One of Pluto's courtiers in Heywood's Love's Mistress, in attendance during Psiche's visit.


An alternative form for Edricus in the anonymous Edmond Ironside.


A "ghost character" in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. One of the ladies involved in the rebellion but who never appears on stage.

EARL **1600

A "ghost character" possibly fictitious in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus. Gullio boasts that an earl wants him to marry one of his daughters.


An elderly nobleman, in love with Mistress Justiniano in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho. Birdlime delivers her to his house for an assignation, but he is dismayed that she intends only to ask him to forgive Justiniano's debts. He offers to do so only if she'll live with him and let him earn her love, but she refuses. He arranges a second assignation with her, but is unaware that he entertains Justiniano disguised as his own wife. After enduring Justiniano's counterfeited murder of his wife and the witnessing of his adulterous grief by the Citizens, the Earl is penitent and praises Mistress Justiniano's virtue, gifting her with the jewels he had previously tried to bribe her with.

EARL **1632

A "ghost character" in Shirley's The Ball. Bostock mentions this unnamed Earl in connections with Bostock's perpetual striving to attain nobility.


Robert, Earl of Angus, never appears on stage but is listed as a prisoner of Hotspur in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV.


Lord Admiral of England in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock, whose hard-won "prizes" at sea are now being squandered on the flatterers of King Richard II. He is a supporter of the King's uncles, Woodstock, Lancaster, and York, and fights with them against Richard and his followers in the final battle; he kills the King's chief favorite, Greene.


After the nobles capture Gaveston and are preparing to execute him in Marlowe's Edward II, the Earl of Arundel arrives with a plea from Edward II to be allowed one last visit with Gaveston. Arundel offers himself as prisoner to assure Gaveston's return, and ultimately, accompanies Pembroke in conveying Gaveston to the king. Years later, Arundel is the one who reports to Edward that numerous opposition barons, including Warwick and Lancaster, have been executed in the Tower.


The Earl of Arundel in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt (historically Henry Fitzalan) was a supporter of Queen Mary. A member of the royal council, he is sent by Mary to arrest the Duke of Northumberland for treason, and he sides with the Bishop of Winchester in advising the queen to accept the marriage proposal from Phillip II of Spain. The Earl serves with the Duke of Norfolk in attempting to suppress the uprising led by Sir Thomas Wyatt and is among those nobles to whom the wounded Wyatt surrenders after the disaster at Ludgate. A member of the commission judging Lady Jane Grey and Guildford Dudley, he takes pity on the young people, and supported by Norfolk, he implores the Bishop of Winchester to be merciful, only to be ignored.

EARL of ARUNDEL **1604

A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. Arundell is mentioned as attending the dying Queen Mary.


Enters with Palsgrave early in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Witnesses, along with Palsgrave, Northumberland, Erbaigh, Foxe, Cranwell, and Bertie, Duchess' surprising choice of Bertie for her new husband.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. Although never appearing on stage, the Earl of Athol is listed as a prisoner of Hotspur.

EARL of BEDFORD **1600

He first appears in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell in an inn in Bononia talking defiantly to his host about the French who are surrounded the building. Cromwell arrives, disguised as a Neopolitan who has promised to get Bedford to surrender to the French without a drop of blood being shed. Bedford remembers Cromwell as the son of his farrier. He agrees to change clothes with Hodge (Cromwell's servant and called "clown" at this point in the SD) and escapes with Cromwell. He next appears in Act 4, after Wolsey has fallen, as the nobles discuss Wolsey's plots. He recognizes Cromwell as the man who saved him from the French and says he will commend him to the king. Cromwell is steadily promoted. Bedford next appears at Cromwell's banquet in Act 4 but says nothing. When Gardiner accuses Cromwell of plotting against the king he does not believe him and leaves to think. He is troubled and goes to confront Cromwell as twice he passes Bedford in the street on his way to important business. In the end he writes Cromwell a letter which Cromwell fails to read, warning Cromwell not to go to the meeting at Lambeth with the nobles. When he watches Cromwell's arrest he weeps at Cromwell's downfall and later reprimands Gardiner for disturbing Cromwell as he is about to be executed. He embraces Cromwell and after the execution announces that Cromwell was his truest friend.


Father of Bella Franca, Godfrey, Guy, Charles, and Eustace in Thomas Heywood's The Four Prentices of London. Dispossessed of his lands by the French king while aiding William, Duke of Normandy, in his conquest of England, the old Earl of Boulogne lives impoverished in London. Weary of the disappointments of this world, he plans a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In transit, he is captured by Italian bandits and almost murdered by the Clown and the Villain. Seemingly one of life's unfortunates, the Earl is also captured, and almost executed, by the Soldan's forces in the Holy Land. His sons finally rescue him, and, the pagans defeated, he is invested as Patriarch of Jerusalem.


He believes in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle that because of his marriage to the only lawful heir to Roger Mortimer, he is more entitled to the crown than the present King Harry (Henry V) and develops a plan to usurp the throne.


Unthinkingly loyal supporter of the king in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador, although he does offer a disapproving aside when Carintha demands the murder of the prince. At the end, he and Cornwall are the two people on whom the king lays the blame for his poor rule.


In Marlowe's Edward IIEdward bestowed the title, the Earl of Cornwall, on his favorite, Piers Gaveston.


Title awarded to Bertie by Palsgrave in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk.


Archibald, Earl of Douglas, is part of the Percy faction opposing King Henry in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. At Shrewsbury he thinks he has slain the king, but instead he has killed Sir Walter Blunt, who has worn the king's armor.


Enters with Duke of Northumberland for introduction to the Duchess in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Witnesses, along with Palsgrave, Northumberland, Arundel, Foxe, and Bertie, Duchess' surprising choice of Bertie for her new husband. Later, joins County Palatine at his court and recognizes the Duchess and Bertie when they are broughtin by the Burgomaster for trial.

EARL of ESSEX**1588

Essex attends John in the opening scene of the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John, and is named regent during John's absence in France. After John's second coronation, he responds to the king's proffered generosity by asking for the release of Arthur. Hearing Hubert's false report of the boy's death, he chastises the king and quits the court.
With Pembrooke and Salisbury in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John, Essex finds Arthur's body, and urges his companions to join him in revolt against the tyrannical John and on behalf of Lewes, Dauphin of France. He summons the English nobility to a meeting at Bury St. Edmunds, under pretence of pilgrimage, and calls for a general uprising. He follows Lewes to Dover, and rejects Pandulph's call, but is dismayed by Meloun's revelations of Lewes' perefidy, and resolves to rejoin King John.
The Earl of Essex appears only in the first scene of Shakespeare's King John and it is possible that Shakespeare meant to combine his role with that of Lord Bigot, who appears later. In the scene, Essex is brought news of the Falconbridge case by the Sheriff, and asks John if he wishes to hear the case.

EARL of ESSEX**1610

The Earl of Essex, Robert Devereux, appears in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part One in the dumb show of I receiving petitions before his departure for the Islands' Voyage to the Azores and other Spanish territories (historically, in 1597). The Two Drawers, who are among the Petitioners, later comment favorably upon his having settled Caroll's tavern debt and praise the Earl for his "noble mind."


A councilor to Henry IV in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V. When the latter laments his son's wildness, the Earl advises that he be patient with the young prince.


A "ghost character" in Marlowe's Edward II. Edward II's niece, whom the king plans to wed to Gaveston, is the late Earl of Gloucester's heir. After Warwick murders Gaveston, Edward bestows this earldom on the late earl's former servant, Spencer.


The Earl of Hereford is one of several earldoms and titles held by the Duke of Buckingham in Shakespeare's Henry VIII.


One of the titles King Edward offers to Robert Bruce in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot, by which the English often call him. In the end, the King refuses to give him the title, but only because he intends to make him King of Scotland instead.


The Earl of Kent plots with Colchester and Winchester in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador. They intend to avenge the wrong done to Armante, his kinswoman, and would have taken part in the masque at the end during which it was proposed to take action against the king (though that action is not specified).

EARL of KILDARE **1604

A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. He put Percy to death for disclosing the Burkes rebellion.


John, Earl of Lancaster is Henry IV's second son in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth; however, he is a senior member of Counsel at the beginning of the play due to his older brother Hal's delinquency. John first comes onto the stage to inform his father of Hotspur's battle in the North versus Douglas' Scottish forces. Lancaster fights bravely at Shrewsbury. Hal is markedly impressed by his younger brother's mettle. After Shrewsbury, John puts down a revolt by Bishop Scroop and Hastings.


Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, is brother-in-law to Hotspur and part of the Percy faction opposing King Henry in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. He adores his Welsh wife but speaks as little Welsh as she does English.
Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, is nephew to the Mortimer from 1 Henry IV. He appears in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI. He was the heir presumptive to Richard II and appears in one scene under close arrest. He dies after having told his lineage to his nephew, Richard Plantagenet (soon to become Duke of York).


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. Although never appearing on stage, the Earl of Menteith is listed as one of Hotspur's prisoners.


A "ghost character." Thomas, Earl of Murray, does not appear on stage but is listed as one of Hotspur's prisoners in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV.


The Earl of Northampton is one of several earldoms and titles held by the Duke of Buckingham in Shakespeare's Henry VIII.


Henry Percy. He reveals that Bolingbroke is returning to England with an army and, along with Lord Ross and Lord Willoughby, decides to fight against King Richard in Shakespeare's Richard II. He is the father of Harry Percy ["Hotspur" of 1 Henry IV].

EARL of OXFORD **1593

Supporter of Richmond in Shakespeare's Richard III. The Earl of Oxford fights for Richmond in the Battle of Bosworth. This is the same Oxford who had earlier nearly defeated Edward IV in battle. Historically, he was John de Vere the 13th Earl of Oxford.

EARL of OXFORD**1595

In the quarto version of Shakespeare's Richard II, he is a supporter of King Richard. He is later reported beheaded for his involvement in the Oxford conspiracy against Bolingbroke (now King Henry IV), along with Spencer, Blunt and Kent. The reference is removed in later versions because it is clearly wrong. Oxford supported Bolingbroke.

EARL of OXFORD **1604

A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. Oxford is mentioned as attending the dying Queen Mary.


Pembrooke attends John in the opening scene of the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John, and later tries to persuade him not to invite doubts about the validity of his claim to the throne by being crowned a second time. He seconds Essex in requesting the release of Arthur and in leaving the court after Hubert's report of the boy's death.
With Essex and Salisbury in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John, Pembrooke finds Arthur's body, and supposes that his death was caused by John. At Bury he seconds Essex in calling for revolt. At Dover, however, dismayed by the revelation of Lewes' devious plan, he decides to renew his allegiance to John.


The Earl of Pembroke in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt (the historical William Herbert) was a supporter of Queen Mary. When Wyatt attacks London, he confronts Pembroke who has been made Lieutenant of the City, and Pembroke refuses him entry at Ludgate. When Wyatt surrenders, it is Pembroke who orders the wounded man taken away by guards, and he later appears at the trial of Guildford Dudley and Lady Jane Grey.


Salisbury is one of John's supporters and advisors in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John until alienated by the report of Arthur's death.
In company with Essex and Pembroke in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John, he finds Arthur dead and agrees to join the plot against John, which he endorses strongly during the meeting at Bury; he is the first to take the oath to support Lewes. When Meloun discloses Lewes' evil scheme, however, he joins the other lords in reaffirming his support for John.


A supporter of King Richard who has been in charge of his army in Wales in Shakespeare's Richard II. He is later beheaded for his involvement in a conspiracy against Bolingbroke (now King Henry IV), along with Spencer, Blunt and Kent.


The Earl of Shrewsbury (historically, George Talbot, the fourth earl) appears throughout Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More, often in the company of the Earl of Surrey. Early on he is aware of the suffering of the Londoners, even making specific mention of Caveler's theft of two doves from the carpenter Williamson. When the May Day insurrection begins, he is sent by the king (with Surrey, Sir Thomas Palmer, and Sir Roger Cholmley) to aid the forces of the Lord Mayor in restoring order. Later, in the Privy Council meeting, when Sir Thomas Palmer arrives to demand that the members submit to the king's authority over the church, he, like the Earl of Surrey, subscribes at once, and when Doctor John Fisher (the Bishop of Rochester) and More refuse, he assumes that eventually both of them will change their minds and submit in order to please the king. With Surrey, Shrewsbury visits the bishop in prison, but they are unsuccessful in persuading him to subscribe to the terms of the Oath of Supremacy, and he leaves promising that he and Surrey will pray for the bishop and do whatever they can to help him. Later, when More is led to the scaffold, Surrey and Shrewsbury arrive, and it is Shrewsbury who asks More for a public proclamation of his offense against the king, a formality expected in such circumstances.


The Earl of Stafford is one of several earldoms and titles held by the Duke of Buckingham in Shakespeare's Henry VIII.

EARL of SURREY**1592

A supporter of Woodstock and his brothers in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock. He fights on their side in the final battle. [Historically, the Earl of Surrey was the alternative title of the Earl of Arundel. The playwright seems to have divided him in half to create an extra character.]

EARL of SURREY**1595

The Earl of Surrey appears early in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More with Sir Thomas Palmer, Sir Roger Cholmley, and the Earl of Shrewsbury discussing the abuses the foreign merchants have heaped upon the London populace. He predicts that, once aroused, the common citizens might well turn to violence against the foreigners. When news arrives that this has happened, it is Surrey who recommends sending for Sheriff More, "a wise and learned gentleman" and one beloved by the common people. Later, Surrey escorts the Dutch humanist Erasmus to More's house and informs the visitor of More's devotion to the arts. During the scene in the Privy Council, Surrey and the Earl of Shrewsbury subscribe at once to the Oath of Supremacy (recognizing King Henry's position as head of the church in England). Surrey and Shrewsbury later visit the imprisoned Bishop of Rochester (Doctor John Fisher) in an unsuccessful attempt to get the prelate to submit to the king, and later still Surrey bears the king's ultimatum to More in the Tower. As More is led off to execution, Surrey is on hand to lend him encouragement. He delivers the final lines of the play, commenting that More has now paid with his blood for having offended the monarch, and he leads the remaining characters off-stage "to perfect unknown fates" (i.e. to complete whatever destiny has in store for them). The last remark is intentionally ironic because throughout the play the author has depicted this Earl of Surrey as Henry Howard (instead of the historical earl Thomas Howard, Henry's father), the poet who would share More's fate some years later and be executed by Henry VIII.

EARL of SURREY **1597

A "ghost character." One of several Earls loyal to King Henry who is only mentioned in passing and does not appear on stage in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.

EARL of SURREY**1613

The Earl of Surrey is Thomas Howard, father-in-law to the Duke of Buckingham in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. Surrey has been sent to Ireland so he could not interfere with plans for Buckingham's death. When Surrey returns to Britain, he swears revenge for Buckingham's death.


The Earl of Sussex is one of Edward's closest retainers in Peele's Edward I. He appears with the king during the Welsh campaign, serves as one of the escorts for Joan of Acon when she is married to Gilbert de Clare, and is present when the infant Edward of Caernarvon is formally presented to his parents after the christening.


He helps Sir William look for Mary and gives a final monologue at the end of Armin's The Two Maids of More–Clacke.


Referred to by King Henry IV as Cousin Nevil in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. The Earl of Warwick feels certain that Northumberland will soon be reconciled to the king. Warwick also defends Prince Henry to the king, positive that Hal will cast off his wild companions at the appropriate time.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Richard II. Although he does not appear on stage, he is a supporter of King Richard often referred to alongside Bushy, Bagot and Green. We learn that he is executed with Bushy and Green at Bristol.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Richard II. Although he does not appear on stage we learn that, when his brother, the Earl of Northumberland, is declared a traitor, he resigns his position as Lord Steward of King Richard's house and also goes to join Bolingbroke.


An elderly scrivener in William Rowley's A Match at Midnight. He operates as Bloodhound's informer. Bloodhound wants him to marry Moll, but Moll has other ideas and meets her lover Ancient Young while Sim distracts Earlack by reading him Reynard the Fox. On the morning of the wedding, Bloodhound is infuriated to find Earlack in bed with Mistress Coote the Bawd.


The Duke of Saxony in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids. He invites Julia and Dorigene to court after taking a fancy to the two women disguised as milkmaids. When he believes that his wife and Dorilus are having an affair due to false information disseminated by Raymond, Dorilus is imprisoned and Dorigene and her family are bainished from the court. Dorigene is subsequently tried, at the Duke's behest, by Raymond but is interrupted by a disguised Dorilus who explains the true facts of the proceeding, advocates mercy, and procures the Duke's pardon for Dorigene. The duke, at Raymond's behest, pleads forgiveness of Dorigene and, in turn, exiles Raymond for his deceit. The duke hosts a masque at the play's conclusion to celebrate the reconciliation with his wife.

EARS **1607

Tactus’s nickname for Auditus in Tomkis’ Lingua.


On Ceres' behalf, Earth or Tellus seeks the lost Proserpina all over the world in Heywood's The Silver Age, but to no purpose.


A disguise assumed by Pepperton in Middleton's No Wit, No Help Like a Woman's when the four disgruntled former suitors of Lady Goldenfleece (Pepperton, Lambstone, Overdone, Weatherwise) intrude upon the wedding feast of the newly-remarried widow. Somewhat remarkably, and in keeping with Weatherwise's interest in almanacs and other arcane subject, the four elements embrace at the end of this pseudo-masque.


An old, miserly niggard in May's The Old Couple. Lifelong avarice has worked on Earthworm like a debilitating disease. His unhealthy obsession with hoarding gold and goods has wrecked his health: a starvation diet, ragged clothes and inadequate heating have made him ill while he rejoices in his economy. He has neglected needy relations and is despised by the community for his selfishness and lack of charity to his poorer neighbors. His son, Theodore, has returned from abroad to intervene and cure his father if at all possible. Earthworm is unaware that Lady Whimsey has selected him as an eligible next husband and is about to commence her plans to entrap him when the play begins. He is delighted that Theodore seems to have inherited his miserly habits. His son dutifully extols thrift and moderation and is rewarded with the possession of Earthworm's keys. Theodore's plan to cure him begins to work, first by humoring him, then secretly feeding him a sleeping draught to prevent his obsession with counting his gold all night long. While he sleeps, Theodore invites all his poor neighbors to take shares in his hoarded gold and corn and he is blessed in his absence for his charity. A ruinous fire breaks out in Earthworm's barn. He is first furious with his servant Jasper for carelessness, then mystified as to why all his poor neighbors should so willingly rush to his rescue. Their prayers for his preservation strangely move him, although he is convinced that he does not deserve them to be heard. He breaks down and repents his avarice, delighting his son. He welcomes the neighbors in a scene of mutual gratitude and piety. He has finally learned the lesson that it is better to give then receive. He reflects on his former sins of omission, particularly his neglect of Matilda, his orphaned niece. He now wants to find her and make amends by becoming a second father to her. Meanwhile, Euphues reports an offstage incident: the satisfying spectacle of the reformed Earthworm denouncing Sir Argent for his own avarice in general, his disgraceful betrayal of a kinsman in particular. When affairs end happily for all concerned, Earthworm insists on being allowed to play host to the joint wedding celebrations of Matilda and Scudmore, Artemia and Eugeny.


An allegorical personage for the spring term at the Inns of Court in Middleton's Michaelmas Term; he pays homage to Michaelmas Term in the play's induction.


Easy, an Essex gentleman possessed of land worth £300 a year in Middleton's Michaelmas Term, exemplifies the typical "gull" of Jacobean city comedy. Easy journeys to London, and attempting to fit in with fashionable London gallants, comes under the wing of Blastfield (really Shortyard, a "spirit" of Ephestian Quomodo) who promises to provide for him while in London. Feigning tight financial straits, Blastfield is forced to turn to Quomodo for credit. Quomodo denies him a loan, but offers Blastfield goods on credit to cover his debts. Naively wishing to participate somehow in London's frenzied commercial activity, Easy cosigns this loan which proves worthless when Blastfield is "unable" to find a buyer for this cloth. Shortyard and Falselight, disguised as sergeants, arrest Easy for defaulting on the loan. Quomodo wishes to imprison Easy immediately but grants him a temporary reprieve to locate Blastfield when two generous citizens (again Shortyard and Falselight disguised) grant him bail with his estate put up as surety to Quomodo. When Easy is unable to find Blastfield, Quomodo legally seizes his lands. But when Quomodo fakes his own death, Easy marries Thomasine (Quomodo's wife) and all Quomodo's property reverts to him when the cozener is eventually undone by his own misplaced signature on an indenture. The judge, at the end of the term, upholds the property transaction.


A Northumbrian Lord in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. Suspecting that Ethelswick and Edelbert are abusing the melancholic Osriick (actually Anthynus), he forces them out of the court. He summons Theodrick to see the ill King and sends forged letters to Bertha that result in her marriage to Anthynus.

EAVLIN **1637

A “ghost character" in Mayne’s City Match. Scruple’s daughter. Mrs. Scruple claims that Susan Seathrift took Eavlin’s gown and ruff in order to sneak off.


Zabina's maid in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1. When her mistress asks whether Zenocrate will make a proper laundress–once Tamburlaine is defeated by the Turks–Ebea scoffs that Zenocrate thinks herself too fine but that she will sweat her pride out of her.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Timon of Athens. Timon's father (mentioned in Act V.6)


When Marius is hiding in the Numidian mountains in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War, he speaks each day to an Echo, and draws strength from her apparent approval of his plans to go to war and retake Rome from Scilla.


When Raph meets the Muses in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy, he mistakes an echo for a person calling to him, and runs off to find him. An actor offstage presumably performs the echo.


Echo in Dekker's Old Fortunatus repeats the words of Old Fortunatus in the opening scene of play as he wanders through the forest.


It repeats the last words that Ascanio and Ioculo utter in Act IV of the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis, thus revealing Ascanio that his Eurymine still lives nearby, disguised.


Echo argues that self-love can never look on truth but with clouded eyes in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. Echo kisses the narcissus flower and sings a song, naming the fountain where he died the Fountain of Self-love. Echo lays a curse that whoever tastes of the spring's water shall grow totally enamored with themselves. After accomplishing her task, Echo retires to the underworld, reduced to her former inarticulate state. In Greek mythology, Echo was a nymph who fell in love with Narcissus, who loved his own image and refused her love. After his death, Echo was doomed to lament by repeating only the last sounds of others' voices. In the valley of Gargaphie, near a fountain and a grove, Mercury summons Echo. After three thousand years, Mercury allows Echo to take a corporeal figure and ascend from the deep, endowed with vocal and articulate capacity. Echo sits by the fountain where Narcissus used to admire himself, and where he died, lamenting his sad fate.


Eccho is a nymph, daughter to Juno in the anonymous Narcissus. She used to be extremely talkative, and she was punished for it. Now she lives in wild woods, moist mountains, high valleys and steepy plains, and she "cannot speake a woord, nor halfe a sillable, unless you speake before so intelligible." She fools Dorastus while he is seeking Narcissus, and later, she also teases Clinias, when he is searching for Dorastus. That will provoke a misunderstanding that will lead them to kill each other. Later, Eccho will also fool Narcissus, and lead him to his death. At the end, the nymph explains that, for lack of love–since she had also fallen in love with Narcissus–she could not eat nor drink, and "of her nothinge remainsde but bone," which was later turned to stone. Thus, only her voice was left. According to Ovid's Metamorphoses, one day the nymph Echo saw Narcissus in the fields, as he was driving deer into his nets. She still retained her body and was not just a voice, nevertheless she could only repeat the last words of those who had spoken before her. Ovid explains that Juno had punished her in that way because whenever she had tried to catch the nymphs lying before her Jupiter, on the mountain slopes, Echo had intentionally engaged her in long conversations, thus giving the other nymphs plenty of time to escape. When Eccho saw Narcissus in the fields, she was infatuated by his beauty and, inflamed with love, she followed him secretly. She wished to be able to get close to him with seductive words, but her nature denied her that. She could only reply to his last words. Finally, unable to resist her impulses any longer, she decided to come out of the woods to embrace him, but, to her dismay, he ran from her. Feeling scorned, she resolved to wander in the woods and hide her face in shame among the leaves. Due to her unrequited love, from that time on the nymph lived in lonely caves. But still she could not avoid loving him, and her love was increased by the sadness of rejection. Sleeplessness wasted her sad form, and, thus languishing, her body's strength vanished into the air to such an extent that only her bones and the sound of her voice were left. Her voice remained, but it seems that her bones were changed to shapes of stone. She is said to hide in the woods, no longer to be seen, but to be heard by everyone.


In the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus, Eccho's repetitions of the termini of Academico's speech inform the scholar that the only sure way to gain a clerical benefice is by bribing the man who controls the living.


Carracus discovers Echo in Tailor's The Hog Hath Lost His Pearl when he goes to the woods in search of Maria. Echo confirms Carracus' belief that women generally are unfaithful but also tells him that Maria was false against her will and that she still lives.


A disembodied voice heard by Antonio and Delio in Webster's The Duchess of Malfi. The text keeps the echo purposefully unidentified. It could be a simple echo that only seems to return poignant answers to Antonio's questions, but it could equally well be the voice of the Duchess' spirit speaking to her husband.

ECHO **1625

Echo is an unseen, offstage voice in Shirley's The School of Compliment. It mis-repeats the tag end of Welshman Jenkins' phrases as he wanders in the forest.


The voice of the echo of Ceres's oracle, the Ompha in Randolph's Amyntas. The Echo's answers to the questions of Urania and Amyntas enable the latter to decipher the riddling oracles, both of the Impossible Dowry and his father's curse, allowing a happy ending to result for all protagonists concerned.


After being separated from his dying father in Brome's The Queen's Exchange, Anthynus is led in circles through the woods by an echo.


Heard but not seen in Montague's The Shepherd's Paradise, she appears in a scene with Bellesa in which she echoes Bellesa's words.


When Lord Admiral Hobab soliloquizes on the virtue of Dorothea in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary, an Echo tells him that his image of her is correct.


Given speech-headings in Heywood's Love's Mistress, although apparently does not appear on stage.


In the scene of Ajax's madness and suicide in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, the hero asks rhetorically, "Who then? What's hee must cope with Aiax?" to which the Echo of Ajax replies from offstage "Aiax," prompting the warrior to stab himself.


A Northumbrian Lord in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. He and Alfride find the sleeping Anthynus and mistake him for Osriick. When Osriick leaves Northumbria, Edelbert remains with Ethelswick to watch over Anthynus. Eventually, he is forced from the court by Eaufride and Theodwald.


Edell, Earl of Hampshire in Brewer's The Lovesick King, is a follower of Ethelred.


A young woman and, along with Bobadilla, Urina's associate in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. She overhears Silly's foolish blazon of her mistress and threatens him. At Urina's prompting, she summons four furies to pinch him. She remembers herself as a beauty in her youth and thinks the man who got her maidenhead was lucky–she remembers being about four or five years old when it happened.


Only mentioned in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. When Chester announces the future bridegrooms that the two wedding ceremonies–:Marian/Pembrooke and Sydanen/Moorton–are to be celebrated at the historic church of St. John's, he adds that eight kings vowed allegiance to the English King Edgar in this church. Edgar defeated all these kings–of Scotland, Ireland, Denmark, five of Brittany, and others in glorious battle. In memory of this important pledge of allegiance, all English kings are benefactors of this church and celebrate their ceremonies here.


King of England in the anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave. Together with his counselor Dunstan he would like to establish a just government. At the beginning of the play he sets up severe laws, involving death for murder, felony and rape. Honesty appears and tells him that there are still many knaves around and that he has a "knack to know a knave." Honesty then goes out to "discover" the four sons of the Bailiff of Hexham, first Cutbert, then Walter, then John and finally Perin. The ultimate discovery is always in front of Edgar and Dunstan, in the first case, for the detection of Cutbert, they must disguise themselves as a farmer and a gentleman. While Honesty is detecting knaves, Edgar wants to find himself a concubine. Having heard of Alfrida's beauty, Edgar would like her, but Dunstan insists he should marry her. Edgar sends Ethenwald to woo her for him. Ethenwald appears and tells him that Alfrida has a "black" face and was only fit to serve an earl but not a king. The King finds this strange, but asks him whether he loves her and wishes them luck for their marriage. He asks Dunstan what kind of punishment he would give for somebody who dissembled in front of the king, and Dunstan recommends death. Ethenwald shall be tested and shall die if he dissembles, the King decides. He then asks Perin whether Alfrida was so ugly, and Perin confesses that Ethenwald has dissembled. When he goes to see Ethenwald, Kate the kitchen maid is presented to him as Alfrida. Her manners and language betray her, and Perin betrays Ethenwald by whispering to Edgar that this is Kate, the kitchen maid, and not Alfrida. Edgar then asks to see the kitchen maid, who admits to being the lady of the house. Dunstan admonishes him against adultery and attempts to protect his nephew. But Edgar remains resolved that Ethenwald should die till the end, when Honesty has detected all four "knaves." Edgar leaves it to him to punish them severely, but Ethenwald is finally forgiven.


A "ghost character" in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Edgar (king of England 959-75) was the fifth of "Seven great Kings" under whom St. Dunstan "flourished." According to Dunston, Edgar was a "great Prince, but full of many crimes," which Dunston restrained. It was in Edgar's reign that Saint Dunston had his dream of hell.


Edgar is the legitimate son of the Earl of Gloucester in Shakespeare's King Lear. Estranged from his father because the bastard Edmund has falsely sullied Edgar's name, this rightful heir of the earldom disguises himself through most of the play. As Tom o' Bedlam, he witnesses Lear's declining sanity on the heath and guides the blinded Gloucester to the Dover cliffs. As a "poor man" he assists Gloucester and kills Oswald. Edgar kills Edmund in trial by combat, and in some editions he utters the last lines of the drama.


Ezekiel Edgworth is a cutpurse and a con man in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Edgworth keeps company with Nightingale, Corn-cutter, Tinderbox-man, and other participants at the Fair. When Overdo/Madman asks Mooncalf about Edgworth, whose appearance is that of a smooth young man, the servant misrepresents the cutpurse's personality to Overdo. Thus, Overdo believes Edgworth is an honest clerk. Meantime, Edgworth is whispering to Nightingale to take all the purses and other goods they stole to Ursula's booth, where they will meet at night to share. While Cokes listens in admiration to Overdo's anti-tobacco speech, Edgworth picks Cokes' purse. He gives the purse to Nightingale, and slips off discreetly during the confusion created when the madman (Overdo disguised) is accused of the robbery. In the encounter with Cokes' second purse, Edgworth lies in waiting while Nightingale pretends to sing a spell against cutpurses. Though Cokes is cautious and keeps his hand in his pocket, Edgworth tickles him in the ear with a straw and makes him draw his hand out of his pocket. When he sees Overdo trying to steal away, for fear of being accused of the robbery a second time, Edgworth points to the madman as the culprit. Since Quarlous and Winwife saw the theft, and Quarlous threatened him with disclosure, Edgworth agrees to steal the box containing Grace's marriage license from Wasp. While Wasp is in merry company during a drunken brawl, Edgworth steals the marriage certificate from the box. Edgworth goes to the puppet-theatre with Whit, Knockem, and Mistresses Overdo and Littlewit, masked. Edgworth courts the masked Mistress Littlewit. Justice Overdo reveals his disguise, telling Edgworth to stay next to him, since Overdo still believes Edgworth an honest young man. The cutpurse thinks he has been discovered, but he remains silent, and becomes one of the guests for dinner at Overdo's house.


Edith is Mildred's nurse in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. When she learns of Offa's incestuous desire for Mildred, she tells him that Mildred is not actually his sister, that she is the daughter of a noblewoman whose husband was in exile who gave the child to Mildred's mother after Offa's actual sister was stillborn. She promises him proof of this in three days. She hopes that this lie will prevent Offa from raping and killing Mildred in the belief that she may become his legal bride.

EDITH **1619

Baldwin’s daughter in Fletcher’s Bloody Brother. She is on hand when Rollo murders Otto. She pleads for her father Baldwin’s life and at length wins Rollo’s pardon for him, but it arrives too late. She curses Rollo for the death. Latorch is impressed that she was able to move Rollo to clemency and tries to woo her though she tells him the time is not right. In fact, she is plotting to inflame Rollo’s lust and then kill Rollo when he calls her to him. She prepares a banquet at which to kill him, but he weeps and confesses his crimes there, melting her resolve. Hamond breaks in to murder Rollo, and though Rollo holds her as a shield before her, she shouts encouragement to Hamond to kill the duke even if he must thrust through her to get to him. Because she was accessory to the murder, Aubrey sentences her to a convent, which she gladly accepts.


See also "EDMUND."


A "ghost character" in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Edmond (i.e. Edmund, king of England 939-46) was the second of "Seven great Kings" under whom Saint Dunstan "flourished."


The son to the Widow in Middleton's(?) Puritan; he refuses to mourn his father, seeing his death as inevitable and as an opportunity to take over the family fortune. He is tricked into thinking he is invisible by Pyeboard, and proceeds to make a fool of himself with his uncle Godfrey by striking him.


Edmond, Duke of Thetford in Brewer's The Lovesick King, is the unswervingly loyal supporter of first Ethelred and then Alured. He flees to Scotland after the defeat at Winchester and there joins forces with Alured.


Edmond is one of the king's two brothers in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador. He has been fighting in France, but he and the other brother, Eldred, have returned in disguise after learning of the king's plans to murder them. At first he pretends to be his own supposed murderer, Gildas, but when the king rejects him he disguises himself as a servant attending on the Welsh ambassador.


A young rake who plots with Nathaniel and Vincent to cuckold Quicksands in Brome's The English Moor. Disguised as a mummer, he appears with Nathaniel, Vincent, and others at Quicksands' house in a profane marriage-masque. Invited to Quicksands' feast "celebrating" the death of Millicent, he and the others plan to bring Buzzard, disguised as Quicksands' idiot bastard, to disrupt the event. During the masque, he is exposed as penniless; however, in Testy's court, he and Vincent get Quicksands to forgive their debts in return for freeing him of his "bastard."


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


Saxon prince, eldest son of the late King Egleredus in the anonymous Edmond Ironside. After his father's death he takes the crown before Canute is legally proclaimed King by the Archbishop of Canterbury. His counselor Edricus deceives both him and his rival Canute several times. But in the end both follow Edricus' advice to have a single combat to the death to decide who should be king. After a chivalric fight the to rivals become friends and decide to share the kingdom. (Historically, Edmond got Wessex, and Canute kept the rest of the country. After Edmond's death Canute became King of all England, Denmark and Norway.)


See also EDMOND.


Edmund is the given name of King Edward II's half brother, the Earl of Kent in Marlowe's Edward II. See KENT.

EDMUND **1605

As the illegitimate son of the Earl of Gloucester in Shakespeare's King Lear. Edmund is a power-hungry and evilly ambitious character who causes the rift between Gloucester and Edgar through lies and deceit. Loved and sought after by both Goneril and Regan, Edmund orders the hanging of Cordelia. Edgar kills him in a trial by combat near the play's conclusion.


Also known as "Crouchback," he is the younger brother to Edward in Peele's Edward I. Edmund is Duke of Lancaster and accompanies the king on his Welsh campaign. At the play's end, Edward insists that Edmund join him disguised as one of the French Friars Elinor has summoned to hear her confession, and in several asides, the duke expresses his uneasiness at this project. When Elinor confesses to having slept with Edmund the night before her marriage to the king, Edmund tries to convince Edward that the queen must be temporarily insane because of her weakened condition. Edward, however, rejects that suggestion, and promising that Edmund's head will ransom the king's disgrace, he orders his brother to leave.


Rutland is the son of Richard, Duke of York in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI. Before he is slain by Lord Clifford to avenge the death of Clifford's father, Rutland begs for his life, but to no avail.


Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, is uncle of Richard Plantagenet, an advocate of his nephew's claim to the throne and thus a Yorkist. He explains the succession to his nephew, explaining that the Mortimers have been treated unjustly by the Lancastrians. He dies during II.v and his body is carried away. [Note: Shakespeare is confused about Mortimer, whom he seems to have mistaken for Lionel Mortimer, son to one of Hotspur's allies who was placed in the Tower and died at about the time of the play. Edmund Mortimer had become a friend and loyal supporter of Henry V and fought bravely with him in France. He became one of the Regents of Henry VI as well as Lieutenant of Ireland and died there in 1424 of plague. He was nephew to the Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, that appears in 1 Henry IV]


Edmund Mortimer is the Earl of March, brother-in-law to Hotspur and a member of the Percy faction opposing King Henry in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. He and his wife have a devoted relationship despite her lack of English and Mortimer's lack of Welsh. He is uncle to the Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, who appears in 1 Henry VI.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Edmund Plowden (1517–1584) was a famous Elizabethan lawyer of Catholic religion, who lectured at Middle Temple. When Fungoso wants to extract some money from his father in order to buy a new suit, he asks Sogliardo to tell Sordido that he wants to buy some books at bargain price. Fungoso says that the books by Plowden, Dyar, and Brooke can be bought at half-price.


