Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Albumazar’s magical cant includes this allusion.


One of three young spendthrifts turned sea captains passing time in Plymouth waiting for the wind to change in Davenant's News From Plymouth. The other two are Seawit and Topsail. Lack of an estate has hindered his marriage chances, but he accompanies Seawit to Carrack's house nonetheless, where he enters into heated competition with Topsail in courtship of Lady Loveright. He rejects Carrack's offer of marriage, claiming that marriage only makes men cuckolds. When Topsail challenges him to a duel, he convinces Furious Inland to serve as his second as well as Topsail's. When Cable learns that a London strumpet has arrived and is looking for him, he abandons his hopes of achieving Lady Loveright and reconciles with Topsail. Upon learning that the strumpet is Carrack in disguise, he again rejects her offer of marriage. He is given cause to reconsider when he receives letters from his creditors demanding payment. Ultimately, Carrack agrees to pay his debts and marry him when he returns from sea.


A clown-like character: coarse, vulgar and stupid in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife. Cacafogo is the wealthy son of a usurer, skilled in exploiting his clients. He is hot-tempered, violent and lecherous, which makes him easily gulled by Estifania who tricks him into paying her for Michael's false jewels. Leon and Margarita then use him to gull Duke Medina by locking him in the wine cellar where his drunken roaring sounds like a devil. After this, he is removed from the house.


Cadallan is the Earl of March, and father of Caradoc in The Valiant Welshman. Cadallan supports Octavian in his battle against Monmouth, where he is wounded to the death.


A "ghost character" in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. He comes with an army of 18,000 Picts and Scots to join Cassibelane's army against Caesar.


Encouraged by Richard, Duke of York, Jack Cade foments rebellion in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, promising to reform the realm with such enticing innovations as the abolition of money, and, famously, the death of all lawyers. Cade calls himself by the pseudonym Sir John (or Lord) Mortimer, claiming to be the long-lost secret son of Edmund Mortimer, Duke of March and the Duke of Clarence's daughter. The Duke of Buckingham and Lord Clifford attempt to end the rebellion by promising that Cade's supporters will be pardoned if they relent, but Cade persuades the rebels that such promises cannot be trusted. When Clifford warns the rebels that they are making England vulnerable to a French invasion, they recognize the danger of the rebellion and transfer their support to King Henry. When Cade escapes, the commoners who had been his supporters become his hunters, promised a reward for his head. After five days of hiding following the failure of his rebellion, Jack Cade is hungry enough to risk being caught. He ventures into a garden looking for sustenance, but is captured by the landowner Alexander Iden, who kills him, and takes his head to Henry.
A "ghost character" in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV, Cade is mentioned by Falconbridge in his oratory as a rascal who rose up against a monarch over a trifle.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. In an attempt to convince the skeptical Surly of the benefits of alchemy, Mammon claims that Cadmus's story is a parable of the alchemical secrets. In Greek mythology, Cadmus was the Phoenician founder of Thebes. Conforming to the oracle of Delphi, he followed an errant cow and in the place she stopped he killed a dragon and sowed its teeth, at Athena's orders. An army of warriors was born out of the dragon's teeth.
A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Silver Age. King of Thebes and father of Semele, mentioned by Iris in her report of Semele's seduction by Jupiter.


Cador is the Duke of Cornwall, Gueneuora's father, and Arthur's father-in-law in Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur. When the king seems determined to avoid a war against Mordred, Cador encourages Arthur to take arms against his son using the argument that anyone who winks at sin is in fact encouraging it. Cador is badly wounded by Mordred's ally Gilla during the last battle, but he manages to slay Gilla, the earl to whom Mordred had promised the dukedom of Cornwall.


A British courtier and soldier, and suitor to Constantia in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father. He also fights in the war against Vortiger. A colourless, purely functional character.


Cadwal is really Arviragus, Cymbeline's son in Shakespeare's Cymbeline. As an infant, Arviragus and his brother Guiderius were kidnapped by their nurse, Euriphile, who raised them with her husband, the banished lord Belarius. Belarius changed his own name to Morgan, and renamed the boys Cadwal and Polydore. See "ARVIRAGUS."


A "ghost character" in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho. Captain Jenkins misunderstands Bellamont when he talks about Astyanax and Hector, characters in his new tragedy: "Hector was grannam to Cadwallader, when shee was great with child"


The daughter of Sir Quintilian Shorthose and the bride of Sir Walter Terill in Dekker's Satiromastix, Cælestine is a paragon of chastity, constancy and virtue. Her happy marriage to Terill at the outset of the play is almost immediately threatened by the lecherous king, William Rufus, who commands Terill to present Cælestine at court so that he may deflower her on her wedding night. Torn between honoring with constancy her wedding vows and her duty to the state, Cælestine decides to drink poison rather than submit her body to the king. Terill presents the king with Cælestine's body and, when William Rufus discovers that Cælestine has taken poison rather than relinquish her chastity to any man other than her husband, he repents his actions. When he declares her a truly constant wife, however, Cælestine revives, having unwittingly consumed a potion of her father's devising to make her only appear dead. The king is content now not to interfere between bride and bridegroom, and Cælestine and Terill are happily reunited.


"A rich blinde Gentleman" in Wilde's Love's Hospital. He is landlord to characters such as Villanus, Caecilius is the father of Olimpa and Comastes who, determined to marry, decides that Facetia should be his and enlists his son to "sollicite" her on his behalf. Knowing full well that his son is in love with Facetia and is banished from Lepidus's house Caecilius instructs Comastes to adopt the guise and manner of one of his tenants in order to gain the access to Facetia that is required in order to fulfill this "filiall dutye." When in the presence of Facetia for the first time Caecilius claims that he is "most propheticall att palmestry" and can foresee the future, proceeds to read Facetia's palm, and informs Lepidus that he longs to become his son in law. In a cruel twist to the plot Lepidus and Lysander attempt to force Olimpa (who is disguised as the "blackamoore" Nigella) to pretend to be Facetia and, thus, marry the unknowing Caecilius. When Comastes attempts to explain this sinister plot to his father Caecilius believes that his son is attempting to hinder his marriage to Facetia and disinherits him, and although Olimpa also attempts to convince her father that she is not Facetia the marriage of father and daughter is only avoided due to the additional interference of Surdato and Macilento at Facetia's request. Brought home by Macilento and then lead to Lepidus's house by the Boy in order to check on Facetia, Caecilius finally comes to terms with Lysander's plot against him, is convinced by Facetia to reinherit Comastes, and is reassured by her that they will eventually marry. Now suspicious that further tricks will be played upon him, Caecilius brings Comastes (disguised as a Rustic) along with him to Lepidus's house in order to ensure that he is not "cozened" again. Despite the fact that Caecilius claims that the task which Facetia assigns to her future husband is "nothing," his blindness prevents him from being able to complete the mission. Although he threatens, again, to disinherit Comastes, he eventually blesses the marriage of his son to Facetia and is finally reunited with his daughter, Olimpa, who reveals her true identity near the play's end.


God or Heavenly Father, appears in Bale's God's Promises seven separate times, complaining about the sinfulness of man. His first complaint is about Adam, who ate the apple. God's second and third complaints are against the sinfulness of humanity in general, and his third, fourth and fifth are against the sinfulness and ungratefulness of the Israelites. In each case, after threatening to destroy humanity all together, a human comes forward to beg for mercy. In each case, God eventually grants that mercy, and establishes a new promise, or covenant. With Adam, God establishes hatred between man and the serpent, and the pain of woman in childbirth. With Noah, he establishes the rainbow as a sign he will never again destroy humanity. With Abraham, he establishes the covenant of circumcision. With Moses, David and Isaiah, God foretells the coming of Christ. Finally over his anger, God appears, now amiable, before John Baptist and tells him of the coming of Christ, and that he has chosen John to prepare the way for Christ and to baptize him.


Caelia is a lady of the court in Lyly's Midas. She comforts Sophronia while they wait for news of Midas' trip to Pactolus


Caelia is courted by four different men in Baylie's The Wizard and cannot make up her mind which to choose. She announces that she intends to leave the choice up to a conjurer. When the disguised Anthony is able to correctly identify her, despite changing clothes with her sister, she believes he is a true conjurer and agrees to his choice. When she is told that she will marry the man who most resembles the conjurer, she believes it is a sign that she should marry her oldest suitor, Sir Oliver, and commits herself to him. With her sister, she appears behind a screen to convince Sebastian that Antonio is a true conjurer. In the morning, she is ready to marry Sir Oliver, and goes over papers he has sent that promise to turn over all his money and property to her. Antonio enters disguised as his father, but is found out. Nevertheless, when Caelia finds out that Antonio disguised himself as the conjurer to win her, she agrees to marry him.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Canidius lists him as one of the soldiers who is to fight by sea.


The Queen of Sicily's marshal in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. He, with Florio, performs the formal questioning of the combatants at the contest for the Queen's hand.


Caenis is a concubine to Vespasian, the father of Domitian in Massinger's The Roman Actor. When Domitia becomes empress, Caenis is forced to wait upon her. Caenis joins with Aretinus and others in the plot to reveal Domitia's love for Paris, for which Caenis is cast in the dungeon. Condemned to death, she joins others in the final plot against Domitian.


Caenus is the brother-in-law of Philotas, and Alexander in Daniel's Philotas. He fears that he will mutiny if Philotas feels that he is being badly treated. He later appears in the trial scene, convinced of Philotas's guilt by the evidence presented by Alexander. With Craterus and Ephestion, Caenus advises Alexander to have Philotas tortured.

CAESAR **1597

Only mentioned in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV, he is the Roman emperor referred to by Lord Bardolph in comparing an erroneously reported Percy victory at Shrewsbury. Caesar is not a character in the play.


An alternative title referring to Alphonsus in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany.


The Emperor attends the double wedding of Lentulus and Flavia, and Terentia and Tully in Machin's(?) Every Woman in Her Humour. His gift to the couples is to release all of the prisoners (except the traitors) in honor of their nuptials. Acutus takes him up on the offer by presenting Philautus, imprisoned for robbery. Caesar calls for Philautus to sing for him, but one bar is all Caesar can abide: he immediately orders Philautus's release. Because of the appearance of Cicero in this play, Caesar is probably meant to indicate Julius. However, the facts militate in favor of viewing this as a fantasy Rome: Caesar is called emperor (he was dictator), the main action deals with Cicero's wooing of Terentia (his first wife) on behalf of his friend Lentulus, and a Friar appears (before the birth of Christ).


A "ghost character" in the anonymous The Wasp. Marianus, Prorex of Britain, rules in his name. Which Caesar is meant is never made clear.


Octavius becomes a third member in the triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus after the murder of Julius Caesar in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. There is a subtle competition between Octavius and Antony reflected in their actions and relationships. Octavius sees Lepidus as a good soldier yet allows Antony to relegate Lepidus to the position of underling, keeping this good soldier away form the battlefields at Sardis and Philippi. Yet Octavius gives notice, if only through subtle foreshadowing, that he will not be led by Antony, for when Antony tries to assign areas of the battleground for each to cover, Octavius is arbitrary but firm in choosing that field of battle that Antony had originally marked for himself.
Augustus Caesar is the emperor of Rome in Jonson's Poetaster. Caesar enters an apartment in the palace, where the poets are entertaining his daughter, Julia, disguised as Juno, in a game of licentious revelry, in which Ovid plays Jupiter. On seeing the debauched masquerade, the angry Caesar wants to kill his daughter, but then decides to exile Ovid and sentence Julia to confinement. Railing against the vice overpowering Rome, Caesar exits followed by his train. Caesar enters an apartment in the palace, followed by Maecenas, Gallus, Tibullus, Horace, and guards. Caesar announces he has pardoned Gallus and Tibullus and acknowledges the contribution of poetry to the fashioning of cultural values in Rome. Virgil is announced and, ascertaining that the other poets, including Horace, are not envious of Virgil, Caesar requests a reading from the Aeneid by the author. While Virgil is reading, Lupus makes a sudden entrance. At first, Caesar does not want to receive the tribune, whom he considers a detractor, but, hearing that he brings information concerning an attempted plot on Caesar's life, the emperor accepts to let him in. Lupus enters with Tucca, charging Horace with treason. Horace exculpates himself and manages to turn the charges against Lupus, who, in his turn, lays the blame on Aesop, the actor. When Aesop enters, followed by Crispinus and Demetrius, Caesar orders the player to be whipped and Lupus banished for his asinine credulity. Then, Caesar orders Horace to charge Crispinus and Demetrius with calumny and plagiarism. After the trial, the poetaster and the playwright are found guilty, and Caesar orders that Tucca should be gagged and taken away, so that he might not be able to slander anyone. When the detractors are punished, Caesar concludes that jangling rhymers should not disturb the great poets of Rome. Caesar exits with his train of poets, who praise his generosity and justice.
Octavius Caesar, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, is the ruler of Rome in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. He is at first under attack by both Pompey and the wife and brother of Antony. The latter two are dealt with as the play opens, and Caesar sends for Antony to explain his level of involvement in their attacks. The two are reconciled and Antony even agrees to marry Octavia, Caesar's sister. Next, Caesar arranges a peace with Pompey, and that peace is sealed with a drunken banquet on Pompey's ship. However, Antony returns to Egypt and Caesar reports to his followers that he has set himself up as Emperor. Eros reports to Enobarbas that Caesar has returned to war against Pompey and won, before turning his attention to Antony. Caesar declares war. The first battle is fought at sea, and Caesar is triumphant. During a second battle, Caesar at first is beaten, but then again overcomes Antony at sea. After the battle, he hears that Antony has committed suicide, and mourns the loss of such a great man. He then sends first Procleius and then Dolabella to persuade Cleopatra to surrender to him, because he wants to take her to Rome as a prize. He meets with Cleopatra and is convinced that she will surrender, which allows her to sneak asps into her monument and commit suicide. Caesar, now with sole control of the Roman Empire, promises to provide a state funeral for the famous lovers.
Augustus Caesar, heir of the dead Julius Caesar and rival of Antonius for control of the Roman world, enters May's Cleopatra as a conqueror after the Battle of Actium. He shows himself clement, sparing the citizens of Alexandria (even the philosopher Fergusius), but most of his activity consists of a contest in double-bluff with the equally crafty Cleopatra After Actium, he sends Thyreus to her with a declaration of fervent love, hoping to persuade her to betray Antonius; she, for her own purposes, responds with equal enthusiasm. When he finally visits her himself, after Antonius's death, he is for a moment almost tempted in earnest, but he quickly recalls himself; perhaps because of this momentary confusion, he speaks to her more harshly than he had intended. As a result, Cleopatra, seeing through his protestations of affection, decides to commit suicide rather than trust herself to him, and thus escapes his secret plan to display her in a Roman triumph. The Psylls try to revive her, but in vain; and Caesar takes it well, vowing to erect a proud monument to her and Antonius.
Caesar Augustus is the current Roman emperor in Markham's Herod and Antipater. Though stunned by Herod's audacity in trying to defend his support of Antony, Augustus does not execute Herod. He arrives in Judah to learn of Antipater's treachery and to view Antipater's execution. When Herod dies, Augustus names Prince Archelaus, Herod's grandson, as King of Judah.
The Emperor Augustus [Octavius, first Emperor of Rome] is a "ghost character," frequently mentioned in May's Julia Agrippina; "Augustus" is also used as a title for the current Emperor, Claudius.


The eldest son of Pope Alexander VI, brother to Lucretia Borgia and the Duke of Candy in Barnes's The Devil's Charter. Caesar is essentially as evil as his father and through that evil destroys the Borgias, the family for whom Alexander bargained away his soul. Caesar, like his father, is a Machiavel, interested only in power and personal gain. Initially, Caesar is the Cardinal of Valence, but soon after he assassinates his brother, he becomes a soldier and removes his Cardinal's robes. Alexander recognizes that his sons are not alike in temperament and this has caused a rift between them. He did not sell his soul to the devil only to have his family lose power because of petty differences. He calls his sons to him and divides his lands between them, explaining that they have to try to get along so that the family will survive. Caesar tells Candy that he argues with him because he loves him and wants to help make him a stronger man. Candy objects to Caesar's strong-armed tactics but in the end believes him to be sincere in his desire to create a united Italy under the Borgias. Both men agree to work together towards this end. Caesar, however, has different plans. He decides to kill his brother and for this task he hires a braggart, Frescobaldi to assassinate Candy. They meet in the night, accost Candy and stab him and then throw his body into the river. After the murder, Caesar grabs the surprised Frescobaldi and throws him into the river after Candy's body. After Candy's death, Caesar dons armor, claiming that he has to revenge the murder of his brother, and proceeds to invade the neighboring provinces. One castle is defended by women, and their leader is the Countess Katharine. When she refuses to surrender, Caesar brings forth her two sons. He has captured the boys and threatens to behead them in her sight. She still refuses either to surrender or to bargain with him and she encourages her boys to be brave and die rather than surrender their honor or their freedom. When she is defeated in battle, Caesar unexpectedly takes her to her sons, who are playing cards in his tent, unmolested. He treats her and the rest of the town fairly, but he continues his quest for power through might. Once he conquers Romania, he returns to Rome for the winter and furloughs his troops with extra pay. They promise to support him. He and his father recognize a threat to Caesar's power from the Cardinals Cornetto and Modina and the Borgia's realize that they must eliminate them. They contact Bandino Rozzi, the apothecary, and order poison, but this necessitates the elimination of the source of the poison as well. Caesar hires Frescobaldi's friend, Baglioni for the murder. Caesar then delivers the poisoned wine to his father for the banquet where the Cardinals will be murdered. Alexander praises Caesar's military exploits to the Cardinals and while he is distracted, Belchar switches the wine bottles. The Borgia's drink the wine and very quickly Alexander realizes that he and Caesar have both been poisoned. He tries to warn Caesar not to drink, but it's too late. Caesar does not die, but, the Chorus later tells us, he is "Reserv'd for more calamities to come" and he is eventually slain at Viano.


Emperor of Rome, who fights in the battle against the British in The Valiant Welshman. Caradoc beats him, but does not kill him. In gratitude, Caesar offers him a golden lion, so that he can find him in Rome. Later, when Caradoc is a captive in Rome, Caesar recognizes the lion and frees him.

The foolish Emperor Claudius dotes on his wife Valeria Messalina in Richards' Messalina, even permitting her marriage with Silius, but does finally turn on her when warned by Pallas, Narcissus and Calistus that Silius plans to replace him as emperor.
Emperor of Rome in Shakespeare's Cymbeline. Though it is never mentioned which Caesar is meant, if Cymbeline is meant to be the historic British king Cunobelinus, father of Caradoc (Caratacus) and Togodumnus, then this Caesar would have to be Claudius, whose reign began in 41 A.D., two years before the death of Cunobelinus's father, Cassivelaunus. However, the Roman invasion represented in the play was carried out by Claudius after the death of Cunobelinus and was resisted by his sons.
Emperor in May's Julia Agrippina. Although he is noted as having built aqueducts and conquered Britain, Claudius is essentially the dupe of Agrippina and Pallas, who diagnoses his dominant passion as fear. Eventually he is persuaded by Narcissus to act against Agrippina, but he reveals this to her when drunk, and she poisons him.
Only mentioned in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge. Claudius was the fourth emperor of Rome; his reign followed Caligula's. Claudius, according to Sharkino, died from poisons given to him by Agrippina.


As Caesar, Domitian frequently asserts that his divine status automatically renders all of his actions good in Massinger's The Roman Actor. These actions include torturing and/or killing everyone who opposes or displeases him. Domitian also enjoys the sexual favors of his niece, Julia, his first cousin, Domitilla, and Domitia, the wife of Aelius Lamia. He makes the latter his wife, giving her the title "Augusta," but when he discovers her adulterous lust for Paris, Domitian cannot bring himself to order her execution. As a result, she dominates him completely, although he does finally order her death along with that of all the other remaining characters. These characters, however, join together and assassinate Domitian in the play's final act. (Also listed under "DOMITIAN").




A "ghost character." The father of Pompey Doodle, who christened him 'Pumpey' in Middleton and Rowley's Wit at Several Weapons.


Undeclared, but clearly recognized as the Emperor in Kyd's Cornelia, Julius Caesar clearly loves Rome, and is proud of what he has accomplished in the name of Rome. He has conquered Rome's enemies and is building a vast colonial empire. He knows that the people of Rome love him and he can easily be crowned Emperor, but Mark Anthony, who rides by his side, warns Caesar that because Caesar is so powerful, so successful in war, and so loved by the people, there are Senators who will not only oppose him on his return, but will want him dead; a few may act on their desires. Caesar objects that what he has done has only enriched the state and he decides to leave his fate in the hands of the gods. He tells Mark Anthony that an unexpected and unlooked for death, might be the best way to die. After Pompey's murder, Julius Caesar captures Photis and Achillas and beheads them for the crime of murder. Caesar calls Pompey "honorable," but Cornelia does not believe he is sincere. She is one of the characters who longs for Caesar's death.
Caesar has conquered Germany and Gaul and is about to invade Britain in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. In a letter to Cassibelane he demands that Britain pays tribute to Rome and sends noble ladies as hostages. Cassibelane declines to follow these orders. For Caesar, the Britons are worthier enemies than the Gauls. It grieves him to fight his own people, as both nations claim to be descendents of Troy, but the Britons have helped the Belgians, they are rude and must be frightened before they can become friends. In his first attempt to conquer the island he loses a lot of men who drown when they have to wade to the shore in their heavy armor. Cassibelane has managed to raise an army from all the kingdoms of the island. In the battle, Caesar fights with Nennius and wounds him mortally, but he has to flee nevertheless and he loses his sword "Crocea Mors". He decides to leave the country and come back with a bigger army. Mandubrace comes as a messenger to offer the succour of Androgeus and Themantius, and now Caesar can oppose Cassibelane with a stronger force. He encounters Cassibelane's army twelve miles off the coast and remains relatively successful, but in the meantime his fleet is destroyed by a storm. He has to accept Cassibelane's peace offer, they exchange gifts and become friends, but Caesar can still set up the conditions: Cassibelane remains in power till he dies, Themantius instead of Androgeus shall then wear the crown, Mandubrace shall get Troynovant, and Britain shall pay a yearly tribute of 3,000 pound silver to Rome.
Caesar is a great general, fiercely ambitious but complex in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. Although Chapman's "Argument" presents him as a villain, the play is much less straightforward. He is cunning: he sets up his henchmen, Mark Antony and the tribune Metellus, to demand that the Senate should allow Pompey to bring his army to Rome, so that they will be unable to deny the same privilege to himself; he is courageous–he insists on crossing the river Anio in order to continue the war, although he knows that Pompey's navy is all around and a storm is raging; and he is highly conscious of being blessed by fortune. He also has the generosity to be impressed by his opponents, e.g. Cato, and to praise them generously in their defeat. The play ends with his repudiation of Pompey's murder, and order that the murderers should be tortured.
Having just won the battle of Pharsalia as the anonymous Caesar and Pompey opens, Caesar then travels to Egypt, where he promises to restore Cleopatra to her throne, and then falls in love with her, though little is made of this. Returning to Rome, he is murdered. He later returns as a ghost, describes the underworld, reconciles Octavian and Antony, and haunts Brutus.
Julius Caesar arrives in Egypt after beating Pompey in battle in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. He is presented with Pompey's head, but is not at all pleased; rather, he mourns the dishonorable death Pompey has suffered and threatens to kill Ptolemy, although he does eventually forgive the king on grounds on of youth. That night, Caesar receives a large package, which turns out to be Cleopatra, who begs for his protection. Caesar is immediately infatuated by her, and promises her anything, even calling her a goddess. However, when Ptolemy invites Caesar to a masque displaying the wealth of Egypt, Caesar is overwhelmed by the display and ignores Cleopatra. After the masque, he comes to see her, but is refused entrance. When he forces his way in and tries to mitigate her anger, she bitterly accuses him of treating her as a mistress only, cast off in favor of a new mistress–:gold. When Caesar promises that she can be queen or anything she wishes, she tells him to make her a maid again, and then leaves, ignoring his command to stay. His captains then appear and tell him that while he was distracted by lust, the palace has been besieged. Antony suggests that Ptolemy and Cleopatra are behind the revolt, but Caesar refuses to believe Cleopatra is a traitor. He parleys with Photinus, and is appalled that he is not respected by the eunuch, and humiliated that he might have to seek help. Septimus approaches him and promises to take Caesar and others to a cave where they can hide, but Caesar rejects this offer as shameful and probably just a way to kill him. Instead, he has Septimus hanged and goes on the attack, entering to rescue Cleopatra from Photinus, kill Photinus and Achillas and hand over Egypt to Cleopatra.
Caius Julius Caesar is a politician in the last days of the Roman republic in Jonson's Catiline. In the Roman Senate, Caesar enters with the other senators. Following the election of Cicero and Caius Antonius as consuls, Cicero delivers his speech of gratitude. It seems that Caesar resents Cicero's self-commendatory remarks, and insinuates that he would not put it past Cicero's ambition to have invented rumors of conspiracy in order to pose as a savior. Caesar keeps secret connections with Catiline, assuring him of his and Crassus's support, and prompting him to go along with the plot. In the Senate, just before Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy, Caesar wants to know the allegations. On seeing that most senators do not support Catiline, Caesar also keeps a low profile. In his turn, Cicero does not indict Caesar and Crassus together with Catiline because, he says, they are powerful and popular men and it is dangerous to stir too many serpents at once. Before the final confrontation between the Senate's army and Catiline's troupes, Caesar and Crassus discuss the situation. Seeing that Catiline's boat is sinking, Caesar and Crassus desert Catiline. After the depositions against the conspirators in the Senate, the Consul rules that Statilius should be placed in Caesar's private custody. When the Senate is summoned urgently to decide on the conspirators' punishment, Caesar makes an eloquent plea for moderation, opposing a vindictive and ruthless majority in the senate. However, the conspirators are sentenced to death, but Caesar and Crassus are not involved in the plot.
Julius Caesar is an immensely popular and powerful man in Rome in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Three times he is offered the kingship by Antony and is likely to be made king by the Senate. Caesar shows few overt signs of desiring kingship, yet he is nonetheless slain on the Senate floor by a band of conspirators. Though the play is named for Caesar, Caesar appears only moderately in the drama and is killed in II. His ghost reappears later in the play.
A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as a great Roman of the past.
Only mentioned in Shakespeare's Hamlet. In Q2, after the Ghost visits Barnardo, Marcellus and Horatio for the first time, Horatio describes how just before Julius Caesar was murdered, ghosts were seen walking the streets of Rome and the heavens rained fire. Later, just before the play within the play, Hamlet asks Polonius about his acting at university, and Polonius says that he played Julius Caesar. This is probably an in-joke, since it is likely that the actor playing Polonius did play the title character in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar; and Richard Burbage, the actor playing Hamlet, may have played Brutus.
Only mentioned in Markham's Herod and Antipater. Julius, or Julius Caesar, is mentioned by the First Slave as he refuses to kill King Herod on Augustus' order.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. The adopted father of Octavius Caesar and former lover of Cleopatra. He is mentioned multiple times by characters as a guide for their decisions and behavior.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Julius Caesar is mentioned by Sir Cupid Phantsy when he is telling Doctor Clyster about 'good men' who have also been writers: "What say you to Julius Caesar, Augustus, and Germanicus, and most of the emperors?" Julius Caesar (c. 100-44 B. C.) formed part, with Pompey and Crassus, of the First Triumvirate, and was later elected dictator perpetuus. His account of his eight years of Gallic campaigns in De Bello Gallico (The Gallic Wars) has become a classic of ancient history and literature, and gained him a reputation as a great writer.
Only mentioned in Rowley’s When You See Me. Wolsey compares himself to the great general.
Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Lingua. When Tactus puts on Lingua’s robe and crown, he imagines himself a Caesar or Alexander.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Pathomachia. Pride boasts of how he aided him.
A “ghost character" in Killigrew’s The Princess. Before the start of the play, Caesar would have put Facertes to death when he was captured despite Virgilius’s letters pleading to spare him because he had once spared Virgilius. Only Sophia’s prayer to Caesar saved Facertes. Note: although the famous Roman dictator is intended, this play bears no resemblance to the life, times, or family of the historical Caesar.


A "ghost character" in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. Lord Lodevico Caesar has the chief charge of the Portuguese battalions–the fourth legion that consists solely of Portuguese soldiers.


Nero, born Domitius A[he]nobarbus, is the son of Agrippina minor in May's Julia Agrippina. He has been adopted by Claudius, and through his mother's scheming eventually becomes Claudius's successor as Emperor. He takes first Acte and then Poppaea from his friend Otho, neglecting his wife Octavia in the process, and orders the deaths of first Britannicus and then Agrippina in his bid to consolidate his power. n.b. Nero is a nickname, a cognomen of the Claudian family that Agrippina bestowed upon him to stress and strengthen his Claudian relationship. It had also been a cognomen of the Claudian family, the emperor Tiberius's father was Tiberius Claudius Nero. Domitius A[he]nobarbus's regnal name was Nero Claudius Caesar.
An egotistical Emperor and an exhibitionist in the Anonymous Tragedy of Nero. His self-indulgence and cruelty make him the worst of tyrants. He has already murdered his first wife and his mother Agrippina minor amongst others. The play begins after Nero's return to Rome after a wasteful vacation in Greece. His obsessive love of sports, the performing arts, greed and sexual depravity encourage a conspiracy against his rule, led by Piso and Scevinus. Nero brags about his achievements and demands flattery from his followers. Critics are executed or banished. Rivals, as Lucan, are suppressed. He is petulant and oblivious to the growing hostility towards him. His blood lust grows beyond single deaths, and he fantasizes about the mass destruction of Rome itself. Rome burns. He plays the timbrell as he watches, growing delusional that he is watching his own Troy. Bereaved victims of the fire entertain him with their suffering. He later quarrels with his wife, who has discovered his effeminate marriage to the eunuch Sporus; he resents her jealousy. Melichus's betrayal of the conspiracy first makes him aware how vulnerable he is, and he afterwards becomes more paranoid. He kills his wife in a sudden rage when she tries to intercede on behalf of a Young Man he has condemned. His grief for her takes the shape of threatening a massacre to accompany her in death. He becomes complacent after the conspiracy is frustrated and is scornful at the news of the uprising of Vindex in Gaul. When later news of Galba's uprising in Spain reaches him, he has a tantrum (offstage). He is deserted by his flatterers and accompanied in his flight by Tigellinus. He blames Tigellinus for his unpopularity; an ambiguous stage direction suggests that at this point Tigellinus also abandons him. Two unnamed Romans bring him news of the gruesome death sentence passed on him by Galba and leave him to die alone. He ends his life dreading the revenge of his mother's ghost and the waiting Furies.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Nero was a Roman emperor between 54–68 AD. Famous for his cruelty and licentiousness, he married one of his favorites, Poppaea, whom he kicked to death while she was with child. Mammon wishes to emphasize to the mysterious lady (Dol Common in disguise) the importance of their love story. He tells her that he will lavish such riches on her that, when her name is mentioned, the queens may turn pale with envy and the love story of Nero and Poppaea will seem insignificant by comparison. Ironically, the marriage of Nero and Poppaea, based on sexual desire and lust for power, ended unfortunately for the empress and is not one of the great love stories.
Emperor of Rome at the start of Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. He is faced with wars in several parts of his Empire, most recently Judea. He is characterized by his attention to superstitious ritual and his emotional tirades. He confirms the crown of Judea to Agrippa and sends his best general, Vespatian, to wage war on the rebellious province. He does not re-appear. His death and the brief reigns of intervening Emperors are glossed over before the succession of Vespatian.


Tiberius, Emperor of Rome in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall. He is at first confident in Sejanus, but when Sejanus asks to marry Tiberius' recently-widowed daughter-in-law, the Emperor realizes Sejanus' ambition. He plots with Macro to have Sejanus tricked into presenting himself at the Senate house. Once there, the Emperor orders Sejanus' arrest and execution for treason. Tiberius is a corrupt man and a corrupt leader. He is susceptible to flattery, self-indulgent to the point of hedonism, and lascivious. According to legend, the part of Tiberius was originally played by William Shakespeare. Historically, he was the son on Livia and her first husband, Tiberius Claudius Nero.
Tiberius becomes emperor of Rome in the anonymous Tragedy of Tiberius. He begins the play feigning great lamentations over Augustus' death. He resents his mother, Julia, who obviously wishes to be the power behind his throne. He fears Germanicus, who may wish to lead his German legions in a coup. He sends Germanicus to Armenia where he has him poisoned. He proceeds to have his mother, Julia, and two enemies, Sabinus and Asinius, poisoned by Sejanus. He has Germanicus' sons imprisoned, where they starve to death. He tries to poison Agripinna but watches as she is strangled instead. In the course of the play he stabs no fewer than six messengers and servants and poisons his own son. He is killed at last when Caligula gives him a drink from the river Styx contained in a mule's hoof and then smothers and stabs him while the Emperor writhes in agony from the drink.
A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as having offered a precedent for a Claudian to adopt.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Mammon hopes to discover by alchemy the elixir of eternal youth and exceptional sexual prowess. He fantasizes about his future sexual encounters, which will happen in soft beds, in an oval room hung with licentious pictures, similar to those taken by the Roman emperor Tiberius from Elephantis and Aretine. Tiberius Augustus was the first Roman emperor, who died AD 14. When he became emperor, Tiberius was 56 years old, but he would rule for nearly 23 years and leave the empire more stable and prosperous than it had been. Yet, for all of the positive aspects of his reign, Tiberius is remembered as a monster and tyrant. Historians describe him as a man who had practiced every imaginable vice and who tortured and killed with ferocity.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's The Alchemist. Madam Caesarean is a brothel keeper in London. When Face wants to terminate his association with Subtle and Dol Common, he says Dol should leave through the back door and he will send her letters to Madam Caesarean. Dol is angered by the suggestion.


A young Florentine gentleman, son of Alberto and proud of his noble birth in Fletcher, Ford, Massinger and Webster's The Fair Maid of the Inn. He lusts after Bianca, an innkeeper's daughter, but refuses to marry her for fear of debasing his gentility. He is protective of his sister, Clarissa, with an incestuous ardor, and forbids her to marry Mentivole when a fight between them divides their respective families. Caesario's life is turned upside down when his mother, Mariana, reveals that he is actually the adopted son of a falconer. Desperate to retain a sense of gentility, Caesario contemplates marrying his mother and then his sister, but both turn him down, as does Bianca. Humiliated, he longs for death, but his problem is solved when Prospero reveals that Bianca is in fact an aristocratic foundling: Caesario thus marries her and all is well.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. The son of Cleopatra and, reportedly, Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, at the last, attempts to persuade Caesar to give Egypt to him, but fails.


A "ghost character" in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. She does not appear on stage, but Caesar hears of her death after he has lost the first battle against Cassibelane.


Main character, though mute, of one of the five dumb shows Jupiter orders which features those slain by the machinations of Venus and Fortune in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune.


Only mentioned by Macros in Verney’s Antipoe.


Achmetes' son in Goffe's Raging Turk, Caigubus is warned by his father about the perils of court life, and told to be especially wary of Isaack. When Baiazet throws the black mantle of death on his father he calls the janissaries to help. After his father is murdered by Baiazet he commits suicide before he, too, can be executed by the raging Turk.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by God as an example of man's sinfulness.
Only mentioned in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV, Cain is the biblical son of Adam who slew his brother, becoming the world's first murderer whose example the enraged Northumberland plans to follow after learning of the Shrewsbury defeat.
Only mentioned in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. Biblical character, brother to Abel, who lost God's favor for not choosing the best of his crops to be offered to the Lord.


A thane of Scotland in Shakespeare's Macbeth. Loyal to King Duncan's son Malcolm, Caithness joins Angus, Menteith and Lennox in leading the Scottish forces in the revolt against Macbeth.


Caius, a kinsman of Titus in Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus, shoots arrows with messages to the gods at Titus's request. He also helps Titus capture Demetrius and Chiron.


Caius is the name assumed by the banished Earl of Kent in Shakespeare's King Lear. Unrecognized by Lear or the king's entourage, Caius/Kent enters Lear's service as a plain-spoken man whose insults to and fighting with Oswald later land Caius in the stocks, by order of Cornwall and Regan. Caius does not reveal himself to Lear as Kent until the very end of the play.


A judge in the trial of Piso and Havelittle in Sharpham's The Fleire.


A "ghost character" in the Anonymous Tragedy of Nero. Reported by Tigellinus to Nero for frowning at the Emperor's performance as Orestes.


The formal name of Caligula, sometimes used of him in May's Julia Agrippina.


Caius Antonius is a consul of republican Rome, together with Cicero, but Catiline considers him his ally in Jonson's Catiline. In his address to the conspirators, Catiline lists his allies and possible enemies, saying he hoped to have Caius Antonius as a colleague. In the Senate, Antonius enters with the other senators. He has just been elected consul, together with Cicero. However, Cicero delivers his address of gratitude, while Antonius is strangely silent. When Crassus addresses him directly, telling him he looks neglected, Antonius responds he does not care. Having been privy to Catiline's plot, Antonius wants to keep a low profile, now that the things have turned out differently than he had expected. When Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy in the Senate, Caesar wants to know Antonius's position. Since Cicero had bribed him by naming him the governor of a province, Antonius responds he does not know anything and retires from the debate. In private, Antonius admits that Cicero has bought him with a province. When the Senate decides to send an army against the self-exiled Catiline, Antonius refuses to become involved in the conflict, pretending to be suffering from gout. However, since he cannot refuse Cicero, Antonius sends his lieutenant, Petreius, as a general of the senatorial army. Because he wants to keep aloof, Antonius has no further direct role in the conspirators' arrest and punishment.


General of Antonius in May's Cleopatra. At the beginning of the play, he jocularly defends Antonius's relationship with Cleopatra against the muttering of Plancus and Titius, and supports her bid to participate in the Battle of Actium. He flees from this battle, but remains loyal to Antonius, encouraging him up to his own last appearance in the play (just before the disastrous Battle of Tarentum). May seems to have worked up this character from a very brief hint in Plutarch; he serves a small part of the purpose served in Shakespeare by Enobarbus. Historically, this was Caius Publius Canidius Crassus.


Caius Cethegus is a Roman general and a member of Catiline's conspiracy in Jonson's Catiline. At Catiline's house, Cethegus enters with the other conspirators, expressing his regret for the violent days of Sylla's dictatorship, when murder was the order of the day. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot has been exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. The incendiary materials are to be deposited at Cethegus's house. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. After Cicero accused Catiline of conspiracy in the Senate, the confederates have another secret meeting, in which they decide to go along with the plot while Catiline is gone to exile. When evidence against the conspirators has been obtained Cethegus and his confederates are brought to trial before the Senate. When Cicero accuses Cethegus that his house contained an entire armory, Cethegus denies having any connection with the plot. When he is confronted with the incriminating letters intercepted from Allobroges, Cethegus says he did not know what he wrote. The Senate's resolution places Cethegus in Cornificius's private custody. When it is reported that the conspirators continued the seditious actions, the Senate decides the death penalty and Cethegus is executed.


Dr. Caius is a French physician in love with Mistress Anne Page in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. He has been promised Anne's hand by Mistress Page. He finds Simple has been hidden by Mistress Quickly in his closet and also discovers Slender's plot to woo Anne, a plot conceived by Evans. Dr. Caius vows to fight Evans to the death. The Host of the Garter sends the duelists to different places. When Caius and Evans discover the cheat, they join forces and cozen the Host of three horses. While Falstaff is being tormented in Windsor Park, Caius steals off with a person he thinks is Anne but discovers that he has married a boy.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Catiline. Caius Licinius is a Roman senator. Sempronia reports to Fulvia the political machination supposed to lead to Catiline's election as a consul. According to Sempronia, there are six competitors beside Catiline for the consulship. These are Caius Antonius, Galba, Longinus, Cornificius, Licinius, and Cicero. Catiline's arrangement is for Licinius, Longinus, Galba, and Cornificius to retire from the competition, while Cicero cannot be elected because he is not a patrician. Thus, Catiline and Antonius are left as the only candidates. In fact, the situation is changed and, following rumors of Catiline's plot, Cicero and Caius Antonius are elected. It seems that Licinius, like other senators, was privy to Catiline's plans, but did not get involved in the conspiracy.


Caius Lucius is Rome's ambassador and later the general of Rome's invading forces in Shakespeare's Cymbeline. After the Romans have been vanquished, Caius Lucius begs Cymbeline to ransom his page, Fidele, who is really Cymbeline's daughter Imogen in disguise.


Caius Manlius is a lictor, a minor official who carried the fasces and cleared the way for the chief magistrates in Jonson's Catiline. He had formerly fought in the Cimbrian war and enlisted in Catiline's conspiracy. During the secret nightly meeting in which the conspirators devise their strategy of retaliation, Catiline informs his fellows of his plans. He says he has already sent Manlius to the province of Fesulae to raise an army to help the conspirators on the fated day, when they intend to set Rome on fire and kill Catiline's enemies at once. In his address against Catiline in the Roman Senate, Cicero accuses him of having sent his lictor, Caius Manlius, to raise an army and attack Rome on the calends of November, with the precise purpose of slaughtering all the Senate members.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Menas identifies him as the previous husband of Octavia, although no mention is made of what has happened to him.


Caius Martius is Coriolanus's given name in Shakespeare's Coriolanus.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. Caius Marius (155–86 BC) was a Roman general and political leader, who acted as a praetor or consul. He led victorious campaigns against Cimbri and Teutoni, but his rivalry with Sylla led to civil war. Sylla was an adherent of the senatorial party and marched with troupes on Rome. However, as soon as Sylla and his regions were safely out of the way to the war in Asia, Marius seized Rome with his army and massacred many of the senatorial leaders. Hovering over Catiline's head, Sylla's Ghost invokes the evil powers to help him to inoculate the germs of destruction in Catiline's mind. Sylla's Ghost makes an incursion in earlier Roman history, implying that Marius, his former political rival, was motivated by the same type of destructive ambition that he wanted to instill in Catiline's spirit.


Caius Pomtinius is a praetor in Rome, responsible for the law and order together with Flaccus in Jonson's Catiline. At Cicero's house, Cicero tells his brother to summon a number of senators and loyal officials, among whom he mentions Pomtinius and Flaccus. The praetors witness the scene in which Cornelius and Vargunteius are not admitted to Cicero's house, because he has been warned that they intend to murder him. However, Cicero does not charge the praetors to arrest the would-be murderers because he lacks evidence. At Cicero's house, the consul instructs the praetors on the strategy of war, following the Senate's decision to send an army against Catiline. Pomtinius and Flaccus renew their allegiance to Rome, telling Cicero they will fight under the command of Petreius. Actually, only Pomtinius speaks, while Flaccus acts accordingly. Sanga enters announcing that the conspirators have taken the bait and the Allobroges must be intercepted at the Milvian Bridge. Pomtinius and Flaccus exeunt to execute the orders. The praetors intercept Allobroges, telling them to surrender, which they do easily, despite Volturtius's protests. The praetors arrest the entire party taking them to Rome. After the conspirators are brought to trial before the Senate, the consul rules that the praetors should be given public thanks for their handling of the conspirators' arrest.


Like Domitius in May's Cleopatra, Sossius is a Roman consul banished from Rome for favoring Antonius. Sossius comes to Egypt to visit Antonius, and urges him to seize the moment to attack Caesar. [The character, also spelled Sosius, disappears early on, and May does not say what happens to him. Unlike Domitius and so many others, the historical character stayed loyal to Antonius; Dio says that he went into hiding after Antonius's death, but was pardoned by Caesar.]


An officer in Caesar's camp in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. Also spelled Uolusenus. He has to go to Britain as an ambassador and spy. He brings Caesar's letter to Cassibelane, in which Caesar asks the Britains to pay tribute for having helped the Gauls, and to submit ladies as hostages. When he comes back to Caesar, he says he has seen a paradise. The letter he brings back to Caesar says that the Britons refuse to follow his demands, as both Romans and Britons were descendents of Troy.


Caladrino, the Country servant to Giovanni in Massinger's The Great Duke of Florence, marries Petronella.


A "ghost character," Calamah does not appear on stage in Denham's The Sophy. He is described as the son of Abbas by another woman. At the last moment, Mirvan hopes to put him on the throne as a puppet-king, to be directed by Haly.


Calamancha is the wife of Lyon-Rash in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. Along with the other characters, she follows the cycle that begins with the reign of Plenty and ends with Poverty.


Calaminta, Servant to Fiorinda in Massinger's The Great Duke of Florence.


A lord in Shirley's The Arcadia. With Philanax, he counsels Basilius to leave his hiding place and return to the throne. Assists in defeating the Rebels who try to capture Philanax and Basilius.


Calantha, the titular "broken heart" is primarily notable for her composure in Ford's The Broken Heart. Although she almost certainly favors Ithocles from the beginning, no one including the audience is aware of her feelings until she asks her dying father, the king, to marry him to her near play's end. When earlier Ithocles' sister, Penthea, tells her of her brother's love, Calantha's response is characteristically ambiguous. So, too, is her tossing the ring (her favor) to Ithocles instead of to her intended spouse, Nearchus. The act barely betrays favor and could as easily be seen as her displeasure (if any) with Nearchus. She is likewise composed in the act five celebration where she successively learns of her father's death, the death of Penthea, and the murder of Ithocles. Her reaction at each announcement is to call for music and a change of partners. It seems an anticlimax, deflating the dramatic situation, until at the very end we learn that she has been holding all inside. The events conspire at last to break her heart. Her death, smiling, sums up the whole of her emotional strain throughout the play. She becomes a fascinating study of a seemingly emotionless woman at last consumed by emotion. Her name means "flower of beauty."


Also known as Bassa Calcepius in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. Bassa is the leader of a trusty band of men that carefully attend Abdelmelec's people in their camp–his men are soldiers comparable to the guard of myrmidons that kept Achilles tent. Sent by Amurath, the king of Turks, to repay Abdelmelec's service in Amurath's father's dangerous war, Bassa's duty is to invade the Moor's realm and seek revenge, and to install the proper emperor to the throne. Given tokens of gratitude after helping Abdelmelec's people win the war against the brutish Moor, Bassa returns to his home "as glorious as Great Pompey in his pride."


Raised from the dead by Medea in Greene's Alphonsus, King of Arragon to foretell the outcome of Amurack's war.


A Trojan priest who has sided with the Greeks in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. Father to Cressida, he urges the Greeks to exchange Cressida for Antenor.
A Trojan priest and seer in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Calchas is the father of Cressida. He is sent by Priam to the oracle at Delphi to learn about the prospect for Trojan success in the war. He returns to Troy with Achilles, who had been sent to Delphi by Agamemnon to learn the same thing, and knowing that the attackers will ultimately destroy Troy, Calchas decides to stay with the Greeks. At the banquet Priam hosts for the Greek and Trojan leaders, Calchas urges his daughter Cressida to leave Troy (and her beloved Troilus) and to accept the marriage proposal offered by Diomedes.


Caldoro, Durazzo's nephew and ward in Massinger's The Guardian. He is in love with Calista.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David and God as an example of an upright, virtuous man.


A desert shepherd and suitor to Epimenide in Percy's Arabia Sitiens. Epimenide offers to sleep with him if he brings her Geber's purse, so he swears on the Alcoron (Koran) to complete the task. He persuades Geber to give him his purse by telling the sorcerer that he will use it as part of love spell to enchant Epimenide. He and Tubal meet again near Mecha and share the stories of their thefts. They encounter Shebe and Nabatha, who are gorgeously dressed for their foretold wedding. When the women tell Caleb and Tubal that Epimenide has gone to Heaven, the men realize they will be unable to keep their sacred vow to bring Geber's posessions to Epimenide. They consult Sergius and he agrees to take the four of them to Heaven. Once there, Caleb presents the purse to Epimenide. She criticizes him for the fact that it is empty and dismisses him. Mahomet grants him Shebe as a wife instead.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's Brazen Age. Spelled Catalonian Boar in the text, this animal is a vicious beast sent to torment Oeneus's people because the king fails offer a suitable sacrifice. He kills a number of hunters, most notably Adonis, before finally being killed by Meleager and his entire band of hunters.


Calfshead is a Puritan in Cokain's Trappolin. He is critical of drinking, but devoted to all other vices. He brings a suit against Bulsflesh to the disguised Trappolin, claiming that Bulflesh killed Calfshead's serving man. Trappolin's judgment is that Calfshead must become drunk and murder Bulflesh if he desires justice. Bulflesh is pleased with this judgment, while Calfshead finds it an outrage.


Blames the defeat of the Turkish on John of Bordeaux in ?Greene and Chettle's John of Bordeaux.


Courtier of Bajazet and son of Hali Bassa in ?Greene's Selimus I. As Bajazet sleeps, Hali Bassa and Cali Bassa both argue with Mustaffa against Acomat gaining the crown during Bajazet's lifetime. They both support Selimus as successor and Mustaffa agrees to also support Selimus so long as they remain loyal to Bajazet during his lifetime. Witnesses the return of the mutilated Aga from his embassy to Acomat, and Bajazet's decision to send a force under Selimus against Acomat. Hali and Cali witness Selimus' return and appointment as head of the Janissaries. They shift their loyalty to Selimus and once Selimus has gained the crown they are sent with an army against Corcut's forces and orders to strangle Corcut. Hali and Cali encounter Corcut's Page, who leads them to the disguised Corcut and Bullithrumble. Hali apprehends Corcut, and Cali arrests Bullithrumble, who slips away as the party exits. Hali and Cali enter with the Page and present Corcut to Selimus as prisoner. They leave with Selimus and Sinam to join in the siege of Amasia. Hali, Cali, Sinam, the Janissaries and Selimus arrive at Amasia. During the battle with Acomat's forces, Hali and Cali are beaten in by Tonombey.


Calianax is Aspatia's father in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Maid's Tragedy. He is counselor to the King and was once a favorite. His youth never promised valiance, but he is in his old age called upon to act against his enemies. Chief among his enemies is Melantius. When Melantius comes to him for assistance in a planned assassination, the old man tells the King of the treason. The King does not believe Calianax, however, and the old man's dismissal from court forces him to side with Melantius in the assassination of the King. His main characteristic is proclaiming that he has discovered valiance in his old age.


Calib is a witch in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. She lives in a cave with her son, Suckabus, Tarpax the devil, and young George, whom she has doted on since she stole him from his parents at a tender age. Tarpax prophecies to Calib that she will not die until love clouds her judgment. Both Suckabus and George are keen to know their true parentage, so Calib reveals to Suckabus that Tarpax is his father, and tells George that she rescued him from his murderous mother. She shows George the six champions that she has imprisoned in her cave, and gives him her magic wand as a present. When George learns the truth, he uses the wand to imprison her within a rock. Tarpax's prophecy is thus fulfilled. Tarpax later informs Suckabus that Calib has become a duchess in Hell.


Caliban, whose name is sometimes argued to be an anagram of "cannibal," is the beastly son of Sycorax in Shakespeare's The Tempest. Because she was pregnant with Caliban, Sycorax was spared execution for practicing witchcraft and instead exiled from Algiers. She was taken to the deserted island that Prospero would later inhabit, and there gave birth to Caliban. Upon Sycorax's death, Caliban inherited the island and saw himself as king of it. When Prospero arrived, he took control of the island away from Caliban, and taught him how to be civilized. However, when Caliban tried to rape Miranda, Prospero made him a slave. The play begins twelve years after this action. After Prospero conjures the storm that strands Alonso's party on the island, Caliban meets Stefano and Trinculo, Alonso's butler and jester. Stefano gives Caliban wine, and Caliban thereby mistakes him for a god and pledges him fealty. They become drunk and conspire to murder Prospero. Ariel overhears the plot and prevents it by leading the three around the island until they fall into a pool. Caliban is later confronted by Prospero, who indicates that he will pardon Caliban.


Ozaca’s husband and an old, jealous Cham in Carlell’s Osmond. He fears to entertain Orcanes in his home lest he be cuckolded. He attempts to keep them from seeing one another and is annoyed when he accidentally puts her in the garden where Orcanes enters. Later, he drops a letter for Orcanes to find and pretends to be Ozaca at her window and thus discovers Orcanes’ intentions. He privately jeers at Orcanes’ protestations of chastity but is fooled into running to a garden house fire and leaving Ozaca unguarded from Orcanes while he puts it out. He discovers Orcanes in Ozaca’s bedroom but is duped into believing that he raped her and she is chaste. He determines to get his revenge upon the prince without resort to bloodshed. Calibeus goes to Malcosbus for justice over Orcanes’ ‘rape’ of Ozaca, but Melcosbus refuses to punish the prince. In his rage, he joins the captains and soldiers who plan Melcosbus’ overthrow. After the king punishes Orcanes with death, Calibeus returns to Ozaca with the happy news. To his surprise, she stabs him and herself whilst confessing she went willingly to the prince’s bed. He begs her to recover and repent her sins, saying he will forgive her. Servants bear him away as he orders that his wife be given an honorable burial.


Caligula (Caius), son of Agrippina in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall . He is abducted by Macro and is last heard of living on Capri and out of favor.
Caligula, son of Germanicus in the anonymous Tragedy of Tiberius, tells Tiberius he ought to become Emperor. He foolishly refers to the imperial crown as gold worth the having. He plays the fool to divert suspicion from himself. He knows Tiberius is a tyrant, but pretends even to his siblings and mother that he thinks the Emperor is a "brave" man with a lovely crown. His apparent folly (and subsequent harmlessness) wins him invitations to dine with the Emperor. He witnesses the murder by strangulation of his mother, Agrippina, and by starvation of his brothers, Drusus and Nero. He joins forces with the soldier Macro in a righteous conspiracy against Tiberius. He gives the Emperor a mule's hoof full of water from the river Styx (which he says killed Alexander the Great) then smothers Tiberius in a sheet and stabs him to death. He becomes Emperor at play's end.
The ghost of the former Emperor Caligula speaks part of the Prologue, along with the fury Megaera in May's Julia Agrippina. He prophesies that Nero will be a worse emperor even than himself. n.b. "Caligula" is a nickname meaning "little boots."


Halibeck's fellow in hostility toward Anthony and Robert Sherley in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers. He tries to denigrate Robert to the Sophy's Niece. He also encourages the Sophy to be angry at Robert's deal with the Great Turk, and at Robert's love for the Niece.


Calin is a "ghost character" in Daniel's Philotas. According to the Nuntius, Calin is accused of involvement in the plot against Alexander by Philotas.


The Caliph, a subordinate of Abbas in Denham's The Sophy. He is compelled against his will to support the plot to frame and punish Mirza. After Abbas's death, he defends the right of Soffy to rule, but he is executed nonetheless.


The Caliph's city is being attacked by the Egyptians in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. He is angry when his son, Clitophon, refuses to fight until he is permitted to marry the Christian Justina. The Caliph pretends to agree, but secretly orders Justina to be drowned. When he finds out, Clitophon releases the captured Soldan and leaves, taking many of the soldiers with him. The Caliph agrees to settle the war in a single combat between Lysander and Armidan. But when 'Armidan' is revealed to be Lysander's lover, Miranda, the Caliph is furious. Before the Babylonians and the Egyptians can kill the couple, the Romans burst in and force the Caliph and the Soldan to submit to Rome. In the conclusion, the Caliph agrees that Clitophon may marry Justina and invites everyone to Babylon for a party.

Wife of Muly Mahamet in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley, she tearfully bids him farewell on the eve of the Battle of Alcazar.
Only mentioned in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV, Calipolis is the wife of Muly Mahomet in Peele's play Battle of Alcazan. Calipolis is referred to by Pistol in arguing with Doll Tearsheet and Hostess Quickly at the Board's Head Tavern.


Calipso, the confidant of Iolante in Massinger's The Guardian. She suffers the wrath of Severino while serving her lady.


The princess Calis is the sister of Astorax, the king of Paphos in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. When the general Memnon becomes infatuated with her and begins acting strangely, she is fearful and attempts to keep him at a distance. When Siphax, the brother of Cleanthe, one of Calis's ladies in waiting, visits the princess on behalf of Memnon, he is himself smitten and enlists his sister in an effort to gain her hand. A short time later, Polidor and the friends of Memnon visit the princess in an effort to convince her of Memnon's great love, but Calis instead falls in love with Polidor. Cleanthe lures Calis to the Temple of Venus to receive a fake message from the goddess that will lead her to Siphax, but in the event, the real goddess herself appears and tells Calis she will have a dead lover, but one which will please her. When Polidor stages his own funeral in an attempt to incline the princess to Memnon, he is forced to reveal himself when Memnon attempts suicide, accepts Calis, but then bestows her upon his brother. Returned to his wits, the general recognizes that Calis loves Polidor, and asks Astorax to honor his brother with the hand of the princess and to find a military action for himself. The king is so moved by the display of honor and generosity all around that he grants both requests and orders a public celebration to mark the union of Calis and Polidor.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. After Cleanthe agrees to help her brother Siphax win the heart of Calis, she begins acting strangely in the presence of the princess. Calis calls attention to the odd behavior (which is seconded by Lucippe), remarking that strange things always seem to happen when Cleanthe acts this way. When Cleanthe objects, the princess points out that the last time the lady behaved in such a fashion was immediately before the death of the princess's unnamed sister.


Calista is a daughter of Theophilus in Massinger and Dekker's The Virgin Martyr. She is sent, along with her sister, Christeta, to convert Dorothea to paganism. Instead, Dorothea converts them to Christianity.


Wife to Clarindore in Massinger's The Parliament of Love. She disguises herself as Beaupre, servant to Bellisant, a noble lady. Bellisant tricks Clarindore into believing that he has seduced her. But it is a bed trick in which she sends Calista (as Beaupre) in her place. At the end of the play, she and her husband are reunited.


Calista, daughter of Severino and Iolante in Massinger's The Guardian. She is initially in love with Adorio but eventually falls in love with Caldoro.


Caliste, or Calista in the title of Massinger's 1634 Cleander, or Lisander and Calista (a revision of Fletcher's 1623 The Wandering Lovers?), is wife to Cleander. She attempts to create a union between Clarinda and Lisander, all the while being pursued by Lisander. At midnight, Lisander visits her. Caliste awakens, and Lisander tells her of his love and affection. Caliste is shocked, and asks if he would have her break her bonds of marriage. Lisander responds that he would not, but then asks if he may kiss her hand. She allows him. They then kiss. Lisander draws forth a pistol, asking Caliste to kill him before his passion overwhelms him. Before she can respond, there are noises from within. Lisander hides behind a curtain. Cleander enters. She assures him that she is fine, and Cleander leaves. With the way now clear, Caliste entreats Lisander to leave before they are caught. Soon after, Cleander is found dead with Lisander's sword close by. Caliste and Lisander are accused of murdering Cleander. Her father's attempts to clear her are ineffective, but she is exonerated by the testimony of Lisander and Leon. Her maid and Leon are implicated for the murder, and the king tells her that she can marry Lisander in one year's time.


The insensate wooer of Melebea in ?Rastell's Calisto and Melebea, Calisto reveals his love to Sempronio, and offers to give the servant a gold chain if he can help in the conquest. Sempronio produces Celestina as the peerless agent in such affairs, and Calisto gives her 100 pieces of gold. He rejects Parmeno's attempt to show him the folly of his ways.


Lycaon's daughter in Heywood's The Golden Age. She resists Jupiter's amorous advances and swears virginity, joining Diana's train. Disguised as a "manly lass" called Virago, Jupiter infiltrates Diana's coterie, by turns raping and proposing to Calisto who refuses him again. She retreats into the woods, where she raises her son (by Jupiter) Archas. Later, Jupiter embraces his son and gives him the kingdom of Pelagia (now named Archadia after Archas). Calisto refuses Jupiter's third proposal, preferring the solitude of the forest and abjuring "all peopled cities."


Daughter of King Lycaon in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter. The play's first human love-interest for Jupiter. After her father is "beaten off" and Jupiter has replaced him as King of Pelagia, Callisto enters "as affrighted" and immediately inspires the new king with desire. She first reacts with hauteur, then, realizing her newly subordinate position, tricks him into granting her request: to allow her to become a follower of the virgin goddess Diana. She succeeds in becoming an initiate, and Atlanta, the leading follower, administers the virgins' oath to her; but Jupiter follows, disguised as another would-be votarist, and soon manages to isolate her from the others in the woods. There he is quick to take advantage of his situation, and her. Unlike the heroines who follow her, Callisto is clearly the victim of a rape. Homer, the chorus, supplies the end of her story: that she refuses his offer of marriage, and stays in the forest, hiding from the virgins. Juno, Jupiter's resentful wife, later reveals that Callisto has been transformed into a constellation. [Juno says that Callisto has become the Little Bear; usually, Callisto is identified with the Great Bear.]
Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. In Greek mythology, Calisto was a nymph who was turned into a bear by Hera then placed in the sky as the constellation Ursa Major by Zeus. Otter wants his gallant friends to persuade Mistress Otter to let him take his favorite silver cups to the party at Morose's house. Deriding Otter's pretended knowledge of Latin and classical mythology, Clerimont says that Mistress Otter must be convinced with solid classical arguments. Since one of Otter's cups was named bull and the other bear, in memory of his bachelor days at the bear-baiting arena, Clerimont brings examples from classical mythology related to these animals. Thus, he explains that Calisto was turned into a bear and made a star, a mistress Ursula in the heavens.


Calistus, a freedmen in the service of Flaminius in Massinger's Believe As You List. Along with Demetrius, he acts as the Flaminius' henchmen.


Calistus in Richards' Messalina joins Narcissus and Pallas in lamenting Claudius's gullibility and persuading him to act against Messalina and Silius.


Calladine is a counselor of the Duke in Davenant's Love and Honor. He fights on the battlefield with Alvaro and receives praise for his actions. When Alvaro discovers that Propsero has taken Evandra hostage, and threatens his life, Calladine is the one who stops him and makes the suggestion that Prospero hide Evandra until she can be freed or the Duke's plan to execute her can be changed. After Evandra is successfully hidden, Calladine brings the message to Alvaro and Prospero that the Duke is enraged. Alvaro goes to comfort him and Prospero confesses to Calladine that he has fallen in love with Evandra. Calladine is saddened that the two friends are in love with the same woman, and tells Prospero to be careful. Melora, pretending to be Evandra, seeks out Calladine and asks that she be taken to the Duke. However, Calladine is so impressed with her beauty and courage that he does not have the heart to take her to certain death. When Melora asks him to see that "Melora" (actually Evandra) is sent to Milan, Calladine instead plans to present her to the Duke. Evandra, of course, understands what is happening and gladly consents to go in "Evandra"'s place. They arrive after Melora has presented herself to the Duke as Evandra, and the Duke decides both will die since both claim to be Evandra. In the folio version of the play, Calladine is the one who leads Alvaro, Propsero and Leonell to the prison where Melora and Evandra are kept. He passes on to Vasco the Duke's command that a guard be assembled for the women. He meets with the Duke of Milan and the brother of the Duke (disguised as Ambassadors), and hopes that they can sway the Duke, so he leads them to the Duke, where all is revealed.


Callapine in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta appears—from an address by Calymath—to be the main Bashaw, although he is not so identified in the stage directions.


Bajazeth's son and Tamburlaine's prisoner in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2. His full name is Callapinus Cyricelibes, and Orcanes says his nickname is Cybelius, but everyone including Callapine usually uses the form Callapine in the play. Callapine offers his keeper, Almeda, a thousand galleys, gold, virgins, chariot and slaves if he helps him escape from Tamburlaine. He offers him a kingship, which he swears by Mahomet to deliver. He escapes with the aid of Almeda and vows to avenge his father's death. He is reinstated as emperor in III.i before a host including Orcanes and the kings of Trebizon, Soria, and Jerusalem. He promises again to make Almeda a king. They march to Aleppo to meet Tamburlaine. At the parley, he flouts Tamburlaine by making Almeda king of Ariadan before Tamburlaine's eyes. In the battle that follows, Tamburlaine defeats Callapine's united forces, but Callapine escapes capture. He rallies more troops, allies himself to the King of Amasia, and marches to meet Tamburlaine outside the fallen Babylon. The army arrives believing that Tamburlaine is on his deathbed, but when Tamburlaine rises and appears on the field they all run away for fear of him.

CALLIAS **1638

A Bithynian courtier in Mayne’s Amorous War. He, Neander, and Artops, frightened by the invasion from Thrace, resolve to volunteer to guard Barsene and Roxane on a safe island beyond Bithynia. They go to Orythia and Thalaestris to ask that they be included in the ladies’ guard but the wives refuse them. Once made captain of a band of rough soldiers, the foppish courtier expounds upon their country habits. He advises the king to treat for peace and spare bloodshed. He offers the “Amazon ambassadors" that if the warrior women wish to return carrying Bithyan issue in their wombs, that he and the other courtiers would gladly oblige them. Whilst attempting to seduce the “Amazons" they dispraise their own court women (especially Orythia, Thalaestris, Menalippe and Marthesia, not realizing those are the very women to whom they speak.) Their soldiers threaten to mutiny, but the captains turn a deaf ear to them. Orythia, Thalaestris, and Marthesia tease Callias, Neander, and Artops by pretending they are prepared to bed them, but at the crucial moment an alarum sounds (by prearranged sign) that the camp is up in arms and the three men are “captured" by their own soldiers, Macrinus, Lacero, and Serpix, in disguise. Callias, Neander, and Artops are blindfolded and led away and made to exchange clothes with their soldiers (still believing them to be Thracians), and Macrinus, Lacero, and Serpix tease and taunt them with visions of slavery and gelding in Thrace. Callias begs to be hanged instead. They are further humbled by swearing never to bear arms against Thrace and agree to be paraded in women’s clothes before having their blindfolds put off to discover they are standing before the “Amazons," Theagines, and Meleager. To save their reputations, Callias, Neander, and Artops capture four of the “treasonous" Amazons only to discover they are Orythia, Thalaestris, Menalippe and Marthesia (newly unmasked) and the captains are again made fools.


An envious lord in Sharpe’s Noble Stranger. He despises Honorio and Fabianus for gaining the glory he believes is his and vows to be revenged though he pretends friendship to both. He woos Marania. He is further angered, however, when the princess leaves him out in naming the three most worthy men Honorio, Fabianus, and Philomusus and bids them be friends. He opens act three with the play’s first soliloquy in which he hopes to thwart Honorio by revealing the man’s illegal love for the princess. He hides behind the arras to overhear them. He is yet even further enraged when the king gives his three rivals preferment and titles and gives him nothing. He tells the king of Honorio’s illegal wooing of the princess and that Fabianus is their agent. He leads the king to see the lovers’ garden tryst and hides him behind the arras before taking his leave. When Honorio and Fabianus draw their swords against the king to protect the ladies, he enters with his own sword drawn and calls them traitors. The king entrusts Callidus to guard the princess in her lodgings, but he secretly tells Honorio that he’ll arrange for them to meet before Honorio goes into banishment. He allows the conference, he says in his second soliloquy, to keep the princess from suspecting him as he fears her revenge after the king dies and she becomes monarch. He watches with private gloating as the lovers part. When it is revealed that Honorio is the Prince of Portugal, Callidus’ treachery is revealed and his punishment, meted out by Marania, is that Marania will not marry him but become a vestal virgin instead. The king scolds him, saying, “away and learn to amend hereafter."


Sylvia is identified throughout Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday as Calligone by those who know her as the king's daughter, indicating that the name "Sylvia" is actually a part of the Smyrnian disguise which she dons in order to escape the court.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Callimachus was a third-century BC Greek lyric poet, born in Cyrene. Credited with some 800 works, including Actia, a collection of legends, Callimachus worked as a schoolmaster and as chief of Alexandrian Library. When Ovid praises the immortality of poetry, he says that Callimachus will live forever through his verses. Though Callimachus's invention is lower than that of the great Greek poets Homer and Hesiod, Ovid says, still his verses will be sung forever because they represent the immortality of art. When Tucca wants to show Ovid Senior that he is trying to persuade Ovid to give up poetry and study law, he calls the poet ironically Callimachus, telling him he must leave these poets because they are poor starved rascals, the very emblems of beggary. At the end of the play, after Virgil has Crispinus take an emetic and throw up all his bad words, he then prescribes a long-term cure. Virgil advises Crispinus to observe a strict and wholesome diet. Virgil suggests that Crispinus should read, with a tutor, the best Greek authors, among whom Virgil mentions Callimachus.


Philargurus' daughter, Lollio's sister in the anonymous Timon of Athens. She is ready to marry Gelasimus because he is rich and gullible. Immediately before their wedding ceremony she decides to marry Timon instead, because he seems to be richer. ("Who doth possess most gold shall me possess," III.2.31). Their wedding gets interrupted by a shipwrecked sailor, who announces that Timon has lost all his fortune. Callimela then tells her nurse Blatt to go to Gelasimus and tell him that she is again at his disposal. But Gelasimus declines because has heard Pseudocheus' stories about the Antipodes and he now intends to marry the Princess of the Antipodes. When Timon finds gold, Callimela entreats him again to marry her. Sarcastically, he tells her to marry his gold instead, and she agrees immediately.


Accepts Venus as her student in Greene's Alphonsus, King of Arragon in Venus' attempt to write the history of Alphonsus.


Friend to Ranoffe in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids, this foolish Lord in the court of Duke Earnest pursues a suit for the newly arrived milkmaid Julia. Surprised, the courtier attempts to fight Frederick while he is invisible; recognizing the futility of this pugilism, he agrees to guide the invisible man.


Servant to Musidorus in Shirley's The Arcadia. Reveals the true identity of Musidorus and Pyrocles to Euarchus after they are sentenced.


Caesar's wife in the anonymous Caesar and Pompey. Calphurnia warns him that her dreams presage ill if he goes to the Senate.


Calphurnia is a professional prostitute in Richards' Messalina. She loses to Messalina in the contest over who can couple with more men.
A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina. Because Claudius admired her, Agrippina banished her.


