers and demands the parsonage before agreeing to marry. When it is discovered that Anteros and Ursely are siblings, Hook is undone. Nevertheless, Terpander, in good conscience, offers to pay half of the money, and Endymion takes Pandora without her portion, and Hook is satisfied.


A "ghost character" from the original version of A Tale of A Tub, replaced in the 1633 revision of the play by the character of In-and-In Medlay, apparently because Inigo Jones felt that Vitruvius Hoop was too harsh a satirical portrait. His name is invoked only once in the 1633 revision.


One of the characters in Evanthe's and Valerio's wedding masque in Fletcher's A Wife for a Month. Only Cupid speaks, but Cupid's attendants include hopeful characters of Fancy, Desire, Delight, Hope, and also the dire characters Fear, Distrust, Jealousy, Care, Ire, and Despair, suggesting that in the lovers' marriage, misery will outweigh happiness. Valerio finds this to be the case when shortly after the wedding the king forbids him from consummating his marriage.

HOPE **1617

One of the fifteen affections and the subject of the play in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the ringleaders in the battle who have always hated Hatred. Like fire, Hope is hot and dry. Arguing with his brother, Joy, he maintains that he is chief upon the earth. He hopes to be king after the war. The mutiny stirred up by Fear and the interception of the banditti cause the Affections to give up their rebellion. Hope takes their petition for pardon and reduction to King Love.

HOPKINS **1604

A “ghost character"(?) in Rowley’s When You See Me. In a petition, Hopkins claims Rooksbie, a groom of the wardrobe, has cheated him. This is probably the same character as Second Prisoner.


A "ghost character" sometimes called Henton in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. Hopkins is a Chartreux monk (that is of the Charterhouse, a Carthusian monk), called a "devil monk" in the play, serving periodically as Buckingham's confessor and testifying against Buckingham.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Stiff praises him and Thomas Sternhold for joining the Psalms to the Book of Common Prayer in "David's time." So beautiful is the meter that Stiff can sleep by it "as well as any in the parish."


A fictitious character in Shirley's The Young Admiral. This name is used to describe the imaginary demons that attend the so-called Mephistophilus (Flavia in disguise).


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. He was maintained by Plutus.


Only mentioned in Edwards's Damon and Pithias. The Prologue states that, should the audience be offended at the presentation of characters on stage, they should blame Horace, who is the Author's model.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Asper announces that the play exposing vice is about to begin, he invites the audience to judge the comedy. The author rails against some foolish members of the audience, who try to influence the others negatively, though they are not intellectually equipped to criticize. Such a spectator, in Asper's description, would criticize the play while Horace sings. The author identifies himself with the Latin poet, considering is a self-evident fact that his play is comparable to Horace's verses.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Quintus Horatius Flaccus was the first-century BC Latin poet, author of Odes, Epodes, Epistles, and Satires. When Overdo enters the Fair disguised as a madman, in order to detect the wrongdoers and bring them to justice, he says he defies anyone who could recognize him under his disguise. Even if that person had met the Epidaurus serpent, as Quintus Horace calls him, still they could not have recognized Justice Overdo in his madman's disguise. Horace, in his Satires, mentions the serpent, which people thought to have keen sight and to be an incarnation of Aesculapius, whose temple was at Epidaurus. Overdo's logic is doubtful, transferring the serpent's excellent seeing quality to someone who only met the legendary beast, as reported in Horace.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65–8 BC) was an outstanding Latin lyric poet and satirist. The most frequent themes in Horace's Odes and verse Epistles are love, the pleasures of friendship and simple life, and the art of poetry. With the death of Vergil, Horace became the most celebrated poet of the Augustan age, when the court and private individuals supported arts on a grand scale. The emperor was overtly worshipped as divine and Horace and Virgil acted as poet laureate of the new regime. At his house, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw pronounces one of his sententious maxims, saying that, when he praises sweet modesty, he praises sweet beauty's eyes. Promptly, Clerimont pretends to identify the dictum as originating from one of the great philosophers. Daw denies it, saying that these are his own creations, and he shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When Clerimont asks him about the classical poets, Daw refers to them in a deprecating manner. Daw calls Horace a tedious ass, a poet who talks gibberish.
Horace is a renowned poet in Rome in Jonson's Poetaster, probably representing Ben Jonson. On the Via Sacra, Horace is walking alone while composing an ode dedicated to Maecenas. When Crispinus approaches him, Horace is annoyed at the poetaster's impertinence and verbosity. After many attempts and allusions meant to dissuade Crispinus from following him, it seems that Horace manages to slip away during the confusion created when Minos comes to have Crispinus arrested for debt. In an apartment at the palace, Horace enters with Maecenas following Caesar and his train. The angry Caesar cannot believe his eyes on seeing his daughter Julia participating in a debauched party, and he asks Horace and Maecenas for confirmation of his senses. At some point, Horace tries feebly to intervene in the poets' favor, asking Caesar to be merciful, but he has no success. Horace exits with Ceasar's train. In an apartment in the palace, Horace follows Caesar and his company of poets, formed of Tibullus, Gallus, and Maecenas. When Caesar announces he has pardoned Gallus and Tibullus, Horace acknowledges his gratitude and addresses Caesar in flattering verses. When Virgil is announced and Caesar places him on a seat of honor, Caesar asks Horace what he thinks about detraction. Horace affirms that he does not envy Virgil. When Lupus enters and brings false accusations against Horace, the poet exonerates himself and manages to expose Lupus's spiteful foolishness. Caesar commands Horace to have Crispinus and Demetrius charged with calumny and plagiarism. When the poetasters are found guilty and punished, Horace proposes that Crispinus be given an emetic to purge all his bad words from his stomach. When justice is served, Horace asks Virgil to administer the oath of good behavior to the poetasters, so that they may never detract Horace publicly or write against him. When the court is dissolved, Horace exits with Caesar's train. The historic Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65–8 BC) was an outstanding Latin lyric poet and satirist. The most frequent themes in Horace's Odes and verse Epistles are love, the pleasures of friendship and simple life, and the art of poetry. Maecenas, the protector of arts and letters, helped Horace in his literary career. In this period, Horace published his second book of Satires, the collection of Epodes, and Odes. With the death of Vergil, Horace became the most celebrated poet of the Augustan age, when the court and private individuals supported arts on a grand scale. The emperor was overtly worshipped as divine and Horace and Virgil acted as poet laureate of the new regime. Horace's Carmen Saeculare (Secular Hymn), appeared in 17 BC, and was commissioned by Augustus. The Author's apology quotes Horace's Satire I, Book 2 in lieu of epilogue. Here, Horace participates in a dialogue with Trebatius about the advisability of the poet's writing satires. While Trebatius advises Horace to take a more moderate stance, and even stop writing satires, the poet militates for a fearless attitude in exposing corruption and vice in his society.


The "humorous poet" of the play's subtitle, Horace is a satiric representation of contemporary playwright Ben Jonson in Dekker's Satiromastix, or The Untrussing of the Humorous Poet. The character originally appeared in Jonson's Poetaster as a self-portrait, where he is presented as a poet determined to maintain the integrity of poetry in spite of its denigration at the hands of inferior poets or "poetasters." In Satiromastix, however, Horace is a jealous and status-obsessed poet who values his own abilities too highly and wishes to elevate his own reputation at the expense of others by disparaging their abilities. He initially appears in the play as the poet hired by Sir Walter Terill to pen nuptial songs for the wedding celebrations of his marriage to Cælestine. He is visited by Crispinus and Demetrius, two "rival" poets who wish to lay to rest the animosity between them and Horace. Horace defends his actions by claiming to satirize general vices rather than specific people (a claim often made by Jonson himself), but Crispinus and Demetrius point out that his attacks are often too personal to be interpreted this way. They ask him to desist for his own good. Eventually they agree to be friends, but the arrival of the roisterous and disruptive Tucca, who is determined also to reconcile Horace with his fellow poets, insults and galls Horace. Horace reiterates his willingness to be friends with Crispinus and Demetrius, but secretly determines to satirize both them and Tucca in epigrams, which he has his oft-time companion Asinius Bubo circulate publicly among the city's gallants. Horace has also been hired by the Welsh knight Sir Vaughan ap Rees to compose a love letter to the widow Mistris Miniver. Mistris Miniver refuses to read or hear the contents of this love note, which is perhaps lucky for Sir Vaughan because Horace has earlier confided to Bubo that he has encoded in it a satire of Sir Vaughan's abuse of the English language. Undaunted, Sir Vaughan hires Horace again, this time to deliver an argument against baldness before Mistris Miniver in the hopes of winning her affection away from the bald-pated Sir Adam Prickshaft, whom Sir Vaughan believes is his chief rival. After Horace delivers his argument, Sir Vaughan's party is disrupted by the arrival of Tucca. Tucca has found out about Horace's satiric epigrams on him, and he has come to challenge Bubo to a duel for circulating them (Horace is protected from the challenge by Sir Vaughan, the suggestion being that the cowardly Horace hides behind the protection of his patrons). When Bubo arrives for the duel accompanied by Horace, Tucca is at first unswayed by Horace's promise never to satirize him again, but they eventually reconcile their differences verbally. Horace, however, immediately betrays this new peace by confessing that he will satirize Tucca again at the earliest opportunity. Meanwhile, Tucca has informed Horace that Sir Adam has hired Crispinus to deliver a counter-argument defending baldness. Tucca, Horace, and Sir Vaughan crash Sir Adam's party and interrupt Crispinus' defense of baldness, but when Tucca reveals to Sir Vaughan that Horace has hypocritically slandered him behind his back Horace loses the support of his patron and the party turns against him. They determine to subject Horace and his companion Bubo to a mock trial before the court, over which Crispinus presides. During this mock trial Horace is publicly humiliated, brought before the court bound and wearing horns. Found guilty, he is forced to wear a crown of stinging nettles and to swear an oath that he will cease and desist his bad behavior.


The Horatii, three Roman brothers, are imaged in the fourth dumb show of Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta to express the power of brotherly affiliation and the vulnerability that ensues when brothers are separated.


Ieronimo's son in the anonymous First Part of Jeronimo. He is young, and ready to spend his blood in war. He admires Andrea and calls himself "Andrea's second self". He even stays with Andrea and Belimperia when they want to take leave of each other. He and Ieronimo overhear Lorenzo's and Lazorotto's plans to kill Andrea. Ieronimo then dictates Horatio a letter that they want to send to Andrea, warning him of Lorenzo's plans. Lorenzo and Isabella interrupt their loud re-reading of the letter, and they are not sure whether Lorenzo has heard a part of it, but Isabella saves the situation by her belief that it was a love letter to some Spanish lady. Horatio and Ieronimo arrive after Lazarotto has murdered Alcario, and like everybody else they believe that Andrea has been killed. Horatio wants to commit suicide because his best friend is dead, but the real Andrea stops him. Their letter has not reached him, but he has been warned now anyway. Before it comes to the battle against Portugal, the two parties attack each other verbally and agree who is going to fight whom. Horatio has to fight with Don Pedro, and Andrea fights with Balthazar. Balthazar has the upper hand, but Horatio comes to Andrea's help. In a second fight, Andrea has Balthazar down, when two Portuguese soldiers come to Balthazar's help and kill Andrea. Horatio deplores the death of his friend and fights Balthazar, he has him defeated when Lorenzo comes, seizes his weapons and claims to have won the prince as his prisoner. After a long quarrel they decide to leave this to their King to judge. Horatio takes Andrea's badge (Belimperia's love knot) and carries his body from the stage.
Hieronimo and Isabella's son, Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. After the death of Don Andrea, Bel-imperia gives her favor to Horatio and persuades him to avenge her former lover's death by killing Balthazar. Horatio is instead treacherously murdered in the arbor by Balthazar and Lorenzo. His death sets Hieronimo's revenge into motion.


Horatio is a friend of Hamlet and a scholar at Wittenberg in Shakespeare's Hamlet. His status at the Danish court is ambiguous. He is asked by Barnardo and Marcellus to confront the Ghost, although he believes it will not appear. When it does, he speaks to it, but the Ghost does not respond. He suggests they seek out Hamlet and tell him of the Ghost, which all three do. Horatio and Marcellus watch with Hamlet and when the Ghost appears they try to keep him from following it. Hamlet refuses to answer Horatio's questions about the Ghost, but both Horatio and Marcellus swear to keep secret what they have seen. Horatio next appears before the play within the play, and he agrees to keep watch for any reaction from Claudius (Hamlet apparently has told him of the murder by now). Hamlet praises Horatio for his dispassionate nature, a nature that is needed to control Hamlet's wild reaction to the play. After Hamlet is sent to England, Horatio remains in the court, although each version of the text gives him a slightly different role. In Q1, he meets secretly with Gertrude to reveal that Claudius was planning to have Hamlet killed in England. In F, Horatio tells Gertrude that she should speak with the mad Ophelia, and describes her state, a role given to a Gentleman in Q2. In both Q2 and F, Horatio is asked to look after Ophelia, a duty from which he is distracted by letters from Hamlet. When Hamlet, dying, asks Horatio to report his cause, Horatio declares his intent to commit suicide, and is only stopped by Hamlet's insistence that his story must be told. Horatio then does tell Fortinbras that he can relate all that has happened, and, further, that he will support Fortinbras' claim to the Danish throne.


Small character in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap that sings while Clarence writes a letter to Eugenia because, as Plato said, music is the representation of the soul.


Horatio is a courtier in Day's Law Tricks. He is in love with the Countess and hopes that her divorce from Lurdo, which he claims to have set in motion, will enable him to succeed with her. Horatio woos her brutally, arguing that she has no choice but to submit to him because her reputation has already been ruined. When she rejects him for the second time, he undertakes, with Lurdo's connivance, to poison her. Thinking that he has succeeded in killing her, he follows her hearse, despairing. Wracked by guilt, he goes to her tomb at night, where the Page impersonates the Countess's ghost. The Page twice assures Horatio that the Countess does not hate him from the grave, and he finally leaves. Polymetes brings what appears to be the Countess's ghost before the court to accuse Horatio, and Ferneze sentences Horatio and Lurdo to be immured in her tomb. When the Countess rises from the tomb alive, Ferneze agrees to pardon Lurdo but banishes Horatio from the court.


Horatio is a Roman in John Webster's Appius and Virginia. He goes with Virginius and Icilius to question and sentence the imprisoned Appius.