Only mentioned by the Miller and King William in [?]Wilson's Fair Em, the Miller's Daughter. A Saxon nobleman who disguised himself as a peasant after the invasion of William the Conqueror. The Miller is in the same situation.


A patriotic general in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father. He utters speeches filled with blood and thunder. He is disgusted by Aurelius' marriage to Artesia, and demands that the Britons wage war against the Saxons. He leads the troops in the battle against Vortiger.


A "ghost character" in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Edred (i.e. Eadred, king of England 946-55) was the third of "Seven great Kings" under whom Saint Dunstan "flourished."


A poor and honest man, who believes that he is Edricus' father in the anonymous Edmond Ironside. (In an aside his wife tells us that he is not, it was an unknown soldier.) Together with his wife he wants to visit their son. They are accompanied by Stitch, who wants to become Edricus' servant. Stitch is immediately employed by Edricus, and his first task is to whip the two old people out of town.


(Eadric) Saxon, Duke of Mercia, an arch-villain and traitor, a man of mean origins in the anonymous Edmond Ironside. According to his mother (a poor man's wife), his father was an unknown soldier. Before the play starts, and until Egleredus' death, he has secretly supported Swaine, Canute's father. During the battle of Ashingdown he openly changed from Ironside's to Canute's side. At the beginning of the play he is one of Canute's counselors and recommends cruel treatment of his own Saxon countrymen. After the battle against Ironside's army in III is lost, he changes his clothes with his servant Stitch and goes back to Edmond Ironside in this disguise to find out whether he would still be welcome. Edmond recognizes him and he gets into difficulties. But as Canute's new Danish Army approaches, he finds his way again into Edmond's favor. He betrays him again, sends a letter to Canute and changes sides once more. Canute, too, is betrayed a second time, and Edricus goes back to Ironside's camp a third time. Ironside and Canute have learned to mistrust him now, but Edricus manages to persuade them again. He acts as a spy and double agent for both sides. Before coming to the final battle between their two armies, both kings want proofs of his loyalty. To escape from a decision that might be fatal for him, he suggests that Ironside and Canute should fight against each other in a single combat to the death, and thus save the lives of their soldiers. The kings agree, although Canute is warned against this course by his wife Egina and Ironside by his stepmother Emma. Edricus' plan fails when the kings stop their chivalric fight and become friends. The kings share the country, and Edricus is left alone in the end, crying for revenge on both.


A follower of Ethelred in Brewer's The Lovesick King.


Son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence in Peele's Edward I. Referred to as Longshanks in the speech headings. Edward returns to England from crusade after his father's death. Called upon by the Scottish nobility to select a new king for them from among the nine chief claimants, Edward selects John Baliol and receives homage from him. To confront the Welsh uprising, Edward goes to Wales personally, taking with him the pregnant Queen Elinor. He does this so that, should the child be a son, the boy will be a native-born Welshman, thus qualifying him for the title of Prince of Wales. The king leaves Mortimer, Earl of March, to contend with the rebel Lluellen's forces and returns to suppress a revolt in Scotland led by John Baliol. When Edward learns of Queen Elinor's "sinking" into the earth at Charing-Green and her subsequent rising at Potter's Hive, Edward returns to court with his brother Edmund, Duke of Lancaster. Disguised as one of the French Friars Elinor has summoned to hear her confession, Edward learns that his wife slept with his brother Edmund the night before her marriage to him and that Joan of Acon, his supposed daughter, is really the product of an affair with a French friar. When the queen dies and Edward receives confirmation of Mortimer's victory in Wales, he commits himself to dealing with Baliol's second rebellion in Scotland as a way of restoring through combat some of the family honor.
King Edward, known as 'Longshanks,' is angered by Grimsby's quarrel with Percy and orders them to make friends in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot. When the Scots rebel, he sends Grimsby to capture Wallace or else "Ruine that stubborne Nation." King Edward fights in the battle against the rebels. Afterwards, he offers a bounty of ten thousand crowns for Wallace's death. Wallace is duly captured by the traitorous Scots Mentith and Coming, and King Edward orders him to be hung drawn and quartered.


Central figure in Marlowe's Edward II, details of the reign of the historical Edward II, who reigned from 1307 to 1327, provide Marlowe's basic story line. Marlowe's Edward II loves the lowborn Frenchman, Gaveston, spurning his wife and incurring the enmity of nobles such as Lancaster, Mortimer, and Warwick, all of whom tolerate the king's bisexuality but not his favoritism toward commoners such as Gaveston and Spencer. Warwick murders Gaveston, war ensues, and a temporarily victorious Edward sends Lancaster and Warwick to the block. Later, troops loyal to Queen Isabella and Mortimer defeat Edward's forces, and Edward is captured, forced to abdicate in favor of his son, confined to a cesspool, and brutally murdered with a red-hot spit rammed up his anus.


Under pressure from his mother, Queen Isabella, and from Mortimer, her partner, Prince Edward succeeds his deposed father in 1327 at the age of 15, becoming Edward III in Marlowe's Edward II. He tries to prevent the execution the Earl of Kent, his uncle, but Mortimer overrules him, and his mother, the regent, goes along. Desiring revenge for the murder of his father, he has Mortimer hanged, drawn, quartered, and beheaded (in 1330), and sends his mother to the Tower.
King Edward of England is recruited by the Palsgrave on behalf of the rightful King of Spain to assist the Palsgrave in opposing The Bastard and Saxon in Smith's The Hector of Germany. The military firepower Edward brings with him to the conflict motivates the Bastard and Saxon to recruit King John of France to their side. Edward goes disguised to Clynton's house on the day of Floramell's supposed wedding to Old Fitzwaters. Edward prevents the two fathers, Clynton and Old Fitzwaters, from killing each other after the wedding is called off. Edward recruits the men into foreign service against The Bastard. It is reported that Edward is the only horseman successful against the Palsgrave at a tournament. Edward is insulted by France's involvement in the conflict. John sends Edward a letter warning Edward to stay out of the fight between the Bastard and Savoy. Edward is puzzled by the warning on account of the fact that England had so recently bullied France in battle. Before leaving for France to throttle the Bastard, Edward makes the Palsgrave the first foreign inductee into the Order of the Garter. Upon arriving in France, Edward demands a meeting with John. Edward sends Old Fitzwaters and Clynton to Germany to free the German heir Savoy, the King of Bohemia and the Marquesse Brandenburgh. With the assistance of the French Queen, Edward and his men infiltrate the enemy compound, ambush their foes and place all of the villains under arrest. At the end of the play, King Edward rules that Young Fitzwaters was betrothed to Floramell before Old Fitzwaters; as a consequence, Edward declares that Floramell should marry Young Fitzwaters.
Edward is the King of England in the anonymous King Edward III. He plans an invasion of France because through his mother, Isabella, he is more directly in line for the French throne than is the current king, John. He wants to leave for France immediately after confirming his right with Artois, but Warwick arrives with news of a Scottish attack on the Castle of Roxbourgh. He easily chases away King David and the Scots, and then falls instantly in love with the Countess of Salisbury, who was besieged in the castle. He attempts to win the Countess, even promising to kill his wife and her husband. When she threatens to kill herself, he realizes the immorality of his desires and returns to his plan to invade France. He lands in France after a sea battle, refuses John's offer of money and jewels, and knights his son, Prince Edward, before the battle at Crécy. At Crécy, he three times refuses to help his son when Prince Edward is in danger, preferring to let his son win fame and honor. At the siege of Calais, he allows six poor Frenchmen who have been expelled to pass safely through the English lines, and gives them food and drink. However, he insists that six wealthy citizens come before him, wearing halters and naked except for their shirts, to beg for mercy for Calais. When they appear, he at first plans to execute them, but when Phillipa begs for their lives he relents. When John Copland brings King David of Scotland to him as a prisoner rather than turn him over to the Queen in England, Edward is impressed and knights Copland. Edward returns to England after gaining Calais, with Kings John and David along with Princes Charles and Philip as prisoners.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Richard II. He is often mentioned in the play as the father of John of Gaunt, the Duke of Gloucester and the Duke of York and grandfather of King Richard and Bolingbroke.
A "ghost character." Edward III does not appear on stage but is mentioned as the great-grandfather of King Henry IV's sons in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.
A "ghost character" in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V. He is mentioned by the Archbishop of Bourges as husband to Isabel, great grandmother of Henry V.


The Ghost of Edward III in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock, grandfather of Richard II and brother to Thomas of Woodstock and the Dukes of York and Lancaster, appears to Thomas immediately after the first Ghost. for the same purpose–to warn him of his imminent murder.


Edward IV is king of England at the beginning of the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. He is gravely ill, thought generally to be on his deathbed. Edward calls his extended family to his deathbed and implores them to settle their rifts. He particularly calls upon his stepson Marcus and Lord Hastings to mend their relationship. He requires the men to share a handshake, then to embrace and finally to vow peaceful intentions. Sensing death is eminent, Edward reiterates his will: Richard, Duke of Gloucester, will assume the role of Lord Protector upon the king's death. Edward worries about Elizabeth's future and remands her to the Queen's care. After saying a short prayer, Edward dies in bed on stage.
Edward and Richard are the sons of Richard, Duke of York in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. Both eventually become king, Edward in 3 Henry VI, Richard in Richard III.
Edward, Earl of March and later King Edward IV, is the son of Richard, Duke of York–not to be confused with Edward, Prince of Wales, who also appears in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI. After his father is slain by Queen Margaret and Clifford, Edward becomes the Yorkist claimant to the throne. Backed by an army 30,000 strong, he confronts King Henry to demand the crown. When his forces are victorious, Edward's first onstage act as king is an attempt to coerce the widow Lady Grey into sharing his bed. When his blunt persuasions fail, he proposes marriage. The political consequences of the union are dire, including the enmity of France and of Warwick, who had been sent to France to broker a marriage between Edward and the French queen's sister, Lady Bona. Edward's brothers also oppose the marriage, not least because the new queen's relatives receive many of the advantages which Edward should have given to his own family members and supporters.
Son of York in Shakespeare's Richard III, brother of Clarence and Richard III, husband of Elizabeth, and father of Prince Edward, Prince Richard, and Princess Elizabeth. Edward IV is king of England in the beginning of the play, but is ill from extravagant living. He imprisons Clarence in the Tower of London and orders his execution because of a prophecy concocted by Richard that a person with the initial "G" will murder Edward's sons. Although he pardons Clarence, Richard has Clarence killed before the pardon can be presented, causing Edward shock and guilt that presumably kills him. Before he dies, however, Edward forces uneasy reconciliations between the contentious factions of his court, and appoints Richard as Lord Protector until Prince Edward is old enough to rule on his own.
King Edward is the successor to the deposed Henry VI in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV. Having created family unrest by wedding John Gray's widow, a woman that Edward's mother strongly dislikes, the king must next face national unrest when Falconbridge and his troops rebel. Spending some time disguised as a royal servant, Edward learns the common thought and gossip from Hobs the Tanner; he also meets and becomes enamored of Mistress Jane Shore. He eventually persuades her to leave her husband and come to court as paramour.
King Edward IV of England begins Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV determined to win the crown of France, to which he feels he has the sovereign right. Promised aid by the French Duke of Burgundy and Count S. Paul, Edward discovers the duplicity of both of these French noblemen. Having peacefully obtained the French crown, King Edward arranges for King Lewis of France to witness the double-dealings of Burgundy and S. Paul; Edward then returns to England. Plagued by a prophecy of disaster, Edward heeds the false interpretation of Doctor Shaw, and George, Duke of Clarence is imprisoned on the Tower where he is later murdered. When King Edward dies, the crown is viciously sought and obtained by Richard, Duke of Gloster.


Edward IV's eldest son is referred to as King within the text of the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III, although he never exercises power. He is thirteen years old at the time of his father's death. His mother and his older sister Elizabeth are powerless to protect the young heir or his younger brother, the Duke of York. Edward V is accompanied at the beginning of the play by his brother York and his maternal uncles Rivers and Gray. He is also attended by the gentlemen Hapce and Vaughan. Edward's mother writes to instruct the young king to leave his stronghold in Northampton. Rivers believes Edward should stay where he is because of the mounting danger posed by Richard and Buckingham; Gray believes Edward should do as the queen mother suggests. Edward sides with his mother and Gray and leaves Northampton. Edward is present as Richard and Buckingham arrest the boy king's protectors Gray, Hapce and Vaughan. The king offers to bail Gray out of prison, but his request is refused by Richard. Edward is placed into Richard's care on the route to London for the boy's coronation.
Son of Edward IV in Shakespeare's Richard III, brother of Prince Richard and Princess Elizabeth. His uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, forestalls his coronation by having him thrown into the Tower along with his brother Richard, Duke of York. Technically, however, the young Prince of Wales is King Edward V from the death of his father until his murder in the Tower (historically comprising a short period during 1483). During this period, his uncle Richard is named (ironically) Lord Protector until the young king is old enough to rule on his own. He is never called Edward V in the play.
One of the "little princes" of the Tower in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV. Son of king Edward IV and heir apparent, the young Prince Edward is declared illegitimate, locked in the Tower, and slain by Dighton on the order of Gloster.


A "ghost character" in Udall's? Thersites. Miles appears at the end of the play to offer a prayer to the king [Henry VIII], his wife, Jane [Seymour], and her baby son [Edward].
Winchester mentions Elizabeth's brother Edward in accusing her of treason in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. King Edward is also mentioned by Dodds in connection with a religious petition.
A "ghost character" in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. Gravely ill as the play opens, King Edward VI's death is announced by the Preacher. His will naming Lady Jane Grey as successor provides the catalyst for the action because the majority of both commons and nobles support the claim of Edward's sister Mary to the throne.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Edward the Sixth is mentioned by Narrowit when he is telling Master Silence how he is going to recompense his services, offering him "five pounds lawful money of Queen Elizabeth her shillings, King James'; and our good king Charles', and one sovereign of Edward the Sixth." Edward VI (1547-1553) was son to Henry VIII and Jane Seymour. When his father died, he reached to throne at the age of nine. Although he was betrothed to his cousin–Mary Queen of Scots–their marriage was prohibited due to the deterioration of English and Scot relations. The frail young Protestant monarch, who suffered from consumption, died at the age of sixteen.
Born in act one, scene two of Rowley’s When You See Me. Historically, the date of his birth was 12 October 1537. According to the play, this is St. Edward’s Day, but it is not. October 13 is the feast of Edward the Confessor. As he grows, he is sometimes called Ned. He is next seen as a truant schoolboy playing tennis when he should be studying. He is sorry that Browne has been whipped for the prince’s truancy and knights him for shedding blood for him. In lessons, he tells Cranmer that his sister Mary’s tutors have sent him their own teachings and asks whether there a Purgatory. He receives letters from his sisters Mary and Elizabeth, each entreating him to follow their religions (Catholic or Protestant). He most loves Elizabeth and follows the Protestant faith. When the king banishes Cranmer and orders Queen Catherine to the Tower, Prince Edward begs on bended knee for his father to listen to Catherine and pawns his word for her, which melts Henry into agreeing. Later, he bestows upon the Holy Roman Emperor the collar of state and garter of knighthood.


Son of the late King Egleredus from his second marriage in the anonymous Edmond Ironside. Edmond Ironside's half-brother. When the civil war between Ironside and Canute starts, his mother Emma sends him and his brother Alphred to her brother Richard, Duke of Normandy. (Historically, Edward was later to become King Edward the Confessor).


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry V. Duke of Bar. He is reported among the French dead on the Agincourt battlefield.


A "ghost character" in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Edward ("the Martyr," king of England 975-78) was the sixth of "Seven great Kings" under whom Saint Dunstan "flourished."

EDWARD **1632

One of Lively’s “two rustical servants" in Hausted’s Rival Friends. The other is Robin. Lively has given his two maids, one named Kate, and two of his rustical servants leave to go dance on the green. Along with the fiddlers, they encounter Merda and Anteros disguised as Geoffrey and bid them dance with them. Later, Edward and Robin discover Neander standing over the body of Constantina with a sword in his hand and carry the girl to Justice Hook.


Edward is the young son of John and Jane a Barley in Greene's George a Greene. He is outside the castle when King James arrives to woo his mother. He urges her not to open the castle gates. James then threatens to kill Edward, but Edward insists that his mother is better to sacrifice her son then her and her husband's honor, a morality with which, after a brief hesitation, she agrees. It is not entirely clear, but it seems that the attack of Musgrove comes before Edward is actually killed.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Alleyn is mentioned by Doctor Clyster, when he catches Sir Cupid Phantsy versifying again, when he had made him assure him he would not do it again. Sir Cupid, in an attempt to avoid being reprimanded, replies he was at his prayers, but the Doctor, ironically, asks him: "What, so loud, and acting, as if Burbage's soul had newly revived Hamlet and Jeronimo again, or Alleyn, Tamburlaine?" Edward Alleyn (1566-1626)–the greatest actor of his time, according to many contemporaries–was the leading player in the Admiral's Men. He succeeded playing the title roles in Tamburlaine and Dr Faustus, and Barabas in The Jew of Malta–the three plays written by Christopher Marlowe.


Favorite of King Richard II in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock, along with Bushy, Scroop, and Greene. Bagot and his friends, assisted by the crooked lawyer Tresilian, hate Woodstock and stir up the King's resentment of his government; their intention is to run the country for themselves. At the coronation, Richard, stung by Woodstock's forthright criticism, gives Bagot the important post of Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal. Soon the favorites persuade the King to "farm out" the realm to them, one piece each: Bagot gets the long south-western stretch between the Thames and the tip of Cornwall. He fights and is defeated in the last battle, but escapes; according to the rumour, he has fled to Bristol, and the King's opponents resolve to guard the ports to prevent him from fleeing abroad.


Edward Bohun is the given name of Buckingham in Shakespeare's Henry VIII; he uses this name in referring to himself as a stalwart loyalist.


Also called Ned in Rowley’s When You See Me. A young playmate who carries Prince Edward’s cloak and hat while he plays tennis. Cranmer has him whipped because he draws the prince from his studies. Prince Edward knights Browne for bleeding on his behalf and Henry confirms the knighthood and gives him three thousand marks a year for his living.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Coke is mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he is explaining to Sir Cupid Phantsy that he can see he is getting worse, and, thus, he is going to put him on a 'reading' diet: "I prescribe you Littleton's Tenures to read in French, with Lambarde's Justice of Peace, Dalton, Crompton, and Fitzherbert, Pulton's Statutes, and Coke's Reports." Sir Edward Coke (1552-1634) was a lawyer of the Inner Temple. He was the founder of English administrative law. He is also the author of Le Reports, a compendium of law bearing on cases which was published in 11 volumes between 1600 and 1615.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Richard III. A knight supporting Richmond. Sir Edward Courtenay, along with his elder brother the Bishop of Exeter, marches soldiers through Devonshire to attack Richard III's forces.


Edward is a child of Sir Francis Cressingham and supported by Water Chamlet in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. According to Sir Francis, it was his new wife's suggestion to have his two children reared elsewhere. At Chamlet's shop, Edward and Maria overhear Rachel expressing her suspicions that the two children are Chamlet's bastards. When Edward inquires whether the allegation is true, Chamlet responds that his wife actually referred to his two apprentices, Ralph and George, as his bastards. Edward and his sister affirm that they would not be a cause of discord in Chamlet's house. When Rachel threatens to leave her husband and get a divorce because of the two children's presence in the house, George is charged with taking Maria and Edward to their father. At Sir Francis's house, Edward complains that Rachel was an angry woman, who deprived them of their food and was perpetually irritated. Edward hopes that their new mother, Lady Cressingham, is a good soul. Reminiscing on his dead mother, the former Lady Cressingham, Edward tells his father she used to call him mother's pet. Telling his father that he loves him as well as his dead mother did, Edward exits with Maria and George to have some sweets, at Lady Cressingham's invitation. In his situation of poverty, when he thought his wife had deprived him of all his money, Sir Francis reports that Edward and Maria were sent as apprentices. In the final scene of Lady Cressingham's repentance and profession of obedience to her husband, Edward and Maria enter with their stepmother. The children are dressed elegantly as a sign of their newfound prosperity.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Sir Edward Dyer was an Elizabethan poet. A friend of Sidney and Spenser, he was celebrated in his day as an elegy-writer. When Fungoso wants to extract some money from his father in order to buy a new suit, he asks Sogliardo to tell Sordido that he wants to buy some books at bargain price. Fungoso says that the books by Plowden, Dyar, and Brooke can be bought at half-price.


An optimistic, happy, and prosperous man in Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment who prefers dancing to dwelling on money. He is the father of Katherine and Camelia and is approached by Mamon, the usurer who hopes to marry Katharine and inherit Sir Edward's money. Sir Edward enjoys music and drink and when Mamon criticizes this Sir Edward replies that to be a slave to money is to be the slave of a fool: "I had rather live rich to die poor than live poor to die rich." He wants his children to love him for himself and not for any wealth he might leave behind. Mamon thinks that Sir Edward ought to spend his money to gain titles and a place at Court, but Fortune scoffs at this view of life. Sir Edward, unlike most fathers in Early Modern dramas, believes that his daughters should be free to choose their husbands for love. He does not want to impose his authority on them–especially when it comes to marriage. Sir Edward is on the scene when Planet brings news of Pasquil's murder. After Katherine runs away, Sir Edward discovers that Pasquil is alive and well. In despair he departs with Drum to comfort himself with music and drink. He is on the scene when Brabant Junior discovers that he has not killed his friend, Planet, nor has Planet betrayed their friendship. During the resultant celebratory banquet, Sir Edward is reunited with a now-recovered Katherine and a now-sane Pasquil. They celebrate their happy reunion with singing, feasting, and drinking toasts.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Edward Kelly was an alchemist and associate of Dr. Dee. He died in 1595 and had as a patron the Emperor Rudolph II of Germany. When Mammon wants to ingratiate himself with the mysterious lady he is courting, he tells her that Subtle is an excellent alchemist, a man whom the Emperor has courted above Kelly.


Although never specified in Greene's George a Greene, this is presumably Edward I (the actual history would require Richard I or John, Edward's grandfather). He enters with King James after the latter has been brought to London as a prisoner. Despite Edward's first speech, in which he displays anger that James would break the truce, James is clearly a guest rather than a prisoner. When Cuddie uses the phrase "as good as George a Greene" King Edward questions him about the man, since he keeps hearing him described as a paragon. When Kendall is brought in, Cuddie explains to Edward all that has happened so far and Edward is interested enough to travel to the North, with James, to meet George. The two kings travel in disguise, and they first meet the Shoemaker, who orders them to trail their staffs, as is the custom in the town. They agree, not wanting to start a fight, and so when they meet George and Robin, they are taken for peasants pretending to be yeoman. There is a fight, although the stage directions have George beating the Shoemakers, not the two kings, and after he wins, Edward reveals himself. He pardons George for beating him, Robin for being an outlaw, and the Shoemakers for, apparently, fooling him. He then grants Jenkin's boon of renaming the Shoemakers the trade of gentle craft, knights Musgrove, and convinces Grimes to approve the marriage of George and Beatrice. He attempts to knight George, but George refuses, wanting to remain a yeoman like his father. Edward finishes by suggesting a visit to Jane a Barley to see if she is as fair as James has said.


Edward Knowell is Old Knowell's spendthrift and frivolous son in Jonson's Every Man in His Humour. At Knowell's house, Edward Knowell enters with Brainworm, who gives him a letter from Wellbred. Brainworm informs Edward Knowell that his father had read the letter, though he had been instructed to keep silent. Edward Knowell exits with his cousin Stephen to meet the party of gallants in the city. At the Windmill Tavern, Edward Knowell enters with Stephen. He informs Wellbred that his father had read the ill-fated letter inviting him to the tavern and was very displeased with his son's dissolute company. Brainworm enters disguised as Fitz-Sword, but he reveals his disguise, telling Edward Knowell that his father had been following him and was now waiting at Justice Clement's house for news about his son. Wellbred instructs Brainworm to stall Knowell until they think of a plan, and promises Edward Knowell to unite him with Bridget. Edward Knowell exits with the gallants. At Kitely' house, Edward Knowell enters with his party of gallants. During the conversation, Edward Knowell is rather silent, but it is understood that he is eyeing Bridget amorously. When Downright chases the gallants away and all men draw swords, Edward Knowell tries to pacify them, but he exits with the others when Kitely enters. It is understood that Edward Knowell meets Bridget secretly, an assignation arranged by Wellbred. In the final reconciliation scene, Edward Knowell is brought before Justice Clement together with Bridget. The judge blesses their union and promises to reconcile him with his father. Edward Knowell appreciates the judge's humanity and enjoys the final merriment.


Edward Lacy, the Earl of Lincoln, is Prince Edward's best friend in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. When the prince determines to make Margaret his mistress, he sends Lacy in disguise to woo on his behalf. Instead, Lacy falls in love with the maid, as she does with him. When Prince Edward learns of the relationship, he confronts the couple at Fressingfield, threatens to have Lacy executed, is moved by Margaret's pleading, and promises to support Lacy's marriage to the young woman. Before their wedding, Lacy decides to test Margaret by sending her a message from court indicating that he is to be married to one of the waiting women attendant upon Elinor of Castile. At court, Lacy's description of Margaret's beauty and virtue is so telling that King Henry orders him to fetch Margaret from Fressingfield in order to have them married at the same time as Prince Edward and Elinor. Believing herself abandoned, Margaret had decided to enter a convent, but when Lacy arrives and tells her the truth, she gives up her intention to enter the religious life and returns with her beloved to court.


A non-speaking character in Peele's Edward I. Edward of Caernarvon, later Edward II, is the son born to Edward I and Queen Elinor during the campaign in Wales. The king arranges for his pregnant queen to join him there so their child will satisfy the demand of the Welsh populace that only native-born Welshmen may receive the title of Prince of Wales.
Called Prince Edward, the future Edward II is present in the English court scene of J.W.'s The Valiant Scot, but he does not speak.


Edward and Richard are the sons of Richard, Duke of York in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. Both eventually become king, Edward in 3 Henry VI, Richard in Richard III.
Edward, Earl of March and later King Edward IV, is the son of Richard, Duke of York–not to be confused with Edward, the Lancastrian Prince of Wales, who also appears in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI. After his father is slain by Queen Margaret and Clifford, Edward becomes the Yorkist claimant to the throne. Backed by an army 30,000 strong, he confronts King Henry to demand the crown. When his forces are victorious, Edward's first onstage act as king is an attempt to coerce the widow Lady Grey into sharing his bed. When his blunt persuasions fail, he proposes marriage. The political consequences of the union are dire, including the enmity of France and of Warwick, who had been sent to France to broker a marriage between Edward and the French queen's sister, Lady Bona. Edward's brothers also oppose the marriage, not least because the new queen's relatives receive many of the advantages which Edward should have given to his own family members and supporters. See also "EDWARD IV."


Prince Edward is the Prince of Wales, eldest son of Edward III in the anonymous King Edward III. He is first presented as a young man eager for battle but completely untested. His arrival at Roxbourgh and his resemblance to his mother almost sways King Edward from his lustful desire for the Countess of Salisbury, but in the end the prince's presence is not enough. When the English invade France, his father knights Prince Edward before the battle of Crécy, although it seems that he has already fought several successful battles with Audley. At Crécy, he appears to be overwhelmed by the French, causing Artois, Audley and Derby all to request that Edward give him aid. Edward refuses however, preferring that the Prince "win his spurs" or die gloriously. Prince Edward is successful and kills the King of Bohemia. At Poitiers, he fights the French king John and his two sons with a much smaller army. When the archers run out of arrows, the Prince tells them to throw stones, thus fulfilling the second prophecy, which stated that France would be lost when flint stones rise and fight. Prince Edward is eventually successful, and captures John and Charles, although between the end of the battle and the Prince's arrival at his father's camp, Charles disappears from the play. In history, he came to be known as Edward, the Black Prince.


Son of King Edward II and Queen Isabella in Marlowe's Edward II. Prince Edward is born (in 1312) after the play begins and goes as a child with his mother to visit her brother, the king of France. As she endeavors to raise support to force Edward II to abdicate in favor of Prince Edward, the latter speaks of concern for his father and with naivete about threats to his own safety. He does not want to raise arms against Edward II, asks that he not made king prematurely, and resists the influence of Mortimer. Under pressure from his mother and Mortimer, however, he becomes King Edward III when his father is deposed in 1327. See EDWARD III.


Prince Edward, Prince of Wales, is son of King Henry III of England in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. He is nephew to Isabella, and to Richard, and is visiting the German court. Appointed Emperor in Fortune's Revels, he falls in love with Hedewick, daugher of the Duke of Saxony, and woos her in a clumsy English fashion. A marriage between them is arranged, but on the wedding night, Hedewick modestly escapes from the marriage-chamber via a trapdoor, so as to postpone the loss of her virginity. In the darkness, though, she is raped by Alexander, and everyone assumes that this is done by Edward. Edward's protestations that he has not committed this rape are seen by the Germans as an attempt to escape from his marriage with Hedewick, and he is imprisoned. In prison, he is appalled to witness Saxony's murder of Hedewick and the child. He is sentenced to be executed along with his aunt, and Alphonsus takes them aside with the intention of killing them personally, but both aunt and nephew are saved by the murder of Alphonsus, and Edward finishes the play a free man. See also under EDWARD I.
Prince of Wales in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. Edward is the son of Henry III and heir to the English throne. (In a historical inaccuracy, the text identifies him as the Prince of Wales, but that title would not be taken by the heirs apparent until his son, also named Edward, was born at Caernarvon.) While hunting near Fressingfield with his friends, the prince sees Margaret, the beautiful daughter of the Keeper, and determines to have her as his mistress. Knowing that her virtue would not admit of an affair, Edward sends his best friend, Edward Lacy, the Earl of Lincoln, in disguise to woo for him, while he goes to Oxford to enlist the aid of the famous magician Friar Bacon. After observing in Bacon's "glass prospective" that Lacy and Margaret have fallen in love with one another, the prince hastens to Fressingfield and confronts the pair. When Edward threatens to have Lacy executed, Margaret's plea on her beloved's behalf is so moving that the prince feels shame and regret for what he has been attempting to do. Committing himself to the marriage with Elinor of Castile that has been arranged for him by Henry III, the prince promises his support for a union between Margaret and the earl, and the two couples are joined in a double ceremony at the play's end.


When King Henry agrees to make the Duke of York, Richard Plantagenet, his heir, Edward, Henry's son, is determined to defend his own claim to the throne in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI. With the support of his mother Queen Margaret and an alliance of northern nobles, Edward pursues the Duke of York. Later, when the Lancastrian forces capture Edward, he remains proud and insulting, so much so that Edward, Richard Duke of Gloucester, and the George Duke of Clarence each take a turn stabbing him.


One of the "little princes" of the Tower in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV. Son of king Edward IV and heir apparent, the young Prince Edward is declared illegitimate, locked in the Tower, and slain by Dighton on the order of Gloster.


A "ghost character" in Peele's Edward I. When the Queen Mother greets Edward upon his return from Palestine, she remarks that during his absence he has lost his father (Henry III), his uncle (Richard of Cornwall), and his son. The son is not named, but historically two of Edward's sons–John and Henry–died while he was campaigning.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Edward the Confessor was king of England, born in 1003, died in 1066. He was the son of Ethelred II and Emma, daughter of Duke Richard of Normandy. His reign was one of almost unbroken peace. Being devoid of personal ambition, Edward's one aim was the welfare of his people. He remitted the odious "Danegelt," which had needlessly continued to be levied. When Truewit wants to persuade Morose to give up his intention of marriage, he argues that silent and reliable women are hard to find these days. Truewit argues that, had they lived in Edward the Confessor's time, he might have found a dull frosty wench in some country hamlet that would have been content with one man only. As it is, Truewit says, women are libertine creatures, who would sooner be pleased with one leg or one eye than be satisfied with only one man. Truewit's allusion to King Edward the Confessor's days is meant to emphasize events that might have happened in bygone times.


A "ghost character" in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Edwin (i.e. Eadwig, king of England 955-59) was the fourth of the "Seven great Kings" under whom Saint Dunstan "flourished."


A character(?) from the badly deteriorated plot of the anonymous 2 Fortune's Tennis. Because of the state of decay, nothing more can be deduced regarding the character's function in the otherwise lost play. This is possibly the actor's name.


A British courtier and warrior in the British court, son of Gloucester, and suitor to Modesta in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father. Although Modesta admires him, she turns down his suit in favour of becoming a nun. He fights in the war against Vortiger.


Name used by the Duchess for the Lord Admiral in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk.


An alternative form for Egleredus in the anonymous Edmond Ironside.


A "ghost character" in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Egelred (i.e. Aethelred "the Unready," king of England 978-1016) was the last of "Seven Great Kings" under whom Saint Dunstan "flourished."


Egeon is a Syracusan merchant in Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors. He is unlawfully present in Ephesus and held by the authorities there. His sentence is death, and his story of the loss of his wife Aemilia and one of his twin sons (both named Antipholus) suspends his execution just long enough for the discovery of his lost wife, now the Lady Abess, and his lost son. The discovery brings about Egeon's reprieve.


He enters in spectacle toward the end of the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune. He arrives to view the execution of Tesephon and Allgerius, whom Urganda has accused of poisoning their daughters. It is a trick, however, and Urganda delays the execution with magic and finally dismisses the executioner by summoning three antic faeries. When the daughters are produced, the king sets the fathers free.


Egeus is the father of Hermia in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. He has chosen Demetrius for his daughter and petitions Theseus for help when Hermia instead prefers Lysander. A stubborn man who can offer no logical reason for preferring Demetrius to Lysander, he ignores his daughter's plain preference and would rather see his daughter die under Athenian law-or join a nunnery-than wed a man he himself has not selected. His will is overborne in IV when Demetrius returns to Helena and the Duke, Theseus, allows Hermia to marry Lysander.


Southampton's daughter in the anonymous Edmond Ironside. She is married to Canute for political reasons. She loves her husband and warns him against fighting Ironside in single combat.


Clytemnestra's husband in Pickering's Horestes. With Clytemnestra he murdered Agamemnon (before the play began) and seized the throne of Mycenae. He first appears exchanging a powerful love song with Clytemnestra, singing of Paris and Helen's love. He is captured and hanged onstage.
Egistus (more usually Ægisthus) has become Clitemnestra's lover during her husband's absence, and is persuaded by Cethus to join the murderous plot in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age. He hides in the royal bedchamber, and as Agamemnon and Clitemnestra are about to be reunited after ten years of separation attacks and fatally wounds the king. He and the queen flee, planning to have Orestes killed and to use their connections with Menelaus to retain the throne. Egistus accepts Cethus' forged letter as real, and admits Orestes and Pillades in disguise to the citadel; he pays for the error with his life.


A Moor and Amaranta's servant in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. She is much abused by her mistress. She announces Lopez, Diego, and Leandro, brings in the chessboard, and carries a note from her mistress to her paramour Leandro.


A knight of the realm in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona. Julia first refuses him as a suitor despite his well-spoken demeanor. When sent for by Silvia, Sir Eglamour arrives to find that Silvia only wants him as escort while she searches for her love Valentine. When thieves attack them, he flees.


A "Shepherdess" and Cynosbatus's sister in Knevet's Rhodon and Iris. Eglantine employs a servant, Clematis, and a Page, Gladiolus, and is described by Rhodon as a "Lady" who possesses "rare endowments both of art and nature" as well as "high birth and fortune." She was "Courted lately by the Shepheard Rhodon" and, though it was rumoured that they would soon by married, Rhodon "relinquished his suit" to her. She is, throughout the play, grief-stricken over the loss of Rhodon's love and, for this reason, she "sings and playes" a mournful song on the Lute, hopes for death to overtake her, and intends to end her life with a "sweet ponyard" until she is stopped by Poneria. After Poneria convinces the shafted lover not to commit suicide, Eglantine accepts the witch's offer to make Rhodon "renew the love" which he previously bore to her. She is then introduced by Poneria to Agnostus and, though frightened of the "Impostor," stays to hear Agnostus's speech concerning his vast knowledge and the power of his art. She "enjoin[s]" Clematis to procure a long list of "devices," and Clematis describes Eglantine's late fickleness as well as the measures which she has been going to in order to beautify herself for Rhodon. Eglantine faults Clematis for persuading her to wear less makeup, and claims that the maid "goes about utterly to undoe" her. She agrees to the meeting set up by Poneria with Rhodon, during which time she will pretend to be Iris and offer Rhodon "a precious Philter of rare efficacy" which, unbeknownst to him, will make him forget Iris and fall in love with Eglantine again. However, at Martagon's request, Poneria provides the unknowing maid with poison rather than a love potion, which results in Rhodon's near death. Eglantine sends Martagon a letter in which she wishes the General well and entreats him to give Gladiolus a place in his army. Martagon grants her request and bestows "a Captaines place" on the Page, in the hopes that Eglantine will return "a greater curtesie than this" to him. She enters at the play's end with Flora, Iris, and Panace in order to witness the orders and punishments which Flora will dole out, and is sentenced by the "renowned Queen" to do "ten yeeres pennance" while "confin'd" in a "vestall Temple" for breaking "the sacred lawes of love" in her attempts to make Rhodon "enamor'd on" her.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Edmond Ironside, his name is alternatively spelled Egelred and Aethelraede. Historically he was Aethelred II / Ethelred the Unready. Duke of Normandy, the late King of England, tributary to Swaine and Canute. Emma's late husband, father of Ironside, Alphred and Edward. Egleredus is dead when the play starts.