Calphurnianus in Richards' Messalina colludes in Messalina's marriage to Silius and encourages Silius to seize the empire. Captured by Pallas, he is condemned to death by Claudius.


Calpurnia is the wife of Julius Caesar in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. A sensitive woman devoted to her husband, she dreams that her husband's statue pours forth blood in which Caesar's compatriots bathe their hands. Caesar has decided to remain at home because of the portent of Calpurnia's dream, but when Decius re-interprets the vision Caesar chooses to go to the Senate, and Calpurnia's warning becomes ineffectual.


Clutch's servant in Jordan's Money is an Ass. Clutch promises to consent to a marriage between Calumny and Felixina if he helps to deceive money. He privately confesses his love to Felixina and warns her that Money only desires to diminish her reputation. He realizes that Clutch means to marry the daughters to Gold and Jewel after deceiving Money and Credit. After overhearing conversations between the daughters and their true loves, he begins to contrive against all four men. He tells Featherbrain and Penniless (whom he believes to be Gold and Jewel) that Clutch's daughters have already slept with Money and Credit. He then tells Money and Credit that the daughters are already contracted to Gold and Jewel. His plan fails because Featherbrain and Penniless do not believe him, and the daughters arrange marriages with their true loves. He curses Clutch and the lovers, and Clutch banishes him from the house, hypocritically proclaiming him the "evil Genius" who "prompted me to deeds most vile."


Calveskin is one of the clowns in the Anonymous The Faithful Friends. He boasts of his eagerness to go to war until he is actually called to serve against the Sabines, when he suddenly gets cold feet.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Calvin is mentioned by Master Bead when he is revealing his Roman-Catholic religious scruples to Silence: "Sir, that lodging where the pictures of Luther and Calvin hang did so much trouble me that I was once in mind to have broken them, for I doubt that for the sin of us Romans, suffering those heretic pictures, we were after punished by the fall of Blackfriars House." John Calvin (1509-1564) was a lawyer, but he soon became saturated with the ideas of Northern Renaissance Humanism. He devoted himself to reform the church and got his chance to build a reformed one in Geneva, in the 1520s, when its citizens revolted against their rulers.


A "ghost character" in May's Cleopatra. Roman senator, opposed to Antonius: mentioned in I ii. Historically, this was Caius Calvisius Sabinus.


Also known as Selim-Calymath in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta, he is the son of the Turkish emperor and the leader of the military. He arrives at Malta to demand ten years of unpaid tribute. When asked, he gives Ferneze a month to raise the tribute. After Ferneze refuses to pay the tribute, Calymath besieges the town and during that siege, meets with Barabas, who has been thrown, apparently dead, over the city walls. Barabas helps the Turks find a way into the city and as a reward, Calymath appoints Barabas governor. Calymath and his officers are invited to dinner with Barabas, who means to betray them. Calymath is fooled by this invitation and is only saved from death by Ferneze, who then tells Calymath that he is their prisoner until the Turkish emperor frees and repairs Malta. Calymath asks to be allowed to mediate for Malta in person, but Ferneze is firm in his plan to keep him a prisoner.


A "ghost character" in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. Calymath's father is the Turkish emperor, who has demanded the tribute of Malta. Historically, the Turkish emperor at this time was Suleiman the Magnificent.


Calypha, a son of the king of Thessaly, is brother to Thelea and Delia in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale. (The text refers to him as the First Brother.) Along with Thelea, he seeks to rescue Delia from the sorcerer, Sacrapant, but falls under the magician's spell and is enslaved. He is released when Sacrapant is destroyed.


Tamburlaine's eldest son in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2. He is content to let his brothers conquer and wishes merely to follow his mother and manage his father's conquests once those lands have been subdued. He earns his father's displeasure. He later sets a pillar warning all never to rebuild the city where Zenocrate died. When Tamburlaine tells his boys how to be soldiers, Calyphas shrinks from the descriptions of hardship. When Tamburlaine wounds his own arm to show them how a soldier wears his wounds, Calyphas pities it while his brothers beg to be wounded too. At Aleppo, Calyphas sleeps while his brothers encourage him to enter the battle with the Turks. When the battle begins, he calls Perdicas to come play cards with him, betting for who gets to kiss the Turkish concubines. When Tamburlaine returns victorious he drags Calyphas from his tent and, despite the pleas of Theridamas, Techelles, Usumcasane, and Amyras, Tamburlaine stabs the boy to death. Calyphas's corpse is carried from the stage by common soldiers, but Tamburlaine orders that Calyphas be buried by the Turkish concubines as he is too base to warrant the honor of burial at the hands of soldiers.


Calypho is one of the Cyclops in Lyly's Sapho and Phao. He is teased by Cryticus and Molus.


Wife to the Moor in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. After her husband loses the war, Calypolis fears famine until her husband brings her the meat of a lioness. She contributes very little except a comment on the Moor's treachery.


A "ghost character" in Lyly's Gallathea. This nymph, who has a major role in The Odyssey, is mentioned as a possible cause of the love plague, but she never appears onstage in the play.


Look under TAMAR and MANGO.


Son of Brutus and Junoger in the Anonymous Locrine. Brutus gives him the south of England.


Cambio is the disguise assumed by Lucentio in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. As Cambio, Lucentio acts as one of Bianca's tutors, thereby allowing him to woo her in secret.


A king who had slain his own children, driven before the furies Alecto, Megera, and Ctesiphonein the fourth act dumb show in Sackville and Norton's Gorboduc.
King of Persia in Preston's Cambises. After inheriting the throne from his father, Cyrus, declares war with the Egyptians. Upon his victorious return, he hears charges of corruption against Sisamnes, and after a trial finds him guilty and sentences him to death. After being accused of drunkenness by Praxaspes, seeks to prove his sobriety by shooting an arrow through the heart of Sisamnes' youngest son. To calm his nerves, Cambyses has a drink of wine and proceeds to kill Sisamnes' son. After being lied to by Ambidexter, he has his younger brother executed by Cruelty and Murder. Dies, remorsefully, after accidently stabbing himself with his own sword while riding his horse.


King of Cambria, husband of Ragan in the Anonymous King Leir. He travels to Leir's court, meeting Cornwall along the way, and is warmly welcomed by Ragan. After their marriage, Ragan boasts that she rules Cambria as she pleases. Unlike Ragan, Cambria is happy to see Leir, although he does not actually recognize the king, apparently because Leir has arrived in such an "unkingly" manner. He is completely unaware of Ragan's plan to have Leir and Perillus murdered and starts an investigation into their disappearance. When Ragan suggests that Cordella has plotted against Leir, Cambria tells her to trust in the justice of Heaven and not to censure any until the truth is known. When the Ambassador enters and is accused of murder by Ragan, Cambria wants to suspend judgement and proceed only as news of Leir is discovered. He does, however, swear on his kingship to punish Cordella if she is guilty. During the battle, Mumford chases Cambria until the latter feels he can fight no more.


Richard, Earl of Cambridge, is a traitor to England in Shakespeare's Henry V. Along with Scroop and Grey, Cambridge works to promote French interests. After asking the men for their advice regarding the punishment of a petty traitor, Henry reveals that he has discovered their plot, and that he plans to punish them with as little mercy as they have shown to the petty traitor. After his arrest, Cambridge rejects Henry's claim that French gold motivated the treason, but he offers no alternative explanation. The three traitors are executed on Henry's orders. Historically, he was Richard of Conisburgh, father of Richard, third Duke of York, and grandfather of Edward IV.


In Shakespeare's 1 Henry IVFalstaff plans to mimic Cambyses as a model for the part of King Henry in the charade between Falstaff and Prince Hal. King Cambyses was the son of Cyrus, king of Persia. His six-year reign involved the overthrow of Egypt and the interruption of the Jerusalem Temple restoration.


Two camel-drivers figure in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier:
  1. The First Camel-Driver is ordered by King Henrick to rape Victoria, but he is struck mad, and beats out his own brains.
  2. The Second Camel-Driver is also ordered by King Henrick to rape Victoria, but he is instantly struck blind. Henrick orders him to rape her anyway, but the Camel-Driver cannot hear him because he has been struck deaf too.


Gullible and greedy younger daughter of Sir Edward Fortune in Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment: sister to Katherine, but very unlike Katherine. Early in the play, Camelia believes herself to be in love with Brabant Junior, but her servant Winifred tells her that Brabant is not worthy of her love since he is a "younger brother" and cannot inherit the Brabant name or property. Camelia agrees to consider John Ellis instead, not knowing that her maid is in the employ of Ellis. She underestimates the love of Brabant who will continue to genuinely love her. She advises Brabant to pursue some kind of income and Planet tells her she isn't worth Brabant's love. In order to revenge his friend, Brabant Junior, Planet bribes Winifred to convince Camelia to woe him–the maid is wildly successful and Camelia drops Ellis for Planet and begins to chase him. When John Ellis asks Sir Edward for Camelia's hand in marriage, Camelia proceeds to humiliate and degrade him. She calls him a fool and an idiot. Sir Edward asks her to be more kind, but she only has eyes for Planet now–although he rejects her. His insults and refusal to love her make her even more interested in winning him and she pursues him aggressively. She has Winifred arrange a meeting. She wants to apologize to Planet, but mistakenly reveals herself to Brabant instead. Brabant then understands that Planet did not betray their friendship. Camelia ends up losing all of the men who had previously pursued her, but she is still part of Sir Edward's family and he envelops her into the warm feasting at the celebration for Katherine and Pasquil.


Camelion is originally a servant of Rawbone in James Shirley's The Wedding. He resigns his post because he was poorly fed, and his position is taken by Haver, disguised as Jasper.


Family name of Rafe and Hannah in Brome's The New Academy.


Camena is one of the ladies of the Shepherd's Paradise in Montague's The Shepherd's Paradise. She is in love with Melidoro, and her function is to argue for feminine independence and to serve as a foil of sensible, rational love. She marries Melidoro at the conclusion of the play.


Camerado is the comic chamberlain of the inn where Antonio and Simplo take lodgings in the Anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools; he is too slow-witted to prevent Antonio from leaving without paying the bill.


Camilla is a lady of the court in Lyly's Midas. She comforts Sophronia while they wait for news of Midas' trip to Pactolus


Camillo is a Venetian gentleman in love with Violetta in the Anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. Camillo gives a banquet at his house in honor of the war heroes, where Violetta and her ladies are invited. Telling Violetta that his love for her inspired all his chivalric exploits during the war, Camillo mentions he has taken a French gentleman prisoner in her name. After Fontinel is introduced to Violetta, Camillo dances with Violetta. At Violetta's sudden departure from the party, Camillo confesses to Hipolito that love is a maze of joy and suffering. Outside the tennis court, Camillo sees Fontinel wearing Violetta's colors. Camillo declares that Fontinel is his prisoner and has him sent to prison. In front of Hipolito's house, Camillo learns that Imperia fell in love with Fontinel's picture. Hoping to have Fontinel become entangled with Imperia and then dispatch him to France, Camillo tries to convince the Frenchman to go to Imperia and leave Violetta. On Fontinel's refusal, Camillo orders that he be taken back to prison and face the death penalty. Hoping to win Violetta's love, Camillo sings a serenade below her windows. When Violetta rejects his amorous declarations, Camillo says he will take revenge against Fontinel. In his house, Camillo summons the warlike Venetian gentlemen Hipolito, Asorino, Virgilio, Baptista, and Bentivolio to assault Imperia's house and kill Fontinel. According to Camillo, Fontinel stole Violetta's love, married her secretly, and then went to spend time at the courtesan's house. In the street before Imperia's house, Camillo speaks in the name of all the Venetian gentlemen, telling the Duke that Fontinel has dishonored a Venetian lady and must be punished. Camillo speaks in the name of his friends before Fontinel is arrested, but he is discredited when Violetta reveals that the courtesan-scheme had been part of her plan to save Fontinel from Camillo's jealousy.

CAMILLO **1602

A ‘ghost character’ in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. Rhodaghond recounts how Guasto, the Duke of Vacunium, called forth a ‘solemn cheer’ and his noblemen came from far and near to participate, including Camillo, Bentivole, Lepido, Collinio, Ursino, Novoli, Gonsagua, Columna, Flaminio, ‘and twenty more’. It was during this event that Florimel, who once despised Amadour, grew to love him when he earned great praise from the Duke of Vacunium for his prowess in the games.


Camillo is a lord at Leontes' court in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale. He responds to Leontes' irrational jealousy of Hermione and Polixenes by sacrificing loyalty to justice. Leontes first voices his suspicions to Camillo, who upbraids him for suspecting Hermione unjustly. When Leontes orders him to kill Polixenes, Camillo warns Polixenes that his life is in danger and leaves Sicilia with him. Sixteen years later, Camillo returns to Sicilia, and after a series of revelations Leontes recognizes Camillo's merits. As a gesture of goodwill, Leontes suggests uniting Camillo and Paulina.

CAMILLO **1612

Camillo is a simple cuckold who must be eliminated in Webster's The White Devil. Brachiano wants him killed so that he may have Vittoria; Uncle Monticelso wants him sent away so he may trap Brachiano with Vittoria. He is murdered when his brother-in-law Flamineo thrusts him from a vaulting horse and breaks his neck.


An honest gentleman in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage. Camillo is a co-conspirator, along with Brissonet and Virolet, in a plot to depose the tyrant King Ferrand. When the plot is exposed via Ronvere's spying, Camillo is convinced to join the attack on Sesse's ship to recover Ferrand's nephew Ascanio. He does not survive the attack.


Camillo, along with his fellow noblemen Cleanthes and Menallo in Fletcher's A Wife for a Month, laments that Alphonso, rightful king of Naples, has been usurped by his wicked brother Frederick. He takes comfort in the fact that since his wife is sick in the country she and he are safe from Frederick's libidinous desires. He participates in the ultimately successful plot to restore Alphonso to the throne.


Camillo, a Neapolitan Gentleman, along with Lentulo and Donato, he offers advice to Adorio on how to deal with Caldoro in Massinger's The Guardian.


Camillo attends on Flavia in Ford's The Fancies Chaste and Noble. He and Vespucci are both attracted to her and propose to share her favors. Each agrees to speak well of the other to her so that she will be disposed to favor them. When Flavia reveals their courtship of her to Romanello, both are penitent. At the end of the play the Marquis, Octavio, gives Camillo, Vespucci and Romanello leave to court Floria and Silvia.


Supposed lost at the age of two in Chamont's attack on Vicenze nineteen years ago in Jonson's The Case is Altered. He was adopted by Chamont (the elder), and is known throughout most of the play as "Jasper," Chamont's adopted brother and companion. His true identity is revealed by Chamont.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's A Wife for a Month. Because she is sick in the country she and Camillo are safe from Frederick's libidinous desires. This fact gives Camillo comfort.


A "ghost character" in (?)Jeffere's The Bugbears. Camillus, Amedeus' next door neighbor, makes possible the make believe haunting of Amedeus' home by allowing his own home as staging area, and he also participates in the noisy charade to help Formosus win his wife. However, Camillus does not appear in the play.


In the introduction to Fisher's Fuimus Troes, Mercury enters with the ghosts of Brennus and Camillus. Brennus was the leader of the Gauls who crossed the Appenine in 391 AD, annihilated a Roman army of 40,000 men at the Allia in 390 AD, and then ransacked Rome. Marcus Furius Camillus was the Roman dictator who finally drew the Gauls under Brennus from the city (cf. Plutarch, Lives, "Camillus"). The two warriors are in complete armor, they have their swords drawn and want to continue their fight, till Mercury tells them that they can no longer kill each other because have already been dead for a long time. But now, so many years later, Romans and Britains are again at war, and the two ghosts should now incite their countrymen. In scene II.vii, the ghost of Brennus appears to Nennius and the ghost of Camillus to Caesar. Caesar later mentions that Camillus visits him every night, and after Nennius' death, Cassibelane mentions that Brennus has visited him. At the end of the play, the two ghosts comment on the braveness of their descendants, and Mercury convinces them to become friends at last.


Camiola, the Maid of Honour in Massinger's The Maid of Honor, a rich and beautiful virgin, in love with Bertoldo.


A cunning prostitute in Brome's The Northern Lass who has recently borne a bastard child and with whom Sir Philip may have been 'familiar.' Sir Philip mistakes Sir Paul Squelch's virtuous niece Constance for her, giving rise to most of the plot's confusions. Tridewell, Anvil and Mistress Trainwell enlist her in their plot to overcome Sir Paul's opposition to a number of suitable matches. Thus, when Vexhem brings her before Sir Paul for prostitution, she consents to become Sir Paul's mistress and to pass publicly for his mad niece. She deceives Widgine and Howdee, neither of whom have ever seen the real Northern Lass without a mask. Convinced that she is the poor, mad, rich Constance, Widgine proposes to her on the spot and later beds and then marries her. When he discovers that she is actually a prostitute, she accepts a hundred pounds to release him from the marriage bond.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Campanella is mentioned by Master Algebra, when he is putting Master Silence, Doctor Clyster and Bill Bond to a test, to find out if they are just mere cozeners. As he talks about the nature of the world, and answers to Master Silence's claim that this world is "dead and with no sense", he replies: "You never read Campanella then." Tommaso Campanella (1568-1639) was an Italian Dominican friar and author of two scientific treatises–De Sensu Rerum (ca. 1593), and De Investigatione Rerum (ca. 1593). In fact, the hylozoism typical of Campanella's philosophy is here shared by Master Algebra.


Campaspe is a beautiful Theban woman captured by Alexander in Lyly's Campaspe. She becomes infatuated with her. However, Campaspe falls in love with Apelles, a painter under commission to paint her portrait. Eventually, Alexander discovers the truth and gives the couple his blessing.


A papal nuncio in Venice in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon, based on the real-life nuncio of the same name. He supports Paridel in his plot against the life of Titania. He brings Paridel the Empress of Babylon's blessing on his enterprise and a free pass through all Babylonian jurisdictions.


A deeply learned scholar in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon, he represents the English Jesuit Edmund Campion (St. Edmund Campion in the Roman Catholic church). Parthenophil favors him and tries to recommend him to Titania, but she has heard that his brilliance conceals pride and unsteadiness, and refuses to accept him as a servant. Campeius' scornful response confirms the justice of her opinion. His subsequent disaffection and penury opens the way for the Third King, disguised as a scholar, to woo him into the service of the Empress of Babylon. Initially brusque and resistant, Campeius is soon seduced, drawn on by his own greed for money and preferment, and he departs for Babylon. There, he agrees to kill Titania on the Empress' behalf, unaware that the Empress plans to kill him when he has served her purposes. He reappears in England, conjured from the earth by Falsehood, but Titania's counselors discover his plots, and he is condemned to death.


Rumored as having been sent by the Pope in Shakespeare's Henry VIII, Cardinal Campeius urges the case against Queen Katherine to proceed without the presence of the Spanish advisors she requests.

CAMPEUS **1604

In Rowley’s When You See Me, the French bishops are sent to move him to help Wolsey to the papacy. He comes from Pope Julius with a Bull naming Henry and his posterity “defenders of the faith." (The timeline of this play is skewed as this occurred many years before the birth of Edward VI.) He requests Henry’s aid in fighting the Turks at Rhodes with either an army or twelve thousand pounds.

CAMPION **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Edmund Campion's Jesuitæ Rationes Decem, referred to as his "ten reasons," is compared to Dicæus' argument against poverty.


Does not appear in the play. Don Campusano is a captain of carbines to whom Clara asks Juan de Castro to deliver a letter in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife.


A Captain and a "creature" of the corrupt and murderous Aper in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess. Camurius knows that the emperor Numerianus is dead but helps maintain the fiction that he is in seclusion. When Diocles, Maximinian, and Geta attempt to visit the emperor's covered litter, Camurius tries to prevent them and is killed by Diocles.


A "ghost character" mentioned by Quadratus as a satirist whose opinion he would respect.


Canbee is a cheat in the service of the Cardinal in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green. With Hadland and Snip, he steals Tom Strowd's cloak, but is forgiven. In disguise as a highwayman, he steals money from Tom and Swash, and then pretends to happen upon him and help him. Later, he meets Tom, again in disguise, but this time Tom recognizes him and beats him and Hadland while Swash handles Snip. They take back part of the stolen money, and Canbee suggests they can get the rest back by joining them and helping Young Plainsey. When Canbee and Hadland fight the disguised Mumford, they are soundly beaten. When the two sides fight in the final scene, Tom passes up any weapon but a cudgel and uses it to soundly beat the two again.


Clown and servant to Bentivoli in Dekker's(?) Telltale. Enters to Elinor, Garullo and Fernese and reports on Bentivoli's defeat of Hortensio in the duel. After Garullo threatens to leave for his country home to avoid Bentivoli's anger, Canko takes up Gismond's suggestion that Garullo disguise himself and suggests that Garullo disguise himself as a fool in order to continue to have access to Elinor. He later visits Garullo and Lesbia, held prisoner on the order of Elinor, and joins the discussion of Garullo's melancholy. He witnesses Garullo drink the cup of supposedly poisoned wine.


Along with Scrocca, Cancrone is one of the "two foolish Fishers" and "servants to old Tyrinthus" and Perindus who get lost at sea and arrive at "Circe's rocke" instead of home in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. Since Scrocca is the "Master at Sea," Cancrone is the "master" of any "land voyage." He claims to be a poet and composes short poems throughout the play, shares liquor with Scrocca, repeatedly recounts the "deflouring" of his "grand-sire" by the Cyclops (Rimbombo), and takes many precautions for fear of both the Orke and Cyclops (due, in large part, to Conchylio's tricks upon him). He and Scrocca take undeserved credit for "vanquish[ing] the Orke" and he makes a "suite" concerning "whom to be in love withall" to Conchylio (who is disguised as Cupid), settling on Cosma for his love. He follows "Cupid's" foolish advice in love and, under the impression that the disguised Conchylio is actually Cosma, "mount[s] the tree" to which Conchylio (as Cosma) later binds Rimbombo. After managing to escape the Cyclops, Cancrone (along with the disguised Conchylio) makes a failed attempt to kill him which results in Rimbombo's flight from "this shore." After helping to save Perindus from drowning by assisting in conveying him safely to a "shippe That rides in the havene" after Tyrinthus's son had "fallen from the rocke" in an attempt to offer his life in exchange for Glaucilla's, Cancrone (along with Scrocca) is arrested, "manacled," and led to the "hils [. . .] to the greedy Cyclops" to meet "the death of slaves," during which time he is reunited with Tyrinthus and informs him of Perindus's whereabouts. After Cosma confesses to her initial "foule offence" Pas convinces Nomicus to "pardon"Cancrone and Scrocca and, after Dicaus punishes Cosma by casting a "charme" by which she may only fall in love with "fooles" and "fooles only shall affect" her, Cancrone and the Nymph confess their love for each other and the "foolish Fisher" seeks to "bedde" her.


Candiano is an honorable courtier in Shirley's The Gentleman of Venice. He has a reputation for success at the Academy.


Candido is a linen-draper and the husband of Viola in Dekker and Middleton's 1 Honest Whore. He is renowned as a man of unshakeable patience, a trait that is constantly tested throughout the play. Castruchio lays a bet with Pioratto that he can make Candido lose his temper. He is tested in several ways:
  • Castruchio and Pioratto along with Fluello visit his shop, and Castruchio asks for a pennyworth of lawn cut out of the center of the middle of the cloth. However, Candido cheerfully does as requested. Candido then offers a drink to the gentlemen to express his content with his sale.
  • Fluello next tells him that he intends to steal his silver and gilt beaker. When he does so, Candido sends George after the constable, but tells him to pursue the men mildly because it is all a jest. When the constable brings back Fluello, Castruchio and Pioratto, they try to get Candido to admit that he is angry, but he denies it and invites them and the constable to eat dinner with him.
  • The next test to his patience has been previously arranged by his wife Viola with her brother Fustigo. He enters the shop, calls Viola "cousin" which is slang for mistress, kisses her and pulls her ring off her finger. George and the two Apprentices distract Candido, insult and then beat Fustigo, at which point Fustigo reveals that he is Viola's brother and that they were playing a trick on Candido.
  • When Viola will not give the key to the chest where Candido's gown is kept, he has George cut a hole in a carpet and wears that to the Senate house.
  • He returns from the Senate meeting to find George dressed in his clothes and pretending to be him. Rather than be angered, Candido dresses as an apprentice.
  • The change in clothes causes George to be attacked by Crambo and Poh, rather than Candido, but Candido forces George and the Apprentices to return their weapons and let them go.
  • At this point, Viola convinces the Officers that Candido is mad and has him restrained and taken to Bethlem Monastery. Even this does not move him to anger.
After he is gone, Viola has a change of heart and petitions the Duke for his release. At Bethlem Monastery, after the Duke is reconciled to Hippolyto, Viola pleads again for Candido's release. He is brought forward and proves still to be patient. He lectures the Duke and Viola on patience; Viola begs forgiveness and the Duke declares that wives who vex meek husbands shall be committed to Bedlem.
The Milanese draper and husband in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore whose restraint and patience have made him a legend in the city. Candido takes a new wife early in the action (his first wife, the shrewish Viola, having died between Parts One and Two). The new wife, referred to only as Candido's Bride, at first appears to be contentious and unruly, but she surprises everyone by submitting to her husband. Candido's heralded patience is further tested, however, by Hippolito's gentlemen who bring the Irish footman Bryan into the draper's shop on the pretext that he is shopping for cambric. When he is not understood because of his thick brogue, Bryan angrily tears some of the material he has been examining and storms out, leaving the patient Candido to remark that there will always be a market for remnants. When Candido is summoned later to Matheo's house to examine some lawn for sale, the draper finds himself arrested on suspicion of receiving stolen goods, and the Constable escorts him to Bridewell. As he faces this latest adversity, patient Candido makes a remark that is one of the clearest links between the two parts of this play: "Being not mad? They had me once in Bedlam [i.e. in Part One]; now I'm drawn / To Bridewell, loving no whores."


During her wedding reception in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore, Candido's Bride strikes one of the apprentices (possibly Luke) for having served her a cup of sack instead of claret. Her behavior here makes it appear that Candido, the patient husband, may have found in his second wife another shrew like his first (Viola of Part One). However, when Lodovico (disguised as an apprentice in order to teach her a lesson) arranges for Candido to appear impatient with her and to feign being a domineering husband, the Bride surprises everyone by immediately submitting to Candido.


Candius is the son of Sperantus in Lyly's Mother Bombie. Educated but penniless, Candius wishes to marry Prisius' daughter Livia, who is good with a needle but has no dowry. Both fathers oppose the match because they wish to marry their children to Accius and Silena respectively, the wealthy children of Memphio and Stellio. Sperantus forbids Candius to woo Livia and forces him to do manual labor instead of studying. This he hopes will drive thoughts of marrying Livia out of his mind. He also instructs Candius to woo Silena, which he does to appease his father. Momentarily tempted by Silena's beauty, Candius soon discovers that she is a fool. Trusting their fates to the plot of the clever servants(Dromio, Riscio, Lucio, and Halfpenny), Candius and Livia dress in the clothes of Accius and Silena and receive the unwitting approval of the match from their fathers. The fathers are angry when they discover they have been tricked but are powerless to stop it, and Candius and Livia remain happily married at the end of the play.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Canidia is a witch's name in Horace (Epodes iii, 8; v.15 and 48; xii, 6 and Satires I). Epode v has the longest passage devoted to Canidia, who prays to Night and Diana. Canidia is a fictitious semi-historical character in Horace, such as Bolanus, Pantolabus, Persius, and Scaeva. Horace represents Canidia parodically. After Crispinus sings his love verses, apparently dedicated to his muse, Chloë, Gallus asks to see the written text. Gallus reads that the verses are dedicated "to his bright mistress Canidia," and observes that this is the name of Horace's witch. Thus, the poets discover that Crispinus's love ditty is plagiarized from Horace. The poets are furious at the poetaster's impudence, but Tucca and Demetrius take Crispinus's side.

CANIDIA **1617

A woman who practices magic in the sea cliffs in Goffe’s Orestes. Pylades suggests that he and Orestes go to her. She can tell who killed Agamemnon by examining his body. She calls forth three witches, Sagana, Veia, and Erictho, and warns Orestes and Pylades to sit quietly and watch. After showing them a vision of Agamemnon’s murder, she warns Orestes that piety stands between him and his revenge. She offers Orestes her aid in killing them with magic, but he rejects her suggestions as too tame and wishes to enact his own vengeance upon them himself.


Canidius is Antony's second in command in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. After the Soldier begs Antony not to fight by sea, Canidius agrees with him, but says that they are led by women. After the sea battle, he reports their losses to Enobarbus.
Caius Canidius Crassus is general of Antonius in May's Cleopatra. At the beginning of the play, he jocularly defends Antonius's relationship with Cleopatra against the muttering of Plancus and Titius, and supports her bid to participate in the Battle of Actium. He flees from this battle, but remains loyal to Antonius, encouraging him up to his own last appearance in the play (just before the disastrous Battle of Tarentum). May seems to have worked up this character from a very brief hint in Plutarch; he serves a small part of the purpose served in Shakespeare by Enobarbus. Historically, this was Caius Publius Canidius Crassus.


Canope is a lady at Sapho's court in Lyly's Sapho and Phao.


Cantalupo pays 3,000 crowns in dowry to Amedeus to contract his daughter, Iphigenia, in marriage to Amedeus' son, Formosus in (?)Jeffere's The Bugbears. This rejection of Iphigenia's desire to marry Manutius plays on Amedeus' greed to remove Formosus as a rival for the hand of Rosimunda. Cantalupo lusts after the much younger Rosimunda even after he learns that she is pregnant by another man, but he is maneuvered out of the engagement by the contrivance of Trappola, the pretend astrologer, and Squartacantino, Cantalupo's own servant.


A spirit, conjured by Cyprian; visible to him and Barebones in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. At the command of Barebones, Cantharides causes Mistress Caro to fall in love with Sinew, and then with Barebones. But the magic lasts only a short while. Cantharides then makes fools out of Blood, Sinew, Barebones and Caro by biting them and forcing them to run up and down making various silly noises. Later, Cyprian orders Cantharides to inflame Justina with carnal desire, but the devilish magic fails against her faith. Cantharides is then banished by the Angel.


An alternative form for Canutus in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside and also Brewer's The Lovesick King.


Canute the Great, Dane, the son of the Viking Swaine or Swanus in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside. Historically he was Svein Haraldsson. The late Saxon King Egelredus (historically: Ethelrede the Unready) was Swaine's tributary. Together with his son Edmond Ironside, Egelredus tried to deliver England from the Danish yoke. Swaine and Egelredus are dead when the play starts, and the Archbishop of Canterbury and a number of Saxon peers have legally proclaimed Canute King. But Edmond Ironside has crowned himself, and some of Canute's followers change to the Saxon side. Canute marries Southampton's daughter Egina to bind her father to his side. As a Christian king, Canute is inclined to mildness against his Saxon subjects, although his counselor Edricus recommends cruelty. But when he hears that Leofricke and Turkullus have left him, he has the hands and noses of their sons, his pledges, cut off. He besieges and attacks London, but his army is dispelled and he has to flee to Worcester. Only with the help of a new Danish army does he get the upper hand again. His counselor Edricus deceives both him and Ironside several times. But in the end both follow Edricus' advice to have a single combat to the death to decide who should be king. After their even and chivalric fight the two rivals stop the fight, become friends, and decide to share the kingdom. (Historically, Edmond got Wessex, and Canute kept the rest of the country. After Edmond's death Canute became King of all England, Denmark and Norway. He married Emma, Ethelready's widow.)
Canutus or Canute, King of Denmark and title character of Brewer's The Lovesick King. He leads the successful attack against the English in the opening scene, but his first sight of Cartesmunda leaves him utterly besotted and unable to pay attention to anything else–he does not even react when told of the deaths of his sister and of his best friend Erkinwald. Eventually Canutus accidentally kills Cartesmunda while trying to snatch her back from Huldrick. He does then rally a little, but it is too late; he is taken prisoner by Alured, though spared by him for the memory of Elgina.


A "ghost character" in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta. The first messenger describes how during the assault the Greek hero Capaney climbed to the top of the walls of Thebes, but as he exulted there was struck dead by a bolt of lightning; the event encouraged the Thebans and caused Adrastus to withdraw.

CAPCASE **1604

A watchman much given to malaprops in Rowley’s When You See Me. He is part of the watch set out to investigate the recent murder of two merchants in the stews. He helps to arrest Black Will and the disguised Henry when he finds them fighting in the street.


Caperwit is an opportunistic poetaster in Shirley's Changes. He courts Goldsworth's daughters with what he thinks is excellent poetry. He is very vain about his verse and quite the trickster; he has disguised his own page as a woman in hopes that Goldsworth's daughters, seeing how fascinated Lady Bird is with Caperwit, will therefore themselves become more interested in Caperwit. He succeeds with neither lady and ends up playing the role of Conjuror in the play's ending masque.


There are two characters named Caphis in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens:
  • The first Caphis is a senator and a creditor of Timon's. He sends his servant, also named Caphis, to be one of the besiegers of Timon's house in II.ii.
  • A servant of the first senator is, like the senator, named Caphis. Caphis the senator sends Caphis his servant to be one of the besiegers of Timon's house in II.ii.


An Egyptian in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1. He tells the Soldan that Tamburlaine has attacked Egypt when she was unprepared. Later, he gives the Soldan a tally of the combined Egyptian and Arabian power: 150,000 horse, 200,000 foot.


Caponi, one of the servants to Charomonte along with Bernardo and Petruchio in Massinger's The Great Duke of Florence.


Capritio is Triphoena's brother in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. On his sister's request he goes with Trimalchio, and he courts Margery, who is disguised as a gentlewoman serving Milliscent. He weds Margery at the play's end.


This Persian soldier gives a detailed report of the death of Abradates in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus.


The Captain is loyal to Marius in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War and kills Anthony at his command, reprimanding the First, Second and Third Soldiers who were swayed by Anthony's oratory skills. When Lectorius enters to announce that Marius has died, the Captain comments that if they had known what was about to happen, Anthony would have lived.


He is in league with Callapine and the King of Amasia in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2. He asserts that God and Mahomet could not stand in the way of Callapine's vengeance. He is presumably among the army that flies at the sight of Tamburlaine in Aleppo.


He reports the re-taking of Rhodes to Soliman in the final act of Kyd's Soliman and Perseda.


A recruiting officer in the Anonymous Locrine who fetches Strumbo for Albanact's army.


In the quarto version of Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, the Lieutenant of the ship is called the Captain.


The captain in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI catches Falstaff deserting the battle at Rouen.


The captain announces Titus's arrival in Rome in the opening scene of Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus.


Two Captains appear in the anonymous A Larum for London.
  • One Captain is of Antwerp. After appearing briefly with Lieutenant Vaughan when he identifies the slaughtered daughter and old citizen as former neighbors, this Captain reappears at the end of the play. He has been hiding at the friary because the citizens inhibited the ability of the soldiers to fight. The Captain agrees to join Stump and the soldiers. He releases the Burger, whom the Spanish soldiers have tied up, but he refuses his aid because the Burger has not assisted the military during peace times. He is eventually defeated, but he is praised for his valor by Sancto Danila, who buries him.
  • Another Captain, designated Captain 1, is a Spaniard and appears only in the opening scene. He leaves with a companion to carry out Danila's command to open the castle.


An officer in Prince Philip's army in the Anonymous Lust's Dominion who recommends a retreat during the battle.


A soldier in Thomas Heywood's The Four Prentices of London who recruits volunteers for the first crusade.


The Captain is sent by Fortinbras in Shakespeare's Hamlet to greet Claudius and confirm their right to march over Danish lands on their way to fight the Poles. In F but not Q, he is met by Hamlet, on his way to England with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, and inspires Hamlet with his tale of the coming war over a worthless piece of territory.


This character is occasionally referred to as 'Bonvile' in Heywood's Royal King, but should not be confused with Lord Bonvile. The Captain is the leader of the band of ragged soldiers who have returned from the crusades in a state of poverty. The Captain says he has spent all his money on gaining valor, but once he has gained it, everyone spurns him except his faithful Clown. His kinsman, Lord Bonvile, refuses to help him, and although he has made a contract to marry Lady Mary Audley, her father, Lord Audley now rejects him. Mary is virtuous and accepts him despite his poverty. The Captain will not, however, accept any financial assistance from her; he wants to be accepted in society for his merit. He goes to his old ordinary, but cannot get served there, and the same thing happens at the brothel, because the Bawd turns up her nose at their ragged clothes. However, the Bawd changes her tune when the Captain shows that he has some money after all, and the Whores become friendly to him. At this point the Captain lectures them on moral corruption, and stalks off. The next time we see him, he is wearing rich clothes, and reveals that in fact he was only pretending to be poor; during the war, he found a house full of jewels and is in fact very rich. The Captain then lords it in front of the people who spurned him, pointing out that he has not changed; only his attire has. The King is impressed, and makes him a courtier.


A Spanish officer in the Anonymous First Part of Jeronimo, who appears once on the side of Andrea during the battle. Andrea sends him to find Balthazar.


The Captain of the Citadel in Marston's Malcontent. He was appointed to his post by Altofronto, and he remains faithful both to his position and to the old Duke. He now guards Maria and leads her into the masque celebrating her return to court.


The Captain is husband to Castiza in Middleton's The Phoenix. He regrets his marriage and longs to go to sea. He approaches Tangle, a crafty lawyer, and makes plans to sell his wife to Count Proditor. Caught by Phoenix and Fidelio, the Captain is forced to return to sea without funds.

CAPTAIN **1605

An officer in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me who brings news of the continuing battle with the Spanish fleet.


The captain of one of Thomas Sherley Jr's ships in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers. He encourages mutiny against Thomas's plan to attack a Turkish island.


The Captain in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra enters before the first battle and greets Antony.


A Vandal captain in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. He brings Rodrick the news of Huldrick's death.


Represents law and order in John Marston's The Insatiate Countess. He sees himself as the guarantor of Venetian security. He discovers Mendoza Foscari, injured in the process of seducing Lady Lentulus, and arrests Claridiana and Rogero as suspects.


The Captain, the Traveller, the Poet and the Tobacco-Man are hangers-on to Young Loveless in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady. They urge him to spend his money on drink and women, and are retained by him even after his marriage to the Widow. The Poet and the Captain are extremely loquacious, but the Traveller says little and the Tobacco-Man nothing at all.


"Only mentioned" in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. Tyrinthus claims that he was taken years before "by Persians on the Gracian seas," claims that he "did please" his "captaine and the King," and reveals some details about where he has spent the past "thrice five summers."


A Captain tries to bring Canutus news and to persuade him to leave Cartesmunda, but he is condemned to death in Brewer's The Lovesick King.


The Captain appears at King Atticus' court in the anonymous Swetnam to inform him of the sad news that his missing son, Lorenzo, has disappeared in a valiant battle with the Turks at Lepanto and is either dead or captured. He praises Lorenzo's valour as "above belief."


Conscripts the Farmer's son, Soto, to fight against the Duke of Siena in Fletcher's Women Pleased.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. The Captain is Sib's dead father. When Knavesbee describes his past marital transgressions to his wife, he makes a parallel with a captain's wages, reminding Sib she should know about it since her father was a captain. Just as the soldiers continue to receive payments although they are no longer in active service, Knavesbee admits to having continued his extra-marital affairs long after he was married to Sib.


A fictional character in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. When Old Franklin decides to pay all the debts of his allegedly dead son, he asks George to identify Franklin's creditors for him. George reads a list, which contains the name of one Pinchbuttock, a hosier, to whom Franklin is supposed to owe fourscore pairs of breeches. When Old Franklin asks why his son needed so many pairs of breeches, George explains Franklin supplied a Captain, a friend of his, who went over to war to the Palatinate. George refers to the campaign of July 1620, when Sir Horace de Vere left England with volunteers to defend the region in Germany, West of Rhine, against the Spanish forces.


A Captain in the army of the Governor of Terna in Fletcher's The Island Princess. He is with the Governor when the Portuguese soldiers, under the leadership of Armusia, blow up the prison and rescue the king. He then rallies the citizenry to fight the resultant fire.


A "ghost character" in Webster and Rowley's A Cure for a Cuckold. The Captain of Woodroff's ship is decapitated during a Spanish attack. Rochfield takes over command and saves the ship.


Commander of one of the English ships in the anonymous Dick of Devonshire. He reluctantly abandons Pike to his fate as a Spanish captive.


The Captain in Randolph's Praeludium is a member of the hungry troupe of actors performing at the Gentleman's house in exchange for food and clothing. The Captain speaks in martial metaphors, using allusions to classical mythology to demonstrate he is hungry and wants a piece of pastry crust.


An unnamed Captain is a suitor of Dorothea Constance in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. He tries to woo her by describing all the battles he's won, but she is unimpressed; she lectures him on morality, and he apologizes.

CAPTAIN **1633

The Captain in Shirley's The Young Admiral serves under the admiral Vittori's command and seems perplexed when Naples offers no welcome for the victorious admiral.

CAPTAIN **1634

The Captain in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman, knowing that Antonio is sure to be executed for the attempted murder of Don Martino Cardenes, agrees to take Antonio to Malta. At the play's close, the Viceroy rewards the Captain for his faithful service.


The Captain is brought home by Sir Walter Peregrine in Shirley's The Example. He delivers Peregrine's challenge to Lord Fitzavarice.


Sforza's disguise in Brome's The Queen and Concubine when he enters Gonzago's throne room to warn him that his rebellious soldiers seek Petruccio's death for the "murder" of Sforza.

CAPTAIN **1635

A “ghost character" in Killigrew’s The Prisoners. He reports through Eumenes that the Sardinian’s learned of the Sicilian attack too late to prepare to repel it.


Fighting on the side of the King in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia, the Captain resists General Guimantes's order that he "lay hands on" Sinatus which prompts the Prince to "make" a "blow" at him that Sinatus receives.


Claims to be "most happy" with "Arviragus government" in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. He agrees with Aldred when the "Danish Captaine" accuses Oswald of hoping to "one day [. . .] get the Queene and Kingdome for himselfe" which, "thus crost, begets" his "murmurings against the Queen and Arviragus."


The Captain is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. The captain is suing a coachman who has beaten him and a feathermaker who refuses to take payment for goods received.


In Act Three of Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers the Captain announces that Agenor has managed to escape by sea. Later, in Act Five, he arrests Agenor in the isle of Ceris.


This unnamed military Captain enjoys his profession; he even prays for war in Shirley's The Doubtful Heir. The Captain is most noted for his deception, however, of two local Citizens–merchants to whom the Captain owes money. Irritated by their pleas for repayment, the Captain convinces them first to forgive the debts, second, to become soldiers, and third, to become courtiers "extraordinary."


Leads a band of soldiers hunting for the escaped prisoners Samorat, Nashorat, and Pellegrin in Suckling's The Goblins; the attempt led by the captain is unsuccessful, but two of his men soon after catch their quarry at a country wedding.


Clerimont in Baylie's The Wizard disguises himself as a Captain in the first few scenes in order to insult his father's desire to marry Caelia and help his friend Sebastian to win her.


Officer in the Florentine army in Dekker's(?) Telltale. Enters with the Lieutenant and the Ancient to Aspero complaining about his withholding of their pay and their rewards for the capture of the Venetian princes. When they threaten to complain to the Duke, Aspero gives them gold to share amongst themselves and their soldiers, and promises to divide the Princes' ransom amongst them when it arrives. Later, in the military camp, the Captain discusses with the disguised Duke the soldiers' grievances with Aspero over lack of pay. He rejects the Duke's suggestion that they use their power to pillage the countryside, the city, and the court, insisting that their quarrel is only with Aspero. When two Soldiers enter with the disguised Julio and Duchess and argue over who will be able to use the Duchess as camp prostitute first, the Captain intervenes and insists that she work only as his cook and laundress. Later, he orders his Barber to trim the disguised Duke, who, for the Captain, bears a strong resemblance to the missing Duke. He hopes that his Duke will be able to impersonate the missing Duke and allow them to gain revenge on Aspero. When Victoria enters and recognizes the Duke, the Captain takes this as proof his plan will work. He listens as Victoria outlines how the Duke wronged her. The remainder of this scene is missing from the manuscript. At the end of the play, the Captain returns to court with the Duke, Duchess, Julio, Lieutenant, and Ancient, all impersonating their spirits. Picentio, disguised as the French Doctor, commands them to indicate their approval or disapproval of Aspero. After showing signs of approval the spirits perform a dance, during which the Duke takes the crown and the Duchess the scepter. They witness the Duke resume his authority, listen to Bentivoli's tale, witness the purged Garullo's return, and exit with the court to the weddings of Picentio and Isabella and Hortensio and Elinor.


The Captain in Habington's The Queen of Aragon is a braggart who fights in the first engagement against the troops of Castile and flatters Sanmartino egregiously.


The Captain and the Parson are archenemies in Killigrew's Parson's Wedding. The Captain and the Parson sling so many insults at each other that it's difficult to discern which are true and which are false. According to the dramatic personae, both of the men are "wits," but the Parson is "over-reached" by the "leading" wit, the Captain. The Captain claims to be the better soldier, but the Parson says that the Captain was born of a gypsy and a peddler and that it is actually the Parson who comes from the longer line of scholars and soldiers. The Captain threatens to print ballads against the Parson, but the Parson claims that the Captain is illiterate. If nothing else, the Captain is certainly a libertine. He refuses to marry or keep his girlfriend Wanton and threatens to break up with her unless she marries the Parson as a joke on the Parson. According to the Parson, the Captain is already married to a gypsy wife whom he's abandoned. After the Parson and Wanton marry, and Jolly seduces another of the Captain's lovers, Lady Love-all, Wild, Careless, and Jolly mock the Captain for having lost his bragging rights. But this means little to the Captain, who had arranged for the Parson's marriage in the first place and who has just come from Lady Love-all's with a better necklace, a written statement of affection, and a smile on his face. Later, at Lady Wild's dinner party, the four men, who have agreed to join forces, take on Sadd and Constant in a debate. The Captain and his cohorts extol the virtues of libertinism and the speak against marriage, love, and women. Sadd and Constant remain devoted to the notions of romantic love and marriage. In act three, the Captain accidentally addresses a letter meant for Wanton to Lady Love-all. Since the subject of the letter is the Captain having duped Love-all, whom the Captain describes as a "whore," Lady Love-all is understandably angry. But when she arrives at the Devil, the tavern where the Captain is drinking with his cohorts, the Captain easily deserts her, leaving her to pay the tab. The Captain and Wanton then scheme to play a trick on the drunken Parson. The Parson is put to bed with the Baud. The Captain pretends to be the constable and Jolly pretends to be the summoner, and they break into the house and arrest the Parson on charges of adultery. Wild, who pretends to be the justice, suggests whipping, but then Wanton says that the Parson should be allowed to go free if he promises to look the other way when she has affairs with other men, to which the Parson readily agrees. The Captain also initiates the plot to trick Mistress Pleasant and Lady Wild into marrying Ned Wild and Tom Careless. He persuades Wild and Careless to climb into bed with the ladies and then gives out that the two couples are married. After having been seen by half the town and court in bed with the men, the ladies reluctantly consent to marry them. At the end of the play, Lady Love-all finally catches up with the Captain and prepares to tell him off, but the Captain claims that he has already changed characters and is now Epilogue. He advises Lady Love-all to go in to the Parson and encourage him to seek revenge from the playwright for the way he's been unfairly represented in the play.


A braggart in Brome's The Northern Lass, supposedly a soldier, who makes a hundred pounds a year as 'Governor' to the dim-witted Master Widgine. Having overheard Sir Philip calling Mistress Trainwell a bawd, he appears at her house in search of sex, but is beaten by Tridewell and Beavis for his impudence. Somewhat chastened, he joins Tridewell, Mistress Trainwell and Constance among the Masquers at Sir Philip's wedding, and explains its meaning to the wedding guests afterwards. He helps to set up Constance Holdup's seduction and deception of Sir Paul Squelch. In the end he departs on a European tour with Master Widgine.


A soldier turned highwayman in William Rowley's A Match at Midnight. He works with Lieutenant Bottom. They try to rob Randall, but he escapes them and steals their stash of money. They are drinking partners of Alexander, and help him to gull Tim.


A chandler by trade in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV, Captain Chub serves with the rebel Falconbridge. He reveals his compatriot Captain Spicing and shares in the pursuant reward.


A “ghost chartacter" in Glapthorne’s Hollander. Sconce tells Urinal of a city captain who has a weapon salve that cured a hole in an Alderman’s daughter.


The Danish "Captaine" welcomes Oswald to the "Ile" from Denmark at the beginning of Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. He discusses the war and Cartandes's well-being with him, and informs him of the "vow" which the Queen "made upon her landing."


‘Another captain booted and spurred’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. He first appears at the opening of act three with Lacy. He is headed to Tilbury with a press of men. Lacy brings him orders to divert away from the queen, however, and go to Colchester. He exits towards the Harwich side of the stage. When he meets Lacy again, he reports that ‘the Spaniards be fled all’. He then recounts the whole course of the Spanish invasion and defeat. He reports that in the action the English lost but one hundred men. He goes with Lacy to have a drink, and, at the Tarlton inn, Pearle asks that Lacy and Denham judge the cuckolds and cuckqueans. Denham’s judgement is that each should carry on and ‘feed their beasts as plentifully and in the same measure they did before’ the cuckolding occurred. When all is resolved and agreed, Denham offers to act as convoy to take them all to London.


In the Anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V, he impresses John Cobbler, Derrick, and Cuthbert Cutter into military service during Henry V's campaign in France.


Joins Paget, Brunswick, and Clunie in Europe to search for the Duchess and her party bearing the warrant for their arrest in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Appears at Palsgrave's court with Brunswick and soldiers to arrest the Duchess and her party. Has his warrant nullified when Atkinson arrives with news of Queen Elizabeth's ascent to the throne.


Presented by the King to the new General in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. Eugenius, the Captain ensures the Lord that he and the other captains will "execute what [he] command[s]."


A disguise adopted by Face in Jonson's The Alchemist. Face is first seen in his captain's uniform, bearded and with sword drawn, quarreling with Subtle, while Dol Common tries to calm them down. As Captain Face, the trickster goes through the London taverns, recruiting his assortment of gulls. Captain Face introduces Dapper to Subtle, who appears in his Doctor's cap and gown. Captain Face convinces Dapper that he can see the Queen of Faery. Captain Face pretends that Drugger is his friend and he will persuade the Doctor magician to help him. While Subtle is in another room to get rid of Tribulation and Ananias, Captain Face must manage Dapper and Drugger, with Kastril in tow. Captain Face promises Dapper to help him see his "aunt," the Queen of Faery. Subtle comes disguised as a Priest of Faery and Face blindfolds Dapper, telling him to throw away his purse and jewelry. While Dol plays the cither, they thrust some gingerbread into Dapper's mouth and lock him in the privy. Face must quickly change from the Captain to another disguise, Lungs, when Mammon comes to the door. After dealing with Mammon, Face reverts to his disguise as a Captain and greets Kastril, who invites him to kiss his sister, but Mammon's return forces Face to disguise as Lungs again. Captain Face tells Drugger he should get hold of a Spanish suit and come back with a Person to marry Dame Pliant. When Face learns that Lovewit is back home, he reverts to his disguise as Jeremy the butler, shaving off his Captain Face beard.


Along with Aldred, The First Captain presents the prisoners (Arviragus and Guiderius) to Cartandes at the beginning of Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. He recounts the capture of Arviragus for her, and is ordered by her to bear Arviragus away and tend to his "wounds."


Soldiers in Brome's The Queen and Concubine who threaten to kill Petruccio for the supposed murder of Sforza. When Petruccio informs them that Sforza is not dead, they arrest him for treason.


The First and Second Captains discuss the King's request for an "enterview" with Arviragus and, likewise, Arviragus's consent in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia.


Two French sea captains land on Dover during the invasion in the Anonymous King Leir:
  1. The First Captain enters, with the Second Captain, after the landing of the Gallian army. He swears at the missing Watchmen who allowed the town to be surprised and is ready to stab them when Mumford arrives.
  2. The Second Captain suggests that the Watchmen are probably drinking, and he claims (correctly it would appear) that this is the fault of having the beacon too close to the alehouse.
When Mumford arrives, both Captains flee.


In the Anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V, he converses with three French soldiers, mocking the English king and his inadequate and depleted army, referring to him as "that womanly king of England."


The Captain in the Anonymous King Edward III is a French soldier who delivers Salisbury and forty other English soldiers to King John during the battle of Poitiers. This is apparently a different captain than the Captain who attempts to negotiate the surrender of Calais.


The Gypsy Captain in Middleton's More Dissemblers Besides Women allows Aurelia and Dondolo to join his band of gypsies; he rubs Dondolo's face with bacon to give him the right skin color.


Captain Harry Stranguidge in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV is a kinsman of Sir Robert Brackenbury. The Captain is condemned for seizing a French ship, an act he committed without knowledge of the recently formed peace between England and France.


Part of the "prettie policy th'King us'd to know the certainty" of Philicia's feelings towards Arviragus in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. The Captain delivers news of Arviragus's defeat to the King and his children. When Philicia "swounds," revealing her true affections for Arviragus, she leaves herself open to the future "torments" of her angry father.


‘A captain booted and spurred’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. He first appears at the opening of act three with Denham. He is headed to London with a press of men. He has come under orders to divert Denham to Colchester. He reports that the Spanish will despoil Colchester on their first day, London the second, and geld all the lawyers on the third day. He wishes Denham well and exits towards the Maldon side of the stage. When he meets Denham again, he learns that ‘the Spaniards be fled all’. Lacy declares that the Lord has fought on the English side this day and suggests that he and Denham repair to the Tarlton Inn for a drink. At the inn, Pearle asks that Lacy and Denham judge the cuckolds and cuckqueans. Lacy’s judgement is that each should take his own home. He tells them not to fret for even kings have ‘worn Vulcan’s badge’. He points out that each is already revenged upon the other by their acts.


Captain Landby is a friend of Beauford and the nephew of Justice Landby in James Shirley's The Wedding. He believes Gratiana's profession of virginity and aids her in proving her chastity to Beauford. He also works with Justice Landby in proving the cowardice of Rawbone.


A "ghost character" in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon. Fideli describes this little captain as "he that plays the fiend at sea" and as one who "swears Fleming-like" that the Babylonian Armada is advancing on Fairyland. He represents Captain Fleming, who reported the sighting of the Spanish Armada off the coast of England.


Captain Ned Spicing is one of the rebels serving under Falconbridge in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV. He is taken to the Mayor by the Miller and is executed for his part in the rebellion against the king.


He appears on the wall of Balsera with his son and wife, Olympia, when Theridamas sounds parley outside his besieged town in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2. He bids Theridamas to 'do your worst.' During the siege, he is struck by a stray bullet and dies while Olympia attempts to help him escape through a cave. She burns his body along with their son's, whom she stabs to death.


The Captain comes to court in IV to deliver a letter from a friend in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron. He also tells Byron of various ominous portents that occurred in Dijon after his departure.


The Captain of Calais in the Anonymous King Edward III is a French solider who tries to negotiate a safe surrender of Calais with Edward. He is apparently a different captain than the one who delivers Salisbury and forty soldiers to King John during the battle of Poitiers.


The Captain leads a group of ruffians in Rawlins's The Rebellion and is responsible for the kidnapping and attempted gang rape of Evadne. The Captain orders Evadne tied to a tree and offers her to his men after confessing his own impotence. The Captain refuses Evadne's request that he kill her rather than defile her.


The Captain of the Banditti surprises Bess and her party after they arrive in Italy in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part Two. When Bess's companions flee or are driven away, the Captain declares his intention to rape Bess but is interrupted by the fortuitous arrival of the Duke of Florence. Roughman later kills the Captain and takes his head to the Duke for the bounty upon it.


The captain of the cutpurses is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. He is one of the dubious characters seeking public relief from poverty. Byplay readily grants his suit.

CAPTAIN of the GUARD**1604

The captain of Alphonsus' guards in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany takes part in the arrest and killing of the Palsgrave.

CAPTAIN of the GUARD**1622

He brings Chabot into the King's presence after he has been condemned in Chapman's The Tragedy of Chabot, Admiral of France. At the King's order, he arrests the Lord Chancellor.


This Captain of the Ile of Wight attends Falconbridge's execution in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV.


Leader of the mutiny against priestly authority in Jerusalem in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. A carnivalesque rioter given to exaggerated rhetoric. He is flattered by Zareck into attending the proclamation of anarchy by the Seditious captains.


Leader in Shirley's The Arcadia of a group of comic characters who, with Thumb, attempt to take over the kingdom from Philanax in Basilius' absence. Trying to overpower Philanax, they are beaten off by Basilius, Pyrocles, Philanax, and Calander. The Captain leads the group of rebels and Thumb against the king, who the captain thinks has abandoned his people. Suggests new laws encouraging drunkenness and loose women, and a plan to empty the prisons and burn them. When the rebels are defeated, he leads them into the woods to become outlaws, where they capture the runaways Musidorus and Pamela and take them back to the king to try to bargain for a pardon


A wounded commander of the Scottish army that puts down Macdonald's and the Thane of Cawdor's rebellion in Shakespeare's Macbeth. The Captain reports to the Scottish king, Duncan, Macbeth's skill and valor in battle.

CAPTAIN of the WATCH**1590

The Captain of the Watch in the Anonymous King Leir tells the First and Second Watchmen to keep a lookout for ships and to light the beacon if they sight any.

CAPTAIN of the WATCH **1604

In Verney’s Antipoe, he commits suicide rather than watch the dishonourable execution of Macros. Macros says that he was wrong to do so.

CAPTAIN of the WATCH**1605

Commands the soldiers in the graveyard, including the disguised Lysander in Chapman's The Widow's Tears. He is afraid the Governor and Viceroy will blame him for the disappearance of the crucified body Tharsalio has stolen.


His army disbands after waiting for news from Richard but hearing nothing in Shakespeare's Richard II. Some of his men join Bolingbroke's rebel army. The captain is possibly the Glendower mentioned in III.i.


First mentioned as an "old grey ruffian" who leads the citizens in mutiny in Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster, the Old Captain is indeed in charge of citizens who have captured the would-be heir, Pharamond. Loyal only to Philaster, the Old Captain takes bids from his countrymen for Pharamond's body parts. He is convinced to disband the citizens and release Pharamond only at the insistence of Philaster and the promise of Philaster's rightful succession to the throne.


Officer in Palsgrave's service in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Following Clunie's instructions, attempts to arrest Duchess and Bertie; when they resist, Bertie fights with the Captain and kills him. Known as Wisendrop to the Burgomaster.


A fictitious character in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. In Clorindo's story (a thinly veiled version of Silvia's own history), Sulia is captured by pirates, who plan to see her in Egypt, but is released when the captain takes pity on her.


Captain Pistol is an old confederate of Falstaff who is now his second lieutenant and a loyalist to King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.


The Polonian Captain in the Anonymous King Edward III is the leader of a combined Russian/Polish force that promises to fight with the French.


Claims that "no resistance can bee made" against Arviragus's army in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. He decides that he and his soldiers should "yeeld."


At Milford Haven, a Roman captain tells Caius Lucius that reinforcements, headed by Iachimo, are on their way in Shakespeare's Cymbeline. When Caius Lucius discovers the "lifeless" body of Imogen, still disguised as a boy, it is the captain who confirms that "he" is sleeping, not dead.


The Sea Captain has rescued Viola from the shipwreck and brings her to Illyria in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. He tells her of Olivia and her deep mourning, and also of Orsino, setting in motion Viola's decision to take on a disguise. He agrees to give her male clothing to wear and take her to Orsino's court. At the end of the play, the audience is informed that the Captain has Viola's female clothes, but that he is in prison on Malvolio's command.


The Ship's Captain commands the vessel that carries the Merchant of Tharsus and his companions home in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England. Although he praises the maritime skills of his crew, he and they are powerless in the face of the storm that arises, and it is only when Jonas volunteers to be thrown overboard that the tempest subsides. The action of Jonas causes the Ship's Captain to declare his intention to embrace the Hebrew God.


One of the rebels serving under Falconbridge in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV, Smoke puns upon his name, claiming he will "smoke" those who will not be still while Falconbridge speaks.


The Spanish Captain in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part One commands the ship that takes the vessel upon which Spencer is sailing. When Bess defeats the Spanish Captain, she releases him with the order to "pray for English Bess." Perhaps because Bess is dressed as a man, the Captain responds that he is not sure who that is, but if it is "Famous Elizabeth," the queen, he will report to all that both she and her subjects are merciful.


The assumed and comic title of Tom Miller, the Clown in the anonymous Jack Straw.


A Turkish captain in Heywood's A Challenge for Beauty first captures and then sells Ferrars, Manhurst, and their crew as slaves in Spain.


Captain Westford is the cousin of Robert Westford in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green, but unlike his cousin he is an honorable man. He does not believe Mumford is guilty of treason, and gives him 100 pounds after Mumford is denied the 1000 marks he is owed. He chides his brother for offering his daughter to the already engaged Young Plainsey and for turning Bess out of his house. When he comes upon the fight between Sir Robert, Young Plainsey and their men against the disguised Mumford, he is convinced by the latter's claims of treachery and joins him. In the final scene, he stands with Mumford, and is rewarded for his loyalty by King Henry VI, who makes him general of all the forces in France.


Captains under Sardinapalus in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appear in the second playlet. They help Arbactus defeat Sardinapalus.


Leaders of the Fairy soldiers in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon, who follow Florimell in the triumphant battle against the Armada.


"Ghost characters" in Jonson's Catiline. All the Captains of Sylla's troupes that have been laid off after the wars are likely to join Catiline's conspiracy. When Catiline discusses the necessity of enrolling Roman generals to his cause, he mentions the veteran Captains of Sylla's army, who have ample reason to be dissatisfied with times of peace. Since they are oppressed by material needs after Sylla's army has been disbanded, Catiline believes they would gladly join his conspiracy.


The two Captains (not distinguished from each other in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter) are subordinate officers of Amphitryo, and return with him to Thebes. Like everyone else, they are baffled by the confusion of identity brought about by Jupiter.


Three captains figure in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy.
  • Two guards and their captain attempt to stop Pallantus killing the usurping king. The mortally wounded king forbids them from taking vengeance upon Pallantus and, when Pallantus escapes them, they go to Timeus. When prepares to commit suicide, he is prevented by the captain and two guards, who bid him to take up the crown.
  • A second captain attends Poliander, Menetius, and Comastes in their tent before the battle. He brings them wine. When the six soldiers attempt to desert, he is sent to punish them. When the battle is lost, Timeus, Menetius, Poliander, Comastes, and this captain take refuge in a fort.
  • A third captain accompanies Pallantus when he breaks into Eudora’s chamber. When Eudora chastises Pallantus, the captain is enraged by her and only Pallantus can stop him harming her. Pallantus orders him and his soldiers from Eudora’s room.


In Carlell’s Osmond, one captain appears early after the defeat of the Christian town. Two captains attend Haly and agree that Melcosbus dotes too much on Despina and neglects his duty to his people. Two other captains attend Odmer when he comes to meet Haly. They are aghast to think Odmer will tell the king that he has grown neglectful of his kingdom in his dotage over Despina. Later, soldiers appear with the captains to plan their overthrow of the “lazy" king. They eavesdrop and overhear Malcosbus refuse Calibeus’ plea for mercy, and afterwards they convince the old man to join their cause. When the king slays Dispina before his men, they agree she was worth all the king had said she was. One captain reports that the act has won the army back to the king. Haly sneaks into Melcosbus’ private arbor in the dark with some of the captains to kill the king. Osmond kills them as they are wounding Melcosbus. Other captains accompany Odmer and Hosa to the scene of Melcosbus’ death. They help convince Odmer not to commit suicide but rather to take the crown and rule the Tartars.


A British captain in Shakespeare's Cymbeline announces that Caius Lucius has been captured, and a second captain orders the arrest of Posthumous Leonatus, who is disguised as a British peasant.


Two captains in Verney’s Antipoe have seen fearful portents in camp, one commits suicide before Antipoe for shame in speaking saucily to his renowned leader. The third captain of the dramatis personae would technically be the earlier Captain of the Watch.


There are two captains in Fletcher and Massinger's Sir John Van Olden Barnavelt:
  1. The First Captain goes along with the Second Captain to support him when he is sent to be punished for insurrection. Barnavelt receives them without sympathy. Later, the first captain is spokesman for the soldiers who do not want to defend the towns of Utrecht for Barnavelt against Maurice, and actually admit Maurice in spite of Barnavelt's orders. He is then sent by Maurice on a dangerous mission to Germany to abduct Modesbergen and bring him back for trial. The captain succeeds in this, and is then sent to arrest Barnavelt himself.
  2. The Second Captain is sent to Barnavelt to be punished for insurrection.


Four Captains are ordered by Fortinbras to carry Hamlet's corpse away in honor in Shakespeare's Hamlet.


A disguise assumed by Ignoratio in Zouche's The Sophister. Ambiguity convinces Ignoratio to "counterfeit" himself as a "captive" for Scientia, has him practice reading Fallacy's letters, and leaves him gagged and blindfolded for Contradiction to find. Contradiction enters disguised upon the disguised Ignoratio, thinks (initially) that Ignoratio is Judicium, and proceeds to strike him and exit after he realizes that the fool is not Judicium. At this point, Ignoratio claims that his only revenge is "to hold [his] peace and be silent," asserts that he "must be better consell'd," and exits the play.


"Ghost characters" in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1. Slaves of Bajazeth. Tamburlaine promises to free them when he has conquered the Turks.


Taken prisoner at Fayal and interrogated in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part One, the Spanish Captives tell Bess that, when the Spanish forces retook the town, Spencer's body was removed from the church because he was a heretic (that is, Protestant), buried in a field, and then disinterred and burned by order of the Church. Mistakenly thinking that this shameful treatment has been heaped upon her beloved Spencer, Bess swears to have revenge on all Spaniards.


Three Sea Captains, in the navy of the young Malefort in Massinger's Unnatural Combat.


Whibble in Marmion's A Fine Companion is a poor excuse for a Captain in any institution, for he is out for himself on all occasions. He pretends to befriend Careless and urges the young man to sell his land for ready cash. Later, he and his friends exit a dining establishment, leaving Lackwit with the bill. His true feelings about Careless finally revealed, Whibble eventually weds the Hostess (to whom he is in debt) and becomes himself a Host.


A Capuchin monk in Webster's The Devil's Law Case. He mistakenly brings news that Contarino and Ercole have killed one another. Later, he also reveals that Contarino is, in fact, still alive.


Accompanies Arthiopa in her public penance in Davenant's The Unfortunate Lovers.


Lord Capuchius is Queen Katherine's nephew in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. Sent by the king to Katherine following the coronation of Queen Anne. Capuchius is commissioned by Katherine to deliver a request to the king concerning the future kind treatment of Princess Mary and Katherine's serving women.


A nobleman of Verona and father of Juliet in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Capulet has long been an enemy of Montague. Early on, Capulet seems inclined to peace, assuring Paris that there will be no further disputes between himself and Montague and forbidding Tybalt to confront Romeo during the feast at his house. Later, however, following the death of Tybalt and Juliet's refusal to wed Paris, an enraged Capulet denounces and curses Juliet, driving her to desperate measures. Following the death of Romeo and Juliet, Capulet pledges to have a rich statue of Romeo built in his memory.


Wife of Capulet and mother of Juliet in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. She favors the match between Juliet and Paris. (See "ANGELICA").


A guest at the Capulet feast in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. He and Capulet discuss the last masque they attended some thirty years earlier.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet who, along with his wife and daughters, is invited to the Capulet feast.


Caqueteur is a friend of Freevill's and dances in his pre-wedding masque in Marston's Dutch Courtesan. Caqueteur is also one of Crispinella's suitors, but he ultimately loses out to Tysefew, in part because Caqueteur fibs to Crispinella that the diamond ring he had borrowed from Tysefew really belongs to him.


Popular but inferior spelling of the British warrior known in Roman history as Caratacus and in British history as Caradoc. See "CARADOC."


Caradoc, son of Cadallan is the eponymous valiant Welshman in The Valiant Welshman. After Caradoc defeats the usurper Monmouth, King Octavian of Wales gives him his daughter, Guinever, and makes him heir to the Welsh throne, in preference to his own son, Codigun. Caradoc leads a Welsh army to joins the British war against the Romans. When the British King Gederus is made suspicious by the malicious letters of Gloucester, the Welsh army is sent away, but Caradoc dons a disguise and fights anyway. Caradoc beats the Romans single-handedly, and fights Claudius Caesar, who is so impressed that he gives him a golden lion that will make him recognized in Rome. Back home, Caradoc learns that Codigun has usurped the Welsh kingdom. He beats him in single combat, and is crowned King of Wales. Caradoc then defeats a Serpent and kills the Witch that conjured it. The Roman Ostorius attacks Wales and kidnaps Guinever. When Caradoc fails to save her, he goes to Venusius, Duke of York for help, but Cartamanda betrays him into the hands of the Romans. Caradoc and his family are taken to Rome. Ordered to kneel before Claudius Caesar, Caradoc refuses, and when Claudius Caesar recognizes the golden lion, he frees him and his family and allows them to return home. In history, the Romans called this person Caratacus (the spelling "Caractacus" is attested in one minor source).
His name is spelled Caratach in Fletcher's Bonduca, and he is the uncle of young Hengo. He is known in Roman history as Caratacus (the popular formulation, Caractacus, is found in only one inferior historical manuscript) in British history he is better known as Caradoc. Although he fights alongside his queen, Bonduca, he admires the Romans, and repeatedly argues that Britons should treat them with respect. He is disgusted by Bonduca's undisciplined generalship, and continually lectures her on the need for manly fortitude and discipline such as the Romans possess. When Corporal Judas and his soldiers are caught in the act of thieving, Caratach prevents them from being executed. Before the second battle, Bonduca and her daughters pray to the gods, but the altar does not catch fire until Caratach prays to the god of war. When the Daughters of Bonduca try to kill Junius, Curius and Decius, Caratach rescues them; the daughters explain that they want revenge because they were raped by Roman soldiers, but Caratach tells them, "you should have kept your legs close then." He fights several Romans, and exhausts them all. Caratach is furious when Bonduca's rash charge loses them the battle, and he protects Hengo during the retreat. When Judas and his soldiers try to capture Hengo, Caratach kills and beheads a soldier. He and Hengo hide out on a rock in the forest. Penius's body is taken past the rock, and his bearers permit Caratach to mourn for him. When Judas kills Hengo, Caratach kills him with a stone. He fights off Petillius and Junius, who have been sent to assassinate him. Finally, the entire Roman army captures him, but he is not displeased because he admires Rome so much. Suetonius eulogizes Caratach, and they all march off to Rome together. [Historically, he fled to Cartimandus, queen of the Yorkshire Brigantes, and she surrendered him to Rome where, according to Tacitus, Claudius spared his life to honor his valor.]
Caractacus is a "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned by Claudius as having been sent as a prisoner from Britain.