Friend to Francisco in Brome's The Novella. He and Francisco are looking for the Novella when they encounter Fabritio and Piso. He offers his lodging to the young men and helps them in their plans to regain their true loves. The next day, he goes to the Novella disguised as a Frenchman and argues that his own qualities are worth the 2,000 ducats she is asking, but she rejects him. He returns to the Novella's at the end of the play.


Horatio is also called Brunetto in Cokain's Trappolin. Son of the Duke of Savoy, nephew of the Duke of Mantua, he fought against the Tuscans and is Lavinio's prisoner of war. He has not yet revealed his true identity to the Florentines, and is known to them as Brunetto. He desires Prudentia, sister of Lavinio, and is happy to be in Florence in order to be near her. He has not yet declared his love, and knows he has little chance of winning Prudentia, given that he is a second son. He has been befriended by Trappolin, who knows him only as Brunetto, and in the same guise catches the eye of Prudentia, who recognizes his innate nobility. When Trappolin is banished for pimping by his enemy Barbarino, Horatio comes to Trappolin's aid, giving him a ring to sell for his sustenance. Horatio sees his own condition as worse than that of Trappolin, but consoles himself that at least he is near Prudentia, for whom he would suffer anything. When Prudentia overcomes propriety and approaches him to confess her love, Horatio reveals his true name and status as Prince of Piedmont and Duke of Savoy. He confesses his love for her, and indicates that his father would readily pay his ransom, but Horatio prefers to languish as a prisoner in Florence in order to remain near Prudentia. She confesses her love for him in turn, and he is satisfied to remain a prisoner, confident that they will share an undying love. Having overheard the love pledges between Prudentia and Horatio, whose identity remains a secret to all but Prudentia, Mattemores reveals their love to Barbarino and Machavil. Barbarino orders Horatio imprisoned to prevent the elopement. Trappolin, disguised as Duke Lavinio, discovers Horatio in prison and invites him to sit and talk as equals, much to the delight and amazement of the unfortunate Horatio. Upon learning that Horatio has been imprisoned for his inappropriate love, Trappolin grants his blessing on the match and promises to arrange the marriage of Horatio and Prudentia if she is willing. Horatio, though grateful, denies that he is worthy, and when Trappolin insists, Horatio exclaims that he is mad. Horatio is released from prison. When the true Duke Lavinio returns, he overhears the love vows of Prudentia and Horation, condemns his sister's poor judgment, and orders the arrest of Horatio once again, undoing what Trappolin has accomplished in his stead. When the disguised Trappolin encounters Prudentia, he appologizes for is drunken action against Horatio, orders the increasingly confused jailor to release him, asks the lovers' forgiveness, and sends them off together. These alternations between Trappolin's will and that of the true Duke continue, as Trappolin seeks an opportunity to transform the Duke with his magic powder. The opportunity presents itself at last, and the Duke is transformed into an image of Trappolin, although he retains knowledge of his true identity. At this point, Horatio is in prison at the Duke's orders. The disguised Trappolin enters and orders the release of Horatio, infuriating the true Duke. Yet, he must be patient as long as he appears to be the lowly Trappolin, and so looks on as the imposter sends his sister and Horatio off to be wed. Finally, Trappolin orders the imprisonment of Lavinio, and Pucannello complies. All are convinced that Lavinio is Trappolin. While Lavinio is in prison as Trappolin, Horatio and Prudentia are wed. When Mago enters shortly thereafter and reveals the real identity of Lavinio, the Duke forgives everything. Mago explains that Horatio's elder brother, Prince Filberto, has died, thus making Horatio the heir to Piedmont's throne. With this news, Lavinio grants Prudentia and Horatio his blessing.

HORATIO **1633

Horatio is a Sicilian nobleman in Shirley's The Young Admiral who has courted Cassandra and who swears that Vittori must die. He continually plots against not only Vittori but Cesario as well in his efforts to harm these two nobles who both love Cassandra.


King Gonzago's chief courtier and sycophant in Brome's The Queen and Concubine. He is a long-winded pedant. He presides over Eulalia's trial, even though he admits to his friend Lodovico that he believes her innocent. Lodovico tries to talk him into conspiring with him to murder Alinda, for the good of the state, but Horatio is too frightened to do anything but endorse all the King's actions, even the arrest of his son, Prince Gonzago. Alinda's furious ranting frightens him further and he reports to the king that Alinda is distracted and claims to be haunted by her father's ghost. Learning that the living Sforza and Petruccio have returned to the King's good graces, he offers to seek out the absent Flavello and get to the bottom of Alinda's conspiracy. Reunited with Lodovico, he shares in the general pardons at the end of the play.

HORATIO **1636

Horatio is Bentivolio's friend in Shirley's The Duke's Mistress. He feels that the only women who can be trusted are ugly ones. He flatly refuses the court ladies Aurelia and Macrina, but he seems thrilled with the ill-favored Fiametta. Valerio, however, introduces Horatio to an even uglier woman–Scolopendra–whom Horatio weds. At the play's end, Horatio allows himself to be accused of treason and taken to prison just to escape the angry Fiametta.


Only mentioned in the anonymous The Wasp. When Grig Brandwell, disguised as the soldier Alexander Hannibal Caesar Dangerfield, woos the Countess Claridon and throws down his glove to her, The Wasp replies, "Thanks, good Horatio."


Only mentioned in the anonymous The Wasp. Archibald, disguised as Percy, likens his crossing from France to Horatius swimming the Tiber in full armor.


Horatius Cocles is a supporter of King Servius in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece. After Servius' death, Horatius Cocles instantly switches allegiances to Tarquin. Soon after, he voices dissatisfaction with Tarquin, whom he finds to be too proud and too tyrannous. He is ordered to join Sextus, Collatine, Brutus, Valarius, and Mutius Scevola in Ardea, leaving Porsenna's forces in charge of Rome He is part of a drunken banquet in which Sextus belligerently denies Collatine's claim to having the most virtuous wife. Collatine decides that is might be nice to visit Horatius Cocles', Aruns', Valarius' , and Mutius Scevola's respective wives, and then Collatine's wife, Lucrece. Soon after, Pompie delivers a letter to Horatius Cocles, Brutus, Collatine, Mutius Scevola, Valarius, asking them to come quickly to Lucretius' house. When they arrive, Lucrece tells how she was raped. Brutus swears revenge. They all agree. Lucrece then kills herself. In the civil war, Tarquin and his army are beaten off but for reasons that are not fully explained, Brutus retreats, leaving Horatius Cocles to man the bridge alone. Tarquin and his army re enter and attack. For reasons that are not explained, the bridge falls. Was it by divine intervention or the sheer weight of Tarquin's army? Inexplicably, Horatius Cocles then decides to kill himself by jumping from the bridge. Miraculously, he survives and swims to shore, where Brutus' cheering army greets him. Later in the same battle, he further distinguishes himself by killing Aruns.


Horestes is the central character of the main action in Pickering's Horestes. He wishes to avenge the murder of his father, Agamemnon, by his mother, Clytemnestra. He announces that Dame Nature has told him to forgive his mother, then asks the gods what he should do. The Vice, claiming to be Courage, announces that Mars has sent him in answer to Horestes's prayer, to guide him as he takes revenge. Horestes then asks advice from Idumeus, with whom he has been staying, who approves the plan for revenge and offers Horestes an army, telling him to obtain victory and fame; fame will last. Horestes debates with Dame Nature about the rightness of revenge. When Clytemnestra refuses his demand that she surrender he plans to destroy every human being in the city, except his mother who is to be saved for special treatment. He beats Egistus in battle and hangs him onstage then sends Revenge out to supervise the killing of Clytemnestra. In Athens where the Greek kings have gathered to discuss what to do about Horestes, he explains that he had Clytemnestra killed at the command of the gods and that all the men, women, and children were killed because they had planned to show no mercy to him. The kings are impressed with his answer, and he agrees to marry Menalaus's daughter, Hermione, to seal the friendship with the kings. He consults with his nobles and the commons to discover their views about the kingdom.


An honest courtier in Shirley's The Politician, Hormenus is upset at the king's wedding of Marpisa and questions the paternity of Marpisa's son Haraldus.


Only mentioned in Glapthorne's Albertus Wallenstein. He is named by Lesle, along with Saxon-Waymar, as a potential ally in Wallenstein's league against the Emperor.


Horner, an armorer in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, tells his apprentice Peter Thump that the Duke of York is the rightful heir to the throne. When Peter testifies to his master's treason before King Henry, Horner offers to provide a witness against Peter, and the two men are sentenced to single combat at Gloucester's recommendation. Horner is vanquished and confesses to the treason before he dies.


One of the twenty-four Electors for the Burgomastership in Ruggle’s Club Law.


Doll (Dorothy) Hornet is a whore and a trickster ("cony-catcher") in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho. She pretends to be a lady, and one of her companions, Jack Hornet, gives out to be her father. Dick Leverpool and Tom Chartley, two other friends, have to wear liveries and pretend to be her servants. She has several lovers whom she tricks out of their possessions: Philip, Bellamont's son, gets arrested for a debt of four score pounds which he has spent for her clothes, Jenkins, a Welsh captain, buys her a coach and two horses, Hans van Belch, a Belgian merchant and ship-owner, gives her a gold watch, and Master Allom lends her fifty pounds and some sugar. She asks Bellamont to make 12 poems for her. On their second meeting, Captain Jenkins listens while she confesses her tricks to Bellamont. Jenkings now sets out to find her other vicitms. Together with Allam and Hans he follows her to Ware with a warrant, but in the meantime she has got married to Featherstone, and he agrees to pay all her debts.


Giles Hornet is a wealthy usurer in Shirley's Constant Maid who courts Bellamy with a domineering style while urging her that men aren't to be trusted. He has secluded his niece in hopes of keeping her dowry for himself. However, his clever Cousin plays the role of king, "knighting" Hornet and obtaining the keys to release the niece. Hornet eventually is made to forgive monies owed to him by the Cousin; he must also accept his niece's marriage to Playfair, the nephew of Sir Clement.


A trickster ("cony-catcher") in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho, one of Doll Hornet's companions. He gives out to be Doll's father, but he is not related to her.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. One of "the devil's officers" among Hick Scorner's company on his recently returned ship. Listed among a large group of "thieves and whores" and "other good company" of "liars, backbiters, and flatterers . . . brawlers, liars [sic], getters and chiders, walkers by night [and] great murderers."


Horror accompanies Warre in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.


A "ghost character"(?) in Shirley's Hyde Park. Ridden to victory by the Jockey in the Hyde Park horse race. When Samuel Pepys saw a performance of Hyde Park in 1668, he noted that there were real horses on stage. So, the Horse may well have figured as a 'character' onstage as well as offstage in the original performance as well.

HORSE **1641

A “ghost character" in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. Ursin has missed seeing the white bear baited as well as the sports with the ape and horse at the garden.

HORSE, BANKS' **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. The famous horse, Morocco is mentioned in a song that Lackland sings.


In Marlowe's Edward II, he Earl of Pembroke's Horseboy leads Arundel and him to Cobham, Pembroke's estate, when the two earls take a break from conducting Gaveston to see Edward II.


The Horse-Courser buys Faustus' horse in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. He foolishly ignores Faustus' warning not to ride the horse in water, and suffers when the horse thereby turns into a bottle of hay. Angry, he returns to demand his money back, but finds Faustus asleep. When he tries to wake Faustus, he pulls off the doctor's leg. In the B-text only, he later protests with Carter, Dick, and Clown, and is struck dumb by Faustus.


A "ghost character" in the King of Moldavia's house in The Grocer's Honour portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. Rafe gives this character 12d by way of Pompiona so as not to be beholding to the king. He also gives her an additional 1s for the "butter" he used to anoint the Knight of the Burning Pestle's horse's back, which had become galled with riding. As there is truly no such person, one must imagine that the actor playing Pomponia keeps this money for himself.


Ralph is the horsekeeper in More's household in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. Along with Robin the brewer, Giles the porter, and the rest of the servants, he will receive a gift from More of twenty nobles in recognition of his loyal service.


Mistress Horseleech, a bawd and associate of Bots in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore, helps to distract Candido when Bots attempts to lure Candido's Bride into prostitution. Later, Horseleech is arrested by the Constable along with Bots and is taken to the Milanese version of Bridewell. There, she inadvertently destroys the alias of gentleman and soldier that Bots has adopted.


Horsus is Hengist's captain in Middleton's Hengist. He aids Hengist in putting down the rebellion against Vortiger but is secretly the lover of Hengist's daughter Roxena. Horsus aids Roxena in becoming Vortiger's queen. During the rebellion staged by Aurelius and his followers, Horsus tells Vortiger that Roxena is his lover; the two men fight and kill each other.


A cloddish gardener, neighbor of Acuto, Rustico, and Vulcano in the anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. He agrees with Rustico that holy days cut into the time for work; his antipathy to religious observances is even greater than that of his friends, however, for he would end fasting, too.


An owner of rarities and antiquities in Nabbes' The Bride. He first appears when Maligo and Rhenish arrive to see his antiquities, but soon Justice and Mistress Ferrett arrive with the Bride, whom they want to cheer up by also showing her Horten's antiquities. When Kickshaw arrives complaining of being robbed, Horton leaves with the Ferretts to deal with the situation, leaving the Bride with the merchants. He returns when Goodlove brings the injured Raven to his house, but leaves again on hearing that Kickshaw has robbed him. He returns a final time for the climactic series of scenes, during which he identifies his stolen antiquities in Kickshaw's pockets.


One of Bianca's suitors, and friend to Petruchio in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. When Petruchio and Grumio first arrive in Padua, they visit with Hortensio, who informs Petruchio about Katherine and tells him of Baptista's decree that Bianca shall not marry before Katherine. Petruchio agrees to woo Katherine and to present Hortensio, disguised as Licio, to Baptista as a music tutor for Baptista's daughters. As Licio, he has a lute broken over his head by Katherine, and he unsuccessfully tries to woo Bianca. When he fails to win Bianca, he goes to visit Petruchio in Verona, where he participates in Katherine's taming by following Petruchio's directions to eat her food and secretly to pay for a dress Petruchio has made for her and then destroyed. It is Hortensio who, while on the road back to Padua, convinces Katherine to give into Petruchio's demands and thereby gain what she wants. Finally, Hortensio is inspired to marry a wealthy widow of Padua and become a tamer himself.