The Witch's "Spirit" in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Eglon is questioned by the Witch concerning "why all the mischiefes [she] designe[s] of late move slowly" and "yeeld [her] no pleasure as they had wont." Eglon informs her that the "sadnesse" that "possesses [her] of late" is "lessen[ing]" her power, refers to her as his "Princesse favourite," and sends away the Masque which the Witch conjures in order to repair her spirits.


Sir Egmond is a neighbor of the Countess of Arran in Greene's James IV. He, along with Lady Douglas, visits her after they have been hunting.


He tries to get Antwerp forces to accept defensive supplies by offering payment from the Prince and States in the anonymous A Larum for London. He suggests that the commanders can control the army if they be given authority to execute anyone who riots. He agrees to help d'Hauurye keep the army near Antwerp. After hearing that the Spanish demanded that the Dutch refuse anchorage to ships of the Prince of Orange, he reminds Champaigne and the citizens that the Spanish have a history of never being satisfied with accommodations people make to appease them. He confirms the attack, urges his men to action, reveals that Van End is part of the conspiracy, and that Switzers are drunk. He questions Danila and Dalua about their motives for attacking Antwerp, which has not harmed them. Captured by Spanish forces, he is saved by Dalua. He is apparently sent to Spain as Alva's captive.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Count Egmont was a Flemish nobleman executed at d'Alva's orders, when the Spaniard was a governor of the Netherlands from 1567 to 1573. When Surly disguised as the Spanish nobleman appears at Lovewit's house, apparently to meet a lady, Subtle says he looks too fat to be a Spaniard. Face supposes he is some sort of crossbreed between a Spaniard and a Hollander, begot in d'Alva's time, adding that maybe he was Count Egmont's bastard.


Count Egmont is the Spanish ambassador to England in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. Queen Mary has him summoned to report that she and her advisers have agreed to accept the proposed marriage between her and Phillip II of Spain.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess. An elderly shepherd with a cold who is to help Alexis, Ladon, and Thirsis with the country entertainment planned for Diocles.


A parasitic courtier in Fletcher's The Elder Brother. He accompanies Eustace as he returns home to meet his future bride Angellina, Egremont advises Eustace that after the marriage he must keep Angellina from all learning. Egremont agrees to prepare a marriage masque and is dismayed to find the performance is cancelled when Angellina announces she will marry Charles rather than Eustace. Egremont agrees to help Eustace and Cowsy kidnap Angellina, but the three men are easily disarmed by Charles. Egremont is dismissed by the suddenly reformed Eustace with a sharp scolding for contributing to court corruption.

EGYPT, KING of **1604

A ‘ghost character’ in Verney’s Antipoe. Dramurgon has just defeated him as the play begins, and he is said to send the masque to the king of Bohemia, although this is a ruse by the Tartar knights Dabon, Lipersus, Macro and Sapos to gain access to Bohemia’s daughters as they have promised.


After the final battle in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra, the Egyptian enters to tell Caesar that Cleopatra is inside her monument and to ask what she may expect from Caesar.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's A Game at Chess from whom the Black Queen's Pawn bought her magic mirror.


Only mentioned in Marmion's A Fine Companion. Valeria refers to the Egyptian Queen (Cleopatra VII) in speaking of her distress at being separated form Aurelio.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. In the hope of convincing the skeptical Surly of the ancient lore of alchemy, Subtle states that all the knowledge of the Egyptians was written in mystic symbols, similar to the alchemical signs.


Maidservant to Cleopatra in May's Cleopatra. She dies at play's end with Cleopatra, possibly also from the bite of an asp; Shakespeare's Iras. Cf. Charmio.

EIRON **1630

Roscius in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass characterizes him as one "that, out of an itch to be thought modest, dissembles his qualities . . . offending in denying a truth." His opposite is Alazon.


Family name of Paul and Lady Eitherside in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass.


Wife of the lawyer, Paul Eitherside, and Lady Tailbush's friend in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass. She attends the "Spanish Lady's" salon at Lady Tailbush's.


A foolish constable in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. Spouting comical malapropisms, Elbow brings Pompey and Froth before Angelo and Escalus, charging Pompey with prostituting Mistress Elbow to Froth. Angelo grows weary of the proceedings and leaves Escalus to pronounce judgements. Escalus orders Elbow to bring him the six or seven men in Elbow's district best capable of being constables, presumably for the purpose of replacing Elbow.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. Described as being pregnant and craving "stewed prunes" (a likely euphemism for testicles), Mistress Elbow visits Mistress Overdone's brothel, where she has intercourse with Froth. Elbow accuses Pompey of prostituting her. Pompey claims she prostituted herself.


Eldegrad is the mother of Ganelon, Gabriella and Theodora, and grandmother of La Busse in the anonymous Charlemagne. She plots with Gabriella to break the friendship between Ganelon and Richard. Thus, she hopes that Gabriella can win Richard's love when he is free from Ganelon's influence and disapproval. Their forgery of letters between Richard and Gabriella results in Ganelon's murder of Richard when he thinks that his friend has dishonored his family. Ganelon kills Gabriella and Eldegrad when he discovers their fabrications.


Only mentioned in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. A former king of Britain, mentioned by Lantonus. In Eldell's reign, the gods foretold what was going to happen.


The Elder Loveless in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady is the brother of Young Loveless and is a suitor to the Lady, who loves him but cannot resist tormenting him. He has annoyed her by kissing her in public, and has been ordered to spend a year travelling in France to appease her. In his absence, Elder Loveless decides to leave his brother as master of his house. He returns, in disguise, and announces his own death in order to test his brother. Young Loveless rejoices in his inheritance, and arranges to sell his new land to the usurer Morecraft in order to get enough money to buy a knighthood. Meanwhile, Elder Loveless tries to convince the Lady of his death, but is recognised and humiliated as the Lady pretends to have transferred her affections to Welford. He returns home in his own person in time to prevent the handover of his land to Morecraft, and approves the marriage between Young Loveless and the Widow. He is displeased with Savill, his steward, who failed to restrain Young Loveless's wild behaviour, and removes him from his post. Later, Elder Loveless goes to the Lady again, and tries to convince her that he has tired of her. The Lady pretends to swoon, and Elder Loveless reveals his true feelings; she again humiliates him, and he rails against her before returning home again. Unable to forget her, he is visited by Welford, who desires revenge. They go to the Lady, with Welford disguised as a masked woman, and claim that 'she' is Elder Loveless's newly betrothed sweetheart. The Lady is stung into action, and agrees to marry Elder Loveless. The next morning, Elder Loveless discloses that his 'betrothed' was Welford; the Lady is irate at having been tricked, but vows to be patient. Elder Loveless approves the marriage between Welford and the Lady's sister, Martha, and, at Young Loveless's request, returns Savill to his post as steward.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's The Alchemist. The learned elder of Scotland had assured Tribulation that aurum potabile, liquid drinkable gold, is the only medicine for a certain civil magistrate. By curing the magistrate with the magical elixir, Tribulation hopes that the judge might be inclined to support the Anabaptist Cause.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus. In London, Luxurio hopes to take the place of the recently deceased Elizabethan ballad-maker, William Elderton, referred to here not only by his name but also by his notoriously large red nose.


Name adopted by Alured in disguise as a commoner in Brewer's The Lovesick King. As Eldred, he becomes the object of Elgina's attraction.


Eldred is one of the king's two brothers in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador. They have returned from France after hearing of the plans for their murder. He first pretends to be Uffa, his own supposed murderer, but when the king says he has no more need for soldiers he disguises himself as an Irish footman attending on the Welsh ambassador.


See also ELENOR, ELINOR, ELIANOR, and related spellings.


Eleanor, Duchess of Gloucester, second wife of Humphrey in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, encourages her husband to usurp King Henry and claim the crown for himself. At Eleanor's behest, the duplicitous priest Hume arranges a séance in which Roger Bolingbrook, the priests Hume and Southwell, and the witch Margery Jourdain conjure a spirit who will ostensibly help Eleanor to become queen. Hume is secretly working for Cardinal Beaufort and Suffolk, who plan to use Eleanor to discredit her husband. With Hume's collusion the séance is interrupted and the participants arrested. King Henry condemns the three men to the gallows, Margery Jourdain to Smithfield where she will be burnt as a witch, and Eleanor to the Isle of Man where she will live in exile. As a prelude to her banishment, Eleanor is led through the streets barefoot.


Queen Eleanor, or Elinor, is the mother of John and grandmother of Arthur in Shakespeare's King John. She supports John completely as king of England. When the Falconbridges arrive, she recognizes the Bastard's resemblance to Richard I and asks if he will deny his connection to the Falconbridge family and instead serve her. In front of Angers, Eleanor taunts Constance for being disloyal and even suggests that Arthur is a bastard. She is apparently threatened during the battle between France and England, and is rescued by the Bastard. The Messenger who delivers the report of a French army ready to invade also reports that Eleanor has died.


Daughter of Don Fernando, betrothed to Henrico in the anonymous Dick of Devonshire. During the English attack Eleanora tries to resist Henrico's lustful assault but is too weak. Henrico denies the rape to both her father and to the court at Xerez, but the judges believe her; when they give her a choice between his death and marriage she chooses the latter, but he will not have her. Her continuing love saves his life, however, and in the end they are reconciled.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David and John Baptist as an example of an upright, virtuous man.


A Moor, Prince of Fesse and Barbary, son of the late Abdela, King of Barbary in the anonymous Lust's Dominion. He has sworn revenge against the whole Spanish nobility because King Philip killed his father and also because he himself was taken as a prisoner to Spain. He has become an important figure in Spain, fighting successfully in the wars against the Turks, and is now married to Alvero's daughter Maria. King Philip's wife, the Queen Mother, visits him regularly. He is her lover or male concubine, but recently their liaison has become too well known. In I.i he insults her because he wants to break off this relationship. She has to leave because her dying husband wants to see her, and Alvero, who thought to find her with Eleazar, accompanies his son-in-law to the dying King. The King appoints Fernando as his successor and Cardinal Mendoza as his protector before he dies. Prince Philip arrives, calls his mother a Moor's concubine. As a consequence, Eleazar is banished by Mendoza. His wife Maria goes to Fernando, and he allows Eleazar to stay. Because Mendoza insists on his verdict, Fernando takes the protector's staff from him and hands it over to Eleazar. Mendoza swears revenge, but the Queen Mother succeeds to make peace between her two lovers and her son. The King invites everybody to Eleazar's palace. Eleazar tells the Queen Mother to spread the news that her son Philip is a bastard. He then tells Zarack and Baltazar to kill Mendoza and Philip, but they escape with the help of two friars, Cole and Crab. King Fernando then sends Eleazar in pursuit of the traitors. During Eleazar's absence Fernando hopes to get his wife, Maria, into his bed, whereas Eugenia, the Queen Mother, wants to kill Maria because she stands between her and Eleazar. Maria fears Fernando's approaches. Eleazar does not care about her life, but does not want to be cuckolded. He gives Maria a poison that she should give to Fernando. She takes the drug herself, and Fernando falls asleep after kissing her. When Eleazar comes back, he holds Fernando responsible for his wife's death and stabs the King. Supported by the Queen Mother, Eleazar becomes King of Spain. The courtiers are not pleased, but Christophero receives Granada's crown, and Roderigo the crown of Aragon. The thrones of Naples, Navarra and Jerusalem are given to others, which gives Eleazar enough support for a war against Philip and Mendoza. Mendoza and the King of Portugal have their troops retreat when the battle seems lost. Philip then fights Eleazar in a desperate single combat and would have won had not the Moors interfered to help their master. In the meantime, the Queen Mother uses her charms and convinces Mendoza to leave Philip. Once more, Mendoza makes peace with Eleazar. Eleazar promises to resign so Mendoza may marry the Queen and become King. Mendoza arrests Philip, Eleazar resigns and Mendoza asks for a new election: The Queen Mother should tell the name of Philip's father, so that he might marry her and legalize the offspring. But the lords decide that he should die. The Queen Mother says Cardinal Mendoza, who had raped her while her husband had been in Barbary, is Philip's father. Believing this to be part of the plot, Mendoza confesses to be guilty and offers to marry her, but the Queen insists on justice and revenge, and claims the throne for herself. Eleazar votes for Isabella. With this development, the Queen Mother, Philip and Cardinal Mendoza are to be executed. Eleazar still wants to revenge himself on Alvaro, Hortenzo, and Isabella. He shows Zarack and Baltazar his ring, whoever shows it should be arrested. Isabella and Hortenzo plead for the prisoners, and Eleazar sends Hortenzo with his ring to set them free. He tries to seduce Isabella, but she refuses him. Instead, Isabella bribes Zarack to free Hortenzo, the Queen Mother, Philip and Cardinal Mendoza. Zarack is also bribed to kill Eleazar and Baltazar. Zarack sets Philip and Hortenzo free and kills Baltazar, Philip kills Zarack. Philip and Hortenzo then paint their faces black. Eleazar, who mistakes them for his servants, has them rehearse the executions. They put Eleazor in Mendoza's position and, while he plays the Cardinal, the disguised Hortenzo binds him and Philip kills him.


Prince of Judea and son of the High Priest Ananias in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. One of the three Seditious Captains who rebel against the religious authority of the older generation. He aspires to the crown of Judea. He gives several impassioned soliloquies debating his ethical and political strategies. His lust for absolute power leads to parricide but results in tormented guilt. This develops into outright madness after his dreams are haunted by Persephone and the three Furies. He fails to recognize his father's ghost who appears to him during his ravings. He shares in the cannibal feast provided by Miriam, flees in horror, and is killed by Valerio in combat.


Daughter of Agamemnon and Clitemnestra and sister of Orestes in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, she witnesses the latter's betrothal to Hermione and flirts with his friend Pillades. But the deaths of her father, mother, brother, and lover leave her bereft at the end of the play.
Agamemnon and Clytemnestra’s daughter in Goffe’s Orestes. After Agamemnon’s murder, she tells Orestes that she has as great a cause of grief as he has. She aids in Orestes’s plan to make it seem to Clytemnestra and Aegystheus that Orestes and Pylades have committed suicide. She is given oversight of the baby born to Aegystheus and Clytemnestra. She is glad when Orestes returns but aggrieved that he wants the baby to enact their revenge. After the murders, she goes into banishment with Strophius, who dies quickly after. She then stabs herself. Orestes finds her body and, mad, stabs it again with her knife.


Only mentioned in Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. On his first entrance as the grocer in The Grocer's Honour portion of the play, Rafe reads from Palmerin d'Oliva (misidentified in the s.d. as Palmerin of England) in which this character is named.


A "foole" and Ambiguity's "fellow" in Zouche's The Sophister. Ignoratio is entrusted by Fallacy to deliver the keys to his closet along with his vial to Ambiguity, and is also charged by Fallacy to instruct Ambiguity to lock the vial up where he found it. Distinction thinks that Ambiguity has sent Ignoratio to laugh at him. However, mistaking Distinction (who is wearing Ambiguity's cloak) for Ambiguity, Ignoratio gives him the keys, vial, and message instead, which greatly contributes to the unraveling of Fallacy's plans. Ignoratio forgets to tell Ambiguity "to contrive some accusations against the Ladies of Verona," and exits to follow him. This time, he locates the correct Ambiguity and successfully delivers Fallacy's message to him. Fallacy sends Ignoratio with a letter to Scientia in an attempt to "win her," but Ambiguity meddles in the affair. He tries to convince the fool that Fallacy's employment of him is "base" and encourages Ignoratio to proclaim himself "Ambassadour" and woo Scientia for himself rather than for Fallacy. Ignoratio claims that he "affect[s]" Scientia and will do so, and sets out to make himself "most richly fine." Ambiguity later convinces Ignoratio to "counterfeit" himself as a "captive" for Scientia, has him practice reading Fallacy's letters, and leaves him gagged and blindfolded for Contradiction to find. Contradiction enters disguised upon the disguised Ignoratio, thinks (initially) that Ignoratio is Judicium, and proceeds to strike him and exit after he realizes that the fool is not Judicium. At this point, Ignoratio claims that his only revenge is "to hold [his] peace and be silent," asserts that he "must be better consell'd," and exits the play.


See also ELEANOR, ELINOR, ELIANOR, and related spellings.


Elenor is the Duchess of Guise in Chapman's Bussy D'Ambois. She is immediately insulted by Bussy's brash behavior at court. When Bussy suggests that he would like to serve her, Elenor instructs Bussy that he needs to work his way up the courtly ladder by serving lower-born ladies first. Elenor's maid Annabel reports that Elenor is suspicious that Bussy is wooing either Tamyra or Beaupre, since he is ignoring her.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


A "ghost character" in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon. Titania's grandfather, winner of a civil war and onetime King of Fairyland, he represents King Henry VII of England. When Paridel tries to stab Titania, his hand is stayed by her resemblance to this august ancestor.


A fairy in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon, and one of Titania's wise and trustworthy privy counselors. The fact that he is appointed to guard Titania's person suggests that he figures Henry Carey, Lord Hunsdon, General for the Queen Person under Queen Elizabeth I. He councils her against marrying any of the foreign Kings, and repeatedly helps to save her when her life is threatened.


A "ghost character" in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. According to St. Dunston's introductory speech, he was falsely reported to have "defiled" Elfleda, niece to King Adelstane; but there is some confusion here since the nun Elfleda was actually the niece of King Edgar. Dunstan's "restraint" of Edgar's crimes is mentioned at I.i.15-16 and probably again at I.ii.42-4 where an unnamed king's "privy dealing with the nun" is specified.


Elfride is a sycophantic West Saxon lord in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. He supports Bertha's marriage to Osriick in hopes of advancing himself.


Elgina is the sister of Canute in Brewer's The Lovesick King. She is courted by Erkinwald, but falls in love at first sight with Alured in his disguise as Eldred. She successfully woos him but they are seen by Erkinwald, who kills her.


See also ELEANOR, ELINOR, ELENOR, and related spellings.


The Queen Mother in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John. Mother of John, and of his dead brothers Richard and Jeffrey, the dowager queen supports John's claim against that of her grandson, Arthur. She and Constance conduct a running quarrel. After the victory in France, John makes her regent over the French provinces.
John's mother in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John, the Dowager Queen Elianor, whom he had left regent of the English provinces of France, has died between Parts 1 and 2, further increasing his distress.
Queen Eleanor, or Elinor, is the mother of John and grandmother of Arthur in Shakespeare's King John. She supports John completely as king of England. When the Falconbridges arrive, she recognizes the Bastard's resemblance to Richard I and asks if he will deny his connection to the Falconbridge family and instead serve her. In front of Angers, Eleanor taunts Constance for being disloyal and even suggests that Arthur is a bastard. She is apparently threatened during the battle between France and England, and is rescued by the Bastard. The Messenger who delivers the report of a French army ready to invade also reports that Eleanor has died.


Elianor is Brookall's sister in Brome's The Damoiselle. She was dishonored by Dryground with whom she had Phillis. Now, she lives in a poor neighborhood. She will meet her brother and her lover at the end of the play.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. God reminds John Baptist that he has been filled with the spirit of Elias.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Elias Allen is mentioned by Bill Bond at the end of the play, when he is asking Master Algebra to accept some presents from them–after having acted as so fair a judge: "our request is that you would be pleased to suffer us to present you with a pair of Hondius globes, a glass of Galileo's with brass mathematical instruments of Elias Allen making." Elias Allen, Master of the Grocers Company and, later, of the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers, was the leading mathematical instrument maker of his time. According to Thomas Bretnor, in his book A New Almanacke and Pronostication, for the year of our redemption 1618 (London, 1617: c8v), Elias Allen (c. 1588-1653) had a shop "at the Bulls Head ouer against Saint Clements Church in the Strand." It was the 'Sign of the Horse Shoe' and he was still keeping it in 1652.


A "ghost character" in ?Rastell's Calisto and Melebea. Elicea lodges with Celestina, and is loved by Sempronio, but prefers another, Cryto, and beguiles Sempronio with Celestina's help.


A British Baron in the anonymous The Wasp. Comes to visit his sick friend, Gilbert, who has been stripped of his title Champion and lost £1,000 per annum by Varletti. He declares war on Marianus along with Elidure, Devon, and Tom Archibald. At the last moment, on advice from noble Archibald, they supplicate to Marianus, who in reward banishes Varletti. He is on hand to see the banished Archibald rescue Marianus, and when the traitorous letter from Varletti arrives, he and the other barons are sent from Marianus. He accompanies Archibald in his guise of Percy, uncle to the traitors, and stands loyally with Marianus at the crisis moment in the final act.


A beautiful young Egyptian woman, vowed sister to Samathis and Martia in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. She consults Irus the fortune teller, who predicts she will marry a rich and noble husband. She follows his suggestions and weds Count Hermes (Irus in disguise), who later apparently dies. In the final scene, as a widow with a child, she is wooed by Kings Bebritius and Porus, and chooses the latter as her second husband.


See also ELIANOR, ELENOR, ELLENOR and related spellings.


Two characters use this name in Dekker's(?) Telltale:
  • Princess of Florence and the Duke's sister. Enters with the court party and the Venetian princes for the Valentine game and is chosen first by Hortensio and then by Garullo. Later, tells Garullo, because she loves him, not to start any more quarrels for her sake, then listens to Cancko's account of the duel between Hortensio and Bentivoli. When Bentivoli himself enters, Elinor criticizes him for dueling on account of her beauty and Bentivoli replies that the quarrel was for Garullo's reputation rather than her beauty. As Bentivoli tells a tale to Fernese, Gismond whispers to Elinor, telling her of Hortensio's despair at losing the duel and Elinor's love, as well as Borgias' vow to murder her for disgracing his brother. When she sees Garullo trembling with fear over his quarrel with Bentivoli and vowing to leave for his country home, Elinor tells him that his absence would kill her. She and Garullo accept Gismond's and Cancko's suggestion that Garullo disguise himself as a fool in order to have free access to Elinor; Elinor worries, however, that Garullo will not be able to hide his pompous use of language. Elinor joins Aspero and the court to welcome the Ambassadors, and is joined by Garullo, appearing in his fool's disguise. She introduces him to the court and then observes as the distracted Hortensio enters and then leaves. She expresses no remorse over Hortensio's state when asked by Aspero. She exits with Garullo. Later, she enters with Garullo, disguised as a fool, and is shocked to hear Hortensio claim that she professed affection for him and kissed him. She denies any affection and storms out with Garullo. She later enters to Aspero, the Ambassadors, Cosmo, Gismond, Fernese, Bentivoli and the Doctor and immediately faces renewal of Hortensio's suit by the Ambassadors and Aspero. Bentivoli enters with a letter that informs her of Garullo's marriage to Lesbia. Elinor is enraged at the betrayal and then confesses a love for Hortensio, who then enters and scorns her before exiting again. The Doctor questions her sincerity, which she affirms. Hortensio re-enters and proclaims his love and the two are reconciled. Aspero promises that their marriage will be celebrated together with his marriage to Isabella. At the end of the play she enters with Aspero and the court for Aspero's coronation and her enforced marriage, and happily witnesses the return of the Duke and Aspero's overthrow. She exits at the end of the play to marry Hortensio.
  • A disguise assumed by the Boy in order to cure Hortensio's lunacy.


A "ghost character" in Greene's James IV. Countess Elinor is mentioned as a friend of Eustace who gave him a picture of Ida and told him to seek her out.


Beloved of the Welsh prince Lluellen in Peele's Edward I. Lady Elinor de Montfort is captured by Edward's forces along with her brother Emerick as they attempt to join the Welsh. When Edward later is tricked into believing that the Welsh intend to torture and kill Sir David of Brecknock, one of his favorites, the king sends Elinor back to Lluellen, much to the dismay of Mortimer, Earl of March, who has fallen in love with her. Elinor accompanies Lluellen into the mountains, and after the Welsh prince's defeat, she falls again into Mortimer's hands.


Daughter of the King of Castile in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. Elinor is presented to Prince Edward at Oxford, and although the marriage has been arranged, the couple seem genuinely to take to each other at their first meeting. At the end of the play, Elinor marries the prince in a double ceremony that includes Lacy and Margaret.


Elinor (historically Eleanor of Castile) is Edward's proud queen in Peele's Edward I. She insists that Edward delay his formal coronation so that the finest garments in the world may be procured for such a glorious occasion. Her vanity and pride are signaled by the outrage she feels when she catches sight of Mary Bearmbar, the wife of the mayor of London, being escorted through the streets to the accompaniment of music. Elinor takes her revenge by tricking Mary into believing she will become nurse to the infant Edward of Caernarvon, having her tied to a chair, and having poisonous snakes affixed to Mary's breasts. Although she is generally presented as cruel and overbearing, her exchanges with Edward are often marked by playfulness and suggest that a considerable affection obtains between them. After the murder of Mary Bearmbar, Elinor's daughter Joan of Acon castigates her mother for the crime, and when Elinor swears falsely that she had nothing to do with the deed, the ground at Charing-Green opens up and swallows her. A short time later, Elinor reappears from the earth at Potter's Hive (afterwards called Queenhith) and is taken to the court in a weakened condition. Realizing that her death is near, Elinor wishes to confess her sins, but not trusting the English clergy, she sends to France for two friars. When Edward and Edmund of Lancaster arrive disguised as the churchmen, Elinor confesses to having slept with Edmund on the night before her marriage to Edward and also to having had an affair with a French friar, the issue of which was Joan of Acon. Having made these admissions, the queen expires.
Queen of England in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot. Queen Elinor encourages King Edward to be kinder to the Scots, and makes him agree to punish transgressing officers. She is one of the leaders of the English army against Wallace but contributes nothing more to the action.


Queen Elinor is the mother of both Richard and John in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. She is in love with Robin and apparently supports the plan to have Robin outlawed, as punishment for loving Marian instead of her. After Robin reveals that he knows of the plot and leaves, Queen Elinor promises to help Marian leave with him by changing clothes with her to avoid detection by John. Her real plan is to fool Robin and leave for the forest with him, but Marian tells Robin the plot. When Marian and Elinor arrive at the meeting place, Robin pretends to desire the supposed Queen and leaves with Marian before anyone can stop them. She leaves, swearing to turn love into hate. She then pursues Ely, although unsuccessfully, and supports John in his quest for the throne. When Fitzwater is banished and tries to appeal to the Queen, she responds that his daughter robbed her of her love, and leaves. When Leicester arrives, Elinor claims that John is simply acting as Richard's regent, but when it is revealed that Richard has returned to England, Elinor deserts John, saying she will do her best to win back Richard's favor.
Queen Elinor joins with the others in viewing the ring around the neck of the stag Richard has killed in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. She is also present when Robin is poisoned and offers a powder she believes will cure him, but Doncaster mocks her, saying nothing can save Robin. When it is revealed that Doncaster raped Sir Eustace Stutville's daughter, the Queen asks Richard to punish Doncaster, since the girl was more pure than any.


Queen Elinor is the French wife of the old King, and mother of the four princes Henry, Richard, Jeffrey, and John in Chettle's(?) Looke About You. Portrayed as violent and vengeful, she is estranged from her husband. She is imprisoned for the first part of the play, but once free encourages young Henry and Prince John in their humiliation of the old King, her husband, and backs the killing of Gloster as a traitor.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Isaiah as an example of a God's mercy and power.


One name (the other being Zabeta) of a peerless nymph and follower of Diana in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris. The contention over the golden apple is resolved when Diana describes for the gods and goddesses how this queen matches Juno in majesty, Pallas in martial prowess and virtues of the mind, and Venus in loveliness. When Diana adds that additionally Eliza matches even "Dian" herself in chaste desires, the Olympians immediately agree that the golden prize obviously was meant for Eliza, and the play ends with the golden orb being offered (in the play's performance at court) to Queen Elizabeth herself.


See also BESS, ELIZA, LYZABETTA and related forms and spellings.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Pedler's Prophecy. The Queen (presumably Elizabeth I) is mentioned by the Judge when he asks if the Pedler speaks about or against her or her counsel. All four men then praise the Queen.
Only mentioned in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Queen Elizabeth is praised by each of the characters on stage at the play's end (Gawin Goodluck, Dame Custance, Tristram Trusty, Matthew Merrygreek, Ralph Roister Doister, and Harpax), and they pray for God's blessings upon her.
Only mentioned in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England. The soliloquy of Jonas that concludes the play (in effect, an epilogue) calls upon London and England to repent, noting that for too long the kingdom has relied upon Queen Elizabeth's favor with God to protect it from divine retribution, and the prophet prays that the queen will continue to be a bulwark against the "stormes of Romish Antichrist."
Princess Elizabeth, crowned Queen by the play's end, is the target of Winchester and others who despise her non-Catholic preferences in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. Accused of treason, she is taken to the Tower, refusing to admit of any guilt or conspiracy. Finally allowed an audience with Queen Mary, Elizabeth pleads her innocence and is set at liberty. With one of her greatest enemies, Winchester, dead, Elizabeth succeeds to the throne upon Mary's death; her future religious bent is foreshadowed as she praises the Lord Mayor's gift to her of an English Bible.
A ‘ghost character’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. She is at Tilbury preparing for the Spanish invasion and has sent the Lord Admiral ahead with his fleet to confront the enemy at sea. Aruania refers to her as the ‘Maid of Maids’ and the ‘Woman of Women’ and, as general of the camp in Colchester, she will guarantee that maids will always pass soldiers unmolested.
A "ghost character" in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. The future Elizabeth I. As the Dukes of Suffolk and Northumberland discuss their plan to install Lady Jane Grey as queen of England, Northumberland promises he will see their plan through even though the dying king Edward VI leaves behind "Two Sisters, lawfull and immediate heires." The sisters are Henry VIII's two daughters, Mary and Elizabeth.
A "ghost character" in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. First Princess and later Queen Elizabeth. First mentioned in the play by the Duchess, who fears for her safety during Queen Mary's reign. In the final act, news of her ascent to the throne and her recall of the Duchess to England arrives at Palsgrave's court with Atkinson. When the Duchess and her party return to London, Queen Elizabeth rewards them by restoring the Duchess' titles and property, offering Bertie the office of Secretary of State, which he declines, making Sands Archbishop of York, and offering Cranwell the office of Gentleman-usher to the Queen, which he also declines.
Queen of England in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. She names the Royal Exchange and knights Gresham for his service. It is to her that the news of the English victory of the Spanish fleet is reported.
A "ghost character" in the anonymous The Contention Between Liberalitie and Prodigalitie. The Queen is mentioned by Captain Wel-Don when he explains that he has been fighting in all his Sovereign's wars. He also calls her "Prince." Later, a courtier mentions her again, referring to her as "her Maiesty." The soldiers also mention her, when they tell Liberalitie that they had fought in the Queen's wars in France, Flanders and in Ireland. She is also referred to by the Clerk, when he reads the indictment in court. Finally, she is addressed to by the Epilogue.
Presumably an audience member of Pickering's Horestes. At play's end, Duty and Truth pray for her and her Council.
A "ghost character" in Edwards's Damon and Pithias. Probably envisioned as an audience member. At the end of the play, Eubulus prays the Lord that he should grant the noble Queen Elizabeth the best of friends. All characters join in a final praise of the Queen and her friends.
A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London. Policy prays for her at the end of the play.
The title page of the 1584 quarto of Peele's The Arraignment of Paris indicates that the Children of the Chapel presented Peele's play before Queen Elizabeth I. Because this group performed at court in January and in February of 1584, it is possible that the queen herself was present on one of these occasions and personally accepted the "golden apple" at the end of the play, thereby becoming an active participant and technically a character in the play.
Mute character in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. She is acknowledged directly twice in the play as a member of the audience, once at the beginning and at the end when Vice yields to her power.
A "ghost character" in Chapman's The Conspiracy of Charles, Duke of Byron. Crequi reports to D'Aumont the speeches exchanged between Queen Elizabeth and Byron during Byron's visit to England.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Queen Elizabeth is mentioned by Narrowit when he is telling Master Silence how he is going to recompense his services, offering him "five pounds lawful money of Queen Elizabeth her shillings, King James'; and our good king Charles', and one sovereign of Edward the Sixth." Later, she is mentioned by Master Fright, when, telling Master Silence about his fears, he asks: Why, alas man, do you think Queen Elizabeth her measures of most famous memory or dull Lachrimae would grind teeth like French corantoes and Scots jigs? She is also mentioned by Sir Conquest Shadow, when talking about his imaginary feats of valor to Doctor Clyster, they move to the subject of politics: "But in the meantime Spain hath had a purge of so many provinces as they possess, thank good Queen Elizabeth their founder." Queen Elizabeth (1533-1603), daughter to King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyne, became a legend in her own time, due to her remarkable abilities and achievements. Her fleet defeated the Spanish 'invincible' armada, and she supported the United Provinces–the Low Countries–in their wars against Spain.
Queen Elizabeth I of England in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. Dubbed "Bess" by both Sir Jarvis Clifton and the Mayor of Nottingham. She is much discussed throughout the play by the generals of her forces in Scotland. Clifton angers Mortigue by asserting that her beauty and virtue surpass those of Mary Stuart. Having commanded a peace in Scotland, she visits Nottingham at the end of the play and is feted by its citizens. Thanking the Mayor of Nottingham for this kind reception, she grants his request to re-route the river Trent. Having rewarded Grey, Clifton and the other leaders from the Battle of Leith, she declares herself confident that such men will help her to quell the pride of France and Spain. The play ends as the people of Nottingham celebrate her.
A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. Wolsey fears that her teachers Latimer and Ridley will turn her against Rome and so he plots to remove them. The princess writes to Prince Edward, pleading with him to pray to God and follow the Protestant faith.


Edward IV's queen and widow of Lord Gray in Shakespeare's Richard III. Because of her influence with Edward, Elizabeth is distrusted and disliked by many members of the court. She has used her influence to promote her brother and sons from her former marriage and to imprison Lord Hastings. Richard III uses this fact to blame her for Edward's imprisonment of Clarence, though that was really Richard's own doing. Elizabeth is afraid that her own life and her family's lives will be in danger after Edward IV dies, so she readily agrees to the uneasy reconciliations that Edward forces on the court. However, when Richard takes power and has her brother Rivers and son Gray arrested, she goes into sanctuary with the rest of her family, excepting her son Prince Edward. After Richard has Prince Edward and Prince Richard murdered, Elizabeth asks Margaret to teach her how to curse Richard; she puts her new skill to use when Richard asks for her help in wooing her daughter, Princess Elizabeth. Elizabeth instead has her daughter marry Richmond, uniting the houses of York and Lancaster and ultimately ending the Wars of the Roses. (See also under "BESS" and "QUEEN").


A fictional fiancée invented by Ancient Young to persuade Moll to admit her love for him in William Rowley's A Match at Midnight.


The only character uniting the two plots of Middleton's No Wit, No Help Like a Woman's. Goldenfleece's cryptic riddle concerning the respective parentage of Jane and Grace alerts both characters as well as the audience to the likelihood of ancestral misprision, which becomes the driving force behind the rest of the play. This rich widow counts four well-to-do gentlemen among her suitors–Sir Gilbert Lambstone, Weatherwise, Pepperton, and Overdone. These four suitors, however, are rejected in favor of the youthful Kate Low-Water (disguised as a man). On their wedding night, however, Kate Low-Water refuses to go to bed with her new bride and sends Beveril in her stead. The assembled guests discover the two in flagrante delicto and Kate (still pretending to be the husband) claims she cannot remain married to Goldenfleece and demands payment. After some negotiation, she says that she will be satisfied with half the widow's fortune. In order to save face, Goldenfleece marries Beveril, instantly improving his fortunes as well. Just before Philips's scandalous marriage to his supposed sister Grace is publicly disclosed, Goldenfleece divulges the earlier riddle, revealing that Grace is, in fact, Sunset's daughter and Jane (the supposed daughter of Sunset) is actually Twilight's child.


When Elizabeth, Lady Grey's husband is killed fighting on the Yorkist side in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI, she visits the newly crowned King Edward IV to seek the return of their confiscated lands. She leaves the meeting with more than she had sought, withstanding Edward's sexual advances but finally agreeing to his proposal of marriage. The union is potentially disastrous for Edward, since he has already sent Warwick to seek the French king's consent to a marriage between Edward and the French queen's sister, Lady Bona. After Warwick captures Edward and arranges his imprisonment, Elizabeth reveals that she is pregnant. Later she gives birth to a son. See also "QUEEN ELIZABETH."