CARADOC **1627

A Welsh soldier who follows Penia-Penniless in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. He speaks in the comic stage dialect of his country. He claims the right to lead Penia's "tattered fleece" army because his lice are descended from great fighters' lice all the way back to Troy. In turns, he supports Brun, then Penia, and finally Higgen for captain. Nothing is seen of him after this in the play.


An elderly Cardinal in Barnes's The Devil's Charter who stands with tradition and thus with Alexander. In his function as an elder, Caraffa advises the Pope about military action, comforts him when the Manfredi princes are found dead, and joins in the Pope's praise of Caesar at the banquet celebrating Caesar's military victories and gains for Rome. Caraffa witnesses Alexander's death and orders that Alexander's swollen corpse be placed on view, "that they may / See the reward for sin, amend and pray."


Phillippo Caraffa, the Duke of Pavia in Ford's Love's Sacrifice. Described (by his wife) as having a 'crooked leg', 'scambling foot' and 'bloodless lip' amongst other physical defects. A headstrong, volatile and gullible ruler, he has recently married Biancha, a Milanese gentlewoman, despite objections to her low birth. His sudden passion for her is indicative of his impetuosity. He is infatuated with her and equally devoted to his best friend, Fernando. Courtiers remark on the moral decline in the duchy since he came to power: he indulges the depravity of Ferentes, whom he relies on for entertainment and gossip. The Duke knows himself to be 'choleric' and has temper-tantrums on the least provocation. His Secretary, the scheming D'avolos, manipulates his orders, showing that the Duke is both credulous and complacent in delegating his power, easily enraged when he discovers the truth, but easily distracted by other topics. He is too quick to believe reports against his loyal courtier, Roseilli, slandered for her own reasons by his sister, Fiormunda. Having encouraged a close intimacy between his best friend and wife, he is initially oblivious of their growing romantic attachment, then too quick to trust his Secretary's reports of their (inferred) adultery. The Duke's absence hunting without his best friend allows Fernando, then Biancha, the opportunity to reveal their love for eachother, and to reach the decision to keep their relationship platonic out of the Duchess's respect for her marriage vows. Their indiscreet meetings in the Duke's absence, however, give scope to D'avolos's plots to disgrace them on his. He is incited to jealousy by D'avolos and declares that he has felt ill since the hunt. Like Othello, he rages at D'avolos to provide evidence of the guilt of his wife and friend; he remains able to dissimulate friendship for Fernando throughout and to provide a gracious reception for the Abbot. He denounces the murder of Ferentes during the masque as treachery by the three women, who in turn accuse him of flagrant injustice in neglecting their grievances against their seducer. He continues to act unjustly, imprisoning Maurucio for his innocent participation in the masque, condemning the women to death until the pleas of their fathers, and Fernando's for Morona, placate him. His sister provokes him to extreme revenge against the (innocent) lovers by reminding him of his family honor and the need to preserve the legitimacy of his heirs. He is moved by these ideas, and more by the fear of scandal and mockery. He retains the wit to challenge his sister to reveal any ulterior motives for her actions, but is easily fooled into believing circumstantial evidence which corroborates his worst fears. He makes a solemn vow of vengeance without ever confronting his wife or friend with his suspicions. He consents to the marriage of Maurucio and Morona, then exiles them from court without giving a reason. The Duke's passions are causing him to act 'distractedly' and 'distemperedly' and his rule is declining into impetuous tyranny. He tells Biancha he intends to seek a cure at the spa in Lucca, but instead confronts the lovers, has Fernando arrested, and murders his wife at the insistence of his sister. He challenges Fernando to a duel, but is finally persuaded of his wife's innocence, and must be prevented from committing suicide in remorse. Instead, he denounces D'avolos as a villain and removes him from office. At his wife's tomb, in the presence of the Abbot, he confesses his guilt to Biancha's ghost then stabs himself after Fernando's own suicide, demanding to be buried in the same tomb as the lovers.


A "ghost character" in ?Greene's Selimus I. Follower of Bajazet killed fighting against Ishmael.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man in His Humour. Hieronymo de Caranza was a famous sixteenth-century Spanish fencing master. He was the first fencing master to describe the "mysterious circle," the rapier's choreographed movement along a sophisticated pattern of chords and diameters. In his 1569 book, De la philosophia de las armas (On the Philosophy of Arms), Caranza argues that fencing is not mere physical exercise, nor is it even a necessary skill for a chivalrous gentleman. According to Caranza, the use of the sword implied an entire philosophy, an alchemical distillation of Christian mysticism and newly re-discovered classical science. At Bobadill's lodgings, the braggart and the foolish Mathew speak admiringly of the play The Spanish Tragedy, featuring a character named Hieronymo. Then, the discussion veers towards fencing. Bobadill boasts that he can teach Mathew the best methods for infallible coups warranted by the great Caranza himself. Bobadill gives a fencing demonstration on the spot and promises Mathew that, following his instructions, he will be able to control the enemy's point and kill him instantly.
A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. Caranza is a famous writer of the rules of dueling. Sanchio demands satisfaction from Alphonso, by the rules of Caranza. Eugenia announces that she is a kinsman of Caranza and will help them to duel properly; she uses the opportunity to enforce rules so impossible that they must give up their quarrel.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. Hieronymo de Caranza was a famous sixteenth-century Spanish fencing master. He was the first fencing master to describe the "mysterious circle," the rapier's choreographed movement along a sophisticated pattern of chords and diameters. In his 1569 book, De la philosophia de las armas (On the Philosophy of Arms), Caranza argues that fencing is not mere physical exercise, nor is it even a necessary skill for a chivalrous gentleman. According to Caranza, the use of the sword implied an entire philosophy, an alchemical distillation of Christian mysticism and newly re-discovered classical science. In a learned discussion on fencing between Tipto and Fly, the latter says that Euclid's theory of the circle was prior to that of the Spanish fencing masters. Since Tipto's education is restricted to the theories of the Spanish Academy of the Sword, he tells Fly he does not mind the ancients and he wants a modern name. Fly mentions Hieronymo's name, but he says he was an Italian master. Host, who seems to be more learned than both Tipto and Fly in the art of fencing, intervenes and sets the discussion on the right track. Host says that the great fencing names, such as Caranza and Don Lewis, had their times, implying they are no longer in fashion.


Fletcher's spelling of the British warrior Caradoc in his Bonduca. See "CARADOC."


Carazie, an eunuch in Massinger's The Renegado, is a servant first to Donusa and then to Paulina. He nearly helps Gazet become a eunuch when the latter finds out that eunuchs are allowed to sleep with the ladies they serve. He later aids in Vitelli's escape.


Carbo is Marius' general and has been Consul three times in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. Scilla captures him when the he retakes Rome. Carbo refuses to kneel before Scilla or Pompey, proclaiming himself their equal and that he honors only gods, not men. Scilla has him forcibly thrown down and puts his foot on his neck, but Carbo says that only his body is humbled. When he demands to be executed rather than mocked, Scilla agrees and Carbo is taken away, lamenting that Rome is ruled by a tyrant.


Philogonus' servant in (?)Johnson's Misogonus. Carcurgus, acts the part of a fool before his master while craftily egging on his master's son, Misogonus on in his wildness. Carcurgus warns Misogonus that his father is wise to his carousing and that Eupelas is coming to try to reform him. Later, Carcurgus learns that Misogonus has a twin brother, warns him about this rival, and disguises himself as a traveling physician to truck two old women who know of the twin's existence to keep the secret quiet. Philogonus fails to recognize Carcurgus' deviousness until after Misogonus' twin, Eugonus, is brought back as Philogonus' heir. Carcurgus' wickedness exposed, he is dismissed from Philogonus' service.


Don Martino Cardenes, referred to throughout Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman as either Don Martino or Cardenes, is the son of the Duke of Messina. Originally, he is in love and engaged to Almira. When he hears that Antonio also seeks Almira's hand, he fights Antonio for his honor, but is seemingly killed in the confrontation. Antonio is taken away and does not see Cardenes' unexpected recovery. When revived, his father promises a fortune if the surgeons can fully restore him. However, his greatest change is not physical, but rather it is spiritual. Having survived a deadly encounter over the lusts of the flesh, Don Martino Cardenes swears an oath to forsake woman forever. Paulo attempts to cure him of an exaggerated melancholy by taking a series of disguises. When cured, Cardenes swears to be honorable and thoughtful. This opens the way for Antonio to take Almira for his own, without Don Martino Cardenes objecting. Instead, Cardenes offers his apologies for wishing to settle their dispute with violence.


For a named Cardinal, search under that churchman's name, e.g. "WOLSEY, CARDINAL."


Cardinal of Lorraine and brother of Guise in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris. He supports the massacre of Protestants. He is murdered on the order of King Henry III.


The Cardinal, formerly Lord Bewford, is in love with the Lady Ellenor in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green. He visits her, disguised as his own servant, but she recognizes him and, by convincing him she will meet him in the garden, gets him to leave. He is later reported to be attempting to marry Ellenor by force, but in the last scene he comes to an uneasy peace with is rival Gloucester, as demanded by the King.


Having first performed Isabella's and Roberto's wedding ceremony, he later offers Isabella moral support on her way to the scaffold in John Marston's The Insatiate Countess.


Brother to Ferdinand and the Duchess in Webster's The Duchess of Malfi. He is a secret villain, conducting his evil through agents. He and his brother do not want their widowed sister to remarry and threaten her if she should. The Cardinal is a libertine and is conducting an affair with Julia, wife to old Castruccio. When he fears he cannot trust his mistress, he murders her by having her kiss a Bible that he has poisoned. He orders the deaths of Antonio and the children of Antonio and the Duchess. He also has his sister, the Duchess, imprisoned. Through Bosola, the Cardinal has the Duchess tortured with visions of her family's death and the screaming of madmen. Finally, he has her strangled to death. Bosola turns upon him and murders him.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Pilgrim. According to one of the gentlemen who visit the madhouse with Pedro, the Cardinal is very angry to hear that the Scholar is being kept there and has sent a letter asking for his release.


The Cardinal, who probably should be viewed as the voice of moral order in Middleton's Women Beware Women, is not given enough stage time to be anything more than a character type. He enters in some four brief scenes towards the end of the play to castigate the sinfulness of his brother, the Duke of Florence, and encourage the salvation of his soul. But his long, droning lines do not endear him in any particular way. He approaches his duty to God in a workmanlike manner. His preachings go wholly unheeded, and he becomes a figure of ineffectual spiritual guidance. Even though he has the final lines in the play, and even though he is obviously next in line to the throne, his impotence throughout his scenes goes a long way in demonstrating that the moral order is far from being restored in this dukedom.


There is a character only identified as the Cardinal in Dekker's Noble Spanish Soldier. Balthazar refers to seeing a picture of Hell in Cardinal Alvarez's gallery, but there is no clear indication that these two characters are the same person. The King sends the Cardinal to Onælia with a message that he intends to honor the contract. When the King destroys the contract instead, the Cardinal is outraged and promises that the act will lead to the King's great shame. He brings Medina (disguised as Dr. Devile) to the King. He advises the King against murder and hopes that Devile/Medina will be able to cure the King's soul. He attends the wedding of Onælia and Cockadillio.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. The Cardinal is the Duke's brother and sends him a letter confirming a truce with Genoa, a fact which upsets the Duke.


A Cardinal in Brome's The Queen's Exchange marries Bertha and Anthynus in a dumb show.


The Cardinal is everything bad in the Caroline view of the Roman church in Ford's 'Tis Pity She's a Whore. He condones murder by protecting Grimaldi after the death of Bergetto. He mercilessly condemns Putana to the auto de fe. And he confiscates the family goods to the use of the church at his first opportunity.


In attendance at the supposed funeral of Clovis and intending to preside over Aphelia's execution in Hemming's Fatal Contract. A non-speaking character, whose presence, with a bevy of singing nuns, adds to the perverse solemn ceremonial of human sacrifice. When Clotair changes his mind and decides to marry Aphelia instead, he whispers to the Cardinal, whose co-operation can only be inferred.


The Cardinal is a Machiavel of the old school in Shirley's The Cardinal . His plot to marry his nephew Columbo to the Duchess is solely intended to improve his family. He manipulates the King to his best advantage when he advises him not to execute Columbo after the murder of D'Alvererz. He is impious and plots both ravishment of and revenge against the Duchess when she has Columbo killed. When he believes himself stabbed to death by Hernando he fails to shrive his soul. Instead, he takes poison in the guise of proving it is an antidote to convince the Duchess to drink it. When he learns from the surgeon that his wounds are not life-threatening, he discovers that in his poisoning of the Duchess he has also succeeded in murdering himself.


Cardinal of Aragon assists in the election of the new Pope (Monticelso) in Webster's The White Devil.


Asked by the Pope in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus to retrieve from the papal files the decree which condemns Bruno, the Cardinal of France and the Cardinal of Padua are beset with lethargy by Mephostophilis upon Faustus' request, allowing the latter two to impersonate the two cardinals and free Bruno. When France and Padua return to the papal banquet, their answers, ignorant of the impersonators' actions, so infuriate Pope Adrian that he curses their souls and locks them in prison.


The Lord Cardinal of London in Shakespeare's Richard III. The Cardinal conducts Elizabeth into sanctuary with her children, excepting Prince Edward, in order to protect them from Richard III, who has arrested Elizabeth's brother Rivers and her son Gray. The Cardinal is later reluctant to remove Prince Richard from sanctuary until Buckingham persuades him that the Prince did not claim and therefore does not deserve sanctuary.


A non-speaking character in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. A guest of honor at the papal victory banquet in the A Text of the play, specifically invited by the Pope to sit and eat.


The Cardinal of Milan is a devout man in Middleton's More Dissemblers Besides Women. He cannot endure women near his lodgings. He admires the Duchess for her constancy, and sees her as a role model. When the Lords suggest that she be tested, the Cardinal agrees, but does not believe that she will ever yield. He also admires the chaste mind of his nephew Lactantio (not realizing that Lactantio is a womanizer who disguises his mistresses as men). The Cardinal is devastated when the Duchess falls in love with Lactantio (as he thinks), and decides to banish his nephew, but then decides it would be better if two chaste people married each other. When he finds Lactantio's "Page" (actually Lactantio's mistress in disguise) in tears, the Cardinal takes "him" away from Lactantio and gives "him" to the Duchess. Then he sets about the job of persuading Lactantio to marry the Duchess, and succeeds with (to him) surprising ease. Then, he and the Lords try to persuade the Duchess to marry, which offends her (though not because of her chastity but because she's secretly in love with Andrugio). At the end of the play, the Duchess's hopes of marrying Andrugio have been dashed, so when the Cardinal enters and asks the Duchess to choose her husband, she says she will remain a vowed virgin forever. The Duchess then reveals Lactantio's "Page," explaining that Lactantio has been wooing her in man's apparel "because he was bashful / And never could endure the sight of woman." The Cardinal is furious, but the Duchess calms him by preaching forgiveness.


Asked by the Pope in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus to retrieve from the papal files the decree which condemns Bruno, the Cardinal of France and the Cardinal of Padua are beset with lethargy by Mephostophilis upon Faustus' request, allowing the latter two to impersonate the two cardinals and free Bruno. When France and Padua return to the papal banquet, their answers, ignorant of the impersonators' actions, so infuriate Pope Adrian that he curses their souls and locks them in prison.


An ally to the French King Charles VIII in Barnes's The Devil's Charter. He joins Charles, Montpensier, and Ascanio and Lodowick Sforza who are planning to invade Rome and remove Alexander as Pope. When the victory goes to Charles, Alexander negotiates a truce and Vincula, who wants Charles to press his military advantage, hatefully refers to Alexander as "Lucifer" sitting in St. Peter's chair.


The Cardinal of York is one of several names and titles for Cardinal Wolsey in Shakespeare's Henry VIII.


Either the Cardinal of France or the Cardinal of Padua, but not specifically identified in the speech headings in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. In the B-text only, he answers the Pope in confusion, not realizing that Faustus and Mephistophilis have taken his place and the place of his companion Cardinal.


A number of cardinals appear in the dumb show at the beginning of Dekker's The Whore of Babylon, following the hearse of the dead Queen Mariana and singing in Latin. After the accession of Titania, Time and Truth drive them out. At least four of them seem to be the same Cardinals who later appear in attendance on the Empress, reporting Titania's slanders against her. They are so angry at their expulsion from Fairyland that they declare themselves willing to be transformed into dogs if this will allow them to lick Titania's blood. Foremost among them is Como, who evolves a number of cunning plots that he believes will entrap Titania; the other cardinals merely support his Machiavellian schemes. (See "COMO").


Appear in the Dumb Show of Barnes's The Devil's Charter where Alexander pantomimes signing the charter with the devil.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. A neighbor of Theodosia and Philippo. The disguised Leocadia tries to claim that she is the son of Don Henriques, but Philippo knows he has no son.


Cardochia, also known as Juanna in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy, is a young woman who serves as host to the gypsies. She falls in love with Don John but accuses him of making obscene advances and stealing a jewel when he, being in love with Pretiosa, rejects her advances. She retracts her accusations at the end of the play and marries Diego.


Cardona is Gratiana's maid in James Shirley's The Wedding. Marwood has brought her gifts and flattered her in an effort to gain access to Gratiana. Cardona, hoping to gain a husband for her daughter Lucibel, sends her daughter instead of Gratiana to Marwood. The trick fails, for Marwood does not propose to the lady with whom he slept. He instead defames Gratiana to her husband-to-be. Fortunately Cardona reveals the bed trick in time to help effect the reconciliation between Gratiana and Beauford.


One of the characters in Evanthe's and Valerio's wedding masque in Fletcher's A Wife for a Month. Only Cupid speaks, but Cupid's attendants include hopeful characters of Fancy, Desire, Delight, Hope, and also the dire characters Fear, Distrust, Jealousy, Care, Ire, and Despair, suggesting that in the lovers' marriage, misery will outweigh happiness. Valerio finds this to be the case when shortly after the wedding the king forbids him from consummating his marriage.


Careless is brother to Aurelio in Marmion's A Fine Companion. Though a younger son, he has the fortune of the father because Aurelio has been disinherited. An irresponsible spendthrift, Careless listens gladly to those who advise the sale of his land. He later dons a disguise and learns Whibble's true feelings about him; again disguised, this time as Dotario, Careless weds Littlegood's daughter Aemilia. Careless has learned something about responsibility and honor throughout the course of the play, and he has discovered there are more important things in life than being called "a fine companion."


Careless is Ned Wild's best friend in Killigrew's Parson's Wedding. At the beginning of the play, the two of them have just returned from three years in France, where he has developed continental tastes. Careless has no tolerance for platonic love. When Lady Wild and Mistress Pleasure invite Careless and his friends to dinner, Careless resists because women like Wild and Pleasure, "take a pleasure to raise a spirit that they will not lay," and he proposes to go to Banks, an ordinary, instead. Early in the play Wild and Careless join forces with the Captain and Jolly, and together they come up with a strange plan to rail against women and marriage in an effort to win the attentions of Mistress Pleasant and Lady Wild. They also help the Captain and Wanton play tricks on the Parson, Wild by pretending to be a justice and Careless by pretending to be a summoner. In return, the Captain helps Careless and Wild to marry Lady Wild and Mistress Pleasant. He persuades Wild and Careless to climb into bed with the ladies and then gives out that the two couples are married. After having been seen by half the town and court in bed with the men, the ladies reluctantly consent to marry them.


George Carelesse is a young wild heir in Brome's A Mad Couple. In Act One, Carelesse asks Wat whether he has taken a letter to Mr Saveall to intercede for him with his uncle. He has been counting on his uncle's help lately to pay off his debts and on his advocates to defend him at court. However, Carelesse has gotten into trouble again. But that is not his single problem. Carelesse has to maintain Phoebe, and he does not know how. At the beginning, Carelesse plans a plot against his uncle and to open a brothel of he-whores. However, later on he prefers to defend his uncle and Mr Saveall. In Act Two, he has already paid all his debts and he sends a letter to tell Phoebe not to meddle in his affairs. But, the letter reaches Mistress Crostill by mistake. Carelesse has fallen in love with his aunt, whom he compares with Andromeda. He wants to give her an heir, and so he accepts her invitation. He misunderstands her intentions and he confesses that he is more obliged to her than to his mother because he has been reborn with the lady. When Carelesse finds out the truth, he runs to court Mistress Crostill, whom he marries at the end.


The family name of Sir Henry and Sir Peter in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. (See "HENRY CAREW, SIR" and "PETER CAREW, SIR").

CAREW **1604

A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. Henry calls for Compton and Carew to attend him after the queen’s death.


A “ghost character" in Ruggle’s Club Law. Luce says that her husband is on a voyage with “Captaine Carifeild."


Cargo is a witty and teasing character in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom who acts as Lord Nicoletto Vanni's man. He usually delivers news and invitations, and occasionally comments on his master's actions. Throughout the play he engages in witty exchanges, playing upon the theme of his old master's desire for Alphonsina. It is Cargo who first informs Vanni and Dariene of Angelo Lotti's banishment from Florence. Later, as his master reveals his plot how to win Alphonsina he mocks the old man's desire for so young a lady. He delievers a jewel and a letter declaring Vanni's desire to Alphonsina. In the denouement of the Lord Vanni-Alphonsina plot, he announces Dariene's arrival, but then disappears from the action.


Seleucus’s friend in Killigrew’s Claricilla. He acts as second to Seleucus in the duel with Melintus at the haven by the town. He fights Timillus and defeats him. He falls by the stranger’s rage before the king comes and has him taken to be tended in the town. A surgeon tells Seleucus that Carillus’s wounds are fatal.


Carinna is a lieutenant to Carbo in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War and is brought before Scilla after Carbo is taken off to be executed. Unlike his general, Carinna begs for mercy and a pardon from Scilla, but he is also taken off to be killed.


Carintha is the wife of Penda in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador. Apparently forewarned that he is still alive, she nevertheless tells the king that she will marry him if he rids himself of Armante. She also shows him what she says is a sculpture of Penda's death at the hands of Voltimar, which is really a tableau created by Penda and Voltimar posing. Carintha pities Armante and secretly returns to her the written marriage promise that the king has given her, but she keeps up the pretence of meaning to marry the king and asks him to kill the prince, which shocks him into repentance.


Carintha is the wife of Contarini in Shirley's The Humorous Courtier. Though the two are relative newlyweds, Contarini urges Carintha to kill herself, for he feels he's been chosen to wed the duchess. She does not oblige Contarini, of course; neither does she allow herself to be seduced by Giotto. She and Contarini are reconciled at the play's end.


Carintha (also called Carinthia) is the maid of Violeta, princess of Trebizond in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. She and Violeta are attracted to the Saints Andrew and Anthony, and are horrified when the Emperor orders them to be executed for failing to recant their Christianity. The Emperor allows the saints to choose their executioners, and they choose Violeta and Carintha, who refuse, saying they'd rather kill themselves. So Andrew and Anthony offer to kill each other. The Emperor releases them and provides swords, whereupon Andrew and Anthony frighten everybody away.

CARINUS **1587

The rightful heir to the crown of Arragon in Greene's Alphonsus, King of Arragon, he has been usurped by his younger brother, Flaminius. Has a dream in which he sees his son in triumph over his enemies. Meets the outcast Duke of Milan and stabs him after the Duke acknowledges that he wishes Carinus and Alphonsus dead. He finds his son and reunites with him, finally helping him to woo Iphigina.


Carinus is the son of Lupinus in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. He is loved by Amarillis, but is himself in love with Cloris. He quarrels with Cloris' other admirer, Amyntas, watched by Ergastus and Meliboeus, and Colax and Techne. Amarillis lures Carinas' dog Lelaps away from him in an attempt to get Carinas' attention. Carinas, however, rebukes her for spoiling his hunting. She tells Carinas that Cloris loves Amyntas; Carinas vows that when Cloris loves Amyntas he will love Amarillis. On hearing Mirtillus recount Amyntas' suicide attempt and Cloris' reaction to it, Carinus realises that Cloris loves Amyntas and he will never have any hope of winning her. At the shepherds' assembly, Meliboeus asks Carinas to look favourably on Amarillis, and they are betrothed.


Cario, a cook to Adorio in Massinger's The Guardian.


Servant to the Duchess in Webster's The Duchess of Malfi. She is the hidden witness to her lady's secret marriage to Antonio. While she remains faithful to her mistress, she is not as strong when she is placed in the asylum with her. She is badly shaken during the ordeal and must be psychologically propped up by the Duchess. At last she is removed from the asylum to be murdered. She cries to be shriven and in a last desperate act claims to be pregnant, but her plea goes unheeded. She is strangled and her body carried from the stage.


The doctor's man in Gascoigne's The Supposes.

CARION **1627

Chremylus' witty servant in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. He complains of his master's poverty and foolish desire to follow blind Plutus. He helps Chremylus in his plan to befriend Plutus and heal his eyesight. Chremylus sends him to round up his poor but honest neighbors Clodpole, Lackland, and Stiff. He helps Chremylus and Blepsidemus take Plutus to be healed at the Temple of Esculapius. Later, he recounts the healing to Chremyla, who sends him to the goldsmith to buy her a ring. He complains humorously of all the gold, silver, ivory, and rubies that now adorn the house. He comes upon Goggle, who wishes to make a gift of his shoes and old cloak to Plutus. Never-good meets them. Never-good wishes to put out Plutus' eyes again. Carion encourages Goggle to strip off Never-good's finery as a better gift for Plutus. Later, he admits Mercurius as the household poet because "household chaplains are now out of date."


Carionil suffers from unrequited love for Lucora in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady. He is encouraged by his close friend, Falorus, and the servant Anclethe, not to give up hope, despite having overheard Lucora reject marriage and devote herself to Diana. Carionil confesses his love to Lucora, and she ridicules him for his excess passion. He imagines the destruction of the world, and the creation of a new one in which his desires might be fulfilled. Falorus reveals to Carionil that Lucora's father has chosen Falorus to wed Lucora, but insists that he will reject her. Carionil is nevertheless frantic, and challenges Falorus to a duel. Falorus refuses, and Carionil debates the relative values of friendship and love. Convinced that love outweighs friendship, he renews the challenge, but Falorus refuses, reassures him, and they exit together firm in their friendship. Carionil, convinced that he cannot win Lucora's heart, laments to Cleanthe and is comforted. As they speak, a response to his love-letter arrives, rejecting his suit and insisting that he desist from pursuing Lucora. In emotional agony, Carionil stabs himself intending to end his suffering. He fails in his attempt, recovers and demands the knife again, but is convinced by the recently entered Falorus that he may still achieve his desire. He is declared dead by Cleanthe and Florus, as part of their plot to reveal Lucora's true feelings for Carionil. Carionil takes a potion and achieves a death-like state; Lucora is summoned to witness his death, with hopes that she will relent in her rejection of him. She remains unmoved, vows she could never love him, and leaves. When he revives and is told what transpired, he becomes frantic once again, and Falorus hatches a new plot to win through which Carionil might win Lucora's heart. At Falorus's instigation, Carionil disguises himself as an Ethiopian, Tucapelo, and wins Lucora's heart immediately. They plan to elope, but as she arrives on the street to run off to Ethiopia with him, he realizes that he cannot love a woman who would choose such a man rather than himself, and he cruelly rejects her. When she threatens to kill herself because of his rejection, he reveals his actual identity, and she is instantly cured. He vows not to reveal her near-elopement, and they part. He reveals to Anclethe that he no longer loves Lucora, and Anclethe offers to introduce him to a new woman. He agrees, meets the undisguised Cleanthe the following morning, and falls instantly in love with her. She reveals her actual identity as the long-lost daughter of Rosinda and Polidacre, and he agrees to marry her before her father can object. Falorus enters, having suddenly fallen in love with Lucora. He is grieved by this transgression against Corionil, and begs Corionil to kill him. Corionil refuses, guesses the cause of his friend's grief, and again refuses to kill him. At last, Carionil explains that he no longer loves Lucora, and offers to intercede on his friend's behalf, to ensure that Lucora will agree to the marriage. After marrying Cleanthe, Carionil arrives with his new bride at the home of Polidacre, they both explain their former disguises, and they receive the blessings of her parents.


Carisophus, a parasite at King Dionisius' court in Edwards's Damon and Pithias, accuses Aristippus of having turned his philosophy into a means of achieving his selfish ends. Despite their rivalry, Carisophus falsely proposes friendship to Aristippus. He tells Aristippus his plan to deprive the rich citizens of Syracuse of their money, and Carisophus roams the streets in search of gullible persons to plunder. Seeking strangers for easy prey, Carisophus eavesdrops on Damon and his servant Stephano. After Stephano's departure, Carisophus entices Damon to speak ill of the king. Damon shows respect towards the institution of kingship, but Carisophus accuses Damon of being a spy because he has traveled abroad. Carisophus summons Snap, the sheriff's officer, and Damon is arrested and taken before the king, who sentences him to death. After Damon's departure to Greece, Carisophus rummages in Damon's baggage. Stephano discovers Carisophus hidden in Damon's trunk and gives him a good beating. Carisophus learns that his aggressor's name is Onaphets, and goes to the surgeon to have his wounds dressed. Carisophus asks Aristippus, the philosopher, to use his influence to discover the reason behind the king's displeasure with him. In Carisophus' view, he had done nothing wrong, apart from having exposed a dangerous spy in Damon, and having crossed Eubulus in his defense of Pithias. Carisophus appeals to Aristippus to plead with the king in his favor. When Aristippus refuses, Carisophus accuses him of false friendship. During the ensuing altercation, each accuses the other of falsity, and Carisophus concludes that friendship exists only between honest men, while evil people use friendship dishonestly to further their selfish ends. Left alone, Carisophus feels betrayed and used. He sees his situation as God's punishment for his dishonesty. He decides to leave things as they are, and exits with the hope of better fortune in the future.


A loyal supporter of King Richard who speaks out against Bolingbroke's usurpation of the crown and is subsequently arrested in Shakespeare's Richard II. He plots against Bolingbroke with the Duke of Aumerle and the Abbot of Westminster, however he is not executed but exiled by Bolingbroke (now King Henry IV).


Hippolito's familiar name in [?]Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy.


Carlo is the name of Bartervile's second Servant in Dekker's If It Be Not Good.

CARLO **1612

Carlo is one of Brachiano's attendants in Webster's The White Devil. Secretly, he along with Pedro is in league with Francisco.


Carlo (spelled "Claro" in the Dramatis Personae to ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy) is a gentleman disguised as a gypsy.


He is present at Balthazar's return but has no lines in Dekker's Noble Spanish Soldier. He swears with Medina to enforce Onælia's contract to the King. He votes against killing the King. He attends the wedding of Onælia and Cockadillio.


Carlo is the servant in Shirley's The Bird in a Cage, who aids Bonamico in his confidence tricks but eventually betrays him by revealing his true identity to Grutti and Dondolo.


Carlo Buffone is a foolish jester in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. The name suggests his personality, since buffone is the Italian for jester. In the countryside, Carlo Buffone enters with Sogliardo, who tells him he wants to be a gentleman. Carlo Buffone gives Sogliardo advice in the ways of a gentleman courtier. Before Puntavorlo's country house, Carlo Buffone enters with Sogliardo and Fastidious Brisk. The three men have a silly conversation about hobbyhorses and agreeable pastimes. Puntavorlo arrives and Carlo Buffone's party watches him perform a rehearsed game of courtship to his lady, making ironic comments at Puntavorlo's histrionics. In London, at St. Paul's, Carlo Buffone enters with Puntavorlo. Sogliardo enters announcing he has just bought a coat of arms, and Carlo Buffone pretends to admire the design. Carlo Buffone, Puntavorlo, Fastidious Brisk, and Sogliardo watch Shift brandishing his sword. Carlo Buffone makes ironic remarks relative to Shift and he exits with his party to have dinner. At Puntavorlo's lodgings in London, Carlo Buffone reports on Sogliardo and Fastidious Brisk to Puntavorlo, and when the knight exits with the others to sign the insurance papers for his journey, Carlo Buffone accompanies them as a witness. At Puntavorlo's house, Carlo Buffone enters with Sogliardo, Shift, and Macilente. Carlo says he wants to persuade Sogliardo to become a courtier. Carlo Buffone arranges to meet the whole party again at the tavern. At the Mitre Tavern, Carlo Buffone is waiting for the Puntavorlo party, drinking heavily in the meantime. When they enter, Carlo's alcohol-induced loquacity makes Puntavorlo get out of his benevolent humor, and he seals Carlo's lips with wax to reduce him to silence. They get into a fight and Carlo Buffone is arrested and taken to prison, without being able to say anything in his defense.


A gentleman of Madrid in Shirley's The Brothers; father to Jacinta and Luys, brother to Theodoro, and uncle to Felisarda. His greatest concern is to settle his children in wealthy marriages, especially his daughter, Jacinta. In his desire to achieve this, he betroths her, in quick succession, to
  • Fernando, the eldest son of his old friend Ramyres;
  • Alberto, a friend and creditor of his son Luys; and
  • Don Pedro, also a creditor of Luys and the wealthiest of the three.
He is shamelessly greedy in breaking off his daughter's engagements, and shows cruelty to his impoverished niece, Felisarda, banishing her from his house when it seems (rightly) that Fernando prefers her to Jacinta. Eventually, however, chastened by the brief fright of Jacinta's disappearance and encouraged by Ramyres' new financial arrangements, Don Carlos accepts his daughter's marriage to Ramyres' younger son, Francisco, his niece's marriage to Fernando, and his son's refusal to marry anyone at all.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's The Phoenix. Carlo Turbulenzo does not appear in the play but is described as a party who failed to appear in the prosecution of a lawsuit.


The carman is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. He exchanges various refined pleasantries with the waterman and the sedanman. His courtly behavior and refinement are a comic contrast to the coarse vulgarity of the courtiers Will and Jack.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus, daughter of the old King of Assyria, she was promised to Gobrias' son.


Mistress Caro loves the courtier Blood in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer, but she is the object of Sinew's affections. Cantharides the demon makes Caro fall in love with Sinew, then with Barebones. But the magic does not last long, and she soon returns to Blood. Then, Cantharides bites Blood on the arm; he "runs up and down hollering" and Caro thinks that he is running away from her. She laughs as Cantharides makes fools of all her suitors, but the demon then punishes her by biting her and making her laugh uncontrollably.


Madge Caro is a stutterer in (?)Johnson's Misogonus. She is one of two old women who learn from their crony, Alison, that Misogonus has a twin brother. The other is Isbell Busby. When Madge seeks relief for a toothache from a passing physician, who is actually Cacurgus in disguise, the latter tries to persuade Madge and Isbell not to corroborate the existence of the second child, claiming that the latter is really the offspring of a fairy. Although Madge and Isbell promise to keep silent, their desire for a reward and jealousy of Alison and Codrus lead them to tell the truth.


Carol rails against the concept of love in Shirley's Hyde Park. She would rather hear boring tales from Holinshed than amorous sonnets. She receives her suitor, Fairfield, with coldness. She berates Mistress Bonavent for agreeing to marry Lacy as soon as her seven-year wait is over. She should retain her widowed status, insists Carol. Frankly, she tells Mistress Bonavent that she only enjoys men's company when she is mocking them for sport. She laughs at the humiliation of Bonavent, and, more brutally, she mocks her other suitors, Rider and Venture. She agrees, however, to an oath with Fairfield: she will not seek his company. This intrigues and confuses Carol–after all, Fairfield wants her to desire his company. She even blunders into kissing Fairfield. Carol backs the Irishman in the race, winning a pair of gloves from Mistress Bonavent–mischievously, she wonders if the runners will be naked. She sees Fairfield walking in the Park with his sister, Julietta, and thinks that the pair are lovers, responding with obvious curiosity and jealousy. She meets up with Fairfield, claiming that she is sticking to her oath of not desiring his company. Trier receives money from her, but she goes too far in railing against Fairfield, provoking him to tell her that he will never countenance her company again. Later, she denies the company's suspicions that she has been shedding tears. Carol is delighted to hear that Julietta is actually the sister of Fairfield. On the horse race, she again bets on trivial articles of clothing–she does not seem to realize the scale of the men's gambling. In a private conference with Julietta, she expresses the fear that Fairfield will kill himself because of his estrangement from her. She shows Julietta a letter that supposedly comes from Fairfield, threatening suicide. So, Carol will marry Fairfield–but only for the sake of his health and longevity. When Fairfield denies any notion of distress at his separation from Carol, she announces that she loves him anyway: she asks for his consent in a marriage with her. Fairfield agrees. She announces her wedding plans to the company, including her two failed suitors, Rider and Venture. Carol is pleased to call Julietta 'sister'. Carol accepts the congratulations of the company.


Carolino, servant to Manutius in (?)Jeffere's The Bugbears, assists in creating the illusion that Amedeus' house is haunted by vengeful spirits.


Along with Beraldo, Astolfo, and Fontinell, Carolo is a gentleman in service to Hippolito in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore.

CAROLO **1610

A French gentleman, friend of Lemot and traveling with him to Alizia's wedding in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk. Also captured by Ward and briefly the blinded Lemot's guide and support. After Lemot's murder, remains captive with Alizia and Fredericke, and continues to say very little of consequence. Together they are brought to Tunis and sold in to slavery by Gallop before Ward appears to claim the profits on their sale. He does not reappear.

CAROLO **1635

Julietta’s lover and Julio’s nephew in Rider’s The Twins. Lurco takes Carolo and Clarinda to see Alphonso and Julietta speaking alone and tries to sew the seeds of jealousy in them though it works only on Carolo. When Carolo and Clarinda slip away, Alphonso sees them and also grows jealous, thinking they have dishonest, guilty consciences. Lurco lures Carolo and Alphonso to meet in Pale’s wood where they fight and Alphonso falls. Carolo, fearing to be taken in the murder, determines to disguise himself and hide in the woods. He joins with Julio in the wood and calls himself Laberio. He privately feels guilt over the murder, not knowing Alphonso survived. Carolo wakes and sees Corbo in Alphonso’s garb and, believing it to be Alphonso’s ghost, confesses all to him. Julio overhears the confession and, realizing that the ‘murder’ was honorable (Carolo’s dagger to Alphonso’s sword), allows him to remain in Pale’s wood. In his sleep, he confesses in Julio’s hearing that he has slain Alphonso. When at the shepherd’s festival Julio challenges him to a fight, he bears his breast to receive the sword and only Alphonso’s intervention and unmasking sets all to rights again.


Carolo Charomonte, tutor to Giovanni in Massinger's The Great Duke of Florence, and father to Lidia.


A courtier and servant to Lord Raymond in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids. Surprised, the courtier attempts to fight Frederick while he is invisible; recognizing the futility of this pugilism, he agrees to guide the invisible man. He assists Raymond on his deathbed by summoning Julia who reveals Raymond's scheme to inflame the Duke against Dorigene, leading to Raymond's subsequent exile from the court.


Joachim Carolus, Marquess of Brandenburg, is one of the seven Electors of Germany, and Treasurer to Alphonsus in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. He and Trier are described as "simple men that wish the common good", and he himself is an aged man. He supports the election of Bohemia as co-Emperor; is physician in the revels; and fights for Alphonsus against Richard.


Wife to Mura, first beloved of Abrahen, then of Abilqualit in Glapthorne's Revenge for Honor. She is unhappily married against her will to the gruff, old soldier, and is a melancholy and fatalistic heroine. Before the play begins, she has rejected the advances of Abrahen. Her beauty now tempts Abilqualit, who successfully seduces her. Her honor risks compromise by her husband's discovery of her adultery. She is treacherously advised by Abrahen to claim she was raped. This leads to the trial and apparent execution of Abilqualit. She decides to be revenged on both her husband and Abrahen. She kills Mura, but her attempt on Abrahen, now proclaimed Caliph, is frustrated by his persuasive offer to make her his empress. She agrees to marry him just before Abilqualit returns, still alive. She is stabbed by Abrahen and refuses Abilqualit's offer of a surgeon; she confesses her revenge on Mura and stabs Abilqualit with the knife she originally intended for his brother. In her dying words she explains that she wanted to be Abilqualit's empress and has killed him to prevent him taking another wife after her death.


Timothy's drinking companion at St. Dunstan's and the Devil tavern in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. He calls for women.


The carpenter in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta tells Barabas that the cords and pulleys are all fast. These instruments will be used in Barabas' abortive attempt to assassinate Calymath—an attempt that will end in Ferneze pulling the cord early and murdering Barabas instead.


One of the craftsmen who constructed the secret pit for Offa in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. He and the other craftsmen return disguised as devils to steal the money they assume Offa has hidden in the pit. Instead, they end up freeing the outlaws and escorting Mildred and Edith out of the house.


Two Carpenters figure in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers.
  • The real carpenter takes part in the construction of the tower In Act One, he is asked by the Clown to make some doors that would only allow women–and no men–enter the tower, and that would not let any lover come closer.
  • The carpenter is also a disguise that Ferrara uses to visit the tower in Act Five.


An unspecified number of Carpenters help Barabas build the platform over the cauldron in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. They speak in concert, thanking Barabas for his offer to go in and taste his wines, not realizing that Barabas has poisoned them.


The rich widow of a sea captain in Davenant's News From Plymouth. She is in love with Cable who reminds her of her dead husband and is housing Lady Loveright. When Cable refuses to marry her, she disguises herself as a London Strumpet. After enticing Cable in this disguise, she reveals her true identity and again offers to marry him. He rejects her for a second time, but changes his mind when he receives demands of payment from his creditors. She asks for time to consider the marriage, but in the final scene, she agrees to pay his debts and to marry him when he returns from sea.


A gentleman, friend to Albert and in love with Maria in Tailor's The Hog Hath Lost His Pearl. He first enters just after Albert has gone into Maria's bedchamber, and delivers a soliloquy in which he praises the friendship of Albert and the love of Maria. He then wonders why Albert has not arrived and why Maria has not set out the light to signal him. Waiting for Albert's arrival, he thinks about the effect his eloping with Maria will have on her father, yet considering that lovers should not be constrained by parents. He resolves to wait for Albert in a nearby field where their horses await them. Later he meets with Albert, who tells him that he has already been to Maria's window and, imitating Carracus' voice, has gone to look for Albert. They both return to Maria's window and Carracus calls to her and assists her as she descends the ladder; they along with Albert exit to find the horses. Later, after he and Maria have been married for about a month, Carracus learns from his Servingman about Albert's inquiry after them. He criticizes his Servingman for not persuading Albert to stay and then, after the Servingman exits, wonders if Albert's seeming coldness arises from the perception that Carracus has put his love for Maria ahead of their friendship. While glad to know that Albert cares about them, Carracus is at the same time upset that Albert did not stay. Maria enters to him and tries to cheer him up regarding Albert's neglect. Carracus then notices a ring on Maria's hand which he recognizes as Albert's, and which Albert accidentally left behind in Maria's room on the evening he impersonated Carracus. Carracus and Maria uncover Albert's treachery and then, when Maria faints, Carracus calls for the Nurse. When the Nurse takes Maria in, Carracus in soliloquy compels his reason to assert control over his grief. The Nurse returns and tells Carracus that Maria is dead; Carracus becomes distracted and vows revenge against Albert. He goes in to see Maria. He next appears when Young Lord Wealthy arrives with a letter from Old Lord Wealthy. Carracus reads the letter, which asks him and Maria to travel with Young Lord Wealthy to the residence of Old Lord Wealthy. He tells Young Lord Wealthy that they cannot go, and invites him inside to visit with Maria, whom he thinks has been sleeping in her chamber for the past three days. Later, Carracus goes to the woods in search of Maria. He discovers Echo, who confirms his belief that women generally are unfaithful but also tells him that Maria was false against her will and that she still lives. Still distracted, he begins to dance; he is discovered by Albert who had heard Echo conversing with him. Albert leads Carracus towards a grove where he promises to give him curative water. After Carracus' reason is restored, Albert, still disguised as a hermit, asks Carracus to forgive Albert, whose complaints Carracus has read carved into the trees. When Carracus does so, Maria steps forward and is reunited with Carracus. Carracus reassures Albert, disguised as the hermit, that his penitence will have its reward, and when Carracus asks the hermit to lead them to Albert so that they may forgive him personally, Albert takes off his hermit disguise and is forgiven Carracus and Maria. Carracus plans to go with Maria to Old Lord Wealthy's house in order to receive his blessing on their union. Initially Albert plans to continue his life in the woods, but Carracus persuades him to return with them to civilization. Carracus, Maria, and Albert arrive at Old Lord Wealthy's, where they are warmly greeted, and the marriage of Carracus and Maria receives Old Lord Wealthy's blessing. When Young Lord Wealthy, Hog, and Peter enter, Carracus asks for Young Lord Wealthy's forgiveness over his earlier behavior. Carracus invites Maria and Albert to join him at Old Lord Wealthy's feast.


Carradin Bassa is a Turkish governor in Goffe's The Courageous Turk who participates in the victory over Lazarus of Servia and Sesmenos of Bulgaria. Along with Lala Schahin, he presents to Amurath a group of Christian Men who have been captured, and endorses Lala Schahin's recommendation that they be trained as janissaries to serve as Amurath's bodyguard.


These Carriers in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV are two deliverymen questioned by Gadshill about their approximate arrival time in London.


Carrol is the hot-tempered gentleman-bully in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part One who insults Bess in the Castle pub and who is then killed by Spencer, Bess's beloved.


Wife of Venusius in The Valiant Welshman. When Caradoc comes to Venusius to ask for aid, Cartamanda betrays him to Ostorius, the Roman general.


"Queene of the Danes" and "in love with Arviragus" in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Cartandes is loved by her "Cosen" (the Danish Captain,Oswald) who discusses her "conquest of [the] Isle" with another Danish Captaine at the play's beginning. Because she has vowed that "the first prisoner [. . .] take[n] upon the Ile" will be "offer[ed] up to Mars, by way of Sacrifice" there is much confusion over the fact that, while attempting to save Arviragus's life, Guiderius and his "Cosen" were taken "both at once." After Arviragus and Guiderius reconcile, each sues to the Queen for the other's life until she decides that they will both be sent to prison and, later in the play, that neither man will be sacrificed. "Inspir'd" to save Arviragus's life, Cartandes appoints him to take charge of the Danish army (agreeing to his proposed conditions), sets Arviragus free, and confesses her love to him. Suspicious that "Arviragus faith's engaged unto another" Cartandes questions Guiderius and, after he confesses his own love to her, rejects his advances. Although Arviragus pretends to love Cartandes, the Queen discovers him sleeping on the floor of Philicia's "chamber" and, despite the lovers' attempt to convince the Queen that the disguised Philicia is actually the Prince of Scotland, she has them each sent to prison. Although Cartandes tests Philicia's loyalty to her lover and claims to have set up a "combat" between Arviragus and Oswald due to the latter's request since she has "made a vow never to marry any man, but Arviragus, yet hee alive," Cartandes actually matches Arviragus with Guiderius in the intention of bringing about his "destruction" and preventing him from gaining his and Philicia's freedom. However, the Queen puts an early end to the fight, confesses her love for Guiderius, and promises to marry Arviragus and Philicia at the play's end.


Formerly "oppose[d]" by Arviragus in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. The Queen's brother is the "dead Soveraigne" and previous King of the Danes whose hatred of Arviragus grew from "the sad newes [. . .] of such defeates as [. . .] his men received" in battle with the warrior. "At his death" he "engaged [Cartandes] in a promise, of passing with the Army then in readinesse into th[e] Ile," and "appointed that inhumane sacrifice to Mars" which the Queen vows to go through with at the play's beginning.

CARTER **1592

In the B-text only of Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, Carter brings Clown, Dick, and Horse-Courser to a tavern for beer and tells them about meeting Faustus on the way to Wittenberg and agreeing to let Faustus eat hay from his cart. Angered when Faustus eats the whole load, Carter confronts Faustus but the latter charms him dumb.


Mute character in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. Crowned as a king by Fortune.


The Carter, with the other workers in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green, comes to collect his debt from Mumford. Mumford gives the Armorer, the Carter and the Vitler 30 pounds to divide among themselves.


Hob Carter joins the commoners leading a company of men from Essex after the group has successfully challenged the nobility in the anonymous Jack Straw. He is concerned about safety, and urges commoners group to eliminate anyone who opposes Jacke Strawe. He accepts King Richard II's pardon and promises to lead the Essex men home.


Cartesmunda is the head of the convent in Winchester in Brewer's The Lovesick King. She is captured, and Canutus falls hopelessly in love with her. She resists at first but ultimately yields. She is accidentally killed by Canutus in his scuffle with Huldrick.


Carthalo[n] is a Carthaginian senator in Marston's Sophonisba. He enters wounded to bring the news of Scipio's attack and thus disrupts the wedding night of Massinissa and Sophonisba.


Carthalo, one of the Carthaginian Senators in Massinger's Believe As You List who, along with Asdrubal and Hanno, find Antiochus innocent of treason and treachery.


Cartophylax is a spirit in service to Behemoth in Chapman's Bussy D'Ambois. Cartophylax is ordered by Behemoth to find out what is written upon Monsieur and Montsurry's secret paper. Cartophylax reports that Monsieur had another spirit called up to guard the paper.


Petty King in Kent in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. The "four Kings of Kent" (Cingetorix, Carvilius, Taximagulus and Segonax) are followers of Cassibelane.


Tesephon favors him as suitor to his daughter, Allcyane, in the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune. He and Prelior are the wicked suitors of the play. They plot with the women's fathers to drug and marry the women. Urganda punishes him and Prelior by driving them mad with a magic mirror. Both men are probably restored to their senses by play's end, but the sketchy nature of the surviving plor does not make this entirely clear.


Nickname of Usumcasane in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1. Used only once by Tamburlaine early in the play. Apparently a term of affection for his loyal friend.


Though the speech prefix in the anonymous Caesar and Pompey impossibly reads "Caes," it must be Casca who joins Cicero in lamenting Pompey's fall.

CASCA **1599

Casca is one of the conspirators wishing to see Caesar dead in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. He reports that Antony had three times offered Caesar the crown and had three times been refused. He adds that the Senators plan to make Caesar king. On the day of Caesar's murder, Casca's knife stroke is the first.


A "ghost character" and probably fictional in Chapman's All Fools. The Notary refers to the case of Butior and Caseo as proof of his learning and knowledge, but "butior and caseo" is bad Latin for "bread and cheese."


Old Matchil's deceitful apprentice in Brome's The New Academy. Cash appears to serve Matchil humbly during the day, but at night he sneaks out dressed in lace and a periwig to spend money stolen from Matchil on feasts and prostitutes. Stigood, knowing of his exploits, blackmails him. Cash receives the news of Philip Matchil's supposed death and is disappointed that Joyce, as Matchil's heir (whom he had hoped to court), will now be a popular marriage prospect. When Cash overhears Matchil reading a letter describing Philip's death, he mistakes the description of Philip's riotous lifestyle for a description of himself and assumes that someone has informed Matchil of his embezzlement. After Matchil asks Cash to bring him a full account of his finances so that he can make a will, Cash panics and fleas the house "with a strong and lusty Porter / Loaden with money." Dressed as a gallant, he discovers Joyce and Gabriella in the New Academy. Strigood assumes that Cash, fearing Matchil, will not reveal their location, so he makes Cash a confederate in his scheme. Despite the danger, Cash goes to Old Matchil (who briefly mistakes him for Philip) and reveals Joyce's location in hopes that Matchil will allow him to marry her, which he does not. Matchil does, however, ultimately forgive Cash.


Thomas Cash is Kitely's cashier and confidence man in Jonson's Every Man in His Humour. According to Kitely, the merchant raised the foundling boy deposited at his door as if he were his son. Kitely christened him by his first name, Thomas, and the surname Cash, suggesting his trade. At Kitely's house in the Old Jewry, Cash enters following his master and Downright. After receiving instructions from Kitely regarding the business, Cash exits to run some errands. At Kitely's warehouse, Cash enters with Kitely, reporting the business of the day to his master. When Kitely asks him to keep an eye on his wife while he is away, Cash promises to do so. However, it seems that Cash is lamentably inefficient in this watchdog activity. While the gallants are with the ladies, Cash is mostly out of the room, and he only enters during the brawl when the ladies cry out for help. When Kitely enters, however, he finds Cash trying to part the fighters. Like a devoted man of confidence, Cash informs Kitely that Bridget admires Edward Knowell. When Kitely is summoned on a false pretext, Cash is brought in to guard the ladies, but he ends in accompanying Dame Kitely to Cob's house. It seems that Cash's allegiance lies more with his mistress than with his benefactor. It is understood that Cash attends the confusion scene happening before Cob's house and goes with the entire party before the judge, where all differences find a good resolution.

Servant of London alderman Sir Thomas Curtis, in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. He vainly attempts to recoup some of his master's money after Stukeley marries Nell, Curtis' daughter and uses the proceeds to finance his various overseas adventures.


A "ghost character" and probably fictional in Chapman's All Fools. The Notary refers to the case of Butler and Cason as proof of his learning and knowledge.


A Persian princess kept as a companion by Aurelia in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess. Aurelia demotes Cassana to slavery in defiance of the Persian ambassadors' effort to negotiate a ransom for their princess. During the dumb show, the ambassadors and Persian soldiers rescue Cassana. Later, when Persians capture Aurelia, Cassana shows her mercy.


Cassander begins Shirley's Coronation as lord protector of Epire. He wants his sons Lisimachus to become king, and he therefore encourages his son's affection to Sophia, the heir to the crown. He arranges the coronation of Sophia when she claims she cannot wed Lisimachus until she is made queen absolute; when Sophia instead chooses Arcadius as her mate, Cassander plots with Eubulus to place Seleucus on the throne. Cassander is surprised to learn later that instead of being a counterfeit heir, Seleucus is Leonatus, the real heir to the crown.


A young gentlewoman and Andrugio's sister in Whetstone's 1 Promos and Cassandra. Outside Andrugio's prison, she laments her brother's fate and the sorrow caused by lust. Andrugio hears her and implores her to beg Promos for his life. She meets Promos in the street and begs for her brother's life. Promos is so taken with her that he agrees to stay the execution for a day to allow her to plead her case. Cassandra appears before Promos and pleads for Andrugio, arguing that his sexual encounters with Polina were consensual and he can mend the fault by marrying her. Promos confesses his passion for Cassandra and agrees to pardon Andrugio if she will sleep with him. She is disgusted by the irony of his proposition–he refuses to pardon Andrugio's crime unless she and he commit the very same crime. She argues that if he really loves her, his conscience should compel him to release Andrugio. He replies that one favor deserves another. She refuses his proposition. He offers her wealth and favors. She refuses again. He offers to marry her. She refuses once more. He tells her that if she changes her mind, she should come to him by night dressed as a page. She tells Andrugio of her encounter. He urges her to accept Promos' proposition, but she argues that honor is worse than death, for death is inevitable but the retention of honor gives distinction. She fears slander, but eventually agrees to accept Promo's offer. She goes to Promos dressed as a page and they have sex. When the jailer brings her what she believes is Andrugio's severed head, she wails and rages at Promos' treachery. She vows to tell the King about Promos' sins.
A young gentlewoman and Andrugio's sister in Whetstone's 2 Promos and Cassandra. She has told the King how Promos offered to free Andrugio in exchange for sex and, after she capitulated, broke his word and ordered Andrugio executed. The King returns to Julio with her to investigate, but they part ways before entering the city so that Promos will not suspect the King's reason for visiting. At the King's public court, Cassandra arrives wearing a blue gown as a sign of adultery. She states her case against Promos and he confesses. The King orders Promos to marry Cassandra and restore her reputation, then face execution. Once they are married, Cassandra's hatred turns to pity and she begs the King to spare Promos' life. The King pities her but refuses her request. As Promos goes to execution, Cassandra vows to take her own life upon his death. After the husband and wife say farewell, Ganio appears and informs Cassandra and Polina that Andrugio lives.


She appears early in Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida, entering apparently to speak to Deiphobus, Diomede, and Hector. About a third of the way into the play, she meets with Troilus and Pandarus, bringing with her a waiting maid who carries a light. She appears again with Priam, Hector, Deiphobus, Paris, and Helen. She enters later with beggars and meets Troilus, Deiphobus, and a proctor. In the next scene she is on stage with Priam, Hector, Paris, Helen, and Polixina when they are met by Antenor. In the final scene, she appears on the wall with the Trojans and descends to the Greeks.
Daughter to the King of Troy in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. Cassandra is a prophetess whose visions are ignored. She foresees Hector's death and humiliation, but her presentiment goes unheeded.
Cassandra is a daughter of Priam and Hecuba, sister to Hector, and a prophetess in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. When Priam proposes the expedition to Greece to retrieve Hesione, Cassandra urges the Trojans to forbear because she knows the voyage will bring Paris into contact with Helen and lead to the destruction of Troy. She fails to move her father, who calls her mad, or to convince Hector's wife Andromache, even though the latter is warned that a war with the Greeks will result in her husband's death.
Priam's daughter in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, loved by both Chorephus and Agamemnon, Cassandra (not obviously possessed) escapes from Synon and Thersites only to witness Aeneas' unwitting killing of Chorephus, and is killed by Diomed in Agamemnon's presence when Pyrhus directs the final solution of the Trojan problem.
A “ghost character" in Goffe’s Orestes.After stabbing Agamemnon, Clytemnestra remembers how he acted the adulterer with Cassandra. Cassandra appears after Agamemnon’s death to glory in the Greeks enacting Troy’s revenge. After the murders of Clytemnestra, Aegysthus, and the boy, and after Strophius dies and Electra commits suicide, Cassandra enters to gloat again. She taunts Orestes, now mad, until he stabs the dead bodies of Strophius and Electra.


The dramatis personae of Fletcher's A Wife for a Month describes Cassandra as "an old bawd, waiting-woman to Evanthe." While striving to fend off the libidinous advances of King Frederick and at the same time honor her legitimate love for Valerio, Evanthe receives no help from Cassandra. Cassandra's first offense is to relinquish Evanthe's box of letters and writings to Sorano's creature Podramo so that Frederick learns of the love between Evanthe and Valerio. For this betrayal Evanthe curses Cassandra and calls her an "unconsiderate Ass" and a "brainless Ideot." Cassandra's response is to rail at Podramo and insist that he deceived her. Later in the play, King Frederick promises Cassandra that she will be married to a lord and made a lady if she will only help him to persuade Evanthe to sleep with him. Cassandra agrees, reasoning that "a little evil may well be suffered for a general good."


As Vittori's mistress in Shirley's The Young Admiral, Cassandra dons mourning garb to issue forth from the city and warn Vittori of Cesario's amorous advances toward her and the lack of any welcome from the city in celebration of the admiral's victories. Given over by Vittori to the enemy king of Sicily, Cassandra finds her life pledged as assurance for Vittori's defection to Sicily. She and the Sicilian princess Rosinda concoct letters that lure the Neapolitan Cesario to the Sicilian camp; ultimately, a peace is obtained when captives Rosinda and Cesario plan to wed, as do Cassandra and Vittori.


A "ghost character" in ?Greene's Selimus I. Soldan of Egypt and father of Tonombey. Enters into an alliance with Acomat.


Cassiana is an attendant to Eugenia in Shirley's The Bird in a Cage. She voluntarily follows her into imprisonment by the duke. In the inset play, she plays an unnamed attendant of Danaë.


Beli Maur's son, Nennius' brother in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. Cassibelane became Protector of Britain when his brother Lud, the former King of Britain, died, because the two princes Androgeus and Themantius were too young to rule the country. At the beginning of the play the two princes are still pleased with this arrangement. Cassibelane remains the ruler of the whole country with all its little kingdoms, but he keeps his court at Verulam and confers Troynovant (London) and Kent to Androgeus, and Cornwall to Themantius. When he hears of Caesar's plans to invade Britain, he sends his kinsmen to all parts of Britain to raise an army and he immediately gets support from all the kingdoms. He refuses to pay tribute to Rome and to send noble ladies as hostages, and he answers Caesar's demands with a letter in which he points out that their two nations are equal as they are both of Trojan origin. Caesar's first attempt at conquering Britain is not successful. The Romans are defeated and Caesar has to flee. After the funeral of Cassibelane's brother Nennius the Britains celebrate their victory. During this celebration Androgeus and Themantius play at foils, and two courtiers, Eulinus and Hirildo, start to play too. Hirildo, Cassibelane's nephew, is unfortunately killed before his uncle's eyes. Cassibelane gets angry and declares that Eulinus has to die, whereas Androgeus maintains that Eulinus as his own kinsman should have a fair trial by the laws of Troynovant. Eulinus escapes, but Cassibelane still insists on his authority. Because of this incident, Androgeus and Themantius plan to fight the usurper of their throne. Together with Mandubrace they contact the Romans. Caesar's second invasion is more successful now, although he loses his ships in a storm. Following his counselor's advice, Cassibelane goes to Caesar and offers peace. Caesar accepts, they exchange gifts and become friends, but Caesar can still set up the conditions: Cassibelane remains in power till he dies, Themantius instead of Androgeus shall then wear the crown, Mandubrace shall get Troynovant, and Britain shall pay a yearly tribute of 3,000 pound silver to Rome.


Imperator Britannorum in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. Latin name of Cassibelane


A soldier for fifty years and general of the forces of Candy in ?Ford's The Laws of Candy. Cassilane returns triumphant from battle at the beginning of the play and contends with his son Antinous for recognition as the country's champion; according to Candy's laws, the man who gains that title, through recognition of the soldiers and Senate, earns the right to ask one boon of the government. Antinous eventually proves the winner but chooses to ask the Senate to recognize his father's fifty years of service as a soldier by erecting a statue to his father. Instead of being flattered, Cassilane believes that Antinous is simply gloating because nobody could see the statue without knowing that it was erected by Antinous after Antinous captured Cassilane's glory. Cassilane then casts off his son completely and determines to retire to the country, accompanied by his friend Arcanes and his daughter Annophil. Once settled in the country, the Senate sends Fernando to lodge there at Fernando's request; Cassilane at first believes that Fernando is mocking him but comes to believe that Fernando truly acknowledges Cassilane's excellence as a military leader and wishes to honor him. When Decius arrives bringing a letter from Antinous, Cassilane responds angrily, threatening to kill Decius; Arcanes and Annophil urge him not to, but he continues to be irate at his son. Cassilane is amazed at first when Gonzalo brings him money and says that Cassilane's mortgage is repaid, but when he realizes that Erota paid Gonzalo on Cassilane's behalf, Cassilane goes to the Senate and accuses his son formally of ingratitude, a capital crime according to the laws of Candy. Erota in turn accuses Cassilane of ingratitude because she paid his debts and asked only that he favor Antinous again, at which time Antinous accuses Erota of ingratitude. Cassilane only recants when Philander points out to Cassilane that he has single-handedly brought his country to the brink of ruin rather than saving it because the entire government is under sentence of death. He forgives his son and is forgiven by Erota. He supports the union between Fernando and Annophil.


Father of Hyanthe in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll. Cassimere is a great admirer of the Jeweler Flores. When Flores is disgraced and Cornelia's other suitors abandon her, Cassimere marries Cornelia himself.


A Spanish nobleman in the Anonymous First Part of Jeronimo. He takes part at Andrea's funeral. He is mentioned in the stage direction, but does not speak.


George Cassimirus, Palatine or Palsgrave of the Rhine in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany, is one of the seven Electors of Germany, and is also Taster to the Emperor. Alphonsus killed his father, and the Palsgrave is a supporter of Richard, leaving the court after the Electors abandon their plan to appoint him Emperor. He finds Richard in the woods after his fight with the boors, and accompanies him back to court. When Bohemia and (apparently) Alphonso are poisoned during te dinner, the Palsgrave, who drank from the cup immediately before them, becomes the prime suspect. The Englishmen flee the court, but the Palsgrave elects instead to hide in Isabella's closet, but he is discovered and is killed on the spot by Alphonsus's guards.


Lieutenant to Othello in Shakespeare's Othello. Iago claims Cassio was appointed over him. He becomes the instrument of Iago's revenge, and Othello is made to suspect him of being Desdemona's secret lover. He enters into a drunken fight with Montano and is punished by Othello. Later he defends himself against Roderigo's attack and is wounded. At end of play Cassio is left in charge of Cyprus.


A "ghost character" in Markham's Herod and Antipater, Cassius is named by Alexandra as the man who cut off her father Antigonus' head.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as a great Roman of the past, possibly Caius Cassius is meant.


A Roman Senator in Kyd's Cornelia; Cassius is eager to rid Rome of Julius Caesar because he believes Caesar to be overly ambitious and a threat to the Republic. Cassius is Caesar's chief opponent. He plots against Caesar but his determination to kill Caesar is tempered by Decimus Brutus who advises patience. Unlike Cicero, Cassius does not believe in the gods. As far as he's concerned, there is only "Fortune" and men's desires. Caesar is proof of that. If there were gods, they would have stopped a man who acts as though he were a god. Cassius declares that Caesar's ambition is boundless and will destroy the Republic. Because of his thirst for power, countless men lay dead and still Caesar is not satisfied. He will not rule a free Rome, but enslave all the people to his own ends. Cassius calls Caesar a Dictator.
Caius Cassius is one of the conspirators wishing to see Caesar dead in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Caesar distrusts him, saying he has "a lean and hungry look." He urges (to Brutus) that Brutus is indeed Julius Caesar's equal, and he carries out a plan to throw persuasive messages in at Brutus' window. As Brutus' brother-in-law, Cassius remains a key rebel throughout the political battles that follow Caesar's murder; at the end, he is assisted in suicide by his servant Pindarus on the plains of Philippi.
Cassius enters the anonymous Caesar and Pompey at the beginning of the third act after Discord has apostrophised him and predicted that he will kill Caesar. He declares that he has vowed revenge to Pompey's soul. He begins by persuading Brutus to action, then assures Caesar that it is safe for him to enter the Senate. Thinking Brutus already dead, he kills himself after the defeat at Philippi.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Cassius was one of the Senators who assassinated Julius Caesar. Pompey refers to their attempt to keep Rome a republic as reason for his own war.
Only mentioned in the Anonymous The Faithful Friends. Cassius the conspirator, familiar to us from Julius Caesar, is invoked by Rufinus as the Roman model of courage in adversity.


Lucius Cassius Longinus is a patrician of senatorial rank and a member of Catiline's conspiracy in Jonson's Catiline. At Catiline's house, Longinus enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. Longinus and Lentulus accompany Catiline to the Senate. Since Catiline's plan has failed, and Cicero has been elected consul, Longinus and Lentulus express their dissatisfaction privately. After the plot was exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. Longinus and Statilus have the specific charge of starting the fire, prompted by a trumpet sounded in twelve places at once. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, Allobroges testify that they have letters signed by all the members of the conspiracy, except for Longinus, who said he would not write because he was to come in person to see Catiline. It seems that, by not having provided material proof against him, Longinus might have saved himself. However, in his address to the Senate, Cicero includes Longinus's name among the conspirators and it is understood that he shares their punishment.


Casta is a character in "The Triumph of Death," the third play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. She is the virtuous daughter of Gentille. At his wedding to Hellena, Lavall sees her and plots her seduction/rape. She escapes during his attempt.


Daughter to Belforest and Levidulcia in Tourneur's The Atheist's Tragedy. Castabella is the beloved of Charlemont and marries him privately before he goes off to war. After the false report of his death in battle, her family forces her into a loveless marriage with D'Amville's impotent elder son Rousard. When it becomes plain that his son will not produce the children to keep the family line and fortune growing, D'Amville decides to impregnate Castabella himself. In St. Winfred's churchyard, his attempt at rape is foiled by the appearance of Charlemont in disguise as his father's ghost. Following the discovery of Borachio's corpse, she is arrested with Charlemont, even though he attempts to counter her admission of responsibility, because the fact of her presence at the scene is something the watch cannot overlook. At the trial, she insists on dying with Charlemont, but she is spared when D'Amville, undertaking to execute Charlemont personally, manages accidentally to strike his own head. The two Judges free her and Charlemont, officially recognize her as the new Lady Belforest, and she instantly pledges herself to Charlemont, thus uniting the collective wealth of Montferrers, D'Amville, and Belforest.


Castabella is Antonio's sister in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge. She falls rapidly in love with Sebastiano and is heartsick when he slays Antonio and returns to Avero. Entering Sebastiano's service disguised as a Page, Castabella reveals herself after the deaths of all three of Vilarezo's children. She indicates that her forthcoming life as a nun is likely to be short, and she wishes to be buried near Sebastiano.