Two characters are called Hortensio in Day's Humour Out of Breath.
  • Hortensio is Deputy to Duke Octavio and guardian to his daughter Florimel. In Q1 "Hortensio and others, attendants" enter with Octavio and his children at the beginning of the first scene. The Mermaid edition omits him from this scene altogether, presumably because he is mute and is not addressed or referred to; but it is likely that he is indeed meant to swell the progress, as Q1 and Bullen have it. When Octavio goes off to spy on his love-questing sons, Hortensio provides his disguise and is entrusted with watching over the wayward Florimel. After Florimel meets Aspero and their love-sparring causes her to weep, Hortensio threatens to imprison Aspero, but Florimel convinces him to leave him in her custody. Later Hortensio discovers that Aspero is really the son to his master's enemy, and with his assistant Assistance hauls Aspero off to real prison. Florimel, still in love with Aspero, convinces Hortensio to let her view the prisoner and while there she and her Page entice Hortensio into playing a game of Blind-man's Buff, in which they blindfold him and steal his gown. Aspero, now disguised as Hortensio, escapes, convincing the foolish Assistance that the imprisoned Hortensio is really Aspero. In a scene somewhat reminiscent of the imprisonment of Malvolio, Assistance mocks the frantic Hortensio-as-Aspero. When Octavio calls for the prisoner Aspero to be brought before him, Assistance can only produce the disheveled and disoriented Hortensio. Octavio sends them both off to prison for bungling, and both are absent from the long final scene.
  • Aspero in disguise. In order to escape from prison, Aspero dons a false beard and Hortensio's stolen gown. In this disguise he is able to deceive Hortensio's servant, Assistance, and make his getaway.


Hortensio is one of Brachiano's officers in Webster's The White Devil. When he overhears Lodovico and Francisco plotting, he raises the militia.


A disguise assumed by Galeazzo, the Prince of Milan and brother to the king, John Galas in Massinger's The Bashful Lover. He is referred to as Hortensio throughout most of the play. He takes the disguise to win honor in the upcoming war between Mantua and Florence by his own merits. If he can win enough glory for Mantua, he hopes to win the heart of Matilda. Beatrice, who notes his melancholy, lovesick looks, spots him. She learns from Ascanio that Hortensio is in love with Matilda. In fact, Hortensio has been paying Ascanio for information about her. He never approaches her but only watches from afar and sighs. They find this amusing and decide that he is just the man to cheer up Matilda. In their encounter, he asks only to be able to look upon her because to touch would be too presumptuous. Ascanio accuses him of being a eunuch, a line that takes on ironic import when we later learn that Ascanio is actually Maria in disguise. When Hortensio learns of his rivals (first the warrior Prince Uberti, and later the powerful Duke Lorenzo), he supposes that she will prefer them to his humble self. Yet, his princely behavior often shines through. When Alonzo comes from Tuscany demanding the immediate surrender of both Matilda and territory, Hortensio earns the Duke's respect by offering his military service in Mantua's defense. In the battle that ensues, he defeats Alonzo, but does not have the heart to kill him. He also saves Ascanio, by carrying him/her to the house of Octavio, where s/he is restored by aid of Octavio's elixirs. Walking in the forest, he encounters Alonzo about to rape Matilda, and wounds him grievously, seeming to kill him, thus saving Matilda and winning her heart. Martino briefly takes them captive. He presents them to Lorenzo, who frees them. The marriage of Matilda and Hortensio is almost barred on a legal technicality that requires royals to marry only other wealthy royals. The obstacle is removed when Hortensio reveals that he is Galeazzo, Duke of Milan.


A Venetian prince in Dekker's(?) Telltale and brother of Borgias, captured by the Duke of Florence's forces. Enters to the Duke with the court party and partakes in the Valentine's game. He chooses Elinor, the Duke's sister. After Elinor is also chosen by Garrullo, Hortensio gets into a comic dispute with Garrullo over service to her. Bentivoli takes up the dispute and accuses Hortensio of cowardice. Despite the Duke's intervention, Hortensio and Bentivoli end up agreeing to a duel the next morning. Hortensio loses the duel with Bentivoli and becomes melancholy at the loss combined with Elinor's claim that she does not love him but rather the foppish Garullo. In his distracted state he enters to Aspero, the lords, Elinor, Garullo disguised as a fool, Isabella, Lesbia, the Ambassador and the Doctors. He talks at length about fighting the Turk and also identifies Garullo despite his disguise. He then exits seeking the imaginary Turkish forces he vows to fight. He later enters with Borgias to the Boy disguised as Elinor and the Doctor. As the false Elinor begins to proclaim her love for Hortensio, his madness gradually dissolves. After she kisses him and exits, Horentsio vows to banish his lunacy permanently. The Ambassadors, Aspero, Cosmo, and Gismond enter to him and he apologizes for his earlier behavior. He tells Aspero how Elinor favored him just as the real Elinor along with Garullo disguised as a fool enter. When Hortensio reminds her of the favor she showed him a moment earlier, she denies his claims and storms out. The Doctor enters to the distracted Hortensio and tells him that by publicly revealing Elinor's love for him he left her no option but to scorn him. Hortensio promises the Doctor that he will not show any public signs of affection for Elinor. Later, he encounters Elinor and scorns her, just after she has confessed her love for him. The Doctor commends Hortensio for his performance and then, after assuring himself of Elinor's sincerity, facilitates their reconciliation. At the end of the play, Hortensio enters with the court for Aspero's coronation and marriage to Isabella. Aspero notes the dissatisfaction of the nobles and and demands that their concerns about his tyranny be cleared before he assumes the throne. The nobles react favorably to Aspero's promise to prove his innocence by having the French Doctor raise the spirits of the Duke, Duchess, Picentio, Julio, the Captain, Lieutenant, and Ancient, who will then say whether Aspero was responsible for their deaths. The court observes as the ghosts of the Duke, Duchess, Julio, Captain, Lieutenant and Ancient appear and are commanded by the French Doctor to show their approval or disapproval of Aspero. The ghosts indicate their favor and the nobles ask Aspero to pardon them. The court observes as the ghosts perform a dance, in which the Duke and Duchess take the crown and scepter. After the Duke is restored to power, Hortensio joins the court as they listen to Bentivoli's fable and witness the arrival of the purged Garullo, and then he exits with the court to celebrate his wedding to Elinor as well as the wedding of Picentio and Isabella.


Hortensio serves Ferrara as colonel in Shirley's The Imposture. Having fought in the battle to save Mantua, he knows of Bertoldi's cowardice. Nevertheless, he agrees to tell Bertoldi's mother Florelia that her son is and has been a valiant man, and Hortensio weds Florelia near the end of the play.


A usurer's servant in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens, like most of the servants he carries his master's name. He is one of the besiegers of Timon's house in III.iv.


Hortentia is Sforza's wife, Duchess of Milan in Cokain's Trappolin. She is present at the nuptials of Lavinio and Isabella, and ushers the newlyweds off to bed.


Hortenzo, a Spanish courtier, is Alvero's son and Isabella's lover in the anonymous Lust's Dominion. After the death of the old King Philip, Isabella's father, they decide to leave the court. They reappear towards the end of the play, when the Queen Mother wants to take the crown and Eleazar proposes that Isabella should become Queen instead. Isabella asks Hortenzo to save her brother and her mother from prison and death. He goes to Eleazar who, with no authority to do so, gives Hortenzo his ring to try what his name could effect, but when Hortenzo shows it to Zarack and Baltazar, they arrest him, and he is chained and yoked together with the Queen Mother, Prince Philip and the Cardinal. Bribed by Isabella, Zarack sets Hortenzo and Philip free and kills Baltazar. Philip then stabs Zarack. Isabella suggests that Philip and Hortenzo paint their faces black to look like Zarack and Baltazar. Eleazar, who mistakes them for his servants, has them rehearse the executions, and when he plays the Cardinal, Hortenzo yokes and manacles him (by way of demonstration) and thus prepares him for Philip, who kills him.

HOSA **1637

Servant to Orcanes in Carlell’s Osmond. He sets a garden house on fire to allow Orcanes access to Ozaca. He warns Orcanes to beware of Calibeus’ jealousy even after the king refuses to punish Orcanes for the ‘rape.’ He is first to beg Odmer not to commit suicide when they find Melcosbus dead. He tells Odmer that without him the Tartars will cease to be a people for there would be none to rule them.


A lord attending Alfonso in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll.


A fictional character in Wilde's Love's Hospital. Lysander compares himself to "a master of an hospitall" where, even if he could pick and choose, he would not be able to create a complete man out of Facetia's many suitors.


An old man in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. He invites Love and Conscience to dinner when they are suffering poverty. When Simplicity complains about the simple food, Hospitality reminds him that he is trying to help the poor, not lay on a banquet. Hospitality says bad things about Usury, who murders him in revenge.
A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London. Nemo recounts the events of the preceding play, in which Hospitality was murdered. According Nemo, Hospitality's ghost still haunts London.

HOST **1593

The unnamed Host is the innkeeper in charge of the house at which the disguised Julia (as Sebastian)stays along her journey to see Proteus in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona.

HOST **1599

Host of the Bell Inn in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle. He gives food and shelter to the Irishman and to Harpool and Lord and Lady Oldcastle.

HOST **1600

He is the owner of the house to which the Earl of Bedford has retreated in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell. The house is surrounded by the French.


The Hoste of the inn is an ambitious and greedy man in the anonymous The Contention Between Liberalitie and Prodigalitie. He will only let Prodigalitie in when the latter reveals he intends to spend a lot of money in his lodgings. However, he behaves in a different way with Tenacitie; they seem to be old acquaintances, and he is actually glad to see him there. As time goes by, the Hoste progressively starts to mistrust Prodigalitie.


The Host of the Captain's favorite ordinary spurns him when he's dressed in ragged attire in Heywood's Royal King. He changes his tune when the Captain reveals that he is rich, is rich, and the Captain puts him in his place.


The Host operates a tavern in Leicestershire frequented by Witgood in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. He is well-positioned to facilitate Witgood and the Courtesan's plan to "trick" Lucre, Hoard, and their other creditors by extorting their money. Posing as a servant to the wealthy widow Jane Medler (the Courtesan), he informs Witgood's Uncle Lucre of Witgood's plans to marry his mistress. This arouses Lucre's greed and, hoping to extort part of Witgood's new fortune through this match, he agrees to stand surety for his nephew and eventually forgives his mortgage. The host also bears the ring during Medler's marriage to Walkadine Hoard and is present when the courtesan's true identity is revealed to her new husband.


"Mine Host of the Hobby," as he is listed in the dramatis personae of Machin's(?) Every Woman in Her Humour, is a jolly fellow. He is one who proposes wine and sack as the solution to any brawl that might occur outside his inn. All are welcome at the Hobby: dandies, prosecutors of vice, bawds, servants, and dogs. The Host's declaration to his wife that he is to be the head and rule the house while she is to be the body and tend the house is met with resistance on the part of his wife, who eagerly listens to the Citizen's Wife's advice that the wife should rule her husband, body and purse. Acutus must believe that the Hostess is winning this war of the sexes, for he stages a wedding masque in which the Host plays the part of a goat. Acutus's lesson to the Host is that only a goat would allow the unnatural state of a wife domineering her husband.

HOST **1607

The Host of the Bell Inn in The Grocer's Honour portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. He plays along with the Knight of the Burning Pestle's conceit that he is a knight, too, but when he threatens to have Rafe arrested for nonpayment of his twelve-shilling bill, the grocer George steps up from the audience and pays the reckoning with real coin. The Host then plays a prank by having the Knight of the Burning Pestle fight with the "giant" Barbaroso, who is actually Nick the barber.


Landlord of the tavern where Rainsforth kills Frank in Heywood and Rowley's Fortune by Land and Sea. He tries to comfort Old Forrest.


The Host agrees to provide Jacamo with strong wine at Piso's request, promising to make Jacamo drunk in Fletcher's The Captain. In fact, the Host himself becomes drunk and, as the Tavern Boys note, is such a loving drunk that he says he will leave all of his estate to Jacamo instead of to his own wife.


Another name for the obsequious vintner or "host" who attends on Crates and Conon in Fletcher's Queen of Corinth when they drink at an inn. He serves them wine with his own hands and commanding the Drawer to wait upon them.


Introduces the masque given by Duke Earnest that concludes?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids.


The host informs Demetrius that Celia has been summoned to the court by his father in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant.


The name sometimes applied to the Hostess's husband in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil.


An innkeeper, named Rolando, who is the father of Bianca in Fletcher, Ford, Massinger and Webster's The Fair Maid of the Inn. Bianca's beauty attracts hordes of suitors to the inn, which pleases the Host because it brings in money. He goes along with Forobosco's plan to gull the suitors, because he finds it amusing. But when he finds Forobosco and the Clown trying to steal from Prospero's room, he captures them, and brings them before the Duke of Florence for punishment.


Host is the innkeeper at the New Inn in Jonson's The New Inn. Host tells Ferret that the sign of his establishment is the light heart, and everybody entering his house must be merry. Host says he imagines the world to be a play and he likes to watch people who display a variety of humors passing before his eyes at the inn. Host welcomes Beaufort and Latimer to the inn. When Tipto enters with Fly, Host mocks the braggart's limited learning, focused only on fencing. Lady Frampul enters with Frank (as Laetitia), accompanied by Prudence and Nurse, and Host admires privately Frank's eloquence and his female disguise. Host, together with Lady Frampul's party, plays a game in which Prudence is the supreme judge in a mock court of love. Host enters with Lady Frampul's party to play the mock trial. As the usher, Host makes Lovel and Lady Frampul pledge their oaths on Ovid's Ars amandi, and hears Lovel's romantic declarations to Lady Frampul. In the second session of the love court, while Lovel speaks about valor, Host has a brief intervention, alluding to the doctrine of the Spanish fencing masters on the subject of honor. When the mock trial ends, Host exits with Nurse. In another room at the inn, Host enters with Fly, whom he asks about the mock marriage in the stable between Beaufort and Frank as Laetitia. Host laughs at the prank played on Beaufort. In the final reunion scene, Host learns from Nurse that Frank, whom he considered a boy and adopted as his son, is actually a girl, Nurse's daughter. Then, Nurse reveals that she is Lady Frampul, Lord Frampul's wife, and Laetitia is their long-lost daughter. Overwhelmed with these revelations, Host discloses that he is Lord Frampul, and is happy to have discovered his wife and daughter.