Elizabeth is Edward IV's daughter in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. At the beginning of the play she implores her brother Marcus to obey Edward's command by making amends with Lord Hastings. Elizabeth is with her mother when a messenger appears to report that Rivers and Gray have been arrested on the charge of treason. Elizabeth is allowed to stay with her mother, but she watches as her brother, the Duke of York, is taken away by the Cardinal, Archbishop of York. After the deaths of her brothers, Elizabeth receives competing marriage proposals from Richard III and Richmond. It is decided by the Peers that Elizabeth must marry Richmond. By doing so, the young pair unify the Houses of York and Lancaster, thereby ending the War of the Roses. Elizabeth, along with the Queen and two messengers, serve as a final Chorus for the play. They tell of the great dynasty founded by Henry and Elizabeth.
Daughter of Edward IV in Shakespeare's Richard III, and sister of Prince Edward and Prince Richard. When Richard III becomes king, he decides that he needs to marry his niece Princess Elizabeth to better secure his claim to the throne. The Princess instead marries Richmond, uniting the houses of York and Lancaster and ultimately ending the Wars of the Roses.


Daughter of Edward IV in Shakespeare's Richard III, and sister of Prince Edward and Prince Richard. When Richard III becomes king, he decides that he needs to marry his niece Princess Elizabeth to better secure his claim to the throne. The Princess instead marries Richmond, uniting the houses of York and Lancaster and ultimately ending the Wars of the Roses.


A "ghost character" in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. The future Elizabeth I. As the Dukes of Suffolk and Northumberland discuss their plan to install Lady Jane Grey as queen of England, Northumberland promises he will see their plan through even though the dying king Edward VI leaves behind "Two Sisters, lawfull and immediate heires." The sisters are Henry VIII's two daughters, Mary and Elizabeth.


When Lady Grey's husband is killed fighting on the Yorkist side in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI, she visits the newly crowned King Edward to seek the return of their confiscated lands. She leaves the meeting with more than she had sought, withstanding Edward's sexual advances but finally agreeing to his proposal of marriage, thus becoming Queen Elizabeth. The union is potentially disastrous for Edward, since he has already sent Warwick to seek the French king's consent to a marriage between Edward and the French queen's sister, Lady Bona. After Warwick captures Edward and arranges his imprisonment, Elizabeth reveals that she is pregnant. Later she gives birth to a son.


Elkwine is a sycophantic West Saxon lord in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. He supports Bertha's marriage to Osriick in hopes of advancing himself. He is present at Bertha's marriage to Anthynus.

ELLEN **1591

A "ghost character." Ellen is the daughter of Justice Silence and the goddaughter of Robert Shallow in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. She does not appear on stage in the play.


Mistress Ellen is lady-in-waiting to Lady Jane Grey in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. As Jane is prepared for execution, Mistress Ellen assists her in removing her outer clothing and offers her the blindfold traditional for those about to be beheaded.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside. Ellen is the country wench's Derbyshire cousin who, according to the country wench, has also borne a child by Touchwood Senior. The country wench asserts that he has "cracked her marriage quite." Touchwood Senior assures the wench that he has several fools and gulls that he can make marry her.


Ellen is the wife of Sir Godfrey and the mother of Annabel in the anonymous The Fair Maid of Bristow.


The Lady Ellenor is sought after by two men in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green: the Duke of Gloucester and the Cardinal. Both men visit her, disguised as their own servants. She sees through both disguises and convinces the Cardinal to leave her with the disguised Gloucester, whom she then agrees to marry. Although she appears in two more scenes, including the finale, she is silent.

ELLIS, JOHN **1600

One of Camelia's courters in Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment. Foolish and self-indulgent, Ellis is given to speaking in ridiculous similes in the belief that they make him sound weighty and important. Instead, he sounds like a self-righteous fool. He bribes Camelia's maid, Winifrede to plead his case with Camelia. When the very fickle Camelia responds, he presses his advantage in front of Brabant Junior but is then too cowardly to fight his rival–this does not go unnoticed by Camelia although she continues to believe that she will marry him. Once Winifrede convinces Camelia that she deserves a better man than John Ellis, Camelia quickly drops him. She calls him an idiot and laughs at him in front of Planet and her father. Sir Edward offers Ellis some "sack and sugar" to comfort him. Ellis enters the last scene with Sir Edward and drinks to the health of the family.


Elner is a Citizen's daughter of Westchester in [?]Wilson's Fair Em, the Miller's Daughter. Manvile woos her after he has rejected Em for her blindness. Elner is worried when Valingford warns her about Manvile's treatment of Em, but she chooses not to believe him. Before King William, Manvile tries to return to Em when he learns that her blindness was feigned. Elner contests Em's right to marry Manvile, but when Em rejects Manvile for his inconstancy, Elner is so disgusted by his behavior that she rejects him too.


The real name of the character more usually referred to by his pseudonym, Crispinus, in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman.


Elsinora is Landgartha and Scania's aunt in Burnell's Landgartha. She is asked by Hasmond to be the leader of his troops.


Alternate spelling for Estrild in the anonymous Locrine.
Only mentioned in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. Locrine's lover and second wife, mentioned in the Bards' song in act II.


In the frame story of (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington, Eltham helps produce the play with Skelton and plays the role of Little John. He has been busy looking over maps for the King, leaving Skelton worried that they would not have time to rehearse. Eltham breaks character twice. First to reprimand Friar Tuck/Skelton when he begins rhyming in Skeltonian fashion and second to ask why Skelton has not included any of the traditional Robin Hood jests or songs. After Skelton explains that he is writing a true history of the virtuous Robin Hood, Little John/Eltham goes on to complain that Friar Tuck/Skelton keeps breaking into rhyme in his particular fashion. Skelton promises to try to control himself and asks Eltham to pull on his sleeve if he rhymes too long. At the end of the play, Eltham and Skelton remain to discuss the production. Eltham is concerned that the play does not have the tragedy of Robin Hood's death. Skelton suggests that the play be presented in two parts, and asks Eltham to convince the King to watch both, which Eltham promises he can do.


Only mentioned in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. A former king of Britain, mentioned in the Bards' song in act II.


A bevy of Fairies in Randolph's Amyntas who accompany Dorylas to Iocastus's orchard that he raids for apples disguised as Oberon. One is singled out by the name of Iocalo. They sing a Latin catch, which delights Iocastus, and torment his servant Bromius with pinches for skeptical remarks. It is not made entirely clear during their scene that they are not real fairies, but it later appears that they, like Dorylas, were boys in fairy disguise.


Little children in the anonymous Oberon the Second that Craft, Snap, and Swift use to convince Losarello, Politico and Covet that they are indeed in Fairy Land.

ELVIRA **1637

Cimena’s servant in Rutter’s The Cid. She sees that Cimena likes Roderigo and Sancho equally. The count asks her to discover if she prefer one over the other. When Roderigo goes to Cimena’s house after killing Gormas to await her judgment, Elvira convinces him to hide if only to save her honor from the rumor of harboring her father’s killer. Later, she reports to Cimena how the Moors land but were repulsed after a three hour fight that saw two of their kings captured. Growing tired of Cimena’s vacillations, she warns Cimena that heaven has provided her an honorable, desirable man in Roderigo. If she continues to hold onto “this strange pride" the heavens may well take him from her and see that Cimena is married to the loathsome Sancho instead.


The Bishop of Ely is regent of England in Richard's absence in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. He first appears when Little John is arguing with the Sheriff and Warman about their right to look in his trunk. Although Ely considers John saucy, he dismisses him rather than demanding to see the contents of the trunk. He then gives orders, in Richard's name, to Warman, causing John, after he leaves, to state his desire to unseat Ely. After John has killed Hugh Lacy for, he claims, treason, John produces letters that he claims give him the regency. Ely asks Chester to help him bring down John's pride, but Chester cautions against open war. Ely's fall comes to pass and John, with the help of his mother and the nobles, takes the regency for himself and brands Ely a traitor. Ely is taken by two Colliers, who call him a monster because he dressed as a woman while trying to escape. Ely is given first to the Sheriff of Kent and then turned over to Warman, from whose custody he escapes. He flees to the forest, disguised as a countryman from Oxon, where Robin's men meet him. He asks Tuck to help him pass unnoticed, but Tuck remains loyal to Robin and tells him it is Ely. Robin forgives Ely for his treachery and promises to keep him safe until Richard returns, which he does, presenting Ely and the royal seal to Richard in the forest.
The Bishop of Ely is a remnant of the first play and only appears in the scenes concerning Robin Hood in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. He tells of taking two bucks in the hunt with King Richard. When the Prior is revealed as one of the poisoners of Robin Hood, Richard asks Ely if there is church law that will allow the Prior to be executed. Ely states that he must be tried as a churchman and punished by the church's censure, but the Prior contradicts him and states that in cases of murder and treason a priest can be treated as secular. Ely ritually curses Doncaster when he refuses to repent.


The crown prince of Britain in the anonymous Nobody and Somebody, Elydure reluctantly is crowned King of Britain and succeeds his brother Archigallo in a popular deposition supported by his brothers, Peridure and Urgenius, as well as the feudal lords. Unwilling to govern, he persuades the feudal lords to reinstall Archigallo as king when he repents of his tyranny. When his brother suddenly dies, he is crowned a second time, only to lose power to his younger brothers in the coup ensuing from Archigallo's death. During the joint reign of Peridure and Urgenius, Elydure and his wife are imprisoned in the tower. When his two brothers are killed in battle he ascends the throne for the third time and, in his first act as sovereign, rules against Somebody in his suit against Nobody.


Reminiscent of Lady Macbeth, this ambitious woman openly appeals to her reluctant husband to usurp the throne of his brother, King Archigallo of Britain in the Anonymous Nobody and Somebody. Once her husband is crowned, she takes charge of the government because of his humility. She is imprisoned along with her husband when Urgenius and Peridure seize power, but she is released and reconciled with her archenemy the queen when the two living brothers are killed in battle. She attends her husband at his third coronation.


Em is the eponymous miller's daughter in [?]Wilson's Fair Em, the Miller's Daughter. Her father is a Saxon nobleman who has become a miller of Manchester after the Norman Conquest. Em is in love with Manvile, but he becomes jealous when she chats with Mountney and Valingford. In order to assuage his jealousy, Em spurns Mountney, and returns the jewel that Valingford tries to give her; she then pretends to be deaf and blind in order to dissuade the unwanted suitors. But her act is so convincing that Manvile is repulsed by her affliction too, and he rejects her. Valingford, meanwhile, suspects a trick. When Valingford tells Em that Manvile is now wooing Elner, Em drops her act and is heartbroken. Before King William, Em explains her reason for feigning blindness, and Manvile tries to return to her. Elner contests Em's right to marry Manvile, but when Em rejects Manvile for his inconstancy, Elner is so disgusted by his behavior that she rejects him too. King William then tells Em to marry Valingford, and she accedes. William's sympathy for Em causes him to accept Blanch, whom he had previously rejected for his wife.


Emanuel is the King of Portugal and Castile in Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He marries Isabella, and the four plays are presented at the celebration of their nuptials.


Portuguese soldier and companion to Armusia and Soza in Fletcher's The Island Princess. Emanuel disguises himself as a Merchant and, under Armusia's command and with Soza's help, they rescue the king. Emanuel suggests that Armusia bed the Princess when she seems reluctant to marry Armusia. He is a key figure (along with Christophero, Pedro, and the Kings of Bakam and Siana) in revealing the Monk-Priest's true identity.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous A Larum for London. Don Emanuel is one of the conspirators against Antwerp along with Verdugo, Romero, and Danila. He enters Antwerp through another door according to Romero and proceeds to the castle. Presumably, this character was created to fill the ranks against Antwerp in the audience's mind.


See also "AMBASSADOR."


Favorite to Osriick the King of Northumbria in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. See THEODRICK.


The Embassador of Florence in Shirley's The Bird in a Cage is negotiating the marriage of Eugenia to the Prince of Florence. Informed of Eugenia's love for Philenzo and Philenzo's subsequent banishment, the Embassador renounces the marriage plan.


Sent by the kings Seleucus, Lysimachus, and Ptolomie to ask for peace from Antigonus in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. After requesting restitution, they are denied by Antigonus when Demetrius asserts that true kings, like his father, have the right to do what they wish. The Embassadors warn that their rulers will fight back.




Fraunces Emerfley is the brother of Jane Shore in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV.


Milcho's daughter in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland. Despite status anxieties, she professes sincere love for the King's younger son, Conallus. She is subject to flattering comments by Conallus' brother, Corybreus, but she rejects them. Alone in her quarters, she admits to fearing the disposition of Corybreus. She believes that the invisible Corybreus is the god, Ceanerachius, but suspects his identity when the invisible entity moves to achieve coitus with her–Emeria is indeed raped. She tells Conallus about her post-rape shame. When his response to the raping by the 'god' is not reassuring, she resolves to kill herself. She is interrupted from her suicide by Corybreus, who seeks to repeat his enjoyment of her–this time, however, she stabs him to death. In the woods, she is nearly raped again–this time by soldiers, but is saved by the antics of Rodamant, who now possesses the invisible-making bracelet. She meets with Conallus again, who hears from her that it was his brother who raped her. He comes to terms with her killing of Corybreus. It is not quite clear if Emeria and Conallus will return to their former state of loving union. Emeria speaks briefly about her newfound peace as a Christian follower of Patrick.


A "ghost character" in Peele's Edward I. Guenther brings Lluellen the report that Edward's forces had intercepted Elinor de Montfort and her brother Emerick as they were making their way to join him in Wales.


"Emelia" is the third daughter of Alfonso and the beloved of Polidor in the anonymous The Taming of a Shrew. She at first mocks his overwrought lover's language, claiming that she knows he will not die for love, but she then resorts to that language herself. With her sister, Aurelius and Polidor, she pleads for clemency from the Duke of Sestos when he discovers that his son has married without permission. At the wedding feast, she refuses to come at her husband's command, and when Polidor complains that she is a shrew, she replies that it is better than being a sheep.


Emilia is the daughter of Ferneze, the duke of Genoa, the sister of Polymetes and the niece of the Countess in Day's Law Tricks. She has been away from Genoa for most of her life, having been brought up by an aunt in Pisa. When Polymetes returns from Pisa, he reports that he was unable to see her because Turks have taken her prisoner while she was worshipping at a temple near the city. Emilia arrives home in Genoa accompanied by Joculo, with whom she escaped the Turks. She entrusts him with her plan to conceal her identity and to cozen her brother and the other Genoans. Taking the name 'Tristella', she encounters Polymetes and Julio, both of whom fall in love with her. Julio relinquishes his claim in Polymetes' favor, and they invite her to court. Polymetes arranges that Emilia should lodge with Lurdo, to prevent gossip about their relationship; Lurdo, however, takes this as an opportunity to woo Emilia for himself. Emilia plays Lurdo and Polymetes along, but never submits to either man. On Ferneze's return she tries to reveal her true identity to him, but he refuses to believe her, having been told by Adam that she is Polymetes' whore. Polymetes 'conjures' Emilia—really Joculo in disguise, accompanied by Julio in the clothes of a merchant—to appear before Ferneze; Emilia questions 'Emilia' and reveals the deception. Ferneze finally believes that Emilia is his daughter; Polymetes claims that he knew her from the first and only entertained her 'for affinity's sake'.


Emilia is a lady attending on the Duchess Aurelia in Marston's Malcontent.


Wife to Iago and attendant to Desdemona in Shakespeare's Othello. She finds Desdemona's handkerchief and steals it for her husband. She initially denies knowledge of the handkerchief, but, at the end of the play, after Desdemona has been murdered, she implicates Iago in the plot against Desdemona and tells of her role in the theft of the handkerchief. Iago murders her.


When Hermione is imprisoned on charges of adultery in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, Emilia attends her. Through Emilia, Paulina offers to take Hermione's newborn baby (Perdita) out of the prison, with the intention of showing it to Leontes and softening his anger.

EMILIA **1613

Emilia is sister to Hipployta, the new bride of Theseus, Duke of Athens in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen. She is beloved of both Palamon and Arcite, the noble kinsmen of Thebes. She cannot bring herself to choose between the two gentlemen but consents to wed whichever man survives the challenge suggested by Theseus. She ends by wedding Palamon, who loses the challenge but whose kinsman Arcite is trammeled to death by a horse shortly after his victory.


A noblewoman and sister of Cloris in Wilson's The Inconstant Lady. Emilia is the inconstant lady of the play's title, an unfaithful wife and lover. She is set to marry Aramant until his father disinherits him and leaves the entire estate to Millecert, Aramant's younger brother. Emilia immediately dumps Aramant and charms Mellecert into becoming her husband instead. Jealous of Cloris' beauty, Emilia has kept her sister locked in her room since their father died. Cloris escapes while the guilt-ridden Millecert renounces his inheritance and disappears. When Emilia learns that the Duke intends on marrying Cloris, Emilia decides that she wants to become duchess herself. She urges Busario to employ Gratus to help the Duke woo Cloris, not knowing that Gratus is actually her own husband, Millecert, in disguise, scheming that Gratus will assist her in bedding the Duke. Seeking to prove Cloris unworthy to marry the Duke, she confides to Gratus that Cloris is not really her biological sister, but rather a stranger of unknown parentage. When Cloris escapes from the palace but believing her dead, Emilia gets into Cloris' bed, intending to seduce the Duke for herself. She tells Gratus both that she loves the Duke and that Millecert is a fool, offering to divide the spoils with him if he helps her become duchess. After Gratus reveals himself as Millecert, tells Cloris' story, recovers his wealth, and is persuaded by the Duke and his court to take Emilia back, the inconstant lady is reunited with her husband and promises theceforth to remain constant.


Daughter to the Duke of Saxon-Waymar in Glapthorne's Albertus Wallenstein. She is betrothed to Wallenstein's son Fredericke to seal their fathers' alliance against the Emperor. The marriage plans are settled before she first meets her intended husband, and she is initially a timid and reluctant bride. His obvious love for her at first sight, and deference to her own feelings, encourage her to speak openly to Fredericke and ask for more time to become acquainted before the wedding. At a later meeting he woos her politely and poetically, persuading her that, happy as she is to be a virgin, he will make her happier as his wife. They seal the agreement with a chaste kiss. [Continuity confusion occurs: Wallenstein's murder takes place after the general arrival in Egers for the royal wedding, but Fredericke is already mentioned as Saxon-Waymar's 'son' in an intermediate description of his victory over the Emperor's forces].


Sometimes also spelled Aemilius in Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus. Emillius, a Roman, relays messages between Saturninus and Lucius in the final scene and endorses Lucius as emperor after Lucius kills Saturninus.


Egleredus' widow, mother of Alphred and Edward, Edmond Ironside's stepmother in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside. When the civil war between Edmond Ironside and Canute starts, she sends her own sons Alphred and Edward to her brother Richard, Duke of Normandy. She loves her stepson and warns him against fighting Canute in single combat. (The historical Emma was later to marry Canute, and their son was Hardycanute or Hardaknut Knutsson, King of Denmark).


In the opening dumb show of the anonymous Weakest Goeth to the Wall, Emmanuel finds a baby (later called Ferdinand) on a riverbank. The boy (actually the son of Lodowick, who will become Duke of Bullen) grows up at Emmanuel's court. When a courtier describes for Emmanuel how he has watched his master's daughter, Odillia, and the now-mature Ferdinand, expressing their love to each other, Emmanuel chastises Ferdinand for taking advantage of his position. But when Ferdinand explains how he has done nothing wrong, and Odillia confirms this, Emmanuel is satisfied. Nevertheless, because they believe they will find no privacy, Odillia and Ferdinand run away together. Discovering their absence, Emmanuel gives chase, encouraged by Shamont, a courtier. At the battle between the Spanish and French, Emmanuel joins Lodowick. Epernon, the French general, thanks Lodowick and Brabant. Lodowick asks Epernon if he can identity the brave gentleman who killed Don Ugo. Epernon points out Ferdinand. Brabant, recognizing him, is horrified that such a man should be considered a hero. Lodowick knights him. In rage, Brabant insults him, saying that he has run off with his daughter after being fostered in Brabant's court. Despite Ferdinand's claim that they are now married, he wants Ferdinand tried and executed. Lodowick agrees to stand bail for him. When they are alone Lodowick says that he can avouch the marriage and that he has sent for Odillia in an effort to protect him from her father's anger. In the final scene, with Lodowick and Epernon both trying to dissuade Brabant from his anger, Brabant accuses Lodowick and Epernon of wanting to destroy the justice system. Brabant rejects Odillia as a whore. Brabant insists on justice taking its course. He stands upon the law that states anyone who is not a prince who steals the heir of a prince is to die. He describes the lowly circumstances in which he found Ferdinand. Lodowick explains that he lost a son in exactly similar circumstances, even down to the "F" embroidered on his clothes. Brabant accepts that his indictment has failed because Ferdinand is the son of a prince and gladly accepts Frederick as his own son.


Until the death of Philip's father, Emmanuel harbors Prince Philip in Portugal in the anonymous Lust's Dominion. Philip escapes again to Portugal when Friar Crab and Friar Cole warn him that his life is endangered. King Emmanuel supports Philip's cause against Eleazar, but when he thinks the battle lost, he warns him and tells him to recall his army.


Father Emmot is a hermit in the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick. Guy and Sparrow meet him on their initial journey out of England. Before meeting Guy and Sparrow, Father Emmot had not spoken to anyone in forty years. Father Emmot blesses Guy's holy mission. He then offers Guy and Sparrow some humble provisions from his meager cottage before leaving their company.


Emnius is a nasty courtier who is obedient to Contempt in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. He defends the role of the courtier in a debate with Sateros, the Scholar and the Country Gentleman, but Raph's interjections make him look foolish. Emnius plots to marry the Duke's Daughter and supplant the Duke. Thanks to Raph's prophecy, he is discovered. The Duke forces him to confess, and then forgives him. The ungrateful Emnius responds by plotting to kill Raph and the Duke. He attacks Raph with a knife, but just in time the mad Zelota runs on and stabs him to death.


A "ghost character" in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. Presumably the Holy Roman Emperor. Faustus imagines subduing him with magic.

EMPEROR **1593

This royal ruler supports a fashionable court life that noble young men throughout the country seek to investigate and sample in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona. Both Proteus and Valentine are sent to the emperor's court in order to complete their training as gentlemen.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. Charles V, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, is nephew to Katherine, Queen of England. He is also sneeringly called "The Spaniard" by those English who dislike the Spanish.

EMPEROR **1614

A "ghost character" in Webster's The Duchess of Malfi. Malateste delivers the news to the Cardinal that the Emperor has agreed to give the Cardinal a soldier's commission.


Ferdinand II of Germany, the Holy Roman Emperor and father to King Ferdinand of Hungary in Glapthorne's Albertus Wallenstein. At the start of the play has demanded the resignation of his commander-in-chief, Wallenstein. Wallenstein's defiance and mustering of allies in a league against him, provides the political conflict of the play. Emperor for 24 years already, his inflexible viewpoint remains that his rule is absolute and that Wallenstein is an ungrateful traitor. He promotes the inadequate Matthias Gallas to replace Wallenstein, and takes his advice that policy, not force, is his best chance of suppressing the league against him. He sends to his son for reinforcements. He is first suspicious of, then delighted by Lesle's offer to betray Wallenstein, and offers a rich reward to have his enemy murdered. The Emperor is later deeply discouraged by reversals: Saxon-Waymar's army, led by Fredericke Wallenstein, has beaten his, and he fears desertions to the opposition. Neither Questenberg nor his son can cheer him: he puts his last hope in Lesle's assassination-plot, receiving further news that the plan is set. His reaction to the successful assassination is not shown.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. The emperor is mentioned by Sir Conquest Shadow when, telling Doctor Clyster about his imaginary valour, he explains: "I'll tell you, Doctor, all the time of the / German War I have overthrown the Emperor I cannot tell how many times, Tilly in many a battle, Bucquoy before, Wallenstein afterward and made Pappenheim fly like atoms in the air with my great ordnance. And so methought Swede and I came to play for the empire ... won the game, and so established the Princes of the Empire ..." The emperor was Ferdinand II (1578-1637), eldest son to Archduke Karl and the Bavarian Princess María. He was Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1619 to 1637.


A "ghost character" in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. In the Privy Council, Surrey fears that the German Emperor's offer to lead his troops in support of the English against the French will result in the Emperor's claiming too much of the spoil, but Shrewsbury argues that the Emperor, a true friend of Henry VIII, would never engage in such trickery. More agrees with Shrewsbury, praising the Emperor's goodness.


Only mentioned in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. Objecting to the Bishop of Winchester's remark that England should be flattered to have someone as powerful as the Emperor of Spain (that is, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) suggest a marriage between Phillip II of Spain and Mary of England, Sir Thomas Wyatt asserts that even the Emperor of Cham, ruler of the Mongols (who controls far more of the world than does any European prince), would feel obliged to humble himself before the virtuous and beautiful Mary.


A "ghost character" in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. The Emperor of Spain (historically the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) is mentioned by the Bishop of Winchester as being most gracious in suggesting a marriage between his son Phillip II of Spain and Queen Mary.


The Emperor's kingdom is threatened by a dragon, which many knights have failed to slay in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. He is pleased when St. Andrew and St. Anthony successfully defeat the dragon but when he discovers that they are Christians, he orders them to convert to the Greek gods or die. Andrew and Anthony bravely choose death, and the Emperor allows them to choose their executioners. They choose the princess Violeta and her maid Carinthia, who refuse, saying they'd rather kill themselves. So Andrew and Anthony offer to kill each other. The Emperor releases them and provides swords, whereupon Andrew and Anthony frighten them all away.


A "ghost character" in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. Calymath's father is the Turkish emperor, who has demanded the tribute of Malta. Historically, the Turkish emperor at this time was Suleiman the Magnificent.


Welcomes Anthony Sherley to Russia in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers, but imprisons him after Halibeck tells lies about Anthony's character. He releases Anthony after Englishmen have confirmed Anthony's good character.


A "ghost character" in Burnell's Landgartha. She is considered to be the fairest lady by Hubba.


Empiric employs faulty remedies in his attempts to treat Paulinus for his gout in Massinger's The Emperor of the East. He is sent away by the surgeon and Paulinus.


A fictional character in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In an apartment in Cynthia's palace, Phantaste, Philautia, Argurion, and Moria are expecting the miracle water from the fountain of Self-love, so much publicized by Amorphus. While waiting, the vain nymphs discuss fashion, their admirers, and fantasize on what they would like to be. While Moria and Philautia imagine they could be extremely powerful women, Phantaste fantasizes that she could impersonate many women and do various things. As an Empress, Phantaste imagines that she could be all-powerful and do anything she likes.


Used in stage directions to refer to Isabella in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany.


Non-speaking role in The Valiant Welshman. The wife of Claudius Caesar, who appears alongside him in the final scene. Meant to represent Messalina? Agrippina the younger?


The Empress, or Whore, of Babylon represents Rome (that is, the Roman Catholic church) in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon; at times she appears specifically to stand for Pope Gregory XIII. She first appears in the play almost incoherent with rage because her reign, long prosperous and unchallenged, is now threatened by Titania's blasphemous rejection of her works and her ministers. When Titania rejects all her overtures of peace, including the suit of the three Kings in her pay, she accepts Como's council and resolves to arrange Titania's assassination. To this end, she retains the services of Campeius and Ropus, but tells her ministers that she will kill these hirelings once they have fulfilled her desires. She orders Campeius and Ropus to return to Fairyland and to use all necessary means to work Titania's death. She then approves Como's further plan to vanquish the whole of Fairyland with an Armada led by the Third King, Satyran. When the Armada is assembled, she declares through her herald that none must set off without her blessing, and in a show of hubris declares that "seamen one day sailing by [Titania's] land, / May say, There Fairy kingdom once did stand." The rout and destruction of the Armada leaves her utterly confounded and livid with rage at her various underlings. When some, angry with her, seem ready to leave her service, however, she goes out of her way to make up to them. Titania thus sums her up by commenting that "she never does grow base but when she braves."

EMPSON **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. One of the "prime sequestrators" of his age. Never-good envies Empson and Dudley because they died before Plutus impoverished such knaves.


An Inns of Court man in Hausted’s Rival Friends. He is biding his time at the Inns of Court until he can gain a knighthood, inherit nine hundred a year when his father dies, and marry some woman worth three thousand pounds. He can manage his rapier, quote from plays, and speak French that he’s learned from Littleton. Anteros and Loveall attempt to set him at odds with Hammershin. Hammershin bloodies his pate with his chamber key. Loveall convinces him that he has killed Hammershin by falling against him and giving him an internal injury with his hilt. Noddle hides in a foul dog kennel when Loveall pretends the constables are coming. A long time later, at play’s end when the trick is quite forgotten, he humorously calls to be released. Anteros and Loveall release him and the others but also tell Placenta that they are the ones that tied Stipes and Merda to the tree, and he is cudgeled away with the others.


A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the fifteen affections and the subject of the play.


A pretentious, illiterate narcissist in Chettle, Dekker and Haughton's Patient Grissil. He tells Julia an elaborate lie about a fight he cowardly avoided with Sir Owen, but when that lie is exposed he departs in anger and shame.


A "ghost character" in William Rowley's All's Lost by Lust. A Moor who fights to rescue Mahu Mahomet.


Enanthe is the true identity of Celia, daughter of King Seleucus in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. Celia, only known as a prisoner from an unknown region, is loved by the prince Demetrius. When Demetrius is sent to war, his father Antigonus tricks Celia into coming to the court. After meeting Celia, the king admires her beauty and independence and decides that he must have her for himself. Celia refuses the king's persistent advances, and her virtuous behavior finally shames him into confessing his wrongdoing and reuniting Celia with Demetrius.


Petronius's "wench" in the anonymous Tragedy of Nero. Present with Antonius when the Emperor's death sentence is brought to Petronius; she debates the pleasures of death with him, and is reluctant to join him in his Epicurean afterlife.


One of Lycaon's sons in Heywood's The Golden Age. He joins his father in combat against Saturn and the Cretans and is eventually killed by Jupiter.


Outside the Tower of Donather in the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick, an Enchanter meets Guy and freezes his feet in place. The Enchanter tells Guy that he will never move again. The Enchanter then leaves the stage.


A magician in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll. He both pitying and loving the wronged Lucilia, intercedes on her behalf. He uses his magic to make her forget Lassinbergh and attempts to convince Lucilia that he himself is her beloved. His plans are ruined when Flores happens upon them.


Son of nobleman, Dichu in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland. He worriedly reports to Archimagus about the King's troubled disposition. After his father's conversion to Christianity, he has to hide, doing so by posing as an idol in the temple. He emerges from hiding to cavort with the King's daughter, Ethne. He repeats the process of posing as an idol during the blood sacrifice, and again leaps down to dally with Ethne, but is rendered bamboozled and foolish by the interfering of the invisible Rodamant. He pretends to be his own blood-covered ghost, terrifying the King, and allowing Archimagus to order him to flee. Less nervous than Ferochus, he does start to worry in the woods when they come across a cave–but that turns out to be the hiding place of their father, Dichu, who gives them a warm welcome, food and shelter. He converts to the Christianity of Patrick.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. Simplicius says that he can sleep at a judge's bench as well as Endimion could, but "with a vigilant nose."


In love with Cynthia, the moon, in Lyly's Endymion. While he sleeps, Tellus (who loves him and feels scorned) has the enchantress, Dipsas, place a curse upon Endymion that he may sleep until he is old and awake to die never knowing love. He is awakened after forty years by Cynthia's first and only kiss. When confronted with Tellus, who reveals to Cynthia that he has loved her all along, Endymion swears it is true but that his love is all devotion, virtue, and purity. Cynthia accepts it as such and favors him for it. Her favor returns him to youth.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Timon of Athens. According to Pseudocheus the ruler of the "island of the moon".
Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. Dorastus mentions Endimion when he meets Tyresias, whom he describes as a man with white hair "like silver moon [...] who kissed her minion [...] Endimion." According to Greek mythology, Selene, goddess of the moon, fell in love with Endymion–either a beautiful young man or a shepherd, according to different stories–and asked Zeus to grant him immortality. Then, the king of gods put him into a dreamless eternal sleep to preserve his beauty. And, thus, Selene visited him every night.
Only mentioned in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. Mentioned by the Fairies invoked by the Magician during the creation of a love potion that Antigonus intends to use to make Celia fall in love with him. In classical mythology, Endymion is the mortal lover of the moon goddess.
Only mentioned in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. Mythological character, a handsome shepherd boy with whom the moon goddess Selene fell in love, who sleeps eternally, and to whom the two ladies are compared when they are found asleep.
Only mentioned in Brome's A Mad Couple. Endymion is mythological character. He was a handsome shepherd boy with whom the moon goddess Selene fell in love, and he sleeps eternally. He is compared with Alicia by Bellamy when she rejects him.
Only mentioned in Cokain's Trappolin. Endymion is invoked by Luna in the nuptial masque for Lavinio and Isabella, as a model of eternal love.
Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Endymion is mentioned by Master Slightall when he is professing his love to Anne: "And sweare by thy owne vertuous grace and sweetnesse, / By those intrammell'd Raies, those star-like eyes / Endymion blushes on." According to Greek mythology, Endymion was either a beautiful young man or a shepherd, according to different stories. Selene, goddess of the moon, fell in love with and asked Zeus to grant him immortality. Then, the king of gods put him into a dreamless eternal sleep to preserve his beauty. And, thus, Selene visited him every night.


Laurentio’s son and page to Lucius in Hausted’s Rival Friends. He informs Lucius that Neander drew Constintina for his valentine even as Lucius drew his beloved Pandora. Pandora pretends love for him in order to make Lucius and Neander declare themselves. Neander and Lucius nearly murder him when they find out, but Pandora saves him by telling them the trick. However, Pandora falls in love with Endymion in earnest after he tells her how Lucius loved and left his sister, Isabella. At play’s end, their fathers agree to their marriage.


A "ghost character" in Cavendish & Shirley's Country Captain. Lady Huntlove suggests that Sir Richard might be jealous of him.


Disguise adopted by Dauphine in the anonymous Ghost. Engin is servant to Aurelia. He pretends to calm Aurelia down whenever she gets excited and scorns her husband. He advises Philarchus to let his wife get supremacy at first, and to behave like a man in bed, aware of the fact that he cannot, since he is too old and withered to do such a thing. In fact, he helps his mistress to trick her husband and gain power over him, as well as his money. He even disguises as the ghost of Octavian, in order to threaten Philarchus and keep him under control. He goes as far as to suggest that he is having an affair with his wife, and encourages him to enjoy himself with other women. Then, Engin goes to Erotia's, and there he misleads Procus and Pinnario into believing that Aurelia is eager to lie with them. He advises them to dress like women in order not to arouse Philarchus's suspicions, but what he really does is to send them to the closet where Philarchus is sleeping. He also addresses Valerio, and he tells him his mistress loves him, but Valerio suggests Engin and Aurelia are having an affair, and Eugin beats him up in order to defend his mistress's reputation. Later, he is going to act as the instrument which will lead Philarchus, Pinnario, Procus and Valerio to the cave. Once there, disguised as the ghost of his brother Octavian, he will make them and Babilas confess their sins. When he has suceeded, he takes of his disguises (both that of the ghost of Octavian, and that of Engin) and reveals he is Dauphine, Octavian's brother.


A "broker" or financial go-between in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass: he introduces Fitzdottrel to the con-artist, Merecraft.


The steward to Sir Tyrant Thrift in Davenant's The Wits. He is entirely in the service of Lady Ample and helps to convince the elder Pallatine that she is in love with him, and he also convinces Thrift that she has died.


An entrepreneur and confidence trickster in Cavendish & Shirley's Country Captain. Tries to get Underwit and Sir Francis to invest in his latest scheme involving a monopoly on periwigs. When he realizes they are suspicious of him, he feigns a migraine. At the tavern, Engine vomits all kinds of strange things, possibly related to "monopolies" or swindles that were common in Newcastle's time. He feigns madness in order to escape persecution for his scams. Device orders Drawer to lock him up. When Sir Richard and Sir Francis head back to London, Engine is sent along, and escapes when Sir Francis falls and breaks his shoulder.


Englande represents the country in Bale's King Johan, Part 1. She is identified as "a Widow" because Clergy has deprived her of her spouse, God. Clergye has also reduced her to poverty. She complains to King Johan, who readily agrees to help her.
Englande represents the country in Bale's King Johan, Part 2. She is the only one to remain loyal to King Johan and she disowns her son, Commynalte, because of his betrayal.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Hamlet. England designates the King of England, and Claudius addresses the absent monarch in soliloquy, asking England to kill Hamlet for him.


The captain in Heywood's Four Prentices of London marches through London with a proclamation to recruit soldiers to join a crusade to the holy land. He is immediately joined by the four prentices.


The English gentlewoman in Fletcher and Massinger's Sir John Van Olden Barnavelt is contrasted with the Dutchwomen during the siege. She demonstrates wifely modesty, anti-Arminianism, and courage under fire.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. Foreste describes how the French Ambassador complained about the English Leiger and his opposition to a proposed treaty.