A disguise in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort adopted by Urania, daughter to the shepherd Gisbert. She uses the disguise to endear herself to the whore Gullman and her daughter Flavia where she is able to observe Lucius' suit for the prostitute. When Lucius' falls on hard times, she comforts him, reveals her true identity, and is reunited with her husband.


A nymph in Glapthorne's Argalus and Parthenia. She principally appears as the chief singer in the play's several pastoral entertainments. Unlike the other nymphs, Aminta and Florida, and the shepherdess Sapho, she remains aloof from the wooing of the play's swains in comic scenes and her appearances signal her musical contributions to the action. Her song on Cupid and Venus at the pastoral entertainment given for Demagoras is derided as "too effeminate" by him.


Castamela is the heroine of Ford's The Fancies Chaste and Noble. She is the virtuous sister of Livio. At the outset, she is courted by Romanello, whom she has known since childhood. She tells him that she does not love him, but he dismisses this as ambition, and his worst fears seem to be confirmed when Livio sends her to join the Bower of Fancies which Octavio, the Marquis of Sienna keeps, apparently for his own private pleasure. Castamela is very disturbed by this development, particularly when the Marquis appears to court her. To punish Livio for sending her there, she allows him to think that she has been seduced and corrupted. She is finally told the chaste truth about the Bower by the Fancies (Clarella, Floria, and Silvia) and agrees to marry Troylo-Savelli.


The virtuous sister of Spinella in Ford's The Lady's Trial. He is left in charge of her sister while Auria is away. She defends Spinella to the best of her ability against Auria and Aurelio. At play's end, Auria gives her in marriage to Adurni.


Shepherdess, daughter of the banished Peromett and in love with Lariscus in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. She has vowed not to marry until her father is redeemed from banishment. She secretly loves Philaritus. She accepts him when he transfers his love from Arismena to her. When they see Arismena and Lariscus kissing, Philaritus rejects Castarina. She realizes that he was only pretending to love her in order to draw Arismena out. She finds the letter in which Philaritus challenges Lariscus to a duel over her and rushes to tell Bacheus. As Philaritus and Lariscus begin to duel, Arismena and Castarina come in with bows and arrows and threaten to kill Arismena should Philaritus wound Lariscus or Castarina should Lariscus wound Philaritus. Arismena admits love for Philaritus as Lariscus and Castarina reconciled, but the satyrs take up the weapons and steal the women away. It is a joke, however, and the women are safe with Cleobulus and Bacheus until the actual satyrs attack and steal them in earnest. She and Arismena briefly escape and fall asleep beneath an arbor where a satyr finds them and carries Arismena away whilst leaving Castarina to her fate. Castarina’s ‘Bonus Genius’ sings to her whilst she sleeps to prefer death to ravishment by the satyrs. She wakes to find Arismena gone. She and Arismena are reunited, disguised, and made to sing ‘Sigh, Shepherds, sigh’ to the captured men in the Grand Satyr’s presence. She and Arismena are brought in, coffined, but they rise up and explain that all was a ruse to bring exiled Peromett back into the good graces of the land. She happily takes Lariscus for her husband.


A gamester at the ordinary in Cartwright's The Ordinary. He is the victim or gull, along with Have-at-all, of a confidence trick conducted by Heare-say, Meanewell, and Slicer.


A Spanish nobleman in the Anonymous First Part of Jeronimo.
Father of Lorenzo and Bel-Imperia in Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. Also called Cyprian. Suggests the political marriage of Bel-Imperia to Balthazar to the King of Spain, his brother. Hieronimo suspects that Castile is in the plot against him and vows to be revenged upon him as well. Castile unsuspectingly throws down the gallery key to Hieronimo, thus locking them in. He is killed when Hieronimo calls for a penknife and stabs both himself and Castile.


A disguise in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Castiliano, a Spanish doctor, is the devil Belphagor's human persona. Except for his appearances at the sessions of Hell, Belphagor spends all of his time in this shape. See BELPHAGOR.


A gentleman of the Venetian Court, one of five in Marston's Antonio and Mellida. Castilio Balthazar banters with Rossaline, with whom he is in love, dances with Flavia, perfumes himself for his mistress, and sings with Feliche for his beloved. Like the author, Baldassare Castiglione, whose name probably provided satirical inspiration for his own, Castilio loves "the perfection" of court life. He also claims to like court life because all the ladies send him love letters, but Feliche proves his boast false using a "letter" that is really a tailor's bill. He is likely the same character as CASTILLO in Antonio's Revenge.


Castillo is a gentleman of the Venetian court in Marston's Antonio's Revenge. He first appears on stage with Antonio and a group of gentlemen. Castillo sings with Galeatzo to waken Mellida on her supposed wedding day. Castillo is charged with helping a fainted Maria off stage after the duchess learns that her husband is dead. Castillo and Forobosco attend Piero's young son Julio when the boy cannot sleep. They are sent to fetch Mellida for her trial. Castillo helps Piero strangle Strotzo during the trial. He also drags Balurdo off to prison. He is likely the same character as CASTILIO BALTHAZAR in Antonio and Mellida.

CASTINA **1606

One of Titania's ladies-in-waiting in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon.

CASTINA **1637

A shepherdess in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. She parries Alcinous’ courtly praise of her beauty by saying that beauty is not found in the face but in the mind. Despite Palaemon’s love for her, and her tentative reciprocation, she finds herself enamoured of Alcinous. However, his wooing reveals his true nature, and she affirms her love to Palaemon, which angers Alcinous. When he threatens to rape her, she threatens to kill herself with her knife first, prompting an instantaneous conversion in Alcinous. She embraces him and must explain to Palaemon, who sees the embrace, that it is a chaste celebration of that conversion. She claims Palaemon for her husband and, when Alexis reveals that ‘he’ is actually her sister Clarinda, Castina bestows her upon Alcinous, whom Clarinda loves.


Castiza is married to the Captain in Middleton's The Phoenix. She is sad that her husband is no longer happy to be married. Nevertheless, she repulses Count Proditor's advances. She expresses woe and outrage when she discovers the Captain's intent to sell her and joy when Fidelio and Phoenix defeat the Captain's plans.


Sister to Vindice and Hippolito in [?]Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy. The object of Lussurioso's lust, she resists his importunities. Vindice, disguised as Lussurioso's panderer Piato, tests his sister's honor. Castiza remains honorable, but is disgusted at her mother, Gratiana, who is willing to prostitute Castiza for preferment at court. After Gratiana's conversion, Castiza pretends to be willing to go to Lussurioso, but the pretense is only to test Gratiana's newfound moral fibre.


Castiza is the daughter of Devon in Middleton's Hengist. She is betrothed to Vortiger; he vexes Constantius by presenting her to him as a prospective spouse. Having taken monastic vows of abstinence, Constantius promptly convinces Castiza do so as well. After he has Constantius killed, Vortiger marries Castiza. He then falls in love with Roxena and plots with Horsus to rape Castiza and destroy her reputation so that he can have Roxena. When Aurelius claims the throne after the death of Vortiger, he takes Castiza for his queen.


Castor is Fulvia's servant in Jonson's Catiline. At Fulvia's house, Castor attends the conversation between Fulvia and Galla, in which the maid is telling Fulvia about her dream of Sempronia, and then he announces Sempronia. Hearing that Sempronia is outside, Galla seems amazed, reminding Castor about her dream. Castor replies that, apparently, Sempronia is coming to see Fulvia, implying that Galla's dream might have been of consequence in the development of the relationship between the two Roman matrons. However, Castor has an argument with Galla, and he even assaults her at some point, because Fulvia intervenes, saying that the fool is wild. After introducing Sempronia, Castor exits.


Castor of Lada serves Meleager and is one of Jason's Argonauts in Heywood's Brazen Age. He is Tyndarus's son and brother to Pollux and Helen. Castor travels to Lydia to rescue Hercules from Omphale. Castor is assigned to distract Omphale so that Jason and the Argonauts can free Hercules from his trance.
Castor and his brother Pollux arrive in Sparta to visit their sister Helen at just the time Menelaus has left for Crete in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. Helen uses the arrival of her brothers to cover her going to the port and her flight with Paris. When Castor and Pollux are informed by the unnamed Spartan Lord of their sister's departure, they set out in pursuit of Helen and her Trojan lover.


Castracagnio is a general in the Duke of Tuscany's army in Davenant's The Siege. At the beginning of the play, his forces are besieging Pisa. He meets with Governor Foscari and demands that Pisa allow the Tuscan troops into the city. Castracagnio also wants Pisa to pay the tribute he believes they owe to the Duke of Tuscany. After Pisa refuses these two demands, Castracagnio demands additionally that Foscari surrender himself as a prisoner. Pisa's defiance causes Castracagnio to order a battery, or forced entry, into the city. At the last minute, Castracagnio postpones the attack at the recommendation of Florello, Castracagnio's most trusted officer and counsel. When Castracagnio receives orders to sack Pisa, he decides to wait until he can find Florello, who has vanished. When the general receives word of his officer's betrayal, Castracagnio is furious beyond words. Amazingly, the general is impressed with Florello's motivation for revolts and pardons the young officer. After Florello leads the Tuscans to victory, Castracagnio blesses Florello's betrothal to Bertolina and promises to intervene with the Duke of Tuscany on behalf of Foscari.


Follower of Fredeline and brother of Amandine in Davenant's The Platonic Lovers. Castraganio becomes involved in two plots, both finally unsuccessful:
  • First, he tries to push the inexperienced Gridonell into marriage with Amandine by feeding him the love potion brought by Buonateste for Theander q.v.); and,
  • Next, dazzled by Fredeline's gracious offers of patronage, he agrees to help in Fredeline's secret pursuit of Eurithea.
At first, Fredeline asks only that he should instruct Amandine to praise him to Eurithea. Finally, he asks him to pretend to have slept with Eurithea himself on her wedding night. Castraganio makes the claim and soon after finds himself betrayed. Fredeline has him and Amandine locked up in a garret prior to being shipped off as slaves. At the end of the play, when Fredeline's treachery has been revealed, it seems that Eurithea will be merciful to Castraganio and his sister.


A disguise in Hemming's Fatal Contract. The name adopted by Crotilda in disguise as an Ethiopian eunuch in the apparently loyal service of Fredigond and her sons. Until the play's ending, when she reveals herself, Crotilda is known only as Castrato. See CROTILDA.


Castriot is a Knight of Malta in Fletcher's The Knight of Malta. Along with Astorius, he arrives to ask Mountferrat if he will attend the investiture of Gomera and Miranda. Both men comment on Mountferrat's changed mood, but they do not know the reason for it. At the ceremony, when Gomera refuses to become a knight, Castriot asks if he intends to return home to Spain, which Gomera denies. Castriot attends the trial by combat with Norandine, but does not speak individually after first commenting on Norandine's recovered health. With the others, he is present at the disgrace of Mountferrat and the investiture of Miranda.


A eunuch in the service of Volpone in Jonson's Volpone. Castrone's main employment is to sing for his master.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas. The Venetian Merchant to whose care the child Francis was being sent when he was lost in a sea-battle. Sadly, he died long before the adult Francis could find him.


According to the dramatis personae of Fletcher's A Wife for a Month, Castruccio is the "Captain of the Citadel" and "an honest man." He appears in act four, and it is his reluctant duty to part the lovers Evanthe and Valerio and keep them from consummating their marriage on the eve of Valerio's execution. When Alphonso is restored to health, however, Castruccio is one of the first to swear his duty to the rightful king. He lies to Frederick, telling him that Alphonso is indeed dead and his body thrown into the sea, all the while taking part in the plot to restore Alphonso to the throne.


Castruchio is a gallant in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore, one of the followers of the Duke, and seems to be the one most closely allied to him. He is part of the mock funeral procession the Duke stages to convince Hippolyto that Infelice is dead. Later, he describes Candido's patience to Pioratto and Fluello, and proposes that they attempt to anger him, wagering one hundred ducats with Pioratto that he can move Candido to anger. At the shop, he demands a pennyworth of lawn cut from the middle of the cloth, but this fails to anger Candido and so Castruchio loses the bet. He is further amazed when Candido is not upset at the theft of his silver and gilt beaker. When he and the others go to visit Bellafront, he and Fluello argue over who will pay for the wine Roger is sent to fetch, but in the end both are gulled by the trickery of Roger who pretends to spill the wine. When all three return to Bellafront's to find out why she did not come to dinner, and are lectured by her to give up prostitutes. Castruchio stops a fight between Matheo and Fluello over whether or not Bellafront is serious. Castruchio, Pioratto and Fluello enter with the Duke when he meets with the Doctor, but they are immediately dismissed. When Matheo tells Castruchio that Infelice is still alive and planning to marry Hippolyto that day, he swears to keep silent, but immediately goes to tell the Duke. At the Monastery, he asks Anselmo if they may see some of the madmen in order to explain their presence there. With the others, he asks the Duke to accept the marriage and is pleased when the Duke does so.


An old lord in Webster's The Duchess of Malfi. Husband to Julia, who is Delio's erstwhile lover and the Cardinal's mistress. Bosola sends him to Rome with a letter to the Cardinal when it is discovered that the duchess has borne a child.


Ferrand's court fool and parasite in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage. Castruchio envies the king's luxurious life. Overhearing this, Ferrand orders Castruchio to be dressed in royal robes and treated as if he were king. During public processions, Sesse and his crew mistake Castruchio for the king and attack him. During a mock banquet, Castruchio attempts to indulge in gluttony and lust, and calls for his players to perform a masque of cuckolds. Despite being subject to assassination attempts and the zealous attention of the court physician who prevents him from excessive eating, drinking, and fornicating, Castruchio continues to glorify kingship and its trappings until his final encounter with Sesse when he admits he is a rascal and promises neither to believe in nor obey kings again. The Gunner then takes Castruchio away for execution.


Castruchio is a satirical courtier, similar to the melancholic in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. He employs a Singer to sing his satirical verses about courtiers, and complains constantly to his cousin Cosimo about the corrupt and unfair state of the world. He is especially appalled by the Duke's favors towards both Lucio and Foreste, the first because he is so young and the second because he is not noble. However, he attempts to win Foreste's favor as a means to approach the Duke about a monopoly. When Foreste rejects the notion of monopolies violently, they begin a duel during which Foreste disarms Castruchio, but they are discovered before any blood can be shed. Castruchio plays with Lothario, making him believe first that he is the Duke's favorite and then that Foreste has ruined that favor, urging him to confront Foreste, an action that ends with Lothario in jail. Castruchio is then approached by the Duke for aid in gaining Corsa. Castruchio, through his relationship with Duarte, brings the Duke to Corsa's bedroom and calms Duarte's fears that it is rape, not seduction, that is taking place. Castruchio then has Lothario freed from prison and encourages him to take revenge on Foreste. When the Duke becomes fearful that Corsa will reveal his rape, Castruchio suggests that he lie in wait for Lucio and Foreste and kill them. The Duke at first agrees, but then makes Castruchio promise not to kill Lucio. In the fight in the dark that follows, Castruchio is wounded by Foreste and tries to flee with Cosimo, but both are taken and returned to the scene, where all is revealed. Dorido promises that Castruchio and Cosimo will be tortured before their execution.


A bandit in Shirley's The Sisters, follower of Frapolo.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. Castruchio's singer is mentioned by Dorido and Cosimo, who comment that he sings Castruchio's libelous songs and is a big man.


A non-speaking character in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Cat and Dog are permanently present at Puntavorlo's side, and two servants take care of them. Cat is in a bag carried by one of the servants. Puntavorlo announces he will place a large sum of money as insurance upon the safe return of himself, Dog, and Cat from the journey to Constantinople. Actually, Cat replaces Lady Puntavorlo, who changed her mind about taking the journey. Carlo Buffone says the choice of Cat is even better, because the cat has nine lives and his wife only one. Puntavorlo adds that Cat is never sea sick, which saves him a lot of food. After signing the insurance papers at his lodgings in London, Puntavorlo wants to go to court with his friends. He tells the servants in charge of the animals to stay at home with Cat, while he takes charge of Dog himself. At court, Saviolina asks Puntavorlo about his precious animals. When Puntavorlo says that Dog is with him, but Cat is at home, Saviolina asks how he can trust his Cat out of his sight, with so much money involved. Puntavorlo explains that Cat has sore eyes and stays mostly inside, guarded by two servants. Saviolina offers to give him water for Cat's eyes. It is not clear if this water is actually a poison, because Dog's death makes the whole travel enterprise redundant. The main inference is that Cat remained safely at home, guarded by the two faithful servants.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's The Alchemist. Face as Jeremy invents a story to excuse his absence. He tells his master Lovewit that the cat died with plague, and he had to put the house under quarantine. That is why he has not been seen for a month or so. The neighbors attest that Jeremy has not been seen during that time.

CAT **1619

A “ghost character" in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. When Bacheus comes home in a fury, he hits the whelp with his staff for yawning, and when the cat sees that, it ran out of the top of the chimney.


A feline in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker whose given name is Tybert. Joshua's "poor silly harmless Puss," she comes with her master to the Scottish wars. Joshua rejects Miles' suggestion that he allow her to take his bullets for him, declaring, "my Cat, and I will enter battell 'gainst the wicked." Ball jokes that Joshua will appear in a painted cloth like his Hebrew namesake, but with "his Cat instead of a scutcheon." The cat is almost hanged onstage by her master for the sin of killing a mouse on the Sabbath, but Lord Grey declares her pardoned.


A gallant in Chapman's An Humourous Day's Mirth. He introduces Blanuel to Lemot and Colinet. In the guise of a scholar, he sets up Lemot's encounter with Florilla. He arrives at the tavern sweating from a tennis match, and kisses Jaquina when she fetches the coarse napkin he requests. With Lemot, he challenges the tavern gallants to display their wits. He participates, along with Berger, in the gulling of Labesha


The eldest daughter of Vilarezo in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge, Catalina rejects Count de Montenegro as soon as her brother's friend Antonio arrives. Jealous of her sister Berinthia, who is loved by Antonio, Catalina plots to poison her sister and have her kidnapped by Velasco, who loves Berinthia. The poison is never ingested, and Berinthia's captor is Antonio, not Velasco. But the death of Antonio at Sebastiano's hand returns the distraught Berinthia to Avero, and Catalina is poisoned by her vengeful sister.


The King of Aragon in the Anonymous Mucedorus rewards Tremelio's services by giving him a prisoner, the Catalonian prince.


Catapie is the name that the Lord's Boy gives to himself in the Anonymous The Taming of a Shrew when he disguises as Sly's wife.


Although Cataplasma purports to be a "tire woman" selling clothing in Tourneur's The Atheist's Tragedy, she is in fact a bawd who lets rooms to be used by prostitutes and by ladies in need of a private place for assignations. She provides such a place for Levidulcia to meet with Sebastian and assures her that she need have no reservations about taking a lover when so many husbands have no compunction about taking mistresses. When the lady's companion Languebeau Snuff realizes the nature of the establishment, Cataplasma grants his request for a tryst with Soquette, but the sudden appearance of Charlemont in St. Winfred's churchyard interrupts that encounter. Along with Soquette, Snuff, and Fresco, Cataplasma is arrested, hauled before the two Judges, and tried. The First Judge notes her violation of the sumptuary laws (she is dressed above her social station), but finds her innocent of an formal wrongdoing in the deaths of Sebastian and Belforest. However, because those deaths are the result of the passions given vent in her residence, the Second Judge sentences her to be whipped, carted through the streets, deprived of her possessions, and set to hard labor.

CATCH, TOM **1599

Sergeant in attendance on the Burgomaster in Ruggle’s Club Law. He, Tavie, and Puff fail to capture Cricket after he hits Brecknocke with an apple. Later, he trips over Cricket’s rope and is beaten. He tells Rumford that he fears the “Athenians" know the black arts and that the students will make them all dance naked. After the fight, Puff suggests that Catch has stopped being a sergeant and gone to find work at the university insread. Catch is seen, however, attending and protecting Niphle as he leaves prison.


A Cathedral singing man in Cartwright's The Ordinary. Like the other three "clubbers," Bag-shot, Sir Christopher, and Rimewell, he feels his professional skills would be improved with a good bit more money and drink. Like them, he is arrested by the Constable.


Part of the party which leads the prisoners to execution in Whetstone's 1 Promos and Cassandra. He goads the gypsy prisoner and is rebuked by the preacher.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. Along with Jane, Besse, and Sibley, Free Will refers to her as his "sweet trully mully."


Don John's wife in the anonymous Dick of Devonshire. She comes to Pike in prison to thank him for sparing her husband's life. During their conversation Don John arrives and accuses her of infidelity, but Pike offers to defend her honor in a duel.


Catella, Iphigenia's servant in (?)Jeffere's The Bugbears, supports her lady when Iphigenia is heartbroken over being engaged against her will to Formosus.


The name given by Quicksands to Millicent in her disguise as a blackamoor servant in Brome's The English Moor.


Catesby is More's household steward in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. He informs the family servants of More's death sentence.

CATESBY **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Carion calls him one of the "puisnies" along with Percy and lumps them both in with all knaves.


Sir William Catesby is with Richard III in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III when he first comes on stage as the newly named Lord Protector. Catesby's enthusiastic congratulations to Gloucester on the occasion of his promotion spur Richard into a scathing soliloquy against his family and against Nature. After the death of her husband Edward IV, the Queen is informed by Catesby that her son Edward V is in the custody of his uncle Gloucester, the Lord Protector. She also learns from Catesby that her brothers Rivers and Gray, along with their men Vaughan and Hapce, have been arrested by Gloucester on the charge of treason. After the Archbishop of York persuades the Queen Mother to obey Gloucester's directive, Catesby takes custody of York and delivers him to the Tower of London. Richard informs Catesby of his intentions before cutting off Hastings. Catesby briefly attempts to intervene on behalf of his friend, but quickly ends his suit when it becomes clear that Richard is set upon killing Hastings. In fact, Catesby personally helps Richard's men drag Hastings before Richard for condemnation. Catesby is awarded Hastings' title and estates by Richard as a reward for the betrayal of his friend. It is Catesby who reports to Richard that Buckingham has been captured and executed. Catesby is one of the last remaining men loyal to Richard at Bosworth Field. He is beheaded at Lester.
A supporter of Richard III in Shakespeare's Richard III. Catesby is sent to sound out Hastings, to see if he would support Richard; Catesby later conveys Hastings' head to Richard. Catesby also takes part in the charade when Buckingham leads the Mayor and citizens in imploring Richard to take the crown. Along with Lovell and Ratcliff, he was the target of William Collingbourne's satiric attack
The catte, the ratte, and Lovell our dogge
Rulyth all England under a hogge.
Finally, Catesby fights alongside Richard in the Battle of Bosworth.
Catesby in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV announces to Master Shore that king Edward IV has died and that Richard has been made Lord Protector of the dead king's young sons, Edward and Richard of York.


Catherina is an attendant to Eugenia in Shirley's The Bird in a Cage. She voluntarily follows her into imprisonment by the Duke. In the inset play, she plays an unnamed attendant of Danaë.


Catherina is the third prostitute examined by the duke in the final act of Dekker's 2 Honest Whore. When she greets Mistress Horseleech as the bawd she is, Horseleech attempts to present herself as an honest woman. Catherina then undermines Bots's posturing as an honest man, thus contributing to the duke's sentence of punishment for the pander. Bountinall exits in a most spirited way, even calling the duke "Master Slave," telling him that her skirt is lined with silk and that gentlemen such as he would be glad to wipe their noses on it. When the duke takes exception to her effrontery and orders the First Master to inform her that the duke himself is present, she retorts that she would not care if the Devil himself were on hand.




Queen mother of France in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris. Mother to Charles, Henry (Anjou), and Margaret. Though others officially wear the crown, she covets power over the kingdom, aiming to remove Charles from power and rule through Anjou and Guise. Her plan fails as Anjou, as King Henry III, turns against her and Guise is murdered. Abandoned and powerless, she can only wish for death.


Called Catherine (also Katherine) Parry in Rowley’s When You See Me. Henry mentions her the first time on line 1420 and by 1486 he is marrying her. Wolsey sees her as the chief puppet of Martin Luther who will turn England into a Protestant country. Once queen, she tries to intercede for Rooksbie, but Henry will not hear of pardon. She tries to intercede for Brandon and Mary but unnecessarily as the king is angry in jest only. Queen Catherine disputes with Bonner and Gardner on the question of whether Henry and all Christian kings should read Luther’s writings and decide if they make sense. When Henry is led to order her to the Tower, she takes advice from Compton and goes to plead her case before the king before she can be arrested. She wins Henry’s trust and regains her position with him thanks to Prince Edward’s intervention to allow her to speak with her husband.


Title character of Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Catherine Willoughby, Duchess of Suffolk, is not called by her proper name in the play. See DUCHESS of SUFFOLK.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. The Catholic King is how Incubo twice refers to the King of Spain. The first time, Incubo describes himself as an officer of the King, sent to check on the quality of inns. The second time, Incubo calls himself a minister of the King in order gain entrance for Philippo into Theodosia's room.


Lucius Sergius Catilina is a Roman politician and conspirator in the last days of the Roman republic in Jonson's Catiline. In 63 BC, Catiline set up a conspiracy to be elected consul but was defeated. In his study in Rome, Catiline ponders on his intended scheme, inspired by the evil apparition of Sylla's Ghost. Aurelia enters and Catiline tells her his ambitious dream, instructing her to enroll the dissatisfied Roman matrons to his cause. When the conspirators enter, Catiline delivers his address and they seal the pact by drinking human blood. After Cicero has been elected consul, however, Catiline pretends to congratulate his rival in the Senate, but he meets later with the conspirators to discuss plans for retaliation. At his home, Catiline discusses secretly with Caesar, who tells him that he and Crassus are on his side, and he should go along with his plot. When the conspirators enter, Catiline presents the plan of setting fire to the city and attributes specific tasks to each member. In the Senate, Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy, but Catiline denies the allegations. However, he says he will go to banishment to clear all suspicions against him. When he meets the conspirators later, Catiline tells them to go along with their plan, despite his self-banishment, while he is raising an army abroad. After the conspirators have been arrested and tried in the Senate, the exiled Catiline delivers his final address to the army, inciting them to fight to the death. Later, Pomtinius reports to the Senate that Catiline resisted the assault till he died.




Only mentioned in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. In an attempt to flatter the braggart, Merrygreek tells Ralph Roister Doister that he sometimes refers to him as the "third Cato."


A "ghost character" in Kyd's Cornelia. Brutus tells Cassius that Cato tore out Scipio's entrails. Cato, too, is slain.


Cato of Utica, the famous Censor, is the role that Quadratus proposes to act before the Duke in Marston's What You Will.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as a great Roman of the past.


A nickname for Frank Barker in Shirley's The Ball.


Having failed to prevent his father's suicide in the anonymous Caesar and Pompey, Cato Junior fights on the side of Brutus and Cassius at the battle of Philippi, where he is killed.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Cato is Portia's butler. We hear that he committed suicide when Caesar defeated Pompey's armies, choosing not to live under the tyrant he thought Caesar would prove to be.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. Caesar describes Cato as a lover of Rome's freedom and stationed in Africa, ready to attack. After Caesar falls in love with Cleopatra, Scaeva wishes that Cato, Juba and the sons of Pompey would attack and rouse Caesar from his romantic lethargy.
Marcus Porcius Cato, or Cato the Younger, is a Roman legislator and philosopher, great-grandson of Cato the Elder in Jonson's Catiline. As a senator in republican Rome, he was a violent opponent of Caesar and, outdoing Cicero in vituperation of Catiline's conspiracy in 63 BC, Cato tried to implicate Caesar in the plot, although maintaining his fairness to all. In the Roman Senate, Cato enters with the other senators. Following the election of Cicero and Caius Antonius as consuls, Cicero delivers a speech of thankfulness. From Cato's remarks addressed to Caesar, it is evident that the two men are in conflict. When Catiline pretends to congratulate Cicero, Cato expresses his distrust and tells Catiline he should expect the gods' judgment for his despicable actions. At Cicero's house, Cicero tells his brother to summon a number of senators and tribunes he could trust, among whom he mentions Cato. When Cornelius and Vargunteius try to gain access into Cicero's house under the guise of friends, but with the purpose of murdering him, Cato is in the group of Cicero's honest friends and clients who witness the scene. When the conspirators flee, and the remaining senators advise Cicero to follow the assassins and bring them to justice, Cato is very vocal in counseling Cicero to go after the murderers. In the Senate, just before Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy, Cato says he will not stay beside Catiline. When the conspirators are tried in the Senate, Cato tries to implicate Caesar in Catiline's conspiracy, but with no success. However, his speech against the conspirators is influential in the Senate's pronouncing the death sentence.
Cato [the Younger] is an heroic patriot in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. He is devoted to the Republic, and a Stoic, with a keen interest in philosophy (he defends at length the surprisingly Christian argument that the body, like the soul, survives death). He favors Pompey, in the hope that he can save the Republic from Caesar. Unlike his son-in-law, Brutus, he stabs himself, at Utica, after Caesar's victory.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Marcus Cato is young Cato's father; his son serves with Brutus' troops.


Cato Senior in the anonymous Caesar and Pompey advises his son Cato Junior to show strength of mind although Rome's liberty is lost, and then stabs himself. Cato Junior returns and apparently persuades his father to seek help, but as soon as Cato Junior leaves to seek it Cato Senior stans himself again, this time fatally.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Marcus Porcius Cato (Cato the Elder) was a Roman politician, orator, writer, and defender of conservative Roman Republican ideas, who lived between 234 and 149 BC. He was born into a wealthy family of Roman landholders during the early Republican period on a farm in the city of Tusculum. His early farm upbringing resulted in a lifelong interest in agriculture and the writing of his De Agri Cultura, which is the oldest Latin literary encyclopedia in existence today. His conservative views of traditional Roman Republican culture and the importance of the development of Latin literature and its survival as a written language resulted in his fear and dislike of the increasing Greek influence on the Romans. Cato helped insure the survival of Latin by being the first to write an encyclopedic history of Rome in Latin called Origins, of which only small fragments survive. After Virgil has Crispinus take an emetic to throw up his bad words he then prescribes Crispinus to observe a strict and wholesome diet, taking each morning a dose of Old Cato's principles next to his heart.


The son of Marcus Cato in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Young Cato is a friend of Brutus and Cassius. He believes the spirit of Caesar walks upon the earth and has caused the death of Cassius.


Ambassadors from Cathay in the anonymous Tamar Cam. One of the groups of envoys sent from the conquered races. They enter in procession at play's end to do homage to their conqueror, Tamor Cham.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Catullus (84?–54? BC) was a great lyric poet of ancient Rome. He lived during the same time as did the statesmen Caesar, Pompey, and Cicero, all of whom he knew. His poetry strongly influenced poets of the following century: Virgil and Horace imitated him, and Ovid and Martial praised and commemorated his work. At his house, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When Clerimont asks him about the classical poets, Daw refers to them in a deprecating manner, including Catullus in the long list of unworthy poets.
Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Lingua. Phantastes draws upon Catullus’ zonam soluit diu ligatem to craft a bawdy couplet.


Quintus Catulus is a senator in republican Rome in Jonson's Catiline. He is trustworthy but rather gullible and judges people at face value. In the Roman Senate, Catulus enters with the senators. Following the election of Cicero and Caius Antonius as consuls, Cicero delivers a speech of gratitude. While Caesar is displeased with Cato's support of Cicero, Catulus remarks that, if all reports were true, the times needed an eager spirit to watch over Rome. Catulus makes vague and generalizing comments regarding the state of the nation, such as when he says that those states that are forced to buy their rulers' fame with their own infamy are in a miserable situation. When Catiline pretends to congratulate Cicero on his election, the naïve Catulus remarks that Catiline has been wrongly judged. At Cicero's house, Cicero tells his brother to summon a number of senators and tribunes he could trust, among whom he mentions Catulus. When Cornelius and Vargunteius try to gain access into Cicero's house under the guise of friends, but with the purpose of murdering him, Catulus is in the group of Cicero's honest friends and clients who witness the scene. When the conspirators flee, and the remaining senators advise Cicero to follow the assassins and bring them to justice, Catulus says that, if the allegations for murder are proved, the consul should let the commonwealth punish the conspirators. In the Senate, before Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy to murder, Catulus says that, like Cato, he will not stand beside Catiline. Catulus is used as a trustworthy witness, but does not get implicated in the events.


Page to Castilio in Marston's Antonio and Mellida.Catzo belittles the younger page, Dildo, whose name was synonymous with his in the Italian of the 16th century. Catzo tells Dildo that Balurdo was an idiot and recalls that both their masters, Castilio and Balurdo, showed cowardice in the sea battle with the Genoan fleet. Catzo flatters Castilio to his face but disparages him during asides.


A fool in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort. He is boon companion to Prince Sigismund. The clown futilely attempts to rouse the prince's melancholic spirits.

CAUCAPH **1632

Only mentioned in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. Demetrius, disguised as an astrologer, rattles off a list of "the learned Cabalists and all the Chaldees." The list includes Asla, Baruch, Abohali, Caucaph, Toz, Arcaphan, Albuas, Gasar, Hali, Hippocras, Lencuo, Ben, Benesaphan, and Albubetes.


A contemptuous term for an attorney in Holiday's Technogamia. 'Cavsidius' is consulted by Logicus after the latter's fight with Melancholico, but despite his varied legal advice he is unable to help.


Master Caution is a rich man and a usurer in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. He holds a conversation with Master Algebra, who believes "the greatest riches in this world is knowledge." But Master Caution–a more materialistic man–quickly replies that knowledge does not buy any of the necessary things in life. And he adds he is just saving money to make his best advantage of it. He explains he is not going to "labour for those that will give him no thanks for it or else will vainly spend it." Master Algebra listens, patiently, to his arguments, and then he reprimands him, since he realizes that the latter is a selfish man, as: "the prosperity of others, indeed, hinders your trade." Besides, when Master Caution explains how he uses his money, Master Algebra realizes he is a usurer–and no matter how hard the former tries to hide it, the latter faces him with the truth: he lends money at an interest rate, as if he were a Jew. They go on discussing on the subject, the former defending riches, the latter defending knowledge, until the matter is settled when Master Algebra reproaches Master Caution that he has nothing in his life but money and that he has forgotten how to behave. When Master Caution tells him about what he eats, he gives himself away as a glutton, and Master Algebra explains that "covetousness is a sluttish, sordid, and a base sin." Then he asks Master Caution where the "rare and learned men" he had promised to bring him to see were, but he is told that they will leave that visit for some other day, since Caution needs to deal with them about some business in private. The latter then goes to see Bill Bond seeking legal advice–he wants to know how much interest he can ask for his loans. After providing him with that information, Bond explains that, nevertheless, lawyers have tricks to save men from the punishment of the law. Master Caution goes on asking about the possibilities of getting away with other breaches of the law he is aware of committing, and Bond assures him he can help him even with those. The former offers the latter twenty crowns of gold for his services, but he soon realizes he will have to pay him more if he wants to receive proper service. When Master Caution learns he has been cozened, encouraged by Damme de Bois he comes to ask for what he had offered him as recompense for his fake services. But the moment Bond sees Master Caution, incensed, accusing him of having cozened him, the lawyer pretends to be crossed and leaves, threatening to sue him. Master Caution, on his part, since Bond threatened to sue him as soon as he heard his accusations, afraid of being sued, pays Clyster forty pounds of gold to kill Bond and save him–promising to make it a hundred when Bond is actually dead. Clyster assures he will do it for a hundred and twenty pounds, and he actually gets that sum from Master Caution. Encouraged by Damme de Bois again, he and the other cozened victims siege the house of the three cheaters. Master Caution, incensed, suggests going to the Lord Chief of Justice for a warrant to apprehend them. Finally, Master Algebra, who was passing by, offers to act as a judge, and he actually solves the case satisfactorily for all the parties involved, cures the cozened people and he is recompensed both by the victims and by the cheaters.


Uncle to Walter Chamlet in Brome's The Sparagus Garden. Sir Arnold is a fifty-year-old bachelor who loves beautiful women but refuses to marry because he believes that no beauty remains a maiden for long. Dubbed "the peeping knight" by Martha, he is a client of the Asparagus Garden and likes to walk about it order to leer at the faces and peep at the pretty insteps of its female clients. While there, he meets his nephew who is with Gilbert and the soldier-poet Bounce (really Samuel Touchwood in disguise); when he insults poetry, Bounce 'attacks' him and is 'attacked' in turn by Walter in a plot designed to move Sir Arnold to help abet Walter's 'marriage' to Annabel. He goes to court Annabel on Walter's behalf, but is so taken with her that he ends by courting her for himself. He is about to marry her when she appears, seemingly heavily pregnant, at which point he repudiates her, leaving her free to marry Samuel when the plot's many strands come together in the lovers' favor.


The Spaniard in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me uses this name to refer to an Englishman that he fights and kills.


Servant to Malevento and later journeyman to Cordolente in Dekker’s Match Me in London. He is the comic relief of the play and discovers Tormiella at Cordolente’s house and accepts his bribe to keep quiet while the newlyweds escape from Cordova to Seville. He runs away with them to help run Cordolente’s shop. In IV.ii he debates with Coxcomb over the relative merits of court versus city, taking the side of the citizen.


A Lombard residing in London in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. Caveler steals two doves from the carpenter Williamson, and when confronted with the theft, he refuses to return them. His behavior, like that of Francis de Bard and the other foreign merchants who abuse the London citizens with impunity, helps to provoke the May Day riots of 1517.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Cavendish is mentioned by Sir Conquest Shadow when he is telling Doctor Clyster about his imaginary fights at sea: "Methinks I'm sailing about this our globe and do discover more than ever Magellan, Drake, or Cavendish did, and make greater fights, and then come home with sails of silk like Cavendish, ..." Thomas Cavendish (1555-1592) was known as 'the Navigator'. He sailed around the world in 1586-88 and returned to England, enormously rich. This voyage was known as the Golden Voyage, and after it, Queen Elizabeth knighted him.


A "ghost character" in Sharpham's Cupid's Whirligig. A ferryman, identified as the father of one of Master Correction's pupils.


Courtier in Dekker’s Match Me in London. His saucy manner to the king betrays him as one of the queen’s spies. He brings the king a heart-shaped jewel from the queen as token of her love. The king tricks him into appearing the queen’s lover and has both sent to prison.


Alternate spelling of Catzo in Marston's Antonio and Mellida.


Cebalinus is the brother of Nichomachus in Daniel's Philotas. He accosts Philotas and tells him how Dymnus attempted to draw Nichomachus into a plot to kill Alexander. When Philotas does not consult Alexander, Cebalinus and vows to try another counsellor. Metron finally brings Cebalinus before Alexander and he recounts his story, accusing Philotas of neglect. Cebalinus later testifies before Alexander, and at the trial of Philotas.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. William Cecil, Lord Burghley, Queen Elizabeth's secretary. Lord Grey tells Monlucke that he is on his way to Edinburgh to parley with the Queen Regent there. Cross later invokes his name as one of the commissioners who have ordered the English forces to cease hostilities in Leith until the talks are concluded.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Mitis asks Cordatus about the comedy they are about to see, whether its author observes the classical rules regarding the unity of time, place, and action, Cordatus embarks upon a lengthy and learned incursion into the history of comedy. Cordatus mentions Cecilius among the Latin writers of comedy. According to Cordatus, they have utterly excluded the Chorus, altered the characters' properties and names, and invented several structural features. Cecilius Statius was a third-century A.D. Latin author of drama. He was a Roman slave, and from his ample creation remain only forty-two titles of comedy and various fragments. He followed the Greek model of comedy and his contemporaries admired him for the organization of plot and the dramatic force of the verses. Volcacius considered him on of the greatest comedy writers.


Celanta is the ill-favored but kind-hearted daughter of Lampriscus in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale. She gains a fortune in gold by acquiescing to the request of the Head in the Well of Life to have his beard combed. She ultimately marries the blind clown Corebus (also known as Booby).


Tamburlaine's youngest son in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2. Zenocrate praises his skill at tilting from a Scythian steed. He promises to be as valiant as his father. He later sets a tablet where his mother died that lists her virtues and perfections. When Tamburlaine wounds his own arm to show his boys how a soldier should bear his wounds, Celebinus and Amyras plead to be cut as well. Tamburlaine is pleased, but tells the boys they must shed no blood until they taste battle against the Turks. In Aleppo, Calyphas calls Celebinus a "tall stripling." When Tamburlaine falls fatally ill, Celebinus and Amyras are bequeathed all the unconquered world. He is present at his father's death.


A sycophantic West Saxon lord in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. He supports Bertha's marriage to Osriick. Alternate spelling of KELRICK.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina. Pallas promises Agrippina that Publius Celerius, along with Aelius, will poison Silanus.


According to Sempronio in ?Rastell's Calisto and Melebea, the old whore Celestina has aided men in the sexual conquest of more than a thousand maids, wives, and widows. He recruits her to help Calisto obtain the love of Melebea, and she agrees, for a price. She appeals to Melebea's charity, to rescue Calisto from his pain. The girl rebuffs her angrily, but relents when Celestina praises the young man to the skies, and gives the old woman her girdle to deliver to Calisto as a token of her good will.


Celestina in the sixteen-year-old widow happy to remain thus in Shirley's The Lady of Pleasure . She is one of the first women on stage who says directly "I don't need a man" and means it. She is never swayed even temporarily from her decision (unlike Olivia from Twelfth Night and even the Duchess from More Dissemblers Besides Women). She is courted by the fools Scentwell and Haircut. She admires Lord for his devotion to his departed wife but does not succumb to his obvious enticements. Rather, she upbraids him when he momentarily forgets himself and declares his love for her. She is saucy and intelligent and more than a match in the war of words that erupts between herself and the foppish Kickshaw and Littleworth.


Celia is one of Ceres' nymphs in Lyly's Love's Metamorphosis. She is being courted by Montanus but she refuses to return his love, despite a lecture from Cupid on the proper way for lovers to behave. Montanus complains to Cupid, who turns Celia into a flower. Celia is only returned to her true form when Ceres pleads with Cupid. However, Celia says she would rather be turned back into a flower than fall in love. Ceres tries to change her mind and eventually Celia agrees to be Montanus' lover.


Celia is Duke Frederick's daughter, niece of the banished Duke Senior and cousin to Rosalind in Shakespeare's As You Like It. When her father banishes Rosalind, Celia chooses to join Rosalind in exile. Celia disguises herself as Aliena, and sets out for the forest of Arden with her father's jester Touchstone and Rosalind in the male disguise of Ganymede. When Oliver arrives in the forest, having repented his mistreatment of his brother Orlando and reformed, Celia falls in love with him. Celia and Oliver's is among the four marriages that close the play.


Celia is the wife of Albano in Marston's What You Will. Believing him dead in a shipwreck, she is keen to marry Laverdure. However, she seems content to be reclaimed by Albano at the end.


Wife of Corvino in Jonson's Volpone. She is admired for her beauty and thus is rarely allowed in public by her jealous husband. When Volpone, disguised as Scoto of Mantua, calls on the onlookers to throw a handkerchief, Celia throws hers to him. When her husband insists she sleep with Volpone, she is shocked and refuses. She is rescued from Volpone by Bonario but is then imprisoned on false charges of adultery. She is exonerated when Volpone is later forced to confess. Because of her husband's crimes, she is permitted to return to the home of her father with three times her dowry.


Celia is the Duchess's waiting-woman in Middleton's More Dissemblers Besides Women. When the Duchess starts to pretend to be in love with Lactantio, Celia warns her that Lactantio is the enemy of her true beloved, Andrugio. Celia evaluates the "Page" and decides that "he" needs dancing practice; she takes 'him' to be taught by Crotchet and Sinquapace, and while there demonstrates her skills in dancing. Later, Celia informs the Duchess of Andrugio's meetings with a gypsy-girl (Aurelia).


Celia is at first presented as a prisoner from unknown regions and the love of Demetrius in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. When Demetrius is sent to war, his father Antigonus tricks Celia into coming to the court. After meeting Celia, the king admires her beauty and independence and decides that he must have her for himself. Celia refuses the King's persistent advances and her virtuous behavior finally shames him into confessing his wrongdoing and reuniting Celia with Demetrius. While visiting the court, Seleucus encounters Celia and recognizes her as his daughter, thus revealing Celia's true identity as the princess Enanthe.


Celinda is the Duchess' proud waiting woman in Shirley's The Cardinal . She prefers her mistress' suitor Columbo from the start. When she convinces herself that he returns her love, she abjures her lady's chamber. When Columbo is killed in a duel, she earns the scorn of the court by mourning as if her had been her lover. In the end she runs away with the Duchess' secretary, Antonio.


The alias assumed by Sebastian in Thomas Middleton's The Witch. He takes on this identity in order to become Isabella's servant and lure her away from her false husband, Antonio, and back into the lawful bond of marriage to which Sebastian is entitled by virtue of their precontract.

CELIO, LORD **1635

Julio’s title in Rider’s The Twins by which several characters refer to him.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Catiline. Metellus Celler is a praetor, a member of the senatorial army. When the Senate of Rome decides to send an army against the self-exiled Catiline, whom they suspect to have been the instigator of the conspiracy, Petreius is named the general of this army. At the same time, Cicero says that Metellus Celler will cut the retreat of Catiline's army for Gallia. Metellus Celler is expected to lead three legions to the north, stop Catiline's retreat, and arrest the army's leaders.


Valentine's beautiful young ward, raised to be his submissive and loving bride in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas. When Valentine perceives that his protégé, Francis, is desperately ill with love of her, he asks her to save his life by loving him. Cellide is horrified by his ability to part with her and renounces her former love for him. To test Francis, she offers herself to him, claiming that Valentine is too old to satisfy her. When he rejects her immodest offer, she reveals her true intention, declares that she loves Francis for his great virtue and vows that she will live single with only his memory as a companion. She flees Valentine's house in the night and enters Saint Katharine's Nunnery. At Thomas' request and the Abbess' command, she consents to leave again on an hour's pass. When she realizes that Francis is really Valentine's lost son, she happily leaves the convent behind to marry him.


Lorenzo Celsi is the dissolute, tobacco-smoking Duke of Venice in Marston's What You Will. It is he who recognizes the real Albano.


Celso, a friend to Duke Altofronto in Marston's Malcontent, is the only character that knows Malevole's true identity. Celso assists Malevole throughout the play.


Julius Celsus, Sejanus' friend in the anonymous Tragedy of Tiberius. He enters to inform Sejanus that Tiberius has found letters from Sejanus to Julia that reveal Sejanus' treachery. He is next seen in prison where he hurls abuse at the Emperor and strangles himself to death with his own chains.


Celthus is a shepherd in Lyly's Midas. He and the other shepherds learn that Midas' ears have been transformed into those of an ass. The reeds overhear the shepherds talking about Midas.


Celybin is another follower of Abdelmelec in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. He reports the enemy's whereabouts to the rightful ruler of Barbary.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. A cardinal who has promised absolution to Doctor Parry if he will murder the Queen.


A Persian Lord loyal to Cosroe in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1. He supports the usurpation of Mycetes and reports that the soldiers and gentlemen of Persia threaten civil wars unless Cosroe seizes the throne. He is present when Cosroe promises to name Tamburlaine regent of Persia once Mycetes is slain.


A "ghost character" in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. Censorinus is a supporter of Marius who is mentioned in a letter by Cinna to Young Marius, which says that Censorinus will shortly arrive to visit Young Marius.


A wealthy citizen-wife in Jonson's The Staple of News. She has come to attend The Staple of News. She and her gossips sit on the stage and reveal their ignorance as to the conventions and standards of stage comedy. She expresses continuing dissatisfaction with the play.


Lady Centaure is a member of Lady Haughty's college of society ladies in Jonson's Epicoene. They live at their husbands' expense and entertain the wits in town. At Morose's house, Centaure enters with Haughty, Mavis, and Trusty. During the ensuing party, the fashionable ladies ridicule Morose's horror of noise and welcome the loud musicians. As the party continues, the revelers interact, and the ladies retire at some point to debate Mistress Otter's doubtful right of membership in their select club. In a long open gallery at Morose's house, Centaure enters with the other ladies. When Mistress Otter enters rather ruffled for having been chased away by Morose, Haughty dispenses her invaluable guidance regarding how women should pin off their husbands. Centaure adds examples from her own experience, telling Epicoene to let her husband allow her own coach and four horses, in addition to many servants. The ladies discussion veers towards the passage of time and the necessity for women to have lovers and enjoy life while they are young. Centaure wonders who will wait on them in those forsaken times when they are old and lonely, or write to them, or make anagrams of their names. After debating on the advantages of having lovers as the best cure for melancholy, Centaure exits with Haughty's party. Centaure and the collegiate ladies witness the scenes of La-Foole and Daw's humiliation. When they come forward, all the ladies admire Dauphine's looks and ingenuity. When Morose enters furiously chasing everybody away, Centaure and the ladies run off. In a room at Morose's house, Centaure enters while Haughty is ardently courting Dauphine. When Haughty exits, Centaure tells him he should not trust Haughty and she makes nasty allusions at her friend's age and the possibility of her having a venereal disease. Before Mavis enters, Centaure invites Dauphine to her chamber and then exits pretending to be looking for Haughty. Centaure re-enters with the collegiate ladies and attends the final revelation scene. Truewit warns the ladies against placing their trust in indiscreet men such as the foolish knights.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. In Greek mythology, Centaurs were horse-like creatures, half-human half-horse. They were renowned for their sexual prowess. When Fulvia and Sempronia discuss their lovers, Fulvia suggests that they might exchange favorites. Fulvia implies she is tired of Quintus Curius, and Sempronia could have him, adding that the world is full of sexually rewarding men. In fact, Fulvia is dissatisfied because Curius is broke and he cannot pay for her extravagant tastes. In exchange, Fulvia alludes to Sempronia's former beau, Caius Caesar, saying that these lords who used to be Sempronia's lovers are so passionate that they leap a lady at first sight, like Centaurs. Since it is known that Caesar had sent Fulvia a pearl as a gift, probably in exchange for sexual favors, it is inferred that Fulvia refers to Caesar's sexual potency, which she esteems to be like the Centaurs'.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Host rails against the current decayed ways of the nobility, Lovel defends the good education received by the noble youths. Lovel says they learn, among other arts, the Centaurs' skill, or the art of Thrace, which is archery. In Greek mythology, the Centaurs were fabulous beings, half men half horses, believed to live in the region of Thessaly. The Centaurs were considered masters in archery, and they form the constellation Sagittarius. Later, Latimer describes ironically Tipto's drunken fight with Bust as the battle of the Centaurs with the Lapithes. In Greek mythology, the famous battle of the Centaurs with the nation of the Lapithes is an example of irrational war.


Centella and Pineda are Spanish sycophants who fawn over Queen Isabella in Heywood's A Challenge for Beauty. They act as go-betweens when Valladaura purchases Ferrars and Manhurst at the slave-market. Queen Isabella sends them to England to retrieve the ring from Hellena that Bonavida gave her to test her virtue. They do so by seducing Hellena's maid, Rosara, and persuading her to steal the ring. They then return to Spain, triumphantly announcing that Hellena is a whore. They are present at the 'marriage' of Valladaura and Petrocella and its aftermath. Just before Bonavida's execution, Hellena arrives and reveals their duplicity.


Centurion of Germanicus in the anonymous Tragedy of Tiberius. When he is honored for bravery, he delivers an encomium on all of the great Romans that came before him—Coriolanus, Marius, Scylla under Scipio—and claims to be only following their examples. After the war in Armenia, the Centurion steps in to stop an argument between Germanicus and Piso as to which should wear the laurel wreath of victory. Under Roman law, the Centurion reminds them, the soldiers are to decide who receives the wreath. The soldiers choose Germanicus.


Ceparius is a member of Catiline's conspiracy in Jonson's Catiline. At Catiline's house, Ceparius enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot was exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. Ceparius's role is to set fire to the city at a prearranged place. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. When the conspirators are arrested and tried in the Senate, it is understood that Ceparius shares their punishment.


Father of Andromeda, a character in the dumb show introducing II of the Anonymous Locrine. According to Ate he corresponds to Corineus.


Also called Cephise in the anonymous Narcissus. Cephisus is a river-god, husband to Lyriope and father to Narcissus. He describes himself as a "brave river / Who is all water." He loves his son for being an obedient boy. He is waiting for Tyresias, the Prophet, with his wife and son, but he is tired and wants to leave, because he thinks he is not coming. When Tyresias finally arrives, Cephisus explains to him that they want him to tell their son his fortune. But the wise man replies with a riddle: 'If he does not discover himself'. The moment the river-god learns the sad fate that is awaiting his beloved son, he despairs and wants to drown himself. According to Greek mythology, Kephisos was a River-God son to Oceanos and Thethys. In Ovid's Metamorphoses, Cephisus was husband to Liriope and father to Narcissus.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. In Greek mythology, Cerberus was the monster-dog with two heads that guarded the entrance to Hades. When Carlo Buffone drinks Canary wine, he mentions some poets' drinking habits. According to Carlo Buffone, the author of the play Every Man Out Of His Humor drinks with the players at the tavern. After several cups of wine, he looks villainous like a one-headed Cerberus. The reference is self-ironic, since Ben Jonson describes himself when drunk, as seen by the others.
The three-headed dog who guards the entrance to the underworld in Heywood's The Silver Age, he kills Perithous and wounds Theseus as they are attempting to rescue Proserpine, but is defeated and bound by Hercules.
Only mentioned in the Anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. When he finds Frisco giving Hipolito information about what happens in Imperia's house, Camillo asks if this Mercury brings him notice from the courtesan. Frisco responds he may be a sort of Mercury for running Imperia's errands, but he is certainly a "Cerebrus" because he is porter to hell. Cerberus is the watchdog that guarded the entrance to the underworld. Frisco confuses Cerberus, Hell's guard, with cerebrum, the Latin for brain.
Pluto's three-headed watchdog in Heywood's Love's Mistress, Cerberus is instructed to accompany Psiche during her visit to Hades.
Only mentioned in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. Fulvia recalls Cerebus in her death speech, saying that the ‘snaky paw’ of that ‘threefold’ dog will not frighten her as she travels to be with her Affranio.
Sir John and Holdfast summon the mythological beast Cerberus in Massinger's The City Madam. The creature is placed strategically at one of the doors in Frugal residence in an effort to help persuade Luke to show pity to those he has either had imprisoned, sent away, or fired.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Ghost. Valerio mentions Cerberus when metaphorically referring to Engin, Aurelia's servant, when he arrives at Erotia's. According to Greek mythology, Cerberus was a huge and savage three-headed dog, which guarded the entrance to Hades.


The Greek goddess of fertility in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. Mercury explains the opening dumbshow to her. As she exits, she "casts comfits" to the audience.
Ceres is a goddess in Lyly's Love's Metamorphosis. Her nymphs dance around a tree that was also once a nymph. Erisicthon, a churlish huntsman, cuts down the tree and kills the nymph inside. In revenge, Ceres sends famine to him. Ceres then takes her nymphs to the god Cupid for instruction in love but, when the nymphs disobey Cupid's commands and reject their suitors, they are transformed into a rock, a flower and a bird. Ceres pleads with Cupid, who temporarily restores the nymphs to their proper form–but Ceres then has to persuade each of the nymphs that being in love is better than being transformed back again.
Ceres accompanies Plenty in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.
A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Golden Age. Neptune mentions the Queen of Grain as one of Jupiter's mistresses and mother to his daughter, Proserpina.
Goddess of fertility in Heywood's The Silver Age, she and her daughter Proserpine bless the earth with grain and flowers; during a brief separation, the girl is carried off by Pluto, and Ceres vainly asks Mercury, Triton, and Earth to tell her where she is; when they cannot, she vows to blast the earth with infertility. She learns from Arethusa of Pluto's rape, and recruits Hercules to rescue the girl. When he is only restrained by the arguments of Rhadamanth from carrying her back to earth, she agrees to abide by the judgment of the planetary divinities that Proserpine shall be with her while the moon is full and with Pluto while the moon is dark.
Roman goddess of the fertility in Shakespeare's The Tempest. A part taken by one of Prospero's spirits in the Masque or "revel" performed for Ferdinand and Miranda. The performance also includes spirits disguised as Juno, Iris, nymphs, and reapers.
Ceres is forced by Delphia to lend her a dragon-drawn throne in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess. Ceres (or a spirit in the form of Ceres?) later appears to lead a dance of Shepherds and Shepherdesses choreographed by Delphia to honor Diocles and Drusilla.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. Clinias mentions her when, praising Narcissus's cheeks, he claims that they have a "farre better lustre / than Ceres when the sunne in Harvest busts her." Later, Narcissus refers to her when he falls in love with his own image in the water of the well, unaware of the fact that it is his own reflection. He states his intention to fast for love: "Not care of Ceres, Morpheus, nor of Bacchus, / That is meate, drinke and sleepe from hence shall lake us." According to Roman mythology, Ceres is the Corn Goddess, daughter to Saturn and sister to Jupiter.
A "ghost character" in Randolph's Amyntas. The goddess ruling Sicily through the enigmatic oracles given by her mouthpiece, the Ompha. Ceres has twice intervened at the demands of her high priest Pilumnus, for vengeance. When the son of Pilumnus, Philaebus, looses his bride, Lalage, to Claius, she duly curses Lalage, who dies in childbed. Philaebus then dies of grief for her and she is invoked for further revenge, which takes the shape of a general curse on marriage across the island, until the blood of Claius is sacrificed to her. Her oracle further dictates the Impossible Dowry by which Amyntas should win Urania. He must give her something that he cannot and may not have himself. The enigma has driven Amyntas into madness with frustration. When Urania comes to vow virginity to the goddess, the Echo of Ceres's Ompha provides the riddling answers which allow Amyntas to solve the Dowry at last, and also to interpret the goddess's wishes, proving that neither Damon nor Claius need die to satisfy her stated demands.
Ceres represents summer in the third of the four interludes in [?]Queen Henrietta's Florimène. She enters singing, followed by five reapers, who dance.
Goddess of the field in Tomkis’ Lingua. Part of Gustus’s retinue. She wears a crown of ears of corn, a yellow silk robe and carries a bunch of poppies and an escutcheon with a dragon on it.
The goddess of harvest in Wild’s The Benefice. She appears ‘above’ in the first act, which has the structure of an induction. She is angry that Pedanto, Invention, Furor Poeticus, and Comaedia are in her barn to act their play. It would appear that the original production was presented in a granary barn. She demands to know what they intend. Upon learning they mean nothing but mirth, she allows them to continue and insists upon being their play’s prologue. She appears again after the Epilogue to say she wished the play had a better playhouse, yet she is graced with the players’ efforts.


Plautia is disguised as Ceres at the masquerade banquet at court in Jonson's Poetaster. Ceres is the Roman counterpart of the Greek goddess of agriculture and marriage, one of the twelve major gods in mythology. During the entertainment presided by Ovid/Jupiter, Plautia/Ceres does not speak, but it is understood she enjoys the revelry. When Caesar enters and rails at the debauched party and banishes Ovid, it is understood that Plautia shares the fate of Julia and the other ladies. They are silent and subdued.


A Lord of Ephesus, famous for his skill in medicine in Shakespeare's Pericles. When his servants find the coffin of Thaisa on the shore, he opens it, finds Thaisa and revives her. He then helps establish her as a nun in Diana's temple in Ephesus. Later, he is present for the reunion of Thaisa with Pericles and Marina.


A "ghost character" in Shirley's Royal Master. She was the wife of the King of Naples and sister to the Duke of Florence.


Cesario is the name Viola uses while disguised as a boy in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. Viola first states that she will disguise herself as a eunuch, but either she or Shakespeare has a change of heart, since it is unlikely Orsino would discuss the possible love life of a eunuch. As Cesario, Viola greatly resembles her brother Sebastian.

CESARIO **1633

As prince of Naples in Shirley's The Young Admiral, Cesario dislikes Vittori and is obsessed with Vittori's love, Cassandra. He has mildly courted the Sicilian princess Rosinda but fails to return her love, instead focusing his effort on finding ways to eliminate Vittori. He even uses Vittori's father Alphonso as a pawn in his schemes to win Cassandra. Ultimately Cesario is a prisoner of the king of Sicily, just as that king's daughter Rosinda is a prisoner of Naples. Cesario and Rosinda find love; their forthcoming marriage ends the hostilities between Naples and Sicily.


A Roman tribune who is involved in the second attempt to invade Britain in The Valiant Welshman.


Cethegus is a supporter of Marius in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. He is with Young Marius when Cinna sends the message to seek out Marius and march on Rome. When Marius takes Rome, he orders Cethegus and Young Marius to travel to Praeneste to stop Scilla's progress.


Caius Cethegus is a Roman general and a member of Catiline's conspiracy in Jonson's Catiline. At Catiline's house, Cethegus enters with the other conspirators, expressing his regret for the violent days of Sylla's dictatorship, when murder was the order of the day. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot has been exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. The incendiary materials are to be deposited at Cethegus's house. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. After Cicero accused Catiline of conspiracy in the Senate, the confederates have another secret meeting, in which they decide to go along with the plot while Catiline is gone to exile. When evidence against the conspirators has been obtained Cethegus and his confederates are brought to trial before the Senate. When Cicero accuses Cethegus that his house contained an entire armory, Cethegus denies having any connection with the plot. When he is confronted with the incriminating letters intercepted from Allobroges, Cethegus says he did not know what he wrote. The Senate's resolution places Cethegus in Cornificius's private custody. When it is reported that the conspirators continued the seditious actions, the Senate decides the death penalty and Cethegus is executed.


Prince Cethus in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age (Oeax or some variant of it in the ultimate source, Dictys of Crete, and in every other version of the tale except Caxton's) is the son of the Argonaut King Naulus (more usually Nauplius) of Nauplia, and brother of Palamedes. He is staying with Clitemnestra in Mycene at the end of the war, and vows to avenge his brother's death at the hands of the Greek leaders, Agamemnon, Menelaus, and Ulisses. Frustrated when the Greeks escape the maritime trap he and his father have laid, he persuades his hostess and her lover that they should kill Agamemnon before he discovers their affair and has them killed. When Orestes' bethrothal to Hermione is ruptured by her father, Cethus enrolls the angry youngster in his plot. He forges a letter purporting to be from Menelaus that instates Clitemnestra and Egistus as rulers in Mycene, which allows its bearer, Orestes, to enter their citadel and kill them. Rejoicing at the success of all his schemes, he then urges the maddened youth to reclaim his betrothed, Hermione, from Pyrhus. In the melée that occurs when Orestes attacks the would-be bridegroom, Cethus kills Pillades, Diomed, Menelaus, and Thersites, and wounds Ulisses, and is exulting over the unparalleled extent of his revenge when Synon, who has been pretending to be dead, rises up, and the two malcontents kill each other.


Admiral of France in Chapman's The Tragedy of Chabot, Admiral of France. He is renowned for his honesty and integrity. In the first scene, he reconciles with his rival Montmorency. His father-in-law expresses his concerns about this new amity, and a Courtier arrives to present Chabot with a suit, already signed by Montmorency, that Chabot considers unjust. He refuses to sign it. When challenged by Montmorency, the Chancellor, Secretary, and Treasurer, he affirms his action and states that the Constable has broken his oath. He meets with the King and in a long discussion insists that he has maintained his integrity throughout his rise in the King's favor and will continue to do so. He is brought to trial, and learns that Allegre has been put to the rack. He believes the trial to be another test by the King, which will clearly demonstrate Chabot's worthiness to all. He is found guilty of treason when the Chancellor pressures the judges. Brought before the King, who pardons him, he asserts that he cannot be pardoned because he is not guilty even though he has been condemned. When the truth is revealed, he forgives the Lord Chancellor. Despite his acquittal before the King, the power of the action against him weakens him. The King comes to his home, and he asks the King to take Allegre into his service and to pardon the Lord Chancellor. The King does, Chabot kneels to thank him, and dies.


She, along with her father, attends her husband as he is brought to his arraignment in Chapman's The Tragedy of Chabot, Admiral of France; they both attempt to leave the scene after Chabot is led off by guards and the Queen enters, but the Queen sends someone to ask to speak with her. She defends her husband's honesty and her own virtue, and begs the Queen's pardon if she has exceeded the limits she should have observed as a subject. When Chabot is condemned, she comes to the King to beg that he not believe the Queen (whom she believes is still allied with Chabot's enemies), but show mercy to Chabot. She is with her husband when he dies; the King vows he will provide for her and her family in honor of her husband's service.


A nickname in Mayne’s Amorous War that Pistoclerus’ suburb mistress calls him.


Silent character in Act V of ?Brewer's The Country Girl. He comes with the doctor.


A midwife, brought to assist Placentia's labor in Jonson's The Magnetic Lady. She sends her son (and the father of the baby), Needle the Tailor, to find a nurse and secret the child away. She prepares a potion that allows Placentia to recover quickly enough so that Lady Lodestone won't suspect she's just delivered. She also reconciles Polish and Nurse Keep.


A "ghost character" in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling. Alsemero says a Chaldean (i.e. a wizard) taught him the virginity test. The Chaldean may be Antonius Mizaldus, whom Alsemero's Book of Secrets lists as the inventor of the test.


Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Albumazar’s magical cant includes this allusion.


Chalisthenes is a friend and counsellor of Philotas in Daniel's Philotas. He advises Philotas to follow the advice of his father Parmenio and downscale his public display in order to avoid antagonising Alexander.


Challenger is in love with Sir Godfrey's daughter Annabel in the Anonymous The Fair Maid of Bristow. When his friend Vallenger also falls in love with her, Challenger wounds him and flees. Hearing that Vallenger is to marry Annabel, Challenger returns disguised as an Italian doctor named Julio. Vallenger, who loves Florence instead, commissions him to murder Annabel, but Challenger reveals the plot. At the end, however, he offers to die in Vallenger's place because of his love for Annabel.


A captain, charged by order of the King (with Aumale and Maillard) to capture Clermont D'Ambois at Cambrai in Chapman's The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois. He orders two soldiers to invite Clermont to view the staged battle, then to make the actual capture with himself as backup. He is one of the group accompanying the captive when Baligny arrives with orders for his release.


Look under TAMAR and MANGO.


A "ghost character" in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. The Great Cham is the ruler of China, who is mentioned by Barabas as having given him the gift of a hat.

CHAM of TARTARY **1615

A “ghost character" in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Albumazar pretends he has been busy casting a horoscope for the nativity of the Cham of Tartary.


The Chamberlain serves as the master of rooms at the Rochester Inn in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. He supplies Gadshill with information concerning the movements of travelers carrying money.


Servant of Blague's neighbor in the Anonymous The Merry Devil of Edmonton. Sir Ralph and Sir Arthur take him for a servant of the St. George Inn. But the inn shields have been exchanged during the night, so that Sir Ralph and Sir Arthur lodge in the wrong house, while the wedding of Milliscent and Raymond takes place in the real St. George.


Keeper of the inn at Brainford to which the gallants and wives travel in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho.


A "ghost character" in the King of Moldavia's house in The Grocer's Honour portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. Rafe gives this character 12d by way of Pompiona so as not to be beholding to the king. As there is truly no such person, one must imagine that the actor playing Pomponia keeps this money for himself.


In Goffe’s Orestes, he and the boy make a room ready for Aegystheus and Clytemnestra to take physic from the disguised Orestes.


Servants to Duncan, the two Chamberlains are drugged by Lady Macbeth in Shakespeare's Macbeth. Their daggers are used by Macbeth to kill Duncan. After the murder, Lady Macbeth smears them with Duncan's blood to implicate them in the deed. When the murder is discovered, Macbeth kills them to prevent them telling their story.


A fantasy "ghost character" in The Grocer's Honour portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. This is the cant name that the dwarf, little George, uses for one of the servants they are likely to meet at the Bell Inn in Waltham.


Lady Alworth's chambermaid in Massinger's A New Way to Pay Old Debts. She warns Lady Alworth of Welborne's poor hygiene but later takes part in Welborne's charade. Along with the Waiting Woman she dotes on Alworth, giving him marmalade, requesting kisses from him and pledging her service to him until Order reminds her of her obligations to Lady Alworth.


Mistress Fitchow's less-than-proficient maid in Brome's The Northern Lass. Her mistress castigates her for sending a wimble when asked for a wimple.


The chambermaid mounted by the depraved young gentlemen is a fictional character in Jonson's The New Inn. When Host rails against the current decayed ways of the nobility, he says that the young gentlemen disregard their good education and physical exercise. Instead of riding their steed every morning, the libertine youths prefer to mount the Chambermaid.


A “ghost character" in Rider’s The Twins. Lurco sends Jovio to watch the stairs to see Fulvio creep into Charmia’s chamber. Instead, Jovio returns with news of the chambermaid going upstairs followed by the monkey that has broken his chain.


A "ghost character" in Davenport's The City Night Cap. She is referred by Dorothea in her second sin because Dorothea thinks that the chamber maid has almost gotten injured because of her.


A "ghost character" in Brome's A Mad Couple. Lady Thrivewell reveals how Saveall had almost abused of her chambermaid one day that he was drunk.


Master Chambers is a gentleman of Bristol and Challenger's friend in the Anonymous The Fair Maid of Bristow.


  1. Family name of the deceased Chamlet and his son, Walter, in Brome's The Sparagus Garden.
  2. The elder Chamlet is a "ghost character". Walter's father and friend to Samson Touchwood, he was a well-reputed member of the City, now dead. He was known for his ongoing feud with Goldwire.