Boxall is the landlord of the gaming den where Stephen Foster spends his money in William Rowley's A New Wonder: A Woman Never Vexed. He and Robert rescue Stephen when the gamesters attack him. During the fight, the Bowlers sneak in and steal Stephen, Robert and the Host's cloaks.


A "mad" host in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor, he takes Bardolph on as his tapster. He first instigates a fight between Evans and Dr. Caius, only to then beg them to make peace. He sends the combatants to different places, but when they discover the deceit, they join forces and cheat him of three horses. He also conspires with Fenton by providing two young boys to pose as Mistress Anne Page in "white" and in "green" and a priest to marry Fenton and Anne.


The Second Host is the owner of the inn in Barcelona where Philippo, Theodosia, Diego and Incubo stay in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. He delivers their orders for dinner to his wife, the Second Hostess, and tells her to cover up rotted meat with garlic. He also buys clothes, worn only once, at the request of Philippo, although it is not clear if the change of clothes is for him or one of the disguised women.


A Hostess from Henley in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. When the Oxford scholar Burden questions Friar Bacon's magical prowess, the friar demonstrates it by having a devil fetch the Hostess from Henley, and much to Burden's embarrassment, she promptly reveals that the scholar is a frequent visitor to her there.


The Hostess is the proprietor of the inn where Eumenides finds that his purse has been replenished with gold after his having spent all he had to pay for Jack's funeral in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale.

HOSTESS **1592

In the B-text only of Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, the tavern Hostess greets Clown, Carter, Horse-Courser, and Dick when they arrive to drink, demands payment from Clown for an outstanding debt, and complains that Faustus sent away her guests without paying.


A tavern-keeper in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. In the play's induction, the Hostess throws Christopher Sly out of her tavern for breaking glasses.


As Hostess at the Boar's Head Tavern in Eastcheap in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. Mistress Quickly, occasionally known as Dame Partlet, is well acquainted with the carousing of Falstaff and company. She is also on familiar terms with Prince Hal, who also frequents the tavern.

Also known as the Hostess of the Boar's Head Tavern in Eastcheap, Mistress Quickly has gone to considerable expense in meeting the needs of Falstaff in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. She reports to the Lord Chief Justice not only Falstaff's debt but also his promise to marry her. Despite her suit for redress, it is apparent that Mistress Quickly has tender feelings for Sir John and easily—if not willingly—lets herself be won over by his artifices, bragging, and excuses.
She is not a hostess but rather the servant to Dr. Caius in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. In a departure from the histories in which she appears, Falstaff does not in the beginning know her. Mistress Quickly attempts to help Slender in his quest to woo Mistress Anne. However, she is responsible not only for knowing the true feelings of Anne Page, but also for ensuring that her heart's desire is answered. She informs Mistress Anne of her parent's plans at Herne's Oak. She also conspires with Mistress Margaret Page and Mistress Alice Ford to help "cozen" Falstaff.
Pistol's wife in Shakespeare's Henry V. She is the Eastcheap tavern hostess known as Mistress Quickly in the Henry IV plays, is usually identified by the speech prefix "Hostess." See "QUICKLY, MISTRESS."

HOSTESS **1605

Also spelled Hostice in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho. The hostess of the inn at Ware, where all the parties meet at the end of the play. She brings in Maybery's Wife.


Hostess of the Hobby inn in Machin's(?) Every Woman in Her Humour. Encouraged by her friend the Citizen's Wife, the Hostess focuses her efforts on winning the constant battle for domestic supremacy. Her husband insists that he is the head of the house and she is to submit to authority. The Hostess, however, disappointed that her ruff is not as impressively deep as is fashionable, believes that she should be in control of her husband: body and purse. She attends the wedding with her friends the Citizen's Wife and Getica, pleased that she has been able to go to a court event without her husband, hoping that the entertainment will include naked men, and quite blatant about her willingness to cuckold her husband should the right courtier come along. What she gets instead is a masque organized by Acutus and starring her husband, wearing a goat's head. Acutus's message to the Host is that it is unnatural for a husband to be ruled by his wife. The Hostess's retort to Acutus is that he has a biscuit for a brain.


The hostess is the keeper of the tavern frequented by Hal, Falstaff and Poins in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. She is in awe of John Falstaff and enraged by him as well. The hostess voices admiration for Falstaff in the scene where he impersonates Henry IV and Hal. Yet she is furious when he accuses her of allowing him to be burgled in her house. Near the end of the play, the hostess reminds Falstaff that he had once proposed marriage to her. Falstaff agrees to marry her, so long as she forgives his debts and calls off the sheriff's guard, who are looking to arrest him.


Sometimes listed as Woman and given the heading Wo. or Wi. (for Wife) in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. The Hostesse is the woman who lives in the house on whose door the friars knock to ask for shelter for the night. She is reluctant to let them in because, as she explains, she is alone–her husband is absent–and she is afraid of their intentions not being so honest as they claim. But on hearing their insistent begging, she finally lets them into a close garret, on the condition that she will have to lock them in and keep the key in order to avoid suspicion–bearing in mind that she is a decent lady and her Husband is not in. However, immediately after that, the Constable–her lover–arrives, and she eagerly lets him in. He brings her a banquet but, when they are about to start eating, her Husband arrives. Thus, they have to hide the food in the cupboard, and the Constable has to hide himself under the bed. Later, when her husband learns that the friars are sleeping in the garret, he wants to release them and greet them, since they are friends of his. Then, by Fryer John's words, the Hostess realizes he has been spying on her and that she has been found out: when he pretends a spirit brings him food, she knows he is really taking the food she hid in the cupboard; and, to her dismay, he even reveals the presence of her lover, the Constable, to her Husband–though making him believe he is the personification of the spirit he had invoked, and urging his friend to kick him out of his house.


Wife of the Host in Fletcher, Ford, Massinger and Webster's The Fair Maid of the Inn. She is annoyed with the hordes of suitors who come to the inn to meet with their fair daughter, Bianca.

HOSTESS **1633

This unnamed Hostess in Marmion's A Fine Companion refuses to serve Captain Whibble and friends. Already she has allowed the Captain to run an unpaid tab, even providing him monies from her own purse. At play's end she weds Whibble.


The hostess of the inn where Bellamie and Cicely try to hide from their pursuers in Nabbes' Tottenham Court. She reappears briefly at the end of the play, when the various happy couples have paired off.


There are two hostesses in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage:
  • One Hostess is the wife of Diego. When the disguised Theodosia faints, the Hostess runs off to get water and revives Theodosia. She admits that they have only one room to offer, but is happy to be paid for both beds. She reports that Theodosia has not eaten, and suggests that "he" is ill. When Philippo arrives and requests dinner, the Hostess leaves with Diego to get it.
  • The Second Hostess is the wife of the Second Host and the sister of Diego (the first host). She prepares dinner for Theodosia, Philippo and Leocadia, commenting all the while on how little food is available. When Diego appears and asks for wine, the Hostess promises he shall have all he wants.


There are two women given this title in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV:
  1. Also known as Mistress Quickly, this hostess of the Boar's Head tavern in Eastcheap variously lauds Sir Falstaff and next sues to have him arrested for outstanding debt and failure to carry through on his marriage proposal.
  2. Also known as the Boar's Head Tavern hostess, Mistress Ursula claims to have received weekly marriage proposals from Falstaff.
See more on this character under "HOSTESS" or "QUICKLY, MISTRESS."


A Lord in Nero's court in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Captain. The Second Tavern Boy reports that the Host wants her to sleep with Jacamo and bear a child by him who would be able to drink as heavily as Jacamo. The Second Tavern Boy also reports that the Host, when drunk, tells Jacamo how he kidnapped his Wife from the country, brought her in disguise, spent nine days "bereaving her maidenhead," and getting her pregnant with "a drawer" on the tenth.


Hotspur is Henry Percy the younger, son of the Earl of Northumberland in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. Hot-headed and rash, Hotspur is a key player in the faction opposing King Henry IV. His temper flares easily, as we see early in the play when he refuses to hand over certain prisoners upon the demand of the king. The king admires him as "the theme of honor's tongue" and wishes that it could be discovered that Hotspur and not Hal was his real son, switched at infancy. Very much in love with his wife Lady Percy, Hotspur yet keeps from her the details of the rebellion in which he plans to play a part. He chooses to forge ahead with the Shrewsbury battle despite a lack of promised reinforcements, including that of his own father, believing that a victory with such short odds will be all the more glorious. Hotspur is slain at Shrewsbury by Prince Henry.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. Hotspur is the nickname for Henry Percy, son of the Earl of Northumberland. He does not appear on stage in this play, having been slain by Prince Henry at the battle of Shrewsbury in 1 Henry IV. His death is largely what induces Northumberland to swear revenge upon King Henry.
Hotspur is the nickname of Henry Percy, the Earl of Northumberland's famous warrior son in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. At the beginning of the play, Hotspur is Henry IV's most dependable military figure. Percy repels a number of dangerous challenges to the crown, most notably a rebellion by Douglas' Scottish forces. Percy angers Henry when he demands to use the ransoms of his Scottish prisoners to free his brother-in-law Mortimer from Owen Glendower. Henry believes Mortimer plans to claim the throne as Richard II's named heir, so Henry rejects Percy's demands. Hotspur feels betrayed, since it was the northern nobility that supported Henry's rise to power. Hotspur is convinced by his uncle Worcester and his father Northumberland to rebel against Henry IV. Percy is a quick-tempered immature Mars who shows his lack of shrewdness when he repeatedly underestimates Hal and when he insists upon insulting Owen Glendower. Percy, Mortimer and Glendower go so far as to pre-determine how the kingdom will be divided into three after Henry's defeat. Unfortunately for Percy, his friends begin to back out of the plot. Just before Percy is accosted by his wife, Percy reads a letter from an anonymous lord who refuses to assist the plan. Hotspur soon after learns that his father Northumberland is ill and will not send his forces to the field. As the day of battle nears, Percy also learns that Glendower will not appear in his protection. Hotspur interprets the mass desertions as an opportunity to gather more glory for himself. At the battle of Shrewsbury, Hotspur meets Hal on the battlefield. They fight and the Prince of Wales kills Percy.


Name given to the Burgomaster by Palsgrave in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk.


A ‘ghost character’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. Queen Elizabeth as sent him ahead with his fleet to confront the Spanish invasion at sea. According to Denham, Howard, Commander of the Fleet during the Spanish invasion, acquitted himself well with a bold stratagem that sunk the enemy fleet. This would have been Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham (1536 – 14 December 1624), known as Howard of Effingham, Lord High Admiral under Elizabeth I and James I. He was was chiefly responsible after Francis Drake for the victory over the Spanish Armada.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker, an English knight. With James Croft, he is one of Lord Grey's assistants in the Scottish campaign and is charged by Lord Grey with showing Queen Elizabeth's grievances to the Queen Regent of Scotland. During the battle of Leith, he holds a position between Mount Pelham and the sea in the west.


A favorite in Edward's court in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV, Lord Howard urges the king to be patient with the Duchess of York's ire concerning Edward's choice of wife. Howard also solicits funds from the London citizenry to support the war against France.
Howard is an English courtier in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV. He accompanies Edward to France. He suggests that his king demand homage and yearly tributes of Lewis, and he is sent in disguise to spy upon the duplicitous Count S. Paul.


Lord Howard does his best to protect Elizabeth in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. Though he is part of the council group that interrogates Elizabeth, he nonetheless makes certain that the king notices Elizabeth's death warrant among papers signatory. Howard bears the sceptre at Elizabeth's coronation and receives the title of high Admiral.


Thomas Howard, titled as the Earl of Surrey, is Buckingham's father-in-law in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. Sent as deputy to Ireland as safeguard against his interference in the plot against Buckingham, Howard returns to promise revenge for Buckingham's death.


Howell (or Hoel) is the king of "little Brittaine" in Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur. He along with Cador of Cornwall, urges Arthur to use military force against Mordred. He argues that Arthur's attempt to avoid conflict with his usurping son is unbecoming a monarch, whose first duty should be to country, not family. Fighting on Arthur's side in Cornwall, he is slain by the Irish king Gillamor, one of Mordred's allies.


Non-speaking role in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. A Welsh lord who attends on Hugh.


Gilbert's man in the anonymous The Wasp. He receives the farm, Ivy Bush, as inheritance from his "dead" master. He helps Gilbert feign his death and burial. Gerald then dispossesses him of his farm. Howlet disguises as a hangman from Breakneckshire and reports to his disguised master Gilbert (The Wasp) on Gerald's profligacy. He then becomes Countess Claridon's servant, still in disguise. As "Constable Fallbridge" he scares away her unwanted suitors, Grig Brandwell, Dampit, Kenwell, and Huntit. As "Just ice Bindover" he attempts to smooth the tension arising when Countess Claridon objects to The Wasp's handling of her estate. He reveals himself along with Gilbert in Marianus' court and is rewarded with Ivy Bush again.


The full name of the bawd Madge in Brome's The Weeding of Covent Garden. (See "MADGE").


Rice ap Howell, a Welshman, appears with the Mayor of Bristol before Queen Isabella and Mortimer in Marlowe's Edward II. As a demonstration of support, he presents them the captive Spencer Senior as a gift. Later he captures the defeated Edward II, hiding in the Abbey of Neath, along with Spencer and Baldock, and turns them all over to the Queen's party. Rice promises to reward the mower who alerted him to the whereabouts of the king and his final faithful courtiers.


  1. Family name of the deceased Hoyden, his first wife (unnamed) and his second wife (Audrey) and their children Timothy (Tim) and Thomas (Tom) in Brome's The Sparagus Garden.
  2. The elder Hoyden is a "ghost character." A yeoman of Taunton, father to Thomas and supposed father to Tim. Now dead, Tim disrespectfully describes him, as "as rank a clown as any in Somersetshire." It transpires that he was actually induced to marry Tim's mother, Audrey Striker, after she became pregnant by Touchwood and was cast out by her brother.


A "ghost character" in Brome's The Sparagus Garden. First wife to Hoyden and mother to Thomas. Timothy remarks that, unlike his mother, she was emphatically not a gentlewoman. (See "HOYDEN"; "TIMOTHY (or TIM) HOYDEN"; "THOMAS (or TOM) HOYDEN"; and "AUDREY HOYDEN").


Huanebango is a braggart knight in search of the missing Delia in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale. Accompanied by his servant Corebus (Booby), Huanebango lacks generosity in his encounter with Erestus, is struck deaf by the sorcerer Sacrapant, and finally marries the shrewish Zantippa. His bombastic rant and occasional use of hexameter lines may be an attempt to poke fun at Gabriel Harvey.