Although this character has no formal name, he is used as a foil to compare the relative virtues and natural breeding of the English against slaves from other lands in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman. The Englishman is found to be nobler and, in general, superior not only to other slaves, but also to his Italian masters. Nonetheless, the English are also described as mad. Later in the play, things take on a more sinister tone when the English Slave suggests to a group of pirates that they should kidnap Leonora and Almira and sell them as sex slaves to the Turks. The plan is put into action, but Antonio comes to the rescue.


A knight in Kyd's Soliman and Perseda. He participates in the Governor's games.


This Englishman is slain by a cowardly Spaniard in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. The Spaniard calls him Signior Cavalero Danglatero.


A “ghost character" in Dekker’s Match Me in London. Bilbo suggests an Englishman has stolen Tormiella because the English are the best thieves and cony-catchers.


A mad Englishman incarcerated in the madhouse in Fletcher's The Pilgrim, described by his keepers as a "malt-mad" heathen drunkard. (But then, the keepers ascribe all English madness to overindulgence in beer.) The Englishman seems particularly keen on Kate, the "She-Fool," and repeatedly offers to create mad little babies by copulating with her.

ENMITY **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the sixteen banished Affections not otherwise listed in the dramatis personae but included in Madame Curiosity’s list of banditti. He and Friendship are to be placed in the vanguard of Pride’s attack.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Quintus Ennius (239–169 BC) was a Latin epic poet, called the father of Roman poetry. He introduced the hexameter verse form. In his youth, he probably saw tragedies performed in Magna Graecia, and therefore was able to bring Athenian methods of production into Rome. Largely throughout the works of Cicero, there are preserved a number of fragments and titles of a score of tragedies by Ennius. Most of his plays are based upon the Homeric fables. His major works are Annales, 18 books of epic history of Rome, The Rape of the Sabines, Scipio, a poem of Scipio Africanus, four books of satires and two comedies. When Ovid praises the immortality of poetry, he says that Ennius will live forever through his verses. Though Ovid describes Ennius as rude, he thinks that his verses will live eternally, as part of the beauty of art. At the end of the play, after Virgil has Crispinus take an emetic and throw up all his bad words, he then prescribes a long-term cure. Virgil advises Crispinus to observe a strict and wholesome diet. Virgil suggests that Crispinus should read the best Latin authors, but should avoid Plautus and Ennius, because they are meats too harsh for a weak stomach.

ENNIUS **1636

In Killigrew’s The Princess, Bragadine hires two men to help surprise Virgilius and Facertes in their attempt to free Cicilia. The first Bravo’s name is Ennius. He is an acquaintance of Olympia’s and claims to have killed two men for her, the last one named Olympick. Facertes kills him when he attempts the ambush in the garden along with Bragadine and the other bravo.


Enobarbas is a follower of Antony in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra, although he is on the side of Roman restraint and is appalled by Antony's behavior around Cleopatra. When Antony tells him they are leaving for Rome, Enobarbas mockingly responds that Cleopatra will surely die, since she claims to die over far less important events. After the reconciliation of Antony and Caesar, Enobarbas describes for Agrippa and Maecenas how Cleopatra won Antony, and claims that Antony will never leave her. When Caesar and Antony say goodbye, Agrippa and Enobarbas mockingly comment on the display of emotions. Before the first battle, Enobarbas speaks out strongly against fighting at sea, but is ignored. After the battle, he tells Cleopatra that Antony is to blame for following her. Enobarbas turns against Antony because he will not leave Cleopatra, and joins Caesar's side. However, when he is told that Antony has sent his treasure after him, with extra, he is overwhelmed by guilt and decides to die. He does so, calling on Antony at the last.


A fictitious character within the story of Paris and Enone which the Chorus intends to perform before the king in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday.


Only mentioned in Zouche's The Sophister. Definition, Division, Opposition, and Description mention Ens, the father of Substance (the first Duke of the Province of Substance) while attempting to "draw out" for Discourse "the pedigree, which is a true lineall discent of all the chiefest inhabitants within these provinces." Ens's "Realme was equially divided amongst" his eldest childe, Substance, and his daughters.

A low-ranking officer serving under Stukelely in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley who attests to his bravery during the captain's Irish campaign.


A mute role in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. A soldier in Caesar's army.


Non-speaking roles in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. The Spanish ensigns are captured by Drake and his men.


Entellus is one of the conspirators in Massinger's The Roman Actor who join in the final plot against Caesar.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Mundus et Infans. Mundus tells Infans/Manhood that he must swear fealty to seven kings. The kings are the seven deadly sins.


Envie is one of the seven deadly sins in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appears in the first scene with the other six sins, then crosses the stage again to announce the first playlet, which dramatizes envy.


The Anonymous Mucedorus is framed by an induction and epilogue in which Comedy and Envy vie for control of the play. Comedy triumphs, and the play ends happily.

ENVY **1592

Born of a chimney-sweep and an oyster-wife, Envy, the fourth of the Seven Deadly Sins in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, wishes famine on the world because she is hungry.


Envy's reign in Act Four follows the reign of Pride in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.


In Rome, Envy appears on stage after the second sounding in lieu of Prologue in Jonson's Poetaster. Envy salutes the light and says that the purpose of her coming there is to assist to the arraignment. The allusion is to the indictment of the poetasters Crispinus and Demetrius, charged with calumny and plagiarism and judged by Virgil and Caesar. Envy says she is acting as Prologue to this hated play, whose plot has been hatched for fifteen weeks. The allusion is to the fact that Jonson's Poetaster was written in fifteen weeks on a report that his enemies had entrusted to Dekker a dramatic attack upon Jonson. Envy hopes to mar the audience's entertainment with insidious comments and suggestions, which would spoil the play from the start. Envy condemns the choice of the play's setting, wondering if poets with forked tongues steeped in venom exist in Rome. Such poets could pervert and poison all they hear and see with senseless glosses and allusions. Envy alludes to the situation of conflict between competing poets, some of whom resent Author. Envy addresses these poets as allies, telling them to take her snakes and help her to damn Author, finding every fault in his verses. Envy wants these vituperative poets to arm themselves with triple malice and hiss, and tear Author's work apart by misinterpreting his verses. When Envy sees that none of these defamatory poets would come forth, she seems to despair saying that her hopes of inciting conflict out of malice are lost. Envy says she cannot remain on earth and descends slowly to hell.

ENVY **1617

One of the twenty-five vices that are the extremes of the eleven virtues in the anonymous Pathomachia. Sordidity, Pride, Envy, and Curiosity are the extremes of Humility. Pride makes him counselor of state second only to Malice. He most hates Emulation and Humility and hopes to make the latter his “ape to bear my lute." He disguises himself as Emulation but Justice sees through him at once and sends him to prison


Allegorical mute character in a masque performed for John Earnest, Duke of Saxony at the play's conclusion in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids.


Eo is a devil along with Areo and Meo conjured by Mago in Cokain's Trappolin. He delivers a hat to Trappolin as part of his transformation. The hat itself is called Eo, and contains the demon of this name. Trappolin is warned to wear this hat, along with the cape and mirror, at all times in order to maintain the transformation.


A 'ghost character' in John Heywood's The Play of the Wether, mentioned in Jupiter's opening soliloquy. By quarrelling with Saturne, Phebus, and Phebe, Eolus (probably AEolus, god of winds) has caused great inconvenience to humanity. The other gods and goddesses turn to Jupiter to redress the balance between the elements.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Epaminondas (c.418–362 BC) was born in Thebes and was known as a great tactician, general and political leader. He was a very severe person and did not stand any kind of lies. As a young man he had trained himself in ascetic ways, and had studied music and philosophy according to Pythagoras. After the liberation of Thebes from the Spartans, Epaminondas was elected representative at the peace meeting in Sparta. He had no success there, and left the meeting after an argument with the Spartan king Agesilaus. Thus, Epaminondas's name is linked to a failed process of negotiating peace, just as Maecenas tries to do during the conflict between Lupus and Horace. When Lupus falsely accuses Horace of treason, Tucca literally attacks Maecenas, whom he calls an Epaminondas. Tucca tells Maecenas to resign and seizes his golden chain, a symbol of his authority.


Nero's secretary in the anonymous Tragedy of Nero. He is one of the sycophants who indulge his excesses. He deserts him in the final crisis.


A freedman of Caesar in May's Cleopatra; he tries to reassure Cleopatra after the death of Antonius of his master's kind intentions towards her.


A French nobleman in Chapman's The Conspiracy of Charles, Duke of Byron. In the play's final scene, he announces Savoy's entrance with the three ladies, and after his departure, he mocks his experiences with them.
A French nobleman in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron; supporter of the King. He guesses the answer to Cupid's riddle during the masque.


A captain in Chapman's The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois. He appears with Monsieur at the beginning of the play and implies that Guise and Clermont D'Ambois are contemptuous of the King and his court. He appears in later scenes, but has no lines.


Epernon is the weak and aged French general in the anonymous Weakest Goeth to the Wall. When the Spanish continue their invasion of France, Epernon arrives, carried in a chair, for a parley with the Hernando. He vehemently rejects Hernando's demand that he hand over the French crown and offers, old as he is, to fight Hernando in single combat. Then Epernon recognizes Mercury, Duke of Anjou, who has emerged from the crowd to assassinate him. Shocked by such behavior, Hernando offers to leave France with his army if Mercury is returned to him. Epernon refuses on legal grounds. All the soldiers then volunteer to tear Mercury to pieces. Epernon will not allow that, either. As a peer of the realm Mercury is entitled to trial by his peers. At such a sign of honorable action Hernando announces a truce for the day. Later, the aged Epernon is brought in, again in a chair, to watch the battle between the Spanish and French armies. He watches as Ferdinand defeats Don Ugo, and comments on Ferdinand's youth and strength. Epernon rewards him for his deeds, reflecting that Ferdinand looks and acts very like his friend, Lodowick, Duke of Bullen, with whom he fought against the Turks many years before. Epernon thanks Lodowick and Brabant (who has also been fighting) and explains that Anjou, who caused Lodowick to flee, is to be dealt with as Lodowick chooses. Lodowick says that he will leave sentencing Anjou to the king when he returns. When Epernon identifies Ferdinand as the brave gentleman who killed Don Ugo, Brabant is horrified that Ferdinand should be considered a hero. Lodowick and Epernon both try to dissuade Brabant from having Ferdinand executed for his affair with Odillia. Epernon weeps that someone who has fought so bravely should be killed as the result of the justice system, lamenting that the weakest go to the wall. Brabant violently rejects Epernon's attempt to dissuade him. When it becomes clear that Ferdinand is Frederick, Lodowick's lost son, Epernon, still weeping, this time with happiness, announces that he will leave all his possessions to them when he dies.


Count Epernoum is a Welsh knight and a "fictional character" in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!. At Touchstone's house, the future bridegroom Sir Petronel arrives later than expected claiming he met some friends. Since he wants to impress Touchstone, he invents a fictional Count Epernoum with whom he had a pleasant conversation.


An attendant in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris. Epernoun goes to Poland to recall Anjou after the death of Charles. He remains a faithful servant to Anjou when he becomes King Henry III.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, the brilliant craftsman who builds the Trojan horse.


A wealthy woolen draper in London, married to Thomasine in Middleton's Michaelmas Term. Quomodo, who's name in Latin means "how" or "by what means" proves a paradigmatic example of the "overreacher" of Jacobean city comedy, exemplifying his own maxim that in the frenzied London commercial environment "'tis sleight, not strength, that gives the greatest lift" (IV i. 66). He employs two nimble "spirits," Shortyard and Falselight to serve him, and embarks on a plan to undo Richard Easy, an Essex gentleman, and extort his lands. Meanwhile, he is also intent on marrying his daughter to Sir Andrew Gruel (a.k.a. Lethe) whose title will improve his own social standing. Under the alias Blastfield, Shortyard has Quomodo provide Blastfield cloth on credit that he can supposedly sell to gain capital. However, invoking "custom," Quomodo requires Easy to cosign the loan. It is all a confidence trick, and when no merchant is willing to purchase the cloth, Blastfield defaults, and, disguised as a sergeant, Shortyard arrests Easy on Quomodo's suit. Quomodo, feigning leniency, allows Easy to seek temporary bail from a "generous citizen" in order to track down Blastfield. Shortyard assumes this identity as well and posts Easy's bail using his lands in Essex as surety. When Easy is unable to locate Blastfield, his estate is forfeit to Quomodo and the three tricksters (Quomodo, Shortyard, and Falselight) celebrate their coup. Quomodo's machinations are not over, however. In an attempt to divine what will become of his family and fortunes after his passing, he fakes his own death and, disguised as a beadle, observes the reactions of the other characters. Disgusted with the insolence of his son, Sim, he makes Shortyard his heir and, thinking to surprise his wife, he reveals to her that he is still alive by signing a legal indenture "Ephestian Quomodo." This signature proves his undoing because it is affixed to a document transferring all his goods to Easy, whom Thomasine will presently marry. He takes the matter to court where he manages to retain Thomasine, but he loses his lands. Even his daughter's impending marriage to Lethe fails when it is discovered that Lethe has been keeping a mistress.


Ephestion is one of the most valued counsellors of Alexander in Daniel's Philotas. He advises Alexander to withdraw his favour from Philotas, hoping that this will reduce Philotas's pride and ambition. Ephestion later confers with Clitus and Craterus about the threat which they feel Philotas poses to Alexander, and worry that Alexander is underestimating him. At the trial of Philotas, Craterus and Ephestion defend their actions, denying that they acted out of personal malice. With Craterus and Caenus, Ephestion advises Alexander to have Philotas tortured.


Ephorus in Harrison's Philomathes' Dream chastises Theopompus for his tendency toward inflated rhetoric after Theopompus cuts off a suggested reading of Erasmus of Rotterdam's biography of John Collet (the founder of St. Paul's, who appears in the dream as Philomathes' guide). Theopompus claims that he could make a "flaunting oration" about Collet. Ephorus suggests that Theopompus needs a bridle, but is then told by Theophilus that he has "as much need of a spur" as Theopompus of a bridle–that is, Ephorus is too reticent in his speech. (The attribution of any lines to Ephorus is uncertain, however, since the speakers' names in this part of the play are often not given).
Ephorus, also spelled Euphorus in Harrison's Philomathes' Second Dream, helps to recount the "solemn disputation" to which he and the rest of the company (except Polumathes and Philomathes) were challenged by a group of ruffian scholars in the street before the start of the play. A character with steady, balanced contributions but few lengthy ones, he encourages the deeper, allegorical interpretation of Philomathes' dream and plays a facilitating role in the ensuing critique of the students at St. Paul's school.


Lady Nestlecock's servant in Brome's The New Academy. He is secretly in love with her and hints of his affections to her by suggesting that if she married him, as Matchil married his servant, Nehemiah would approve of the match. After eavesdropping on her and Sir Whimlby's courtship, he vows to cross their match. He instructs Nehemiah in the art of being a man, in exchange for which Nehemiah advises his mother to marry Ephraim rather than Sir Whimlby. Lady Nestlecock reacts to the suggestion with outrage and commands Ephraim to leave her sight. He does, however, accompany Lady Nestlecock and Sir Whimlby to the New Academy where he watches the exterior door.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Mitis asks Cordatus about the comedy they are about to see, whether its author observes the classical rules regarding the unity of time, place, and action, Cordatus embarks upon a lengthy and learned incursion into the history of comedy. According to Cordatus, Epicharmus invented a third character in the structure of comedy. Epicharmus was a sixth-century B.C. Greek writer of comedy. He embraced the tenets of Pythagoras and made Syracuse the scene of his life's work. He wrote fifty-two comedies or, according to others, thirty-five. In these plays, comedy took formal shape for the first time, because Epicharmus and his contemporary Phormus were the first to use plots and regular dialogues. His compositions, however, were simple burlesques of the heroic themes, which formed the usual subjects of the tragic performances of the time.


Epicoene, supposed to be the silent woman, becomes Morose's wife in Jonson's Epicoene. "She" is ultimately revealed to be a boy in disguise. The name derives from Greek and means having characteristics of both sexes. At Sir John Daw's house, Epicoene enters with Daw, Clerimont, and Dauphine. Daw is courting Epicoene and she encourages him. In the meantime, the gallants discuss their plan of duping Morose. Dauphine explains that Epicoene has agreed to play the silent woman to please the noise-hating Morose and then marry him. Epicoene exits with Dauphine and Cutbeard to arrange their imbroglio. At Morose's house, Epicoene enters with Cutbeard, who introduces the supposedly silent woman to Morose and commends her qualities. Epicoene does not speak much and, when she does, she uses a low-timbre voice and professes modesty. Epicoene prefers to use a silent language code, answering Morose's questions by silent curtsies. Morose is so pleased with his future wife that he sends Cutbeard for the minister to perform the marriage immediately and Epicoene follows Mute to the dining room. At Morose's house, Epicoene enters with Morose, followed by Cutbeard and Parson, who has just performed the hasty marriage. Epicoene becomes very vocal in reprimanding her husband. Moreover, when a party of revelers is announced, Epicoene orders to be invited in, despite Morose's protestations. Epicoene gains the appreciation of the collegiate ladies for her vehement attitude towards her husband and she exits to another room with her new friends. In a long open gallery at Morose's house, Epicoene enters with Haughty and her companions, who share with her some of their invaluable experience in the art of manipulating their husbands. When Morose enters furiously, claiming he has married a turbulent woman, Epicoene pretends to take pity on him, telling the others that her husband seems to be mad. Epicoene exits with the collegiate ladies. Epicoene and her party witness the scene of Daw and La-Foole's humiliation and all the ladies admire Dauphine. When Morose chases everybody away, Epicoene runs off with the ladies and gallants. In the final revelation scene, Dauphine divulges that Epicoene is actually a boy, his page. At this point, Epicoene reverts to silence.


Sir Epicure Mammon is a lecherous London knight in Jonson's The Alchemist. The name Epicure suggests one who enjoys the pleasures of life, and Mammon suggests a love of wealth. Face as Lungs admits Mammon and Surly into the house. Mammon fantasizes about the immense riches and exceptional sexual prowess he will acquire when in possession of the Philosopher's Stone. He chances to see Dol Common and is told she is the sister of a nobleman and that she has gone mad with too much studying. Mammon wants to meet the lady and Face as Lungs promises to arrange a meeting. Mammon gives Lungs money for his pandering, but in a room upstairs, Dol enters in a fit of talking, and Mammon is exasperated. Face tells Mammon that he should not have mentioned Hebrew, for that throws the mad lady into a talking seizure. Subtle enters complaining that Mammon's licentiousness has compromised the alchemical project. Menacing him with the imminent arrival of the lady's furious brother, Subtle makes Mammon give him more money and flee. Later, Mammon arrives with Surly, being convinced now that he has been gulled. When Face as Jeremy refers them to Lovewit, the master of the house, Mammon and Surly believe all of them are part of the confederacy and go to get a warrant. Mammon and Surly return with a group of dissatisfied dupes, accompanied by the officers. When Lovewit tells the authorities that the knaves have fled, Mammon searches the house and agrees that they are gone. Mammon is unable to recover his goods because Lovewit says that, by the law, Mammon can produce no evidence that the goods are his. Mammon says he will turn preacher and prophesy the end of the world before he leaves with Surly.


A Vandal lord in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier. He seems to be of a lower status than the other lords because his role throughout the play is merely to fetch people and bring them onstage. Like most of the other lords, Epidophorus contributes little to the plot, and is merely a vehicle for plot exposition.


A “ghost character" in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. The emptying of his jakes has been hindered by the calling of the annual Grobian feast.


For Epilogues delivered by specifically named characters, such as ROSALIND in As You Like It, use the "CNTL-F" function to search "Epilogue," "ends the play," and other such key words under character names throughout the Prosopography.


The Epilogue to the anonymous Nice Wanton reminds the audience of the importance of strict moral training for children.


The unnamed speaker of the epilogue in Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur concludes the play with a discourse upon the consequences of ambition, the dangers inherent in the pursuit of pomp and rule, and the transitory nature of all human achievements.


Spoken by Richard Alleyn in the anonymous plot of Frederick and Basilea.


Time speaks the Prologue and the Epilogue of the anonymous A Larum for London. He complains that people regularly disregard Time's warnings but suggests that the audience might be different and pay attention to this forewarning.


At the presentation of the comedy before Queen Elizabeth, Macilente speaks the Epilogue of Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Asper (also played by Macilente) and Epilogue are two characters framing the play. Epilogue addresses the Queen, saying that all envy in his soul has fled before her grace. His negative passions are drowned into the ample flood of her perfection. Macilente kneels, imploring the Queen to continue to rule in justice and keep England a Fortunate Island. During the Queen's reign, Treason trembles at the sound of her Fame, and good foreign policy precludes any chance of foreign invasion. War is prevented from entering the land, and Peace is invited to stay in. In the Queen's presence, Flattery is dumb, Envy turns blind, and even Death himself admires her. Epilogue wishes that the Queen's virtues would make Death forget his duties, and may she live forever!


Epilogue enters addressing the audience in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. He tells them that he has turned a poet fortuitously, because Author has commanded him to produce a ceremonious epilogue. According to Epilogue, he must act in a special manner, neither happy nor sad, sour, serious, peremptory, or too confident, but somewhere in between. Epilogue states that it is useless to lay the blame of the play's faults on the children's company's poor acting. Epilogue promises a better play coming next and announces that this play has ridiculed the maker of self-love. Speaking of Author, Epilogue states that he has heard him say that the play is good, and if the audience likes it, they may. Epilogue concludes with a Latin dictum, which shows that the poem is much liked. Thus, the self-irony is addressed to the play's Author, who is not spared the foible of self-conceit.


An unnamed character speaks the Epilogue of Chapman's All Fools. In it he states that the play is dedicated to the audience, but since different people have different tastes, he cannot be assured that anyone enjoyed it. The Epilogue ends by stating that the actors will bring the audience meat and stools, and that all are "welcome", but the implied rhyme clearly indicates that all are, in fact, "fools."


Epilogue is spoken at the Revival of Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. Epilogue concludes the theme of female chastity by saying that in old age it is easier for women to pose as monuments of chastity. However, when a young and beautiful woman is proved chaste, she is all the more praiseworthy. Epilogue concludes with the idea that the acting team has done their best to show a new example fitting this wise precept.


Spoken by Anamnestes in Tomkis’ Lingua. It is a short but conventional appeal for applause but with the added humor of needing it to awaken Appetitus at play’s end.


The epilogue in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Coxcomb tells the audience that he hopes they liked the play. If so, he'll have it made, if not, he'll have nothing.


The Epilogue addresses his Majesty, who is entreated to judge the comedy in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Since the King knows the scope and the extent of the writers' attributes, which must not be expanded into license, the sovereign is asked to say whether the actors have used the king's permit appropriately. The Epilogue declares that only the King has the power to judge the play, being free from the envy existing among theatre people. If this particular play has managed to please the King, then the troupe is happy and their purpose has been accomplished. This was probably delivered during the court presentation following the opening at the Hope playhouse.


Trincalo delivers the epilogue to Tomkis’ Albumazar, glorying in his good fortune and inviting everyone to come to his place in Tottenham four nights hence.


The Epilogue of Fletcher's The Loyal Subject is certain that few members of the audience will regret having spent precious money and three hours' time to attend the play. The spectators are invited to show their opinion of the acting. Applause, he says, will please the actors and encourage them to improve their performance in the future presentations.


Delivered by the Grand Satyr in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. He begs the ladies’ pardon for his rude sins and invites them to ‘punish’ him now with women’s weapons, nails and hands, and so ‘clap’ him for his deeds.


The unnamed Epilogue of Fletcher and Massinger's The False One gives a traditional, short speech requesting the audience's goodwill for the play, however poor it is.


The Epilogue enters to receive the audience's judgment in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. Either the acting team has met their favor, or they must strike their sails towards the audience's dislike. On behalf of his fellow-actors, the Epilogue is at liberty to ask the audience to show them where they were at fault, because they will take every possible step to improve the performance.


Listed in the Dramatis Personae of Hawkins's Apollo Shroving only as "Epilogue," this character delivers the Epilogue at the play's end.


He wishes the married couple joy in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. He says it would be good for England if Wealth and Honesty would breed and have issue but that the bride is past child bearing. Nevertheless, he is certain that "our Parliament" will never divorce them.


The Epilogue of Carlell's The Deserving Favorite announces that though "some rebel hearts" may not approve of the play, it was not written for them but for "Love's friends."


Epilogue comes forward in Jonson's The New Inn and says that plays in themselves have neither hopes nor fears, and their fate rests with the audience. If the audience expected to find more than they did in the play, the author is sad, though he meant to please his spectators. The audience should not impute the play's imperfections to the author's low intelligence, because he is, indeed, a true poet. The author could have downsized the vulgar scenes involving drunkards and the low life at the inn, but he asks forgiveness for it, in the name of the immortality of art. The poet knows that, when his body dies, his art will live on. Epilogue says that mayors and sheriffs can be seen on stage every year, but a jovial Host and his Inn are not so often present in the theater, to delight the King, Queen, and their Court. Epilogue mentions that another Epilogue was composed in the poet's defense, but the play did not live on to allow it to be spoken. Epilogue says that the audience, formed of King, Queen, and their Court, can appreciate the play, and they would not hiss because the Chambermaid was named both Prue and Cis (the reference is to Prudence). In fact, Epilogue argues, the chambermaid's exact name is of no importance, as long as the audience sees a girl of wit on stage.


The Epilogue of Brome's The Novella encourages the audience to applaud by promising that "if you dislike the play," Brome "has vowed / To write far worse."


Spoken by Anteros in Hausted’s Rival Friends. He claims to the audience the miracle of having been converted into a liking for women and compliments the monarch that he can do more than Oberon and his magic tree. He can gentle everyone in the room with but a gracious look.


An unnamed Epilogue in Davenant's Love and Honor makes a standard request for praise, or at least that the censure be spoken so softly it will not disturb the author.


Calling upon the heavenly powers in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy, the epilogue praises the issue of generation in a rather typically Killigrew-esque convolution.


It is unclear who speaks the Epilogue in Sharpe’s Noble Stranger. The Epilogue says that the author is modest and asks for applause if the audience liked the play.


Claims that the audience alone can determine the goodness of a play and asks for their applause at the conclusion of Brome's Love-Sick Court.


Asks us in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland for comments about the play, making the point that if Saint Patrick is the patron of Ireland, then the audience members are patrons of the play.


Delivered by Grobianus in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. He tells the audience that he does not appear to beg for their applause but rather to tell them to go away now.


It is not clear who speaks the Epilogue that Furor Poeticus sends out in Wild’s The Benefice, but the epilogue lists the characters and says they will be pleased if the audience applaud their work.


The Epilogue of Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part Two that was spoken at court provides the flattery expected on such occasions by likening King Charles to the sun: both the monarch and the sun shine blessings upon all things beneath them.


Marquesse of the deserts in Percy's Arabia Sitiens. A sickly but enchantingly attractive woman. Tells Caleb and Tubal that if they steal Geber's ring and purse for her, she will sleep with them. Takes Haroth and Maroth (disguised as minstrels) into her retinue, but answers their wooing with derision until they reveal they are angels. They teach her the prayer that leads the way to Olympus/Heaven. When she arrives, she demands that Belpheghor admit her. He does, and calls Mahomet and the angels to see her. She defies their authority and Mahomet has her executioners take her into custody. Mahomet later realizes he has fallen in love with her and attempts to woo her. He offers her anything, and she asks him to clean her shoe. He does, and she then rejects his suit, savoring the fact that the Prophet himself stooped low enough to clean her shoe. He orders her jailed once more. He condemns her to be banished into the moon, where she can influence the weather and end the drought in the desert.


A Sicilian Duke in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. Epire agrees to fight as a champion for the Queen of Sicily against the King of Cyprus who wants to marry the Queen. The Duke defeats the King but is in turn defeated by Philocles, the King's second. Enraged, Epire vows revenge, and renews this vow when the King orders the execution of Epire's sister Mariana, who has failed in her promise to cure Philocles' speechlessness. Epire avenges these wrongs by giving the King false accounts of the Queen's infidelity; he intends to convince the King to kill the Queen, then plans to proclaim the Queen's innocence and persuade her subjects to depose the King and make Epire the monarch. Disguised as guards, Epire and the King spy on the Queen and, when she dances with Philocles, Epire encourages the King's jealous thoughts. Epire removes his disguise to announce the King's impending return; the Queen invites Epire to play cards with her, but he claims state business and suggests Philocles instead. Epire narrates the card game for the King, offering lascivious interpretations of the Queen and Philocles' comments and card play. The King removes his disguise and orders the arrest of the Queen and Philocles; he sends Epire to summon Parliament to confirm the death sentence he orders. Epire plans to fight the King for the crown after the Queen's death, and offers a triumphant account of his deeds to his sister Mariana, who reminds Epire of Philocles' friendship. When the Queen challenges the law, Epire serves as the King's champion, a further betrayal of the Queen, but is defeated by Philocles. The King allows the Queen to sentence Epire, and she grants him mercy, advising him to live to repent.


Page to Sir Tophas in Lyly's Endymion. He has no idea what a poet is, and Sir Tophas cannot enlighten him. He is little more than a sounding board for Sir Tophas to vent his foolish wit upon.


Equato is a courtier in Genoa in Marston's Malcontent.


A "scurvie Apothecary" in Zouche's The Sophister. Equipolency appears late in the play when he crosses paths with Conversion. Conversion informs Equipolency that he is banished, but claims that he would "go voluntary" anyway. He praises Equipolency and inquires as to the "course" the apothecary intends to take. Conversion lists the places which he will visit, is advised by Equipolency, and departs. Analysis congratulates Equipolency on coming to him "so timely" concerning Contradiction's and Opposition's wounds. Analysis advises Equipolency on tending to Contradiction and Opposition, and the Apothecary delivers perfume to Analysis to be used during Discourse's blood letting. Equipolency also informs Analysis and Judicium of the confessions of Opposition and Contradiction and their cursing of Fallacy. Ambiguity later informs Fallacy that Equipolency "hath with his curiosity drawne out the rancor" of Contradiction's and Opposition's "wounds, and no question is made of their recoverie." Furthermore, the Apothecary has also "made them friends" and claims that they do nothing except "exclaime against" Fallacy and Ambiguity. At this news, along with the fact that Analysis has let Discourse's blood, Fallacy grows desperate to "doe somewhat."


Equitye sympathizes with Virtue in the anonymous The Contention Between Liberalitie and Prodigalitie. She moralizes, with Virtue, on the behavior of men, explaining that men who taste evil once turn to good again. Interestingly, Equity is going to be appointed by Virtue to examine Prodigality at the trial.


Desiderius Erasmus, the famous Dutch humanist, visits More in England in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. To see if Erasmus can tell the difference between merit and ceremony, More orders his servant Randall to dress like the Lord Chancellor and to impersonate him.
Dutch humanist scholar in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. He speaks only Latin in the play. Encounters Bertie searching for firewood as the Duchess is in labor and assists Bertie carrying her back to the home of Perecell.


A gentleman and companion of Valentine in Brome's The New Academy. His nickname is Mus. At the beginning of the play, he and Valentine arrive to dine with Old Matchil, whom they have previously found entertaining, but are told on their arrival that he is grieving from the news of his son's death. Erasmus had hoped to match Valentine with either Joyce or Gabriella and himself with the other, primarily because Valentine has become a financial burden. Erasmus is the more morally upstanding character in the play and looks disapproving on Valentine's behavior with Hannah and Rachel. He accompanies Valentine and Rachel to the New Academy to prevent his friend from acting on his desire for her. While there, he helps Blithe slip away from her uncle and secretly marries her. He also positions Rafe where he can see Valentine begging for more money from Hannah.


A knight of Rhodes in Kyd's Soliman and Perseda. He has loved Perseda since childhood and persuades her to accept his love and the gift of a ring in the play's second scene. He accepts a chain from her. He then demonstrates his knightly prowess by defeating all others at the games celebrating the marriage of the Prince of Cyprus to the daughter of the Governor of Rhodes. During the games, however, he loses the chain. When he next meets Perseda, she accuses him of betraying her and breaks off their engagement. He then sets up a game in which he, Piston, and his friends Guelpio and Iulio, will appear as mummers and gamble with Lucina in order to get the chain back. This venture succeeds, but Ferdinando appears as they are departing and challenges them. Erastus kills Ferdinando. Recognizing his need to flee, he plans to go to Turkey. He gives the chain to Piston to take to Perseda along with his vows of love. He defeats Soliman in a challenge and is welcomed by the emperor and given a position as leader of the emperor's army. He requests that he not be involved in the war on Rhodes, and Soliman agrees. The emperor reports the results of the war to him, and he asks to be allowed to mourn in private. When Soliman recalls him, he is reunited with Perseda, and the emperor—who proclaims he loves them both—approves their marriage and makes Erastus the governor of Rhodes. He and Perseda have a few happy moments in Rhodes before Brusor and Lucina arrive. Brusor is carrying Soliman's request that Erastus return to Turkey, which he obeys. Upon his arrival he is arrested on false charges of high treason, tried, and executed.
Knight of Rhodes (part played by Lorenzo in Hieronimo's Play), Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy.

ERASTUS **1635

A “ghost character" in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. When Timeus finds the body of his slain father he calls for support from Clitus, Charisius, Erastus, and Amathes but none are at hand.


Erato is one of the nymphs in Lyly's Midas who listen to Apollo and Pan's musical competition.


One of the gentlemen of the Corinthian court in Fletcher's Queen of Corinth. He is invited (along with Neanthes and Sosicles) to prove his sycophantic love for Prince Theanor by joining in the rape of Merione by Theanor and Crates. The fact that he participates so willingly in this crime is unsurprising, given that he has already declared that "[a] Mother is a name, but put in balance / With a young wench 'tis nothing." He is likely one of the Maskers who appear disguised before the raped Merione and sprinkle water on her face while singing and dancing. He joins Crates in mocking Lamprias and his train, and in insulting Euphanes, but when Crates repents his ill deeds he joins Euphanes in the plot to disclose Theanor's sins, and is present at the final scene when Theanor repents his ill deeds and makes amends to Merione.


A "ghost character" in Suckling's The Goblins. The father of the bride to whose wedding the fiddlers are going.


A suitor to Jolenta in Webster's The Devil's Law Case. He accepts Contarino's challenge to fight and is wounded while inflicting serious wounds on Contarino. The duel awakes a profound respect in him for Contarino, and surviving his wounds, Ercole lets people believe he is dead so that Contarino, should he survive, may be married to Jolenta. Hearing that Contarino is dead and that Jolenta is pregnant with his (that is, Ercole's) child, Ercole concludes that Jolenta must be pregnant with Contarino's child. He nevertheless pretends that it is his in order to protect her reputation. He reveals himself to everyone to be alive in court, and accuses Romelio of murdering Contarino. He agrees to settle the dispute by a duel, which is prevented at the last moment by the revelation that Contarino is still alive.

EREBUS **1602

Only mentioned in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. Rhodaghond calls upon the ‘broode of Nun and Erebus’ to fill the sails of her vengeance. The children of Nyx and Erebus were Aether (light/the upper air) and Hemera (day).


Erestus is a young man betrothed to Venelia in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale. The magician Sacrapant places a spell upon him, making him seem an aged man, speaking in riddles, during the day, and turning him into a white bear during the night. Through his riddles, he attempts to offer aid and advice to all who visit him by the cross where he spends his days. He encourages Eumenides to give all he has, thus preparing the knight for the generous gesture of paying for Jack's funeral, a gesture which results in Jack's ghost aiding him in the destruction of Sacrapant and the release of the magician's victims.


In this fragment of Wilson’s The Corporal, it appears that one Erf: has acted as go-between for Theo: and Feli:


A young wild Lord in Berkeley's The Lost Lady. Main suitor of Hermione, and rival to Eugenio and Lysicles. His claims are the strongest for Hermione's father since he has inherited a great sum of money and a state after his older brother's death. He also fancies Hermione's servant, Irene, who will eventually marry him after Hermione chooses Eugenio as husband.