Rachel is Water Chamlet's wife in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. She complains that she lacks contentment. The spiteful and jealous woman accuses her husband that the two children being raised in his house, Maria and Edward Cressingham, are actually his bastards. At her husband's denial, Rachel leaves infuriated to live with her cousin, Knavesbee. From the lawyer's house, Rachel sends a message announcing her intention to divorce on grounds that Chamlet has two illegitimate children living in the house. Later, Knavesbee informs her that he has been invited to Chamlet's house to celebrate Chamlet's wedding to a French lady. Rachel, mad with jealousy, rushes to her husband's shop to settle the affair. There she sees her husband entertain the French bawd Margarita. It is all innocent, but Rachel jumps to the conclusion that Margarita is the "French Hood" that Chamlet intends to marry. Rachel kicks her out and reinstates her position as mistress of the house. The wedding was all a trick dreamed up by their apprentice George, and when George is confronted he admits to having lied. Rachel seems to be appeased and to accept her husband's proposal of a second marriage celebration. However, Rachel dismisses George in punishment for having lied to her. Outside Beaufort's house, Rachel learns from Lord Beaufort that Chamlet intends to leave for the Bermudas because of her sharp tongue. She is caught in the echo game played by Beaufort and George, who is hidden behind the arras. When Rachel goes to seek George in order to apologize to him and have him back in the shop, George follows her. In the final reconciliation scene, George brings a very submissive Rachel in tow. She is willing to accept any conditions, including the promise that she will call her husband "Master Chamlet" as a sign of submission and wifely respect.


Master Water Chamlet is a merchant in London, the owner of a cloth shop, "The Lamb" in Lombard Street in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. "Chamlet" is the name originally applied to some beautiful and costly eastern fabric. Chamlet says he is the cousin of the late Lady Cressingham, and therefore entitled to raise her children, Edward and Maria. His support of the children raises suspicion in Rachel, his wife. At Sir Francis's house, Chamlet reminds Sir Francis that he owes him money for the wedding expenses, besides the sustenance of his two children, Maria and Edward. Chamlet's philosophy of life is to "do anything for a quiet life." In his shop, Chamlet bears patiently Rachel's admonitions regarding the children and sees her leave in a rage. Hoping that George might be able to placate Rachel's temper, Chamlet promises him a new suit and sends him to Knavesbee's house to fetch his wife. Later Franklin comes into his shop disguised as "Sir Andrew," accompanied by George Cressingham disguised as his tailor, and Chamlet inflates the prices and makes the gentleman buy expensive cloth of gold. The imposters play a trick on Chamlet's apprentice Ralph and steal off with the expensive cloth. Outside the tavern "Man in the Moon", Ralph reveals to Chamlet that Franklin is the trickster who pretended to be "Sir Andrew" and cheated him of the golden cloth. Franklin thinks quickly however, speaks French, and pretends to be a French gentleman. Chamlet is gulled once more, and Franklin escapes him. Twice cheated without knowing it, Chamlet learns that Rachel is suing him for divorce, accusing him of having two illegitimate children. He sends George to conduct Sir Francis's children back to their father and to try to persuade his wife to come home. Unaware that George had devised a scheme of fooling Rachel into coming home by informing her that her husband is presently to marry a French woman, Chamlet receives Margarita in his shop and gives her money for her help as interpreter with the "French gentleman" (who was really Franklin). Rachel enters and, thinking that Margarita is Chamlet's intended bride, attacks her and makes her leave the shop. George's trick is soon discovered. It was his idea to pass the rumor of Chamlet's supposed marriage. Considering that George's ruse was for a good purpose, Chamlet proposes a second marriage to Rachel, promising her new clothes and a new suit for George. Rachel does not forgive George, however, and dismisses him as apprentice. Outside Beaufort's house, Chamlet takes his leave of his friends, announcing he intends to leave for the Bermudas for a quiet life. Hearing that Old Franklin is willing to pay for the cloth of gold, now that Franklin has apparently died, Chamlet decides not to leave after all. When Rachel arrives, George plays an echo game upon her. Chamlet overhears how his wife is persuaded to take George back into his apprenticeship and also that she intends to let her husband Chamlet have a quiet life. When George enters with a much-subdued Rachel, Chamlet is very happy.


A French soldier and son to the man (also named Chamont) who captured the Count's oldest son, Camillo, in battle when the boy was only two, nineteen years before the time of Jonson's The Case is Altered; longtime companion to the boy, now called Jasper. Chamont and Jasper are captured by Maximilian in the same battle in which Lord Paulo is captured by the French. Chamont poses as "Jasper" as a protective measure, and gallantly offers to remain imprisoned by Count Ferneze so that an even prisoner-exchange can be made, "Chamont" (actually Jasper) for Lord Paulo. After the exchange is approved, he is sent, as "Jasper," to escort Lord Paulo back home. He returns with Lord Paulo as promised, in time to rescue Rachel from Angelo. Chamont tries to soothe Lord Paulo's anger at Angelo unsuccessfully. They appear at Count Ferneze's in time to prevent Jasper's execution; at that time Chamont, learning that the Count had lost another son nineteen years ago, reveals that Jasper is the long-lost Camillo. He is rewarded with the hand of Aurelia. (Sometimes spelled "Chamount" in text.)


Chamont, a nobleman and former guardian to Bellisant in Massinger's The Parliament of Love, schemes with Dinant to fool Perigot and Novall into attempting a seduction of Lamira and Clarinda.


Chamont, along with Montaigne and Lanour, is an assistant to the governor in Massinger's Unnatural Combat.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's The Case is Altered: the deceased French war leader who captured the Count's oldest son, Camillo, in battle when the boy was only two, nineteen years before the time of the play; he raised the boy, called "Jasper," as companion to his son, Chamont.


Wife to Monsieur Champaigne in the anonymous A Larum for London. She pleads for mercy from the soldiers who have robbed her and are trying to rape her. She offers to pay Stump, but after he refuses, she gets him to accompany her to safety by appealing to his honor.


Champaigne declines an offer of defensive supplies in the anonymous A Larum for London. Even after appeals from the English Governor and Van Ends he refuses, believing that the army might become disorderly. After hearing the size of army, he asserts that the local garrison should be sufficient to defend the town. He agrees to allow the troops from the Prince of Orange to be housed in Antwerp. He is ultimately killed by Romero, Verdugo, and Van End.


An elderly gentleman and former pirate who lacks the use of one leg and one arm in Fletcher and Massinger's The Little French Lawyer. Champernell marries Lamira much to the dismay of her former suitor Dinant. Unable to defend himself and his bride against Dinant and Cleremont's cruel imprecations, and falling in the street when he attempts to attack Dinant, Champernell weeps on his wedding day, to his bride's disgust. Champernell defends his previous piracy by pointing out that Dinant's grandfather earned his money in the same way, and he provides a compelling account of a fight at sea. When Beaupre loses the duel against Cleremont and Dinant's unwilling substitute La-writ, Champernell is furious and orders Beaupre out of his house, excoriating the young man's fighting skills. Hearing that Dinant did not show up for the duel, Champernell relents. When Lamira defends Dinant's courage, Champernell becomes jealous despite the fact that Lamira genuinely loves him and has given up all interest in Dinant. Lamira responds to her husband's jealousy with defiance, and a repentant Champernell offers her exceptional liberty and agrees that Dinant is as courageous as she asserts he is. Champernell overhears the end of a secret conference Lamira has arranged with Dinant in order to expose the latter's lust. Champernell sees through the plot and admires his wife's efforts to humiliate her former suitor. On the way to their summerhouse to celebrate Lamira's triumph over Dinant, Champernell and his party are kidnapped by ruffian gentlemen in Dinant's employ. Champernell tries to reason with the kidnappers by describing his piratical past, and he asks them to take the goods but leave the people unharmed. He and Vertaigne are left behind, in part because Champernell, with only one leg, has trouble walking. Encountering La-writ in the woods, Champernell insults and beats the lawyer, which has the effect of returning La-writ to his senses and his former profession. Having summoned the Provost, Champernell is delighted to find the kidnapped party returning safely from the woods, and having received Lamira's assurances that there was no foul play, consents to the marriage of his niece Anabell with Cleremont.


Champerty is the wife of Fourcher in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. Along with the other characters, she follows the cycle that begins with the reign of Plenty and ends with Poverty.


Appears in Marlowe's Edward II. As medieval coronation etiquette prescribed, a Champion at King Edward III's coronation offers to fight anyone who refuses to affirm that Edward II's son is the true king of England.


A non-speaking character in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Chance is Deliro's dog. At Deliro's house, Macilente shows his contempt for the rich merchant's fortune. Macilente says Deliro is a fool and does not deserve his fortune. When he sees Deliro's dog playing with his master, Macilente is envious of the dog. He says that dog, fortuitously called Chance, is luckier than he is, and why should a dog be treated better than he is? According to Macilente, he is a man with bones, and sinews, and has a soul, just as the dog, so he does not see why man and animal should be treated differently. Macilente's analogous spite makes him poison Puntavorlo's precious Dog.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Jack Straw. One of the offices the rebels seek to assume.


Changeable Taffeta is the widow of Master Taffeta, a rich merchant in Barry's Ram Alley. She and her maid Adriana sit in the widow and pass comment on the men who pass below. Seeing Thomas Boutcher, Taffeta drops her handkerchief to get his attention and sends Adriana to invite him into her house. After their inconclusive flirtation, she vows to court him, noting that "women must woo, / When men forget what Nature leads them to." Taffeta is also wooed by Sir Oliver Smallshanks, and Captain Face. When Captain Face comes to her house claiming to be her rightful husband, she calls on her men to eject him. Having lost her passion for Boutcher, she persuades him to rid her of Captain Face, secure in the prospect of laughing at both men's disgrace. Taffeta agrees to marry Sir Oliver because she wants to gain the social position that being his wife would guarantee. She banishes Sir Oliver's son William Smallshanks from her house when he disparages her desire to marry Sir Oliver. However, William comes to her at night and woos her; he eventually draws his sword and forces her to kiss him. She responds positively to this treatment and agrees to marry him, disgusted by the inert behavior of her other suitors.


Master Changeable is husband to Mistriss Changeable and father to Anne in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. He agrees to his daughter's wedding to Master Slightall, and promises not to tell his wife about it–aware of the fact that the has other plans concerning her daughter's future. That is the reason why, when Treatwell wants to talk to him in private, he actually offers him a public audience before his wife, his daughter and Master Slightall. And when he hears that Treatwell brings news from Lord Skales, announcing that he wants to marry his daughter, Master Changeable rejects him and, instead, supports the claim of Master Slightall. Thus, he is in for a nasty surprise when he hears his daughter change her mind–influenced by her mother's greed for aristocratic titles–and decide she will marry Lord Skales, rather than her beloved Slightall. Then, he will argue with his wife, because he would rather see his daughter married to a man of means–Slightall–than to a man of titles–Lord Skales. Nevertheless, despite his strongly disagreeing with his daughter's prospective match, he will have to behave when the latter comes to pay them a visit. However, realizing his daughter is aware of the fact that she has made a mistake, he assures her he will help her to recover her beloved Slightall. To that aim, when he learns that the young man has lost his mind, he disguises himself as the Divell, and makes Slightall agree to go to the house of the Changeables in order to get rid of a female spirit haunting one of their chambers. Then he goes back home, and, once there, he convinces his wife, Lord Skales, Geffrey and Treatwell of the fact that he has gone to see the gypsies in search of help, but all he got was their refusal. However, he managed to find a mad man ready to help them–Slightall. Aware of the fact that his wife would not be willing to have Lord Skales's rival sleeping in a chamber of their own house, he insinuates that making him face an evil spirit would be a good way to get rid of him, since the devil would most certainly tear him to pieces. Later, when Slightall arrives, he welcomes him–as the good host he is–and sees him to his chamber. After his deeds disguised as the Divell, he manages to have his daughter married to Slightall.


Also spelled Mistriss, Mristriss, and Mistriss Changeable and given the speech headings Wi. and Wo., Mistriss Changeable is wife to Master Changeable and mother to Anne in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. She wants her husband to listen to Treatwell's message about Lord Skales wanting to marry Anne, because she supports that match, since becoming the wife of a young baron would offer her daughter the title of lady. Thus, she, the ambitious Mistriss Changeable, would be related to the nobility. Determined to reach her goal, she speaks to her daughter in private, facing her with the two options–Slightall and Lord Skales–and with each of them can offer her. Not surprisingly, she is really glad when Anne chooses Lord Skales. Then, when the latter comes to pay his fiancée a visit, Mistriss Changeable argues with her husband, because he insists that money is better than titles, and she disagrees. In fact, the thing that worries her is to teach her daughter how to behave as a noble woman in front of her prospective husband. Therefore, she will be greatly disappointed when she realizes that Anne decides not to marry Lord Skales the moment she sees him–just because she does not find him attractive. She tries to persuade the girl arguing that the important thing is the titles, but Anne is not to be impressed by that: she just wants a man she can fall in love with, and that is not definitely Lord Skales. Later in the play she explains to Lord Skales, Treatwell, Geffrey and two Gentlemen, that her house has been haunted for ten days, since strange noises can be heard in one of the chambers after midnight. Afterwards, her amazement will be great when she learns that Slightall–despite having lost his fortune–has rejected the money Lord Skales had gone to offer him. However, she will soon be happy to hear that her husband, who had gone to look for the gypsies in the hope that they should rid them of the spirit haunting one of their chambers, managed to convince Slightall to do it–she believed that would be a good and easy way to get rid of him, convinced, as she was, that the Divell would tear him to pieces. But, in the end, she will be cheated, since her daughter–with the help of her father–will marry Slightall.


Name given by Haddit to the Player in Tailor's The Hog Hath Lost His Pearl.


The Changeling Boy presumably appears on stage, though he is given no lines in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. He is the source of contention between Titania and Oberon, the fairy Queen and King. The son of one of Titania's deceased devotees—a "votaress of her order"—the Changeling Boy is the ransom demanded by Oberon before he removes the love spell from Titania. Because his mother died in childbirth and the fairy dissention started in "the middle summer's spring" when Titania took the child, it is reasonable to suppose that the Changeling Boy is an infant in swaddling rather than a youth.


An amorous gallant in Nabbes' Tottenham Court, friend of the Stitchwells and acquaintance of Frank. Along with Frank, George, and James, he represents the sensual, hedonistic form of love of which Nabbes disapproved. He flirts with Mistress Stitchwell and attempts to seduce her in front of her sleeping husband. But he becomes alarmed when Stitchwell, apparently sleepwalking, pulls Changelove's ears and calls him Sir Lancelot, apparently dreaming that they are in the court of King Arthur. Later it is revealed that Stitchwell was not really asleep, but was gulling Changelove along with his wife; upon hearing this, Changelove goes off with George to drown their sorrows in a cup of sack.


Oldrents' chaplain in Brome's A Jovial Crew. In Oldrents' absence, he drinks with Oliver and Tallboy.


The embodiment of chivalric ideals of honor and virtue in Field and Massinger's The Fatal Dowry. Unlike his loyal friend Romont, who rarely contains his extreme emotions, Charalois acts with self-discipline and deliberation. Distraught by the fact that he cannot give his deceased father a proper funeral because his father's creditors keep his body in exchange for his debts, he offers to go to prison himself to release the body. Charalois' act so impresses the former judge Rochfort that he purchases his freedom and gives him his daughter Beaumelle as a wife. Having at first dismissed Romont's hints as audacious effrontery—hints that Beaumelle is deceiving him with Young Novall, Charalois learns of his wife's adultery through Aymer's satirical songs on wifely infidelity. He catches Beaumelle and Young Novall together, challenges his wife's lover and kills him. He punishes his wife by putting on a mock trial during which he forces Rochfort to sentence his own daughter to death for adultery and carries out this judgement by, in essence, "executing" Beaumelle. In court, where Du Croye and Charmi, the latter formerly his own lawyer, sit in judgement over him, Charalois is acquitted of his deeds.


A "ghost character" in Field and Massinger's The Fatal Dowry. The embodiment of soldierly virtue and a role model for his son, Charalois, as well as any other character aspiring to chivalrous ideals. He is dead before the play begins.


Only mentioned in Rider’s The Twins. Charmia likens herself to Charicles who lived one hundred years without illness but, growing fearful that he may one day sicken, killed himself to prevent disease.


Charilla is Sophia's companion in Shirley's Coronation and expresses concern about her mistress' passionate mature. After Seleucus is established as king, it is Charilla who urges Sophia to reaffirm her love to Cassander's sons Lisimachus.


Father to Zenocia in Fletcher and Massinger's Custom of the Country, a noble man of the unknown 'country' of the title. Distraught that his daughter's imminent marriage to Arnoldo will entail the notorious droit de seigneur enforced by Count Clodio, he attempts to persuade her to capitalize on the opportunity to seduce and marry the Count instead. Her adamant refusal allows him to admit that he had been trying to persuade her under compulsion. The furious Count takes him hostage in pursuit of the newly-wed lovers, who flee the country. During their long and tempestuous pursuit, the Count repents his lustfulness; together they continue to search for the refugees in Lisbon, in disguise, but with the covert help of the Governor. Here they find Zenocia enslaved and Arnoldo under sentence of death: events forestall their need to intervene immediately, but with the Governor's aid they arrive to liberate Zenocia from bondage at the point when she is threatened with death by strangulation. The anticipated happy ending is again forestalled when Zenocia is struck down with a mysterious and actually magical illness. Charino believes that his daughter's suffering is a punishment on him, for previously attempting to subvert their happiness. He now sees the full extent of his son-in-law's devotion, suffering equally Zenocia and as likely to die, and is further grieved for Arnoldo when Rutillio confesses to the murder of the Governor's nephew. All ends well, and Charino, passing lightly over her two earlier attempts at his daughter's murder, particularly praises Hippolyta's generosity in the gift of a huge dowry for Zenocia.


Charintha is the sister of Alteza in Davenant's The Just Italian. Although Florello remembers her as modest and amenable, she has been taught by Alteza to believe herself superior to men, to demand as many material goods as possible and then to discard the men. When Florello appears disguised as Dandolo and giving out jewels to everyone, Charintha is thrilled, but promises her sister to simply use and then reject this suitor. When the real Dandolo appears, she rejects his identity since he does not bring any gifts. When the truth is revealed, Charintha rejects Florello, but when he appears in his old solider outfit and explains why he disguised himself, she is won over by his speech and manly looks. At that moment, however, Mervolle appears with the news that Altamont is dead and that Florello must leave her and go into mourning, which Florello does. In the final scene, after Altamont has revealed himself, Charintha arrives mourning the loss of her love, at which point Florello reveals himself and all the couples are happily joined.


A servant to Antigonus in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. He along with Timon and Menippus, assists the king in his pursuit of Celia.


Brother of the Roman emperor Numerianus in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess. Charinus is offered proof by his loyal servant Niger that Aper has murdered the emperor. Niger encourages Charinus to put a price on Aper's head, and Charinus offers half his empire and, at her suggestion, his sister Aurelia's hand in marriage to the successful assassin. After Diocles kills Aper, Charinus and Aurelia congratulate him and embrace him as co-partner of the empire, with Charinus asserting that virtue, not birth, is the source of nobility. After the flamen refuses to approve the marriage between Aurelia and Diocles, Charinus agrees to bury his brother first, then negotiate the marriage. Charinus' efforts to persuade Aurelia to stop making love to Maximinian are unsuccessful, as are his efforts in the dumb show to resist being captured by the Persian soldiers. Charinus proves a defiant prisoner, asserting Roman superiority at every opportunity. Freed after Diocles defeats the Persians, Charinus proposes additional honors for Diocles, who declines them and gives his share of the empire to his nephew Maximinian. Charinus and Maximinian quarrel over how to rule Rome. When Maximinian travels to Diocles' country retreat to kill his uncle, Charinus follows with his troops, but Delphia intervenes to prevent a war and to reconcile the two emperors.


Father to Nerina, a self-professed old man, and Daphnis's friend in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday, Charinus refers to the other shepherds as boys, reminisces about the days of his youth, promises his daughter to Daphnis, and works throughout the play to convince Nerina to not only marry the rich shepherd but also love him. He demands that Nerina accept the looking-glass from Daphnis, forgives her for not being the dutiful daughter she should have been when she grows deathly ill, and grants his daughter's final wish that she die the wife of Hylas despite his fierce desire to see her married to Daphnis. Helping to bear his presumably-dead daughter to her grave he re-enters to see her alive and seeking refuge from the villainy of Daphnis, at which point he quits his furtherance of the shepherd's suit, passes his daughter over to the deserving Hylas, and invites the other shepherds to help "solemnise" their nuptials"


A “ghost character" in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. When Timeus finds the body of his slain father he calls for support from Clitus, Charisius, Erastus, and Amathes but none are at hand.


Daughter to Andrew Mendicant in Brome's Court Beggar. She is in love with Frederick, but her father is determined to marry her to someone with a sizable estate. She is secretly married to Frederick in the final scene.


Charistus is the prince of Crete in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. His father is Dinomachus and he is in love with Lucasia, the princess of Cyprus. Because the two countries are at war, he is faced with a difficult choice. Lucasia wishes for him to fight nobly for his own country, but since that would mean fighting against hers, he is unwilling to do so. His best friend is the lord of Cyprus, Olyndus, a young man who has been left behind from the wars because of his poor health. Charistus becomes jealous of Olyndus, and they fight a duel that nearly kills them both. After renewing their vows of friendship and receiving assurances of Lucasia's love, Charistus then fulfills the oracle of Apollo that peace will only come when he becomes his enemy's slave—that is to say, when he marries Lucasia and forms an alliance between the two countries.


A "ghost character" in Shirley's The Arcadia. Said by Musidorus to be having an affair with Dametas, so that Miso will go after them and leave Pamela to him.


Hesiod explains that there are three Charites [sic] or Graces (Aglaia, Euphrosyne and Thalia) who personify beauty and charm in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. In this play they only appear under their generic name. The First Charite urges Apollo to tell her the reason for his grieving, and the Second Charite offers evidence for his grief when he denies it. When they hear his story, they try to cheer him up. But he explains to them that there is nothing they can do to appease his pain, and they leave.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. A royal preacher. One among the "true religious" men and "holy women" whom Hick Scorner was glad to see drown in the Irish Sea at the Race of Ireland when their thirteen ships foundered and sank.


Brother to Humility in the anonymous Youth. Delivers prologue, emphasizing importance of the virtue charity for achieving salvation. Meets Youth and tries to persuade him to think about heaven and salvation. When Youth threatens Charity with violence, Charity leaves to take counsel with his brother Humility. Charity returns as Youth, Riot, Pride, and Lechery are on their way to the tavern and again tries to persuade Youth to follow virtue. Charity is put in the stocks by Youth, Riot, and Pride, who then leave him alone on stage. Charity tells the audience to note and lament how Youth freely chooses vice and evil over virtue and good. Charity is discovered and released by Humility and they join together to continue persuading Youth to forsake sin. Charity tells Youth that God through Christ's sacrifice has saved Youth's soul. After Youth's sudden change of heart, Charity tells him to abandon Pride and Riot; he then gives the contrite Youth new clothes. At the end of the interlude, Charity thanks the audience for their attention.


Charity is one of the four Virtues that conclude Lupton's All For Money. She reminds the audience of the value of helping the needy and the poor.

CHARITY **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the eleven virtues that regulate the affections. Charity is first to take the vanguard against the Vices. Malice, Self-Love, and Jealousy are the extremes of Charity.


Charlemagne is the legendary Holy Roman Emperor in the Anonymous Charlemagne. An old man at the time of the play, he marries Theordora at the instigation of Ganelon. Charlemagne's obsessive love for his new wife leads him to neglect affairs of state, to shun his heir Orlando, and to refuse to bury Theodora after her death in childbirth. Bishop Turpin discovers that the magical ring, which he finds under her tongue, caused Charlemagne's love for Theodora; when Turpin and La Fue hold the ring Charlemagne woos them in her place. Charlemagne banishes Ganelon for his plot against Orlando and sets Ganelon's son La Busse a riddle that he must solve to redeem Ganelon's fortunes. La Busse must come before Charlemagne on a road never used by horse or man, riding on a beast that is neither horse, mare or ass but that is nonetheless a 'usual thing for burden'. He must be neither clothed nor naked, and bring with him his greatest friend and greatest enemy as companions. La Busse solves the riddle by meeting the Emperor on a newly ploughed field, riding a mule, clothed in a net and accompanied by his greatest friend (a spaniel) and his greatest enemy (his wife). He thus regains Charlemagne's favor for Ganelon. However, when Ganelon's crimes are discovered the Emperor imposes a new sentence: Ganelon and Didier, as his associate, are to be broken on the wheel. Finally, Bishop Turpin gives the magical ring to Charlemagne in order that the Emperor should henceforth love only himself and not be under the influence of any of his subjects.
Only mentioned in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Charles le Maigne (Charlemagne) is one of the heroes Merrygreek claims all women think of when they see Roister Doister.
Only mentioned in Fletcher’s Bloody Brother. Grandpree claims he carries Charlemagne’s sword.


Charlemont is the son of Montferrers and the beloved of Castabella in Tourneur's The Atheist's Tragedy. Wishing to earn honor on the battlefield, he seeks his father's permission to go to the wars, but fearing for his son's safety, Montferrers refuses to support him. He is enabled to go, however, when his uncle, the villainous D'Amville, offers to underwrite the venture, hoping thereby to be in a position to receive Charlemont's inheritance from Montferrers should the young man die. He engages in a private marriage with Castabella before leaving. While Charlemont is away, D'Amville spreads a false report of his death and, after Montferrers changes his will, has Montferrers murdered. The ghost of Montferrers visits Charlemont in the field, urging him to return home but insisting that he not take personal revenge. Arriving just after D'Amville has presided over Charlemont's "funeral," the young man finds Castabella weeping at the grave, and after convincing her that he is no ghost, she curses the enforced marriage with Rousard that will keep her from the man she truly loves. When D'Amville learns of Charlemont's return, he has him arrested and imprisoned (for debt), but D'Amville's younger son Sebastian provides him money to secure his release. When Charlemont confronts his uncle, D'Amville claims that his actions have only been an attempt to position himself as Charlemont's guardian and protector until such time as the younger man is fully prepared to assume his proper obligations, and Charlemont seems to accept the story. A short time later, Borachio, acting on D'Amville's orders, stalks Charlemont in St. Winfred's churchyard and attempts to shoot him. His pistol misfires, however, and in the ensuing fight Charlemont kills Borachio. After considering a surrender to the authorities, Charlemont decides to flee, but temporarily hides in the churchyard, and it is there that he startles Languebeau Snuff and Soquette and gains possession of the ghost disguise Snuff has with him. When D'Amville and Castabella enter, and the villain attempts to rape his daughter-in-law, Charlemont appears disguised as his father's ghost and frightens D'Amville away. When the watch arrive and discover Borachio's corpse, both Charlemont and Castabella are arrested. During their trial, Charlemont admits to having killed Borachio but contends the act did not rise to the level of murder, and after being interrupted by an increasingly crazed D'Amville, the young man leaps upon the scaffold to demonstrate how little he values his life. When D'Amville asks Charlemont to explain where such peace of mind and conscience comes from, Charlemont replies that it proceeds from itself, and D'Amville admits his own desperate fear of death. With Castabella beside him on the scaffold, Charlemont finds himself facing D'Amville who, claiming no commoner should dispatch his nephew, insists on being the executioner himself. The young couple are spared, however, when D'Amville, in preparing to strike Charlemont, accidentally hits himself with the headsman's axe and with his last breath confesses to his crimes. The Judges then free the prisoners and officially bestow the wealth and titles of their respective families upon them, leading Charlemont to comment upon the "work of heav'n" that has given him the patience to wait for justice and not engage in personal revenge.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Charles is mentioned by the Prologue before the King and Queen. The Prologue is here addressing to King Charles I (1600-1649), king of Great Britain and Ireland, who is a member of the audience.
A "ghost character" in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. The King is mentioned by Undermine at the end of the play. He would probably be part of the audience, as his address indicates: "[All humble thanks unto our gratious Queene], [That ask'd his pardon and our Kings thus gave it]." Taking into account that the approximate date of the play is 1629, the King at that time was Charles I (reigned 1625-49).


Charles V, a historical personage, reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 to 1556. According to the Chorus in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, which calls him Carolus the Fifth, the German Emperor hears of Faustus' fame and invites him to court. Charles asks Faustus to conjure up the Spirit of Alexander and the Spirit of Alexander's Paramour, which Faustus does, and Charles rewards him by calling Faustus beloved.
A "ghost character" in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. Charles V was the Holy Roman Emperor, engaged in a war with France. Barabas boasts of slaying both friend and enemy in the war, under the pretense of helping Charles V.
The Holy Roman Emperor in Rowley’s When You See Me. He was prepared to invade Burgundy, but Henry VIII’s orders stayed him at Brabant. When the old French king dies, the league is broken between the emperor and the young French king, and Henry sends Wolsey to broker a peace between them. He arrives in England to visit his uncle, King Henry, at the end of the play.


Charles VI, King of France, is father of the Dauphin and Katherine in Shakespeare's Henry V. Charles is less sanguine than his son about France's ability to withstand an English invasion, and his fears prove well founded when Henry's army triumphs. Charles acquiesces to Henry's demands, which include Henry's marriage to Katherine. After Henry has wooed Katherine and obtained her consent, Charles and Queen Isabel voice their approval of the match.


King of France in the Anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V. Finding Henry's claim to the French crown "unreasonable," he offers him an alternative of fifty thousand crowns a year and the hand of his daughter, Katherine, in marriage. When Henry V refuses, Charles is defeated at Agincourt. The French king sends his daughter to negotiate with Henry, but the English king does not relent: he claims the throne of France for himself and his heirs. Charles responds by making Henry V regent of France and promising his heirs the throne in perpetuity, an offer that Harry accepts.
Charles is dauphin and then king of France in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI. After testing Joan la Pucelle's instincts and her strength in single combat, he humbles himself before her and agrees to trust her guidance in the battle against the English.


Charles VIII, King of France in Massinger's The Parliament of Love, resides over the Parliament of Love and issues decisions resolving conflicts between all the lovers. He resolves that Cleremond marry Leonora, and that Bellisant marry Montrouse.
The King of France in Barnes's The Devil's Charter; Charles is an honest and just man who, upon hearing of Italy's suffering under Alexander, has come to invade Italy and negotiate with or depose the Pope. Charles's allies are the Sforza's and Charles Balbiano, along with the French contingent, Montpensier and the Cardinal of St. Peter ad Vincula. Charles can easily win a victory, but his respect for the Papacy prevents him from pressing his advantage and he negotiates with Alexander, who refuses to surrender Castell Angelo but promises Charles other concessions, including Terrocina, Civita Vecchia and Spoleto, and the Turk, Gemen Ottoman. They sign a truce, but soon after, Charles is stricken with apoplexy and dies suddenly and unexpectedly, leaving France and Italy open to invasion by Ferdinand of Spain.


King of France in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris. Although Charles opposes the massacre of Protestants, he defers to his vicious advisors such as Guise. By the time the massacre is nearly complete, he regrets his inaction, swears revenge against the murderers, but dies before he can act.


Charles is Duke Frederick's wrestling champion in Shakespeare's As You Like It. He warns Oliver that Orlando is a challenger in a match scheduled for the next day from which he cannot escape uninjured. Oliver tells Charles to kill Orlando if he can, but the match does not go according to plan and Orlando vanquishes the champion instead. It is during the wrestling match that Rosalind first notices Orlando. She awards him a chain for his victory.


Third son to the destitute Earl of Boulogne in Thomas Heywood's The Four Prentices of London; he is an apprentice to a haberdasher. He abandons this vocation, however, to join the First Crusade. Shipwrecked in transit to the Holy Land, Charles comes to shore in Italy where, conveyed through a dumb show, he is attacked by bandits. Having killed their captain and assumed leadership of the bandits, Charles discovers his father is their prisoner; the old Earl is released, furnished with gold, and continues his pilgrimage escorted by the Clown and the Villain. Charles fights with Eustace, believing him to be a rival outlaw, but their combat is disturbed by the arrival of Bella Franca, whom they both fail to recognize. Charles joins Tancred's crusading forces and confronts the French forces upon their arrival in Lombardy. He engages in single combat with Godfrey, whom he does not recognize, but Robert and Tancred halt the fight. All four unwitting brothers reunite in the purpose of the crusade and Charles adopts the arms of the haberdashers. He observes Bella Franca leave the camp, follows her, is captured by the Soldan's forces. Guy, disguised as the Goldsmith Knight, rescues him. In the final scene of recognition, Charles is made King of Cyprus.


A "ghost character" in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. He was Hyppolita's husband. He died on their wedding day overwhelmed by the honor of marrying a lady of such a condition.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. Charles is Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and the nephew of Henry's wife Queen Katherine. He does not want to see a close alliance develop between Britain and France, and he bribes Cardinal Wolsey to help disrupt British and French relations.


A dedicated scholar in Fletcher's The Elder Brother. Charles is the older of the justice Brisac's two sons. Summoned home when his father and their neighbor Lewis propose a marriage between Lewis's daughter Angellina and one of Brisac's sons, Charles arrives with a large number of books and his witty servant Andrew. Questioned by his father to assess his suitability as a landowner and bridegroom, Charles fails miserably, assuring his father that Virgil is full of farming advice, and that he has learned all he needs to know about women by reading Greek and Roman literature. Confusing Andrew's wife Lilly with the title of his grammar book, and refusing to stop reading, Charles does not make himself welcome in his father's house. Allowing Brisac to persuade him to sign over his inheritance rights to his brother Eustace, despite the warnings issued by his loving uncle Miramont, Charles is content with assurances that he will always be given an allowance to buy books. When the noisy wedding preparations disturb his studies, Charles insists on seeing the bride, and after carefully contemplating Angellina, falls in love with her. Using his extraordinary verbal skills, and composing an ode on the spot, Charles convinces Angellina that he is the worthier brother and that his love for her is genuine and lasting, as is his new found interest in land ownership. Angellina accepts Charles's marriage proposal, and the two of them are immediately disowned by their fathers. Taking refuge with Miramont, Charles follows Angellina around the house obsessively, and wishes to accompany her to bed, although once there he plans only to watch her sleep. When Eustace, Cowsy, and Egremont arrive to recover Angellina, Charles defends her valiantly, disarming his brother and making Eustace look cowardly. Forced to relinquish his coach and four horses as well as his claim to Angellina, Eustace leaves in disgrace and, after a painfully revealing conversation with his courtier friends, decides to reform himself. He confronts Charles and demands the return of his sword, his coach, his horses, and his bride; Charles agrees to return everything but Angellina. The two men fight vigorously, and Miramont arrives and tries to separate them. Andrew arrives to tell them men that Brisac has been arrested and Angellina kidnapped by Lewis; Charles, Eustace, and Miramont rescue Angellina and the lovers are reunited.


A "ghost character" in Barnes's The Devil's Charter. Listed in the Dramatis Personae as an Italian ally of the French King, Charles, Balbiano does not otherwise appear.


A "ghost character" in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. When Sir Thomas Wyatt pleads with Queen Mary to have mercy on Lady Jane Grey, he calls attention to their close blood ties, reminding her that the queen's own aunt Mary, Queen of France, (Henry VIII's youngest sister) married Charles Brandon, the first Duke of Suffolk. Their daughter Frances is Lady Jane's mother.
Duke of Suffolk in Rowley’s When You See Me. He brings in the French ambassadors to meet Henry. He conspires with the king, who wishes to see London by night and in disguise. His part will be to await the king at Baynards Castle. When called, he goes with Compton to the counter and redeems the king. He tells Henry the old French king has died and is sent to France to collect Henry’s sister, the queen. It is unclear whether Brandon or Compton is sent to give a ring to Catherine “Parry" and send Anne of Cleves back to her home, but it is one of the two. He marries Harry’s sister, Mary, at Dover as they are returning from France. Henry pretends to send him to the Tower for it but relents and blesses the match.


Son of Old Brissac and brother of Aphelia in Hemming's Fatal Contract. A friend of Clovis, he assists the prince in wooing his sister and supports the legality of their betrothal in defiance of royal prerogative. He quits court to join the rebels to revenge his abused sister, and father (who has died of grief). He is made their general until Clovis also joins the opposition and takes over the leadership with his approval. He is one of the nobles who invade Clotair's citadel in time to see his dying sister. The repentant Clotair names him Duke of France to make amends for the wrongs done to his family.


A ‘ghost character’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. Queen Elizabeth as sent him ahead with his fleet to confront the Spanish invasion at sea. According to Denham, Howard, Commander of the Fleet during the Spanish invasion, acquitted himself well with a bold stratagem that sunk the enemy fleet. This would have been Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham (1536 – 14 December 1624), known as Howard of Effingham, Lord High Admiral under Elizabeth I and James I. He was was chiefly responsible after Francis Drake for the victory over the Spanish Armada.


Referred to as "Old Master" Merrythought in the dramatis personae in Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle, he is father to Jasper and Michael and husband to Mistress Merrythought in The London Merchant portion of the play. He is always happy and singing despite his failing fortunes, much to his wife's consternation. He was charged to save up Jasper's portion while his wife saved for Michael's. He gives Jasper ten shillings. When Venturewell complains to him that Jasper has stolen Luce, he responds by singing and remaining merry, thus making Venturewell his enemy. When his wife returns, he is merrymaking with friends and will not open the door to her. He loses all of his money and credit but remains mirthful. When Jasper's coffin is brought to him, he sings. So, too, when Jasper arrives and reveals his love, Luce, hidden in the coffin. When Mistress Merrythought returns again and begs him to reclaim her, he takes her back provided she will sing. He next makes the repentant Venturewell sing. He has Venturewell forgive Jasper and agree to his marriage with Luce.


A non-speaking character in Peele's Edward I. The stage direction for the scene of Edward's return from crusade mentions Charles de Montfort, brother to Signor Montfort, as one of the king's prisoners. Many editors take this as an error for Emerick de Montfort, the brother of Elinor de Montfort, because Guenther later reports to Lluellen that the lady and her brother had fallen into Edward's hands as they were making their way to Wales.


Name of the Constable of France in Shakespeare's Henry V. See "CONSTABLE of FRANCE."


Charles, Duke of Burgundy is a French nobleman in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV. He delays providing promised aid for the British invasion of France. The Duke has something of a game going with the ex-Constable of France S. Paul; both men hope for personal gain from the English invasion, both promise but delay aid to Edward IV, and both denigrate their own king. Both King Lewis of France and King Edward eventually discover Burgundy's treachery.


A nobleman and military leader of France in Chapman's The Conspiracy of Charles, Duke of Byron. He proclaims his loyalty to Henry, but allows himself to be flattered by those in the Archduke's court in Brussels. Upon his return to Paris, he listens to La Fin's story and sympathizes with his plight. When he fears La Fin is in despair, he takes him into his service and plans to introduce him to Savoy, with whom he has allied himself. In their next meeting, Savoy tells Byron that the King has downplayed Byron's military prowess and Byron is incensed. After the King tells him he is sending him as ambassador to England, he decides to go in disguise to consult an astrologer. The astrologer reveals that the person whose horoscope he's reading (Byron pretends it is not his own) will lose his head for actions he has taken. He beats the astrologer, then states that he won't believe the predictions since he doesn't consider himself subject to any law. When he returns from England, he asks Henry to grant to one he names the keeping of the citadel of Bourg; Henry refuses. When Henry also accuses him of conspiring with his enemies, he first protests and then asserts that he will be his own king. He attempts draw his pistol as the King exits and is held back by D'Auvergne. When he next encounters Henry, the King once more confronts him with his apparent betrayal; Byron acknowledges all and repents, kneeling at the King's feet. The King forgives him.
A nobleman and military leader of France in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron. He wants to be even more. He makes alliances with the Duke of Savoy (whose daughter is promised to him), the King of Spain, and various Italian forces to once again stir up a military campaign in France. His supporters include La Fin and D'Auvergne. When the King sends two messengers to him at Dijon to request his return to court (Henry plans to put him in charge of the forces he is raising to confront the foreign threat), Byron refuses to do so. When La Brunel brings letters from La Fin that indicate it will be safe for him to return to the court, he decides to do so despite La Brunel's warning about La Fin's possible treachery. When he arrives at the court, he declares that all the rumors of his treachery are false, as his willingness to appear should indicate, but the King indicates that the charges made against him are serious and must be discussed further. Byron and D'Auvergne note the way others in the court refuse to speak with them. When Soissons encourages him to throw himself on the King's mercy at the beginning of IV, he asserts that his loyalty is spotless. He goes to the attend the King in the company of D'Auvergne, the Queen, Epernon, D'Entragues, Montigny, another lady, and others. While playing cards, he proclaims the virtues of the late King of Spain. When the King ends the game and dismisses everyone but Byron from his presence, and once more asks Byron if he will confess his treachery, Byron asserts his innocence once again. The King then leaves. Vitry, Epernon, the Vidame, and two or three of the Guard enter and ask him to resign his sword. Janin arrives to make the request again, and finally the King himself returns and demands that Byron be taken away. When he appears at his trial, he rails against the petty judges. After hearing the charges against him, he refutes each one, and asserts that he had considered suicide when the King refused to grant him the citadel he requested. When La Fin confirms Byron's treachery, Byron launches into a long speech which accuses La Fin of jealousy and witchcraft. When returned to his cell, he tells his captors that he has won the day. When the judges arrive to deliver his sentence, he still proclaims his innocence and asks if he might ask the King's mercy. He is told it is too late. His long final speech, just before he is executed, ends the play.


Charles the Emperor of Spain in Massinger's The Duke of Milan.


Only mentioned in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Charles le Maigne (Charlemagne) is one of the heroes Merrygreek claims all women think of when they see Roister Doister.


A Yorkshire gentleman, imprisoned after a quarrel with Sir Francis Acton, in which two of Sir Francis' servants (his huntsman and falconer, q.q.v.) are killed in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness. Almost destitute on release, his last remaining wealth is swindled away by Shafton, and he is returned to prison, this time for his debts. When released by Sir Francis, he voluntarily offers him his sister Susan, "as a rape or lustful prey." He is moved when Sir Francis offers to marry Susan instead, and the two men are reconciled.


A "ghost character" in the Anonymous King Edward III. Salisbury helps fight and kill Charles of Blois, Mountford's enemy who has stolen Brittany. Mountford, Duke of Brittany, swears allegiance to Edward for this service.


Charles is Duke of Normandy and the eldest son of King John in the Anonymous King Edward III. Villiers, taken captive by Salisbury, is sent to Charles to obtain Salisbury's safe conduct in return for Villiers' freedom. Charles attempts to talk Villiers into remaining with him and simply not returning to Salisbury and captivity. However, when Villiers honorably states that he must return, Charles redeems Villiers by granting the safe conduct for Salisbury. Charles reads King John a prophecy that claims England will not win France until the birds and stones fight for the English, and that John will advance into England as far as Edward advances into France. At the battle of Poitiers, he argues with his father, who wants to kill the captured Salisbury, despite the safe-conduct, and he successfully persuades his father to honor the safe-conduct. At the end of the battle of Poitiers, Prince Edward captures him although he is not one of the prisoners presented to Edward III in the last scene.


Alternate name for Othos, or Sarlois in Chettle's Hoffman.


Lamira's lascivious waiting woman in Fletcher and Massinger's The Little French Lawyer. Charlote engages in bawdy conversations with her mistress about Lamira and Champernell's love life. When, after Lamira's defiant response to her husband's jealousy leads him to give her exceptional liberty and Charlote announces that her mistress has "won the breeches," Lamira strikes her. After Lamria arranges her false assignation with Dinant, Charlote carries pillows and nightclothes across the stage. On her way to the summerhouse with Lamira and others, Charlote is enticed by the sound of music to leave the party and go dance; she is kidnapped along with the others by two ruffian gentlemen who are disguised as dancers. She offers herself sexually to the kidnappers, and later compares notes with Lamira's Nurse about their sexual encounters with the ruffian gentlemen.


Charlotte is Beaupre's maid in Chapman's Bussy D'Ambois.


Sister of the late Bussy D'Ambois and Clermont D'Ambois in Chapman's The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois. A fierce woman, she chides Clermont for his delay in revenging their brother, and in the final act disguises herself as a man to effect the revenge herself. Clermont's arrival at the home of Montsurry prevents this. After Clermont's suicide, she vows to lead a cloistered life.


Lamira's woman in Fletcher's The Honest Man's Fortune. Charlotte woos Montaigne and eventually wins his agreement to marry her; when Lamira chooses Montaigne as her husband, however, Charlotte reveals that Charlotte had wooed Montaigne on Lamira's behalf, and she relinquishes her claim on Montaigne. Although Charlotte originally suspects Veramour of being a girl in disguise, she is soon convinced.


A lawyer in Field and Massinger's The Fatal Dowry pleading Charalois' case to release his father's body from his creditors, albeit unsuccessfully: despite his long-standing experience in court, he is rebuffed by the merciless Novall Senior, who is the successor to the modest and just judge Rochfort. At play's end, Charmi heads the trial of Chalarois after he has killed his wife Beaumelle and her lover Young Novall but acquits him of both deeds.

CHARMIA **1635

Wife to Gratiano but in love with his twin brother, Fulvio, in Rider’s The Twins. She confesses her love to Fulvio, who upbraids her sin but agrees to sleep with her once Gratiano is out of town when she threatens to kill herself otherwise. She later chides him for his delay. When Gratiano must go to visit lord Fidelio for two or three days, Charmia plots with Fulvio to use this time to conduct their assignation. She hates her weakness but cannot help herself. When Gratiano comes to her disguised as Fulvio, in a reverse of the bed trick motif, she has an attack of conscience and sends him away saying she cannot be unfaithful after all. He tries her a second time and she resists again. In her bedchamber, when he tries a third time, she threatens to kill herself rather than yield, and he unmasks. She realizes that she has lain with her own husband, believing it to be Fulvio. Rather than extenuating the forehand sin, Gratiano makes her realize that she has been unfaithful in intention if not in fact. When a letter arrives from Gratiano at lord Fidelio’s, Charmia is confused. Though this Gratiano says it was a ruse of his to have the letter sent, Charmia believes he is in fact Fulvio trying to trick her into bed. She will go to the shepherd’s festival with him but will call him brother, not husband. At the festival, Fulvio appears unharmed and it is revealed that she is chaste indeed, never having lain with any but Gratiano, who forgives her. Her sin of lust was nothing more than the common ailment of Italy, and Gratiano winks at it.


Charmian is one of Cleopatra's maids in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. She advises Cleopatra to win Antony by agreeing with him in everything, advice Cleopatra rejects with scorn. Charmian tries to comfort her mistress after Cleopatra finds out that Antony is married, and is the one to suggest, after the final battle, that Cleopatra lock herself in her monument and send word to Antony that she is dead. After Cleopatra has died, Charmian takes the time to fix her crown and then tells the guards who have just arrived that they are too late. She then applies a snake and dies.


Maidservant, along with Eira, to Cleopatra in May's Cleopatra. She appears once early on in the play with Glaucus, but otherwise is absent until the last scene, when she and Eira, in the tomb with Cleopatra, listen to their mistress's grand resolve to go to the dead Antonius, and commit suicide with her. Cleopatra, and perhaps also Eira, die from the asp's poison; Charmio stabs herself, and dies last. [Shakespeare called this character Charmian.]


Father of Thyrsis in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. Charminus is surprised to find that his son Thyrsis remains grief-stricken two years after the apparent death of Silvia. He tells this to Silvia's father, Medorus, who then regrets having insisted on her engagement to Alexis.


Charnel Bonfield is one of the rebels against King Edward in Greene's George a Greene. He is distressed because the towns will give no food to his soldiers, causing Kendall to send Mannering to demand tribute. He is also distressed because he is in love with Beatrice, but she is in love with George. He offers her coronets and velvet hoods, but when she still rejects him, he declares that he will send her George's head on a stick. When George strikes the disguised Kendall, Bonfield reveals who it is out of shock. When George captures Kendall and Bonfield, Bonfield appeals to George to send them to the King rather than the local justice because he does not wish to be executed by serfs. George agrees to have them both sent to the King, although only Kendall appears in that scene.


Enters at the end of the Anonymous First Part of Jeronimo to fetch the Ghost of Andrea, after a cry "Charon, a boat, a boat"; After he has taken Andrea over the river, there are more cries for him, and he complains about too much work.
He appears at play’s end in Verney’s Antipoe with all of the deceased characters wearing white except for Dramurgon and Drapon who are dressed in black. While Brutus places the worthy dead upon a throne, Charon takes Dramurgon and Drupon into torment.
Charon is the ferryman of Styx, whom Raph meets on his journey in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. Charon is exasperated and overworked because so many people are traveling to Hell these days.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. In Greek mythology, Charon was the boatman who rowed the dead souls to Hades over the river Styx. When he shows regret for the violent days of Sylla's dictatorship, when hatred and brotherly murder were the order of the day, Cethegus says that Charon had so much work to do in crossing the dead over to the underworld that he fainted of fatigue. In addition, Cethegus says, Charon should have asked for a navy rather than a single boat to ferry over the large quantity of dead souls.
Charon complains to Pluto in Dekker's If It Be Not Good that he wants to quit ferrying souls for him, and demands a raise because business is slow. He turns in the devils Ruffman, Shacklesoule, and Lurchall for sleeping and drinking on the job.
Sir John and Holdfast summon Charon, along with Cerberus in Massinger's The City Madam. He does not speak. His presence alone is important in convincing Luke to show pity on those who he has had imprisoned, or fired, or sent away.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. Clinias mentions Charon when he is seriously wounded by Dorastus, and about to die. At that moment he thinks of "Charons ferry." According to Greek mythology, Charon–son to Erebus and Nyx, and portrayed as a sulky old man, or as a winged demon carrying a double hammer–is the ferryman of the dead. He ferries the souls of the deceased (that are brought to him by Hermes) across the river Acheron. He only accepts those dead people that have been buried or burned with the proper rites, and if they pay a coin for their passage. But those who are not admitted by Charon are doomed to wander on the banks of the Styx for a hundred years.
The rough-tongued boatman of the Styx in Heywood's Love's Mistress, he escorts Psiche through Hades.


Disguise taken by Stremon's servant in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. When Stremon disguises himself as Orpheus in an attempt to dissuade Memnon from having his heart cut out and sent to Calis, he has an unnamed servant disguise himself as Charon, the classical ferryman of the dead. He tells Memnon that he is not allowed to transport individuals who have killed themselves for love.


Disguise adopted by Makewell, the doctor, when he is about to cure Sir Wittworth in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. Since the latter, in his madness, believes he is dead, the doctor pretends he is Charon. According to Greek mythology, Charon was the ferryman who rowed the dead across the River Styx into the underworld.


Friend to Sir Harry, and father to Young Chartley, Old Chartley arrives in London near the end of the play in search of his wayward son in Thomas Heywood's The Wise Woman of Hogsdon. Upon his arrival he encounters Sir Harry. The two of them soon realize that Young Chartley has duped them both. He visits the Wise-Woman of Hogsdon in the hopes of discovering what his son is up to, and ends up becoming a member of the party who confront Young Chartley about his wrongdoings at the Wise-Woman's house. He welcomes Second Luce as his daughter-in-law when it is revealed that she and Young Chartley are married.


A trickster ("cony-catcher") in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho, friend of Dick Leverpool, companion of Doll Hornet. He and Leverpool disguise as Doll's servants to make her victims believe that she is a gentlewoman. Together with Leverpool and Philip he accompanies Maybery's party to Ware.


A gamester, gallant, and prodigal son to Old Chartley in Thomas Heywood's The Wise Woman of Hogsdon. Young Chartley fled the country to London the night before his wedding to Second Luce. In London, he woos and proposes marriage to Luce, but wishes to keep the marriage secret until he can secure his inheritance. Luce arranges for them to be married secretly at the Wise-Woman of Hogsdon's lodgings. But the Wise-Woman, who has her own grudge against Young Chartley, plans a disguised double marriage plot in which Luce is actually married to Boyster, and Young Chartley is married to the Wise-Woman's servant boy "Jack," who (unknown to all) is really Second Luce in disguise. Believing he is married to Luce, Young Chartley nevertheless affects Gratiana and resolves to woo and marry her. He presents a forged letter to Gratiana's father Sir Harry, allegedly written by Old Chartley, indicating Old Chartley's desire to have their children marry. Sir Harry is pleased with the idea and urges Gratiana to accept Young Chartley as a suitor. The night before his wedding to Gratiana, Young Chartley receives a letter from Luce promising a last fling before his impending marriage. He only needs to meet her at the Wise-Woman's house. Young Chartley determines to meet her, telling Sir Harry that the letter is from his father on his deathbed and that he must leave immediately. All of the characters whom Young Chartley has wronged, knowingly or not, gather at the Wise-Woman's house before his arrival. They are stationed in rooms off of the main room where he is to meet Luce. When Young Chartley arrives, the others overhear his conversation with Luce and confront him with his lies and deceptions one by one as each of the eavesdroppers reveal themselves. Young Chartley is utterly deflated, rejected by both Luce and Gratiana, and vows to pursue an honest life. He is saved from complete humiliation by the revelation that "Jack" is really Second Luce, and that through her clever trickery she is now his lawful wife.


A French ambassador in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle, he agrees to aid Gray, Scroop and Cambridge in their quest to make Cambridge king of England.


A poet in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. A member of Asotus' roaring coterie. At Ballio's house he invents pretty praises for the courtesan Phryne, and Asotus crowns him with wine and laurels. He momentarily switches allegiance when Simo intercedes to seduce Phryne but returns to Asotus when Simo retreats. Later, he helps spread the false rumor of Tyndarus and Techmessa's suicide.


Chase Illibegge is a Turkish captain in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. Present when Amurath beheads Eumorphe, he accompanies the army to Thrace. Following the victory at Adrianople, Chase Illibegge recommends a further attack on Bulgaria as a place where Christians are resisting Turkish rule.


Enters the King's court in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates lamenting her recent estrangement from the King. Directed by Diligence to sit with the Spirituality, she is rejected by them. She then approaches the Temporality and the Burgesses, who also reject her. She finally approaches the Common People, and is welcomed with libations by the Soutar and Tailor. Lady Sensuality sees her and asks King Humanity to banish her from court; she is put into the stocks with Verity. She is released by Divine Correction and joins King Humanity's court. In the Second Part, she (along with Verity) begs the Parliament to chastise the Spirituality for rejecting her.


In Dumb Show I of (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women Chastitie, dressed in white, tries to pull Anne Sanders back as Lust leads her to George Browne. When Anne embraces Lust and thrusts Chastitie aside, Chastitie "wringes her hands, and departs." In Dumb Show III Chastitie tries to tell her grief to Mercy, but Mercy will not listen, so Chastitie wakes sleeping Justice who helps her. Chastitie accompanies the Officers of Justice to bring in the corpse of George Sanders along with Anne Sanders, Drury, and Roger. Later, Chastitie goes with Diligence to locate George Browne.


A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. Her name is Lucretia. Chastity is not amongst the Virtues if it is constrained. If it is voluntary, it is part of Temperance.


A part taken by one of the Roman soldier masquers performing in honour of Titus's Triumph in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. They appear as Time, Piety, Temperance, Chastity, Friendship, Constancy and Patience. Their masque underlines the royal virtues of Titus and incites him to judgement of the prisoners-of-war.


Ambassador of Philip, King of France in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John, Chattilion brings John Philip's endorsement of Arthur's claim on the English throne.. He has barely returned with news of John's contempt for the claim when John himself arrives with his army.
The Chatillion of France delivers Philip's message that France believes Arthur is the rightful king of England and will fight to put him on the throne in Shakespeare's King John. He returns to France with the message that he is only a step ahead of John, due to the winds, and that John has decided to bring the battle to France rather than wait for an invasion.


The ghost of Chatillon (the Huguenot leader Coligny) appears in a dramatic tableau in V of Chapman's The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois along with the ghosts of Guise, Cardinal Guise, Bussy D'Ambois, and Monsieur (the King's brother and designated heir), following Clermont's murder of Montsurry.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. Presumably a French aristocrat, he has drawn up the roll of names of Scottish nobleman who have been vanquished by the English at the battle of Dunbar and are now hostages to the Queen of England.


The tutor at the Drinking Academy in Randolph's(?) The Drinking Academy. He teaches Knowlittle to smoke, drink and quarrel, and promises Worldly that he too can become a gentleman under his tutoring. He teaches Knowlittle ridiculous poetical compliments to speak to Pecunia, and has him practice on Worldly. He is with Wordly and Knowlittle when they are tricked by Bidstand, Nimmer and Shirke, and he loses his possessions and clothes.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Chaucer is mentioned by Master Fright when he decides he will also need the help of the church to get rid of his fear of the devil "for Chaucer said long ago (and these poets are shrewd fellows), describing a physician, 'His food was nourishing and digestible, / His study was but little on the bible.'" Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. 1343-1400) was the author of The Canterbury Tales. The passage quoted here belongs to the General Prologue (1386-87, lines 435-38).
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Host rails against the current decayed ways of the nobility, Lovel defends the good education received by the noble youths. Among other arts, Lovel says the young gentlemen study the art of rhetoric, to make their English sweet upon their tongue, as reverend Chaucer said. Geoffrey Chaucer was called the father of the English language, and he was considered one of the three or four great English poets. Chaucer was the first court writer to use the English language, and his writings did much to set the language in the form it is today. During the first session of the love court, Lady Frampul listens to Lovel's love declarations. She commands him to go on procession to love's altar and say some hundred penitential verses there out of Chaucer's Troilus and Crisseyde, a legendary love story.
Only mentioned by Ingenioso in the same breath as Homer and Spencer [sic] in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus.

CHAUNUS **1630

Roscius in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass characterizes him as "a fellow so highly conceited of his own parts, that he thinks no honor above him." His opposite is Micropsychus.


The Cheaters appear while Simon is preparing festivities for Hengist in Middleton's Hengist. They pose as itinerant actors and, during their audition, stage a play in which they play the part of thieves who rob a clown. When Simon insists on playing the clown himself, they rob him, throw meal in his face, and run away.


Jack Fitten stole plate from Lord Cheiny and Bradshaw is accused in the Anonymous Arden of Feversham. While on the road to invite Arden to supper, Lord Cheiny meets Black Will and, not suspecting that he has been laying an ambush for Arden, gives him a crown and tells him to be on his way.


A gypsy fortuneteller in Holiday's Technogamia. Along with Physognomus, he tells Poeta's future, declaring the one he marries will be as beautiful as the stars, which Poeta takes to mean he is destined for Astronomia. This enraptures Poeta, allowing Cheiromantes to pick his pocket. Magus provides magic rings to Astrologia, Physiognomus and Cheiroantes which will allow them to become invisible. However, Geometres reveals the rings to Polites and they are captured.


Cheldrichus is the King of the Saxons in Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur. He allies himself with Mordred in return for the promise of all the land between the Humber River and the land of the Scots, and for as much of Kent as was held by Horsa and Hengist (the Anglo-Saxon leaders who first aided the Celtic king Vortigern and later turned on him to lead their troops against the Celts). Cheldrichus is beheaded by Arthur in combat during the final battle in Cornwall.


A supporter of Woodstock and his brothers in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock. Cheney brings news and messages on several occasions from King Richard to Woodstock in his house at Plashy and to Anne o'Beame: he reports to Anne how extravagantly Richard is living, and brings the "blank charters", instruments of Richard's new, unprecedented tax policy, to Woodstock to sign. (On this occasion, he also disabuses the Courtier of an embarrassing mistake.) Cheney brings Woodstock the double news that Anne is sick -news which prompts him to send away his wife to Anne's bedside - and that some "country gentlemen" are planning to bring a masque in his honour to Plashy; at the last minute, Cheney realizes that mischief is planned, and tries to warn Woodstock, but he is too late. In the final battle, Cheney fights on the side of York and Lancaster against the King and his followers.


A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. When John asks Fitzwater to give him Matilda, Fitzwater replies that John is married already to Earl Chepstow's daughter.


A lawyer in Brome's The Novella. He represents Guadagni in negotiating the marriage contract between Fabritio and Flavia. After Francisco steals away with Flavia, he advises Guadagni to have the Peddler taken into custody. He accompanies Guadagni to the Novella's lodging.


Follower of Bajazet in ?Greene's Selimus I. Enters with Mustaffa after Bajazet's opening monologue and tries to console him, claiming his subjects remain loyal. After Bajazet responds to Selimus' message sent by Occhiali, he sends Chereseoli along with Occhiali in order to deliver the gift of the territory of Samandria. Chereseoli accompanies Bajazet when he encounters Selimus and his army on the way to Byzantium. In the ensuing battle Chereseoli encounters Ottrante and is killed by him.


The viceroy of Greece in Goffe's Raging Turk, Cherseogles admits that his country has not sufficiently recovered from military defeat at the hands of the Turkish army to mount effective resistance to Turkish rule. At various points, the emperor confides in him, and sends him to stop Selymus' advance from Thrace. After Baiazet is deposed, he goes disguised as common soldier to Selymus, and says that he has persuaded Achomates to come from his camp at midnight, armed but unaccompanied, expecting to confront Selymus in single combat, during which Cherseogles will suddenly join Achomates in the fight. He intends, however, to assist Selymus. To Achomates, subsequently, he proposes the same plan in reverse. Still in disguise, he then persuades the bassas to come to the same place, expecting to surprise Achomates and Cherseogles. All taking the bait, Cherseogles inveigles the bassas into killing both brothers; then, ambition and confusion seizing all of them, the remaining conspirators, including Cherseogles, kill one another.


After the murder of Hugh Lacy in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington, Chester enters with the Bishop of Ely. He claims that John does not have the right to kill Hugh, and supports Ely as Regent. After John leaves, Chester confers with Ely, indicating his belief that this quarrel is part of a larger plan. When John plans to usurp the throne, Chester does not oppose him, claiming that he will do wrong to keep the peace but still attempts to protect Ely from a public trial. When Leicester arrives and expresses his shock at Chester and Salisbury's support of John as king, Chester says that John will resign when Richard returns home. His lukewarm support for John vanishes when he hears that Richard is in England, and with Salisbury he makes plans to seek a pardon of Richard.
Chester enters with King Richard during the hunt and claims that he has killed two bucks in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. When Doncaster is brought in by the poisoned Robin, it is Chester who reveals that he beat and raped a nun, the daughter of Sir Eustace Stutville, and explains how Doncaster escaped his imprisonment. After Robin's death, Chester requests that Tuck not end the play, but instead tell the story of Matilda. He may also be the one who, with Tuck, explains the events between Robin's death and early events of John's reign (see note under "CHO"). He enters with John at Fitzwater's banquet and insults Leicester and Richmond for turning against their king, and then leaves with John. When John arrives at Guildford, he asks Chester and Hubert to stand guard (although the stage direction has Winchester as the guard in the next scene, it is Chester who is named in the speech-headings). Although he is with John during the battle against Fitzwater, Leicester and Richmond, he does not speak, and he has only one individual line in the final scene, when he questions Blunt about the relationship between Lady Bruce and her son. His rapidly diminishing role suggests that he was seen by the authors as a holdover from the previous play rather than integral to this one.
The Earl of Chester opposes—together with the Earl of Lancaster—the bill to release the Queen from prison in Chettle's(?) Looke About You. Both Chester and Lancaster are of the old King's party.
A ruthless Earl of the King's party in Davenport's King John and Matilda. First seen betraying Matilda's trust, tricking her into a compromising meeting with the King. The King sends him with the Queen to follow Matilda to Hertford and force her into another meeting. He captures Young Bruce meanwhile and threatens him with torture and madness. In turn, Young Bruce captures him. From prison Chester sends his servant Brand the fatal letter, which orders him to treat his prisoners as he is treated himself. Despite his escape, the letter leads Brand to starve Lady Bruce and her young son to death. He is inferred to be one of the disguised masquers who accompany the King to abduct Matilda again. Before the King learns of Matilda's death, Chester brings news of the approach of the forces led against the King from France by Richmond and the Dauphin. (A slight discrepancy here, as Chester is also listed amongst the retinue, in mourning, who later arrive with Matilda's cortège: it is not clear how he can do both in the same scene).


Noble at the Court of England in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. He receives gifts from Andelocia. He also introduces Andelocia, who is disguised as a French Doctor.


His banishment for reprehending John moves Chester to join the conspiracy against the king in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John.


Lord Chester, and his friend Lord Clinton, are jealous of the Marshall's ascendance in the King's affections in Heywood's Royal King. They plot to undermine him by suggesting to the King that the Marshall's loyalty is insincere. The King believes them, and orders the Marshall to give up his office to Chester. When the Marshall is banished, it is Chester who delivers the King's demand that the Marshall send him his fairest daughter. He also returns Isabella when the King rejects her. For a while, Clinton and Chester are happy, but when the Marshall is eventually restored to the King's affections, the two lords begin plotting again. Luckily for them, the King is angered when the Marshall returns a dowry, and they work hard to keep him angry. The King sentences the Marshall to death. But the Marshall is saved when Isabella, Katherine, thee Prince, and the Princess save him by begging the King to remember his familial ties. The King realizes his folly and denounces Chester as a traitor instead.


Ranulphe, Earl of Chester is father to Sydanen in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. At his court, Chester receives Pembrooke and Moorton, the promised bridegrooms of Marian and Sydanen. On the night before the wedding, Chester appears in his nightgown at the country house where the bridegrooms are lodged, confirming the ladies' disappearance from Chester castle. When he corroborates what he knows with what the bridegrooms learned, namely that the ladies are gone, Chester sends the clowns and his servants in search of the Countess, Marian, and Sydanen. John a Cumber offers to help them retrieve their ladies by outsmarting John a Kent and his party, and Chester leaves with the lords to Gosselin's castle. At the castle, Chester arrives disguised as the Second Antique for a masque arranged by John a Cumber to gain entrance into the castle. On the lawn before Gosselin's castle, Chester, Llwellen, Pembrooke, and Moorton prepare to attend the play John a Cumber has arranged for them. When John a Kent arrives disguised as John a Cumber and asks these lords to act as themselves in the play, they agree thinking this is part of the performance. They are unaware that the ladies also act as themselves in the play. In the revelation scene, Chester sees how, by his cunning, John a Kent has expunged John a Cumber's offense. At Chester Abbey, just before the weddings of Sydanen to Moorton and of Marian to Pembrooke are to be celebrated, Chester and his party expect the bridegrooms. Chester attends and approves unwittingly the marriages of Sydanen to Sir Griffin (disguised as Moorton) and of Marian to Powesse (disguised as Pembrooke). Faced with the fact of his daughter's marriage to Powesse, Chester has no choice but to accept, since he has promised John a Kent to agree to anything should John a Kent outwit John a Cumber once again.


Does not appear in the play. Delia's cousin, whom she is visiting when Flowerdale attempts to rob her in The London Prodigal.


Master Cheyney is Franklin's third creditor, a non-speaking character in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. When Old Franklin decides to pay all of his son's debts, he comes accompanied by three creditors, whom Chamlet identifies by name. Master Cheyney does not speak but Chamlet names him and shakes hands with him.


A Mahometaine lawyer in Percy's Arabia Sitiens. He holds a monopoly on water, from which he seeks to profit in this dry year. He has granted a water license to Friar Dervis and maintains that the Friar has failed to meet the terms of the contract. Pyr offers to help him collect from Dervis in exchange for half of the take. When they confront Dervis, the Friar curses Chiause. Pyr takes custody of Chiause and brings him to Belpheghor, who listens to both Chiause and the Friar confess their worst misdeeds. Belpheghor takes them to Mahomet for judgment. Mahomet orders Chiause to toil carrying water for eternity and Friar Dervis to plod by his side preaching holiness.


Possibly a mute character in the Anonymous King Leir. The Chief, or Mayor, of the coastal town (presumably Dover) where the Gallian King's army lands. He is mentioned in the dramatis personae and brought in after the army lands, bound, but does not speak. It is possible that the speech designated for the "Nobles" is his because there is no entrance marked for them.


A Greek freedman in Fletcher's Valentinian, who helps to prepare Valentinian's rape of Lucina, Maximus' chaste and virtuous wife. A coward, he is unable to kill Aëtius at Valentinian's behest and instead is slain by the valiant Pontius during the attempted assassination of Aëtius.


A veteran soldier in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. Chilax returns to Paphos with Memnon and there reconnects with his old lover the Priest of Venus. When Siphax and his sister Cleanthe try to trick the princess Calis into marriage with Siphax, Chilax has Cloë , the discarded mistress to Siphax, impersonate the princess and trick Siphax into marrying her instead.


A character from the badly deteriorated plot of the anonymous 2 Fortune's Tennis. Because of the state of decay, nothing more can be deduced regarding the character's function in the otherwise lost play. Possibly the same character as "Son."


Hedewick's unnamed baby, fathered by Alexander, has its brains dashed out on stage by Saxony in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany.

CHILD **1607

A "ghost character" in Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. The grocer George and Nell talk of their child that wandered off to Puddle Wharf and would have drowned but for a sculler. The details remain vague in the dialogue.


The unnamed male child of Crispinus and Leodice in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman.


The baby that Jane Russell gives birth to in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel. A Dutch Nurse looks after it until Jane is reconciled with her father.


After Oriana is rescued from her tomb in Fletcher's The Knight of Malta, she gives birth. She appears veiled before Gomera, and Miranda claims the child is his. Gomera, denying the claim, calls for the woman to unveil and is thereby reunited with his wife.


The daughter of Ann and German in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker, described by Mother Prattle as a "well-appointed imp."


The unnamed Child in Peele's David and Bethsabe is the product of David's illicit relationship with Bethsabe, the wife of Urias. Sick from the beginning, the Child soon dies, an event that David interprets as God's punishment for having arranged the death of Urias.