A Scythian, Humber's son in the anonymous Locrine. He kills Debon in II.vi.


Hubba is a humorous merry Danish captain in Burnell's Landgartha. He is considered to be a great warrior. He fights for Reyner. In Act Two, however, he is also thought to substitute his king. He does not want to marry any of the Amazons, and he tells Reyner that the emperor's daughter is prettier than anybody else, apart from a woman with having a good dowry. In Act Three, he attends the play with Marsisa, with whom he had fallen in love since he saw her fighting with Fatima. He wants to be her servant but she rejects him. Later, in Act Four, he goes to bring Inguar to Reyner, whom he opposes when he is ordered to destroy the kingdom after the king's departure. However, he goes with Reyner back to Denmark at the end.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Narcissus. Mother Hubbard is mentioned by the Porter when he tries to make the choir boys stay. Mother Hubbard is also a familiar character of British folklore, probably another ale-wife. She became extremely popular thanks to Old Mother Hubbard, a nursery rhyme written by Sarah Catherine Martin and printed in 1805, which was certainly based on earlier material, as the inclusion of that name in Narcissus: A Twelfe Night Merriment proves.


Hubert first appears defending Salisbury to John and condemning love poetry, but quickly emerges as John's main noble supporter in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. He is sent by John to follow Salisbury and Queen Isabel to Guildford, to take the castle while pretending he is simply there to protect the Queen. Hubert's reaction to this command is to promise to do whatever John wishes. When he arrives at the castle, he defends John's decision to Salisbury and the Queen. He is accused by Lady Bruce of being Arthur's fatal keeper, but Salisbury defends Hubert against that charge. When John arrives and finds that Lady's Bruce's son is missing, he sets Hubert, with Chester, to guard the castle, and they are there when Bruce arrives. Hubert is present when Brand is ordered to starve Lady Bruce and her son, but his aside makes clear that, although he suspects something terrible, he has not heard the actual commands. In the second battle, Hubert takes Matilda and tells her she must be given over to John. Matilda begs for mercy and reminds him that he disobeyed John when the latter ordered him to sear Arthur's eyes. Hubert is moved and calls a soldier to escort her to Dunmow Abbey to join the nuns. When John's forces overcome the rebels, it is Hubert who asks for their surrender, and tells Fitzwater that his daughter is safe in the abbey. When the Abbess claims that no man enters the abbey, Hubert tells John that a Monk comes once a week, and this gives John the idea of using the Monk as a go-between. After hearing this plan, and John's command to Brand to poison Matilda if she will not yield, Hubert explains in a lengthy soliloquy why he continues to follow John, claiming that subjects cannot overthrow their rulers, no matter how bad. Although he is present in the final scene, and is ordered by John to bring in white candles for Matilda's bier, he does not speak. (See "BONVILLE").


Hubert is a brave commander in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier, who is angered when Henrick and Bellizarius take the credit for winning a battle against the Christians. King Genzerick tries to settle the dispute by making Hubert Master of Horse to Henrick, and scholar to Bellizarius, but Hubert privately feels slighted by these low-ranking positions. Later, he tells Damianus about a Christian lady whose aura of holiness made him unable to kill her. Hubert then falls in love with Bellina. She insists that he must convert to Christianity before they can marry and offers to be his tutor. Hubert is then made sole general in a new purge of Christians and is tempted by this chance for glory. But Bellina reminds him of his vows, and he agrees not to go. When King Henrick is killed by a thunderbolt, Hubert enters with soldiers, and the voices of the people are heard calling for him to be the new King. The lords agree to crown Hubert, and only then does he tell them that he is now a Christian and that they must all convert. Finally, he makes Bellina his queen.


Hubert is a loyal courtier taken as he attempts to flee to those nobles who oppose the Flemish usurper Wolfort in Fletcher's Beggars' Bush. Those nobles include Gerrard the father of Hubert's beloved Jacqueline. When Wolfort feigns remorse, offers to resign his usurped title, and urges Hubert to seek Gerrard and Jacqueline at Bruges, the courtier (reacting out of his own good nature) tries to believe that the Wolfort is being truly honorable, and accepts the assignment. Later, when Wolfort's captain Hemskirk gives evidence that Wolfort is simply using him to find Gerrard, the father of Florez the rightful earl, Hubert disguises himself as a forester, pretends to arrange the capture of the loyal lords, but instead arranges a trap for Wolfort and Hemskirk. At the end of the play, he has been reunited with his beloved Jacqueline, and they are engaged to be married.


He is an Earl loyal to John in Davenport's King John and Matilda. He hotly denies the ongoing rumors of his part in the death of Arthur Plantagenet. He swears to Lady Bruce that he intends only to take her young son as an honorable hostage for the King. He brings the King the news that Young Bruce has rescued Matilda. This news prompts the attack and rescue of Chester. During the fight following the masquers's attempt to abduct Matilda, Hubert ensures their success by taking up Fitzwater's glove and using it as a false token. He shows it to Richmond and convinces him that it betokens her father's instructions to take her away. He tries to tempt Matilda to accept the King's advances, but he is persuaded to relent and convey her in safety to sanctuary at Dunmow Abbey. He sends John the news that she has taken her vows and later accompanies her cortège in mourning.


Appointed by John to guard Arthur in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John, Hubert de Burgh receives the king's warrant to put out the boy's eyes, and binds him to a chair in order to do so. Arthur's arguments persuade him, however, that his duty to God supersedes his duty to his king. He spares Arthur, but tells the king that the boy is dead. When the news alienates the lords and dismays the king, Hubert confesses that Arthur is still alive. The good news ends Part I.
Arriving just after the three earls find Arthur's body at the foot of the castle walls in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John, Hubert, the boy's keeper, insists that he left him safe and well. He returns to the king with the fateful news.
Hubert is a follower of King John in Shakespeare's King John. When Arthur is captured, John gives him over to Hubert for execution. Apparently that order is changed, since Hubert arrives with a warrant to blind Arthur. He gives in to the pleas of Arthur and promises to hide him. He returns to John and announces that the dead is done, but when John regrets his decision and blames Hubert, Hubert reveals that Arthur is still alive. He returns to the castle where Arthur was kept, only to find that the boy has tried to escape and fallen to his death. He is called a murderer by Pembroke, Salisbury and Bigot, but is defended by the Bastard, who believes him. During the battles against the Dauphin, Hubert meets with John, bringing him news of the battle, and then seeks out the Bastard to tell him John has been poisoned by a monk and seems likely to die.


Sir Hubert Subboys is the father to Beatrice and Crispinella in Marston's Dutch Courtesan. He hosts a masque to celebrate Beatrice and Freevill's impending nuptials, but it is broken up when Malheureux and Freevill argue. Later in the play, Sir Hubert participates in the search for the supposedly dead Freevill and the supposedly guilty Malheureux. Sir Hubert says very little. After Freevill reveals that he is alive, Sir Hubert rejoices that Beatrice and Freevill will at last be married; however, it is Cockledemoy, not Sir Hubert, who ends the play by inviting everyone, especially himself, to the wedding.


Likely an actor's name in Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida. He is noted on the walls of Troy with Hector, Deiphobus, and Paris as they watch Antenor's pursuit by Diomede and Ajax. As Mr. Jones likely played Priam, this actor must have played another Trojan but just who that might have been is unrecoverable from the extant fragmentary plot. No other Trojans are unaccounted for in the present sequence.


Only mentioned in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus. Iudicio has little respect for Thomas Hudson, the translator of DuBartas.


A ruffian soldier in Preston's Cambises, Huf, along with Ruf and Snuf, fights briefly with Ambidexter, only to make up with the realization that Ambidexter can help them in their desire to gain from the war.


Hodge Huffle is a drunkard and a guest at the New Inn in Jonson's The New Inn. Pierce says he is a fine gentleman, like Bust, and a friend of Jordan. According to Pierce, Huffle would drink at lunch hour, and then he would call grandly for his Jordan (the piss-pot), so full of self-importance as if he pissed politics. Huffle drinks with Tipto, Burst, and Fly, but does not take part in the discussion, or in the ensuing quarrel. He only orders more wine.


A "ghost character" in Porter's 1 The Two Angry Women of Abingdon. Hugh is a servant who is mentioned but never appears. The name may be a misprint.


Justice Reason's servant in (?)Heywood's How A Man May Choose A Good Wife From A Bad. Accompanies Justice Reason to the feast at Young Master Arthur's where he plots with Pipkin to steal food in the buttery while the others are feasting. After the feast ends, Hugh returns to fetch Justice Reason's gloves and meets the distraught Pipkin, lamenting Mistress Arthur's supposed death and beating Hugh in the process. Later Hugh appears with Brabo, the Officers, and Mistress Splay to arrest the impoverished and despairing Young Master Arthur. Hugh reluctantly participates in the arrest, and orders the Officers to take Young Master Arthur away. At the end of the play he brings Young Master Arthur before Justice Reason to face the charge of murder brought against him by Mistress Mary. Justice Reason sends Hugh to fetch Aminadab to face a charge of selling poison; he brings in Aminadab.


Sir Hugh is a Welsh prince, son of the King of Powys in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. He is a suitor of Winifred. Hugh offers Winifred three months to consider his suit, in order to prove the constancy of his love. But when he returns to her, Winifred has decided to remain a virgin and enter a cloister. Depressed, Hugh decides to spend the rest of his life in "some humble mean," and, without disguising his identity, becomes an apprentice to the Shoemaker with whom Crispinus and Crispianus are working. When Hugh learns that Winifred is to be executed he tries to save her, but he is captured and condemned to death alongside her. On the scaffold, Winifred vows that they will have a spiritual marriage in heaven, and Hugh is then executed by being forced to drink a poisoned cup of Winifred's blood. As he dies, he bequeaths his bones to the shoemakers to bury, and names them 'The Gentle Craft'. The shoemakers christen him Saint Hugh, patron saint of shoemakers, and the Emperors permit them to take an annual holiday in his honour.


Non-speaking role in William Rowley's A Match at Midnight. One of the Widow's servants, who accompanies Mary the maid when she travels across London to get a ruff for her mistress.


A gamester in William Rowley's A New Wonder: A Woman Never Vexed. When Stephen claims that there has been cheating in a game of dice, Hugh and the other gamesters attack him, but they are beaten off by Robert and the Host. During the fight, the Bowlers sneak in and steal Stephen, Robert and the Host's cloaks.


Hugh is Sir Oliver's servingman in ?Brewer's The Country Girl. He tells his master that there is nothing to do to get Lady Mosely's love. Later, he helps Mr. William and Cutbert in their plan.

HUGH **1641

Hugh in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden is the Drawer of the Feathers Tavern, adjoining the Counter; formerly of the Bear on Fleet Bridge. He serves drinks to the gallants while they are in prison.


Appearing early in Peele's Edward I with his mistress Guenthian and his novice Jack, Friar Hugh ap David soon falls in with Prince Lluellen and his party. In the Robin Hood role-playing scenes, he assumes the role of Friar Tuck, actually calling himself Friar David ap Tuck. When Lluellen is defeated, the friar "retires" his pick-staff (nicknamed Richard) by hanging it in a tree and is pardoned by the victorious Mortimer.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Hugh Broughton was a rabbinical scholar who died in 1612. Face explains to Mammon that the "lady" he saw in Subtle's study (Dol Common in disguise) is a noble scholar who has gone mad with too much learning, especially with studying Broughton's works in Hebrew. When she plays the "mad" lady before Mammon, Doll's gibberish incorporates phrases from Hugh Broughton's Concent of Scriptures.


The Vicar of Pancras in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub. He arrives at Tub Hall on the dawn of St. Valentine's Day to warn the Squire that his beloved, Audrey Turfe, is to be married off that day to John Clay. His real allegiance, though, is with Justice Preamble, and he agrees to marry Audrey to him when Preamble steals her away from Squire Tripoly Tub. His ponderous reading of the marriage service, however, gives Tobie Turfe time to rescue Audrey before the service is complete. To mollify Preamble (and extract more bribe money from him), he comes up with another plan, this time to disguise himself (fake wounds and all) as the pseudonymous "Captain Thumb" invented by Basket Hilts. This time, he accuses Turfe of protecting the accused thief, Clay, and brings him before Justice Preamble. "Captain Thumb" requests that the restitution be delivered to Canon Hugh. The money and the bride, however, are intercepted by Squire Tripoly Tub and Basket Hilts. At the Canon's, it is discovered that Canon Hugh, fooled by her disguise, has married Audrey to Pol-Marten. (Listed in d.p. as "Chan: Hugh")


A Welsh parson in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor who conspires with Slender to woo Anne Page in order to garner George Page's wealth. His efforts on Slender's behalf win him the enmity of Dr. Caius, but when the Host of the Garter sends the two of them to different places to duel, they discover the trickery and join forces to steal three of the Host's horses. During Falstaff's torment in Windsor Park, he takes the part of a satyr.


A wild gallant, the friend and rival of Artlove in Nabbes' Covent Garden. He represents the sensual pleasures of the flesh in opposition to the ideals of Platonic love represented by Artlove. Jerker tries to convince Artlove that "drinking and wenching are the only virtues in a gentleman of the last edition", and later woos Lady Worthy, whom he had previously courted years earlier, in a subplot parallel to Artlove's wooing of Dorothy Worthy. After Lady Worthy has resisted his blandishments, he declares that he has reformed and will cease wooing her. The two of them then briefly trick Sir Generous into thinking that they have had an affair before finally revealing the truth.


Hugh Lacy is the brother of Lord Lacy in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. After Robin and Marian escape, he is accused by his brother of plotting with Prince John and the others to outlaw Robin. John, who is upset at Marian's escape, stabs and kills him, apparently believing he helped Robin and Marian.


Sir Hugh Lacy is the Earl of Lincoln and uncle of Rowland Lacy in Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday. He disapproves of his nephew's liaison with Rose Oatley, the daughter of the Lord Mayor of London. He hopes that the war in France, where Rowland is sent to fight, will put an end to the affair. Having learned from Dodger, his loyal parasite, that his nephew did not go to France after all, he tries to prevent the marriage between Rowland and Rose, but is fooled by Firk, one of Simon Eyre's journeymen, who sends him and Rose's father, Sir Roger Oatley to the wrong church. Finally, he has to accept his nephew's marriage with a citizen's daughter when the King of England himself vindicates the match during Simon Eyre's Shrove Tuesday breakfast.