Ergastus is an "ancient Arcadian" in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. He discusses with Meliboeus the state of their country; they see its increasing corruption reflected in the "disloyalty" of the nymphs and shepherds and the spread of lies and slander. They agree to watch and try to discover the source of the "contagion", and remain in their hiding place, emerging at the end of each act to comment on what they have seen. At the end of the fourth act they decide that they have seen enough, and plan to put things to rights. They arrive at the shepherds' assembly, bringing with them Montanus, Acrysius, Alcon, Lincus, Colax, Techne and Pistophoenax. The wrong-doers are displayed to the assembled shepherds. Montanus and Acrysius regret that they were deceived by Lincus and pledge their reconciliation. Ergastus reveals the ugly face of Pistophoenax beneath his mask, and Meliboeus reveals that Urania has successfully cured Amyntas and that they have sent search parties to find Silvia and Palaemon. Silvia and Palaemon enter with Mirtillus, Carinas, Dorinda, Amarillis, Daphne, Cloris and Amyntas. Colax tells Silvia and Palaemon that he has abused them, and that his stories about Palaemon and Nisa and Silvia and Thyrsis were untrue. Palaemon and Silvia are reconciled. Ergistas welcomes the betrothal of Cloris and Amyntas, and urges Dorinda to accept the suit of Mirtillus,which she does. Meliboeus then asks Carinas to look favorably on Amarillis, and they are also betrothed. Ergistus sees that Daphne looks sad, and warns her to be careful in future. The outsiders are banished and Ergistus and Meliboeus urge that the shepherds and nymphs take care to protect themselves from such exploitation and disruption in future.


Eric is Harrold's brother in Burnell's Landgartha. He is going to help Harrold to recover his throne.


In Marston's Sophonisba, the witch Erictho is asked by Syphax for an enchantment that will work on Sophonisba, but she tricks Syphax. She disguises herself as Sophonisba and, in a bed trick, "drains" him of some of his strength in order to rejuvenate herself.

ERICTHO **1617

One of three witches in Goffe’s Orestes along with Veia and Sagana called up by Canidia to tell who murdered Agamemnon.


Erinta, one of the four Wenches in the anonymous Wit of a Woman, is daughter to Bario and (according to the dramatis personae) sister to Veronte. Even though he is apparently her brother, she flirts with Veronte when he is disguised as a schoolmaster. She is courted by Figo, one of the Fathers, but tricks him, and ends the play married to one of the Gallants (probably Gerillo). N.b. The four Wenches are Erinta, Gianetta, Isabella, and Lodovica.


Erisicthon is a churlish husbandman in Lyly's Love's Metamorphosis. He chops down Ceres' tree, killing Fidelia (a nymph who had been transformed into the tree). Incensed by this outrage, Ceres sets Famine on Erisicthon who, starving, is forced to sell his daughter Protea. When Protea manages to trick her way out of the sale, Erisicthon decides to carry on selling his daughter to raise money. Protea's love persuades the god Cupid to lift the famine, provided that Erisicthon worship Cupid.


Eristus is a gentleman of the court and an advisor to the King in Lyly's Midas. When Bacchus offers Mydas anything he wishes, Eristus urges the King to ask for a mistress.


Erkinwald, Canutus' best friend, is in love with Elgina, and sends Alured, in his disguise as Eldred, to woo her on his behalf. When he sees them kissing, he kills Elgina and is himself killed by Alured.


Erminhilde is the daughter of the Duke of Calabria, and is engaged to Alphonso, the King of Naples in Dekker's If It Be Not Good. Rejected by the King due to the promptings of Ruffman the devil, she goes into hiding at the priory. When she is discovered, the King asks for her forgiveness, and the Duke calls off the war against Naples


Ermsby belongs to the circle of Prince Edward's friends in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. John Warren, the Earl of Sussex, refers to him as a member of the king's privy chamber.


Ernesto is a noble court attendant in Shirley's The Doubtful Heir. At the play's opening he explains the prospect of war and the delayed marriage of Leonario. Later he becomes a main questioner at Ferdinand's trial and–if not stopped–would levy sentence in the absence of the queen.


Waiting-woman to Cynthia in Chapman's The Widow's Tears, Ero urges her to respond to the advances of the soldier at her husband Lysander's tomb (really Lysander in disguise) and herself takes his food and drink.


The elder daughter of Meleander, sister to Cleophila and beloved of Prince Palador in Ford's The Lover's Melancholy. Happily affianced to Palador, she flees Cyprus when she realizes that Palador's father, Agenor, has evil designs on her virginity. With the help of her uncle, Sophronos, and her father's follower, Rhetias, she journeys first to Corinth and then to Athens in the habit of a sailor boy. In Athens she takes on the persona of the youth Parthenophill, and in this guise meets Menaphon, another Cyprian in flight from unhappy love. As Parthenophill, she returns to the Cyprian court under Menaphon's patronage, secretly protected by Rhetias (who knows her true identity). She is introduced to Thamasta, who falls in love with her (see the entry for 'Parthenophill' for more on Eroclea's adventures in this disguise). Once the Masque of Melancholy makes it clear that Prince Palador's melancholy proceeds from his continued love and longing for Eroclea, Rhetias bids Eroclea return to her own identity. When she greets Prince Palador in woman's guise, he initially thinks that she is a man striving to trick him by cross-dressing, but is convinced when she produces the portrait of himself he had given her. Reunited with her lover, sister and father, Eroclea cures Meleander's madness and Palador's melancholy, and is rewarded for her own long sufferings.


Eros is a follower of Antony in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. He reports Pompey's murder and Lepidus' imprisonment on spurious charges of treason. After the first battle, Eros rouses Antony from his depression by leading Cleopatra to him, and telling Antony how despairing she is. Eros helps Antony arm before the second battle, a job taken over by Cleopatra, and then is praised by Antony for his courage in battle. When Antony thinks Cleopatra is dead and decides to die as well, he asks Eros to stab him. Eros at first refuses outright, and then asks Antony to look away when he strikes. Once Antony is turned away, Eros stabs himself instead and dies.
A slave of Antonius; he brings his master, after the defeat at Tarentum, the false news that Cleopatra is dead. Antonius orders Eros to kill him; rather than do so, Eros kills himself.


Eros is Cleopatra's waiting woman in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. When Apollodorus asks her to persuade Cleopatra to accept captivity, since she can still do what she wishes, Eros points out she has been so used to freedom and command that nothing less will satisfy her. After Septimus assassinates Pompey, he approaches Eros, but she rejects him despite their previous relationship (clearly described). She states that although she is wanton, she will kiss no murderers or betrayers, and leaves him. Along with Arsinoe, she tries to persuade an enraged Cleopatra that Caesar is still in love with her, although neither is successful. During the final battle, Eros is terrified of the fate awaiting the women, and is declares she does not feel braver after Cleopatra tries to raise their spirits. In fact, after Caesar rescues them and then goes off to deal with Photinus and Achillas, Eros comments that she is worried that his soldiers, left to guard them, might instead try to rape them, an idea Cleopatra rejects as unworthy of Caesar.


(a.k.a. Dulippo) Master of Dulippo and suitor to Polynesta in Gascoigne's The Supposes. Having originally come to Ferrara to study, he meets Polynesta and falls in love. In order to make it easier to meet with her, Erostrato exchanges identities with Dulippo, his servant, and takes up residence in Damon's household where he can have constant access to Polynesta. Damon imprisons him upon discovery of his deflowering of Polynesta. Once the various supposes are explained, he is promised Polynesta's hand in marriage and is reunited with his father, Philogano.


Erota is the proud princess of Candy in ?Ford's The Laws of Candy. She is second in line for the throne behind her nephew, the son of her deceased brother. She has a reputation for encouraging princes' suits and then scorning them as unworthy of her. She despises Philander and treats Gonzalo with contempt but falls in love with Antinous. Unsuccessful in her pursuit of Antinous, Erota asks Philander to woo Antinous on her behalf; utterly in love with her, Philander agrees. In order to help Antinous defeat Gonzalo's plot against Candy, Erota agrees to pretend to entertain Gonzalo's suit and feigns the ambition to be queen of Candy, even if it means killing her nephew, but Erota urges Gonzalo not to speak his plans out loud for fear they might be overheard; instead, she has him write down the plot to preserve its secrecy. She tells Gonzalo that Cassilane is in their way but that she has a plan to eliminate him; she then sends Gonzalo to Cassilane with money and the news that she has paid off his mortgage to Gonzalo. When Cassilane accuses Antinous of ingratitude for his part in asking Erota to help his father financially, Erota accuses Cassilane of ingratitude to her after she paid his debts; Antinous then accuses Erota of being ungrateful after he gave her his love. Once Cassilane forgives Antinous, she forgives Cassilane and is forgiven by Antinous. She further reveals to Gonzalo that she is the cause of his arrest for treason, having submitted his written plots to Gaspero as proof of Gonzalo's treachery; finally, she releases Antinous from his promises to her and asks (successfully) for Philander's forgiveness and love.


Erotia is an old courtesan who leads a brothel in the anonymous Ghost. She was very successful in her youth. She also takes part in the plot Aurelia has devised to take revenge on Philarchus. She arrives at the cave led by the Friar, and disguised as Aurelia. Later on, she is offered to Philarcus as his prospective wife by Dauphine, but without previously explaining that Philarchus is free to marry her, since his former marriage, to Aurelia, was a fake: since the young lady already secretly married to her beloved Octavian.


A member of Bolingbroke's army, which, the Earl of Northumberland tells us at the end of II.i, is making its way to England in Shakespeare's Richard II.
Despite his "good white head" which Henry suggests would grace a soft pillow in England better than the battlefield in Shakespeare's Henry V, Sir Thomas Erpingham is a loyal and determined soldier in Henry's army. On the eve of the battle at Agincourt, Henry borrows Sir Thomas' cloak and, thus disguised, wanders among his soldiers.


A persona adopted by Iniquity in the anonymous Nice Wanton when he serves the judge Daniel.


Only mentioned in The Converted Robber. A name Autolicus uses for Jarbus after he is found to be carrying an almanac. Erra-Pater was the assumed name of the author of a 1535 astrological almanac.


An allegorical figure representing misbelief in Middleton's A Game at Chess. In the Induction, the play is presented as Error's "dream," played out for Ignatius Loyola.

ERROR **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the ‘home-bred’ enemies fighting a war against the intellectual Virtues that keeps the latter from joining King Love’s war.


Wife to Prince Mirza in Denham's The Sophy. She remains loyal and devoted to him through his misfortunes. After his death, she bitterly reproaches her father-in-law, King Abbas, but finally forgives him.


Esaye is the son of Isaac, master of Ragau, and wild older twin brother of Jacob. Obsessed by hunting in the forest, he regularly goes without food or drink for days and rarely sleeps. He constantly wakes his neighbors with the sound of his horns, and when told of the complaints deliberately blows his horn just to antagonize them. He is unconcerned by his mother's poor opinion of him; he knows that his father loves him. He mocks his brother, Jacob, for spending his life under his mother's wing and scorns his servant Ragau for suggesting the two brothers go hunting together. When he next appears after hunting, he has been without food for over a day, and has fainted from hunger several times. He is so hungry he can scarcely prevent himself from eating his own arm, he says. When Ragau appears to explain he has not found food or drink, and that their starving condition is Esau's fault for hunting so long and furiously, Esau threatens to eat Ragau, but then sends Ragau back to Jacob who has already refused them food. While Ragau is away he maligns and threatens both Ragau and Jacob. When Ragau returns with Jacob, the latter offers to buy Esau's birthright in exchange for food and drink, a contract which Esau accepts. He then declares that selling his birthright is unimportant but in any case when he tells his father, his father will disregard the contract. When Isaac laments that Esau rarely visits him, Esau replies that it is because he has not been successful hunting and so has had no food to offer his father. Isaac instructs him to continue hunting and, when he is successful, to prepare the meat for a meal. He blesses Esau as his firstborn and prays that he will multiply his seed as God had promised. While Jacob is gaining Isaac's blessing, an act which will consolidate Jacob's acquisition of Esau's birthright, Esau goes hunting as his father requested. He is successful, and though it has taken a long time to get good venison, what he has just caught is superb, he declares. He also announces that he will act as a tyrant when he succeeds his father. When he offers the meat to Isaac, he is told he is too late, that Jacob has already received Isaac's blessing. Esau laments and tries unsuccessfully to get Isaac to change his mind. Esau explains in detail how he will immediately kill all those who were part of the plot to supplant him. He utters violent insults and threats to Ragau, Abra, Mido, Deborra and to his mother, who is absent. Those present explain that they had nothing to do with Esau's rejection. Deborra confirms Esau's assertion that when the two brothers were born Jacob emerged holding Esau's heel. He announces that with Isaac's death close at hand, he will avenge himself on Jacob, even if he pretends to be meek for the moment. Esau expresses his bitter jealousy to his mother at how Jacob has been treated. When Rebecca persuades him to slake his anger, he acknowledges that all malice must go if she requires it. He joins in the final song of the play, praising the Lord, and acknowledging that God's judgements are difficult to understand.
A "ghost character" in Bale's John Baptist's Preaching in the Wilderness. Twice mentioned by John Baptist as a prophet who foretold him and his role, and defined him as the voice of the crier.
A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by God as an example of man's sinfulness.

ESCALUS **1595

Prince of Verona in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Angered by recurring violence in his city, the Prince declares a death penalty for further brawling. When Romeo slays Tybalt, the Prince, considering Tybalt's role as the aggressor (and possibly because Tybalt had just slain the Prince's kinsman, Mercutio), orders Romeo exiled rather than executed. Following the deaths of Romeo, Juliet, and Paris, Escalus vows to determine the guilt and innocence of the parties involved. [Note: The Prince is identified by name only in the dramatis personae.]


A non-speaking part in Shakespeare's All's Well. An officer in the Duke of Florence's army.


An elder lord of Vienna in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. Escalus is appointed Angelo's second-in-command by Duke Vincentio. Escalus interrogates the accused criminals brought before them and makes decisions in Angelo's absence. In contrast to Angelo, who is a stubborn moral absolutist that issues harsh judgements, Escalus is marked by wisdom, employing mercy and common sense in his decisions. When constable Elbow accuses Pompey of prostituting Mistress Elbow to Froth, Escalus releases them with warnings and indicates that he will replace the clownish Elbow with someone more capable. Escalus disagrees with Angelo's judgement of Claudio, but is loyal to the Duke's order to support Angelo.


A lord of Tyre and counselor to Helicanus in Shakespeare's Pericles. Helicanus tells him that the king of Antioch and his daughter have been killed by divine lightning.


Friend of Laertes and suitor to Statyra in the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune. He befriends the magician Urganda, who advises him to disguise himself as Bellveille. Summoned by his lady's jailor, he is in time to thwart a plot to drug her and marry her to Prelior. Urganda then punishes the conspiring rivals and fathers before restoring Statyra to him.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Pathomachia. Malice promises to be as trusty a counselor as was secretary Esconedo in eighty-eight.


Only mentioned in Shirley's The Witty Fair One. Aimwell mentions this ancient medico in an oath.
A "ghost character" in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. God of the healing arts. He restores Plutus' eyesight offstage when Chremylus, Carion, and Blepsidemus take the god of wealth to Esculapius' temple. Carion later recounts the healing to Chremyla and tells how snakes licked Plutus' eyelids before Esculapius dropped medicine in.
Only mentioned in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. Philautus refers to this ancient Greek medico, claiming that Faustina's ability to make him a better person exceeds that of Esculapius.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a virtuous man.

ESDRAS **1599

A “ghost character" in Ruggle’s Club Law. Though mentioned in the dramatis personae and in the text, he does not actually appear on stage. One of the twenty-four Electors for the Burgomastership. He is not at the roll call of electors and is fined.


The Esguard announces the arrival of Miranda and Norandine in the final scene of Fletcher's The Knight of Malta, and then ceremoniously strips the cross of Malta, as well as spurs and sword, from Mountferrat.


The two esquires in the anonymous King Edward III are English soldiers who rescue the wounded Audley at Poitiers.


A rich young widow in Shirley's The Brothers. She was formerly betrothed to Don Pedro, but he reneged on the contract in favour of Jacinta. Don Carlos hopes to secure her for his son, Luys, but Luys has no desire for marriage. Wishing to recover Don Pedro, Estefania exchanges clothes with Jacinta, and finds herself abducted by Alberto, another of Jacinta's suitors. She marries Alberto who falls conveniently in love with Estefania and forsakes Jacinta.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a virtuous woman.


One of Margarita's maids in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife. She uses her mistress' absence to seduce Michael Perez by pretending that Margarita's house belongs to her. A quick-thinking criminal, she continually gulls Michael into believing that she is honest despite her mistress' unexpected return. Her plans are dashed when she steals Michael's jewels and finds them to be fake. But the two are reconciled when she gulls Cacafogo into paying her for the jewels, and when Leon offers the couple lodgings in his household.


Humber's wife or concubine in the anonymous Locrine. Humber wants her to become Queen of Albion. When two soldiers bring her to Locrine, he immediately falls in love with her. She reluctantly accepts his proposal of marriage. But Locrine does not dare to leave or to divorce his wife, Gwendoline, as long as her father Corineus lives, and Corineus seems to live eternally. Estrild has to live in a cave covered with precious stones. After seven years, when Corineus has died and Gwendoline goes to her father's funeral in Cornwall, she can at last come to the palace together with Sabren, their daughter. But Gwendoline and her brother Thrasimachus have sworn revenge, they attack Locrine with their army, and Locrine loses the battle. He kills himself and Estrild follows him, using the same sword.


Alternate spelling for Estrild in the anonymous Locrine.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Isaiah as an example of a wicked king.


The elder of Oedipus' sons in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta, Eteocles has reneged on his agreement with Polynice that they would share the throne of Thebes, one serving as king for a year while the other went abroad, and then changing places, and as the play begins, having declined to yield the crown to Polynice, faces the threat of a foreign army at his gates with his brother at its head. At Jocasta's behest, he agrees to a parlay with Polynice at the city's gates, but curtly refuses ever to step down from the throne, and sends his brother back to the Greek camp with a shower of insults. In the ensuing battle the Greeks are repulsed; Eteocles chases them back to their trenches, and there meets Polynice to settle the quarrel in single combat: they kill each other.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Ethelred II, the Unready (978–1016 AD) was a king of England. He succeeded to the throne after the murder of his half-brother, Edward II, the Martyr, at the age of ten. His reign was plagued by poor advice from his personal favorites and suspicions of his complicity in Edward's murder. His was a rather long and ineffective reign, which was notable for little other than the payment of the Danegeld, an attempt to buy off the Viking invaders with money. When Truewit wants to persuade Morose to give up his intention of marriage, he says that silent and reliable women are hard to find these days. Truewit argues that, had they lived in King Ethelred's time, he might have found a dull frosty wench in some country hamlet that would have been content with one man only. As it is, Truewit says, women are libertine creatures, who would sooner be pleased with one leg or one eye than be satisfied with only one man. Truewit's allusion to King Ethelred's days is meant to emphasize events that might have happened in bygone times.
An alternative form for Egleredus in the anonymous Edmond Ironside.
After failing to rally his troops to the defense of Winchester in Brewer's The Lovesick King, Etheldred is killed by the Danes early in the play.


Ethelswick was Favorite to Osriick's father, but was replaced in Osriick's favor by Theodrick in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. After Osriick banishes Theodrick from the court, he summons Ethelswick so that he can again have a confidant. Osriick tries to convince Ethelswick to rule Northumbria himself, telling the people that Osriick is sick in bed while Osriick secretly leaves the court to pursue Mildred. Ethelswick is fearful that the people will suspect foul play if they do not see the King. Once Anthynus is offered as a substitute for Osriick, Ethelswick remains in Northumbria with Edelbert to watch over him. Eventually, he is forced out of the court by Eaufride and Theodwald.


Earl of Cornwall, Bishop Dunstan's nephew in the anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave. He is sent to woo Alfrida, Osrick's daughter, on the King's behalf. Before he sets out on his errand he decides to marry her himself and to tell the king that she is not fit for him. When he is invited to stay at Osrick's place, he confesses his love to Alfrida, and she consents to become his wife. Ethenwald then goes to King Edgar and tells him that Alfrida's face was "black" and that she was therefore only fit to serve an earl but not a king. The King asks him whether he loves her and he wishes him luck, but he intends to find out more. When Ethenwald hears that the King wants to visit him, he is afraid that King Edgar might fall in love with his wife and cuckold him. Osrick and Alfrida would like to present themselves in the best manner, but he forbids it. Kate, the kitchen maid, is made to wear Alfrida's dress and play the lady's role. But her manners and language betray her, and the King asks to see the kitchen maid. Alfrida then comes, dressed as a kitchen maid, and reveals her identity. The King tells Ethenwald that he is now his enemy. Dunstan raises the devil Asmoroth to prevent Edgar from killing his nephew. In the end, Ethenwald is forgiven.


Ethicus represents the branch of philosophy in Renaissance pedagogy and is the father of the other arts in Holiday's Technogamia. He holds a dinner party where Geographus, Geometres and Poeta become drunk trying to outdo each others' toasts to Astronomia. He also hosts the final party where all the couples are reconciled.


They appear in the dumb show in II.i of the Anonymous Locrine. They follow Phineus, drive Perseus away, and take Andromeda. Atey compares them to the Scythians.


Leogarius, king of Ireland's daughter in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland. After dancing, Ethne tells of her frustration at the lack of male company. Questions Rodamant, with mock seriousness, about his studies in devil management. Professing piety, she stays behind in the temple, really to have an amorous session with her lover, Endarius - she has previously asked Archimagus to help save the sons of Dichu, for her and her sister's enjoyment of them. When attending the blood sacrificing service, she takes advantage of her father's absence to meet with Endarius again. She is kissed by the invisible Rodamant, and baffled by the confused behaviour of the brothers, Endarius and Ferochus. She is left frustrated as events force her lover's hasty departure.


Ethusa is a "scornful lady" and sister of Panaretta in Mead's Combat of Love and Friendship. Theocles is in love with her but she is determined to reject his suit unless her sister Panaretta counsels her that she should. Panaretta will not do so until Lysander shows some love to her. Ethusa thus refuses to listen to Theocles until Lysander promises to woo Panaretta. Ethusa is also beloved of the poet Lamprias and the miles gloriosus Pisistratus who keep fighting over her. She has fun by ordering the miles gloriosus to woo her in rhyme, and the poet to woo her with valour. She then learns that Theocles has persuaded Artemone to reject Lysander; Panareta is so pleased that she counsels Ethusa to accept Theocles. Ethusa tells Lysander that she's beginning to yield to Theocles, but expects him to woo Panaretta in recompense. In the final scene, Ethusa is betrothed to Theocles, and she also observes the farcical contest of her other two suitors whom she then banishes indulgently.


The King of Arcady and Sylvia's presumed father in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday, Euarchus is actually the father of Thyrsis as well as Queen Eudora's widower who previously ordered Eubulus to kill his newborn child if it was male due to the daunting prophecy which was delivered to him near the time of his child's birth. At the play's beginning Mirtillus informs Thyrsis that Prince Euarchus has sent for the shepherds to attend him with sports merriment although, unbeknownst to them, he means to detect his daughter's love for one of the players. Despite the fact that he informs his "councillor" Eubulus that he means to treat Sylvia with an easier hand than he was wont for her escape from the court, he directs Eubulus to kill both her and her lover when Cleander reports his sighting of them in the garden. When Eubulus reveals to Euarchus Cleander's discovery that Thyrsis is the king's son, he reviews the riddled prophecy, examines the coded message around the shepherd's neck and, grateful to have his son returned to him, blesses the marriage of Thyrsis and Sylvia. Promising to reward Montanus well for his role in Thyrsis's rescue Euarchus invites the shepherds to a feast, asking them to create a play to celebrate the nuptials, which he will have proclaimed throughout his kingdom, and welcoming them to attend the temple with him to offer holy sacrifices to appease the gods.


King of Macedonia in Shirley's The Arcadia. Father of Pyrocles and uncle of Musidorus. In the last act he comes to visit Basilius, finds that the king is has been poisoned and is thought to be dead. He sits on Basilius' throne as he tries Gynecia, Pyrocles, and Misodorus for the murder. Not recognizing them, Euarchus sentences his disguised son and nephew to death and cannot recant when he discovers who they are.


Eubella is the daughter of Sebastian, a private gentleman who is repeatedly advanced as the duke courts Eubella in Shirley's Love's Cruelty. She steadfastly refuses to the duke's dishonorable advances and pledges to wed Hippolito, who has earned her love while wooing in the duke's name. Following Hippolito's death at the end of the drama, Eubella expresses joy that Hippolito loved her and receives a marriage offer from the duke.


Alternate spelling of Eubulus in Harrison's Philomathes' Second Dream.


Along with Arostus and Philander, a long-trusted counselor to King Gorboduc in Sackville and Norton's Gorboduc. He is the wisest of the three and argues against splitting the kingdom. When the king, queen, and princes are dead, he agrees that punishment must follow the murder of Porrex by his mother, but he fears the mob that has risen against the court. He advises the Dukes of Albany(Fergus), Cornwall (Clotyn), Cumberland(Gwenard), and Loegris (Mandud) to levy troops of horsemen, against which the rebellious mobs cannot compete. He describes the horrors and lawlessness of civil battle. The play ends with Eubulus' long lament that, without a lineal descendant, the country will only fall into civil strife and usurpation, which even Parliament cannot control. He claims that only God can ultimately restore order to the realm.


Eubulus is counselor to King Dionisius of Syracuse in Edwards's Damon and Pithias. When Carisophus falsely accuses Damon of spying, Eubulus observes that the accuser cannot prove his allegations. Eubulus pleads Damon's cause. He argues for the idea of the enlightened king, who rules through justice and mercy, as against the merciless tyrant, who is ultimately doomed to destruction. Eubulus warns the king against parasites and flatterers. He sympathizes with Pithias' case as well. Announcing that the day has come when Pithias must die in the place of Damon, Eubulus' supplications for Pithias reprieve have failed. Eubulus thinks Pithias' name will become immortal, engraved in the book of fame as a symbol of true friendship. While Eubulus laments Pithias' imminent death and admires his virtues, the Muses sing a funeral refrain. Eubulus thanks the Muses for their compassion with human grief. When Damon arrives at the last hour, and the two friends debate over which of them should be executed, Eubulus wonders at the power of true friendship. After King Dionisius' repentance, when he orders his new friends Damon and Pithias to be given due honors, Eubulus follows the king's instructions gladly. Eubulus beats Carisophus and calls him a plague of the court and a parasite. Eubulus states that the virtue of amity is the greatest gift of God to kings. In a closing speech, Eubulus prays the Lord that he should grant the noble Queen Elizabeth the best of friends. All characters join in a final praise of the Queen and her friends.


Eubulus in Harrison's Philomathes' Dream interprets the final part of Philomathes' allegorical dream, in which Polumathes appears at the pasture gate and is assured eventual entry. Eubulus understands the Polumathes episode to represent the students of St. Paul's school eagerly seeking to advance to the University. His interpretation develops into a general praise of the school (with a few suggestions for improvement) and closes the play. His speech also suggests how the other characters in the play could fulfill the potentials (or remedy the faults) for which they are named: "Theophilius might learn to love and fear the lord. Æmulus might follow with cheerfulness. Ephorus might abide the spur and Theopompus the bridle willingly. Philomathes might love to learn.Eubulus might give sound advice, and so in the end that Polumathes come forth as a furnished scholar." (The attribution of any lines to Eubulus is uncertain, however, since the speakers' names in this part of the play are often not given).
Eubulus opens Harrison's Philomathes' Second Dream by exchanging praise with Polumathes for exemplary scholarship and a disinclination to be involved in street business. He is an significant contributor to the collective interpretation of Philomathes' dream: he reads the people peeping through holes in the garden wall as common people prying into the affairs of the Master of the school; the plants, birds, beasts, and bees within the garden as young scholars "fructifying and growing by good instruction"; the central fountain with the white hind beside it as the school's founder, John Collet (whose coat of arms contains the same animal); and the virgin in the cloud as the school's patrons. At Philomathes' behest, Eubulus reviews the entire dream allegory in a lengthy speech near the end of the play, with a particular focus on defending the school's Master.


Eubulus, the King's acerbic councilor in Massinger's The Picture.


Euarchus's "councillor" and the father of Cleander and Sylvia in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday, Eubulus recognizes his son's love for the princess and, for this reason, informs Cleander that she is his sister rather than the daughter of the king. Prefacing his story with the fact that he "durst not For anything become a murderer," Eubulus reveals to his son the way in which Euarchus had ordered the counselor to kill the queen's newborn child if it was male in light of a daunting prophecy he had received at the time of his child's birth. Conspiring with the queen to save the child's life Eubulus switched his own child with hers, published his own daughter as dead, and, intending to deliver the baby to some plain honest man that would be careful of it, was surprised by thieves and forced to leave the child behind with an encoded circle around his neck explaining his true lineage. Although Euarchus informs his counselor that he means to treat Sylvia with an easier hand than he was wont for her escape from the court, he directs Eubulus to kill both her and her lover when Cleander reports his sighting of them in the garden. Again unwilling to become a murder, Eubulus chides Cleander for his rash honesty and considers confessing to the king that Sylvia is his own daughter despite the fact that he would lose his life. Leaving the matter to his apologetic son, who means to kill the shepherd, Eubulus is amazed but relieved to discover that Sylvia and Thyrsis have been married and that Thyrsis is actually Archigenes, the son of Euarchus and Eudora. After informing the overjoyed king of this discovery and reviewing the riddled prophecy and encoded message with him, Eubulus is instructed by Euarchus to "see That everything be fitted for [the shepherds'] honour" and accompanies them to the temple to offer holy sacrifices to appease the gods.

EUBULUS **1635

The supposed father of Seleucus in Shirley's Coronation, Eubulus has long carried a grudge against Arcadius' uncle Macarius, a grudge that the two men agree to dismiss when it appears that Arcadius and Seleucus might duel. Later, Eubulus plots with Cassander to establish a false claim to the throne for Seleucus. Thanks to the Bishop's testimony, Eubulus learns–along with everyone else–that Seleucus' claim to the crown is genuine.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Euclid is mentioned by Doctor Clyster, when he reveals Master Algebra's identity to Master Silence: "Dost not thou remember one Algebra that was the greatest plodder upon Aristotle and Euclid in all the college?" Euclid of Alexandria (c. 325-c. 265 B.C.) was the most outstanding mathematician of antiquity–he taught at Alexandria (Egypt)–author of a famous treatise on mathematics entitled The Elements.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. Euclid was a third-century BC Greek mathematician and teacher of geometry and arithmetic. It has been said that the Elements of Euclid is one of the most translated and published book in the western world. During a learned discussion between Tipto and Fly on the art of fencing, the former mentions the names of famous Spanish fencing masters, who devised the theory of the "mysterious circle." When Tipto asks Fly if his master practices the method of Don Lewis, Fly answers that he prefers the Greek master Euclid. Fly connects the Spanish fencing masters' theory of the circle with Euclid's geometry. Host intervenes in the discussion, adding ironically that Euclid is the only fencer of some repute, now in Elysium, where he played a prize last week with Archimedes. Host does not expect the limited Tipto to be aware of Euclid, not even of the fact that he was dead, and he ridicules Tipto's extensive but circumscribed knowledge of fencing and his poor intellect.


Eucolos is the fourth of the four brothers representing the four cardinal properties of decorum introduced by Mercury/Page as part of the Second Masque at Cynthia's revels in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. He is a mute character and is finally discovered to be Asotus in disguise. According to Mercury/Page, Eucolos is dressed in thin glittering metallic sheets, sparkling yet not gaudy. Eucolos represents good nature and can make every kindness seem double. His motto is "divae maximae" (the greatest goddess), and this attribute expresses Cynthia's greatness, which is formidable in heaven, earth, and hell. After having been introduced, the masques join in a dance. At the end of the revels, when Cynthia orders the characters to unmask, Eucolos appears as Asotus, who is punished together with the other nymphs and gallants.


Eucosmos is the first of the four brothers representing the four cardinal properties of decorum introduced by Mercury/Page as part of the Second Masque at Cynthia's revels in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. He is a mute character and is finally discovered to be Amorphus in disguise. According to Mercury/Page, the commendably fashioned gallant Eucosmos appears in a changeable blue and green robe and represents Elegance. His courtly habit is the grace of the presence and the ladies name him Neat and Elegant. His motto is "divae virgini" (virgin goddess), by which he expresses Cynthia's principal glory, that of virginity. After having been introduced, the masques join in a dance. At the end of the revels, when Cynthia orders the characters to unmask, Eucosmos appears as Amorphus, who is punished together with the other nymphs and gallants.


Memnon’s daughter, Hipparchus’ sister, beloved of the King of Sicily in Killigrew’s The Prisoners. She is taken captive by Procles. Whilst Pausanes fights the old soldier to release her, she runs away. She is nearly captured and throws herself upon the mercy of the king, who offers his love to her. She begs him to pursue Gillippus and redeem her sister Leucanthe. She also volunteers to tend to Pausanes’ wounds, for he redeemed her when she was in danger. After the shipwreck, she is referred to as the king’s queen. She is reunited with her father, Memnon, her uncle, Theagines, and discovers that Pausanes is her cousin and Hipparchus her brother.


Eudemus, a physician and follower of Sejanus in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall . He arranges the assignation between Sejanus and Livia, Drusus Senior's wife. He also mixes the poison that kills Drusus Senior. At the death of Sejanus, Sejanus' wife is reported to be ready to testify against Eudemus, Livia, and Lygdus.


Eudon is a courtier and the father of Bertha in the anonymous Charlemagne. He endorses the marriage of Bertha to La Busse despite the fall of Ganelon, and he helps La Busse to solve the riddle set to him by Charlemagne.


A newly widowed Countess who has vowed not to remarry in Chapman's The Widow's Tears. After Arsace tells her of Tharsalio's "unreasonable manhood" that can satisfy nine women in a night, she eventually marries Tharsalio instead of the more socially connected Rebus.


A "ghost character" in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday. Queen Eudora is the deceased wife of King Euarchus who conspired with Eubulus to save her son, Archigenes (known throughout the play as Thyrsis), whom the king doomed to death because of a daunting prophecy from the oracle who questioned her faithfulness to her husband. As Eubulus imparts to Cleander, the combination of the news of her son's abandonment in the woods and her weakness from the recent pregnancy caused her premature death.

EUDORA **1635

The princess and Timeus’ sister in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. Timeus tells her that she must not see the newly arrived prince, Clearchus, nor let him woo. She agrees to avoid him but refuses to behave in a proud or uncivil manner. In act four, when Pallantus and his rebels burst into her chamber, she is scornful of them and directly insults Pallantus. Her hot words enrage the rebel captain until Pallantus, accepting her words, orders all the soldiers from her room. While he is the ugliest creature she has ever seen, she is the loveliest he has beheld. When Pallantus offers her any service, she asks him to kill her. When he cannot, she takes a blade but he prevents her. She faints. Later, when Rodia reports that the rebels have taken peaceful possession of the country and revealed the true king, Eudora realizes that she was part of a corrupt usurpation and grieves at her blind acceptance of it. Pallantus returns to her having removed his ugly disguise. He seeks Eudora’s forgiveness by telling her that he worked only to avenge his own fallen king and murdered father. He shows her Timeus’ letter ordering Pallantus’ assassination and convinces her that his cause was just. When Pallantus redeems Timeus with the new king, he wins Eudora’s love.


Eudora is Ethusa's servingwoman in Mead's Combat of Love and Friendship. Ethusa flummoxes her by asking her to call for Lysander when he's already there.


The Empress and wife of Valentinian in Fletcher's Valentinian. After his death she obligingly marries Maximus but poisons the usurper during his inauguration ceremony. Threatened with death by the enraged army loyal to Maximus, she is defended by the noble Affranius and finally made Empress.


Also identified as Eudina in Brome's Love-Sick Court. Daughter to the King. She loves Philargus and Philocles equally and vows to marry no one if she cannot marry one of them. When the two brothers (following Justinius's interpretation of Apollo's oracle) vow not to let their love for Eudyna interfere with their friendship, she laments the fact that unless she is able to marry both brothers she will be unable to marry either. Thereupon, she faints and is carried to bed. When she recovers, she speaks with Philargus, who entreats her to marry Philocles. Instead, she determines to marry Philargus. Then she speaks with Philocles, who likewise entreats her to marry Philargus. She then determines to marry Philocles. When it appears she will be unable to make up her mind, her father announces that she will have to choose within five days or be forced to marry Stratocles. She asks Placilla to sing to her. During the song, she falls asleep and dreams that Philargus and Philocles are dueling. When she awakens, she meets with Philargus and tells him that she would kill herself if not for the fact that doing so would result in the election of the next king by the populace. She is captured by Stratocles who threatens to rape her (though he must prevent her from killing herself in order to do so), but she is rescued by Philargus, Philocles and six rustics. She pleads clemency for Stratocles and hopes he will reform. When she must finally decide who to marry, she vows to marry whichever one enters the room first. When Philargus's seemingly dead body is brought in, she vows her love to him. Eventually, her father convinces her to marry Philocles, but their marriage is postponed until Philocles can seek justice for his brother's murder. The marriage is ultimately interdicted by Themyle, who reveals that Philocles is Eudyna's sister. When Philargus revives, Eudyna marries him.

EUGENE **1635

Lysimella’s woman in Killigrew’s The Prisoners. She hides with her lady from the pirate pursuit. She appears in several scenes but does not add to the forward movement of the plot.