First Child is named Jack and he introduces the play together with Second and Third Child in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. The Children of Queen Elizabeth's Chapel, among whom Nathaniel Field and Salathiel Pavy acted the play in 1600. After the second sounding, First Child enters with Second and Third Child. They are struggling over who should speak the Prologue. First Child snatches the cloak, symbolic attire of the Prologue's speaker. The three children actors quarrel and, finally, First Child suggests that they should draw lots. When Third Child tells him to make the cuts, First Child fears that the others might snatch his cloak while he is stooping. Agreeing that the shortest cut will show the winner, the three children draw cuts. First Child wins, and he adds metaphorically that the shortest is come to the shortest, which implies that he must be the shortest of the three children actors. First Child says he hopes he can go forward now without raising his fellows' envy. Despite this, however, Third Child advances to the front of the stage and speaks a prologue in prose, introducing the play's characters and plot. When Second Child protests against this intrusion, First Child says that this anticipation of the plot was only meant to show his colleague's good memory. When Third Child asks for the cloak, First Child refuses at first, lest his fellow might speak his prologue in it. However, seeing that Third Child has already introduced the play, First Child gives him the cloak reluctantly, reminding him that he has sworn not to speak the prologue. First Child is amazed when Third Child wants to say his speech at the front of the stage, standing on a stool, but he complies with everything and plays a silent role while Second and Third Child have a dialogue on poets and their critics. Finally, Third Child returns the cloak and First Child speaks the Prologue at the third sounding. After the Prologue, the three children leave the stage.


A child who is being looked after by Jack, but whose parenthood is uncertain in Webster and Rowley's A Cure for a Cuckold. Jack is bringing him up as his younger brother.


A "ghost character" in Brome's A Jovial Crew. At Oldrents' guesthouse, one of the beggar women, or "doxies," gives birth to a child. The other beggars laugh and sing to drown out her cries, though they are audible to Oldrents. He proposes a christening, but Randall informs him that the beggars will not remain long enough to hold one.


A "ghost character" in Brome's A Mad Couple. He is Carelesse and Phoebe's child.


A mute character in Wild’s The Benefice. After Ursley gives birth, Marchurch sells the bastard to a gypsy beggar woman. The woman, Tom Tinker’s wife, is next found carrying the child with her.


The offspring of Franckford and Urse is the subject of a paternity suit when Urse's husband, Compass, returns from the dead in Webster and Rowley's A Cure for a Cuckold. Compass successfully wins the suit.


A newborn when first seen in Goffe’s Orestes. Aegystheus and Clytemnestra’s child. The sweetest baby the nurse has ever kissed. When Orestes and Pylades return, Orestes wishes to use the child in his revenge. By that time, the child is old enough to report he has his father’s face and mother’s eyes, which does not stand him well in Orestes’ esteem. He also says that he reminds Electra of Orestes, whom the child says he loves though never say, which puts Orestes off. Agamemnon’s ghost whets Orestes’ revenge and he stabs the child before his father’s eyes.


The old king of France in Hemming's Fatal Contract. He is the husband of Fredigond and father of Clotair and Clovis, said to be good, but impotent against the machinations of his vengeful and lecherous wife. He accidentally discovers the Queen's affair with Landrey and before he can take action, is poisoned by her. Before the poison acts, he welcomes back to court the banished Dumain and Lamot, just in time for them to be framed for his murder, as Fredigond intended. Clovis later impersonates his father's ghost in an attempt to shame a confession of adultery out of his mother, and he is unexpectedly treated to her confession of his murder as well.


The young, unnamed children of Anne Sanders in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women, who included Young Sanders and Son to George and Anne Sanders, both listed among The Characters, as well as a daughter, are allowed to visit her just before she is hung. When she tells them that she is not worthy of being called mother, they plead with her not to turn away but to bless them. She urges them to learn from her fall, to follow virtue and not sin, and she gives them each a kiss and a book of holy meditations.


The Frankford's two children in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness. Non-speaking roles, but important for their pathos during Anne's repentance.


With the exception of his marriageable daughter, Gratiana, Sir Harry's children do not appear on stage in Thomas Heywood's The Wise Woman of Hogsdon. They are nevertheless the reason that Sir Harry hires Sir Boniface into his household to act as their tutor.


Toward the end of Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside, Davy Dahumma brings all of Allwit's children on stage. They are placed before Whorehound, their true father, and he sees them as the reminder of his adultery that will keep him from heaven.


"Ghost characters" in Brome's A Mad Couple. Mr Saleware is suspicious that he may not be the father of one of his children.


These are "ghost characters" in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. When it appears that Doll Williamson is to be hanged, she tells the crowd that her only regret is leaving her two "babes," but she trusts that some honest friend will come forward to raise them.


Fantasy characters in Mayne’s City Match. After the faux marriage, Frank and Roseclap convince Warehouse that Dorcas is infamous and has had three (or four) children out of wedlock by a Frenchman, a Dutchman, and a Moor.


"Ghost characters" in S.S's Honest Lawyer. Benjamin tells Bromley, in the trial scene, to surrender his lease to Sagar's wife and children.


The three otherwise unnamed children of the Duchess and Antonio in Webster's The Duchess of Malfi. The night that eldest is born, Antonio drops his horoscope and Bosola finds it thus revealing the Duchess' secret. The horoscope predicts the child will die young. Two more children are then born to the Duchess and Antonio. Later, Antonio escapes with the eldest to Milan. When the Duchess is being tortured in the asylum for the insane, she is shown a waxwork of Antonio and the elder son slain and made to believe that the waxwork is real. At play's end, Delio brings in the elder son to become Duke and restore order to Amalfi. See also Duke (of Malfi)'s son.


The Two Children in the Anonymous King Edward III are mute characters who accompany the Woman and the Citizens who are fleeing from Crécy.


A non-speaking character in Peele's David and Bethsabe. Chileab is another of David's sons. He appears only in the scene in which David learns of Absalon's death.


"Ghost characters" in Jonson's Epicoene. The chimney-sweepers make loud noises crying their trade in front of Morose's windows. When Truewit discusses Morose's noise-hating idiosyncrasy with Clerimont, he mentions that Morose has tried to bribe all the vendors bellowing under his windows. While Morose was able to conclude a treaty of silence with the fish-wives and orange-women, it seems he was not so successful with the chimney-sweepers, broom-men, and costermongers, who stood out and continued to shout their wares in the street.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Mitis asks Cordatus about the comedy they are about to see, whether its author observes the classical rules regarding the unity of time, place, and action, Cordatus embarks upon a lengthy and learned incursion into the history of comedy. According to Cordatus, Phormus and Chionides devised to have four actors in the comedy, with a prologue and a chorus. Chionides was a fifth-century B.C. Athenian writer of the Old Comedy. Aristotle refers to him as the first to introduce to Athens the complete form of comedy originated in Sicily by Epicharmus and Phormus. It is possible, however, that Chionides was giving spectacles of the old Megarian type at Athens.


Assists Shaving in the construction of the scaffold on which Mariana is to be executed in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight, and takes part in a pun-filled discussion of ways to cause a woman to die.


Chiron, a son of Tamora in Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus, helps his brother Demetrius murder Bassianus and rape and mutilate Lavinia. Titus eventually kills Demetrius and Chiron, bakes them in a meat pie, and serves them to Tamora at a banquet.


A Centaur in Heywood's The Silver Age, invited to the wedding of Hypodamia and Perithous, presumably killed in the battle.




A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's All's Well. A commander in the Florentine army.


See also CLOË.


Chloë is Albius's wife in Jonson's Poetaster. At Albius's house in Rome, Chloë enters with two maids, bringing flowers and perfumes to the guests. Chloë feels she is above her husband in social status and she wants to mimic the manners at court. When Crispinus enters, apparently to study her and then dedicate her a poem commissioned by Albius, Chloë seems to find affinities with the poetaster. Albius announces the arrival of important guests and the poets of Ovid's circle and their mistresses enter. During the conversation, Chloë does not notice that her notable guests flatter her only because they want to meet in her house. After light conversation and some musical entertainment, Chloë and the guests go to the banquet hall. At Albius's house, Chloë enters with Cytheris, fully dressed for a masquerade ball at court. Gallus and Tibullus enter, prepared to escort the ladies to court in Princess Julia's coach. Chloë is disguised as Venus at the carnival. After Crispinus sings a poem dedicated to Chloë as Canidia, which is plagiarized from Horace, Chloë exits with the poets' party, eager to attend the ball at court. Disguised as Venus, Chloë enters an apartment in the Palace together with the entire party of poets and their ladies, each characteristically dressed as gods and goddesses. All the masks play their assigned roles. During the party, Chloë/Venus does not speak but Tucca/Mars courts her insistently. When the angry Caesar enters and interrupts the revelry, Chloë adopts a humble attitude, explains that she is only a jeweler's wife and exits with Albius.


A "ghost character" in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday. Mirtillus claims that the character who went from Hylas, Charinus, Daphnis, and himself is not Nerina (as everyone else correctly asserts) but Chloris–one "that's nothing like" Nerina and whom he identifies as one of his many lovers.


This ambiguous speech-heading is attached to three speeches during the shift from act one, which finishes the story of Robin Hood, to the rest of Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington, which concerns John and Matilda. The speaker, along with Tuck, cover the events from the death of Robin Hood to the first rebellion against John. It is likely that "Cho" is short for "Chorus." However, there is another probable explanation. Just before the appearance of "Cho," Chester enters to Tuck, and asks that the play not end so quickly. Tuck agrees and then tells Chester to remove his Kendal green, since Matilda's story is a tragic one. There is no exit for Chester, but the next stage direction reads "enter in black" suggesting that the actor who plays Chester exits briefly to change clothes. It is thus possible that "Cho" is a misreading for "Che" and that the lines are part of Chester's character.


Several friars sing a short Latin hymn praising the charity of their patron the Duke of Averne in Heywood's The Captives as he, his wife, and their servant pass by on their way to matins.


Choler is one of the "four humors" characters in Holiday's Technogamia and the servant to Grammaticus, a probable reference to the corporal punishment of students in Renaissance grammar schools. Choler fights and beats Sangius, then regrets it in case his master needs the services of Medicus. With Musica, the four humor characters act out a Morris entertainment in one scene of act four.


Present in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More when the Earls of Surrey and Shrewsbury discuss the many indignities heaped upon the Londoners by the city's foreign residents, Cholmley remarks that, in some ways, they and the other great lords are at fault for not making the king aware of his subjects' plight.


A prince in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, who has joined the Trojans for love of Cassandra, Chorebus is suspicious of the horse. When the treachery is confirmed, he fights bravely, routing Thersites and putting on the armor of a dead Greek so as to meet guile with guile. So disguised, he rescues Cassandra from Synon and Thersites, but then is killed as a Greek by his friend Æneas.


"Christ's Hospital Boys" in Middleton's Michaelmas Term. These characters are part of the entourage in Quomodo's funeral procession after he fakes his own death.


This is probably a reference to all the cast members joining in the song which ends (?)Jeffere's The Bugbears. If a separate character, this song marks his/her only appearance.


The Chorus in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta, four women of Thebes, comes on at the end of the first scene and remains on stage throughout the rest of the play, commenting on the action and occasionally making an introduction or asking a question of one of the characters.


Four gentlemen of Salerne serve as Chorus in Wilmot's Gismond of Salerne, coming on stage after each of the first four acts and commenting on events. Following the imprisonment of Guishard, the Chorus questions Renuchio and learns about Guishard's death.


The Chorus in Peele's David and Bethsabe first appears to inform the audience of David's having sent Urias to his death, and he announces the birth of the Child of David and Bethsabe. Later, the Chorus returns to comment upon the justice to be seen in the death of Absalon and to alert the audience to the play's approaching end. Because the first speech of the Chorus is in fact labeled Second Chorus and his second passage is called Third Chorus, this speaker and the character termed Prologus who delivers the opening address to the audience may be one and the same.


The Chorus of four men enters as Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur begins. The members provide commentary as follows:
  • Between Acts One and Two they comment upon the ultimate origin of Arthur's current trouble, viz. Uther Pendragon's affair with Igerna,
  • Between Acts Two and Three on the mass destruction sure to follow from Mordred's decision to oppose Arthur,
  • Between Acts Three and Four on the great burdens laid upon princes, and
  • Between Acts Four and Five on the peculiar horrors attendant upon civil wars.
In V.i, the Chorus actually engages in conversation with Cador and the dying Arthur, and after the exit of Arthur and Cador from that scene, its members deliver concluding commentary on the transitory nature of human life.


Four maids constitute the Chorus in Wilmot's Tancred and Gismunda. They accompany Gismunda when she first enters the stage and silently listen as she laments the death of her husband. Then they join her in song to cheer her spirits. They also sing after Lucrece reports to her niece Tancred's decision not to allow her remarriage. After the execution of Guiszard, the Chorus questions Renuchio about the deed and hears him praise the victim of Tancred's revenge. When Gismunda announces her intention to follow her lover by killing herself, the Chorus brings the news to Tancred. At the end of each act except the last, each maid speaks individually, commenting on events.

CHORUS **1592

The Chorus in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus sets the stage, provides the moralistic epilogue, and gives background and explanation at key junctures throughout the play. It explains passage of time, describes off-stage action, and paints scenery, characterization, and historical context. It has the first and last words of the play.


The Chorus in Kyd's Cornelia carries the action of the play from scene to scene. In the beginning of the play, the Chorus objects to Cicero's argument that the fall of Rome is due to internal strife and corruption that led to the present civil war. The gods are punishing Rome, the Chorus sings, for the crimes and wrongdoings of her ancestors. In addition, if Rome does not "seek to calm" Jupiter, even worse things will happen to Rome; the people will be punished with plague, famine, and more bloody and senseless wars. Even more fine Roman's will die. Without peace, the crops will not be tended, there will be no harvest, no livestock, no fishing, nothing to sustain the nation. Without peace, Rome will ultimately fall. When Cornelia believes that she has seen the Ghost of her husband, Pompey, the Chorus tells her that she has been tricked and is mistaken; a false demon has appeared to her disguised as her dead husband, Pompey. In Act IV.i, the Chorus replies to the argument between Cassius and Brutus concerning the possibility of assassinating Caesar, by praising all those who would free people from tyrants. When the Messenger reports the details of Scipio's death to Cornelia, the Chorus provides a voice of wisdom to Cornelia, who might otherwise have decided to commit suicide. It is the Chorus who convinces her that her father died bravely, just as she must bravely live.


A chorus in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside comments upon the battle before London's city gates in III.


Introduces Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet with a prologue that outlines the plot. Reappears to comment on the action of the first act.

The chorus in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley provides substantial narration for the last act of the play that depicts the Battle of Alcazar, most of which is staged in a dumb show.


A character in the anonymous Tamar Cam employed throughout to divide the play into its five (otherwise unmarked) acts.


In act II of Dekker's Old Fortunatus, the chorus reminds the audience of the necessity of believing that the stage is able to represent the whole "circumference of heaven." In act IV he gives exposition for the travels of Andelocia. He could be the same character who appears as Prologue to begin the play.

CHORUS **1599

The Chorus in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV enters at the close of the "French" segment of the play to provide an oral bridge that returns Edward to England after his French campaign and introduces a "new tale" of Matthew Shore and his wife Jane.


Explains the dumbshow of the shipwreck in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder, and apologizes for skipping so many years in a narrative, which he symbolizes by turning over the hourglass that Time had set down.


In the Folio but not the Quarto version of Shakespeare's Henry V, the Chorus introduces each act of the play and speaks an epilogue. His prologue apologizes for the shortcomings of the spectacle, perhaps Shakespeare's most famous and sustained instance of meta-theatricality in which the amphitheatre is referred to as a "wooden O." Sometimes the Chorus' speeches glorifying Henry's war are undercut by the ensuing action: his introduction to the second act begins "Now all the youth of England are on fire," but the act begins in Eastcheap with a conversation between the reluctant soldiers Bardolph and Nym. The Chorus' epilogue reminds the audience that although Henry V ends on a positive note, with the union of Katherine and Henry, their son would assume the English throne as a boy (in history only nine months of age) and soon lose all that his father had won in France.


The prologue to Heywood's Four Prentices of London consists of three figures with "long black velvet coats." The members of the chorus, one of whom represents the "author," debate the necessity for three discrete prologues, agreeing that three hundred are really necessary. The three choristers appeal to the audience to "amend" any errors in the forthcoming dramatic performance. One member of the chorus serves as the "presenter" to narrate the subsequent travels of the four apprentices.

CHORUS **1600

At the start of Act two of the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell the Chorus explains to the audience that Cromwell is now in Antwerp and that Banister is also there in his efforts to escape Bagot who is pursuing him with "bills of debts" he has bought cheap from Banister's creditors. Later Chorus explains that after Cromwell engineered Bedford's escape form Bononia he refused the earl's offer to accompany him to France because he wanted to continue this travels, this time to Spain. In the same speech Chorus explains that we now have to consider several years to have passed and that now Cromwell is back in England, where he is private secretary to the Master of the Rolls, Sir Christopher Hales. At the start of Act 4 Chorus explains that Cromwell now begins a new life at the height of hs power. Wolsey has died, having given Cromwell all his treasure, and Gardiner, his man, has become Bishop of Winchester. The Chorus apologizes for not giving more information about Wolsey but the play "depends on" depicting Cromwell's fall following his great rise.

CHORUS **1602

Eight paramours in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium, men and women, crowned with garlands of myrtle, carrying the instruments of death in their hands. Cleopatra, Dido, Artemesia/Sophonisba (as corrected in MS), and Portia carry asps, sword, hazer (or cup), and burning coals while Antony, Narcissus, The ‘Unnamed Athenian’, and Iphis carry a dagger, looking-glass (well stuck about with white daffodils, the whiter the better), a carved idol of Venus, and a halter. These items they lay upon the altar to Cupid before singing the opening song of the play whilst they are arranged, kneeling, about the Presenter. Once they sing their praise of Cupid, they take their seats on either side of the stage. For the remainder of the play, they sing the transitions between acts, accompanied by the Waits, in imitation of a Greek Chorus. They conclude the play with a final choral ode, assisted by the Presenter. They bear witness to the Presenter’s final ceremony at the altar of Cupid and finish the play with a song. (n.b. in the Paul’s version, only Antony and Cleopatra were employed for the chorus, and special dialogue written for that production.)


The Chorus in Daniel's Philotas is comprised of the First Grecian, the Second Grecian, the Third Grecian and the Persian. The Chorus describe themselves as 'the vulgar', but assert their ability to tell the truth; they fear for Philotas, who 'acts his goodness ill' and consistently support him. In the chorus before Act 5, the Grecians and the Persian debate the merits of Greek and Persian government and justice. The Persian claims that the Greeks, for all their claims, are no different from the 'sovereign tyrants of the East'; the only difference is that the Greeks proceed by form of law. The Grecians agree that Alexander is behaving autocratically, but blame it on the influence of 'feeble Asia'. The Chorus watches the exchange between Polidamus and Sostratus, in which Polidamus reveals that he has been ordered by Alexander to assassinate Philotas's father Parmenio. The Persian Chorus remarks that this is a 'Persian trick', and the Greek chorus replies that Persia has 'no cause to rue, / For you have us undone, who undid you'. Told about Philotas's final submission and confession by the Nuntius, the Chorus are dismayed but still supportive.


Francesco Guicciardini in Barnes's The Devil's Charter. The chorus speaks six times, once at the beginning of the play and again at the end of each of the five acts.

CHORUS **1610

First presents the Prologue to Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk, which combines a description of Ward–the baseborn Englishman turned pirate and later, Turk. Warns of the bloody adventures to follow, and provides an explanation of the opening scene. The Chorus's second appearance is to narrate the ceremonies of Ward's formal conversion, reminding the audience that what they see is historical fact, not the author's invention. The third and final Chorus speech narrates Dansiker's reception and surrender in Marseilles, with the stipulation insisted in by French merchants that Dansiker atone by capturing Benwash.


Before V in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part One, the Chorus figure appears and apologizes for having to narrate the action that occurs between IV and V, but he notes that the stage can "express a sea" only poorly. He then recounts how Bess and her crew take many prizes from the Spanish and the Turks, and how they have now put in for water at Mamorah on the Barbary Coast where Bess will be summoned to Mullisheg's court.
Between acts III and IV of Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part Two, the Chorus figure informs the audience of the attack upon Bess's ship by a French pirate, an assault during which Spencer and Goodlack find themselves aboard the pirate vessel and unable to return. He relates how they drift ashore on wreckage, Spencer landing in Ferrara, Goodlack in Mantua, at a time when the dukes of those places are at odds with one another. The Chorus next introduces a dumb show depicting how the two Englishmen, having been selected as champions by the dukes, manage to work a reconciliation, and how they then make their way to Florence. After the dumb show, the Chorus segues into the next action by describing how Bess and her crew have been shipwrecked, find themselves in the vicinity of Florence, and are now wandering in a countryside rife with dangerous bandits.


The character of Time in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale is called "the chorus." See "TIME."


Chorus comments on the decayed political situation in the last days of republican Rome in Jonson's Catiline. After Catiline's address to the conspirators, Chorus describes the increased power of Rome and the corruption at all levels of government and society. Chorus concludes that Rome's conquest of Asia has turned against the Romans, since all the vices of the East have overwhelmed the ancient Roman virtue. In another intervention, Chorus invokes Rome's great fathers, Jove and Mars, to see the city's corrupted state. According to Chorus, the consuls deserted virtue and modesty, replacing it with lechery, lust for power, and bribes. Chorus enumerates the great Roman families that gave their lives for the honor of Rome, maintaining that the men descended from these families were true magistrates, who worked for Rome's good, and were not corruptible. After the conspirators' failed attempt at murdering Cicero, Chorus has another intervention. Chorus deplores the corrupted state of republican Rome, concluding that guilty states must suffer the misfortunes they deserve. Chorus forebodes imminent punishment for Rome's faults and crimes. Before the final confrontation between the Senate's army and Catiline's troupes, Chorus deplores the ambivalence of ethical principles and the decayed state of morality in the republic. Chorus draws the attention on the duplicity of the political game and the relativity of opinion. Describing the opposite views belonging to Cicero's or Catiline's parties, Chorus wonders when the Senate was right: when they thought that Cicero had accused Catiline unjustly of conspiracy, or when they decided to send an army against Catiline. Finally, Chorus deplores the ethical situation in an age when the values are distorted, when diligence is called deceit, and virtue vice. Chorus wishes they could pluck the evil spirit from Rome's body and calls for the times when every noble deed is called by the name it merits.


Comprised of Priests and Fishers in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. The Chorus delivers the Prologue and Epilogue and comments on the action of the play at the end of each Act. They also sing as they follow the procession of characters who accompany Olinda to her execution, convey Atyches home after his victory over Malorcha, singing his praises and chanting "lowd his conquest," and present a song near the end of the last scene.


A complex piece of Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess plot–the capture of the Roman emperor and his train by Persian soldiers–takes place in an elaborate dumb show. The slightly self-conscious Chorus introduces and then interprets the dumb show. The Chorus returns after Diocles' retirement to explain Maximinian's metamorphosis into a tyrant.


Five bards (or Poets Laureate), accompanied by a harper, sing two songs at the end of every act in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. At the end of the first act, they sing songs of spring and love. At the end of act II, they sing of the ancestors, of ancient Brute who tamed the giants and founded a second Troy, of his son Locrine and Elstrid, of Leill, Rex Pacificus and Elud, Badud and Mulmutius, and in the second song they praise the living kings, Cassibelane and Nennius. At the end of act III, they rejoice over the victory, in act IV they complain Alecto's raising (the Roman army) and Landora's death, and in act V, before Mercury and the two ghosts finish the play, they sing songs of peace.


Appears twice in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. First he narrates the dumbshow of Vespatian's coronation and next, speaking as a citizen of Jerusalem, describes the famine in the city.


A chorus, a collective of singers, is summoned by Holdfast at the request of Sir John in Massinger's The City Madam. The chorus sings sad music, led by the musicians and Orpheus. Pretending to be an Indian demon-worshipper, Sir John Frugal raises the spirits of all of Luke's victims, and watches his brother for signs of pity. As the music plays, parades of Luke's victims pass.


Singers in Davenant's Love and Honor. They sing the chorus of the love song requested by Frivolo and Tristan on the morning of Vasco's wedding to the Widow.


Made up of shepherds and shepherdesses, the chorus in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday takes part in Sylvia's song and also appears with Mirtillus as a group of "masquers" who will "trip it Before the king" as Paris, Enone, Venus, and the Graces. Their sport is disrupted by Nuntius's news that Nerina "lies a-dying," and Mirtillus instructs them that they must cease their practicing since "the king Must see't" that night. Accompanying Mirtillus to the court, the First and Second Shepherds later express their puzzlement over the king's decision not to view their show.


A Chorus in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom appears in Act III and relates the story of St. George and the dragon.

CHORUS **1635

Each act ends with a chorus in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. The chorus summarizes the situation in preparation for the following act. At play’s end three Flamen and the chorus call for blessings upon the new regime.


At the start of T.D.'s The Bloody Banquet, the Chorus verbalizes the action of the Dumb Show. The King of Lydia and the King of Lycia attempt an uneasy truce. Lapyrus, a nephew of the Lydian King, courts Eurimone, the daughter of the Lycian King; so, he rejects his own country. Lydia goes to the King of Cicilia for help; having defeated the Lycians, the tyrannical Cicilian King, Armatrites, subjugates Lydia and takes the throne. The Queen of Lydia flees with her two infants. At the end of Act Two, the Chorus reappears, again giving words to explain the significance of a Dumb Show. This time, the death of one of the Queen of Lydia's children is dramatized; the other infant is lost, but is found and returned by the two Shepherds. The King of Lydia, and his faithful helpers, continue to look for their Queen.


When in Kyd's Cornelia Mark Anthony warns Caesar that there is a conspiracy against his life, Caesar dismisses the threat by saying that his fate is in the hands of the gods. The Chorus of Friends praises, in rhymed couplets, the deeds of Caesar and his greatness as well as the benefits he has brought to Rome. The Chorus of Friends sadly condemns those who would allow envy and spite to destroy what is good for all of Rome.


Sings the fifth song in Percy's Arabia Sitiens–a debate about the relative importance of the virtues–along with Mahomet, Gabriel, Adriel, and Metraon.


Chough is the clown character in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel; he is a rich but stupid Cornish gentleman. He arrives in London, accompanied by his servant Trimtram, in order to marry Jane Russell. Jane's father is delighted at the prospect, but Jane is not because Chough is a vulgar boor obsessed with wrestling. He longs to be a 'roaring boy,' and visits the 'Roaring School' where he learns to do combat with outrageous insults rather than with swords. In order to try out their new skills, Chough and Trimtram pick a fight with a cowardly pimp, Captain Albo, and roar at him. When Albo demands that they draw arms, Chough and Trimtram respond by farting at him, and this overpowers him. The clowns sing a song with the whores and wish them good luck. Back at Russell's house, Chough encounters the Physician, who informs him that Jane has just given birth to a child. Chough is outraged and refuses to marry her for fear of catching the pox. Russell accedes, but begs Chough not to say anything about the child when he tries to match Fitzallen with Jane. Chough agrees, but when Fitzallen enters, he sings a warning instead of saying it. When Jane and Fitzallen plan to seal their marriage vow, Chough promises to dance and roar at their wedding.


Chremes is an old man, married to Maud and father to July, Nane and Dick in the anonymous July and Julian. When his wife reveals that their elder son intends to marry her maid–Julian–he is not too happy with the thought that his son should marry a poor lady of inferior rank, he devises a plan to punish them. But he is soon misled by his own son into believing that Julian is a false lady and that he does not feel any affection for her. Therefore, in the belief that the girl is not trustworthy, when Chremes is offered to have his debts met by a Merchant if he sells Julian to him as a slave, the old man consents to the transaction. But he is going to regret it soon, when he realizes that July is desolately grieving for his beloved Julian. Later, as he is trying to find a solution to restore happiness to his son's heart, he is tricked and made drunk by Bamford, Wilkin and Fenell. These mislead the old man into believing that there is a wealthy and worthy girl (Julian) in Bamford's house who could indeed serve as a wife for his son. Overjoyed (partly due to his large ingestion of alcohol) at the news, he goes to his son and makes him a rash promise: he will grant July three wishes. Thus, in the end, he has to approve of his son's marriage to Julian, grant freedom to his servants -Wilkin and Fenell–and give a house to Bamford. Note: A character of the same name appears in Terence's Heauton Timorumenos (163 B. C.). That character had a neighbor called Menedemus. The latter also appears in July and Julian. He is actually Chremes's neighbor as well.


Chremylus' wife in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. When Carion recounts to her how Plutus regained his eyesight and that she will now be a countess, she sends him to the goldsmith to buy her a ring. She takes sweetmeats to Plutus and invites him into her house.


An honest, decayed old gentleman in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. He went to the Delphic oracle and was told to follow the first person he saw until he got home. He finds and follows Plutus. He promises to cure Plutus' blindness if the god of wealth will favor him in return. He intends to have Plutus return to his old ways of enriching only honest men and impoverishing knaves. He must defend himself to his friend, Blepsidemus, who believes that he has grown dishonest because he has become rich. Later, he complains when everyone now wants to be his friend, realizing that they are interested only in his money. When he comes upon Anus and Neanias, he ridicules the lustful old woman, and she beats him. Neanias tries to palm her off on him, but no one wants Anus.


An old man in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. He is Techmessa's father, Pamphilus' unknown father, and Evadne's supposed father. He angered his wife Dipsas when he brought Evadne to live with them. He intercedes in time to prevent Tyndarus killing Pamphilus in a jealous rage. He is present at the final act's wedding where he greets his old friend Demetrius and is reunited with his son Timarchus (Pamphilus).


Chrestus is a worthy gentleman at Cynthia's court and a "ghost character" in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In a soliloquy about detraction, Crites says that he disregards Anaides and Hedon's slanders, because the perpetrators are not worthy of his attention. Had the opprobrious words emanated from good Chrestus, Euthus, or Phronimus, Crites argues that he would have been moved and tried to question and improve his actions.


Also called "Chrysaclea" in Glapthorne's Argalus and Parthenia. Mother to Parthenia and sister to the lord Kalander. At first she insists on the merits of Demagoras as her daughter's suitor, at the same time failing to persuade him to woo more gently in order to compete with the preferred paragon, Argalus. She fails to calm the revengeful rage of Demagoras when he feels slighted by Parthenia, and reproaches her daughter for dismissing him. This causes a crisis of conscience between love and filial duty for Parthenia, resolved by the Queen's favor for Argalus, which makes him an acceptable husband after all. Still campaigning for Demagoras, she is appalled when the pastoral entertainment intended to welcome him backfires (intended for Argalus, it offends him) and she fails to calm his rage and desire for revenge. She later fails to take her brother's warning that Demagoras is dangerous, believing instead that he will peacefully take his leave. She does not reappear, either to witness her daughter's catastrophic assault by Demagoras, her triumphant return, cured, from exile, or even her wedding to Argalus.


Chrisea is the daughter to the Duke and beloved of Doria in Glapthorne's Ladie's Privilege. When Doria returns from war, she asks him to swear to do whatever she asks, then reveals that she has fallen in love with his best friend Vitelli, and asks him to persuade Vitelli to return her love. She resists all entreaties by Doria, Eurione and Vitelli to change her mind, but refuses to do so until the final scene, where she reveals that everything has been a test of Doria's love and also of Vitelli's worthiness to wed her sister.


Chrisippus is the father of Cornelia in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped. When her husband, Fransiscus, stabs Antonio, Chrisippus assumes that the rumors about Cornelia and Antonio are true, and disowns her. The truth is revealed in the final scene, and the family is reunited.


Chrisoganus is a scholar and a pedant in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. He is thought to be a parodic representation of Ben Jonson. At the beginning of the play, rather than choosing to pursue one of the arts, he chooses all of them. Chrisoganus preaches against the folly of envy and pride and is the only character not swept up in the cycle that leads to war and poverty; however, he is unable to prevent the larger society represented in the play from pursuing its self-destructive course. At the end of the play, Mavortius, Philarcus and others yield themselves to Chrisoganus's instruction.


Jesus in Bale's John Baptist's Preaching in the Wilderness first gives the audience the story of his birth and mission, and then tells them that he is here to be baptized and that they should follow his example. He asks John to baptize him, and when John protests that he is unworthy, Jesus insists, stating that he must not break any of God's laws, and being baptized is one of those laws. John is persuaded, and baptizes Jesus. When The Heavenly Father appears and blesses Jesus, John rejoices at the coming of the Son, who will purify all of us.
When Jesus first enters in Bale's The Temptation of Our Lord, he directly addresses the audience, describing how God wishes him to be tempted as a lesson to Man, and how this does not mean he wishes Christians to fast as he has fasted. Although he knows Satan is coming to tempt him, when Satan does enter, disguised as a Religious Christian, Jesus talks with him. When Satan tempts him to turn stones into food, Jesus says that to do so is unnecessary, since God will provide him with meat when the time is right. He also says that others, such as Moses and Daniel, have been preserved by God's word, and he expects no less. Satan tempts him the second time, saying that it is written that if he throws himself off a mountain, God will send angels to catch him. Jesus points out that Satan is reading the Psalm incorrectly, since he protects those who are godly in all ways, and to test God is not godly. Further, he points to other biblical passages that say not to tempt God and asks why Satan does not quote first, the verse about crushing the serpent underfoot. Satan tempts Jesus a third time, offering him all the cities of the world if Jesus will worship him. At this point, Jesus becomes angry, and reveals that he knows who Satan is. He promises to destroy Satan's kingdom and bring God's word to the whole world. Two Angels then bring Jesus food, which he gratefully receives. He ends by speaking directly to the audience, stating that the only way to know God is through him.
A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned multiple times by Bale and God as the ultimate example of goodness and mercy, and foretold to Moses, David, Isaiah and John Baptist by God. God also tells John that he will be the one to baptize Christ, and that he will recognize him in the flesh because the Holy Spirit will appear in the form of a dove when Christ arrives to be baptized.


Christalla, "the crystal," is along with Philema one of the maids of honor who rebuke the lusty courtiers in Ford's The Broken Heart.


Christeta is a daughter of Theophilus in Massinger and Dekker's The Virgin Martyr. She is sent, along with her sister, Calista, to convert Dorothea to paganism. Instead, Dorothea converts them to Christianity.


The law of Christ, represented by the book of the New Testament, which redeems mankind in Bale's Three Laws. The Law of Christ is the law of love which, after Infidelity has been banished by the Wrath of God, is set above the other laws to rule and guide them.


Pearle’s wife in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. She receives the ‘standing Bolle’ from Wright and then gives it to Nim in exchange for a hare. Nim tells her that he has come from Wright and will return with Pearle in disguise as a joke. Later, she mistakes Sanders for Nim in disguise and tells Pearle that she gave him the ‘Bolle’ in exchange for the hare.


Birdlime's maidservant in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho, nicknamed "Opportunity" by Luce.


Along with Roger, Christian is one of two named servants of Mistress Mulligrub in Marston's Dutch Courtesan. After Cockledemoy tricks Mistress Mulligrub into believing that Master Burnish and his wife are on their way to the Mulligrubs' for dinner, Roger and Christian help their mistress to furnish the table.


Dame Christian Custance is a widow in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister betrothed to the absent merchant Gawin Goodluck. For much of the play, she is the unwilling target of amorous advances by the braggart Ralph Roister Doister, and she can only make him desist by having her maids and servants, aided by Matthew Merrygreek, attack the coward near the play's end. When Goodluck returns from his business abroad, he receives information from his servant Sim Suresby that could indicate Dame Custance was involved with the braggart, and the merchant is at first reserved. The widow, however, calls Goodluck's best friend Tristram Trusty to be a witness to her constancy, and she and Goodluck are reunited happily.


A Christian forced to join the Turkish army in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers. He brings a message from Thomas Sherley Jr. to Robert Sherley.


The disguise Satan uses when he tempts Jesus in Bale's The Temptation of Our Lord.


Christiana is gentlewoman who is disguised as a gypsy in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy.


"Ghost characters" in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2. They are a group within the walls of Babylon. The first citizen says that Tamburlaine has always pitied and relieved them and for their sake he might spare Babylon if they surrender.


A non-speaking Turkish captive in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk. He plays a symbolic role in the rites of Ward's conversion. After Ward has sworn his allegiance and donned his Turkish robes, the Christian offers him wine. Ward symbolically rejects the cup and abuses him.


Two Christians, their tongues cut out, are brought before King Henrick and ordered to kneel to Jupiter in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier. Henrick does this to demonstrate to Bellizarius the weakness of the Christian spirit. But the Christians refuse to kneel, so Henrick orders them to be burnt at the stake.


The name adopted by Old Flowerdale when disguised as a sailor in The London Prodigal. Also known by a nickname, 'Kester'.


A "ghost character" in Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment. Apparently a servant of Mamon.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


As Sebastian prepares his battalions in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar, Christopher de Tavern beseeches Sebastian to employ him in the war, Sebastian names him next unto himself, and he tells Christopher that they shall "live and die together."


He is Master of the Rolls, a high position of state in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell. He appears with Cromwell, now Hales's servant, after Cromwell's return from years of travelling. He explains to that the banquet he is providing is very important and costs far more than is usual. He explains that Cromwell is far above the usual common men and that he will do what he can to find a position for him working for the state rather than just for him. At the banquet he explains to Wolsey that the difference between the Spanish and English appetite (that Wolsey had alluded to) was the result of the English being "freer souls"; the Spanish using all their money to buy fancy clothes. The three great evils of the Spanish , he states, are pride, the Inquisition and their problems with eating. He grants Wolsey's request to take Cromwell onto his staff. In Act 4 after the Chorus has announced Wolsey's death, Gardiner (formerly Wolsey's man and now Bishop of Winchester), discusses Wolsey's plots against the state with the Duke of Norfolk, the Duke of Suffolk, Sir Thomas More, Sir Christopher Hales, and Cromwell. Hales, More and Gardiner comment on how the wheel of state brought the proud Wolsey down.


A priest who supports Richmond in Shakespeare's Richard III. Sir Christopher conveys a message to Richmond from Lord Stanley, that George Stanley is being held hostage by Richard III to ensure Stanley's loyalty.


A curate in Cartwright's The Ordinary, and another of the song and drink loving "clubbers" who is arrested.


In the induction to Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew, Christopher Sly is a drunken tinker. Thrown out of a tavern for breaking glasses, Sly falls asleep outside, where he is found by a Lord's hunting party. As a practical joke played by the Lord, Sly is made to think that he himself is a lord who has been ill. To entertain Sly, travelling players stage a performance of The Taming of the Shrew as a play within a play. Sly finds the play tiresome and, along with Bartholomew (who is pretending to be Sly's wife), disappears from the text.


A Spanish courtier in the Anonymous Lust's Dominion. He is not pleased when Eleazar becomes King of Spain, but Eleazar makes him king of Granada and so ensures his loyalty.


Steward to Count Ferneze in Jonson's The Case is Altered. When Onion asks him to woo Rachel de Prie for him, Christophero plans to woo Rachel for himself. He asks the Count for permission to marry Rachel, not knowing that the Count is in love with her himself. He asks Jaques de Prie for his daughter's hand, but de Prie puts him off, fearing Christophero knows about the stolen treasure. Christophero leaves, planning to return when de Prie is more reasonable. He returns to de Prie's with Angelo, who advises Christophero to lure de Prie out of the house with a trail of gold coins and then hide. Meanwhile, Angelo claims, he will take Rachel to a priory and await Christophero to be married. However, Angelo really plans to marry Rachel himself. As de Prie follows the golden trail, Christophero becomes worried and calls for Rachel at the door, but finds only Jaques, who raves that his gold and his daughter are stolen. Christophero hurries to the Count's, where he joins the lamenting Jaques and Count Ferneze. When Paulo and Rachel arrive, he chides her, but is silenced by Angelo.


Christophero is the physician Julio's assistant in Webster's The White Devil. He assists Julio to burn poisoned incense that kills Isabella. He is a ghost character (non-speaking role).


A soldier and friend to Pyniero and Pedro in Fletcher's The Island Princess. Christophero largely serves the function of observer and describer. He recognizes the beauty of the Princess and her chaste virtue, and in the same scene, the nobility of character of Armusia, foreshadowing their eventual marriage. He also describes the Kings of Bakam and Siana, calling one a blowhard and the other a "well-tempered fellow." He also informs Pyniero that the king is saved and the Princess must now marry his rescuer. Christophero is with Pyniero when the Moor-Priest's disguise is removed.


Servant in the house of the Duke of Castile. Lorenzo's servant, Bel-imperia's servant; Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy.


A ‘ghost character’ in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. Father to Castina and Clarinda, ‘only spoken of’ according to the dramatis personae.


A “ghost character" in Tomkis’ Lingua. Nowadays, the chronicler misuses both Memorie and Phantestes. Common Sense opines that the historian be balanced in all reports.


Chrysalus, a servant of Antiochus in Massinger's Believe As You List. He, along with Syrus and Geta, fought with Antiochus in the Achaian War. They are able to provide proof from their experience that Antiochus is in fact who he says he is. Flaminius has them systematically killed.


A "ghost character" in Markham's Herod and Antipater. Chrysander is the absent man to whom Antipater plans to attribute the writing of treasonous and plotting letters given to Animis. Antipater, of course, is the true author of those letters.


One of Cyrus's noble warriors in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus, Chrysandus or Chrysantus shares in the spoils of the victory over the Assyrians, and, as he does in Xenophon, serves along with Hispaspis as a mouthpiece for the play's discussion of the arts of governance.


Chysapius is one of three eunuchs of the emperor's chamber in Massinger's The Emperor of the East. The others are Timantus and Gratianus. They are at first suspicious of Pulcheria and her motives but change their minds when they realize she is only attempting to protect her brother. Chrysapius becomes a conspirator with Pulcheria as they scheme to curb Theodosius' generosity. Pulcheria tricks Theodosius into signing his own wife into slavery.


One of Goldsworth's two daughters in Shirley's Changes. Chrysolina loves Gerard, as does her sister Aurelia. Chrysolina was born but one minute before her sister; the girls are close and do not want to fight about Gerard. Having told Gerard that he must choose between the sisters, Chrysolina rejects the suit of Caperwit when she sees how he has treated Lady Bird. Because Gerard seems to have chosen Aurelia, Chrysolina vows to pretend a love for Thornay, but when she learns from Yongrave that Thornay has received a letter from another woman, Chrysolina also rejects Thornay as a suitor. The solution to the merry maze of relationships comes at the play's ending masque, when Chrysolina weds Yongrave, Aurelia weds Gerard, and Eugenia weds Thornay.


In a dumb show in Dekker’s Match Me in London, they prepare for the wedding of the king to Tormiella.


Only mentioned in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus. According to Ingenioso and Iudicio, Thomas Churchyard's Jane Shore will not live to sustain his memory.


The Churl is an ill-favored rustic in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris. Because the maid Thestylis has rejected the love of the swain Colin and caused his death from unrequited love, Venus takes revenge by arranging for Thestylis to dote upon the Churl and for him to reject her just as she had her earlier lover.


Churms is the wily knave of the title who is beguiled in the anonymous Wily Beguiled. He is the lawyer in whom Gripe places all his trust to deal with his debtors and also to establish the union between Lelia and Peter Ploddall. Churms desires Lelia, however, and with his friend Robin Goodfellow, plots to win her for himself. He suggests using Habeas Corpus to oust Ploddall's tenants who are behind with their rent while simultaneously suggesting the union of their children. When Ploddall and Gripe meet, Churms reminds the latter to have some of Ploddall's land conveyed to him to make up for the money Peter Ploddall will get when he marries Lelia. Churms explains his secret intentions to his friend Robin Goodfellow. While he is acting on Gripe's behalf to persuade Lelia to marry Peter Ploddall, he alone will gain access to Lelia. When Lelia has him carry messages to Sophos, the man Lelia loves, Churms will not hand over her messages but will instead read them and so learn of Sophos's plans. He tells Robin to work on Peter Ploddall and to convince him that Robin Goodfellow can make Lelia love him. Churms then tells Sophos that he will aid Sophos in his love for Lelia. He then tells Gripe that he will work to make Lelia accept Peter Ploddall. He then declares his own love to Lelia. She rejects him but agrees to be his friend, and he agrees to persuade her father to let her make her own choice in love. He is delighted that she has agreed to be his friend, anticipating more to follow, and that despite her father, she refuses to hold Peter Ploddall's hand. He has a scheme for making money from Gripe's debtors, and that Sophos has been entrusting him with letters for Lelia. Robin announces his plans to dress up and frighten Sophos in the woods. When Lelia asks Charms to go with her the next night to a friend's, two days' journey away, Churms is overjoyed. He makes clear that he will need money for the excursion with Lelia, and will gain it from Gripe's debtors by offering to forgive their debts in exchange for a small proportion of what they owe Gripe. He arrives in the woods expecting to take Lelia on the long journey, instead, he is attacked by Fortunatus who has been lying in wait. He must flee after it is clear Lelia loves Sophos and not him. When Churms meets Robin Goodfellow later and learns that Goodfellow has not succeeded in frightening Sophos away, the two leave to go to a place where they are unknown and there set up their knavery afresh.


A kitchen maid to Sir Harry, Cicely is only listed as "a Kitchen-maid" in the Dramatis Personae, but she is addressed by name by her fellow servant, Taber in Thomas Heywood's The Wise Woman of Hogsdon. She and Taber consult the Wise-Woman of Hogsdon together, where it is revealed that she is Taber's love interest, although little is made of this relationship in the play.


A milkmaid in Nabbes' Tottenham Court, the daughter of the keeper of Marylebone Park, who befriends Bellamie after Bellamie and Worthgood are separated in the park. The two women switch clothes to help Bellamie escape her pursuers. Cicely is wooed by Frank, one of the gallants who represent the sensual love of which Nabbes disapproved, and is mistaken for a prostitute by James, another of the gallants. Cicely, in contrast, is one of the play's chief proponents of a more idealistic, Platonic love. She discovers in the play's final scene that she is actually the natural brother of Worthgood, Bellamie's fiancé, and she ends up engaged to Sam, Bellamie's brother, after the keeper provides her with a marriage portion.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors. Cicely is a serving woman at the Phoenix Inn belonging to Antipholus Sereptus and his wife Adriana. Dromio of Ephesus calls to her and the other serving women to open the door to him and their master. Inside, Dromio of Syracuse responds "coxcomb" (i.e. fool) to this name.


Cicely is a "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen. She is the daughter of a seamstress and does not arrive as promised to take part in the morris-dancing performance planned for the Duke.


Mistress Bonavent's husband was a maritime trader in Shirley's Hyde Park. They had a pact: if he disappeared, Mistress Bonavent would wait for seven years before remarrying. The end of this time is approaching fast: she will marry Lacy as soon as the seven-year wait is over. She does not enjoy the way in which Lacy mocks and forces the strange newcomer (who is actually her husband in disguise) to dance. She loses a small bet with Carol on the foot race–wrongly, she predicted that the English runner would win. She is angry with the newcomer when he humiliates Lacy in revenge for the earlier forced dancing incident. She wonder aloud what his credentials are to be among the company–and who let him join them. On receipt of a note, she realizes that the newcomer is her husband in disguise. She promises not to reveal his identity, and will go along with his plan. She announces to the company that she has known that her once-lost husband has been present since they were in the Park earlier. She enjoys the theatricality with which Bonavent reveals himself, and celebrates the reinvigoration of her own marriage and the new bond between Carol and Fairfield.


A "ghost character" in Greene's James IV. She is mentioned by Slipper as one of the two possible wives he considers but rejects.


See also TULLY and TULLIUS.


Cicero in the anonymous Caesar and Pompey laments the fall of Pompey but then also laments at Caesar's funeral.
A great Roman orator and a seer of sorts, who predicts the fall of Rome in Kyd's Cornelia. He recognizes that the factions within the government and the resultant civil war, itself caused by the tyranny and ambitions of Caesar, will lead to the ultimate destruction of Rome and the overthrow of Caesar. He appeals to the god, Jupiter as the sole protector of Rome, to spare those Romans who have remained faithful to Rome's ideals and to the gods. Some Romans are honorable in spite of the prevailing atmosphere in the Capitol. Cicero mourns the deaths of Crassus and the other Roman soldiers who have been killed in Pharsalia, leaving Rome divided and weakened. He berates the Roman citizens for allowing greedy and ambitious men to destroy what was once a powerful and unified state. Rome could rule the entire world with the gods' blessings, but because of personal ambitions and envy, the gods are turning against this once blessed city. Rome alone can destroy Rome, and Cicero predicts that Rome will fall. After the brutal assassination of her second husband, Pompey, Cornelia considers suicide as preferable to enduring a cursed and miserable existence. Cicero convinces her that death is appointed by the gods and is not determined by the individual. Suicide would be dishonorable in her case, even though later on in the play, Cornelia's father, Scipio, kills himself rather than allow his enemies to capture him. Only a warrior can commit suicide and retain his honor.
Marcus Tullius Cicero is a consul in republican Rome in Jonson's Catiline. He is a forceful speaker whose eloquence has raised him to the highest office in the Roman republic, the consulship. Cicero enters the Roman Senate with the other senators, delivering his address of gratitude for having been elected consul, despite his humble origin. It is inferred that word had transpired about Catiline's plot to become consul, and the citizens elected Marcus Antonius and Cicero instead of Catiline. At Fulvia's house, Cicero persuades Fulvia and Curius to spy for him in Catiline's party. Concurrently, Cicero sends his brother for Caius Antonius, whom he wants to bribe with a rich province in order to prevent him from siding with Catiline. At his house, Cicero enters with Fulvia and his brother. Fulvia has warned him about Catiline's plot of assassination, and Cicero sends for his trusted friends and clients to act as witnesses for him. Cicero confronts the conspirators sent to murder him with their guilt in front of witnesses, inviting them to repent, but the attempting murderers steal away. In the Senate, Cicero addresses his discourse against Catiline, indicting him for the conspiracy. Since Catiline denies the allegations and goes to exile, Cicero sets out to obtain material proof against the conspirators. Having been informed that Catiline's allies intended to enroll Allobroges in their party, Cicero instructs the ambassadors to request letters explaining their designs. The praetors intercept the incriminating letters and thus Cicero is able to bring proof of the conspiracy before the Senate. Since the conspirators deny all evidence, they are placed in private custody. When reports come that the conspirators continued their seditious actions, Cicero summons the Senate urgently and the death sentence is pronounced. Cicero is awarded the Civic Garland for services rendered to the nation. Cicero has the final oration in the Senate, thanking the gods for having given him the opportunity to save Rome.
Cicero is a Roman Senator in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. He offered a Greek oration when Caesar was offered the crown; Casca claims not to have understood any of that oration. Cicero dies by the order of the triumvirate after Caesar's death.
The famous Roman orator Marcus Tullius Cicero, or Tully, the name that he claims to prefer, has a dilemma in Machin's(?) Every Woman in Her Humour. He is in love with Terentia, a senator's daughter who is not only out of his reach but also the beloved of his friend Lentulus. Tully is so devoted to Lentulus that he agrees to woo Terentia on his friend's behalf. But all of his rhetorical ability is useless in this case: Tully cannot persuade Terentia to love Lentulus because Terentia is in love with Tully. She convinces Tully that his low birth is of no matter; she loves him for his virtue and learning. Unfortunately, Terentia's father, Flaminius, is not at all pleased with the match that his daughter has made for herself, and he promises to take the matter to the Senate and the Emperor if necessary. Tully's chief worry is that he has betrayed his friend; however, Lentulus is quick to accept the couple and to propose to Flavia instead. The four solemnize their vows in a double ceremony at which the Emperor is in attendance.
A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned by Seneca as having approved of Caesar's Commentaries.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Mitis raises objections regarding the structure of the comedy they are seeing, Cordatus responds in defense of the author. He says that, when trying to give an outlining of comedy, one is not content with Cicero's definition and should propose a better one. Cordatus refers to Cicero's dramatic criticism. In his Letters, Orations, and various treatises, Cicero evolves interesting ideas on drama, but nowhere sums up any complete theory. Cordatus exploits the ambiguity about Cicero's dramatic criticism and alludes to the idea that comedy authors are allowed to innovate within the genre.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Vincent was mentioned by Master Silence when he is offering Master Ominous a solution to put an end to his misfortunes: "Then throw away Tully, De divinatione, that heathen lawyer, ay, and De Dis Syris too." Marcus Tullius Cicero attacked divination in De divinatione (44 B. C.). De Dis Syris–Concerning Wealthy Syria–was written by John Selden (1584-1654). Tully is later mentioned by Sir Cupid Phantsy when he is explaining to Doctor Clyster that "love's language is the finest language", he adds "Tullys spoke them." 'Tullys' is used here as an extensive name for 'Ciceroes', referring to poets in general. Marcus Tullius Cicero (c. 106-43 B. C.) was an accomplished poet, a forensic orator, lawyer, politician, and philosopher. He was an important actor in many of the significant political events of his time, which coincided with the decline and fall of the Roman Republic.


Quintus Cicero is Cicero's brother and a tribune of the people in republican Rome in Jonson's Catiline. When Cicero learns of Catiline's conspiracy, he is preparing to take measures. Thus, he sends for his trusted brother Quintus Cicero and the tribunes, as well as for his colleague Caius Antonius, the other consul. At his house, Cicero welcomes his brother, telling him to order the Porter to let no one into the house that night. When Quintus Cicero asks if his brother would not admit his clients or his colleagues, Cicero says that his murderers are coming under the guise of friends. According to intelligence obtained from Curius via Fulvia, Catiline's plan was to have Vargunteius and Cornelius introduce themselves into Cicero's house as friends and then murder him. Cicero asks Quintus Cicero to send for Cato and Catulus to act as reliable witnesses, and for the praetors. Quintus Cicero is surprised at his brother's excessive caution, warning Cicero that, by behaving like that, he might make his friends angry with him, while his enemies would laugh at his stupidity. Later, Quintus Cicero reports the arrival of Cato, Catulus, and Crassus, as well as some of his clients and friends, among whom are Vargunteius and Cornelius. Quintus Cicero attends the scene in which the conspirators are not admitted in, and then steal away cowardly, while the other witnesses enjoin Cicero to send the praetors after the alleged assassins.

CICILIA **1636

Sister to Facertes and Lucius in Killigrew’s The Princess. Virgilius has fallen in love with her. She is captured by the soldiers where Nigro and the viceroy fall. The soldiers at first want to rape her but, fearing the lieutenant and Terresius’s wrath, decide instead to sell her in Naples. Virgilius intends to by her freedom for two thousand sestertia but Bragadine pays for her first. She falls in love with Virgilius when he fights for her, but Bragadine takes her nonetheless. The intervention of Paulina sees her safely stowed in her house where Facertes comes to her and reveals that he is alive and free. She is horrified to learn that the man she loves is none other than Virgilius, the conqueror she hates. She vows revenge upon him despite loving him. When he speaks to her, though, her love for him causes her to forgive him (though she cannot forgive herself for doing so). When Virgilius is wounded in rescuing her, she begs him to forgive her for wanting vengeance. Shipwrecked, she is recaptured along with her brother and Paulina by the same pirates that sold her. Cicilia’s prayers for Facertes’s life wins Cilius, who spares him. When the pirates discover who she and Facertes are, they release her. She is reunited with Virgilius and her lost brother Lucius/Cilius, and all ends happily.

CILIUS **1636

Supposed name of Lucius by which he is known throughout Killigrew’s The Princess. He has been reared by Terresius and believes his name is Cilius, the name he was given in infancy to protect his identity from the Romans. He has been a Roman prisoner but as the play begins is returning to the pirate band led by Terresius. In five days, he will become captain of the band himself. He wants nothing better than to kill Virgilius who has conquered his Sicily. He falls in love with Sophia at first sight and wishes he were the commander already so he could free her. He learns from Nigro that a beautiful woman was taken by the pirates and resolves to go to save the innocent girl. He conspires with the lieutenant to arm the captives and thus free Sophia. He has fallen in love with her and does not know what to do about it. He and the pirates discover the shipwrecked Facertes and takes him, Cicilia, and Paulina captive. Cicilia’s prayers for Facertes’s life wins Cilius, who spares him. Cilius is enraged when Virgilius burns his galleys. The two meet and fight, wounding one another before Terresius and Nigro find and part them. They learn then that Cilius is Prince Lucius and Virgilius the beloved of Lucius’s sister Cicilia. Cilius/Lucius recants his interest in Sophia in favor of his elder brother, and all ends happily.


A centaur in Heywood's The Silver Age, invited to the feast of Perithous and Hypodamia, killed in the battle.


Metellus Cimber is one of those who plot Caesar's death in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. He begins the deadly series of events at the Senate by kneeling before Caesar and asking for the recall of his banished brother Publius Cimber.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar Publius Cimber is the banished brother for whom Metellus Cimber kneels before Caesar and begs his return from banishment. He does not appear on stage during the play.


Cimbrio, a slave along with Gracculo in Massinger's The Bondman; he revolts, and runs amok through the city. He is spared at the end of the play by Timoleon on condition that he return to his master.

CIMENA **1637

Beloved of Roderigo and Sancho in Rutter’s The Cid. She is pleased to learn that her father prefers Roderigo, but her heart misgives. When Roderigo kills Gormas in the duel, she goes to the king and begs for justice and revenge. She admits to Elvira that she loves Roderigo and is resolved to first see vengeance for her father and, after Roderigo is dead, kill herself. Roderigo steps forth, having heard her, and offers her his sword to kill him, but she will not. Despite Roderigo’s victory in vanquishing the invading Moors, she resolves to remain true to her honor and duty to see her father’s death avenged. When Cimena calls upon the ancient law that whosoever kills Roderigo may marry her, the king modifies it by allowing her only one champion and whoever wins Cimena must marry. She accepts Sancho as her champion. When Roderigo comes to her to say he intends to die at Sancho’s hands and so deliver himself into the punishment she wishes, she begs him to defend himself because she loves him. During the contest, she realizes that if Roderigo wins her father’s honor will not be avenged and she fears she can never be a bride to her father’s murderer. When Sancho appears before her, she upbraids him and scolds him for murdering her love and will not let him speak. She begs the king to give Sancho all she owns but to allow her to pine away for her lost love in a cloister. Having betrayed her love for Roderigo, she can scarcely refuse to marry him when she discovers he has won but refused to spill the blood that fought for her. Instead, she accepts the king’s decree that her father’s honor has been satisfied and agrees to marry Roderigo after she has mourned her father for one year.


An alternative spelling for Amyntas in Lyly's Midas.


Cinedo is Fastidious Brisk's page in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Cinedo seems to be a short person, because Carlo Buffone says he looks like a colonel of the Pigmies or one of the moving figures of an antique clock. Before Puntavorlo's country house, Cinedo enters with his master, Fastidious Brisk, who is accompanied by Carlo Buffone and Sogliardo. Cinedo receives the instruction to watch for Puntavorlo's arrival from hunting and let them know when he comes. Cinedo re-enters and says he thinks Puntavorlo is due to arrive presently, because his hounds always precede him. As Cinedo is going out, Sogliardo takes him aside and probably makes him some proposition, considering the vague allusions to Sogliardo's homosexuality. In an apartment at court, Cinedo serves tobacco to Fastidious Brisk. While smoking, Fastidious Brisk complains the tobacco is not dry, or the pipe is defective. He asks Cinedo to mend the pipe. When Fastidious Brisk tells Macilente about Saviolina, praising her qualities, Cinedo reinforces his master's comments. When Fastidious Brisk says the lady loves activity, Cinedo invokes an image in which, even if a gentleman had but his long stockings on, he would still like to dance a lively dance in triple time with Saviolina. It seems that this image has been triggered to Cinedo's memory by what he saw his master do in Saviolina's presence. After mending Fastidious Brisk's pipe, Cinedo exits.


Petty King in Kent in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. The "four Kings of Kent" (Cingetorix, Carvilius, Taximagulus and Segonax) are followers of Cassibelane.


A "ghost character" in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Cinifred was the mother of Saint Dunston.


Cinna is a consul and a supporter of Marius in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. During the opening debate, he agrees with the Senate's censure of Scilla and supports Marius. There is no stage direction for him to leave with Marius, but he has no speeches after that, and since he is an open supporter of Marius, it may be assumed he exits with the others. He sends a message to Young Marius stating that he has managed to make those neutral to Scilla revolt against him. The letter also directs Young Marius to seek out his father and march on Rome. He represents and organizes the young citizens, who rally for Marius. There is almost a battle between the two factions when several peals of thunder convince the older faction to break off. Cinna takes the thunder a sign that Jove is on the side of Marius. When Marius takes Rome, Cinna complains that Octavius made Cinna nothing but a figurehead, and asks Marius for justice. Marius responds that he submits to the will of Cinna, as consul, and Cinna immediately has Octavius stabbed to death. After Octavius' body is carried away, Cinna points to the empty consul seat and offers it to Marius, who accepts. Cinna then publicly decrees Scilla and his friends traitors and exiles.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. Lucius Cornelius Cinna was a Roman patrician and consul of the republic between 87–84 BC. He was a principal supporter of Marius against Sylla. When Sylla was at war in Africa, Cinna and Marius declared themselves consuls, and a great slaughter of Sylla's followers took place. After Marius's death, Sylla remained consul. When Sylla set out for Rome, Cinna raised an army to oppose him, but before the civil war began, Cinna was murdered in a mutiny. His daughter, Cornelia, was the first wife of Julius Caesar. When Catiline discloses to Aurelia his plan of becoming consul, he admits the necessity of enrolling dissatisfied Roman generals and patricians to his cause. Among others, Catiline mentions Lentulus, who descended from the Cornelius family. According to the prophecy in the Sibylline Books, a third man from his family shall be king in Rome. Catiline admits to having paid the Augurers to interpret this prophecy as meaning Lentulus, since the other two Cornelii, Cinna and Sylla are dead. The relativity of such an interpretation is obvious.


Cinna is part of the conspiracy against Caesar in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. He reports to Casca and Cassius of several strange sights about the city on the eve of Caesar's murder. Cassius directs Cinna to deliver certain anonymous letters and signs meant to urge Brutus to join the conspiracy.


Cinna the Poet in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar has no family tie to the conspirator Cinna but is accosted on his way to Caesar's funeral by vengeful citizens and is condemned simply because his name is Cinna and torn to pieces by the angry mob.


See also CYPHER.

CIPHER **1599

'Headsman' or member of the Corporation along with Colby and Rumford in Ruggle’s Club Law. As his name implies, he takes any side that seems stronger and agrees with whoever speaks last. “He will saye nothing all the day but, yea: indeed: it is even so: by all means: or by no means: true: right: good: well." He is sycophantic in the presence of Niphle, the new Burgomaster. After the fight, he sides with the townsmen and Brecknocke that they should make peace with the students and agrees to Niphle’s compromise plan to appear to make peace with the students and look for an opportunity for revenge.


A non-speaking character in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. A "plaguie witch" whom Alcippus claims can "raise the dead," Circe was previously "move[d]" to "madness" over Glaucus's "scornd love" for Scylla, "quenche[d]" Scylla's "beautie and his [Glaucus's] loves" and, thus, helped to "eas[e] his greife." Later "with charmes, and prayers and gifts" she "wone him" and, with him, conceived the twins Thalander and Glaucilla. Atyches presents Olinda with a pipe which he claims is Thalander's "mother Circes gift" to her son and, along with Glaucus, Circe leads Olinda from the "rocke" where she is supposedly buried, and "retire[s]" (leaving Olinda with the amazed Thalander).
Only mentioned in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. Demetrius, influenced by his father's false claim that Celia is a sorceress, accuses her of being a Circe. In classical mythology, Circe was an enchantress, or a witch, known for turning Odysseus's men into beasts.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Carion jokes that, like Circe, he will turn Clodpole, Lackland, and Stiff into hogs.


A moral abstraction in Skelton's Magnyfycence. After having ascertained Magnyfycence's moral regeneration, together with Perseveraunce and Redresse, Cyrcumspeccyon restores him to his previous condition.

CIS **1630

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Cis is one of Justice Nimis' "subsidy-women" along with Incontinence, "Jumping Jude," "bouncing Nan," and "heroic Doll," all of whom he sets free because of his relationship with them.


Cis is a chambermaid in Quarles' The Virgin Widow who thinks about buying a love-potion from Quack so that her suitor Frank the Falconer will no longer be so interested in his hawk.

CISS **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Carion imagines when everyone is rich even the milkmaids will be addressed formally as "Madame Kate" or "Madame Ciss." The names Kate, Ciss, and Jane are used several times throughout the play as the names for generic young maids to be loved and kissed.


A kind old citizen, who gives a coin to Flowerdale in The London Prodigal, but warns him off begging.


A citizen approaches Morton early on in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III and demands repayment of a loan. Morton informs the citizen that he cannot repay the loan now because of England's uncertain political landscape in the wake of Edward IV's death. After a brief conversation with Edward's mistress, Morton concedes that Mrs. Shore's position might be weakening at court.


In Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI he informs Lord Scales that Jack Cade is still alive and has taken London Bridge. He informs Scales that the Lord Mayor has requested his aid in repulsing the rebels.

CITIZEN **1604

A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. One of the cardinal’s men took up commodities from him valued at a thousand pounds in the cardinal’s name but deferred payment and ruined him. By him, Henry learns how the servants of lords may, in their lord’s name, ruin poor honest men. When Henry is discovered, he tells all such men to petition him at court and receive recompense for their ill treatment. This could be the Second Prisoner, who blesses the king for his grace.


A wealthy citizen of London is a "fictional character" in Jonson's The Alchemist. In his sexual fantasy regarding his exceptional sexual prowess gained because of the magical elixir, Mammon imagines he will take every wealthy citizen's wife as his mistress in exchange for a thousand pounds.


An alternate designation for City in Brome's A Jovial Crew. City is a branch of the commonwealth (Utopia) represented in the aborted masque following the beggars' wedding. It is to be played by Springlove. City vies for superiority with Country and Court.


The man over whom Betty and Francesca initially draw swords in Brome's The Weeding of Covent Garden. He is subsequently beaten by the two prostitutes for impugning their professional health. Based upon the Citizen's particular complaint of assault, Cockbrain weeds Covent Garden. In the spirit of concluding goodwill, he drops all charges.


This is a disguise Robin Hood takes on to deceive John in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. He takes it just before he leaves for the forest as he waits for Marian to join him.


The citizen is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. He is a mercer who refuses to accept payment from the gentleman for goods provided. Instead, he demands that the gentleman sleep with his wife, in order that his sons might be gentlemen by birth. He sues the gentleman and the judge finds in the citizen's favor.


The character labeled simply Another Citizen in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More appears during the May Day riots and supports Lincoln's view that, unless something is done about the gouging of the common people by the foreign merchants, the price of essential foodstuffs will become ruinous.


Two citizens appear in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell. They appear together in a brief scene immediately after Cromwell is arrested by the nobles at Lambeth. They express amazement and disappointment at the arrest because he has performed so many charitable acts. They acknowledge that although he is loved by the king, at court so many are jealous of him that he is not safe. They agree to meet again later. Citizen 1 goes off to court to hear what happens to Cromwell. Citizen 2 says he will go to the city where he expects to hear more information than Citizen 1.


There are several French citizens fleeing Crécy before the invading English army in the Anonymous King Edward III. Two of them have speaking parts:
  1. The First Citizen argues that to wait and see if Crécy is attacked is like the grasshopper that is surprised by winter.
  2. The Second Citizen fears the worst and will not be convinced that King John can protect them.


Two quarrelsome citizens figure in Barry's Ram Alley:
  1. The First Citizen is a friend of the Second Citizen. They had fallen out, but consulted with Throat and are now reconciled. Throat advises them to go to the tap-house, to drink and then quarrel again, so that they will be forced to return to him for arbitration.
  2. The Second Citizen is a friend of the First Citizen. They had fallen out, but consulted with Throat and are now reconciled. Throat advises them to go to the tap-house, to drink and then quarrel again, so that they will be forced to return to him for arbitration.


While Bunch is singing merrily in the anonymous Weakest Goeth to the Wall, three citizens rush in, announcing the invasion of the city by Anjou, and looking for somewhere to hide their valuables. Lodowick enters ordering the citizens to take up arms to defend themselves. They flee declaring that the help he is expecting is actually fighting for the Duke of Anjou.


In the gathering after Caesar's murder in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, four citizens speak from the crowd:
  1. The First Citizen urges a triumph for Brutus after Caesar's murder, claiming that Caesar was a tyrant.
  2. The Second Citizen responds at the beginning of Antony's eulogy of Caesar by suggesting a statue of Brutus be commissioned. By the end of the eulogy, however, the Citizen decries Brutus and company as murderous traitors.
  3. The Third Citizen, upon hearing the beginning of Antony's eulogy, suggests that Brutus assume Caesar's title. By the end of Antony's oration, however, this Citizen fears that someone worse than Caesar is likely to end up ruling Rome.
  4. The Fourth Citizen initially believes that Brutus is a much better person than was Caesar, and he wants Antony to speak no ill of Brutus. After hearing Antony's eulogy of Caesar, however, this Fourth Citizen recalls that Caesar had indeed refused the crown three times. He is the first to demand that Antony read Caesar's will.


The Citizens hear that Leucippus has been condemned to die, and decide to take action to save him in Beaumont & Fletcher's Cupid's Revenge. The lords Agenor and Nisus witness Leucippus' rescue by the citizens.


Four citizens figure in Shirley's The Doubtful Heir. The First and Second Citizens are local garter merchants to whom the Captain owes money. Because the Captain threatens the Citizens with a charge similar to vagrancy, the debt is forgiven, and the Citizens become soldiers. After the war, the Citizens are convinced by the Captain to try their luck at court, spending large sums to become courtiers extraordinary. The Third and Fourth Citizens come to court in search of city acquaintances, the First and Second Citizens. All four Citizens have been garter merchants in the city.