A "ghost character" in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. Hugh le Brun was engaged to Isabel before she married John, and is a background threat of rebellion during the play.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Carion believes that Plutus must have been begot in the silver mine that Middleton found in Wales. Middleton is mentioned several times in different contexts by different characters throughout the play.


An impecunious and debauched knight in Brome's The Sparagus Garden, who lodges with Brittleware and Rebecca, and who is always trying to borrow money. He is the widower of Will Striker's daughter, whom he drove into an early grave with his excesses and for whom he is now in perpetual mourning because he cannot afford a new suit of clothes (hence his nickname, 'the mourning knight.') The late Lady Moneylacks bore him a daughter, Annabel, who Striker has brought up and wishes to adopt. He manages to get a coin out of his reluctant father-in-law by telling him about the affair between Annabel and Samuel Touchwood. Striker remarks that he has "a wit, and a projective one"; he is always engendering new get-rich-quick schemes, many of which involve 'guest-gathering' for Martha's inn at her husband's Asparagus Garden. One such scheme emerges when he assures his landlady, Rebecca, that asparagus is the most "provocative" tonic for a lady that longs to become pregnant; another when he gulls the young would-be gentleman, Tim Hoyden, into gentrifying himself by eating genteel foods such as asparagus. Having achieved these schemes, he pursues another one when he blackmails Striker by threatening to disclose Annabel's 'pregnancy' to Sir Arnold Cautious, the groom Striker intends for her; once Striker pays him, he gets money from Sir Arnold by claiming that he has already promised his daughter elsewhere and needs money to annul the match. When Samuel's plot and Tim's true parentage are revealed and Annabel is restored to Samuel, Sir Hugh and his confederates are charged to make restitution to Tim for the money they gulled of him—but in the general good will it appears that they shall easily avoid doing so.


Sir John Mortimer and Sir Hugh Mortimer, uncles of Richard, Duke of York in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI, die defending him against the forces which Queen Margaret has assembled to defend her son Edward Prince of Wales's right to inherit the throne from Henry.


One of the watchmen in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, but not the first or second. When Dogberry asks the night watchmen to nominate a constable, the first watchman recommends Hugh Oatcake and George Seacole because both can read and write. Dogberry accepts the nomination of Seacole, who is referred to as second watch in the speech headings. Dogberry addresses Seacole directly, but Oatcake is not specifically identified within the group.


A "ghost character" in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Sir Hugh Pie is one of the individuals Merrygreek admits to having sponged from before taking up with Ralph Roister Doister.


A musician in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet hired to play at Juliet's wedding to Paris.


Sir Hugh is a Welsh prince, son of the King of Powys in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. He is a suitor of Winifred. Hugh offers Winifred three months to consider his suit, in order to prove the constancy of his love. But when he returns to her, Winifred has decided to remain a virgin and enter a cloister. Depressed, Hugh decides to spend the rest of his life in "some humble mean," and, without disguising his identity, becomes an apprentice to the Shoemaker with whom Crispinus and Crispianus are working. When Hugh learns that Winifred is to be executed he tries to save her, but he is captured and condemned to death alongside her. On the scaffold, Winifred vows that they will have a spiritual marriage in heaven, and Hugh is then executed by being forced to drink a poisoned cup of Winifred's blood. As he dies, he bequeaths his bones to the shoemakers to bury, and names them 'The Gentle Craft'. The shoemakers christen him Saint Hugh, patron saint of shoemakers, and the Emperors permit them to take an annual holiday in his honour.


Hugh Sexten is a member of the troupe of crude amateur actors in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. They come to entertain the lords Moorton and Pembrooke on the night before their wedding. The peasant-actors debate over which of them should have the opening speech. Hugh claims he is entitled to say the opening address because he has taken pains in composing it. When the others elect Turnop to deliver the welcoming oration, Hugh says Turnop deserves the leading role because he has more learning and has borrowed the usher's old coat to look more suitable. The unprofessional actors perform an amateurish dumb pageant in honor of Moorton and Pembrooke. During the night, the peasant-actors rehearse their song of dedication to the brides near the house where the bridegrooms are lodged. When Shrimp replaces Will's Welsh song with his own song about the ladies' elopement, the clowns are accused of involvement in the escape plan. When Chester demands an explanation from the actors, Hugh replies that Tom should answer, being the oldest among them. Chester sends the troupe of actors and his servants in search of the ladies. At Gosselin's castle, John a Cumber discusses with the actors the play they are going to act before the lords Llewllen, Chester, Moorton, and Pembrooke. This play is intended to be a mockery of John a Kent, with John a Cumber playing John a Kent. Yet, the actors arrive after the play is enacted with the real characters acting as themselves, and John a Cumber is humiliated in the disguise of John a Kent. The actors see the person whom they think to be John a Kent (actually John a Cumber in disguise) and begin spilling their abuse upon him, as taught by John a Cumber. After they perform this last act of John a Cumber's humiliation through disguise and misrepresentation, the actors exit to do their daily jobs.


Sir Hugh conducts the trial of Young Marlove in ?Glapthorne's The Lady Mother, first interrogating Sir Geffery, who informs him that he believes Lady Marlove wanted Thurston killed because he had gotten her daughter with child. Shortly into the trial, the Recorder takes over the questioning and brings the trial to a conclusion.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's The Sea Voyage from whose shoulder Albert's ship's surgeon removed a great wen, which the starving Franville proposes to eat before Albert arrives with food.


A tiler in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Enters with Jenkin as well as roof tiles and a ladder. Before beginning work, leaves with Jenkin for a pot of ale and a toast to warm up. Returns with Jenkin to meet Clunie and the watch searching for Sands; denies seeing Sands, and is arrested by Clunie for aiding Sands' escape. Brought by Clunie before Bonner and Gardner, who readily accept Clunie's charge of aiding Sands' escape and demand that he be burned at the stake. After arrival of news concerning the Duchess, Hugh Tiler and Jenkin are forgotten; Foxe advises them to go home rather than wait for Bonner and Gardner's return.


Hughball is a doctor in Brome's The Antipodes with a reputation for success in treating mental patients without the use of medicine. At Joyless's request, Hughball sets out to cure Peregrine of his wanderlust by using the inset play of the Antipodes, staged by Letoy.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. Sir Rud Hughdibras is a semi-legendary pre-historic king of Britain. The genealogy of English kings records Rud Hughdibras as the son of Leil and father of Bladud, father of Leir, whose daughters were Gonerilla, Regan, and Cordeilla. Since the legendary British king is known as a good swordsman, Fly boasts that Host has an ancient sword in his house, made of Cornish blade, supposed to have belonged to Sir Rud Hughdibras. Thus, Fly shows that Host comes from an ancient family, which foreshadows the final revelation that Host is Lord Frampul.


A precise scrivener and suitor to Mistress Ursely for the parsonage’s sake in Hausted’s Rival Friends. If he gets Ursely, he means to do away with Bully Lively by introducing a pin into his bread or a burr in his butter and so gain the parsonage. Lively imagines him to be the likeliest of the suitors to win Ursely. When Bully Lively pretends to die, he and the other suitors begin pulling at Ursely as on a rope to win her quickly. When Anteros receives the parsonage deed and Sacrilege Hook drives Hugo off, he and the other suitors flock to Anteros and call him patron. He is a “a shorn-beard villain . . . would fain turn priest." He is driven off by Anteros as unworthy to marry his sister.


A Druid in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. He and his colleague Lantonus discuss the immortality of the soul and reincarnation. On Cassibelane's request, they then have to perform a ritual to get an oracle from Andates, the Moon Goddess, which Lantonus only solves at the end of the play. Towards the end of the play, Volusenus brings Hulacus as prisoner to Caesar. Caesar asks him questions about god and man, and about his own future. Hulacus tells him to keep away from the Senate house and to beware of Brutus.


King of the Goths in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. During the battle with the Romans, he captures the Roman standard. Crispianus recaptures it and kills Huldrick.


Huldrick, an old soldier who fought for Canutus' father, tries to bring Canutus to his senses by snatching Cartesmunda away from him in Brewer's The Lovesick King. In the ensuing scuffle, both Huldrick and Cartesmunda are killed by Canutus.


Family name of Matthew (guardian of Quicksands's idiot bastard) and the fictional John Hulverhead (the country disguise assumed by Arnold at Quicksands' feast) in Brome's The English Moor.


Presents himself as a student to Nature in Rastell's Four Elements. After Nature's departure, though, he begins to question certain scientific mysteries and turns to Studious Desire to help him puzzle them out. Ignoring Studious Desire's warnings against spending time with Sensual Appetite, he accompanies him to a tavern. He returns to learn from Experience that there are proofs of the earth's roundness, but tires of his experiments and rejoins Sensual Appetite, getting into a bar brawl with him and then hiding. He is discovered by Ignorance and Sensual Appetite, and agrees to forsake learning for their company. After he enjoys a musical interlude devised by Sensual Appetite, and listens to a ballad sung by Ignorance, he is chastised by Nature for wasting time. The rest of the play is lost.


A young monarch, initially pious and sincere in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates. When he sees Lady Sensuality, however, he is overcome with desire and sends Solace and Wantonness to woo her with rich gifts. Learning of her willingness, he begs his courtiers to teach him the arts of love, and makes love to Lady Sensuality when she arrives at court. Asked by Lady Sensuality to banish Chastity, he complies and has her put into the stocks with Verity, and goes to sleep in Sensuality's arms. Awakened by Divine Correction, he submits to his authority and welcomes Good Counsel, Verity, and Chastity as his courtiers in place of the banished Sensuality, Solace, Placebo, and Wantonness. He orders Diligence to call up a parliament of the Three Estates. Informed that his advisors (Sapience, Discretion, and Devotion) were really the Vices in disguise, he asks Good Counsel to help him avoid making such mistakes in future. He and Divine Correction begin to reign jointly. In the Second Part, King Humanity and King Correction examine the Three Estates to discover why they have become "backward."


The Scythian Emperor, Hubba's father in the anonymous Locrine. He wants to invade Albion. He wins the battle against Albanact, but loses against Locrine. After the battle his wife Estrild believes him dead and is led by two soldiers to Locrine's camp. She agrees to marry Locrine. Humber is all alone and hungry. He hears Strumbo eating and wants to force him to give him some meat, but Albanact's Ghost frightens Strumbo away. Humber, it comments, has no right to eat because he invaded a country that was not his. For seven years Humber lives in a cave, hungry and fearful that Locrine might come and kill him. He drowns himself in the river that will bear his name. Albanact's Ghost rejoices and goes back to hell to tell his father, Brutus, the good news.


A priest in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. At Eleanor's behest, the duplicitous priest Hume arranges a séance in which Roger Bolingbrook, the priests Hume and Southwell, and the witch Margery Jourdain conjure a spirit who will ostensibly help Eleanor to become queen. Hume is secretly working for Cardinal Beaufort and Suffolk, who plan to use Eleanor to discredit her husband, the Duke of Gloucester. With Hume's collusion the séance is interrupted and the participants arrested. King Henry condemns the three men to the gallows, Margery Jourdain to Smithfield where she will be burnt as a witch, and Eleanor to the Isle of Man where she will live in exile after a public humiliation.


A non-speaking character in Greene's George a Greene. Humes is a Scottish lord who is with King James when the latter enters England to attempt to woo Jane a Barley. He is killed in the ensuing battle by Cuddie.


See also HUMFRY, HUMPHREY and related spellings.


Sir Humfrey Dryground is an old decayed knight in Brome's The Damoiselle. He mortgages part of his state to Vermine to make some money and get rid of his debt. He has a project to recover his former status. Being asked about it by the usurer, Dryground reveals that he is going to use the money on behalf of the poor gentlemen that had had businesses with Vermine in the past. He blames Vermine for his avarice, which has destroyed the lives of so many honest people. He asks Vermine to help Brookall not to suffer from the consequences of his acts. Dryground tells Vermine that Brookall also has a son and he asks the usurer to give his daughter to Brookall's son as his wife in order to restore his father's status at the same time that Vermine gains a Christian reputation. Dryground has also been Wat's infranchiser when he had problems with money. However, he has not always been a good man. Dryground has a daughter called Frances whom he prostitutes in the brothel. Also, he used to be married with a virtuous woman. When she died, he courted Elianor, Brookall's sister, making her lose her honor. He apologized to Elianor for not being able to keep his word to marry her in a letter that he wrote. With her, he had Phillis whom he meets later in the play and he will give her to Wat as his wife. At the end, he recovers his status matching his daughter to the usurer's son and he restores his damage by marrying Brookall's son with Alice.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Pater, Filius et Uxor. Humfrey does not physically appear in the fragment of this interlude that has been preserved. He is mentioned by Servus, who affirms that Humfrey was beaten by his wife, sometimes even twice a day.


A "ghost character" in Cavendish & Shirley's Country Captain. Humfrey is the stableman.


See also HUMFREY, HUMPHREY and related spellings.


Bowdler is a vain and blustering gallant in love with Mall Berry in [?]Heywood's The Fair Maid of the Exchange. When Bowdler is tongue-tied upon Mall's entry, the Cripple asks if there's nothing in his reading he might use to impress the young woman. Bowdler confesses to having read only one book in his life–Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis–but his attempts to use lines from that work are turned back by Mall's wit. Mall will later agree to marry Bowdler, only to forsake him at the end for Barnard.


Humil is a gentleman, son of James and the Lady in Armin's The Two Maids of More–Clacke. He wants to marry one widow from More-Clacke now that her father has offered her to him. When he meets James, Humil does not recognize him as his father although later he confesses that his father has treated him well when he was young. Humil accompanies Sir William to look for Mary instead of going to Richmond as he wanted. He writes a letter to Sir William telling him about the adultery of his mother with James. However, later he regrets having written such a letter. Nevertheless, he takes the disguise of an Apothecary to poison his mother. He takes his disguise off in front of his mother when she tells him that James is his father. But, it is too late and he becomes the murderer of his mother.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. A true, virginal maiden. One among the "true religious" men and "holy women" whom Hick Scorner was glad to see drown in the Irish Sea at the Race of Ireland when their thirteen ships foundered and sank.


Brother to Charity in the anonymous Youth. Enters searching for Charity, whom he finds in the stocks. Releases Charity from the stocks and agrees to join Charity in persuading Youth to forsake sin. After Youth abandons vice and embraces virtue, Humility instructs Youth to pray to God for mercy. He then tells Youth that he should call himself Good Contrition and gives him a set of beads for prayer. At the end of the interlude, Humility blesses the audience.