Countess Eugenia is a widow and a noble lady in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. She is wise and virtuous, enemy of excesses like eating and drinking. Despite being a woman, she is also a good scholar, which amazes her equals. She was also faithful to her husband until his death. Now, she is pretended by some suitors with whom she has supper in Act One. After that, she asks Wynnifred to go to call her uncle Lord Monford to cheer them up because Captain Fouleweather has depressed them. Thus, she is thinking about limiting the number of people that visit her house. However, before going to bed, she asks Jack to invite Captain Fouleweather to accompany her in a trip to Barnet next day in the morning. Meanwhile, she is visited by her uncle, who asks her to write a letter to Clarence and to come to his house. She makes his uncle promise her that he is not trying to make the two youngsters meet. She paints herself in white because she thinks that a pale face makes a heart move. Finding out that it is love for her what is killing Clarence, she accepts the noble gentleman at the end of the play.


Eugenia, a virtuous lady and wife to Alvarez, has raised her son Lucio as a woman in Fletcher, Beaumont, and Massinger's, Love's Cure. She fails in her attempt to marry her daughter to Sayavedra. In the end, she forces her husband to stop the duel by promising to endanger her life, as well as Clara's and Genevora's. Just before the duel between Alvarez and Vitelli, Eugenia calls for Bobadilla to enter with two swords and a pistol. She informs the men that, for every blow rendered, Bobadilla will administer the same on the women. This forces Alvarez to call a truce.


Eugenia is the wife of the Governor of Barcelona in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. When Mark-Antonio sees her walking in the streets, veiled, his is determined to see her face, and accosts her, thereby starting a near riot, despite her protests. When Mark-Antonio, wounded, is brought to the Governor's house. At first, he is ashamed of his lust, but that quickly passes and he attempts to seduce her. To repay him, Eugenia has Leocadia (still disguised as a page) convince him that he is about to die. Once both Leocadia and Theodosia have revealed themselves, and Mark-Antonio has repented his broken engagement to the latter, Eugenia reveals that he is in no danger. When Alphonso and Sanchio are arrested and brought to the Governor's house, still quarrelling, it is Eugenia who reconciles them. She agrees that they will be given the chance to duel, but they must duel according to Caranza's rules, who was her kinsman. She has Alphonso bound in a chair so that he has no advantage over Sanchio, and gives them each a pistol. She then has Theodosia and Leocadia stand between them, and declares that if they wish to fight, the fathers must fire at each other through their daughters. Of course, they cannot, and Eugenia declares that they must be friends.


Eugenia is the nineteen-year-old second wife of old Lisander in Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law. She hates being married to an old man. When the Old Law is announced, Simonides and the other Courtiers woo her in anticipation of Lisander's execution. When talking with her cousin Hippolita, Eugenia pretends to be sad about Lisander's fate, and Hippolita, taking pity on her, tells her about the lodge where she and Cleanthes have hidden old Leonides When Cleanthes later rails against her for being a strumpet, Eugenia gets her revenge by telling Evander where Leonides is hiding. At the end of the play, Lisander is taken away to his death, and Eugenia prepares to marry Simonides. But then Evander reveals that the Old Law was only a fiction. He makes a new law, to be judged by Hippolita, under which women like Eugenia who design their husband's death may not remarry for ten years afterward.


Eugenia is the assumed identity of Guyamara in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy.


"Andrucho's" (Count Aribert's) daughter in Wilson's The Swisser, who is thought to be dead. She adopts an assumed a new identity and calls herself Eurinia. (See "EURINIA" for complete description).


Eugenia is Sir John Woodhamore's niece in Shirley's Changes. She supposedly hasn't smiled in the ten months since she turned aside Yongrave's courtship. Using Yongrave as her messenger, Eugenia sends a desperate love letter to Thornay, and she urges Yongrave to learn to love Chrysolina. By the play's ending masque, Eugenia has wed Thornay.


Eugenia is the daughter of the Duke of Mantua in Shirley's The Bird in a Cage. Philenzo (Rollyardo) is her lover. She grudgingly assents to imprisonment by her father while he negotiates her marriage to the Prince of Florence. For diversion, she and her attendants enact the story of Jupiter and Danaë, Eugenia taking the role of Danaë. The arrival of a large birdcage concealing Philenzo interrupts the enactment. When the duke condemns Philenzo to death, Eugenia gives him a potion that makes him appear dead already, thus avoiding execution. After the Duke of Florence withdraws from marriage negotiations, Eugenia gains her father's consent to marry Philenzo.

EUGENIA **1635

A character in the poet’s play in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. She is said to enter her scene dying.


A "ghost character" in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. One of the ladies involved in the rebellion but who never appears on stage.


Eugenia, wife of King Philip and mother of Fernando, Isabella and Prince Philip in the anonymous Lust's Dominion. She begins the play as old Philip's unfaithful queen. At her husband's death, when her son Fernando becomes king, she becomes Queen Mother. The Moor Eleazar is her lover or male concubine as the play opens, but recently their liaison has become too well known. When she visits him in I.i he insults her and tries to break off their relationship. She must return to the Royal Palace through a secret passage when her dying husband asks for her. When her son, Prince Philip arrives, he calls his mother a Moor's concubine. When Mendoza banishes Eleazar and King Fernando reinstates the Moor, Mendoza swears revenge. He and Eleazar draw their swords, but Eugenia makes peace between her two lovers. Eleazar asks her whether she would be prepared to kill her own son for him—she says that she is, but asks which one. As part of her revenge, she has the two friars spread the news that her son Philip is a bastard. While her lover Eleazor is away chasing Philip and Mendoza, Eugenia plots to kill Maria who stands between her and Eleazar. Together with Alvero and other courtiers she plans to surprise her in the arms of her son Fernando. When they enter the room, however, they find both Maria and Fernando unconscious. They think that she has killed Fernando and determine to strangle her, but he is only asleep while Maria herself is dying from the poison she has consumed. Eleazar holds Fernando responsible for his wife's death and kills the King. A new King has to be chosen, but Eugenia has seen to it that Philip has been proclaimed a bastard and traitor and cannot therefore assume the crown. Eleazar offers himself, supported by Eugenia, the Queen Mother. When Eleazar seems to lose the battle against Philip, the Queen Mother seduces the Cardinal Mendoza and brings him back to her camp. She has Eleazar come, and the two men make peace again. Eleazar promises to lay down the crown and arrange for Mendoza to marry the Queen Mother and become King. Once Philip is arrested, Eleazar abdicates, and Mendoza asks for a new election. The Queen Mother is requested to tell the name of Philip's father, presumably that he might marry her and legalize the offspring. But the lords have other ideas and decide that he should die whoever he is, Spaniard or Moor. The Queen Mother swears that Mendoza had raped her while her husband had been in Barbary. Believing this to be part of the plot, Mendoza confesses his guilt and offers to marry her. Eugenia, however, insists on justice and revenge, claiming the throne for herself. Eleazar treacherously votes for Isabella and has the Queen Mother arrested together with Hortenzo, Philip and the Cardinal. She and the others are placed in chains as Eleazar's prisoners. He plans to have them all killed. Isabella manages to set them free by bribing the guard Zarack. Zarack kills Baltasar and sets Philip and Hortenzo free. Philip kills Zarack and with Hortenzo sets the other prisoners free and kills Eleazar. After Philip accedes to the crown, Eugenia protests that she wishes to go to some solitary residence and repent.


Eugenie, sister of Francisco in Massinger's The Duke of Milan.


Enters after Irisdision's speech on holy meditation in the anonymous Johan The Evangelist and criticizes his "pope holiness." When Irisdision tells him he will not be saved, he asks Irisdision to show him the way to reach Holy Zion or salvation. Eugenio agrees to forsake the path to hell, but wants to talk of mirth instead. After Irisdision exits, Eugenio dismisses his advice, renaming him Witless Sir Will because "his brayne is stedfast as a wyndemill." Eugenio suggests a better way to protect himself is with a wench in his arms, especially if she is another man's wife, since cuckold-makers have merrier lives than husbands. Eugenio ends his address by observing that married women will be unfaithful despite the danger of damnation, and that young people should remember that lechery is a deadly sin. Re-enters after St. Johan's sermon and discusses Iridision's advice with Actio. Eugenio claims he was almost persuaded to give up his wealth, but agrees with Actio that pleasure in this world is more important. He also expresses a desire to hear St. Johan's next sermon. Later, meets up with Actio and stays to listen to St. Johan's parable. After St. Johan's speech, Actio and Eugenio both vow to repent and follow St. Johan's doctrine.

EUGENIO **1615

Pandolfo’s son in Tomkis’ Albumazar. He loves Flavia, the girl his father intends to marry and is best friends with her brother Lelio. He agrees to assist in Cricca’s plot to beat and drive away the false Antonio when he appears. Later, he conspires with the real Antonio and the other young lovers and wins Flavia in marriage.


Disguised as a poor scholar named Irus for most of May's The Heir. Son and true heir to Polymetes, and brother to Leucothoë. In Athens he hears false reports of his death, circulated by his own father to entrap greedy wooers into courting his sister, who is now believed to be sole heiress of their father's fortune. He returns home in disguise to bring his father news that Eugenio still lives (and find out why he is supposed to be dead). As 'Irus,' he assures his sister's choice in husband and reveals his father's mercenary machinations. Revealing himself at the end, he is congratulated by the king and allowed to marry the king's niece, Leda. See IRUS.


Fellow soldier and friend to Lysicles in Berkeley's The Lost Lady. Loves Hermione, who also loves him, but he has been banished from Thessaly for having attacked Ergasto, a fellow rival in the race to win Hermione's love. Being called back from exile he learns that Hermione has been presumably suited by Lysicles and is about to marry Ergasto. In his confusion, he vows to revenge his love, later trying to commit suicide by having Lysicles kill him, but learns that Lysicles suited Hermione on his behalf, and finally becomes engaged to her. He succeeds Arimon as governor of Thessaly.


Eugenius, Bishop of Carthage, is one of the Christian prisoners captured by the Vandals in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier. He astonishes the army by curing a blind man, a miracle that inspires Bellizarius's conversion. In prison, an Angel appears and tells Eugenius to heal King Henrick so that he will set the Christians free. Eugenius is taken to Henrick, who believes that bathing in the blood of a Christian will cure his wound. Eugenius offers to cure Henrick in return for his release of all the Christians and his conversion. Henrick agrees, but, once cured, he revokes his offer, and orders Eugenius to be stoned to death. Eugenius is saved when the stones miraculously turn "as soft as sponges."


The true name of Lysander, lost when he was brought up as an Egyptian in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer.


Arviragus's "Cosen" in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. Eugenius is the father of Guiderius and Artemia whose loyalties shift throughout the play. Initially Arviragus's friend and a "Leader" in his army who advises him to "quit the Court" and "claim [his] double right of inheritance, and promise," Eugenius is won over by the King's "assurance of a double marriage betwixt [their] children," made his "Generall," and is referred to by him as "Prince of Pictland." For not fulfilling his promise that he would either slay Arviragus or be killed, the King "pronounce[s]" his "actions" in battle "treasons to th'state" and means to "strike off his head" until Sinatus speaks for him. Eugenius chides himself for not slaying the King "in the midst of all his scornes" and is horrified to learn of Artemia's near ravishment by Guimantes. At the play's end Eugenius is apprehended along with Sinatus for the part which Adrastus claims they had in the murder of the King and, at Guimantes's order that he be sent "to the Prison" where "torture shall force [he and Sinatus] to confesse," he expresses regret over betraying Arviragus.
Arviragus's "Cosen" and the father of Guiderius and Artemia in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Eugenius is imprisoned at the play's beginning for his supposed involvement in the former King's murder. His life is sued for by Artemia (who promises to haunt Guimantes forever if Eugenius is killed) and, in order to "remove all possibility of doubt how much [he] love[s] [her]," the King agrees to set Eugenius and Sinatus free from prison (although he does not do so until later in the play when Artemia begs again for "justice to [her] father and Sinatus"). He sends Artemia a letter meant to "incite [her] to a full revenge, for all [hers] and [her] fathers wrongs," and (although Sinatus warns the King of Eugenius's hatred) he is appointed as Guimantes's "substitute [. . .] touching the Government and safety of the City." Furthermore, he chides "the two that mockt him in his disgrace" for flattering him when he comes into good fortune, concocts a plan by which he and Artemia may "leave the City," and instructs his daughter to follow him and not to love or "trust" the King. His escape is leaked to Guimantes via the Lord and Sinatus and, after receiving Arviragus's forgiveness for his previous disloyalties, Eugenius discovers that the King (in disguise) had accompanied he and his daughter in their flight from the city. At the play's end he makes amends with the King and consents to Guimantes's marriage to Artemia.


Presented by the King to the new General in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. Eugenius, the Captain ensures the Lord that he and the other captains will "execute what [he] command[s]."


Only mentioned in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. 2 Pageant-maker claims that Artemia will bear "warlike Princes" for the "noble grandsire."


A "ghost character" in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. The mother of Guiderius and Artemia, Eugenius reminds his son that he has not seen his mother for years in order to entice him to play the role of Arviragus's messenger rather than accompany the General into battle. Furthermore, after Eugenius joins forces with the King, he claims that he would have brought the Ruler his wife but "a sudden sicknesse hindred."


Eugenua is a lady at Sapho's court in Lyly's Sapho and Phao.


Nephew to Sir Argent Scrape in May's The Old Couple. He is in love with Artemia and on the run for the murder of Scudmore. The circumstances of Scudmore's presumed death and miraculous survival are never fully clarified. Extenuating circumstances surrounding the "murder" are hinted at and Eugeny's grief and repentance for his guilt are stressed. He is believed by some characters to have fled the country but is reluctant to leave his beloved Artemia. He is in hiding in a forest, pining away with lover's melancholy and despair, his whereabouts initially only known to his loyal friend, Theodore. He risks the danger of capture and death to visit Artemia. His only hope is in the honest dealing of his uncle (and heir), Sir Argent, who could apparently clear his name. His clandestine reunion with Artemia allows them to renew their lovers' vows of devotion; he also advises her to employ Theodore as a go-between. Alone in his hiding-place, Eugeny gives way to despair and complains bitterly to Fortune. He compares himself to a religious hermit, happy in solitude. He laments over his 'foul crime" and grieves over the suffering he has caused Artemia. He is afraid of forfeiting his life to justice for her sake. Theodore attempts to encourage him by advising moderation, but brings bad news. Eugeny's uncle is in reality secretly laying traps to capture him, and offering bribes to corrupt justice to ensure Eugeny's execution and his own inheritance. Eugeny is devastated by this betrayal of kinship, unnatural and vicious, and Theodore laments with him for the loss of the golden age of virtue and family values. A sweet, sad song in the forest interrupts them. Eugeny is struck by its melancholy beauty; Theodore goes to investigate. He reports the sight of a lady as fair as her voice and Eugeny is appalled to recognise Matilda, the tragic lover of the man he killed. Before Theodore's other business with his father and cousin allow him to visit Eugeny again he is arrested by Officers. Although he faces death, he does not blame them for doing their job. It is clear that he has been betrayed by an agent of his uncle, but is unaware of this. He begs to be allowed to visit Sir Argent on the way to prison and also asks to be allowed to see Theodore. He does not want to distress Artemia further by meeting her as a prisoner. Before his request can be determined, both Artemia and Theodore arrive, too late to warn him to escape. She swoons. Eugeny tries to comfort her. The urgency of his peril becomes clear. The Assizes are imminent and he has very little time to prepare his defense, although Euphues will also be trying to help. Eugeny is brought to Lady Covet's to meet the other characters. He reproaches Sir Argent and warns him of the shame he has earned by his betrayal. Instead of fraudulently increasing his wealth at the expense of his kinsman's life, at his age he should be using his existing fortune to do good works in the community. This fierce denunciation causes Sir Argent to repent. Eugeny bids farewell to his friends and is about to be taken to trial when "Fruitful" arrives with news that Lady Covet's fortune is safe. Subsequently revealing himself to be Scudmore, his reappearance absolves Eugeny who is free to marry Artemia amidst great general rejoicing. Euphues welcomes him as a cousin in marriage as well as a friend. Note: there is no connection between this character and the similarly named Eugenio of May's The Heire.


Philogonus' first born and Misogonus' twin brother in (?)Johnson's Misogonus. Eugonus was sent by Alison immediately after his birth to live with his dead mother's brother. No one but Alison, Isbell, and Madge know of Eugonus' existence and only Alison knows his whereabouts until the secret is revealed by Codrus twenty-four years after the twins are born. Philogonus sends for Eugonus, declares the young man his heir, and rebuffs Misogonus' effort to displace his brother. Eugonus' likeness to his dead mother and possession of a sixth toe confirms him as Phologonus' child.

EULALIA **1550

A neighbour of Xantippe in the anonymous Nice Wanton. She encourages Xantippe to exercise more control over Ismael and Dalilah but to no avail.


Gonzago's faithful queen in Brome's The Queen and Concubine. She is falsely accused of adultery with Sforza when the King desires to replace her with Alinda. Put on trial, she sets an example of meekness and obedience that excites sympathy in many of the courtiers and suspicion in Alinda. Alone in the wilderness, she bears her banishment stoically and lives in harmony with nature. Falling asleep, she is given a vision of the recent court events by her Genius, who also confers upon her the gifts of prophecy, healing, and poetry. She meets and recognizes Lodovico and Andrea in spite of their disguises, chides them for disobeying the King, and refuses the food they offer her. Upon learning from some refugees that her idyllic ancestral homeland, Palermo, is said by priests to be cursed by a plague because of the Queen's supposed sin, she resolves to go there and do what she can to help its inhabitants, curing the refugees first. When Fabio and Strozzo arrive to assassinate her and the Cryer publishes the King's proclamation ordering her death, she admits to the Cryer and Curate that she is the Queen. Touched by her honesty, they order the assassins arrested, promising to conceal her identity. After curing all of Palermo of the plague, she then proposes to work for a living, so that no one can be found guilty of aiding her. When the Palermians attempt to execute Fabio and Strozzo, she prevents them and wins the loyalty of the two attempted assassins. After the rest of the Palermian countrymen discover her true identity, she urges them for their safety to forget her former title and then turns her attention to instructing the local girls in needlework, reading, writing, and music. Approached by the Doctor and Midwife in the guise of suffering pilgrims, she instantly recognizes them as her false accusers and prevents their attempt to murder her. When Flavello, disguised as "Alphonso," delivers a forged letter that tells of a conspiracy to murder Alinda and restore Eulalia, she sees through the ruse and orders him held along with the other conspirators from court. Loath to allow a possible attempt on Alinda's life in her name, she proposes to go to court to warn her, but her friends in Palermo urge her not to go. She is joyously reunited with her son, Prince Gonzago, spirited back to her by Pedro. At the news of the King and Alinda's approach, she prays to be able to cure Alinda of her madness, warns Alinda of the plot against her, and admonishes her to make her three requests of King Gonzago wisely. After Alinda's treachery is exposed, Eulalia is re-embraced by King Gonzago as his Queen, and quickly pardons Flavello and the other conspirators against her. She begs Gonzago to pardon Alinda as well, promising that she's been cured of her frenzy, and, after securing Gonzago's promise to pardon Petruccio, reveals that their son, Prince Gonzago, is alive.


Also spelled Evelinus in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. A kinsman ("nephew") of Androgeus. He is a courtier, like his best friend Hirildas, and deeply in love with Landora, but Landora is in love with Hirildas, whereas Hirildas is in love with Cordella and does not care for Landora. To please his friend, Hirildas forces Rollano, Landora's servant, to let Eulinus as "Hirildas" into her room at night. Eulinus then spends the night with her. During the celebration of their victory against the Romans, Androgeus and Themantius start a fencing match. Hirildas and Eulinus fight as well, and Hirildas gets accidentally killed before the eyes of his uncle, Cassibelane. In his anger, Cassibelane declares that Eulinus should be executed for this, whereas Androgeus maintains that Eulinus as his own kinsman should have a fair trial by the laws of Troynovant. Eulinus wants to commit suicide because he has killed his best friend in jest, but he is hindered by his kinsmen and taken away. When he hears later that his love Landora has killed herself - either because of Hirildo's death or because of the raging civil war–he kills himself, too.


The lady-in-waiting and confidante of Princess Lucasia in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant; her sensible advice saves the kingdom of Cyprus. She pretends to be fully involved in the rebellion and gives advice that in fact undoes it. She tells Machessa, the lady-errant of the title—who has been given custody of the treasure raised by the ladies—to send it to the Cretan army instead. Without their treasure, the plot inevitably fails. Eumela serves as the voice of reason and moderation in the play, as when she suggests that Florina and Malthora—two ladies who lament the absence of their husbands at war—are perhaps overdoing their grief, or when she tries to talk sense to Lucasia or the women-plotters. She is in love with Olyndus.


The fair favorite of Davenant's The Fair Favorite. Beloved of the King before his marriage, she encourages him to treat the Queen kindly and prays that his marriage may be happy. The favors lavished on her by the King and her considerable political influence have given her an undeserved bad reputation with many people, not the least of which is her brother Oramont. She continually protests her innocence and tries to use her influence for good purposes. In her meeting with Amadore, she finds herself becoming fond of him, bears her summary dismissal by the King with patience, and marries Amadore at the end of the play.


A soldier and friend to Memnon in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. Eumenes reports the general's victory over the usurper Diocles, and when Memnon falls into love madness over the princess Calis, he joins Stremon and the two Captains (Polybius and Pelius) in attempting to cure the general by means of a tryst with the unnamed Whore.

EUMENES **1635

A Sicilian general in Killigrew’s The Prisoners. On the battlefield, Zenon unmasks to reveal to Eumenes that he is in fact Pelius. He insists that Eumenes make good his wooing of the fair Zenonia, but when Eumenes will not they fight and Eumenes falls.


Endymion's friend, in love with Semele in Lyly's Endymion. He attempts to dissuade Endymion from feeding upon his fancies in his desire to love the moon. He brings news to Cynthia that Endymion is under a spell from which he cannot awaken. Cynthia sends him to Thessaly in search of a remedy for Endymion's curse. He comes upon Geron in his travels who shows him a magic fountain, into which a true lover may weep and see the answer to his one question. Eumenides does not know whether to ask for a cure for Endymion or a lesson in winning Semele. He decides to save Endymion, for friendship is more rare than love. He learns that Cynthia may rid his friend of the sleeping curse.


Eumenides is a knight and the lover of Delia in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale. In seeking her, he is counseled by Erestus to give all he has. When he does so in paying for the funeral of Jack, he earns the help of the Ghost of Jack in destroying the sorcerer Sacrapant and releasing all of the magician's victims.


Only mentioned in Goffe’s Orestes. Aegystheus calls upon Venus and the Eumenides to support his vengeance.


Eumorphe (called Irene in the "Argument" of Goffe's The Courageous Turk) is the Greek captive with whom Amurath is in love. Glad to have escaped from bondage, Eumorphe is continually fearful that her position might change at any time. After Amurath is prodded to forsake her in favor of a life in battle, she is beheaded by him in front of the chief Turkish captains as a sign that he will forgo all pleasures to pursue his military destiny.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. Eunoe was a queen loved by Caesar. Cleopatra describes her as a Moor and deformed, thus showing that Caesar is attracted to royalty as much or more than to beauty.


The Eunuch in Markham's Herod and Antipater is in service to Alexandra, Queen Marriam's mother, but also is a spy for Salumith, the sister of King Herod. He offers false testimony to Herod against Alexandra.


Two Egyptian Eunuchs inform the Soldan that Miranda has escaped in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. The angry Soldan orders them to be tortured to death for their negligence.

EUNUCHS **1637

In Carlell’s Osmond, Haly suggests to the king that his eunuchs be employed to teach Depina how to serve the king. The eunuch summons Osmond for Despina. Another eunuch is sent from Calibeus pretending to be from Ozaca to warn Orcanes not to walk before her window lest Calibeus see him.


Eunuchus is a eunuch in Timoclea's service by the command of Mulleasses in Mason's Mulleasses. Eunuchus was born free in Cyprus. When his city was sacked by the Turks, Eunuchus was orphaned, enslaved and made into a eunuch. Timoclea's husband Borgias has bribed Eunuchus into serving the Florentine governor's interests. Eunuchus is directed by Borgias to find a corpse to bury in Timoclea's tomb. Eunuchus decides upon the traveler Bordello as his target. The eunuch convinces Bordello to visit Timoclea's chambers, but directs him instead to Borgias's room. Eunuchus believes he is not guilty of murder, since his killings are the result of a direct order by his superior. Borgias directs Eunuchus to summon Mulleasses to Florence. While chasing Bordello through the castle with Timoclea, Eunuchus is fatally stabbed by a wandering and startled Ferarra. Eunuchus dies complaining about the senselessness of his demise. Ferrara then assumes Eunuchus' attire as a disguise before being stabbed to death himself.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's Brazen Age. Eupalemon is a Greek lord killed by the Caledonian boar.


Eupathes is the second of the four brothers representing the four cardinal properties of decorum introduced by Mercury/Page as part of the Second Masque at Cynthia's revels in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. He is a mute character and is finally discovered to be Hedon in disguise. According to Mercury/Page, Eupathes is dressed in a robe of purple embroidered with gold and represents Opulence. He is a gallant who, without excess, can dress richly in embroideries, jewels, and other ornaments. People generally think he is of fine humor. His motto is "divae optimae" (the best goddess), and this attribute expresses Cynthia's goodness, in which she resembles her father Jove. After having been introduced, the masques join in a dance. At the end of the revels, when Cynthia orders the characters to unmask, Eupathes appears as Hedon, who is punished together with the other nymphs and gallants.


Philogonus' friend in (?)Johnson's Misogonus. Eupelas, tries to persuade Misogonus to mend his wild ways. Misogonus rejects Eupelas' entreaties, and Eupelas retreats when threatened by Misogonus' attendants, Oenophilus and Orgelus. Eupelas returns with Philogonus who threatens to disown the back-talking Misogonus, but the father is rebuffed by his son and his son's disrespectful friends.


An angelically tempered Corinthian gentleman and solider, the younger brother of Crates in Fletcher's Queen of Corinth. He is in love with the heiress Beliza, who has helped to fund his highly successful military expeditions after the cruel and greedy Crates refused to do so. Beliza introduces Euphanes to the Queen of Corinth, who becomes extremely attached to him and promotes him to a position of prominence at court. Nevertheless, Euphanes scorns to become arrogant; he repays Conon's friendship with favours, is polite and humble to all and refuses to rise to the insults paid him by his brother's cronies. When Crates stirs up trouble between Euphanes and Prince Theanor, Euphanes encourages the Queen of Corinth to favour her son's cause over his own. Instead, she decides to grant his request to be allowed to marry Beliza. In the process she unwittingly creates trouble for Euphanes by giving him the raped Merione's ring (deliberately presented to her for this purpose by the rapist, Theanor) as a bride-gift for Beliza. This gift convinces Agenor and Leonidas that Euphanes is Merione's rapist, and when the Queen refuses to believe this they take her son Theanor hostage in order to force her to give up her favourite. Seeing that the Queen will save his life rather than her son's, Euphanes nobly presents himself unarmed before the incensed Agenor and Leonidas to encourage them to set Theanor free. He convinces them of his innocence and reconciles them to the Queen. When he finds his friend Conon duelling with Crates, he sides with his brother despite their quarrels and is reconciled to him, as Conon had hoped. Crates tells Euphanes about Theanor's past sins and present designs on Beliza's virginity, upon which Euphanes concocts a plan to trap Theanor. Through his agency, Merione agrees to masquerade as Beliza and is once again raped by Theanor. Euphanes' apparent grief at the despoiling of his bride-to-be helps to bring about Theanor's trial and repentance, after which Euphanes and Beliza are at last free to marry.


Euphantaste is the third virgin introduced by Cupid/Anteros as part of the First Masque at Cynthia's revels in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. She is a mute character and is finally discovered to be Phantaste in disguise. According to Cupid/Anteros, Euphantaste appears in a discolored mantle and symbolizes well-conceited wittiness. Her emblem is a crescent upon a Mercurial hat. The motto is "sic laus ingenii" (thus is the praise of talent), implying that the praise and glory of wit increases as does the crescent moon. At the end of the revels, when Cynthia orders the characters to unmask, Euphantaste appears as Phantaste, who is punished together with the other nymphs and gallants.


Identified as Euphalus in the Dramatis Personae in Brome's Love-Sick Court. An attendant to the King. He presents the four rustics to the King in the first scene. In the forth act, he brings news that Stratocles has been prevented from raping Eudyna. In the fifth act he brings the King news of Philargus's poisoning.


Euphemia is the duchess of Parma, wed to but neglected by Dionisio Farnese in Shirley's The Duke's Mistress. She notes how courtiers now ignore her, believing that their lack of attention and respect results from a fear of the duke's anger. Recognizing the duke's infatuation with Ardelia, she approaches the duke and asks to die; she is remanded into the custody of Leontio, who claims to love her but who is killed near the play's end before he can force himself upon her. Euphemia and the duke are reconciled when the duke repents his treatment of her.


Alternate spelling of Ephorus in Harrison's Philomathes' Second Dream.


Euphranea is a rather typical ingenue of the period in Ford's The Broken Heart. She is true to her vow to her brother, Orgilus, that she will not marry without his consent. Thus, he gives his consent, and she marries Prophilus. Her name means "joy."


Euphrasia is the daughter of Lord Dion in Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster, or Love Lies A-Bleeding. For most of the drama takes the role and disguise of the male page Bellario. Revealing herself at the play's finish, Euphrasia swears both an undying love for Philaster and a future celibacy. She is warmly accepted into the service of Philaster and his bride Arethusa.


Supposed father of Aristocles, and counselor of Philander in the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace. He advises the banished Aristocles to seek his fortune in the war between the Epirots and the Achaeans.


Daughter of the Duke of Saxony in the anonymous Costly Whore, Euphrata hides her lover Constantine in her closet. When Montano discovers him there, he informs the Duke; she pretends that Montano has planted the younger man there to dishonor her. She seizes the Duke's wish to marry Valentia as warrant for her marrying Constantine. Captured and condemned to death, she delivers to Constantine petitions from the poor against Alfrid and Hatto. Julia and Otho help the young couple to escape, but in vain; her body is presented to the Duke as having drowned during the escape. But she is, in fact, alive, and can now marry the less-than-aristocratic Constantine.


Servant of Cleopatra [her children's teacher] in May's Cleopatra. He carries her message of capitulation to Caesar after Actium. He informs Caesar that the defeated Antonius has taken himself off to live like the misanthrope Timon.


A lady of the court in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. She appears in the scene in which Princess Aspasia and Prince Doricles are introduced, but has no assigned lines.


A Lord and long-time enemy of Polymetes for reasons which are never explained in May's The Heir. Father to Philocles and a younger son, Lysandro, long believed dead in a shipwreck. Euphues is much talked of by Polymetes, but not seen until late in the story. He appears before the King to beg mercy for Philocles, arraigned on the capital charge of abducting an heiress. He accurately accuses Polymetes of acting on malice, but is unable to persuade the King to clemency. Euphues is moved and impressed by the appearance and the words of his son's beloved Leucothoë, who is then left alone to plead with the King. The King is deranged by frustrated lust for her, swears a solemn oath not to grant a pardon, but is shamed back to his senses by Euphues's loyalty in adversity. He makes a dignified exit from the court, in contrast to the persistent gloating of Polymetes. He is next seen reunited with Alphonso, arriving at his long-lost son's wedding to bring the happy news of Francisco's true identity and the tragic news of Philocles's likely death-sentence. He attends his son's trial and grants Polymetes the forgiveness he asks, even before Eugenio contrives to produce revelations that release his son from danger.


Freeman's nephew, cousin to Artemia and friend to Scudmore (supposedly slain by Eugeny) in May's The Old Couple. A witty, intelligent and inquisitive gentleman, he is an outspoken satirist of the vices and foibles of the neighborhood. He readily agrees to his cousin Artemia's mysterious request that he should arrange a meeting between her and the unknown Theodore. He indulges his curiosity that she may be consulting an astrologer or conducting a secret romance and decides to investigate her secret business in order to protect her. He sends Theodore a letter to propose the meeting she has requested. He accompanies Freeman to Lady Covet's betrothal celebrations, but reveals his disapproval of her. After a topical satirical tirade on Bishops, he supplies the information that Lady Covet's avarice and lack of conscience previously led her to cheat his friend Scudmore out of his fortune before his presumed death. Later, Euphues and Barnet discuss the successful progress of Dotterel's pursuit of Lady Whimsey. Euphues remarks that unlike the other mercenary characters, his cousin Artemia is likely only ever to marry for true love; this reminds him of his promise to meet Theodore. He is forestalled by the entrance of the bride and groom, carried in by servants, as they are both too lame to walk. He and Barnet hide behind the hangings to eavesdrop the grotesque couple and make witty remarks at their expense. They also overhear confirmation of Sir Argent's vicious plot against Eugeny, which disgusts them both and which determines Euphues to try to come to the rescue of his cousin's beloved. He is not fooled by Artemia's story of being an old friend of Theodore, having cleverly worked out their mutual connection to Eugeny. He encourages her to confide in him and promises to do all in his power to help. Back at Lady Covet's, Euphues with the other guests witnesses the furious quarrel between the bridge and groom over Lady Covet's pre-nuptial deed of conveyance of her estates to trustees. They are all impressed by Fruitful's handling of the situation, but Euphues is most full of praise for the Chaplain's wit. Lady Covet's repentance, when she is suddenly deprived of her fortune, moves him to pity. When all problems and threats are happily resolved, Euphues is delighted to welcome Eugeny as a cousin in marriage as well as a friend.


A "ghost character" in Chapman's All Fools. The unnamed Prologus refers to Eupolis and Cratinus, a playwright contemporary to Aristophanes, as models. The Prologus argues that their satiric style is no longer appreciated, even though satire is wittier and less obscene than current comic styles.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Mitis asks Cordatus about the comedy they are about to see, whether its author observes the classical rules regarding the unity of time, place, and action, Cordatus embarks upon a lengthy and learned incursion into the history of comedy. According to Cordatus, Eupolis added more characters to the structure of comedy. Eupolis was an Athenian poet of the Old Comedy. Horace ranks him, along with Cratinus and Aristophanes, as the greatest writer of his school. He was reputed to equal Aristophanes in elegance and purity of his diction, and Cratinus in his command of irony and sarcasm. Of the seventeen plays attributed to Eupolis, only fragments remain.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. She is one of the nine muses of Greek mythology. The muses love singing and dancing, and they do both beautifully. She is mentioned by the First Charite, who encourages Apollo to listen to a song by Eurania, in the hope that it would provide some relief to his pain. But Apollo declines the invitation.


Eurenoses is a Turkish captain in Goffe's The Courageous Turk who often works in concert with Lala Schahin. After the later presents a masque which clearly is meant to turn Amurath away from doting upon Eumorphe, Eurenoses is enthusiastic in his support of this effort to change the king's behavior. After the victory at Adrianople, Eurenoses suggests an attack on Servia because of the determined Christian resistance there. Following the death of Amurath, he and Lala Schahin urge Baiazet to follow the Turkish custom whereby each new king's first duty is to kill all of his male siblings so that there is no question about who is to rule.


Only mentioned by Julio in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped, who says that he'd try to defeat Antonio, even if he were as dear as Nisus to Euralius.


Euribates is a courtier in the royal household in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. He is a witness for Antisthenes in his hearing before Ptolemy, stating that he did indeed repay his debt to Leon (Irus in disguise). He is the first to respond when Princess Aspasia calls for help after Count Hermes (another of Irus's disguises) murders Prince Doricles. He also appears in the final scene.


In the only surviving scene (Secunda) of in Wilson’s fragmentary The Corporal, Eurick delivers a soliloquy beginning ‘What is it makes a man walk upright? Why life?’ It is a vapor rising out of the blood that troubles the world, he says.


Alternate spelling of "EURINIA" in Wilson's The Swisser.


"Andrucho's" (Count Aribert's) daughter Eugenia, who is presumed to be dead and who has assumed a new identity as Eurinia in Wilson's The Swisser. The King loved Eugenia, and to escape his unwelcome advances she has created the illusion that she is dead. She is secretly in love with Arioldus, who does not notice this because he is already in love with Panopia, the King's sister. To be closer to her beloved "Eurinia" disguised herself as a boy and served him for some time and only recently left him. Arioldus has taken her home again as his female prisoner, believing that she is a lady from Ravenna. She tells him her story without giving names, and he pities and promises to protect her. The King comes to see her and falls in love with her because she reminds him of Eugenia. Arioldus protects her with his life, and the King is about to kill him when she agrees to follow him to his palace in order to save her protector's life. The King tries to seduce her, and as she remains constant he has her taken by three disguised men and rapes her. She then goes back to Arioldus to take leave from him, confesses that he had been her love and that she had served him, disguised as a boy. Having lost her virginity, she wants to hide herself in a cave and die. But in the end, when she hears that Arioldus has always been in love with Panopia, she accepts the King who has always loved her and agrees to marry him.