There are several citizens that figure in Fletcher's The Island Princess:
  1. The first citizen of Terna is first to cry out when the explosion set by Armusia, Emanuel, and Soza causes a fire to break out in the city, threatening all of their homes, businesses, and possessions. He heard a voice cry "Treason" when the fire started. He informs the Governor that the fire ignited from an explosion in the newly arrived Merchant's home, giving away the Portuguese plot and setting the Governor on his course of revenge.
  2. The second of the citizens of Terna brags about how brave he was to fight the fire until it was extinguished.
  3. The third of the citizens of Terna brags about the bravery of all of the citizens who fought the fires caused by the explosion.
  4. The other citizens are comic, common characters. The citizens of Terna run into the street when the prison explodes and the resultant fire quickly spreads through the town. They frantically try to put out the fire with water or wine or anything that might douse the flames.


In Middleton's(?) Puritan, he is convinced by Pyeboard, whom he has never met and who picked his home at random, to help him escape from the catchpole, Dogson, and the Sheriff's deputy.


The Citizen of Angiers appears on the wall in Shakespeare's King John. He declares that the city is loyal to the King of England, but that the citizens do not know yet if that is John or Arthur. They prefer to wait until a battle has demonstrated who the correct king is. After an inconclusive battle, the Citizen suggests that the Dauphin marry Blanche and thus create peace between France and England. This proposal is accepted.


Two Babylonian citizens figure in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2:
  • The first citizen begs the governor to set out the flags of truce even though Tamburlaine wears his colors that pronounce 'no quarter.'
  • The second citizen says he will leap from a wall rather than fall under Tamburlaine's sword.


The boastful and arrogant Hernando, the Spanish general in the anonymous Weakest Goeth to the Wall, invades deep into France and is ready to raze the town of Shamount. Two of the citizens offer him gold if he will spare their town, but he dismisses their request saying he needs no money, and kills them.


Promises Anthony Sherley that the Venetian state will help him in his case against Zariph in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers.


The Citizen is the father of Elner, whom Manvile woos after he has spurned Em in [?]Wilson's Fair Em, the Miller's Daughter. He approves the match, but is disturbed when Valingford warns him of Manvile's inconstancy.


He tries to protect his daughter from Sancto Danila who threatens his life in the anonymous A Larum for London. He reveals that his daughter is in a convent and is taken away to be tortured. He will be made to reveal the location of the convent so that Danila can rape the daughter. He returns with his daughter, who pleads with Danila for their safety. The old citizen offers money to Danila but is killed on Danila's orders.


Two citizens of Julio in Whetstone's 2 Promos and Cassandra. In response to the royal proclamation on corrupt officials, they complain to Ulrico that Phallax has bonded them for failing to repay a debt by a vague deadline. They also tell Ulrico that Phallax keeps Lamia.


Three citizens figure in the anonymous A Larum for London:
  • The First Citizen rejoices over the "death" of Dalua, whom the Citizen calls a bloody villain. He worries that their lack of discipline will mean victory for the Spanish.
  • The Second Citizen cheers the "death" of Dalua, whose death the Citizen says will please the devil. He worries about losing his life.
  • The Third Citizen delights in Dalua's "death," only wishing he could see into the hearse.


A group of citizens in Middleton's A Mad World, My Masters. They are not individualized, but they attend the feast hosted by Sir Bounteous during which the players of Lord Owemuch (really Follywit, Mawworm, Hoboy, and their cronies) stage The Slip and Follywit reveals his recent marriage to the courtesan Frank Gullman.


Two men and a woman mock and deride Bonner as he is led by the officers to prison at the end of Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk.


On the King's birthday in Fletcher's The Pilgrim, the citizens of Segonia beg the Governor to rid them of the scourge of Roderigo and his fellow outlaws.


The citizens in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant and their wives fail at trying to convince the Ushers to allow them in the court to view the Ambassadors.


Early in Fletcher's A Wife for a Month, the city wives want to go to the wedding, and they request admission from Tony, the king's fool. Wife One and Wife Two are young and beautiful, so they are allowed in. Wife Three is old and is denied entrance, but she and her husband vow to enter nonetheless. Tony, Cleanthes, Camillo, and Menallo think that these ladies have come to court to rendezvous with noblemen. In the second act of the play, while Camillo, Cleanthes, and Menallo are calling for the entrance of the "handsome wives" and the exclusion of their husbands, it is revealed that some of the wives are citizen men in "queans" clothes.


The commencement of hostilities between England and France in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John concerns the city of Angiers, which has been subject to England but is now claimed by France for Arthur. The citizens decline to choose, resolving to close their gates to both until their lawful ruler is identified. After the first inconclusive passage at arms between the two kings, the Citizens propose that the quarrel be settled by the marriage of Lewes of France to the Lady Blanche and so save the town.


When Scilla once again conquers Rome after the death of Marius and Young Marius in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War, the Citizens unanimously consent to have Scilla as Dictator of Rome.


Three Citizens figure in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage. The Citizens of Naples are subjected to the tyrannical behavior of King Ferrand. The king, fearing assassination plots, has ordered that his citizens not communicate in words or writing.
  • The first Citizen uses sign language to communicate with fellow Neapolitans, but breaks his silence to warn Sesse and his followers that to be seen talking is a capital offense. The Citizen returns to tell Sesse to flee because Ferrand is coming. When Sesse and his crew, disguised as Switzers, launch a coup to depose Ferrand, the Citizen calls for liberty and expresses his support and admiration for Sesse. Once the Duke removes his Switzer disguise, he is recognized and followed by the citizens, whom he advises to use moderation as they exact their revenge on Ferrand. After Ferrand is beheaded, the citizens accompany Sesse in triumph and the first Citizen asks the Duke to be Naples' king.
  • A second Citizen also uses sign language to communicate with fellow Neapolitans, but breaks his silence to warn Sesse and his followers that to be seen talking is a capital offense. The second Citizen returns to warn Sesse to flee because Ferrand is coming. When Sesse and his crew, disguised as Switzers, launch a coup to depose Ferrand, the Citizen calls for liberty and expresses his support and admiration for the Duke. Once Sesse removes his Switzer disguise, he is recognized and followed by the citizens who he advises to use moderation as they exact their revenge on Ferrand. After Ferrand is beheaded, the citizens accompany Sesse in triumph.
  • When the pirate Duke Sesse launches his rebellion against Ferrand, the tyrannical king of Naples, the third Citizen joins in the cry of liberty and swells the number of citizens shouting their compliments to Sesse. The third Citizen suggests that Sesse be named king in Ferrand's place.


Citizens of Verona who attempt to keep the peace in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. They help stop the brawl between the Capulets and the Montagues at the beginning of the play and investigate the deaths of Tybalt and Mercutio,


When fighting breaks out in the Senate, two groups of citizens figure in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. Each group has a spokesman.
  1. The Old Citizen speaks for the old men. It seems likely that the Old Citizen is for Scilla, as a contrast to the Young Citizen, since he responds mockingly to Anthony's claim that the gods are controlling them all, it is also possible that he is a Marius supporter.
  2. The Young Citizen speaks for the young men in supporting Marius when the battle breaks out. He promises that they will live and die for Marius.


The seven Roman citizens in Shakespeare's Coriolanus, in their conversations with and discussions about Coriolanus, remind the audience of the contradictory responses elicited by the hero. At times the citizens generally see Coriolanus as the "chief enemy of the people," but they occasionally admit that his service to the state should not be ignored. In the end, the citizens play into the hands of the tribunes Brutus and Sicinius and demand the banishment of Coriolanus.


In the Anonymous King Edward III, during the siege of Crécy, Edward demands that six rich citizens come before him, naked except for their shirts and with halters around their necks, to beg for mercy for their city. When Calais surrenders, the six citizens appear in the required garb and beg for mercy. Edward grants the city mercy, but plans to have the six citizens killed as an example. However, Queen Phillipa successfully pleads for their lives.


Citizens of London in Shakespeare's Richard III. The three meet each other in the street and discuss the death of Edward IV and the youth of Prince Edward. They recall that Henry VI was crowned while still an infant, and that England was ruled by his contentious uncles until he was old enough to take over; during this time, the Wars of the Roses began and England lost control of France. The citizens fear that the situation with Prince Edward will be similar.


They come to see Otto’s body in Fletcher’s Bloody Brother and believe Rollo’s lie that Otto was a traitor. They bless Rollo and thank the heavens for delivering him from treachery.


In the second act of Mayne’s Amorous War, the first citizen has heard that the island castle has been burnt and the Thracians are coming next to pillage Bithynia. The second says he will hang himself to avoid being tortured.


Gives a coin to Flowerdale when he is begging, but takes it back in offence when he offers to give her a "secret service" in The London Prodigal.


Two of the Wise-Woman's clients in Thomas Heywood's The Wise Woman of Hogsdon. Only one of the citizen's wives speaks. She is a widow who comes to inquire how many husbands she shall have. But other than helping to reveal to the audience the Wise-Woman's cozenage, her presence in the play has no impact on the plot.


An overbearing gentleman of the city in Brome's Court Beggar. He insults people in their absence, flatters them in their presence and always avoids a fight. He helps rescue Lady Strangelove when Ferdinand attacks her and helps her take her revenge on the Doctor. He is in love with Philomel. When she is courted by Dainty, Swainwit finally manages to push him into fighting. He challenges Dainty to fight by repeating every slander he has heard during the play. When Citwit serendipitously calls him a pickpocket, Dainty thinks he has been discovered and confesses. Citwit happily marries Philomel and is unperturbed by the revelation that she had a child out of wedlock. He plays Activity in the concluding masque.


Also Citizen or Merchant in Brome's A Jovial Crew. City is a branch of the commonwealth (Utopia) represented in the aborted masque following the beggars' wedding. It is to be played by Springlove. City vies for superiority with Country and Court.


Master Tom Civet is the heir to a great fortune in The London Prodigal. Although a foolish character, he marries the equally foolish Frances, and they have fun spending his wealth on frivolous things. The other characters warn Civet not to overspend, but he and Frances remain happy at the end of the play.


Cyvyle Order is one of King Johan's three estates in Bale's King Johan, Part 1. He swears allegiance to the King.
One of King Johan's three estates in Bale's King Johan, Part 2. Cyvyle Order is persuaded by Stevyn Langton (who is really Sedicyon in disguise) to be disloyal to King Johan, who has been excommunicated by the Pope. After the King's death, listening to Veritas's words, Cyvyle Order repents and is forgiven. He then swears allegiance to Imperyall Majestye, who represents King Henry VIII, promises to hang Dissymulacyon and puts Sedicyon to death.


Master Clack is a Justice with a tendency to dominate conversations in Brome's A Jovial Crew. He is guardian and uncle to Amie, whom he plans to marry to Tallboy, and father to Oliver. When Clack entertains Oldrents and Hearty, his niggardliness stands in direct contrast to the generosity and hospitality of Oldrents. He finally agrees to Amie's marriage to Springlove when Oldrents acknowledges that Springlove is his son and promises him part of Oldrents' estate.


Clack the Miller is the rival of Grim the Collier for the love of Joan the virtuous country maid in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Clack conspires with the shifty Parson Short-hose to win Joan, unaware that the Parson covets her for himself. The Parson takes advantage of a fight between Clack and Grim to try to steal Joan away, but Akercock as Robin Goodfellow intervenes, invisibly beating both Clack and the Parson so that Grim wins Joan and his rivals run away.


A wild Sylvan in Randolph's Amyntas. He is father to the twins, Amyntas and Amaryllis. Long missing from Sicily, where he is under sentence of death for long ago stealing as his own wife Lalage, the intended bride of Philaebus, son of the vengeful high priest, Pilumnus. Only Claius's blood, the long-standing Oracle says, will release the people of Sicily from the curse of Ceres, which prevents everyone from enjoying happy courtship and marriage. During his sixteen-years exile, he has studied medicine. He returns in disguise after hearing of his son's madness, prepared to risk capture and death to try to cure Amyntas. He is not recognized by his sister Thestylis, whose explanation of Amyntas's condition informs him in detail of the circumstances of his son's romance, and curse. He remains incognito and cures Amyntas, requesting only that Urania vow herself to chastity to prevent a relapse by putting their marriage beyond all hope. Still fearing recognition and arrest, he attempts to cure the wounded Amaryllis. He reveals his identity to her, to make her tell the truth about her assailant. He is captured by the priests and condemned to death, requesting only to see his children before he is sacrificed to Ceres. Amyntas wisely interprets the oracle concerning the spilling of his father's blood in time to save his life. Claius is reconciled with his old enemy, Pilumnus, as they celebrate their children's betrothals to each other.


The White Knight and son to the King of Swavia in the Anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. Juliana saves him from a sea tempest as the play opens. She grants him safe harbor in Denmark. In return, he promises to slay the flying serpent that terrorizes the women of Denmark. Though he promises to do this, he must first go to Swavia to be dubbed a knight. In Swavia, Clyomon, the Knight of the Golden Shield, takes the King's honorable blow meant for Clamydes and so steals his knighthood. Clamydes vows revenge for the insult. His father charges him to discover the name and country of the Knight of the Golden Shield or else never return to Swavia. Only after this charge is he knighted and allowed to proceed upon his quest. He takes Subtle Shift as his servant, thinking the Vice to be Knowledge. Clamydes finds Clyomon but is persuaded to fight with him—and so learn his name—in Macedonia before Alexander the Great. In the fifteen days before their meeting, Clamydes determines to fulfill his promise to slay the flying serpent. The slaying is accomplished offstage, and he enters in vii with the creature's head on his sword. He has ten days remaining before he must meet Clyomon in Macedonia, and he determines to fill the time by freeing the knights that Bryan Sans Foy holds captive. Bryan enchants him into a ten-day sleep, steals his garment, shield, the sword with the beast's head on it, and puts him in his prison. When Clamydes awakes, he finds Subtle Shift pretending to free him. Like Clyomon, Clamydes fears that he will be dishonored for having missed the contest in Macedonia. He learns that the Knight of the Golden Shield is on the Isle of Strange Marshes and goes there. There be becomes Champion for Mustantius in the contest for the crown. A deal between the queen of the island and Mustantius stops the contest, but Clamydes recognizes the disguised Clyomon (champion for the queen), and begs Alexander the Great that they may be allowed to fight. Instead, Alexander orders Clyomon to reveal his name in a manner that allows him not to break his vow. Learning that Clyomon is brother to Juliana, Clamydes swears friendship to the Knight of the Golden Shield. In Denmark, he unmasks the imposter Bryan Sans Foy and is reunited with Juliana. A double wedding is then planned for Clamydes/Juliana and Clyomon/Neronis.


Daughter to Bohemia and sister of Marba, Nama and Reba in Verney’s Antipoe. Along with her sisters, they love the Tartar knights, Dabon, Liperus, Macros and Sapos and agree to be wooed by them once the strife has ended, hoping noble Antipoe will be freed from prison. She climbs into the masquers’ chariot when they arrive to take her and her sisters away to Egypt. She and her sisters appear before the President of Tartar identified as their ‘contracted wives’ of the four worthy knights of Tartar. Upon learning of her husband’s death, she is next to kill herself after Cleantha. She is later seen as a ghost, clad in white, ascending to the throne with the others at the behest of Brutus.


Donna Clara is a friend of Estifania in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife. She visits the soldiers with a message, and allows her friend to accompany her, so that she can meet Michael Perez.


Clara is the daughter of Pedro and Maria de Cortes in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy. She is abducted and raped by Roderigo. Afterwards, she extracts from him a promise to amend his life and be faithful to whomever he marries. She reveals Roderigo's crimes to his father, Fernando, the Corigidor of Madrill. He resolves that his son must die, but Clara offers to marry Roderigo, an arrangement to which their parents consent.


Clara, daughter to Eugenia and Alvarez in Fletcher, Beaumont, and Massinger's, Love's Cure, is valiant and chaste. She is the martial maid of the alternate title. Raised by Alvarez to act and dress like a man, she negotiates the release of her father and protects Vitelli when he breaks into her house. Forced to act as a female, she is uncomfortable giving Vitelli any feminine love-tokens. Instead, she gives him her sword. She accompanies Piorato, and witnesses first hand Vitelli's courtship of Malroda. She takes him as her husband anyway. Willing, as are Eugenia and Genevora, to be shot and stabbed, she is instrumental in stopping the duel between Alvarez and Vitelli.

CLARA **1639

Moronzo’s daughter and Marania’s sister in Sharpe’s Noble Stranger. She is the princess’ confidante regarding the princess’ love of Honorio. When Fabianus courts her, she plays coy by rebuffing him as insincere. She nevertheless gives him her ring. When the princess is discovered in her illegal courtship with Honorio, the king pardons Clara of her part in it in deference to the duty her father has shown the king. She bravely takes her leave of Fabianus. When it is revealed that Honorio is actually the Prince of Portugal, she is allowed to marry Fabianus.


The Infanta (heiress) of the mythical "Mines," i.e., the source of all money in Jonson's The Staple of News. Her name translates to "golden bright money." More a symbol than a real person, she represents investment capital. Her attendants are named, symbolically, Mortgage, Band, Statute, and Wax, and all are depicted as little better than bawds. As a character, she is the ward of Pennyboy Senior, who has promised her to Pennyboy Junior but desires her for himself. Simultaneously dignified and flirtatious, aloof and accessible, she reluctantly goes along with Pennyboy Junior's directions to kiss and compliment the jeerers (idle hecklers) who are courting her to invest in their various schemes. Given to the protection, in turn, of Pennyboy Senior, Pennyboy Junior, and Pennyboy Canter, she is nearly claimed by Picklock before being restored to Pennyboy Senior "[t]o use her like a friend, not like a slave/Or like an idol." He in turn gives her back to Pennyboy Junior. She promises, in an epilogue, to "teach them all/The golden mean."


Sister to Balthazar and Leonte in Davenant's The Spanish Lovers. Mistress to Orgemon, she is the chief focus of desire in the play. Dorando falls in love with her at first sight, and saves the life of Balthazar for her sake. Faithful to Orgemon and oppressed by the fierce protectiveness of Leonte, she elopes with her lover in male disguise; for safety he leaves Claramante at the house of his friend Androlio, who sees through the disguise at once and harasses her. She is able to send word to Orgemon, who comes to rescue her, but Androlio, with a hired gang, pursues them to the woods, where he ties Orgemon up and takes Claramante to the house of Marillia as his captive. He does her no further harm, however, and leaves her asleep. His second servant betrays the secret to Leonte, who is trying to carry her off when Dorando appears in answer to her protests: he defeats Leonte, but spares his life for Claramante's sake. Orgemon, freed by Dorando, now finds Dorando with Claramante and they realize that they are rivals. They fight; Orgemon wins; but Claramante, who feels great obligations to Dorando, swears she will not marry Orgemon unless Dorando urges her to do so. Finally, after learning from Basilonte that he is Orgemon's younger brother, Dorando agrees to do this, and Orgemon and Claramante are united.


Clarange, rival to Lidian for the love of Olinda in Massinger's 1634 Cleander, or Lisander and Calista (a revision of Fletcher's 1623 The Wandering Lovers?). Olinda has declared that she will love only the last man to visit her. Clarange agrees to a duel with Lidian to settle matters, but Lisander convinces him not to fight. He hears that Lidian has become a hermit. He uses this to trick his friend and win Olinda: Clarange fakes his death so that Lidian will be forced to return to Olinda. Disguised as a friar, he accompanies Lidian back to court. When Lidian enters to inform Olinda of Clarange's death, he becomes the first to see Olinda again. Clarange then reveals himself and wins the contest. Once there, however, Clarange decides that he prefers the monastic life and gives up Olinda. He asks that he be allowed to marry her to Lidian.

CLARE **1628

Clare is a gentleman in Shirley's The Witty Fair One who delivers a message from Violetta to Aimwell; he is also a witness to their wedding.


The family name of Arthur, Dorcas, Henry, and Milliscent in the Anonymous The Merry Devil of Edmonton.


Clare is a guest at the wedding of Bonvile and Annabel in Webster and Rowley's A Cure for a Cuckold. When Lessingham woos her, she responds with an enigmatic letter that says that the only way to gain her love is to kill his best friend. Lessingham misinterprets her letter and the next day announces that he's killed Bonvile. Clare explains that she was in fact intending that he should kill her, since she was suicidal over her unrequited love for Bonvile and was planning to make Lessingham the unwitting agent of her death. Clare is then amazed to meet Bonvile and find that Lessingham only killed him metaphorically. She tells Bonvile that she used to love him, and explains Lessingham's mistake. Bonvile angers her by saying that he will work to reconcile Clare and Lessingham, since Lessingham deserves the punishment of being married to her. But when Lessingham encourages division between Annabel and Bonvile, Clare works to reconcile them by explaining her actions to Annabel, and at the end of the play she and Lessingham forgive each other.


The nickname sometimes used for Gilbert, Baron of Claridon in the anonymous The Wasp.

CLARE **1638

Niece to Alderman Covet, also spelled Clara in Glapthorne’s Wit in a Constable. Thorowgood and Clare have conspired that he should pose as a scholar himself to win Alderman Covet’s acceptance of him. She complains to her uncle of his sharp practice in keeping her, Grace, and Maudlin in mean circumstances. She insists upon being married to a courtly gentleman whose wit equals his estate and who can maintain a couch with four fair horses. She plays a trick on Thorowgood by pretending not to know him when he puts on his disguise. In revenge, he disavows her and makes it seem that she is dishonest when he plants Valentine in her chambers. In act four, she conspires with Grace and Busie to be revenged upon both Thorowgood and Valentine. The women assure Sir Timothy and Jeremy that they will make them terrible wives. Thinking they jest, both men take them at their word and agree to be complacent cuckolds and to marry the women immediately but in such secrecy that absolutely no one will know of it. “Freewit," Jeremy, Clare, and Grace meet in the street and exchange insults bred of wounded feelings until the men realize that the women still love them. They offer marriage, but the women scorn them. Nevertheless, she marries Thorowgood (aka Freewit) mistakenly believing he is Sir Timothy. She is much relieved by the match.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Annis Clare was a rich London widow, and a spring was named after her. When Whit invites Mistress Littlewit to sample Ursula's porcine wears, he says the lady will have the clean side of the table, and a dry glass washed with water from Dame Annessh Clare. Since Whit's accent is "stage Irish," he seems to have a problem with pronouncing sibilants and the name is distorted, but recognizable.


Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Glocester, is in love with King Edward's daughter Joan of Acon in Peele's Edward I. He enlists the aid of Queen Elinor in winning the king's approval for the marriage. It is de Clare who explains to the pregnant queen that Edward has insisted she come to Wales so that the Welsh will have to accept his son as a native-born Welshman.


Clare Harcop is daughter to Sir John Harcop a Yorkshire country gentleman in Wilkins's The Miseries of Enforced Marriage. She is the trothplight wife to William Scarborrow and commits suicide (in order that she might save Scarborrow from adultery and his issue from bastardy) when she learns of William's marriage to Katherine, Lord Falconbridge's niece.


Tenterhook's wife, in love with Monopoly in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho. She agrees to Justiniano's invitation to meet the gallants, but leaves the tavern-party suddenly upon learning that Monopoly is back in town. She urges her husband to have Ambush arrest Monopoly for debt, but bribes Ambush with her diamonds to bring him to her privately, and brings Monopoly to the assignation at Brainford. She and the other wives travel with the gallants to Brainford, but are disappointed in the men, who insist on either drinking or smoking to excess. Left alone with the other wives, she suggests they agree to abandon the gallants; she will pretend to be ill so that they will pay for conveyance home. Confronted by her husband, she is rescued by Birdlime, whose possession of the diamonds proves Tenterhook (and the other husbands) to be hypocritical whoremongers. She and the other wives ungratefully condemn Birdlime for enticing their husbands, and then forgive and reconcile with the men.


Clarella, along with Floria and Silvia in Ford's The Fancies Chaste and Noble, is one of the three Fancies, daughters of the Marquis's only sister, whom the Marquis keeps secluded from the world in the Bower of Fancies. Romanello, Livio and Castamela suppose them to be his mistresses. Clarella may be the eldest of the three, for at the end of the play the Marquis specifically bestows her on Livio as a mark of favor, while the other two are left free to be courted by the remaining single male characters.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. Jack Cade claims that his real name is John (or Jack) Mortimer, and that he is descended from the house of the Duke of Clarence, who was Lionel, the second son to Edward III, and therefore Cade has a stronger claim to the throne than has the Lancaster Henry VI, who descends from John of Gaunt, third son of Edward III.


He is the second son of Henry IV in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. King Henry tells him to guide his brother, Prince Hal, when Hal becomes king.
Thomas, Duke Duke of Clarence in Shakespeare's Henry V is the second son of Henry IV, brother of the Duke of Bedford, the Duke of Gloucester and Henry. He appears at Troyes in V.ii but is not listed in any edition of the dramatis personae.


Clarence is a gentleman, friend to Lord Monford for 20 years in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. He loves his friend's niece. But, he has no many expectations in that relationship because he realizes that he has less property than his beloved lady. However, to her he writes a letter that is taken by Lord Monford. Under his protection, he will also pretend to be sick to win Eugenia's love, which he gets at the end of the play.


Clarence, third son of Edward IV, brother of Henry VII's wife, Elizabeth of York, and also of the murdered "little princes" Edward V and Richard of York. Henry VII makes him Earl of Warwick in Ford's Perkin Warbeck.


George, afterwards Duke of Clarence, is the son of Richard, Duke of York in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI. After George's brother Edward Plantagenet has been crowned king and has married Lady Grey, Clarence complains that the new queen's relatives are usurping the benefits that should have accrued to Edward's brothers. When Clarence learns of Warwick's defection from the Yorkist cause, he decides to ally himself with Warwick against Edward. In return, Warwick promises that Clarence shall marry his daughter. When Henry is freed from prison thanks to Warwick and Clarence's efforts, he abdicates power to them. Later, Clarence once again defends his brother's claim to the throne.
Son of York and brother of Edward IV and Richard III, and father of the boy and girl in Shakespeare's Richard III. Also known as George, Edward IV has the Duke of Clarence imprisoned in the Tower of London because of a prophecy concocted by Richard that a person with the initial "G" will murder Edward IV's sons. While being escorted by Brackenbury to the Tower, Clarence is met by Richard, who claims the imprisonment is the working of Elizabeth, Edward's queen, and that he will try to have Clarence released. In the Tower, Clarence dreams that he is on a ship with Richard and that Richard slips on the deck and accidentally knocks him overboard, where he drowns; he goes to Hell, where his father-in-law Warwick and brother-in-law Edward, son of Henry VI, accuse him of perjury for breaking his vow to fight for them during the Wars of the Roses. Clarence is murdered by one of the two murderers sent by Richard, and his body is put into a barrel (or "butt") of malmsey wine. His ghost visits Richard and Richmond the night before the Battle of Bosworth, cursing Richard and blessing Richmond.
Clarence is one of many in the royal line in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV who is murdered as a result of falsely interpreted prophecy. Doctor Shaw claims that the "G" in Friar Anselme's prophecy is George, indicating that the Duke of Clarence is a danger to the King. George is taken to the Tower; his body is later discovered there sealed in a butt of Malmsey wine.


Thomas, the Duke of Clarence is Henry IV's son in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. He is one of the younger sons. Henry tells Clarence not to neglect his eldest brother Hal. Near the end of the play, Clarence attends his dying father. Clarence also informs Hal about Henry's health.


The ghost of George, the Duke of Clarence, appears on stage at the opening of the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III to represent all of Richard III's victims.


Clarentia is Elizabeth's gentlewoman attendant both at home and in the Tower in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me.


Sir Arthur Clare, husband of Dorcas, father of Milliscent and Henry Clare in the Anonymous The Merry Devil of Edmonton. His daughter Milliscent and Raymond Mounchensey have been engaged for two years and are prepared to marry the next day. The two families meet at the St. George, an inn in Waltham. But Sir Arthur Clare has heard that Sir Richard, Raymond's father, has lost his fortune. He therefore wants to prevent the marriage. He takes Milliscent to the nunnery in Chester, where she has to stay for a year, after which she is to marry Frank Ierningham, whose father, Sir Ralph, is more prosperous and has already agreed to the match. The young men, Harry Clare, Raymond Mounchensey and Frank Ierningham hear about this plan. Together with Peter Fabell, Frank's friend and university teacher, they try to cross Sir Arthur's plans. Milliscent wants to confess her sins before she enters the convent. Her mother, Dorcas, has to remain in the nunnery and keep an eye on her, while Sir Arthur goes to fetch the nuns' confessor, friar Hildersome. This scene is not dramatized, but we hear later that Peter Fabell, disguised as Father Hildersome, duped Clare. Sir Arthur accompanies Father Hildersome's novice Benedic to the nunnery, but the young monk is actually Raymond Mounchensey in disguise. The lovers arrange Milliscent's escape from the nunnery. Sir Arthur Clare and Sir Ralph Ierningham try to catch the lovers in Brian's Wood, but the gamekeeper Brian and his men delay them. In the meantime the inn signs in Waltham have been exchanged, and when the two knights return they sleep in the wrong house. In the morning they find that Milliscent and Raymond are in the real St. George and have already been happily married by Sir John, the vicar of Enfield.


Clariana's opening role is that of mistress to Bellamente in Shirley's Love's Cruelty. She is intrigued when Bellamente brags about his rare and good friend who shuns all loves but Bellamente. Seeking out this rare friend Hippolito, Clariana does not identify herself as Bellamente's beloved until after Bellamente has found her in Hippolito's house. Instantly wedding Bellamente, Clariana continues to entertain Hippolito; when Bellamente caches the two together, Hippolito is banished from the house and Clariana from Bellamente's bed. Found with Hippolito yet again as she urges Hippolito not to wed Eubella. Clariana stabs Hippolito, and he returns a mortal sword thrust.


Clariana is daughter to Lady Marlove in ?Glapthorne's The Lady Mother. She mocks her sister's suitors, and teases Belisia for her love of Bonville, insisting she finds nothing appealing in him. When pressed for a reason, with sisterly devotion she explains that he belongs to Belisia, and that is enough to eliminate his appeal for Clariana. When Bonville, and then Thorowgood, claim to have gotten their slanderous information about Belisia from Lady Marlove, Clariana warns her that perhaps she is too ready to reject the possibility that their mother is the soource. In response to the love suit of Thurston, Clariana explains that despite her undying affection for him, his mere presence threatens her chastity, and she is resolved never to see him again. It is later revealed that her mother has instigated this rejection because she loves him herself. Belisia and Clariana are summoned by their mother and chastised for their uncivil refusal of the suits of Sir Geffery and Crackby, and admonished to welcome their unworthy suitors or suffer disinheritance. Crackby, nephew of Geffery, shifts his suit from Clariana to Belisia, leaving the field open for his uncle. Despite her mother's warning, when the frustrated Sir Geffery renews his marriage suit for Clariana's hand, she continues to reject him. When Belisia is happily reunited with Bonville, Clariana expresses pleasure at their happiness, but laments her own continued ill fortune. She agrees to keep their plans to elope a secret. When her mother summons her and confesses her love for Thurston, Clariana steps aside and submits to her mother's superior right to this suitor. Her mother then commissions her to win Thurston's heart for her. She makes a concerted attempt to win Thurston for her mother, then exits to die of grief. She accompanies her mother on a heartbroken search for the bodies of Belisia and Bonville, and is with her when news arrives that Young Marlove has killed Thurston. With everyone out of the way, Clariana secretly marries Thurston. At the end of the trial of Young Marlove for the murder of Thurston, Grimes, Timothy, Clariana, Belisia, Bonville, and Thurston enter in disguise and offer to perform a masque to instruct the condemned Lady Marlove. They perform a dance, then reveal themselves to her, explaining that Thurston and Young Marlove had concocted the plot to reveal Lady Marlove's error to her, and her mother is forced to yield to her daughter's now incontrovertible right.


‘Another gentleman his [Floradin’s] friend booted and spurred’ and one of the cuckolds in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. A note in the dramatis personae reads that both he and Floradin are ‘gentleman like both in their attires and colours; they had low perukes, lowe wyves and coloured upswept gowns both; fair blouses both and crump-shouldered. For robes of silk and perukes both.’ His first entrance is in I.iv. where the s.d. calls for him to wear black velvet. Receiving a letter from his wife, Doucebella, he must leave his love, Aruania, in Harwich and return to Maldon, but he vows to return. In Maldon, he discovers rhymes and horns at his gate informing him of Doucebella’s unfaithfulness. He upbraids her and leaves her, saying he will retire to Harwich and leave her to her ‘mighty friends’ who might ‘downpoise’ him after he makes her falsehood public. He heads for the clefts of Harwich to hide from his wife until his creditors are satisfied. He lodges for the night with Olivel, promising to remain quiet lest her jealous husband, Latro, detect him there. He and Floradin are saved from Latro only when Olivel pretends to kill herself and Latro runs away in fear. Only then does he see Floradin (as they both have been obscured in the darkness of the yard) and recognizes him as his former chamber-fellow at Broadgates, Oxford. He learns that his friend, like himself, has an unfaithful wife, and Floradin convinces him to forgo being a hermit and instead join with him as a soldier, taking Olivel with them and furnished with forest livery and weapons from Olivel’s lodge. They stop in at the Tarlton Inn on the way to the camp where they find Latro sharing his bed with Doucebella and Aruania. When Claribel bellows that ‘the other woman’ (Aruania) was his sweetheart in Harwich, Floradin tells Claribel that they have also caught Latro in bed with his wife ‘and the other woman [Doucebella] was my whore in Maldon’. The two men then accuse each of wronging the other. Claribel is persuaded by Lacy and Denham’s judgement, declares that they have all been but ‘errants’ and takes Doucebella again as his wife.


Only mentioned as an epithet in Jonson's The Alchemist. Claribel was the heroine of a romantic ballad. Seeing that Subtle pretends to be afraid of revealing his magic art before Dapper, Face wants to reinforce the idea of Dapper's honesty. Since magic practices were against the law, and a clerk had denounced a magician, Subtle pretends to be wary of Dapper. Face recommends Dapper as an honest man, no cheating Claribel.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's The Tempest. Daughter of Alonso. Alonso and his train are stranded on Prospero's island while returning from Claribel's wedding to the King of Tunis.


The disguise of a Sylvan Nymph in which Leonida appears before her father, Atticus, after the Masque of Repentance in the anonymous Swetnam. He seals her marriage to her lover, Palemon, before realizing that the latter is really Lisandro.


A nymph of Diana in [?]Queen Henrietta's Florimène. She is included in the Dramatis Personae but not named in the synopsis; probably she is the "one nymph" called by the goddess to follow her in the hunt.


The princess in Killigrew’s Claricilla. She is a captive of Silvander’s as the play opens. The king has taken advantage of Silvander’s love of Claricilla and employed her power over him to make him withdraw to a villa where the king hopes to attack him. During the siege of Silvander’s villa, she and Olinda escape. Melintus catches up to her as she escapes and, removing his disguise, professes his love for her. She is also in love with him. Seleucus takes her hand from Melintus, saying that he is unworthy such a reward as Claricilla, but Claricilla returns her hand to Melintus. She confesses to Melintus that she knew Philemon had loved her but because she preferred Melintus she pretended not to know. When Seleucus barges into their conference, Melintus braves him and Seleucus challenges him to duel but Claricilla convinces Melintus to put off the fight until she can convince her father that Seleucus aims at her because he envies the crown. She confides in Appius that Melintus has returned in disguise. She meets Melintus in the garden where Seleucus leads the king to discover them. Later, Appius is able to tell her that Melintus escaped safely after his duel with Seleucus. Appius also warns her not to trust Olinda, and Claricilla promises to keep a wary eye on her maid. When Manlius gives her a letter from Malintus telling her he is well and Philemon is alive, she hastens to see them. She reveals to Appius in V.v that Melintus has long been subject to the hate of the king and Seleucus but does not reveal why. She learns from Manlius that Olinda is indeed her betrayer. She agrees in the plan to meet Melintus in the garden as a trap to catch the king and Seleucus (who believe they will be trapping Claricilla and Melintus). She and Appius appear to be captured, and she again scorns Seleucus’s plan to marry her. When the tables are turned on Seleucus and he is about to stab himself, Claricilla attempts to stay his hand by forgiving him. Her angelic offer only drives Seleucus to despair, and he kills himself with hatred on his lips for all except the heavenly Claricilla.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. Claridiana is a character in a comedy by Pedro Calderón de la Barca, entitled El Castillo de Lindabrides. This play deals with the chivalric world and Claridiana is a lady rival to Lindabridis. When Amorphus instructs Asotus in the art of being a courtier, Asotus says he will call his fictional lady "my dear Lindabrides." Since Amorphus wants details about this exotic-sounding name, Asotus explains that Lindabrides is the emperor Alicandroe's daughter and the Prince Meridian's sister in The Knight of the Sun. According to Asotus, Lindabrides should have been married to a prince, but the princess Claridiana... Amorphus interrupts Asotus's peroration, under the pretext that he betrays his reading. It seems that Asotus collates two chivalric romances, taking the title from one and using the badly distorted characters' names and plot from the other.


Only mentioned as an epithet in Jonson's The Alchemist. Claridiana was the heroine of a popular prose novel. Dol Common succeeds in making peace between the quarreling Face and Subtle, convincing them to be united in tricking the fools instead of arguing with each other. Proud of her wisdom, Face says she has spoken like Claridiana.


Abigail's husband in Marston's The Insatiate Countess. He is engaged in a hereditary feud with Rogero and even begins a fight with him on the day of both of their weddings. Following the interception of Guido and Mizaldus, Claridiana makes an insincere promise to keep the peace, but immediately vows revenge. He falls for the ploy set up by Abigail and Thais against him and Rogero, is discovered in Rogero's house and is imprisoned for the attempted murder of Mendoza Foscari. Not wanting to be taken for a cuckold, he insists that he attempted Mendoza's murder and demands to be executed. He is finally released when Abigail and Thais reveal the truth to the Duke of Venice.


Gilbert's wife in the anonymous The Wasp. At Gilbert's "death" she becomes inconsolable and becomes a Vestal, vowing never again to marry. She moves to Walthamstowe where she lives happily away from pride and ambition that "waits on greatness." She likes The Wasp's honest tongue and accepts the disguised Howlet into her service. To keep away suitors, she agrees to pretend that she had married The Wasp, but in pretense she finds that she loves him in fact and worries about breaking her vow to Vesta. She gives him full management of her estate but becomes cross when she perceives that he misuses his power. She grows enraged when the mediator sent for, Justice Bindover, turns out to be her servant Howlet in disguise. She goes to plead her case in Marianus' court. She drops her complaint, however, when Gilbert reveals his true identity in court and is happily reunited with him.


Clariflora is called Dulciflora at the beginning of J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped; this is presumably a printing error. She is a whore, beloved of Stultissimo, whom she despises.


Clarimant is the King of Burgony's youngest son in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers. He enjoys the favor of a loving father, but not that of his beloved Clorinda, which makes him feel sad. In Act Two, he is visited by his brother, whom he blames for his sadness. Clarimant fights for Clorinda and gets what seems like a victory with the departure of his brother, who asks him to take a picture of his to Clorinda. His loyalty is not rewarded later by the lady when she finds out that he is leading an army against Agenor. Quite the contrary. He receives her scorn for such an appointment. In Act Four, Clarimant is crowned king of Burgany at the death of his father, who had been unfair to his eldest brother. In Act Five, Clarimant comes to Neustrea looking for Agenor after being informed that he stays at that court. He also hopes that Clorinda is still alive and that she loves him now that Agenor has left her for another woman. Clarimant arrives on the outskirts of Neustrea waiting to have Agenor turned in. He wants to avenge his father and mistress. However, when Agenor is handed over, he is not punished but crowned king because Clarimant prefers to give him back what he has been deprived of before killing him. Clarimant hopes to take revenge of Clorinda's abuse. But, Clorinda herself stops him. Clarimant recognizes her although he does not say anything for the moment but to promise to be her servant.
Clarimant is the King of Burgony's youngest son and Agenor's brother in Carlell's 2 Passionate Lovers. In Act One, in Neustrea, Clarimant finds Clindor fighting one of his soldiers. Clarimant stops them and administers justice stating that Clindor is not a coward and that the soldier is a fool for believing it. Clarimant is sad because his beloved Clorinda does not love him but his brother Agenor, who rejects her. Thus, Clarimant believes that there is still a possibility that their lives meet, but he realizes that he does not deserve her love. Nevertheless, Clarimant goes to see Agenor's brother, what he thinks to be the disguise under which Clorinda hides. Clarimant quarrels with her and challenges her to fight, what makes Clorinda discover herself. Thus, Clarimant promises to be her servant. The first service that he is entrusted is to kill the lady, but he cannot do so because that would mean his own death. In Act Two, Clarimant arrives when Clorinda is fighting the Prince of Aquitain, whom he challenges. He is finally wounded, but he is saved by Agenor who has come to help him. In Act Three, Clarimant is recovering from his wounds and receives the visit of Clindor, who promises to help him to have Clorinda's love. Clorinda herself comes to see him but she turns out to be too sad to take care of him, what makes her ask him to forget her. However, he cannot do so and he still has some expectations. Then, he goes with Clorinda to see the druid, what turns out to be a trap. Clarimant fights the soldiers and swims after the boat. He is taken on board by Cleon, who ties him up. Clarimant wants to set Clorinda and Olinda free. However, he almost perishes when the kidnappers want to get rid of him. But, he is saved first by Clorinda, who convinces the Prince to leave him on the boat, and later by a sailor, who releases him. Clarimant swims ashore and there he helps Clorinda to face the Prince. He will be finally awarded when he is saved by Agenor and Clindor, with whom he goes to celebrate his marriage to Clorinda after killing the Prince.


Clarinda, Camiola's servant in Massinger's The Maid of Honor.


Clarinda is one of the shipwrecked Portuguese settlers, the daughter of Rosellia and Sebastian in Fletcher and Massinger's The Sea Voyage. Clarinda is separated from Crocale, Hippolita and Juletta while hunting; she finds them with Albert and falls in love with him. With the other women, she persuades Rosellia to allow them to bring the other shipwrecked men to their island. Albert tells Clarinda that Aminta is his sister; when Tibalt later allocates Albert to Clarinda, she is delighted. Clarinda tries to comfort Aminta, though she doesn't know what is troubling her. When the men insult the women by offering them the Portuguese treasure they have taken by force, Clarinda urges Rosellia not to have them put to death instantly and plots that she and the other women will 'temper' Rosellia's desire for revenge. Clarinda confesses to Aminta her love for Albert and asks Aminta to press her case to Albert. Clarinda discovers Albert and Aminta together; Albert is returned to strict captivity, and Aminta is bound to a tree by Hippolita and Juletta—who pity her but do not dare to go against Clarinda's orders. Raymond finds Aminta and begins to release her but is instead captured by Clarinda, Crocale and Juletta. Clarinda vows that she will now support Rosselia's plan to sacrifice the French settlers and sailors, but she later seems to regret that Raymond is to be killed with the others. Sebastian enters to prevent the sacrifice, and he is reunited with his wife and daughter; he betroths Clarinda to Raymond, and she does not protest.


Clarinda, the wife of Dinant in Massinger's The Parliament of Love. She aids in her husband's attempts to trick Novall by pretending to be interested in his sexual advances. He takes Dinant to court, but the King rules against him.


A "ghost character" in Massinger's The Great Duke of Florence. Clarinda is the deceased wife of Cozimo, the Duke of Florence.


Daughter to Count Utrante in Carlell's The Deserving Favorite. She is in love with Lysander. When her father tells her of the Duke's love for her, she cries but, rather than reveal her love for Lysander, replies that she does not want to marry anyone. Despite Lysander's objections, she deceives the Duke by promising to marry him in one month if he returns her father's estate. She intends to use the money from the estate to flee the country and live with Lysander. After securing the return of the estate, she meets with Lysander in an arbor. He tries to convince her that he is not actually honorable, but she sees through his ploy and promises to kill herself if he does not agree to flee the country with her. Later she receives a letter from Lysander informing her that he has been killed in a duel with the Duke and asking her to marry the Duke. She refuses to take possession of the missing Duke's land and begs the King to forgive Lysander if he proves to be alive. Cleonarda informs her that Lysander is, indeed, alive. Clarinda shares this information with Jacomo, who helps her disguise herself as a boy to travel to Lysander. Once in the forest, Jacomo tells her that, unless she has sex with him, he will tell the King of Lysander's location. When she refuses, he tells her that he will rape her and reveal Lysander's location to the King anyway. He leaves her tied to a tree while he fetches the King. She is discovered by the Duke, who is disguised as a visitor to the country. He agrees to lead her to Gerard's lodge, but they lose their way and end up at Count Orsinio's dwelling, where the Duke has been staying. Orsinio informs them that the King has taken Lysander prisoner and offers the two a single bed for the night. To prevent discovery that she is a female, she sleeps in her doublet. She returns to court the next day and accuses Jacomo of trying to rape her. The Duke verifies her account and Jacomo is arrested. When it appears that Lysander is going to be executed, Clarinda faints and is carried home. She is brought back after the Duke secures Lysander's release. She is in the act of marrying Lysander when Orsinio reveals that she and Lysander are siblings. Upon learning this, she agrees to marry the Duke.


Clarinda in Massinger's 1634 Cleander, or Lisander and Calista (a revision of Fletcher's 1623 The Wandering Lovers?) is a lustful woman and maid to Caliste. She plays Leon and Malfort off of each other in order to avenge herself on Lisander, who has abandoned her for Caliste. She arranges a secret meeting between Caliste and Lisander only to raise the house with an alarm. Lisander escapes. But Leon uses his sword to kill Cleander thus implicating Lisander in the death of Caliste's husband. But Leon, her lover, betrays Clarinda when he confesses to the murder. The king has her and her conspirator Leon taken away and then frees Lisander and Caliste of all charges.


Niece to Gratiano and Charmia in Rider’s The Twins. She is ready to be married and is always merry. Lurco takes Carolo and Clarinda to see Alphonso and Julietta speaking alone and tries to sew the seeds of jealousy in them though it works only on Carolo. When Carolo and Clarinda slip away, Alphonso sees them and also grows jealous, thinking they have dishonest, guilty consciences. She receives a letter from a soldier (Alphonso in disguise) telling her that Alphonso has been killed by Carolo and Carolo has fled Italy. She says she has lost her merry heart, and she becomes as sad as Julietta used to be. At the shepherd’s festival, she is gladdened to discover that Alphonso is not dead indeed and all ends happily.


Sister to Castina enamoured of Alcinous in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber, ‘follows him by fame’. The play opens with her in disguise as Alexis. In an aside she tells the audience that she loves Alcinous but must not reveal herself to him. When she attempts to speak to Castina and Avonia of her plight, she inadvertently encourages Castina’s affection for Alcinous and is thereby forced to persevere in her disguise. At the end, when all are redeemed for their sins, ‘Alexis’ steps forward to say that ‘he’ has one sin more, revealing that ‘he’ is in fact Clarinda, whereupon Castina binds her little sister together with her beloved Alcinous.


On returning to Arcadia after her apparent death, Silvia disguises herself as a boy named Clarindo in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. She retains the disguise until Montanus stabs her and Thyrsis discovers her true identity. However, she hints at the truth when she tells Thyrsis the thinly disguised story of Sulia.


Clarindore, a wild courtier in Massinger's The Parliament of Love. He attempts to seduce Bellisant, however, he ends up in bed with his own wife, Calista, who is disguised as the Moorish slave, Beaupre. Charles VIII reunites him with Calista at the end.


A wealthy landowner, who has sexual relations with his maid, Winifred, and reneges on his promise to support her and Frank when they marry in Rowley, Dekker and Ford's The Witch of Edmonton. When Frank is executed, the Justice names Sir Arthur as the cause of his misfortune, and he agrees to pay a fine to Winifred in ompensation.


Sister of Caesario (or so they think) in Fletcher, Ford, Massinger and Webster's The Fair Maid of the Inn. Clarissa tries to escape her brother's protective jealousy by secretly plighting her troth to Mentivole, but when Caesario quarrels with Mentivole, he discovers what she has done, and bans her from marrying him. When it is revealed that Caesario is an adopted commoner, not a gentleman, Caesario decides to marry Clarissa, but she and her mother Mariana refuse to allow this. She and Mentivole threaten suicide if they are not allowed to marry, but the crisis is solved when Prospero reveals the aristocratic birth of Bianca: Caesario marries Bianca, and Mentivole and Clarissa are thus free to marry each other.


A painter who lives nearby and worries Michael because he also has designs on Susan in the Anonymous Arden of Feversham. Mosbie has contracted with the painter to paint a poisoned picture of Alice that, when Arden looks at it, will kill him. He, like Michael, has been promised Susan if he helps to kill Arden. He gives Mosbie a subtle poison to put in Arden's broth. Mosbie asks him to create a poisoned wax crucifix, the viewing of which blinds, the odor stupefies, and the touch kills. He is not party to the final murder. Franklin tells us that Clarke fled and was never heard of again.


The Porter enters when supper is over, and offers the master and mistress of the house, and their guests, some Christmas entertainment in the anonymous Narcissus. First, he lets in the choir boys, who sing a song. Then, when they finish, he does not let them go, and he even decides to keep their earnings for himself. As he realizes they are getting angry, he urges them to dance a morris dance. Furthermore, he invites them to offer a play to his master and mistress, and the play the boys choose to perform is the story of Narcissus. When the performance is over, the Porter is also responsible for the epilogue. At the end, he reveals his name is Frances. Frances Clarke was the Porter of St John's College, Oxford.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. Fourth son of Duke Robert Douglas and brother to Lord James Stuart, he is one of the Scottish lords taken hostage by the English after the battle of Dunbar.


A woman of Gismond's privy chamber in Wilmot's Gismond of Salerne. She observes her mistress' restlessness and distracted mood. Claudia reports that Gismond suffers from disturbing dreams and keeps to her bed during the day. Later Claudia runs to Tancred, reporting that Gismond has poisoned herself.


One of Lucina's two bawdy waiting women in Fletcher's Valentinian. Together with Marcellina she accompanies her mistress to the court, but is separated from her. While Lucina is raped by Valentinian, Claudia and Marcellina are possibly seduced by Valentinian's panders, Balbus, Chilax, Lycinius and Proculus. Claudia announces her mistress's death to Lucina's husband Maximus.


A young woman in Tatham's Love Crowns the End. On a walk with Florida in a dangerous area of the countryside, Claudia hears groans and discovers Lysander stabbed and bleeding to death. The two of them carry Lysander off, and he is instantly healed. When Lysander thanks Claudia's "hand divine" for saving his life, she replies that "the gods," not she, saved his life.


Claudiana is Cornari's wife in Shirley's The Gentleman of Venice. Her husband, desperate to produce an heir other than his nephew Malipiero, hired the Englishman Florelli to impregnate Claudiana. When she and Florelli are thrust together, however, they simply pray about their awkward situation and do not become intimate; Claudiana remains a faithful wife.


Claudio is a Florentine count in the service of Don Pedro in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. As the play opens, peace has been restored, and soldiers like Claudio enjoy a well-deserved holiday in Messina. Claudio asks Don Pedro's permission to court Hero, and Don Pedro agrees to woo the lady on Claudio's behalf. In a foreshadowing of events to come, Claudio reveals his jealous nature when he suspects that Don Pedro has been courting Hero for himself. The misunderstanding is resolved and a wedding date is set. Before the wedding can take place, Don John orchestrates a plot to make Claudio believe that Hero has been unfaithful. Claudio is convinced, and at the wedding ceremony he makes Hero's supposed crime public. Hero faints and is believed dead. After Don John's plot is revealed, Claudio contritely agrees to marry Hero's cousin (Antonio's daughter) in penance, but at the altar the veiled bride is revealed to be Hero and the couple is finally married.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Hamlet. The Messenger brings Claudius Hamlet's letters and when asked who brought them, the Messenger can say only that he had them from Claudio. These letters were given to Horatio in an earlier scene, and it is possible that Claudio is a mistake for Horatio.


Claudio is a courtier and friend of Dariotto in Chapman's All Fools. When Valerio complains about the law, Claudio remarks that the greatest poet is he who rails the most. He joins in the gulling of Cornelio, asking after his wife. He enters to tell Rinaldo that Cornelio is enraged and convinced Gazetta is unfaithful and to egg on the Page in his defense of women. Claudio declares himself true in nothing but secret lechery, but when Cornelio has papers of divorce drawn up, Claudio reveals to him that Valerio has tricked him and that Gazetta is not unfaithful. He is part of the final tavern scene, although he does not speak after calling for dice.


A young gentleman of Vienna in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. He is imprisoned and set to be executed for impregnating his legitimate but secret wife Juliet. The brother of Isabella, Claudio has Lucio take her to plead with Angelo on his behalf. When Angelo propositions Isabella, promising to free Claudio in exchange for her yielding her virginity to him, Claudio unexpectedly urges Isabella to do so. After Angelo has intercourse with Mariana, believing her to be Isabella, he orders the execution of Claudio anyway. But the disguised Duke Vincentio persuades the Provost to trick Angelo by substituting the head of Ragusine for Claudio's. In the end, the Duke has the still living Claudio revealed and pardons him.


Until he reveals his passion for Belvidere in Fletcher's Women Pleased, Claudio is Silvio's best friend. When Silvio shoots at the disguised Soto (mistaken for Claudio), he resolves to let Silvio think he's dead. Disguised as a merchant named Rugio, he pays Penurio in food to allow him access to his sister, Isabella, who does not recognize him, and begins a lengthy seduction. Entrapped by her into agreeing to murder her husband, he reveals that he is actually her brother, who only pretended to attempt her seduction in order to prove her virtue. Participates as a dancer in the wedding masque for Silvio and the hag.


Claudio, a confidential servant to Severino in Massinger's The Guardian. He brings together all of the characters at the end and so precipitates the resolution.


Claudio is dedicated to Flaviano in Shirley's The Imposture. Disguising themselves, Claudio and Flaviano seek Honorio in Ferrara and hope to murder him there. Eventually, however, it is Claudio who stops Flaviano from killing Honorio.


A lord in [?]Bower's Apius and Virginia. As part of Apius's and Haphazard's plan to gain possession of Virginia, Claudius accuses Virginius of kidnapping Virginia from him when she was an infant. After Virginia's death and Apius' punishment by Reward and Justice, Claudius begs for mercy through Virginius to Reward and Justice; they allow him to live but order him banished.


Claudius is Brutus' servant in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. He is asked to sleep inside Brutus' tent when his master feels ill at ease because of war and ghostly visitations.


Claudius is the King of Denmark in Shakespeare's Hamlet, a title he assumed after murdering his brother. He quickly marries his brother's wife, Gertrude and at first shows himself to be a good king: winning over the nobles and dealing with the threat of Fortinbras. He rebukes Hamlet for continuing to mourn publicly for his father and, with Gertrude's help, persuades Hamlet not to return to Wittenberg. When Hamlet appears to go mad, he summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two school friends of Hamlet's, to try to find out what is wrong. With Polonius, he spies on Hamlet and Ophelia, and comes to the conclusion that his nephew is not mad for love, and hatches the plan to send him to England (in Q1, he does not make this decision until after Polonius' murder). He agrees to attend the play Hamlet arranges, but leaves when the players reenact his murder of his brother (some have noted that his reaction may well be to the implied threat from his nephew Hamlet of having Lucianus, nephew to the duke, murder him). Struck with guilt, he attempts to pray, but cannot. Once he discovers that Hamlet has killed Polonius, he acts quickly, first confronting Hamlet and then sending him to England with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who carry Hamlet's death warrant. When Laertes returns from France to revenge his father, Claudius sooths him and together, once they discover that Hamlet is returning to Denmark, they plan his murder. Claudius arranges a supposedly friendly duel between Hamlet and Laertes, but Laertes carries a sharp and poisoned sword, instead of a bated one. In addition, Claudius offers Hamlet a cup of poisoned wine, but the plan goes awry when Gertrude instead of Hamlet drinks from it. Hamlet stabs Claudius with the poisoned sword and forces him to drink the wine, killing him.


A Roman general in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. He leads an army against Egypt to prevent its empire building. He joins with Clitophon on the way. He forces the Caliph and the Soldan to submit to Rome and orders that Lysander be made King of Antioch.


Emperor of Rome, who fights in the battle against the British in The Valiant Welshman. Caradoc beats him, but does not kill him. In gratitude, Caesar offers him a golden lion, so that he can find him in Rome. Later, when Caradoc is a captive in Rome, Caesar recognizes the lion and frees him.
Only mentioned in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants as a king who has ‘worn Vulcans badge’ by being cuckolded.
The foolish Emperor Claudius dotes on his wife Valeria Messalina in Richards' Messalina, even permitting her marriage with Silius, but does finally turn on her when warned by Pallas, Narcissus and Calistus that Silius plans to replace him as emperor.
Emperor of Rome in Shakespeare's Cymbeline. Though it is never mentioned which Caesar is meant, if Cymbeline is meant to be the historic British king Cunobelinus, father of Caradoc (Caratacus) and Togodumnus, then this Caesar would have to be Claudius, whose reign began in 41 A.D., two years before the death of Cunobelinus's father, Cassivelaunus. However, the Roman invasion represented in the play was carried out by Claudius after the death of Cunobelinus and was resisted by his sons.
Emperor in May's Julia Agrippina. Although he is noted as having built aqueducts and conquered Britain, Claudius is essentially the dupe of Agrippina and Pallas, who diagnoses his dominant passion as fear. Eventually he is persuaded by Narcissus to act against Agrippina, but he reveals this to her when drunk, and she poisons him.
Only mentioned in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge. Claudius was the fourth emperor of Rome; his reign followed Caligula's. Claudius, according to Sharkino, died from poisons given to him by Agrippina.


Clause is the alias used in Fletcher's Beggars' Bush by Gerrard, the father of Florez, while he resides in disguise among the beggars.


Wife of Pedro, and mother of Margaretta in William Rowley's All's Lost by Lust. Unlike Pedro, Claveele is delighted by Margaretta's marriage to the aristocratic Antonio. But her husband's fears are confirmed when Antonio later commits bigamy. Claveele and Pedro silently accompany Margaretta when she carries the body of Lazarello to Muly Mumen.


A tile-maker in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub. He is chosen by her parents as Audrey Turfe's husband solely on the basis of her drawing his name as her Valentine. This was engineered by Clay's sponsors, the "Counsel of Finbury," Clench, Medlay, To-Pan, and Scriben. Just before the wedding, Basket Hilts falsely accuses Clay of robbing the pseudonymous "Captain Thumb," and has Clay arrested. Squire Turfe and his Constables, however, believe Clay's protestations of innocence. Clay disappears while Turfe is retrieving Audrey from Justice Preamble, and his absence makes Turfe suspect he really is guilty of the crime, especially when Canon Hugh, disguised as "Captain Thumb," accuses Turfe of allowing Clay to escape. He hides in a barn and is not discovered for some time, until Hannibal Puppy finds him and mistakes him for the Devil. After learning that, although his bride has been married to another man, Tobie Turfe expects him to pay back the 100 pounds he sent to "Captain Thumb" for restitution, he spends the wedding dinner at Squire Tripoly Tub's weeping.


A doctor and suitor to Polynesta in Gascoigne's The Supposes. Cleander, with the help of Pasiphilo, is attempting to marry Polynesta. As he tells Pasiphilo early in the play, many years earlier he lost most of his money and a young son to Turkish pirates. In the final act, while discussing the missing son of Philogano, he discovers that Dulippo, who was raised by Philogano, is in fact his missing son; the same Turkish pirates who took Cleander's goods and son were captured by Philogano's countrymen, who auctioned the young boy as a slave to Philogano, who changed the boy's name to Dulippo. Once he receives this news he gives up his claim to Polynesta.


Cleander, husband to Caliste, has a close relationship with his father-in-law, Dorilaus in Massinger's 1634 Cleander, or Lisander and Calista (a revision of Fletcher's 1623 The Wandering Lovers?). He is visited by and Apparition, the ghost of a Host, who warns him of his impeding death. He visits his wife's room in the middle of the night because of a dream. Leon, who is sleeping with his own cousin, Clarinda, kills him. The point of the murder is to frame Lisander and Caliste.


The son of Eubulus in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday, Cleander has searched for and discovered the escaped Sylvia in the woods, walking alone and, promising her that he would convey her to where the King would have no knowledge of her, has returned her to the Court. Because Eubulus has come to recognize his son's "passionate heat" for the princess he is compelled to inform him that she is not actually the king's daughter but, rather, his own and, thus, Cleander's sister. Eubulus also relates to his son the secrets surrounding Thyrsis's birth and abandonment, and Cleander promises that he will bear only "a brother's friendship" to Sylvia in the future. Much to his father's surprise, Cleander informs King Euarchus that he has spied Sylvia walking in the garden with a shepherd which prompts the king to order both of their deaths. Shocked at the king's rage Cleander offers his own blood in order to save her life, but asserts that the shepherd deserves to die for his bold attempt. Although Cleander means to have Thyrsis killed by a servant in his presence despite Sylvia's pleas for her lover's life, he discovers the golden circle around the prince's neck and, recalling his father's story, stops the murder, witnesses their marriage, and informs his grateful father of the events which have come to pass.


Achates discovers him sleeping in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy and wakes him rudely as he dreams of being a king. He is taken to a secret meeting where Aratus reveals to him that he is in fact the country’s true king. He has been kept hidden during the sixteen-year reign of the current usurper. Later, Clearchus brings news to Aratus and Pallantus that Phronimius and Eurylochus were captured along with the young king, Cleander. The camp mutinies at the news. Demophilus delivers good news to Aratus in act four that Phronimius and Eurylochus have not been captured along with the young king, Cleander. They are well and advancing to their positions. Two others were captured and slain by the enemy. When Pallantus assassinates the usurper, Cleander’s speech headings subtly change to ‘King.’ He is reunited with his sister, Hianthe, and promises her in marriage to Clearchus but only after she has been allowed to sit as queen of her homeland awhile. He grants Clearchus’ request to be allowed to continue upon the business his father sent him on before the storm drove him to Crete. When Pallantus and Hianthe beg Cleander for mercy in helping Eudora’s misery, he allows Aratus to offer clemency to Timeus if he be found worthy of mercy. He grants mercy to all, including the foolish Comestes, and hopes Pallantus and Eudora shall marry.


Disguise that Cleon takes to hide himself in front of Clorinda in Act Four of Carlell's 2 Passionate Lovers. Cleander is a servant. On board, Cleander realizes that Clorinda controls the Prince's mind. Thus, he renounces to her love because if he attacks the Prince, she would go with Clarimant. Furthermore, he is very interested in counting with an accomplice as the Prince. In Act Five, Cleander is visited by Clorinda who begs him to free the hostages and who reveals her intentions to take revenge on the Prince. Next night, Cleander is arrested by some guards who obey the Prince when he tries to demonstrate how Clorinda is controlling him. When the boat is on fire, he is left to be burnt until Selina comes to save him and he promises to marry her. However, his savior stabs him taking the heart out of his chest, and he dies.


The President’s daughter in Verney’s Antipoe. Beloved of Dramurgon, she rejects him when he comes to woo, making clear that she abhors him for his bloody usurpation. She drops her glove for him, however, and agrees to reverence him if he demonstrates his honour in battle on Thursday next. Her father insists that she should marry the worthy Antipoe instead, and she submits. In III.iv. she enters into a de praesenti marriage with Antipoe. When Dramurgon calls, however, she must pretend interest in him as she is the only obstacle the tyrant has to killing her father. She uses the fact that he did not fight bravely, as he promised, to rebuff his wooing, then lies down to sleep upon the grass. Dramurgon attempts to rape her, but Antipoe runs him away. Upon learning of Antipoe’s death, she lays his body in their crimson bed and lay down beside it. Placing his sword to her heart, she kills herself. She is later seen as a ghost, clad in white, ascending to the throne with the others at the behest of Brutus.


Sanmartino courts Cleantha, the most beautiful lady at court, even though he is married to her friend Floriana in Habington's The Queen of Aragon. She warns Floriana about this and, when Floriana will not take it seriously, arranges a rendezvous with Sanmartino at which she exposes him to Floriana. She eventually marries Oniate, who sees through her pretence of frivolity.


Cleanthe is one of Calis's serving women and the sister to Siphax in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. When the later becomes smitten with love for the princess, he urges Cleanthe to help him, and she agrees to arrange for Calis to receive a fabricated message from Venus instructing the princess to marry the first man she meets outside the goddess's temple. Siphax will be positioned there and fulfill the terms of the letter. The ruse by Chilax and others to substitute Siphax's discarded mistress Cloë (disguised as the princess) and to see the two of them married undoes Cleanthe's scheming.


Long-lost daughter of Polidacre and Rosinda, sister of Philander and Lucora in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady. Her actual identity remains undiscovered until the end of the play. With the aid of Phyginois, Cleanthe adopts the disguise of Anclethe and retains it throughout most of the play. She takes on this disguise in order to follow, serve, and observe her beloved Carionil. Discovered weeping in this disguise by Carionil, she "confesses" that she cries out of sympathy for her master's unhappiness over his unrequited love of Lucora, and pledges her life to recovering Carionil's happiness. She reassures him as he loses hope, and when he stabs himself out of frantic misery at his most recent rejection, she believes him dead, agonizes, curses Lucora, and vows to follow him in death. Before she can kill herself she is interrupted by Falorus, and agrees to spread the word that Carionil is dead, although he has merely fainted and quickly recovers. She participates in Falorus's plan to reveal Lucora's true feelings, by bringing Lucora to the feigned deathbed of Carionil. In her last scenes in this disguise, Anclethe is told by Carionil that he no longer loves Lucora, and she offers to introduce him to another woman, who will be herself undisguised. When they meet, he falls in love with her, kisses her, and asks if she is the one he was intended to meet. They agree to wed. It is finally revealed that Cleanthe was stolen as an infant by her Nurse, Phyginois' mother, and raised in that household with the intention of marrying her to Phyginois' older brother, in order to improve his fortune. With Phyginois' aid, she returned to her own realm, disguised herself to fulfill her own desires, and helped him in return by disguising him as a gentleman so he could woo Nentis. She reveals her identity at the end of the play, wins her father's approval of her marriage to Carionil, and with a few words convinces her older sister Lucora to marry Falorus.


Cleanthes is one of the Theban philosophers in Lyly's Campaspe whom Alexander consults after his conquest.


Physician to Cato in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey.


Cleanthes is the virtuous son of Leonides, and husband of Hippolita in Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law. When the Old Law is announced, condemning all men over the age of eighty to death, Cleanthes is horrified. He persuades Leonides to hide in a country lodge, and fakes his funeral, claiming that he died naturally. Cleanthes is a preachy character; he upbraids old Lisander for behaving in a youthful manner, and Eugenia for being a strumpet. In revenge, Eugenia reveals to Duke Evander that Leonides is in hiding. Cleanthes is arrested and brought to trial, where he debates with Simonides, arguing for the transcendence of common sense and reason over the laws of kings. When Evander reveals that the Old Law was a fiction, Cleanthes apologises for doubting him. Evander makes Cleanthes a judge; his job will be to decide whether young heirs are sufficiently mature of mind to receive their inheritances.


Cleanthes, along with his fellow noblemen Camillo and Menallo in Fletcher's A Wife for a Month, laments that Alphonso, rightful king of Naples, has been usurped by his wicked brother Frederick. He takes comfort in the fact that since his wife is old she won't be a target for Frederick's lust. He participates in the ultimately successful plot to restore Alphonso to the throne.


A Lord and Arviragus's friend in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia, Cleanthes fights on Arviragus's side and helps to cause disorder in the King's Campe. He is questioned by Arviragus as to whether or not Eugenius escaped "with life out of the Battle," and he accompanies the General to an "enterview" with Philicia and her father where he advises Arviragus not to trust the King.
A Lord and Arviragus's friend in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Cleanthes's name is considered in the wounded warrior's attempt to identify the man who saved his life in battle. He also accompanies Arviragus throughout the play, introduces Arviragus to the "Pictish youth" whom he "cannot call [. . .] to memory," is appointed to "make all things ready" in the "chamber" for Philicia and her lover, and is unsuccessful when attempting to bar Cartandes's entrance into the room where Philicia and Arviragus are sleeping.


A disguise of Irus in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. In this role, Irus wins the love of Aegiale, is exiled, returns to lead the forces of Egypt to victory, and is declared King by his peers following Pompey's death in the battle.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's A Wife for a Month. Because she is old, she won't be a target for Frederick's lust. Cleanthes takes comfort in this fact.


Clearchus is a courtier in the royal household in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. He assists Aegiale in posting pictures of Cleanthes (who in reality is Irus in disguise), and appears in the scene in which Prince Doricles is introduced; in the play's final scene, he reveals the reported suicide of Leon (another disguise assumed by Irus).


He has been driven to Crete by the storm that foundered Pallantus’ ship in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. He and Haimantus are in quest for their captured princess and have heard two peerless women live upon this island. Though he is met and escorted by Aratus and the rest, he is offended that the princes did not meet him and that his accommodation is unfitting to his station. He is dumbfounded when Comastes tells him that the king loves drunkenness best of all things. After a cold greeting by the king, he accidentally comes upon Hianthe and her ladies. He apologizes and withdraws at once. He falls in love with Hianthe at first sight. He and Haimantus disguise themselves as holy men and with Aratus’ assistance courts Hianthe. He learns that Cleander is the country’s true king and promises Aratus that he will be a friend to the conspiracy to replace the usurper. He offers his great navy to their service. Later, he brings news to Aratus and Pallantus that Phronimius and Eurylochus were captured along with the young king, Cleander. The camp mutinies at the news. The war won, the young king promises Hianthe in marriage to Clearchus but only after she has been allowed to sit as queen of her homeland awhile. The king grants Clearchus’ request to be allowed to continue upon the business his father sent him on before the storm drove him to Crete.