Humility chastises Disobedience for striking Temperance in the anonymous Temperance and Humility. She begs God to banish Disobedience and to allow Grace to drive vice from every man. She upbraids Disobedience for the trouble that he has caused in the world.


The disguise assumed by Rigor in Wager's The Cruel Debtor to accompany Ophiletis into the presence of king Basileus.


Humility is one of the four Virtues that conclude Lupton's All For Money. She reminds the audience of the value of meekness.


Humility is a character in "The Triumph of Time," the final play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He accompanies Anthropos along with Poverty.


A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the eleven virtues that regulate the affections. The ninth in the wave of attack against the Vices. Sordidity, Pride, Envy, and Curiosity are the extremes of Humility.


Master Humpherie comes to Court with the Mayor of Rochester and George Browne, but he never speaks in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women.


See also HUMPHERIE, HUMFREY, HUMFRY and related spellings.


A servant to Lady Faukenbridge in Chettle's(?) Looke About You.


Master Humphrey is Venturewell's friend and favorite for Luce's hand in The London Merchant portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. He is tricked into believing that Luce returns his affections and agrees, according to her wishes, to steal her away from the house. Once in Waltham Forest, he is tricked, and Luce is reunited with Jasper. Jasper then beats him off the stage along with his champion, Rafe. Humphrey goes to Venturewell, and together they reclaim Luce at the moment Jasper is pretending to threaten her with his sword. He prepares to marry Luce in three days. When Venturewell has a change of heart, though, and beats Humphrey out of doors, Humphrey determines to go to St. Faith's Church under St. Paul's.


Along with Ralph and Roger, Humphrey helps the sisters Isabel and Widow to pack to go into the country in Fletcher's Wit Without Money. They are all unhappy that they have to go along, and will miss the tavern and the girls there.


Bowes is a Justice in King Edward's realm in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV. He offers a dinner invitation to the King and Queen during a hunting expedition, and he proposes financial aid to the king's war effort against the French.


Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester is Henry IV's son in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. He attends to his dying father throughout the latter part of the play. When Henry assumes the throne, Gloucester is assured that the new king will be generous with all of his brothers, including Gloucester.


Mistress Fitchow's servant in Brome's The Northern Lass. After her disastrous marriage to Sir Philip Luckless, Mistress Fitchow pretends to sack Howdee, but her real plan is to set him up in service to Constance, Sir Paul's niece, so that he may help to promote a match between Constance and Master Widgine. Ironically, he is then employed to serve as gentleman usher to Sir Paul's new mistress, Constance Holdup, who is masquerading as the real Northern Lass. Confused by this disguise, Howdee inadvertently abets the marriages of Sir Philip to the real Constance and of Master Widgine to the prostitute Holdup. He is chiefly remarkable as the author of the witty 'Gentleman Usher's Grammar.'


Humphrey, Duke of Buckingham, is King Henry's cousin in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. He informs Henry and Gloucester that Gloucester's wife Eleanor has been arrested for her part in a séance which enlisted a spirit, a witch, a conjurer and two priests in league against Henry. Later, Buckingham and Lord Clifford attempt to end Jack Cade's rebellion by promising that Cade's supporters will be pardoned if they relent, but Cade persuades the rebels that such promises cannot be trusted. He later accepts York's capitulation to the crown. In history he was Humphrey Stafford.
A "ghost character" in Shakspeare's 3 Henry VI. In the opening moments of the play, Edward Plantagenet boasts that he has given Lord Buckingham, Stafford's father, a dangerous wound. Edward crows, "I cleft his beaver with a downright blow." Buckingham's blood is displayed upon Edward's sword. He has, in fact, been slain.


Prince Humphrey is the Duke of Gloucester, younger brother of Hal, and a son of King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. He is urged by his father to love Prince Hal, and he is concerned with common talk of unnatural happenings that portend tragedy for King Henry IV.
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester in Shakespeare's Henry V, is the youngest son of Henry IV, brother of the Duke of Bedford, the Duke of Clarence and Henry. Although he is in charge of the siege at Harfleur, Gower suggests that he is "altogether directed" by Macmorris.

Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, uncle of Henry VI, becomes Lord Protector when Henry accedes to the throne in the first scene of the play. Gloucester's faction and the Cardinal of Winchester's are in conflict about who will control the realm now headed by the boy king Henry VI. At Henry's command, Gloucester orders his supporters to cease their stone-throwing skirmish with Winchester's faction, and he shakes hands with Winchester. Gloucester tries to make peace between the Yorkist and Lancastrian factions, to no avail.
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester is Lord Protector of the realm, the chief advisor to his nephew King Henry in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. In the first scene of 2 Henry VI, Gloucester declares his opposition to his nephew King Henry's treaty with France and his marriage to Margaret. Cardinal Beaufort urges the assembled nobles not to oppose the king's will, and Buckingham and Somerset ally themselves with the cardinal against Gloucester. Meanwhile, Warwick, York and Salisbury join together against the Cardinal. After Gloucester's wife Eleanor is banished for treason, Margaret and Suffolk seize the opportunity to turn Henry against him. Henry is not convinced of Gloucester's guilt, but he gives in to their united persuasions. After further plotting by the faction, Gloucester is murdered in prison.


A "ghost character" in Quarles' The Virgin Widow. Pertenax has a bond from him.


When Bolingbrook arranges a séance for Eleanor in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, Sir Humphrey Stafford participates in the raid and arrests her along with the witch Margery Jourdain the priests Hume and Southwell, and the conjurer Bolingbrook. Later, Stafford is sent to quell Jack Cade's rebellion, but the rebels kill him and his brother William Stafford. See also "BUCKINGHAM."


Humphrey (Numps) Wasp is Cokes' servant in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Wasp enters Littlewit's house to retrieve the marriage license between Bartholomew Cokes and Grace Wellborn. Although Wasp pretends to be the helpless Cokes' protector, he fails to see when Edgworth pinches his master's purse in two instances, and himself falls prey to the con men at the Fair. At the Fair, Wasp enters with the Cokes party when Overdo/Madman is delivering his anti-tobacco speech. When Cokes observes that his purse is missing, Wasp blames the orator, whom he thinks to be an accomplice to the thieves. Wasp starts beating Overdo/Madman and all ends in confusion. In another scene at the Fair, Cokes wants to buy all he sees, and Wasp tries to temper him. When Cokes complains that his second purse has been stolen, Wasp blames Overdo/Madman for the second theft as well. Wasp leaves with Cokes to take the culprit to the stocks. Wasp is next in the company of Cutting, Knockem, Northern, Puppy, and Whit, playing a game of "vapours." During the confusion created by the game, ending in a drunken brawl, Edgworth steals the marriage license out of Wasp's box, while Knockem and Whit steal all the men's cloaks. The officers arrest the brawlers and they put Wasp into the stocks. Wasp manages to escape by using a trick. While the officers are occupied with the other two prisoners, Wasp puts his shoe on his hand and slips it in for his leg. Taking advantage of another moment of inattention, Wasp manages to escape. Wasp enters the puppet-theatre in search of his master and attends the puppet show. When Cokes confronts him with the loss of the marriage certificate, Wasp replies that he will never speak again.

HUNCH **1641

A candidate to be a Grobian in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. Ursin does not like him since he farted amongst the bears after eating honey. The bears nearly bit off his buttocks.


Hunsdon, along with the Lord Admiral and Lord Clinton, greets the Duchess, Bertie, Sands, Cranwell, and Foxe as they return to London from Europe after Queen Elizabeth comes to the throne in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk.


One of the titles King Edward offers to Robert Bruce in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot, by which the English often call him. In the end, the King refuses to give him the title, but only because he intends to make him King of Scotland instead.


A mute character in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. The Duke of Northumberland asks his son Ambrose and the Lord Huntington (the historical Henry Hastings) to assist him in sounding the public response to Lady Jane Grey's claims to the throne. Huntington is not listed among the dramatis personae.


He tells the King of the conspiracies of Acton and his crew in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle. Plays dice with the disguised King at Tothill Fields, winning back the money stolen by John.


This is the correct name and title of Robin Hood before he is outlawed in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington and again in their Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. However, he is rarely referred to by his title by other characters and the stage directions and speech headings are consistent in using Robin or Robin Hood. (See "HOOD, ROBIN").


An informer in the anonymous The Wasp. He goes along with Kenwell, Grig Brandwell, and Dampit to help Kenwell woo the "lusty widow" of "walltamstowe" Countess Claridon. He arrives in disguise as a country lawyer to woo her himself but fails to impress her. He is frightened away by "Constable Fallbridge" who supposedly has a warrant against him for taking bribes to allow vintners and victualers to dress and sell meat on fasting days (and then turning them over to another informer and splitting the reward).


Family name of Sir Richard and Lady Huntlove in Cavendish & Shirley's Country Captain.


Lady Huntlove, wife of Sir Richard in Cavendish & Shirley's Country Captain. Attracted to and courted by Sir Francis, she schemes with the help of Dorothy to spend the night with him. Their plans are thwarted on three occasions. Loans Dorothy a jewel to help in her deception of Underwit. Plans to stay behind in the country when Sir Richard and Sir Francis go back to London, so that she and Sir Francis can be together, but when he is really injured in the fall from his horse, she takes it as a sign that the affair should not happen.


Huntly is the disappointed character one expects to find in Ford in Ford's Perkin Warbeck. He is Katherine's father and hopes to marry her to the noble Dalyell. His plans are undermined by the Scots king when James IV gives her to the pretender Warbeck. He must against his own will abjure his daughter to keep his honor. He is reconciled to the noble young woman when he witnesses her fidelity after her husband is captured.


A huntsman in Lyly's Midas looks for Midas in the forest.


When in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI the captive Edward is allowed to hunt guarded only by a huntsman, Richard of Gloucester, Lord Hastings, and Sir William Stanley contrive to free him.


A non-speaking character in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Puntavorlo's habit is to blow the horn when he returns from hunting to let his wife know of his arrival. Puntavorlo enters with Huntsman, who is leading a greyhound. The knight orders Huntsman to leave the dog and take away the horn, which he has used judiciously.


Along with the barber, falconer, perfumer and tailor, he has a functional use befitting his name in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. After Hoard's marriage to Medler, these characters become the liveried servants of Walkadine Hoard, used by him to show off his newly acquired wealth.


Employed by the Duke in Fletcher and Middleton's The Nice Valour, the huntsman appears shortly after Shamont has left the stage in a rage over the affront to his honor the Duke has inadvertently committed. The huntsman's announcement that the hunting is at its peak irritates the Duke who must defer his pleasures until he can find a way to assuage Shamont's anger.


One of the disguises in Fletcher's Beggars' Bush assumed by the loyal nobleman Hubert, who is honorably searching for Florez, the rightful earl of Flanders. In his disguise as a huntsman he recognizes his beloved Jacqueline disguised and hiding among the beggars of Bruges.


In the fourth act of Carlell's The Deserving Favorite, a huntsman briefly converses with Cleonarda, who is dressed as a nymph, about a young deer she is hunting. The discussion is presumably designed to invoke symbolically her courtship of Lysander.


A servant of the Prince of Florence in Heywood's A Maidenhead Well Lost, the Huntsman oversees the Prince's generous treatment of the Widow and Lauretta, and fences verbally with the Clown.


Leads the hunt in the opening scene of Suckling's Aglaura (first version) and also Aglaura (second version).


There are two huntsmen in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IVout hunting with King Edward and his Queen:
  1. The First Huntsman comments that the queen shoots well during a hunting excursion with the king.
  2. The Second Huntsman remarks that the King's mother, the Duchess of York, shot well in her younger days.


Non-speaking role. Involved in the fight between Sir Francis Acton and Sir Charles Mountford in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness.


Non-speaking role. Killed in the fight between Sir Francis Acton and Sir Charles Mountford in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness.


An unspecified number of Huntsmen in Greene's James IV meet Ateukin and Jaques in the forest.


‘Ghost characters’ in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. Tremelio goes out to meet them in the forest for a chase but Fulvia later learns that they all returned home early before she could meet them as arranged.


Two huntsmen in Fletcher and Massinger's Thierry and Theodoret set the scene for Protaldy's bucolic exposure by Martell. Their brief chat obliquely reveals that they are Brunhalt's men.


Two huntsmen engage in comic banter with the Clown during the boar-hunt in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier.


A knight in Shirley's The Gamester. He rudely dismisses his daughter's grief at the killing of her love, Delamore. He insists that gentlemen need to fight to maintain honor–he tells Leonora that she should marry Delamore's conqueror, her friend's sweetheart, Beaumont. He seems to tell Probe to bury Delamore, or, possibly, to stop treating him–to somehow write him off as a dead man. He visits Beaumont in gaol, promising to help him because of some kindnesses that Beaumont's late father had done for him. His friends in authority will pardon Beaumont–if he betrays Violante and marries Leonora. Sir Richard's offer is rejected. He hears Beaumont refuse the hand of his daughter as he will remain true to Violante. Finally, he again questions Beaumont, this time in his house. Publicly, he repeats the offer for Beaumont to walk free and receive Leonora's hand. When Beaumont refuses to be bribed, staying true to Violante, Sir Richard is delighted and reveals that the whole farrago has been a character test for Beaumont. Now, he blesses both the union of Beaumont and Violante and of Leonora and Delamore, who, Sir Francis discloses, is actually still alive–he has instructed the surgeon, Probe, to convey erroneous information that Delamore has expired.


Hursly is Mrs. Shore's maid in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. After King Edward's death, Hursly reminds the royal ex-mistress of how fortunate she had been in life.