Eurione is the younger daughter of the Duke in Glapthorne's Ladie's Privilege. She is in love with Vitelli and asks Corima to tell Vitelli so. She quarrels with her sister when Chrisea claims to also be in love with Vitelli, and urges her to agree to marry Doria when he is sentenced to death. In the end, she is reunited with Vitelli when Chrisea's change of heart is revealed to be a test.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Cymbeline. Euriphile, Belarius' wife, was the nurse and later kidnapper of Cymbeline's sons Arvirgarus and Guiderius. She is dead before the play begins.


Perseus' grandson and King of Argos (though not so specified in the text) in Heywood's The Silver Age, Euristeus raises Hercules in his household, and at Juno's urging sets the hero his celebrated labors.


Platonic mistress to Duke Theander and sister to Phylomont in Davenant's The Platonic Lovers. Unlike her brother and his mistress, Ariola, Eurithea is a happy platonic, who is shocked and perplexed when Theander succumbs to the love potion supplied by Buonateste. She is happy to marry him because he says this will make him feel better, but she makes it clear that she does not expect to sleep with him. This leaves her vulnerable to the tricks of old Fredeline, who is infatuated with her. Because she spends her wedding night without Theander, Fredeline is able to pretend that she spent it instead with his own follower, Castraganio. It is a lie in which he is supported not only by Castraganio but also by Eurithea's own maid, Amandine, who also happens to be Castraganio's sister. When the truth comes out, she and Theander are reunited, and it seems that they will eventually be happy in a non-platonic sense.


A centaur in Heywood's The Silver Age, invited to the wedding of Hypodamia and Perithous, killed in the battle.


Sister and companion of Marcellina in Chapman's Monsieur D'Olive. Eurione, seeing the remarkable loyalty and dedication of the Earl St. Anne, falls in love with him. She is united with the Earl, but hearing from Vandome that St. Anne is unfaithful, she goes out to find him, bringing Marcellina with her. She soon learns, however, that St. Anne is loyal, and that the accusation was part of a ploy by Vandome to effect a reconciliation between Vaumont and Marcellina.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. In Greek mythology, Europa was the daughter of a Phoenician king. She was carried off to Crete by Zeus (Jupiter) in the guise of a bull. When Fulvia and Sempronia discuss their lovers, Fulvia suggests that they might exchange favorites. Fulvia implies she is tired of Quintus Curius, and Sempronia could have him, adding that the world is full of sexually rewarding men. In fact, Fulvia is dissatisfied because Curius is broke and he cannot pay for her extravagant tastes. Since it is known that Caesar has sent Fulvia a pearl as a gift, probably in exchange for sexual favors, it is inferred that Fulvia refers to Caesar, Sempronia's former lover, who now has turned to Fulvia, lavishing her with rich gifts. Showing her preference for a rich lover, Fulvia adds that she is not impressed with mere sexual prowess, and she would not be taken with a bull, like the foolish Europa. Only for the price of bright gold, like Danae, would she endure a rough and harsh Jupiter. Fulvia implies that she prefers material wealth beside sexual potency.
A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Golden Age. She is mentioned as one of Jupiter's mistresses.
A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Silver Age, one of Jupiter's mortal mistresses, mentioned by Juno in her diatribe against Semele.


Only mentioned in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. Europe is mentioned by Sir Wittworth as he laments after finding out that his beloved Modestina has been raped, because now she is too ashamed to go back to him. He actually blames Jove for what happened to her, and compares her misfortune to that of Europe in the mythological account, since she lost her chastity and innocence when Jove went to her in his borrowed shapes.


A nymph of Diana in Lyly's Gallathea, she falls in love with "Tityrus," really Gallathea in disguise.


He attends the usurping king but does not speak in the first scene of Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. He secretly plots with Phronimius and Aratus to raise a rebellion and unseat the usurper. Aratus, Phronimius, and Aratus, meet Pallantus, who has killed his assailants, and without learning his name they befriend him for his valiant act. They go greet Cleararchus together. Later, as the secret ceremony, Eurylochus reveals that he has a great army ready to rise on the side of the patriots against the usurper and along with Phronimius they take their young king, Cleander, to protect him as they go to meet their armies. Clearchus brings news to Aratus and Pallantus that Phronimius and Eurylochus were captured along with the young king, Cleander. The camp mutinies at the news. Demophilus delivers good news to Aratus in act four that Phronimius and Eurylochus have not been captured along with the young king, Cleander. They are well and advancing to their positions. Two others were captured and slain by the enemy. His arrival helps ensure the rebel victory.


King of Thrace and Roxane’s brother in Mayne’s Amorous War. He is at war with Bithynia because their king has taken his sister in marriage without his consent. He comes disguised as an ambassador with Clytus and Hyppocles. He says he is wronged that he has not been granted marriage to Barsene even though Bithynia is a tributary to Thrace and the old Bithynian king promised her when Bithynia was defeated. He offers to end the war if Barsene agrees to marry him. He captures the ladies’ ship only to confess the whole war, in which he is assisted by Roxane, is a ruse to get close to and woo Barsene. He lays his army at her feet, and she exacts a promise from him to engage with her and Roxane in a trick they mean to pull. Later, he sneaks into the Bithynian camp, again pledges himself to Barsene, and agrees to the final turn of the ladies’ trick. The war engages, and Archidamus meets Eurymedon for single combat before Roxane and Barsene appear, undisguised, and plead for peace. All are reconciled happily as two priests sing the nuptial song over the new-made couples.


Eurymine is a beautiful lady of obscure origin in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. She wins the heart of Ascanio, the Duke's son. However, she also wins the Duke's hatred, since she is interfering with his plan to marry his son to a worthy lady of noble origin. The duke has planned to kill her, and sends two of his servants: Phylander and Orestes, who wish they had not been given such a task. When Eurymine realizes her fate, she asks them to put a scarf over her eyes, so as not to see the fatal stroke. Then she sings a moving farewell song to Ascanio, her beloved one. However, Phylander and Orestes have decided not to kill her, and she effusively expresses her gratitude to them, promising to stay in the woods and never return to her country. And she gives them her veil, as they request, to show as proof of her death. When they leave, she meets Silvio, a ranger, and Gemulo, a shepherd, who urge her to tell them about the reason for her distress. She makes up a tale, explaining that her parents wanted to marry her to a boy she didn't love. Her beauty entices both men, and she arouses a controversy between them, to which she tries to offer a quick solution by accepting Silvio's cottage and Gemulo's flock to take care of. Later, when she is in the forest she meets Apollo. He reveals his love for her, and, when she asks who he is, he tells her, but she does not believe him, explaining that a god would not make love to a mortal, simply because he would lose his divinity. When he persists, unwilling to be raped by a god, she quickly thinks of a solution, and asks him for a favor. She wishes to be turned into the shape of a man. Apollo reluctantly grants her wish, and, thus, she escapes the passionate love and lust of the god. However, later, Eurymine sees Ascanio, she flees from him, because she does not want him to see her in the shape of a man. Then she travels with Silvio and Gemulo to visit Aramanthus, the Hermit. When she meets Ascanio again, he expresses his love for her, which has not changed; but she explains that she cannot love him, but as a friend, given her new state as a man. She tries to console him remarking that he has lost a wife, but won a friend. After Amaranthus's arrival, she explains how she took up the shape of a man to escape Phoebus's rape. That is the reason why, when the old man advises her to pray to Apollo to restore her to her former shape, she assumes he will be reluctant to do it. Thus, she is surprised when Apollo agrees to turn her back into her woman's shape. At the end, she learns that she is Aramanthus's daughter, Atlanta, a lady of noble origin, and she agrees to Phoebus's final wish: she will wear the branch of a laurel in her netted cap to think about him even in his absence.


Eusanius is the son of Aridane and Radagon in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder. He appears as a baby in I, where he is banished, along with his mother, by Pheander. After being rescued from the shipwreck, many years pass. When still a young child, Eusanius is lost, and is found by Sophos who raises him. Sophos and Eusanius end up in the court of Alcade, King of Africa. When Alcade suspects Eusanius of fancying Lillia Guida, his daughter, Eusanius is banished. He arrives in Thrace, and meets Ariadne without realising that she is his mother. He then has a conversation with Pheander, Ariadne and Radagon, in which none is aware of the identities of the others. When they hear of Ariadne's abduction by Pheander, Radagon and Eusanius rally the shepherds to rescue her, but Pheander convinces them to unite with him against the invading Sicilians. In the first battle, Eusanius captures the King of Sicilia, and is angered to learn that Radagon has switched sides and set him free. In the second battle, Eusanius captures Alcade, Sophos and Lillia Guida. He agrees to settle the war with a single combat between him and Radagon. But when Radagon and Ariadne reveal their true identities, and Ariadne describes how she lost her child, Eusanius realises he must be her son.


Eustace is a young Englishman in Greene's James IV who has been given a picture of Ida by his friend the Countess Elinor of Carlisle. He visits her, persuades her of his sincerity, and eventually marries her. He is also addressed as Dick by his friend Sir Bartram.


Fourth son to the destitute Earl of Boulogne, he is an apprentice to a grocer in Thomas Heywood's The Four Prentices of London; he abandons his vocation, however, to join the First Crusade. Shipwrecked in transit to the Holy Land, Eustace, comes to shore in Ireland where, conveyed through a dumb show, he witnesses a burial and convinces the mourners, Irish kerns, to join him in the crusade; together they continue to Jerusalem. In the Italian mountains Eustace discovers the Clown and the Villain attempting to murder the Earl; although he does not recognize his father, he rescues the old man. Eustace then fights with his brother Charles, whom he also does not recognize; their combat is disturbed by the arrival of Bella Franca. Failing to recognize her, Eustace falls immediately in love. Eustace joins Tancred's crusading forces and confronts the French forces upon their arrival in Lombardy. He engages in single combat with his brother Guy, whom he also does not recognize, but Robert and Tancred halt the fight. All four unwitting brothers reunite in the purpose of the crusade. Eustace fights Guy for the privilege of single combat with Turnus; he is banished for his breach of the crusader's vow to engage in violence against the pagans alone. He remains in the Holy Land, however, disguised as a Knight of the Grocers guild, but Guy switches his emblematic shield while Eustace sleeps. He rescues Tancred and Godfrey from the Soldan and then helps Bella Franca repulse the Clown. Finally, he recognizes his sister. He takes the Soldan's ensigns from the walls of Jerusalem and leaves, in their place, his—or, rather, Guy's—shield. In victory, the crusaders reconvene and there is general confusion about who, precisely, did what. All sibling identities are finally revealed and Eustace is made King of Sicily.


A handsome though vain young courtier in Fletcher's The Elder Brother. Eustace is the son of the justice Brisac and the younger brother of the scholar Charles. When Brisac and his neighbor Lewis decide their children should marry, Eustace is summoned home and arrives in fine style with his parasitical friends Egremont and Cowsy. Hoping the marriage will allow him to advance at court, Eustace agrees to wed Angellina, particularly after he learns of his father's plan to persuade Charles to sign over his inheritance to Eustace. Convinced that all women find him irresistible, Eustace is later shocked when Angellina refuses to marry him, instead accepting Charles's unexpected proposal. Confronting Charles in an effort to kidnap Angellina, Eustace is disarmed by his brother, whose skill as a swordsman Eustace has seriously underestimated. Eustace must beg for his life, and give Charles his coach and four horses in order to be released. After a painfully enlightening conversation with Cowsy and Egremont about courtly honor, Eustace borrows Cowsy's sword then orders his former friends to leave, excoriating them for their contributions to court corruption. Now reformed, Eustace confronts Charles, demanding the return of his sword, his coach and horses, and Angellina. The two men fight. As their uncle Miramont attempts to stop them, he suddenly begins to admire Eustace for his fighting skills. Forcing his nephews to reconcile, Miramont then joins them as they rescue Angellina and Brisac, who are in Lewis's power. The rescue is successful, and Miramont promises to make Eustace his heir to help the young man find a suitable wife.


One of the four gallants at the wedding of Annabel and Bonvile in Webster and Rowley's A Cure for a Cuckold. Eustace refuses Lessingham's plea to duel with him by claiming to be a poor fighter. He becomes a sharer in Woodroff's shipping venture. He assists Franckford during the legal debate with Compass. Eustace and the other gallants are present at Compass' wedding.

EUSTACE **1631

The King's Confessor (named only in a letter as Eustace) in Davenport's King John and Matilda. He contrives with John to write the letter that gains access to the Abbey for Brand, Matilda's murderer, on the pretext of sending friendly greetings to her. His religious credibility is used to cause her death, though it is not made clear whether he is complicit or the King's dupe.


Eustace is named as one of the conspirators against John in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John.


A "ghost character" in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. Eustace Statville's daughter, a nun, was beaten and raped by Doncaster. She appealed to Richard and Doncaster was imprisoned, but escaped. The story of her abuse is told by Chester after Doncaster poisons Robin.


Sir Eustace Vallenger is Vallenger's father in the anonymous The Fair Maid of Bristow, but he disinherits him after his scorning of Annabel and joins forces with Sir Godfrey Umphrevil to punish him.


Eutaxia is a "ghost character" in the Second Masque presented at Cynthia's revels by Mercury/Page in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. Eutaxia is the mother of the four gallant brothers representing courtly virtues, who are named Eucosmos, Eupathes, Eutolmos, and Eucolos. According to Mercury/Page, Eutaxia is a lady beloved by Cynthia, whom she keeps in high regard.


"A Muse" and one of Museus's assistants in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Euterpe appears only at the play's end. She attends the sentencing of disobedient characters, assists Museus, and responds to a comment made by Siren. Museus claims that her help is not needed in the search of Siren's person which is "onely of her upper garment," and Euterpe closes the play (along with Clio) when she states, "Before alas I mournd and wept: / But now I joy: our schoole is swept."


Euthus is a worthy gentleman at Cynthia's court and a "ghost character" in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In a soliloquy about detraction, Crites says that he disregards Anaides and Hedon's slanders, because the perpetrators are not worthy of his attention. Had the opprobrious words emanated from good Chrestus, Euthus, or Phronimus, Crites argues that he would have been moved and tried to question and improve his actions.


Eutolmos is the third of the four brothers representing the four cardinal properties of decorum introduced by Mercury/Page as part of the Second Masque at Cynthia's revels in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. He is a mute character and is finally discovered to be Anaides in disguise. According to Mercury/Page, Eutolmos is dressed in a blush-colored suit, symbolizing that he duly respects others while never neglecting himself. Eutolmos represents good Audacity and is an acceptable guest to courtly assemblies. His motto is "divae viragini" (goddess brave as a man), and this attribute expresses Cynthia's courage in chasing savage beasts. After having been introduced, the masques join in a dance. At the end of the revels, when Cynthia orders the characters to unmask, Eutolmos appears as Anaides, who is punished together with the other nymphs and gallants.


A "ghost character" in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. He complains that Bomolochus has abused him. Justice Nimis Sends Eutrapeles to jail, even though he is the complaining party, on the whim that it was he that offended.


One of Timon's false friends in the anonymous Timon of Athens, a dissolate young man. Because he owes 4 talents to the usurer Abyssus he has to go to prison. Timon releases him for 5 talents. Eutrapelus then stays with Timon to drink and sing, later they are joined by Hermogenes, a fiddler. He pretends not to know Timon in Act IV.1, but he reappears at Timon's mock banquet in IV.5.


Only mentioned in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. In Greek mythology, Evadne was the daughter of Mars, the god of war. Aspatia and Evadne are female characters of Beaumont and Fletcher's The Maid's Tragedy. In his apology to the ladies in the audience, Prologue says that, when the women see that a member of their sex is abused, they should not think her defect is a general trait belonging to all women. More likely, the author referred only to a particular example, because the play's criticism relies not on truth, but on life's variety. According to Prologue, the poet was carried on the wings of his imagination and the same poet who gave life to Evadne, Aspatia, Arethusa, and Panthea pleads to the ladies to bear with him.

EVADNE **1610

Evadne is the model for the Jacobean impudent woman in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Maid's Tragedy. She allows herself to be married to an honorable man, Amintor, in order to disguise her fornication with the King. She tells the King that she loves him not with her heart but with her ambition. If he should ever be replaced on the throne, she says, she will love the next king and not him. She repents when her brother, Melantius, confronts her and agrees to join with him in assassinating the King. She ties the King to the bed and stabs him herself. When, however, she goes to her wronged husband and claims to have regained her honor in killing the King, Amintor rejects her. She kills herself over the rejection.

EVADNE **1632

Supposed daughter of Chremylus and beloved of the jealous Tyndarus in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. Although she is courted by many, she is chaste and rejects Asotus' wooing of her. Asotus steals her diamond earring and uses it to convince Tyndarus that she has been unfaithful with him, but Asotus quickly repents and tells the truth. Evadne agrees to test Pamphilus' faith for Techmessa not realizing that he has been sent by Tyndarus to test her own. Their tryst escalates as each tests how far the other will go while Techmessa watches in secret. The truth is shortly after revealed. She innocently goes to Ballio'' house where a disguised Tyndarus must rescue her from Asotus and his roaring followers. When the disguised Tyndarus pretends to ravish her, she draws his stiletto and promises to kill herself first. This proves to him (momentarily) that she is chaste. However, when Pamphilus shows up looking for Techmessa, Tyndarus believes that he is there to meet Evadne. Tyndarus leaves, and Pamphilus must lead Evadne from the bawdyhouse. Believing that Tyndarus has committed suicide, Evadne offers to kill herself over his coffin, but the disguised Tyndarus prevents her. Upon discovering that Tyndarus is really her brother Clinias, she marries Pamphilus (who is in reality Timarchus).


Evadne is Antonio's sister in Rawlins's The Rebellion. Evadne falls in love with Sebastian who is disguised as a tailor named Giovanno. On one occasion, Evadne is caught by Antonio in Sebastian's arms. After Antonio kills the Governor, Evadne is first placed by Machvile under house arrest. She is subsequently banished. While in exile, Evadne is captured by a band of ruffians and tied to a tree for a gang-rape. Evadne tries in vain to convince the bandit captain to kill her rather than ravish her. Fortunately, Evadne is saved by Sebastian. While traveling with Sebastian, Evadne is reunited with Antonio and his love Aurelia. Antonio blesses Evadne's union with Sebastian and ends hostilities between their houses. Evadne and Sebastian are engaged at the conclusion of the play.


Evaldus, husband of Augusta, reigns as king in Quarles' The Virgin Widow. As a young man disguised as a pilgrim he met Kettreena, and has loved her ever since. For her sake he showers her family with favours. He reveals himself to her, but assures her that his intentions are entirely virtuous. After Augusta is killed when she challenges the Oracle, Evaldus marries Kettreena, who is in any case revealed to be the true queen; the Oracle has already made it clear that the marriage will be fruitful.


Sir Evan Griff is a local lord who helps Powesse and Sir Griffin to regain their betrothed ladies in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. John a Kent introduces Evan and Gosselin to Sir Griffin and Powesse as the lords that have raised an army for them. Evan informs the lords he has thirty-six men ready with hooks and slings, men who are so brave they could face a hundred soldiers. Evan and Gosselin help Powesse and Sir Griffin to apprehend their ladies in an ambush in the woods and take them to Gosselin's castle. At the castle, Evan arrives with Sir Griffin, Powesse, and Gosselin. Seeing John a Cumber (disguised as John a Kent), the lords believe he is preparing an entertainment for the weddings. Like the other lords, Evan is tricked and he lets the enemy party enter the castle under the guise of a pageant. When John a Cumber reveals the deceit and the opposing party has power over the castle, Evan leaves in the company of Gosselin, Sir Griffin, and Powesse. Evan is of the party that lures the ladies away from their guardians on their way to Chester, leading them back to Gosselin's castle. In the revelation scene after the play within the play, Evan sees how all the disguises and misunderstandings are cleared. Evan and Gosselin stay behind at Gosselin's castle and thus are not present at the final set of disguises during the wedding ceremony.


Evander is Duke of the Greek city of Epire in Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law. He has proclaimed 'The Old Law', whereby all men over eighty and all women over sixty are to be executed. He presides over the arrests and supposed executions of Creon, Leonides and Lisander. At the end of the play, he watches the debate between Simonides and Cleanthes over monarchical versus common law, and then reveals that the Old Law was a fiction, designed to test the morality of his subjects. He reveals that Creon, Lisander and Leonides are still alive, and appoints Cleanthes and Hippolita as judges over new, rational laws, which are designed to punish greedy young people. Disgusted by Gnothos' activities at play's end, he orders his death, but is persuaded to relent. Finally, he reveals that Cratilus is not really an executioner.


Evandra is the daughter of the Duke of Milan in Davenant's Love and Honor. She is captured in battle by Prospero and protests his treatment of her. Despite her protests, he has her transported to his house by Altesto. Once there, she is placed in a secret cave, on the orders to Alvaro and Prospero, to protect her from the Duke, who seeks her death as revenge for his brother's disappearance and presumed murder. She is visited in the cave by Alvaro and Propsero, and expresses gratitude for her safety and fear that they will be caught. Her noble attitude causes Prospero to fall in love with her. When Prospero brings Melora to keep her company, both she and Evandra express sorrow that the other has been captured. Leonell joins them, and begs forgiveness for not fighting better, but Evandra insists that he could not have fought better, and suggests that the three of them sit and mourn together. Alvaro then visits Evandra to tell her he will die in her place and to say goodbye, but Evandra tricks him into entering the cave, claiming she fears there is someone in there. She locks him in, and then asks Prospero to take him food and water. Foolishly, he does as she asks, and ends up locked in with her. Evandra then ask Leonell to swear by his love for her that he will do whatever she requests, and when he does, tells him to stay behind and open the cave door when she has left. She plans to surrender to the Duke, but Melora in turn tricks her and attempts to pass herself off as Evandra to spare her friend's life. This plan is foiled when Calladine is so moved by the fake Evandra that instead of escorting the real Evandra out of the city, he takes her to the Duke. Both women claim to be Evandra and so the Duke decides to have them both executed. They are visited in their prison by Alvaro, Leonell and Propsero, and then prepared for execution. Before they can be killed, Leonell reveals himself as the Duke of Parma's son and the Duke agrees to let him take their place. At this point the Ambassadors reveal themselves as the Duke of Milan and the Duke's lost brother. In joy at his brother's return, the Duke forgives everyone and offers to marry Alvaro to Evandra, but Melora steps forward to press a prior claim. This allows Evandra to be married to her true love, Leonell.


Evangelium represents Christ's gospel in Bale's Three Laws. He is sent to redeem Mankind and the Laws of Nature and Moses that have been corrupted in heart and in mind by Sodomy and Idolatry, and Ambition and Covetousness respectively. He speaks of his wife the Church, using this simile to attack the Catholic celibacy of the clergy and promote the Anglican concept of married priests. He presents the greatest threat so far to Infidelity, who summons False Doctrine and Hypocrisy to help destroy him. Although they are able to drag him off-stage, Evangelium, unlike Lex Moseh and Lex Naturae, cannot be killed or corrupted, although Infidelity believes that this is the case.


A Welsh parson in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor who conspires with Slender to woo Anne Page in order to garner George Page's wealth. His efforts on Slender's behalf win him the enmity of Dr. Caius, but when the Host of the Garter sends the two of them to different places to duel, they discover the trickery and join forces to steal three of the Host's horses. During Falstaff's torment in Windsor Park, he takes the part of a satyr.


The dramatis personae of Fletcher's A Wife for a Month describes Evanthe as "chaste." Although her shamelessly ambitious brother Sorano tries to force her to give in to the libidinous desires of King Frederick, and Frederick himself praises her beauty, promises advancement, and even offers to divorce the queen and marry Evanthe, Evanthe flatly refuses to sleep with Frederick and defends the Queen as honest, virtuous, and beautiful. Impressed by Evanthe's loyalty and integrity, the Queen takes her into her protection. Unfortunately, Cassandra, Evanthe's waiting woman, relinquishes Evanthe's box of secret writings to Sorano's man, Podramo. The writings are made public that Evanthe and Valerio are in love. Upon learning that he has a rival, and jealous of Evanthe's genuine affection, Frederick delivers a curious sentence upon Valerio: he is to marry Evanthe, but only for a month, after which time he will be put to death. Sorano devises a more painful punishment: Valerio may do nothing more than kiss his new wife; otherwise, he will be put to death before the month is up. Neither may Valerio tell Evanthe about the new restrictions he is under–again, on pain of immediate death. Poor Evanthe is eager to consummate her marriage, and she is left frustrated, angry, and confused by Valerio's rejection. After having been told by Frederick that Valerio has simply lost interest in her, Evanthe confronts Valerio. Valerio confesses, and Evanthe scolds him for not telling her the secret torture he was under. Valerio apologizes, and the two attempt secretly to consummate their marriage on the eve of Valerio's death; however, they are stopped by the king's captain, Castruccio. The next day, Evanthe, who believes she is now a widow, is offered up in marriage. Frederick invites Cutpurse, Lawyer, Physician, and Captain to compete for a month with Evanthe, but Evanthe rejects the men as being too "old" and "diseased." At that point, a dashing, noble soldier named Urbino enters, and Evanthe agrees to marry him. It is actually Valerio in disguise. He reveals himself to Frederick, and Valerio, his friends, and most of Naples, turn on Frederick and reinstate the rightful king, Alphonso. Evanthe begs Alphonso to show mercy to her brother Sorano. Alphonso sentences Sorano to live in a monastery with Frederick and gives his blessing to the marriage of Evanthe and Valerio.


Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. In his argument against Publius Cornelius’s professed nobility of family, Gaius Flaminius reminds Lucrece that all men are descended from Adam and Eve.

A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned as falling with Adam and suffering the penalty of pain in childbirth. Several other characters mention her (with Adam) as a prime example of God's mercy.
A "ghost character" in Bale's The Temptation of Our Lord. After Satan's third temptation, Jesus accuses Satan of corrupting the faith of Adam and Eve.
Only mentioned in ?Rastell's Calisto and Melebea. Sempronio reminds Calisto that Adam's love of Eve brought mankind into sin.
Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Slightall mentions Grannam Eve when he realizes Mistriss Changeable intends to marry her daughter to Lord Skales just because of his titles. He then calls Anne's mother: "Grannam Eve." According to the Bible, Eve, the first woman, was responsible for the original sin, thus, for the damnation of human kind. In the same way, Master Slightall, by calling Anne's mother like that, is blaming her for his and his daughter subsequent unhappiness.


A servant of Admetus in Heywood's Love's Mistress.


Merecraft's cousin and enforcer in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass. He constantly attempts to borrow money, who uses force to collect from Merecraft's debtors, and who extorts money from Merecraft with physical threats. Merecraft presents him to Fitzdottrel as "Master of Dependances," a professional duellist, and gets Fitzdottrel to hire Everill to threaten to duel with Wittipol. He becomes involved in a fight with Manly over Manly's lover, Lady Tailbush. His belligerent manner makes Fitzdottrel suspicious and, instead of signing his estate to the "Master of Dependances," he signs it to Manly. Everill joins Merecraft in a last, desperate scheme: convincing Wittipol to fake demonic possession (and thus non compos mentis when he signed the deed). He and Merecraft preside over a scene of possession that almost convinces the Justice, Eitherside, but the scheme is revealed when Fitzdottrel confesses after learning that Pug was a real devil. Everill is thus confounded, but not punished.


Everyman, enjoying the things of the world, is surprised by Death who informs him that he must answer for his life before God in the anonymous Everyman. He asks for time to prepare his account book, but is refused even a single additional day. Seeking friends to accompany him on his journey, he finds most of his former companions unwilling to help. He first goes to Fellowship, then meets his Kindred and Cousin, and after that Goods. Finally he comes upon Good Deeds, too weak to stand. She sends Everyman to her sister, Knowledged. Eventually, guided by Knowledge, Everyman learns the value of penance. Everyman's penance strengthens Good Deeds. He is then joined by his physical attributes: Beauty, Strength, Discretion, and Five Wits (senses). These physical aspects abandon him at the grave, as does Knowledge (faith). Interestingly the physical attributes abandon him in an order representing the aging process: first Beauty, then Strength, followed by Discretion and finally the senses, Five Wits, leave. It is Good Deeds alone who accompanies Everyman when he goes to face God. His account book finally in order, Everyman's soul is able to proceed into Heaven.


Possibly a "ghost character," and perhaps not a character at all in the anonymous Temperance and Humility, but possibly a character from the lost portion of the play. Both Temperance and Humility refer to the trouble and sorrow that Disobedience has caused to "every man" (not capitalized). It seems likely that some character representing humanity would appear in this play, whatever his name.


Evil Angel, always paired with Good Angel in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, appears early in the play and at the 11th hour to urge Faustus to remain true to his evil arts and to his contract with the Devils. As Faustus approaches death. Evil Angel shows him the "vast perpetual torture-house" of hell and warns him that "ten thousand tortures that more horrid be" await him.


Enters after Actio's first exchange with Eugenio in the anonymous Johan The Evangelist and tells the audience that he seeks a new master to advise. He has traveled throughout England and advised many young men and women "Of maters partaynyng to Venus actes," leading them to live in adultery. When Idleness enters, Evil Counsel offers to serve him by finding him another man's wife for his bed. They agree that Evil Counsel will find Idleness an artificer's wife, and that Evil Counsel will use his brother Temptation along with Youth to help win her over. Asks after Idleness' brother Sensuality and soon their discussion develops into an argument. Suggests that they go to Unthrift's to avoid listening to St. Johan's next sermon.


Evodius gives Silius his deathblow in Richards' Messalina and also attempts to kill Messalina, though she preempts him by taking the sword and committing suicide.


A Spirit sent by Ormandine in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom to tempt St. David. Free Excess, Desire and Delight "embrace him to a lazy tune, they touch him, he falls into their arms, so carry him away."


At the behest of Cambyses in Preston's Cambises, beheads and flays Sisamnes.


He is summoned to dispatch Tesephon and Allgerius in the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune. He is dismissed, however, when Urganda conjures three antic faeries to drive him from the stage.


Although there are an unspecified number of Executioners in the speech headings of Shakespeare's King John, only one speaks and Hubert never directly address more than one. The Executioner first worries whether or not the warrant authorizes the blinding of Arthur and then admits that he is pleased to be dismissed.


Charged with executing Mariana in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. the Executioner first asks her forgiveness, which she grants. His work is interrupted when Philocles unexpectedly breaks his vow of silence, stopping the execution.


When D'Amville insists that he be allowed to execute Charlemont personally in Tourneur's The Atheist's Tragedy, he joins the young man, Castabella, and the Executioner on the scaffold. As D'Amville raises the axe, he strikes his head by accident, leaving the Executioner to remark that "h'as knocked his brains out."


Prepares Isabella for her execution in John Marston's The Insatiate Countess. His explicit descriptions of her body serve to highlight her beauty and add an indubitable erotic frisson to the scaffold scene.


An unspeaking executioner appears alongside the Flamyn at the trial of Theanor in Fletcher's Queen of Corinth. He is ready to kill the Prince if his mother so sentences him in punishment for his rapes of Merione and Beliza. When it becomes apparent that Theanor attacked only Merione and that she is willing to marry him, the executioner's services become unnecessary.


He is prepared to kill Lysander in Carlell's The Deserving Favorite but is prevented by the Duke.


Silent character in Glapthorne's Ladie's Privilege. The Executioner appears at Doria's trial to represent Doria's choice between marriage and death.


Listed in the Dramatis Personae in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. However, they do not appear explicitly in the text. The Executioners are, presumably, non-speaking characters who assist Dicaus with the executions of Olinda and Glaucilla.


Under orders from Ferrand in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage, the executioners put Juliana on the rack and torture her almost beyond endurance.


There are three executioners in Fletcher and Massinger's Sir John Van Olden Barnavelt known by their place of origin:
  1. Harlem,
  2. Leiden, and
  3. Utrecht
They throw dice to determine who will have the honour of beheading Barnavelt. Utrecht wins and accidentally cuts off Barnavelt's fingertips while they are raised to Heaven.


In the opening scene in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI, the Duke of Exeter listens to the debate between King Henry and his Yorkist opponents, and he is persuaded to support the Duke of York's claim to the throne. Historically, he was Henry Holland.


Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter in Shakespeare's Henry V, is the half-brother of Henry IV and therefore Henry V's uncle. He serves the function of English ambassador in II.iv, when he brings Charles VI Henry's challenge to cede the crown of France or prepare for war. Exeter also conveys a message to the Dauphin, reiterating Henry's threat that he will repay the Dauphin's scornful gift to him with war on France. When the governor of Harfleur surrenders, Henry puts Exeter in charge of the town. He appears at the end of the play in Troyes. Historically, he was the youngest son of John of Gaunt and Catherine Swynford. He did not become Duke of Exeter until 1416, a year after Agincourt.
Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, is the great-uncle of King Henry VI. After Henry tries to make peace between Richard Plantagenet and the Duke of Somerset, Exeter in soliloquy predicts that the consequences of the Yorkist versus Lancastrian dissent bodes ill for England. Exeter also sees Henry's youth as a problem for the nation.


An Inns of Court man and a customer at Mistress Correction's brothel in Sharpham's Cupid's Whirligig. Exhibition is one of the unwelcome suitors of the chaste Lady Troublesome. He visits her at an inconvenient time, and, after courting her in legalese, becomes involved in a ruse to convince her husband that he and another suitor, Young Nonsuch, disguised as Captain Woodly, are quarrelling, thus sparing the Lady from her husband's jealous suspicions.


A wealthy citizen-wife in Jonson's The Staple of News. She has come to attend The Staple of News. She and her gossips sit on the stage and reveal their ignorance as to the conventions and standards of stage comedy. She comes to the play with foregone and uninformed conclusions.


Mother of Science, wife to Reason in the anonymous Marriage of Wit and Science. Her part initially is mainly seconding anything Reason says. Before Wit's trial to win Science, she advises him to pause and first be tutored by three counsellors: Instruction, Studie, and Diligence.


Also spelled "Experiens" in Rastell's Four Elements. A traveler to foreign lands and cousin of Studious Desire. He describes the geography of the world, and laments that corrupt mariners have prevented serious explorers from reaching the lands across the Atlantic and learning more about their resources. He criticizes Sensual Desire for never learning from experience. He describes empirical evidence for the earth's roundness and performs experiments to prove it.


Carries a message to the king in the first scene of Suckling's Aglaura (first version) and also Aglaura (second version).


Lord Mayor of London in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock. After the attempt by the Carmelite at poisoning the uncles of the King, Richard II, Exton assures Woodstock that he will be safe in London.


He murders the deposed King Richard in Pomfret Castle, believing that this is Bolingbroke's (now King Henry IV) wish in Shakespeare's Richard II. He later regrets his act when the king castigates him.


"Ghost characters" in Shakespeare's Hamlet. Rosencrantz reports to Hamlet that the adult players are traveling because child players have taken over the profession in the city. He refers to them as "an eyrie of children, little eyases." The word comes from the French niais (originally a nias) and means a nestling. The eyrie or aerie refers to a brood of eaglets or hawks, and the reference is usually understood as Shakespeare's complaint against the competition from St. Paul's and Blackfriars playhouses with Blackfriars most especially meant as it appears to have been placed on an upper floor.


Family name of Simon and Margery in Dekker's Shoemaker's Holiday.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Isaiah as an example of a God's mercy and power.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a prophet.


Ezekiel Edgworth is a cutpurse and a con man in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Edgworth keeps company with Nightingale, Corn-cutter, Tinderbox-man, and other participants at the Fair. When Overdo/Madman asks Mooncalf about Edgworth, whose appearance is that of a smooth young man, the servant misrepresents the cutpurse's personality to Overdo. Thus, Overdo believes Edgworth is an honest clerk. Meantime, Edgworth is whispering to Nightingale to take all the purses and other goods they stole to Ursula's booth, where they will meet at night to share. While Cokes listens in admiration to Overdo's anti-tobacco speech, Edgworth picks Cokes' purse. He gives the purse to Nightingale, and slips off discreetly during the confusion created when the madman (Overdo disguised) is accused of the robbery. In the encounter with Cokes' second purse, Edgworth lies in waiting while Nightingale pretends to sing a spell against cutpurses. Though Cokes is cautious and keeps his hand in his pocket, Edgworth tickles him in the ear with a straw and makes him draw his hand out of his pocket. When he sees Overdo trying to steal away, for fear of being accused of the robbery a second time, Edgworth points to the madman as the culprit. Since Quarlous and Winwife saw the theft, and Quarlous threatened him with disclosure, Edgworth agrees to steal the box containing Grace's marriage license from Wasp. While Wasp is in merry company during a drunken brawl, Edgworth steals the marriage certificate from the box. Edgworth goes to the puppet-theatre with Whit, Knockem, and Mistresses Overdo and Littlewit, masked. Edgworth courts the masked Mistress Littlewit. Justice Overdo reveals his disguise, telling Edgworth to stay next to him, since Overdo still believes Edgworth an honest young man. The cutpurse thinks he has been discovered, but he remains silent, and becomes one of the guests for dinner at Overdo's house.