The Husband in A Yorkshire Tragedy comes from a virtuous and respected family, but his parents probably died when he was young. His Wife's Uncle was his guardian before their marriage. Lately he has become devoted to gambling and drinking. He spends his nights with prostitutes, and he has lost all his money. He hates his loyal Wife, whom he calls a whore, and his three children, whom he calls bastards. He is afraid that they will become beggars, but he nevertheless attempts to get the rest of his wife's dowry to continue gambling. The servants, several Gentlemen and his Wife's Uncle try to bring him to reason, but all in vain. His Wife's Uncle could provide him a place at Court, but he declines to work. Only when the Master of the College comes to tell him that his Brother is in prison because of him does he seem to show repentance, but this repentance soon turns into madness. He stabs his eldest son several times and then goes looking for his other children. He wants to kill his whole family because he thinks that they should rather die than become beggars. When he takes the second son away from the Maid, his Wife awakes and defends her son, but she is also stabbed. A servant tries to interfere, but the husband overcomes him. He next looks for a horse, desiring to ride to the nurse and kill his third child. The Master of the College finds the bodies of the Wife and their two sons and calls for a surgeon. The Master and three Gentlemen apprehend the Husband, who has fallen from his horse, and take him to the Knight. The Knight has known the Husband's family and pities him. He decides that he should be taken to prison until he comes to regret his deed. Only then will he be judged the next day. On his way to the prison the husband is brought to his wife, who has survived the attack and is ready to forgive him. The evidence of his wife's extreme love and the sight of his two dead sons make him repent his deed in the end.


The Husband is married to Lady Perfect and is an old friend and schoolfellow of Subtle in Field's Amends for Ladies. The Husband is paranoid about his wife's chastity, and persuades the all-too-willing Subtle to test her. He violently accuses Lady Perfect of having entertained Subtle's advances, which she denies, and he switches to apparent friendliness when Subtle enters. The Husband leaves, ostensibly to go into the country. Lady Perfect is confused by his behavior, but defends him to Subtle. Later, the Husband tells Subtle to redouble his efforts to seduce Lady Perfect; he cannot believe that a woman could remain chaste in the face of temptation. Subtle tells the Husband that he must weaken Lady Perfect by mistreating her, which the Husband claims to have done. He gives Subtle a jewel to present to her together with a sonnet "writ against myself." Subtle tells the Husband that he has overcome Lady Perfect, describing his tactics and stratagems in detail. He goes to fetch Lady Perfect, promising to make the Husband an "ear-witness" to her infidelity. She again denies that she has been false, whereupon Subtle accuses her of having been intimate with Bold the previous night. She again rebuts him, telling him that Bold was pursuing Lady Bright. Subtle realizes that he was mistaken, and promises to help to reconcile her with her husband. The Husband, having heard everything, reveals himself and begs her forgiveness. She accepts, and they depart for the weddings of Lady Honour and the Count, and Bold to "another gentlewoman."


Also sometimes called Host in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. The Husband of the Hostesse of the house the friars go to, seeking for lodging, is absent when they arrive. Then, he enters the house, unexpectedly, when his wife is about to start eating a banquet his lover, the Constable, has brought her. On hearing him, she quickly hides both her food and her lover. The Host arrives both hungry and tired, and he wants to eat. But his wife explains that, since she was not expecting him so soon, she has no food ready. Then he hears a noise, and she tells him that Fryer Bernard and Fryer John have come asking for lodging, and that she has locked them in the garret for the night. He asks his wife to unlock the door of the garret and let his friends, the friars, in. In order to recompense his friend and punish his unfaithful wife, Fryer John–aware of the fact that his friend is hungry, and that he thinks there is no food in his house, and having seen the banquet the Constable has brought for his wife, which, on the Husband's unexpected arrival, was hidden in the cupboard–tells the Host he can conjure a spirit that will offer them a banquet. When the Host sees all the food, he is really glad and amazed. Later, the friar tells his friend he can make the spirit appear in the shape of a Constable, for him to kick the spirit out of his house immediately. The Host agrees to it, and he actually kicks the Constable out, in the belief that he was a spirit. Thus the friar made his friend eat the Constable's food and kick his wife's lover out.

HUSBAND **1638

A “ghost character" in Mayne’s Amorous War. He is married to Pisocleus’ suburb mistress but is only one of her fifteen lovers. He is so very cuckolded that he sometimes thinks he cuckolds the other lovers when he lies with his own wife.


A "ghost character" in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. He is now dead but in life he was honored by his loyal wife.


A part played by Domitian in the final inset play of Massinger's The Roman Actor. In the climax of the final play, Domitian plays a jealous husband who kills a faithless servant, played by Paris. Having discovered the actor with his wife Domitia, Domitian chooses this method to murder his erstwhile favorite, Paris.


Probably a fantasy character in Ruggle’s Club Law. Luce begs not to be arrested, saying she is with child. When the searchers claim that proves she is a whore, she protests she has a husband. She says that he went on the voyage with “Captaine Carifeild."


The citizen that Phantaste imagines marrying is a fictional character in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In an apartment in Cynthia's palace, Phantaste, Philautia, Argurion, and Moria are expecting the miracle water from the fountain of Self-love, so much publicized by Amorphus. While waiting, the vain nymphs discuss fashion, their admirers, and fantasize on what they would like to be. While Moria and Philautia imagine they could be extremely powerful women, Phantaste fantasizes that she could impersonate many women and do various things. As a citizen's wife, Phantaste imagines that she could be troubled with a jealous husband but do whatever she pleases, disregarding his demands. Thus, she argues, others' miseries should be her pleasures.


A "ghost character" in ?Ford's The Queen. Salassa's husband has died before the play begins, leaving her a widow. Lodovico implies that Salassa's bedroom frolics with her departed lord have left her with the widow's proverbial appetite for further gratification.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's Love and Honor. Tristan describes her first husband as a man who made a fortune through a monopoly on dead women's hair, and that everyone in Milan talked about it (although he is not clear if it is the monopoly or the product that caused the gossip).


A "ghost character" in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. One of the ladies involved in the rebellion but who never appears on stage.


The daughter of Cassimere in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll. She is in love with Alberdure and beloved by both Alberdure and his father Alfonso. She rejects Alfonso's advances. Later, she is overjoyed to learn that Alberdure has not been drowned and steals away with him. In the end, she is given permission to marry Alberdure.


A Persian lord in Cartwright's The Royal Slave; he supports Arsamnes and tries to incite the Ephesians to assassinate Cratander.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. The nine-headed Hydra was the most hideous creature of Greek mythology. For each head that was cut off, the monster grew two new ones. Hercules killed Hydra as one of his twelve labors. In the Roman Senate, after Cicero and Caius Antonius have been elected consuls, Caesar expresses his distrust of Cicero. Since Cicero's hasty election has been prompted by rumors of Catiline's conspiracy, Caesar says he would not put it past Cicero to have invented these comments and disseminated them among the people, with the purpose of posing as a hero rescuing the nation. Caesar implies that Cicero seems to be a consummate actor, and if the senators are prepared to accept such a Herculean actor in the scene, why not accept his Hydra as well. In Caesar's view, Hydra stands for deceit and a venomous attitude, all attributed to the allegedly hypocritical Cicero.


A "ghost character" in Knevet's Rhodon and Iris. Acanthus announces the advancement of Martagon's army which includes "the left wing [. . .] by Hydridthus led, / Wherein a thousand Souldiers march, / Arraid in purple coats." [Note: text is difficult to read at this point, spelling conjectural.]


A "merry" gentleman, an inveterate bachelor, a lover of all women and a friend to both Valentine and Thomas in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas; he is described by friends as plump, lascivious and cowardly. He fancies Alice at first sight, then transfers his affections to the younger and prettier Mary, then lusts after Alice again. When he has his head broken by an irate wench, apparently at Thomas' incitement, he vows to get revenge on Thomas by taking his twin sister Dorothy's maidenhead. His plan is frustrated when he fails to realize that the figure he takes for Dorothy is actually Thomas in disguise. He agrees to a hasty marriage in order to bed 'her.' Eventually he discovers his mistake, but accepts Thomas' matchmaking and decides to marry Dorothy anyway (as long as she allows him to have other mistresses as well).


The lover of Nerina in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday, Hylas chides Mirtillus throughout the play for his faulty attitude towards love and praises the virtues of his own gentle nymph. Nerina confesses to Dorinda that Hylas loved her in her infancy and that she reciprocates his love (despite the fact that she often pretends that she does not), but chides her lover for testing her chastity with a lustful kiss and informs him that she "cannot love" him. Hylas obeys Nerina's orders that he leave her alone, records a dream to send to her, and is informed by Nuntius that she is dying. Returning to Nerina's side but collapsing from grief at the thought of his lover's death, Hylas is pronounced dead by Mirtillus. Nerina gains permission from her father to call him back to life and, immediately before her own death, confesses her love for Hylas and convinces Charinus to grant her final wish that they be married. Though the shepherd contemplates killing himself he dismisses the idea with the knowledge that the gods forbid it and, instead, visits her burial site where he finds Nerina alive and seeking refuge from the villainy of Daphnis, whom he (along with Mirtillus's help) keeps from ravishing her. Disgusted with Daphnis's behavior Charinus gives his daughter to Hylas and, although Montanus ponders having Daphnis killed for his attempt to ravish Nerina, Hylas argues for the rich shepherd's life so that he will live to envy the happiness of he and Nerina.


Son to Lysander in Chapman's The Widow's Tears. He is also nephew to Tharsalio, who arranges his marriage to Laodice, Eudora's daughter. He appears in Tharsalio's wedding masque as Hymen, and so impresses Eudora's daughter Laodice that she determines to marry him. It is for the sake of his inheritance that Tharsalio wants to undermine Lysander's confidence in his wife's vow never to remarry after his death.


Appears in the Second Dumb Show of Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy.
Only mentioned in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. Mythological character that is invoked during the weddings at the end of the play as he was the son of Apollo, one of the Muses and the god of marriages.
At the end of Shakespeare's As You Like It, Hymen officiates at the quadruple wedding that unites Rosalind with Orlando, Celia with Oliver, Audrey with Touchstone, and Phebe with Silvius.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. Camillo expresses his intention of entangling Fontinel with Imperia and then dispatching him to France. In this way, Camillo hopes to divert Violetta's love from Fontinel and make her come back to him. Camillo says he has singled out Violetta's eyes "in Hymen's holy battle," thus revealing his intention of marrying Violetta, since Hymen is the Greek god of marriage.
Hymen, patron of marriage, opens Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen by leading the marriage processional of Theseus, Duke of Athens, and Hipployta.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. After his hasty marriage, Morose is appalled at his wife's termagant nature and he dreads the prospect of a jolly party of revelers coming to the house to celebrate the nuptials. Morose wants to retire to his room, but Truewit persuades him to stay, telling Morose that they have all the ingredients to make his Hymen happy. The allusion is to the god of marriage in Greek mythology. Truewit identifies the god with the marriage celebration, during which the divinity is expected to bless the wedded couple.
Only mentioned in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject. The Duke invokes the god of marriage in the final scene, when three marriages–Duke/Honoria, young Archas/Olimpia, Burris/Viola–are to be celebrated at once.
Only mentioned in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. Hymen, the Roman god of weddings, is called upon in the wedding song to bless the union of Baiazet and Hatam.
Hymen is a character in the masque performed in Cokain's Trappolin to celebrate the nuptials of Lavinio and Isabella.
Hymen appears in a masque with Jaques and Boy in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady performed before Vandona and Lorece as they woo. Hymen sings a song in describing the proper behavior of husbands and wives, then expresses impatience as Jaques insists on the tribute of a kiss between the lovers before he will allow the performers to exit to the wine cellar.
Only mentioned in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers. Mythological character, son of Apollo and one of the Muses, Hymen was the god of marriages. In the play, he is mentioned in Act Four in relation to the royal marriage between Austrella and Agenor.


Part played by Hylus at the masque celebrating Tharsalio and Eudora's wedding in Chapman's The Widow's Tears. Laodice falls in love with him as he plays this part.


Possibly the same character as the Boy who leads the blind Caecilius in Wilde's Love's Hospital. He leads him to Lepidus's house to check on Facetia after Lysander's and Lepidus's failed attempt to marry the unsuspecting Caecilius to Nigella (who is actually Olimpa in disguise), Himen is the presenter of the Antemaske and maske. Additionally, at the play's end, Lysander claims that Himen has "joynde" the lovers' hands and invites him to bless the "nuptiall bande."


One of Erota's attendants in ?Ford's The Laws of Candy. Hyparcha mocks Mochingo for adopting Gonzalo's assumed exaggeratedly proud demeanor.


A soldier in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. A member of Asotus' roaring coterie. At Ballio's house he promises to defend the courtesan Phryne's reputation against all detractors. He momentarily switches allegiance when Simo intercedes to seduce Phryne but returns to Asotus when Simo retreats. Later, he helps spread the false rumor of Tyndarus and Techmessa's suicide.


Hyperia is Artemone's servingwoman in Mead's Combat of Love and Friendship. She tries to persuade Artemone of Lysander's virtues over Philonax's, but her persuasion ultimately fails.


In Heywood's The Golden Age he fights along with Titan and his sons against Saturn and Jupiter.


Hypocrisy, dressed as a Grey Friar in Bale's Three Laws, joins with Pseudodoctrina in attempting to convince Evangelium that their sins are not sins, and that he has no right to preach without the Pope's permission. They call upon the priests, lawyers, scholars and the Pope to prevent Evangelium from preaching the Gospel and eventually drag Evangelium off-stage, leaving Infidelity to gloat over his supposed victory.


This is the name Avarice gives to Adulation in Udall's? Respublica when Avarice claims Policy as his own pseudonym. Adulation does not like Hypocrisy but accepts Honesty.


Hypocrisy accompanies Pride in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.


A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the ‘home-bred’ enemies fighting a war against the intellectual Virtues that keeps the latter from joining King Love’s war. She is too busy disguising Jesuits, Brownists, Arminians, citizens’ wives, and factions to assist the Vices in their war.


A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. The priest who marries Dissimulation and Love.


Thracian lord in Mayne’s Amorous War. Also spelled Hippocles in the play. Clytus and Hyppocles bring in the captured Orythia, Thalaestris, Menalippe, and Marthesia trussed like Amazons in golden fetters pinioned with silken cords. They release their prisoners, with gallant apologies, after their prince reveals all to be a ruse to get close to and woo Barsene.


Princess of the Lapithes and Perithous' bride in Heywood's The Silver Age, her beauty provokes the centaur Antimachus to offer her a kiss, which turns her wedding feast into a deadly fray.


See also HIPOLITA, HIPPOLYTA, and related spellings.


Hyppolita is a virgin lady and a companion to Eugenia in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. She married a knight called Charles that died on their wedding day. In Act Two, with Penelope, she invites Sir Goosecappe and Sir Rudseby for breakfast in Barnet. In her meeting with Sir Tales and Penelope, she defends Sir Cutbert Rudseby, with whom she is later paired.


A "ghost character" in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador. King of Wales from whom Penda has letters of credence.