A clownish tapster in service to Bess at the Windmill tavern in Foy in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part One, Clem is devoted to her and accompanies her on the voyage to retrieve what they believe to be the remains of Spencer. During the visit to Morocco, Clem will be the agent (for a fee, of course) for the return of goods and ship to the French Merchant, and for the release of the imprisoned crew of the Italian Merchant.
Clem is a clownish former tapster in service to Bess in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part Two. He is separated from her when the bandits attack in Italy. Concluding that he has been left to his own devices, he drifts into Florence and seeks work in his old trade as a drawer. He is there reunited with Spencer, Goodlack, and Roughman, and he informs them of Bess's presence at the Florentine court.


A "ghost character" in Greene's George a Greene. He is a rival with Jenkin for Madge's affections. Jenkin describes how 'Clim' orders him to watch his horse, while Clim goes off with Madge. Jenkin says that he repaid Clim because, although he let the horse stand on his coat, as soon as Clim had gone, Jenkin cut four holes in the coat and made the horse stand on the ground.


Eglantine's servant in Knevet's Rhodon and Iris. Clematis informs the audience of Eglantine's history with Rhodon and "retire[s]" while the Shepherdess sings and plays a mournful song on the Lute. Clematis attempts to console Eglantine and, when she fails to do so, calls upon the gods to cure the Lady's woe. She is "enjoined" by Eglantine to procure a long list of "devices," and describes her mistress's late fickleness as well as the measures which she has been going to in order to beautify herself for Rhodon. Clematis is mocked by Gladiolus, "strikes him," and exchanges threats with her fellow servant. Eglantine faults Clematis for persuading her to wear less makeup, and claims that the maid "goes about utterly to undoe" her.


Aretinus is Caesar's spy in Massinger's The Roman Actor. He accuses Paris and the other players of treason for their libelous depictions of the state. He curries favor with Caesar by informing against Junius Rusticus, Palphurias Sura, and Aelius Lamia, leading to their execution. However, when he informs Domitian of Domitia's love of Paris, his reward is to be strangled.


A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the eleven virtues that regulate the affections. Cruelty and Indulgence are the extremes of Clemency. He is one of the vanguard and rides with Charity in the war against the Vices. Love gives his queen Disdain and Clemency as her guard.


Clement, along with Mason and Burden, is an Oxford scholar in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. Unlike the dismissive Burden, Clement welcomes Bacon to Oxford, assuring him that the university is delighted to have him join the faculty.


The name of the Subprior at the Neapolitan priory in Dekker's If It Be Not Good. He is the only friar to resist Shacklesoule's corrupting influence.


Justice Clement is an old merry magistrate in Jonson's Every Man in His Humour. He lives in Coleman Street and likes to impart facetious justice. According to Wellbred, he is a city judge and a good lawyer, also a great scholar, but the only mad merry old fellow in Europe. Edward Knowell reports he has heard about many of his pranks at university. It seems that Justice Clement would commit a man for riding his horse, or wearing the cloak on one shoulder, or serving God. At his house in Coleman Street, Justice Clement enters with Knowell followed by his clerk. Showing his whimsical character, Justice Clement decides that Cob should go to prison for having spoken against tobacco and, the next moment, he rules against it, deciding to give Cob a warrant for Bobadill's arrest. Seeing Knowell downhearted because of his son's frivolity, Justice Clement tries to comfort him, telling the father that this is not a real reason to worry and things should be allowed to run their course. Justice Clement exits with Knowell to have a cup of sack. In the final revelation scene, when all the cases are brought before the judge, Justice Clement hears all the parties involved, and so all the disguises and misunderstandings are revealed. Showing his bonhomie in setting things right, Justice Clement also proves to be a fine connoisseur of poetry, since he recognizes that Mathew's verses are plagiarized. Justice Clement has the final speech in the play, inviting everyone to a celebration of friendship, love, and laughter. His name may have been suggested by the London legal institution of Clement's Inn.


Clement Kingcob is a small character in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. He is a knight who attends supper.


Clement Perkes does not appear on stage but is mentioned in passing by Davy in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.


Sir Clement is the local justice in Shirley's Constant Maid. Within his house, Hornet's Cousin pretends to be king, Hornet is "knighted," and Clement's nephew Playfair weds Hornet's niece.


A farrier and a constable, along with Scriben, Medlay, and To-Pan in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub. He claims to be the godson of "King Harry's" doctor, the famous Arabian physician Rasis. One of the "Council of Finsbury" that serves as a kind of Chorus to the fortunes of High Constable Tobie Turfe, and who recommend Medlay and Scriben to create Squire Tripoly Tub's masque for Audrey's wedding. (Listed in d.p. as "Rasi: Clench")


A gentleman of Arcadia and the rich father of Philaritus in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. He disapproves of his son loving a lowly shepherdess. He once married beneath his station but had no father to offend. He therefore disowns Philaritus though he privately admits to pitying him. He threatens to ruin Bacheus if their children should marry. Bacheus later informs him that Philaritus and Lariscus intend to duel. He accepts Bacheus’ plan for stopping bloodshed, and they are reconciled. He sends a letter to Philartus forgiving him and allowing him to marry Arismena. The young men return with news that the women have been stolen by satyrs. He calls for a magician and disguises as a satyr to demonstrate that it was all a jest and he, Baccheus, and servants only pretended to steal the women. When the actual satyrs attack and steal the women in earnest, he goes in pursuit with the others. He is captured along with the others and taken before the Grand Satyr. He weeps over the hearses of Arismena and Castarina. When the women rise up, however, and all is explained, he happily calls Peromatt back from exile and leads the lovers to their weddings.


Although never referred to as Cleodora in Habington's The Queen of Aragon, either in speech prefixes or the dramatis personae, the play's alternate title is Cleodora, and it is not unreasonable to assume that Cleodora was (perhaps in an early draft) the name given to the Queen of Aragon.


Leontes, in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, sends his courtiers Cleomenes and Dion to Apollo's temple at Delphos, where Apollo issues an oracle declaring Hermione's innocence. Despite the oracle, Leontes persists with his accusation that Hermione has committed adultery with Polixenes.


Governor of Tharsus in Shakespeare's Pericles. He is lamenting the famished and ruined state of his land when Pericles arrives bringing corn to feed the people. Later, when Pericles stops at Tharsus during his voyage home, Cleon and Dionyza take Pericles' daughter Marina into their care. Believing Dionyza's attempt to have Marina killed was successful, Cleon is outraged. Nevertheless, he conceals his wife's actions. When word of their crimes spreads, the citizens of Tharsus burn the palace with Cleon and Dionyza inside.

CLEON **1610

Cleon is a gentleman of the court in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Maid's Tragedy. He assists in the preparations for the wedding masque and announces the arrival of Melantius.


Cleon, a fat, impotent lord in Massinger's The Bondman, is married to the randy Corsica. He is the father of the foolish Asotus. He mistreats his slaves, but after the slave uprising, forgives his family for their infidelities to him, and blames himself for the riots.


Cleon is a traveler and friend of Paulinus in Massinger's The Emperor of the East. He discusses the power and beauty of Pulcheria with Paulinus at the beginning of the play. He delivers the apple to Theodosius, prompting the cycle of mistrust.

CLEON **1635

A Sicilian lord in Killigrew’s The Prisoners. He is on hand in several scenes but does not add materially to the forward motion of the plot.


A libertine, companion to Ergasto in Berkeley's The Lost Lady. Aided by Phormio, he tries to win Hermione's favors for Ergasto, discusses his master's taste for women, and plots to stop Lysicles in the race to win Hermione's love. He fancies Phillida.


Cleon is a lord disaffected from the Prince Agenor in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers. In Act One, Cleon tells Agenor that his last military victories have made him forget how to obey the king. Cleon wants to convince Agenor to overthrow the king as a trap to get rid of the prince who has won too much power. Cleon poisons Agenor's mind telling him that Clarimant has been chosen as the king's favorite in spite of being younger than him, and that Clarimant is courting Clorinda to win support before he is crowned king. But, Cleon awaits his time, which arrives when he advises the king to keep the prince there to avoid any attack of his supporters. In Act Two, he also cheats Selina by confessing his love for her when he really wants to conquer Clorinda, who will crown him. Cleon is thought to have conquered the heart of many women before, so when he confesses his love to the princess, she thinks that his beloved is another lady. Later, knowing that Agenor has left the court, he comes with a letter in which allegedly Agenor asks him to join his army in the frontier with Germany, at Lassent, to overthrow the king. He leads the king's army against Agenor and when he finds out that he has escaped he thinks that he has gone to ask the king of Neustrea for help as he is a foreign enemy. Thus, Cleon wants the king of Burgondy to prepare an army led by Clarimant to march against Neustrea, which is to annoy Clorinda. To see how Clarimant reacts to Clorinda's letter of hatred, he hides himself and sees how the prince suffers, which shows him that his plan is working. In Act Four, Cleon comes to Neustrea with Clorinda and Selina. Cleon still wants to marry Clorinda and, finding the opportunity to protect her, he unsuccessfully confesses his love to her, what makes him threaten Clorinda to be raped and carry out the evil deed, and he runs away.
Cleon is a lord disaffected to the Prince Agenor in Carlell's 2 Passionate Lovers. He is thought to be dead after his fight with Agenor in Part One. But, he actually hides at the Druid's house, where he is planning against Clarimant, Clorinda and Agenor to be crowned king of Burgony, as they are depriving him of his rights to the throne. In Act Three, Cleon is to kidnap Clorinda and Olinda, and arrests Clarimant with the Prince of Aquitain, Selina and a bunch of Soldiers. In Act Four, Cleon sees the mistake of having kidnapped Olinda with the Prince of Aquitain. Cleon also realizes that Clorinda has given him a lot of problems. He is to get rid of her as she competes with him for the throne of Burgony. He decides to marry Clorinda and later poison her but he needs Selina to help him. Cleon promises Selina to marry her first, but she mistrusts him when he justifies his denial with the fact of being controlled by the Prince. Cleon wants to fool Selina again to keep her loyal to him and con Clorinda disguising himself under the name of Cleander.


An honest scrivener's daughter in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Plutus loves her because she is honest. She goes with him at play's end to be married.


Sought after by the duke in Shirley's Grateful Servant, Cleona is Foscari's mistress. Because everyone believes Foscari dead, Cleona prepares to accept the duke's courtship. Foscari, however, is alive, and Cleona welcomes back her lover near the play's end.


Sister to the King in Carlell's The Deserving Favorite. She normally resides in Gerard's hunting lodge in the forest and only accepts visitors by invitation. The Duke speaks of her skill at hunting, recounting an occasion when she pursued a wolf and cut its head off unaided. She vows that she will not allow her brother to choose her husband without her approval. En route to bathe in the river after hunting, she and Mariana discover Lysander wounded and the Duke apparently dead. After debating whether or not to help the man who apparently killed her kinsman, she decides to nurse Lysander back to health. She hides the Duke's body behind a bush and later sends Gerard to fetch it, only to discover that it has disappeared. While caring for Lysander, she falls in love with him but tells him that she will not love him if he proves inconstant by not loving Clarinda. She begs the King to forgive Lysander if he proves to be alive but to no avail. She informs Clarinda that Lysander is alive and tells her to come to the lodge in disguise. Later, fearing that something has prevented Clarinda from traveling to the lodge, she gives Lysander permission to escape to Florence. He is prevented from doing so by the arrival of the King. When the King is unmoved by Lysander's claim to have forced Gerard to lodge him, Cleonarda reveals that she willingly assisted him out of love. She claims that if the King puts him to death, she will kill herself. After Lysander is released and proven to be Clarinda's brother, she and Lysander agree to marry. To secure her brother's permission, they stand with swords to their hearts and promise to kill themselves if he denies the match. At first he does deny the match, but while they are deciding who should commit suicide first, the King announces that they have proven their worth and consents to the match.


A "ghost character" in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers. Cleon's brother is thought to be homosexual as he courts men.


Disguise that Selina takes to accompany Cleon and Clorinda to Neustrea in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers.


Cleopatra is the sister of Ptolemy and, as Fletcher and Massinger's The False One opens, she has been confined and placed under guard because her brother and advisors fear that she may be the focus of a coup to place her on the throne. She finds this captivity unendurable, even though, as her guard Apollodorus points out, it is very mild, and plots to escape. She has Apollodorus deliver her to Caesar, wrapped up in a packet. Caesar is infatuated at once, much to the discomfort of his captains, and promises to do whatever she wishes. However, when Ptolemy invites Caesar to a masque showing the wealth of Egypt, Cleopatra finds herself ignored as Caesar is dazzled by the display. She is humiliated and rages against herself and Apollodorus for ever approaching Caesar. When Caesar appears before her, not even aware of what he has done, she bitterly accuses him of treating her as a mistress only, cast off in favor of a new mistress–:gold. When Caesar promises that she can be queen or anything she wishes, she tells him to make her a maid again, and then leaves, ignoring his command to stay. When the palace is besieged, Cleopatra is not afraid, and instead heartens her sister by reminding her that they have a royal nature, which cannot be taken from them. At that moment Photinus enters and declares that all his plotting has been to have Cleopatra. She rejects him absolutely, and he then threatens to hand both her and Arsinoe over to his soldiers, but Cleopatra remains unmoved, declaring that she will die as she was born, in command. When Caesar rescues her, Cleopatra regrets that she ever rejected him. As the play ends, Caesar gives Egypt over to her.
One of the chorus of men and women in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium who enter at the beginning of the play and place the instrument of their deaths upon Cupid’s altar. She carries asps. See CHORUS for more details. (n.b. in the Paul’s version, only Antony and Cleopatra were employed for the chorus, and special dialogue written for that production.)
Having persuaded Caesar to restore her to the Egyptian throne in the anonymous Caesar and Pompey, Cleopatra, a ravishing blonde, then discovers that he has fallen in love with her.
Cleopatra is the ruler of Egypt and the lover of Antony in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. She personifies Egyptian values, and is passionate, sensual and changeable. When Antony announces that he is going to Rome, she is deeply upset and refuses to see him, but then insists on sending messengers to him daily. When the Messenger brings word that Antony has married, she beats him, and is only mollified when he reports that Octavia is brown, short and boring. Antony soon returns to her, and, according to Caesar, Antony declares himself Emperor of Egypt, causing a war between Antony and Caesar. Despite Enobarbas' advice, Cleopatra insists on being part of the battle at sea. This turns out to be a mistake; Cleopatra flees the battle out of fear, and Antony follows her, leading to defeat. She apologizes and rouses his spirits, but when he finds her with a messenger of Caesar's, Antony accuses her of plotting against him. Cleopatra manages to calm his suspicions, but when the next battle is again lost at sea, he turns against her completely, viciously accusing her of joining Caesar. Unable to convince him, Cleopatra locks herself in her monument and sends word that she has died. This works better than she could have expected, and Antony stabs himself out of grief. He is brought to her monument, but Cleopatra refuses to come down, for fear of being taken. Instead, she and her maids haul Antony into the monument, where he dies. Cleopatra meets with Proculeius, who uses the opportunity to seize the monument, and to stop her from stabbing herself. Both he and Dolabella try to convince her that Caesar plans to treat her well, but she is not fooled. She pretends to submit to Caesar, but then describes to Iras how they will be paraded through Rome and mocked. She has already arranged for the Clown to bring her a basket of figs, with asps hidden in them, and when she has the snakes she has herself dressed in royal robes and then commits suicide by snakebite.
Queen of Egypt, lover of Antonius, heroine of May's Cleopatra. She first appears, as in Shakespeare, conducting a public flirtation with her lover–though the scene is considerably statelier than Shakespeare's. May's Cleopatra not only statelier but much more explicitly calculating. She induces Canidius to persuade Antonius to let her fight with him against Caesar at Actium; her reason, as she explains in a soliloquy, is that she wants to prevent Octavia from reconciling Antonius and Caesar, which would destroy her own powerful position. She quickly deserts the battle, followed by Antonius, who thus loses it; wasting no time, she sends a humble message to Caesar, offering him a store of treasure (kept secret from Antonius) in return for her own freedom. At the same time, she is secretly experimenting (just in case) with fast-acting poisons trying out the asp-bite on a prisoner who has been condemned to death. Her caution is justified: Caesar, an equally devious character, wants Cleopatra to display in a triumph at Rome. Concealing his true intentions, he sends her a messenger, Thyreus, who assures her of his master's love for her. Cleopatra receives Thyreus, twice, with every show of favor; she indignantly denies this, however, when caught in the act by Antonius, and he is so besotted that he quickly accepts her denial. As the two sides prepare for another battle, Cleopatra is in a rather awkward position: she muses in a soliloquy that, if Antonius wins, he may find out about her dealings with Caesar, and, if Caesar wins, he may not really love her at all. With this in mind, she withdraws to her tomb, from which news comes to Antonius–who has lost the battle–that she is dead. He decides on death, and stabs himself, but does it so badly that he is still alive when Mardio tells him that Cleopatra is still alive too. We are told by Epaphroditus that he dies in her arms, though there is no final scene between them. After Antonius's death, Cleopatra quickly works out that Caesar is planning no good for her, and makes the best of the situation by staging a grand self-immolation in the tomb, preparing herself in robes of state and applying the asp to her breast.
A "ghost character" in Markham's Herod and Antipater. Cleopatra is Queen of Egypt. Aristobulus the Elder and Alexandra have received a letter from Cleopatra urging them to flee Herod and come to Egypt. Cleopatra's suicide is also mentioned during the course of the play.

CLEOPES **1632

The actual name of the rival lover, Neander in Hausted’s Rival Friends. This is the name by which Constantina knows and loves him. The rumor is he has been lost in Belgia. In truth, he put on the disguise of Neander in order to woo Pandora, but his sudden friendship for Lucius prevented him pursuing that girl. He is known as Neander throughout most of the play, and the bulk of his actions are described under that listing.


Cleophila and Hero are attendants on Hidaspes in Beaumont & Fletcher's Cupid's Revenge. Cleophila is sent by Hidaspes to send a page to bring the dwarf Zoylus to her. She is appalled by the way that Hidaspes dotes upon him, but realises that this is Cupid's revenge, and begs Venus to persuade her son to be merciful. When Hidaspes lies on her deathbed, dying of grief after the execution of Zoylus, Hero attends to her while Cleophila prays frantically to Cupid. On Hidaspes' death, Cleophila goes to inform Leontius.


Cleophila is the younger daughter of Meleander and sister to the vanished Eroclea in Ford's The Lover's Melancholy. Since her father's banishment and fall into madness, she has been reduced to poverty and to a sad life of nursing her failing parent. She is in love with Amethus, and is beloved of him, but feeling herself both unworthy to marry so great a courtier and unable to leave her ailing father, she refuses his suit. She is one of the ladies coveted by the would-be lover Cuculus, and it is he who brings her the letter in which Thamasta acquaints her with her sister's return. Having received the same news, Corax calls on her to help him to cure her father's madness; together, they give Meleander a cordial to make him sleep, barber and dress him, and then prepare him for the restoration of his fortunes and his daughter. Cleophila is also the agent of reconciliation between Thamasta and Menaphon when Thamasta, chastened by her experience with Parthenophill, comes to apologize to Cleophila for having proudly frowned on her. With the restoration of Eroclea, all the play's characters are reconciled and Prince Palador asks (and receives) Meleander's blessing on the marriage of Cleophila and Amethus.


Cleora, daughter of Archidamus in Massinger's The Bondman, is pursued by both Leosthenes and Marullo. At first, she seems interested in Leosthenes, and promises to wear a band around her eyes so that she remain blind to temptation in his absence. But she quickly fancies Pisander, whom she intends to marry at the close of the play.


A "ghost character" in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. A lady involved in the conspiracy but who does not appear on stage.


Old nobleman, father of Selina, mortal enemy of Antharis in Wilson's The Swisser. Clephis is an honest statesman and courtier who dares to say what he thinks, and who cares for the welfare of the state. His daughter Selina is in love with Alcidonus, the son of his mortal enemy Antharis. Although he does not like this, he is not opposed to their relationship, because he respects his daughter's choice. He suspects that Antharis is trying to separate the couple at all costs and manages to exchange the poison that the two lovers decide to take for a sleeping drug.


Cleremond, a noble, is in love with Leonora in Massinger's The Parliament of Love. He supposedly slays his best friend in an attempt to win Leonora's love. At the close of the play, he marries Leonora.


See also CLERIMONT and related spellings.


Cleremont is one of the noble Gentlemen in the king's court in Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster, or Love Lies A-Bleeding. He is a loyal supporter of Philaster's claim to the throne throughout, and he sees the would-be heir Pharamond as a typical braggart. He is consistently in the company of Lord Dion and the gentleman Thrasiline.


Dinant's close friend in Fletcher and Massinger's The Little French Lawyer. Cleremont is a merry gentleman whose initial commitment to peaceful solutions to problems turns out to be part of a three-hour penance assigned after his most recent confession. Cleremont helps Dinant confront Lamira, who rejected Dinant's suit, at her wedding to Champernell, and comforts his friend by announcing that marriage is the perfect front for those who want "To play the wanton, without losse of honour." Agreeing to serve as Dinant's second in a duel against Beaupre and Verdoone, Cleremont is shocked when his friend fails to arrive in time to fight. He hastily seeks a replacement, stopping an Old Gentleman who has no sword, two other gentlemen who are on a way to a duel of their own, and finally La-writ, whom Cleremont forces to take part in the fight. La-writ proves a fine fighter, much to his own and Cleremont's amazement, and they defeat Beaupre and Verdoone. Cleremont then stops La-writ and Dinant from fighting, and tries to keep Dinant from keeping an appointment with Lamira. Meeting La-writ, Cleremont accepts the task of delivering the newly fierce lawyer's challenge to the judge Vertaigne even though he fears arrest for doing so. Cleremont gracefully explains that the challenge is from a madman, and Vertaigne decides to send his nephew Sampson in his place, which Cleremont arranges. Dinant asks for Cleremont's help in his assignation with Lamira: Cleremont is to climb in bed with Champernell so that the old man will not suspect that his wife is elsewhere. After many objections, Cleremont agrees to do this; he enters above several times to express his terror that Lamira and Dinant are being too loud, which is part of Lamira's plan, and is later extremely embarrassed to discover that he has, as another part of Lamira's plot, actually been in bed with the 16-year-old Anabell, with whom he promptly falls in love. Cleremont assists with Dinant's counter-revenge, coaches La-writ on his upcoming duel with Sampson, and uses that duel as an excuse to leave the two lawyers in their shirts and steal their swords. Cleremont pretends to come to the rescue of the kidnapped party and pretends to be defeated by the kidnappers. He reminds Anabell that she once had a chance to sleep with him and asks her if she regrets not doing so. After she is threatened with rape by the second gentleman, Cleremont enters in disguise, seizes Anabell, and then reveals himself to her. They kiss and leave the vault, abandoning Lamira who is later rescued by Dinant. Cleremont offers a long, improbable account of the "kidnappers" and how he got free of them. After Champernell discovers that Cleremont and Anabell have had sex, he consents to their marriage.


Monsieur Marine's cousin in Fletcher's The Noble Gentleman. Cleremont (also spelled "Cleremon") is referred to as "Cozen" in the speech headings and dramatis personae. He advises Marine not to waste his estate by becoming a courtier. However, he believes the gallants' story that the Gentleman (Godfrey Marine) is to be made a Duke, and resolves to use his family connection to become one as well. He flees with his Wife upon learning that the Duke's title has been rescinded.


Clergye is one of King Johan's three estates in Bale's King Johan, Part 1. Being accused of having misused England, he swears allegiance to the King, but he covertly operates in support of the Pope.
One of King Johan's three estates in Bale's King Johan, Part 2. Clergye is persuaded by Stevyn Langton (who is really Sedicyon in disguise) to be disloyal to King Johan, who has been excommunicated by the Pope. After the King's death, listening to Veritas's words, Clergye repents and is forgiven. He then swears allegiance to Imperyall Majestye, who represents King Henry VIII, promises to exile Usurpid Power and helps to catch Sedicyon.


See also CLEREMONT and related spellings.


Clerimont is a gallant, Dauphine's friend in Jonson's Epicoene. At Clerimont's house in London, Clerimont enters followed by his page. Clerimont is getting ready to go to a party, when his friend Truewit enters. While Clerimont and Truewit discuss Morose's noise-hating idiosyncrasy, Dauphine enters and announces that his uncle wants to disinherit him. At Sir John Daw's house, Clerimont enters with Daw, Dauphine, and Epicoene. Truewit enters and the three gentlemen discuss the situation created by Morose's intention to get married. Dauphine explains that he and his friend have been plotting for four months to introduce Epicoene to his uncle, in order to ruin his plans for marriage. When Cutbeard enters announcing that Morose intends to go on with his marriage plans, Dauphine and Epicoene leave with the barber to arrange their imbroglio, while Clerimont exits with Truewit. In a lane near Morose's house, Clerimont enters with Truewit and Dauphine. When Cutbeard announces them that Morose intends to marry Epicoene that day, the gallants decide to bring in a merry party of revelers. Clerimont exits with his friends to Otter's house. Using clever persuasion, the gallants manage to persuade Mistress Otter to relocate her party to Morose's house. Clerimont exits with his friends to make the arrangements. At Morose's house, Clerimont enters with musicians, thus adding to the already existing uproar in the house. When Morose chases the noisy intruders away from his house, Clerimont exits with Truewit. In a long open gallery at Morose's house, Clerimont enters with Truewit. While Clerimont and Dauphine are eavesdropping, Truewit mocks the foolish knights Daw and La-Foole. In another room at Morose's house, Clerimont enters with the foolish knights and then he walks aside and watches the scene in which the collegiate ladies, in turn, are courting Dauphine. When the ladies leave, Truewit enters and the three friends arrange the next plot of disguise. Clerimont witnesses the scene in which the false Lawyer and Divine counsel Morose on the possible grounds for his divorce. Although Clerimont has been instrumental in making La-Foole and Daw testify on Epicoene's infidelity, he is amazed like the others when Morose's presupposed wife is revealed as a boy. Clerimont attends the final revelation and reconciliation scene.


A gentleman, friend and confidant to Philocles, conveniently next-door-neighbor to Polymetes in May's The Heir. A witty and occasionally bawdy bachelor, he invites Philocles to see the beautiful Leucothoë, whose recent fame as a rich heiress has interested his friend. Clerimont himself claims to have loved her but mastered his affection since, as a younger brother without a decent jointure, the lady is unobtainable. He first suggests to Philocles that as an heir himself he would be an eligible suitor, but Philocles explains that the long enmity of their fathers prevents such a hope. When Philocles falls in love with her at first sight, Clerimont promises to do all he can to help his friend to meet the lady, advising caution that Philocles impetuously ignores. Clerimont is a happy pragmatist. When his friend throws a love-letter to her out of the window, he reflects that if she hates him on account of their family feud, he hasn't wasted much time, if she is prepared to love him, however, he will have made quick progress. Clerimont next sees the difficulty of subverting Virro's success in courting the lady and suggests that the option of cuckolding him in future can always be relied on. In the meantime, he curses Virro on behalf of his friend. He accompanies Philocles to meet Leucothoë at their appointed elopement and joins with him in fighting the Officers brought along by her father to trap them all. He is arrested but released on Polymetes's decision that he is an unimportant accomplice. He attends Philocles's trial and joins in the general rejoicing at the happy outcome.


Clerimont is the youngest son of Sir Oliver Younglove and the brother to Antonio in Baylie's The Wizard. He first appears disguised as a Captain in order to help his friend Sebastian win Caelia. After insulting Sir Oliver's suit, Clerimont is challenged to a duel by Antonio and must reveal himself before blood is drawn. At this point, Clerimont agrees to help Antonio with his suit. Clerimont overhears Penelope complaining about being overshadowed by her sister, and sees Hog and Delia ensnare Shallow. When Caelia declares that she will leave her choice of suitors to a conjurer, Antonio despairs and decides to exile himself, but Clerimont persuades him to disguise himself as an ancient conjurer instead. Clerimont then forces Hog to steal plate and plants it for the Cook to find where the "conjurer" tells him to look. Clerimont continues to help his brother, all the while declaring his immunity to love, a character note that is never explained. When all the deceptions have been revealed, Clerimont apologizes for helping Antonio rather than Sebastian, and is forgiven because he owes more loyalty to his brother than his friend.


He accompanies the Judge and the Jailor in the Anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V and reads Cuthbert Cutter's indictment.

CLERK **1594

Clerk of the Venetian Court (also called the Scribe and Register) reads out the charges and sentence at Lelio's trial in the anonymous Knack To Know An Honest Man.

CLERK **1599

The Cleark in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women tells George Browne to step up to the bar and raise his hand. He then reads the indictment against Browne, giving the location, date, and time of the killing. He asks Browne how he pleads. After Browne is sentenced and led out, the Cleark reads the indictments and asks the pleading of Anne Sanders and Anne Drurie.


The Clerke works in Court in the anonymous The Contention Between Liberalitie and Prodigalitie. Following the orders of the Judge, he is in charge of calling the prisoner, and of reading the indictment.


The clerk in the anonymous Wily Beguiled is called by Wil Cricket to arrange for his marriage to Pegge. He explains that Sir John (the vicar) won't be able to call the banns at evening service the next Sunday because a band of players will be present and Sir John will not leave their company. The vicar will be working with them to build a stage.


Justice Overdo's clerk is a "ghost character" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Trouble-all is so obsessed with Justice Overdo that he tells Cokes he needs a written warrant from Adam Overdo, or from his clerk, in order to be able to guide him home.


The Clerk in S.S's Honest Lawyer calls Marion Sorrow (Vaster's wife) to stand forward, and reads the charge of attempting to poison her against Gripe.


A parish clerk in Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law. He is persuaded by Gnothos to alter Agatha's date of birth in the parish register. The Clerk also makes a list of elderly widows for the servants of Creon to marry—rich women who are soon to be executed under the Old Law.


Spelled "Clarke" in dramatis personae in Fletcher's Women Pleased: an official at Silvio's trial.


The clerk aids in the business of all the various trials in the anonymous Dick of Devonshire.


One of Bianca's foolish suitors in Fletcher, Ford, Massinger and Webster's The Fair Maid of the Inn. An advocate's clerk who "speaks pure fustian."


Clerk to Sir Paul Squelch in Brome's The Northern Lass. He is alarmed when his usually miserly master gives him a lot of money and instructs him to organize a dinner party.


A "ghost character" in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday. Montanus recalls how he "could never find so great a clerk As could tell how t'expound the meaning" of the message inscribed in the circle that hangs around the neck of Thyrsis.


He is called to the court in the Anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave to tell King Edgar how many people he has in custody because of Walter. He informs the court that Walter stocks his corn to raise the prices, or exports it to the enemy, and that he raises the rents of his houses till people like Piers Ploughman are no longer able to pay them.


When Jack Cade launches his commoners' rebellion in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, the Clerk of Chatham is among the first casualties. Cade sentences him to death by hanging for the crime of doing his job.


The Clerk in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary calls out the names of the workers as they begin their shift. Then he discusses the launching with Naupegus, and hopes that the Queen will come to watch.


At the trial in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt, the unnamed Clark (Clerk) of the Crown reads the indictment against Guildford Dudley and Lady Jane Grey.


Just before the arrival of Sir Thomas Palmer at the Privy Council in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More, the Clerk informs the Earl of Surrey that it is past eight-o-clock in the morning.

CLERK of the 'SIZE

The Clerk of the Assizes officiates in the trial of Conscience, Love and Lucre in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London.


The Parish Clerk appears in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister when Ralph Roister Doister, having been spurned by Dame Custance, feigns that he is dying of a broken heart. As Matthew Merrygreek engages in a parodic version of the Roman Catholic service for the dead, the Clerk and the musicians ring bells as though the braggart truly is about to die.


Brother of the murdered Bussy D'Ambois, and friend of Guise in Chapman's The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois. He has sworn to revenge his brother's murder. Guise describes him as noble and valorous, exceeding his brother in all parts. Indeed, he is so perfect a hero that even those who betray him (like the various captains) feel guilty about it. He fights fiercely before being captured; his captivity is short-lived, since Guise persuades the King to release him. He is in love with the Countess of Cambrai. Despite some qualms about the appropriateness of revenge, he finally kills Montsurry. Then, upon learning of the death of Guise at the hands of the King's guards, he asks to be left alone and commits suicide.


The younger son of Alcon and Samia in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England, Clesiphon is the first to suffer pangs of hunger after the family cow is taken by the Usurer. His need for food is the occasion of his parents' visit to Radagon at court. When the haughty Radagon turns his back on his family because of their humble birth and refuses to recognize them, Clesiphon remarks that getting a kingdom (as Radagon has from Rasni) can be the cause of losing one's wits.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's Your Five Gallants. One of Tailby's conquests, who sends her Servant to him with a new suit of clothes.


Three clients are bewildered by La-writ's sudden transformation from lawyer into duelist in Fletcher and Massinger's The Little French Lawyer. They shift their business to Sampson who promises to use his family connections to get their cases heard. After La-writ's beating by Champernell and subsequent reform, two clients become the lawyer's loyal "Mirmidons" and defend La-writ from Sampson's mockery.


Two Clients of Pettifog, who give him money in order to be mindful of their business in Webster and Rowley's A Cure for a Cuckold. Their brief appearance seems intended as a satire on avaricious lawyers.


Sir Robert Clifford was once in league with the pretender in Ford's Perkin Warbeck. He switches alliance and comes into Henry VII's camp. There he betrays the spies in Henry's court. They include Henry's best friend, Lord Chamberlain Stanley. Clifford's information is acted upon, but Clifford is sent to virtual prison in his own home.


Clifford and Percy are the leaders of the English army against Wallace and the rebel Scots in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot. When Wallace maims the English ambassadors, Clifford and Percy decide to lure him into a trap, but their plot is foiled easily because Wallace, in disguise, is present while they discuss this. Clifford has great respect for Wallace, and comes to admire him, longing to slay him nobly in single combat. He encourages Robert Bruce to see that the English sneer at him behind his back, and sends him twelve silver pence and a pair of spurs, to suggest that he is a traitor to his country and ought to flee. He then tells Bruce that he must lead the next attack on the English; Bruce confides in him that he is going to defect, but Clifford makes no promise to keep his secret. At the end of the play, Clifford delivers the final speech, praising Bruce for stabbing Coming so that "the ghost of Wallace shall sleep in peace."


Lord Clifford and the Duke of Buckingham attempt to end Jack Cade's rebellion in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI by promising that Cade's supporters will be pardoned if they relent, but Cade persuades the rebels that such promises cannot be trusted. When Clifford warns the rebels that they are making England vulnerable to a French invasion, they recognize the danger of the rebellion and transfer their allegiance to King Henry. Clifford dies defending his king against the Yorkist rebels, slain by York himself. Historically he was Thomas de Clifford, eighth Baron of Westmoreland, and grandson of Hotspur through his mother.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI. Lord Clifford is described in the opening moments of the play, bravely dying, sword in hand, at St. Albans–York says in this play that common soldiers cut him down.


When in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI his father is slain defending Henry from the Yorkist rebels, Young Clifford tends to his father's corpse and vows revenge on the House of York. Historically, he was John de Clifford, ninth Baron of Westmoreland.
The Lord Clifford who appears onstage in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI is the son of the Lord Clifford who fought on King Henry's side in 2 Henry VI. Like his father, the Clifford of 3 Henry VI defends Henry's right to the throne. In fulfillment of his vow to avenge his father's death on the Duke of York and his progeny, Clifford slays York's youngest son Rutland. Clifford dies defending the Lancastrian cause, delivering a speech of some thirty lines after being mortally wounded. When Edward Plantagenet, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, and Warwick find the body, Warwick suggests that "measure for measure must be answerèd" and so they should take York's head down from the gates of York and replace it with Clifford's.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Richard III. A lord who supported Henry VI during the Wars of the Roses. He murdered York's young son Rutland, brother of Edward IV, Clarence, and Richard III. He then captured York in battle and killed him. Clifford later died in battle with the Yorks.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV, Clifton is a loyalist to whom Prince Henry plans to appeal for reinforcements at Shrewsbury.


The local lord of Clifton in Nottinghamshire in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker, his first name is also spelled "Gervase." Described by Lord Grey as a lamb in peace but a ravening lion in war, he is an aged yet still flamboyant soldier who habitually punctuates his speech with the oath, "My holy dame." As the play begins, he is organizing an expeditionary force to serve the Queen in the wars against the Scots at Leith, and takes Young Bateman into his service. Arriving in Scotland, he assures his commander, Lord Grey, that he will happily fight alongside his five-hundred-and-fifty Nottinghamshire lads. Having helped to secure the English success on the first day of battle, he is reluctant to let the gallant Young Bateman return to Nottinghamshire, but finally accedes to his request and sends him home with letters. He rallies his men after the attack of the Frenchmen in women's clothing by taunting Mortigue and declaring that "England's Royal Bess" surpasses her cousin, Mary Stuart, in beauty and virtue. After the two fight in single combat, Clifton takes Mortigue prisoner but sets him free. He holds the "green bulwark" opposite Doysells' position during the Battle of Leith, and takes Doysells' armour as a prize. He is not pleased when the fighting at Leith is halted by the message of the peace commissioners in Edinburgh. Nevertheless, when news of a definitive peace arrives, he proclaims it to the soldiers and welcomes it. He returns to Nottingham to greet Queen Elizabeth, who makes him her deputy Lieutenant and Lord Warden of Nottingham Castle.


See also "CLEM."


Only mentioned as an epithet in Jonson's The Alchemist. Clim-o'-the-Clough was the hero of a romantic ballad. Seeing that Subtle pretends to be afraid of revealing his magic art before Dapper, Face wants to reinforce the idea of Dapper's honesty. Since magic practices were against the law, and a clerk had denounced a magician, Subtle pretends to be wary of Dapper. Face recommends Dapper as an honest man, no cheating Clim-o'-the-Clough.


Clindor is a Captain and friend to Agenor in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers. In Act One, he is depressed because he has wasted a monthly payment with a bawd and he does not know how to recover it now. Clindor asks Lucidor for 20 crowns to pay his debts, and when he refuses him this favor Clindor goes to Senon, who humiliates him. Later, he is asked to meet Prince Agenor at his chamber. Leaving his lord, he goes to court Selina. In Act Three, he comes to Agenor to tell him that his father's army is coming and that they have to defend themselves. When Agenor escapes, Clindor stays and is arrested for helping his friend. Later, in Act Five, he comes to Neustrea as a soldier and Clindor talks to his mates to convince them that they should not surrender to Clarimant, but keep on fighting to have women and money, and be able to humiliate the king. Clindor also thinks that Agenor should be kept alive and be allowed to rule a territory as viceroy.
Clindor is a Captain, friend to Agenor in Carlell's 2 Passionate Lovers. In Act One, talking to one of his soldiers, he is accused of having made himself comfortable in his post at court, what offends him. Clindor challenges the soldier to defend his honor, but he is stopped by Clarimant who administers justice. In Act Two, Clindor is asked for 10 crowns, which he refuses to give to his soldier. Later, he goes to talk to Cleon's sister but her knave forbids him to enter the room, what makes him pay attention to the boy and he discovers that she is a woman. But, he is to keep the secret. In Act Three, he visits Clarimant, whom he is to help to seduce Clorinda. Later, Clindor asks Agenor for 1,000 crowns that he will return him when he conquers a city for him, but he is denied such an order. In Act Four, he comes to Agenor, Austrella and the King to tell them that the princesses have been kidnapped and that Clarimant has been arrested too when he was chasing them. With Agenor, he is to lead the troops that follow the Prince. In Act Five, Clindor arrives to help Clarimant and Clorinda and later he goes with them to celebrate their wedding.


Clinias is a young man in the anonymous Narcissus. He goes with Dorastus to meet Tyresias, because they want to know their fortune. The Prophet replies that they will die soon. But they misunderstand him, and think the old man meant "dye" instead of "die." Later, Clinias meets Narcissus and, infatuated by the looks of the boy, he praises his beauty and competes with Dorastus for his love. But Narcissus explains that he is also a man, and, therefore, he cannot love them. Clinias insists on it, but he is made to realise that his love is unrequited. Afterwards, while he is seeking Dorastus, he is fooled by Eccho and, believing that Eccho's challenging words were Dorastus', as soon as he faces him, there is a misunderstanding between them, then they fight and kill each other.


Gentleman Usher to Eudora in Chapman's The Widow's Tears. Tharsalio dismisses him and puts Argus in his place when Clinias refuses to announce him to Eudora.

CLINIAS **1632

Tyndarus' real name in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. Demetrius reveals at the wedding near play's end that Tyndarus is Evadne's brother Clinias, and both are Demetrius' children.


Captain Clinton in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame is the friend of the gentlemen Musgrave and Miles Forrest, and the beloved of Mariana, waiting-maid to Honorea, daughter of Morgan Earl of London. Clinton, the first man Belphagor (disguised as Castiliano) meets on earth, introduces him to Earl Morgan but then conspires with Forrest to help Musgrave win Honorea from her other suitors. When the "bed-trick" frustrates their plans, Clinton finds that not only is Honorea married to Earl Lacy after all, but that his own lover, Mariana has been wed to Castiliano. Clinton and Forrest plot with their apothecary friend Ralph Harvey to gain access to the doctor's house and gardens. They intend to use it as a trysting spot for Musgrave and Honorea as well as for Clinton and Mariana. When Castiliano surprises Clinton and Mariana together, they outface him, but later decide that for their love to continue they must do away with him. Mariana sends Clinton off to ambush the doctor and pretends to reconcile with her husband while really plotting to rob and poison him. As Clinton prepares to attack him, Castiliano, already dying of poison and his allowed time on earth expired, is swallowed up by the earth and returns to the safety of Hell.


Clinton and Purser are notorious pirates, proud of their lack of conscience in Heywood and Rowley's Fortune by Land and Sea. They attack the Merchant, and capture his ship, but they are then attacked and captured by Young Forrest. As they are led away to execution, they lament their misfortune, but also take pleasure in the memory of their misdeeds.


A young man in Tatham's Love Crowns the End. Hiding in a grove and groaning with a nightmare when the play opens, Clinton is awakened by Alexis to whom he confesses to having murdered his beloved Florida in a jealous rage. Urged by Alexis to do holy works in contrition, Clinton assumes the life of a hermit, bearded and with an aged appearance. In this role he encounters Gloriana grieving the death of Lysander and tries to console her. In the final scene he rejoices that a "celestial matron" had restored Florida's life, and as the play closes it appears that Clinton and Florida will marry.


Lord Clinton, and his friend Lord Chester, are jealous of the Marshall's ascendance in the King's affections in Heywood's Royal King. They plot to undermine him by suggesting to the King that the Marshall's loyalty is insincere. The King believes them, and orders the Marshall to give up his ceremonial key to Chester. For a while, Clinton and Chester are happy, but when the Marshall is eventually restored to the King's affections, the two lords begin plotting again. Luckily for them, the King is angered when the Marshall returns a dowry, and they work hard to keep him angry. The King sentences the Marshall to death. But the Marshall is saved when Isabella, Katherine, thee Prince, and the Princess save him by begging the King to remember his familial ties. The King realizes his folly and denounces Chester as a traitor instead.


Clinton, along with Lord Hunsdon and the Lord Admiral, greets the Duchess, Bertie, Sands, Cranwell, and Foxe as they return to London from Europe after Queen Elizabeth comes to the throne in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk.


Clio is the Muse of History in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. She is idle because nothing memorable can happen during peacetime.
"A Muse" and one of Museus's assistants in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Clio appears only at the play's end. She attends the sentencing of disobedient characters and responds to a comment made by Siren. Museus claims that her help is not needed in the search of Siren's person which is "onely of her upper garment," and Clio closes the play (along with Euterpe) when she states, "It joyes my heart, that we poore Muses, / Now have redresse of our abuses."


A poor curate in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Stiff calls him their "ficar" (vicar). In growing rich, he will not need Latin or Greek, and he preaches only by the Book of Common Prayer and rejects speaking ex tempore. He is "for the king and the Prayer-Book."


Son of the Caliph of Babylon in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. He intercedes when he finds Miranda protecting Justina from the Babylonian Soldiers who are threatening her and subsequently falls in love with Justina. He refuses to help his father fight the Egyptians until he is permitted to marry her. Having been granted permission, he fights valiantly against the Egyptians, but when the Caliph reveals that has had Justina drowned, Clitophon releases the captured Soldan of Egypt and leaves Babylon with an army. But he then regrets his actions, and joins with the Romans against the Soldan. After the Romans subdue the rival armies, Clitophon is reunited with Justina. The Caliph permits him to marry her, but she decides to remain a virgin; Clitophon is not displeased, and is so moved by her faith that he converts to Christianity.


An 'inconstant shepherd', which in practice means an incorrigible flirt and occasionally spiteful misogynist in Glapthorne's Argalus and Parthenia. Seen with his fellows Alexis and Strephon and in the company of the nymphs Aminta and Florida and the shepherdess Sapho. His first attempt to flirt with Aminta leaves her sceptical and scornful. His second attempt fares no better, giving Strephon the hope that she might prefer himself. Next he tries to flirt with Florida, who also snubs him. He persists in denouncing women generally, even when Alexis confides that he has fallen in love for real. After Strephon's latest verses in dispraise of women, he offers to cap them with his own, going further 'in hatred of them'. In their next scene, his companions, male and female, unite against his offensive misogyny. His latest verses have gone too far and they nag him into a semblance of remorse. In a brief scene after their pastoral performance for the wedding of Argalus and Parthenia, he is still grovelling to Sapho for his earlier behavior. He expresses his melancholy, to be fated to love all women indiscriminately. Strephon counters with vanity, feeling his fate is to be loved by all women irresistibly. Clitophon finally tries to flirt with Sapho, who also rejects him as too fickle to be taken seriously. He is matched with Sapho in a lovers' dance but does not reappear to make clear whether the match is permanent, or mutually desired.

CLITUS **1599

Clitus is Brutus' servant in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. He reports that Statilius is missing after a signal torchlight is waved, and he refuses his master's request to assist in Brutus' suicide when the battle seems lost.


Clitus is a lord at the court of Alexander in Daniel's Philotas. He confers with Craterus and Ephestion about the threat which they feel Philotas poses to Alexander, and worry that Alexander is underestimating him.

CLITUS **1635

A “ghost character" in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. When Timeus finds the body of his slain father he calls for support from Clitus, Charisius, Erastus, and Amathes but none are at hand.


This fragment begins at the end of a first scene of Wilson’s The Corporal wherein both a Clo: and Rod: address some ‘choice gentlemen’ saying that ‘we’ are your humble servants. When asked if he likes the plan Erf: is hatching as go-between for Theo:, Clo: comments that it is an old trick that he has seen before.


A court vice in Skelton's Magnyfycence. One of the evil counselors who mislead Magnyfycence and bring him to ruin and despair.


Trojan lord who lands in Carthage with others (Ilioneus, Sergestus) and is reunited with Aeneas in II.i of Marlowe's Dido, Queen of Carthage.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the underlings of Harman van Speult, listed by Sheathing-Nail.


Clod is a countryman and an aging suitor of Lady Riches in Shirley's Contention for Honor and Riches. He claims to love Riches deeply, and he argues with Gettings over who loves Riches the most and deserves her best. He challenges Gettings, but the arrival of Foul-Weather-in-Harvest ruins Clod's appetite for fighting.


A "ghost character" in Hemming's Fatal Contract. Fredigond's late brother, dead before the play begins. His murder by Crotilda's family, in mistaken revenge for her rape by Clotair, provokes the Queen's vendetta against the whole family before and throughout the play.

CLODIO **1602

‘A puisne gentleman, a younger brother, an Italian’ in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. He seeks to know whom Florimel affects and so enlists Sir Jeptes’s aid. He eavesdrops on a conversation between Florimel and Rhodaghond but, not learning who her lover is, tricks Florimel when she is alone by ‘hoodwinking’ her with his hands from behind. When she believes him to be Amadour, he slips away unseen with the knowledge. He has Jeptes make up a poison for Amadour and carries it away, vowing to kill his rival. He comes upon Amadour at the secret nuptial spot in Amadour’s garden, pretending friendship and claiming to have been long away in Padua. He gives Amadour a citron (lemon) ‘in friendship’ but makes a secret, disparaging gesture as he leaves that only the audience sees. He comes to the wedding party just in time to see that Florimel is poisoned and have Amadour run him through—mid-sentence—with a rapier. He dies without a word more.


Tyrannical and lecherous Count of the unknown 'country' of the title in Fletcher and Massinger's Custom of the Country. It may be an Italian city-state distant from Rome (birthplace of our two heroes, Arnoldo and Rutillio) or anywhere else in the Mediterranean a long sea-voyage from Lisbon. Clodio's ruthless determination to indulge his libido in upholding the traditional droit de seigneur over new brides in his domain precipitates the armed defiance and subsequent flight of the newly-married Zenocia and Arnoldo from the threat of his unacceptable attentions. His tyranny had already appeared in compelling the bride's father, Charino, to attempt to woo for him instead, and in gloating over the prospect of ravishing Zenocia despite her revulsion and contempt. With threats of violence against Charino, his hostage, he pursues the refugees as far as Lisbon. A long and stormy voyage has given him time to repent of his tyranny and lust: he now vows to pursue Zenocia fairly as a prospective suitor. His political influence as an ally of Portugal allows him to monitor the adventures of the unhappy couple, in disguise. Part of the Governor's party who liberate Zenocia from slavery (and rescue her from strangulation), he does not immediately dispel her fears by insisting on his reformed character. Zenocia's later suffering and likely death from Hippolyta's black magic provokes a more outspoken show of his repentance, pity and admiration for the true devotion of the afflicted lovers. He vows to abolish the cruel custom of his country hereafter, continues to show princely mercy by interceding for the life of Rutillio, and continues to think of Zenocia as a sister, when the cruel spell is revoked and all ends happily.


Marcus Clodius is a conniving devil closely associated with Appius in John Webster's Appius and Virginia. It is Clodius who suggests to Appius that the best way to obtain Virginia as wife is to withhold supplies from her father, Virginius, and his Roman troops. When that scheme fails, Clodius first tries wooing Virginia with letters signed by Appius. He then arranges for false testimony to demonstrate that Virginia is a bondwoman and not freeborn. Tried before Appius, Virginia asks her father to kill her rather than allow her to live disgraced. Virginius complies. Clodius is finally imprisoned for his treachery when Virginius and his army march upon Rome. Clodius attempts to exculpate himself by arguing that he had only acted under orders. He is offered the chance to commit an honorable suicide; when he refuses, he is sent to die by hanging.


A rustic swain in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. One of Chremylus' honest neighbors. When Carion tells him that Plutus will make him rich, he dreams of throwing away his leather slops and pitchfork. He later delights in seeing parson Dicæus defeat Penia-Penniless in a disputation over the superiority of wealth over poverty.


See also CHLOË.


Cloë is a shepherdess in Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess. Desperate to lose her virginity, she first woos Thenot, who rejects her because he is in love with Clorin, then Daphnis, and then Alexis. She agrees to meet both Daphnis and Alexis in the wood. Rejecting Daphnis as being too cold, she rids herself of him by telling him that they should meditate apart and meet later in a hollow oak. She then pursues Alexis, who returns her fervor. Before they can consummate their attraction, however, the Sullen Shepherd sets them upon and wounds Alexis. Resigned, Cloë keeps her appointment with Daphnis in the hollow tree, where the Satyr finds them. Cloë at first fails Clorin's chastity test, and her presence reopens Alexis' wounds and prevents his healing until the Satyr removes her. She repents and passes the test before returning to the village with the other shepherds.


The cast off mistress of the soldier Siphax in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. Cloë follows him to Paphos where Chilax arranges for her to impersonate the princess Calis. Believing his sister Cleanthe has devised a plan allowing him to win the hand of the princess, Siphax is tricked instead into marrying the disguised Cloë.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. Cloe is one of the young women pursued by the bawd Leucippe for the pleasure of the King.


A shepherdess in Tatham's Love Crowns the End. Pursued by the Lustful Shepherd, shepherdess Cloë calls for help, and Lysander rescues her by chasing the Lustful Shepherd away. Smitten by his heroism, Cloë asks Lysander to take her. She cannot understand why Lysander rejects her because the other shepherds always chase her, but she offers to be his servant and cook. Singing a love song, Cloë runs into the woods where she encounters Daphnes who greets her as his love. She rejects Daphnes and runs off to sing more about her love. The Nymphs appear and carry Cloë off to Florida's dwelling where they all work to make Lysander well. Reunited with Daphnes, the two appear headed for marriage as the play closes.


A "ghost character" in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. A lady involved in the conspiracy but who never appears on stage.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Sogliardo praises his excellent friendship to Shift before Puntavorlo and his company, Puntavorlo notices that Shift is a rascal. Sogliardo introduces his friend as Cavalier Shift, and Puntavorlo makes the connection with a famous thief executed for robbery. He asks Shift if he knows Signior Clog, who was hanged for robbery at Harrow on the hill. Proud of his new friend's astuteness, Sogliardo responds that not only did Shift know the famous thief but also he gave Clog all the directions for action.


Hoffman begins Chettle's Hoffman vowing revenge for his father's (Hance Hoffman's) death. The Senior Hoffman was arrested, tortured and executed for piracy. Hoffman too was arrested but was released after Otho's mother, Martha, pleaded on his behalf. Hoffman has stolen his father's corpse and keeps it hanging in plain view to remind him of the outrages done to his family. His son swears that after killing his enemies, he will join his father in paradise. He enlists Lorrique, who serves young Leningberg, also known as Otho. Lorrique and Hoffman inspire each other to greater villainies. Hoffman kills Otho by having a red-hot crown placed on his head. Soon after, disguised as the monk Rodorick, Hoffman convinces Lodowick that Ferdinand wants him dead and then provides a Greek disguise for him. Now adopting the identity of the murdered Otho, he tells Mathias, Lodowick's brother, that Lucybel has run off with a Greek lover. Mathias hunts them down and stabs them both. Lodowick's wound is fatal. Once Mathias realizes he has killed his brother, he blames Otho (really the disguised Hoffman), but Otho/Hoffman blames Rodorick. Lucybel, bleeding but alive, corroborates that it was a Monk who gave Lodowick the Greek disguise and told them to run away. Thus, Mathias believes, at least for a short time, Otho/Hoffman. Hoffman then plans to kill Otho's mother, the newly arrived and blameless Martha, but is unable to do so. Instead, he confesses to her that he killed Otho but has hidden the fact from the world because he knew it would upset her. Amazingly, she agrees to play along, essentially adopting Hoffman as the new Otho. He then decides that he wants to rape her and plans with Lorrique for opportunity to do so. Afraid that Lorrique will expose him, Hoffman stabs his companion, but the wound, while fatal, is not immediate. Lorrique then exposes Hoffman, who remains unrepentant for his crimes.


Franck's friend in Fletcher's The Captain. Clora discovers that Franck is in love with a soldier. She and Franck later make music at an upstairs window below which Jacamo, Frederick, and Clora's brother, Fabritio, stand. When Clora and Franck see the men, Clora insults Jacamo while Franck defends him. Thus, she is sure that Jacamo is the particular soldier Franck loves. When she first meets Jacamo, Clora is polite, but as soon as Jacamo is rude, Clora replies spiritedly, mocking him and substantiating Jacamo's opinion of women. When Jacamo arrives drunk and declares his intention of kissing all of the women, Clora objects when it is her turn, afraid that he will bite her, but he kisses her. Clora, Franck, and Frederick all laugh at Jacamo when he mistakes Frederick for a woman and kisses him. After Jacamo draws his sword and attacks Frederick, who falls, Clora calls for officers and tells Fabritio that Jacamo should be hanged. Clora is slower to forgive Jacamo than Franck when they discover that Frederick is not really dead. The following morning when Jacamo will not enter the house, Clora suggests dumping a bucket of urine on Jacamo's head in order to draw him inside. Although the attempt is unsuccessful, Jacamo ultimately does enter. Clora, along with Frederick and the Maid, helps hold Jacamo in a chair while Franck declares her love. She confirms to Jacamo that Franck has wasted many nights' sleep for him, then is chagrined when Franck reveals that Clora herself has spent many nights weeping for and writing to Julio. When Franck and Jacamo prepare to leave to be married, Clora wishes that she might marry Julio, a wish that comes true at the church. She joins in the nuptial festivities afterward.


Clorin is a shepherdess in Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess. She vows to remain forever chaste for the sake of her dead lover and also to stay by his grave practicing herbal healing magic. Her virginity sustains her magic and gives her power over the Satyr. She is wooed by Thenot but rejects him. Seeing that her attraction to him lies in the fact that she is unattainable, Clorin cures Thenot's love for her by pretending to seduce him. She heals Alexis and Amoret and brings Cloë to repentance. Perigot seeks her out in order to purge his guilt and is reunited with Amoret. Clorin tests the chastity of the Priest of Pan. She advises him on how best to regulate the behavior of the shepherds and shepherdesses. She remains in her bower in the wood when the other characters return to the village, and the Satyr vows to patrol the woods on her behalf.


Clorinda is the King of Burgony's niece in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers. She is thought to be courted by Clarimant to win royal support as her ancestors legally claimed the throne of Burgony. However, she loves Agenor. But, for the moment, she has to hide her feelings. In Act Two, she receives the visit of Cleon asking her for help to conquer the heart of a lady, and she promises to do it. Later, she receives Agenor's picture, which makes Clarimant long for her love. Seeing how her rejection affects the prince, she promises him to be his friend but not his lover. However, when she finds out that Clarimant is leading an army against Agenor, Clorinda does not want to hear about Clarimant any more. She decides to disguise herself as a man to seek for Agenor. But, before that, she writes a letter to Clarimant through Selina showing her hatred. Later, in Act Four, she comes to Neustrea with Cleon, where she finds out his secret intentions. Nevertheless, she rejects him again, what puts her honesty at risk. Being dishonored, she is saved by Agenor who helps her by letting her come with him, disguised as his brother.
Clorinda is the King of Burgony's niece in Carlell's 2 Passionate Lovers. Having come to Neustrea, she takes the disguise of Agenor's brother and serves Austrella as her page. She is discovered in Act Two when she has to fight the Prince of Aquitain, who has humiliated Olinda. In Act Three, she comes to see Clarimant and she is asked by Austrella to take care of the prince as she is the medicine that he needs to be cured, but she is too miserable and she begs Clarimant to forget her. If not, she will have to leave the court as she will always love Agenor, although he does not feel the same for her. Later, Clorinda is suggested visiting the druid and she thinks that it is a good idea as she will know what to do from now on. She will see him in the morning and there she is kidnapped with Olinda and Clarimant. On board, Clorinda visits Clarimant, who has been tied up, and asks him to calm down because he can only make things worse. They are to be friends and nothing else. Therefore, when Cleander and the Prince come to throw him overboard, she convinces the kidnappers that Clarimant is more helpful alive than dead. She also shows the Prince that after signing the peace he would be able to marry anybody, what helps her to attract his attention. In Act Five, knowing that she already controls the Prince, Clorinda goes to Cleander asking him to free Clarimant and Olinda as that will facilitate his pardon. She also begs him not to reveal her true intentions, which are to take revenge on the Prince. Later, having made the Prince arrest Cleander, she realizes that now she has to repay his support and she deplores having to sleep with the Prince to save her friends. She is caught between the devil and the deep blue sea when she has to choose between the Prince and Clarimant. However, she is lucky as somebody sets fire to the boat and they have to abandon it. She leaves the boat with the Prince, whom she convinces to free his hostages. Coming ashore with all the crew, she is questioned again and this time she decides to face the Prince together with Clarimant, to whom she gives herself. At that moment, Agenor and Clindor arrive to save them and they go to celebrate their marriage.


"Ghost characters" in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers. They are used as a claim to the right to the throne of Burgony.


Clois, also spelled Cloris, is a nymph in the anonymous Narcissus. She praises Narcissus's beauty as she converses with Florida. Then, when she meets him, she woos him, and declares her faithful love to him. But she is turned down by Narcissus, and decides to go and die of love with her friend Florida, whose love for Narcissus is also unrequited. According to Greek mythology, Cloris is the goddess of flowers.


Cloris is the daughter of Acrysius in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. She is loved by Amyntas and Carinus. Silvia discusses her disappointment in Palaemon with Cloris, telling her to be warned by her example. Techne teases Cloris about the quarrelling of Amyntas and Carinus; Cloris, thinking of Silvia's experiences, says that she will not be moved by either wooer, even though she had been inclined to favor Amyntas. She thinks that Carinus should pay attention to Amarillis. Techne tries to win Cloris' affections for the seducer Colax, but Cloris maintains that she intends to remain chaste. Techne informs Colax that she has arranged meet Cloris at Erycinas Grove to fit her with new clothes, and that this will give him an opportunity to work on her; she doubts, however, that Colax will succeed with Cloris. Techne attempts to destroy Amyntas' faith in Cloris by telling him to go to Erycinas Grove. After Cloris returns from the Grove she converses with Dorinda and Amarillis and explains how she was betrayed by Techne and how she rejected Colax's advances. They discuss their dreams. Cloris dreamed that "the fairest of Montanus" lambs"–Amyntas–was chased by a "cruel cur" from which she eventually rescued him. They are joined by Techne, who tries to persuade Cloris to come with her to save Amyntas. Although she is suspicious of Techne and still resistant to Amyntas' attentions, Cloris sees that this may be the fulfillment of her dream about the lost sheep and agrees to help. Mirtillus later describes how they found Amyntas, and the arrival of Cloris, how they saw her love for Amyntas manifest itself in her face, and how she held him in her arms. Amyntas is healed by Urania, and Cloris brings him to the shepherds' assembly, where she reunites him with Montanus. Montanus and Acrysias welcome the betrothal of their children.


Cloris is a nymph and serves as Venus's handmaid in Heywood's Brazen Age. Her job is to set the bed for Venus's affairs. Vulcan is able to set a trap for Venus and Mars by tracking Cloris.


The shepherdess Cloris employs Clorindo, the disguised Silvia, to tend her sheep in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. She also sends Clorindo as her emissary to Thyrsis, with whom she is hopelessly in love. She alone recognizes that Clorindo looks remarkably like Thyrsis' lost love, Silvia. After learning that Silvia and Thyrsis are to be married, she agrees that all has happened for the best.


An attractive noblewoman in Wilson's The Inconstant Lady. Cloris is locked in her room by her sister, Emilia, who is jealous of her beauty. When Emilia abandons Aramant for Millecert, Cloris takes pity on Aramant and her pity grows into love. When Lavia frees her from confinement, Cloris seeks out Aramant in the forest, disarms him with her words and beauty, and sings him to sleep. The Duke of Burgundy, out hunting, happens upon the couple and is stricken by Cloris' beauty and noble behavior. Desirous of making her his duchess, the Duke orders Cloris to the palace where he confines her and begins to woo her. She diplomatically tries to talk him out of loving her, but his goodness and virtue make her love and admire him. Endeavoring to block this marriage, jealous Emilia confides to Gratus that Cloris is not her biological sister but rather an adoptee of unknown parentage and therefore unworthy of the Duke. Gratus helps Cloris escape the palace in Aramant's care, telling the Duke that she has died of poisoning. In the final scene Gratus reveals that Cloris is really Bellaura, the Duke's own daughter and heir, a startling revelation not only to the Duke, but also to Aramant, Emilia, and Cloris herself. Cloris persuades her newly found father to allow her to marry Aramant.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Ghost. Engin mentions Cloris when he explains to Pinnario, Procus and Valerio that they will know Aurelia is in the cave if they hear her sing the melody "Come Cloris hie we to the Bower". Later, Erotia, disguised as Aurelia, will utter that name and sing the melody in the cave, as a trick is being played on Philarchus. That line is included in Wits Interpreter (1655), but it is probably earlier.


Close is a servant to Hartwell in Shirley's Constant Maid. He stays with his master when Hartwell's financial problems force him to release all of his servants. Because he remains loyal and on the scene, Close is able to discover how Frances' nurse plans to sneak Startup into Frances' chamber; Close thus helps to foil the plot to compromise Frances in that fashion.


Closet is an old crone, nurse-keeper to Lady Thrivewell in Brome's A Mad Couple. She has brought up Lady Thrivewell, who is a young sweet lady. She wants her to have an heir to die in piece after having done her job, and therefore she makes a broth for Sir Thrivewell as a stimulant. In Act Two, she takes a letter from her lady to Carelesse.


Son and heir of Childerick and Fredigond, brother of Clovis in Hemming's Fatal Contract. He raped Crotilda before the play begins; his uncle was wrongly suspected of the crime and killed by Crotilda's kin. This murder has provoked Fredigond's vendetta against the entire family. Clotair becomes king after his mother poisons his father. He lusts after his brother's fiancée, Aphelia, and attempts to rape her. His brother intervenes and is apparently killed when they fight. Clotair is told by Castrato of his mother's adultery with Landrey and tries to catch them in flagrante delicto. He is fooled by Landrey's disguise as his brother's ghost and, in guilty fear, decides to sacrifice Aphelia on his brother's tomb. He then chooses to marry her instead, outraging Clovis and provoking his revenge for Aphelia's (unwilling) betrayal of their vows. Clovis fakes proof of Aphelia's infidelity with Landrey, and Clotair is fooled into homicidal jealousy. He considers murdering her on their wedding night–she flees but he re-captures her and tortures her to death. He orders Castrato to kill him when his brother's revolution appears on the point of success. Castrato (actually Crotilda in disguise) forces Clotair to kill 'him' with the revelation of Castrato's part in the deaths of Clotair's father and mother. "Castrato's" revelation that she is Crotilda in disguise awakes his repentance. Dying, he is reconciled to both his moribund victims and tries to make amends by awarding honors to their surviving brothers.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


Cloten is the Queen's son, Cymbeline's stepson and stepbrother to Imogen in Shakespeare's Cymbeline. The Queen's plan to garner power by marrying Cloten to Imogen is foiled by Imogen's unsanctioned marriage to Posthumous Leonatus. After Imogen disappears from court, Pisanio sends Cloten on a wild goose chase to Milton Haven to find her. Cloten decides to wear some of Posthumous Leonatus' clothes, but when he is beheaded by Guiderius and Imogen wakes up next to him she mistakes him for her husband.


Only mentioned in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. Clotherius was a seventh century Frankish king mentioned in passing by Lord Chamberlain.


‘Ghost characters’ in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. The hue and cry is up for Alcinous, Autolius, and Conto for their robbery of four clothiers. This is the reason they have gone onto Salisbury Plain, here they mean to rob shepherds and ‘sport’ with shepherdesses.


Clotho, with her fellow Fates Lachesis and Atrops, pays homage to Queen Elizabeth when the golden apple is offered to the monarch at the end of the play by tendering the distaff upon which is wound the thread of life in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris.


A simple gull in Brome's The Weeding of Covent Garden, desirous to join the swaggering ranks of the Philoblathici, the fraternity of the Blade and Baton.


Duke of Cornwall in Sackville and Norton's Gorboduc. He is incensed against the tyrants who have committed or attempted fratricide (Ferrex and Porrex(q.q.v.)) and murder (Videna). Still, he is shocked that the people have arisen and killed the "guiltless king" and the queen. He helps to put down the rebellion, but must then take arms against Fergus, Duke of Albany, who means to take over the kingdom.


Clout is one of Sir Oliver Owlet's Men in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.


Clove is a city-born con man, the inseparable twin of foppery to Orange in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Cordatus says that Clove and Orange are not within the scope of this play, but he gives a brief characterization of the two. Cordatus says that Clove is a youth who would spend a whole afternoon in a bookseller's shop, reading Greek, Italian, and Spanish when he does not understand a word of these languages. At St. Paul's in London, Clove enters closely after Orange, greeting their common acquaintance, Shift. Clove knows Shift by a different name than his friend does, and it seems he attended wild parties with Shift as Master Apple-John and some wenches. When Puntavorlo and Carlo Buffone enter, Clove and Orange witness the conversation between the two. They are also present at the discussion between Fastidious Brisk, Deliro, and Macilente. When he sees them eavesdropping, Macilente describes Clove and Orange as a couple of fine tame parrots. Clove wants to show off in front of these gentlemen and tells Orange to pretend they are two learned scholars. Clove embarks in a one-sided conversation scattered with incongruous references to classical and contemporary philosophy, punctuated by Orange's brief commendatory statements, which are part of his linguistic idiosyncrasy. Clove and Orange join the group of Deliro and Macilente. When Deliro exits with Macilente, disgusted at the spectacle of Shift brandishing his sword, Clove and Orange call Shift aside, asking him about his dispute with the gentlemen. Clove and Orange greet Shift by his two different names, which allows Carlo Buffone to deduce Shift's double impersonation. Clove exits with Orange.


Younger son of Childerick and Fredigond, Clotair's relatively virtuous and heroic brother in Hemming's Fatal Contract. His secret betrothal to Aphelia is the 'Fatal Contract' of the play's title. In the chaos following his father's murder, he rushes to rescue Aphelia from his brother's attempt to rape her. They fight and he is presumed killed. He is secretly cured by Lamot and attends his own funeral in order to save Aphelia, doomed to be sacrificed on his tomb. When Clotair decides to marry her instead, he reveals himself but is powerless to prevent the marriage. In revenge for her (unwilling) betrayal of their vows, he slanders her with faked proofs of her infidelity with Landrey to provoke his brother to jealousy. Acting on information from Castrato, he captures his mother with Landrey in flagrante delicto. He confronts her, disguised as his father's ghost, to shame her into a confession of adultery, but in addition shocks her into confessing to his father's murder–he also hears her confession to his own supposed murder. He leaves the lovers in Castrato's keeping and joins the revolutionary army against his brother. He becomes its victorious leader, and finally, King.


A poor man of Julio in Whetstone's 2 Promos and Cassandra. He approaches the King with a grievance at the end of public court, and the King refers him to Ulrico. He sings a song praising King Corvinus for defending his poor subjects.


The Clown is a servant of Anthony in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War during the time that Anthony is in hiding from Marius. The Clown is drunk and, while he will not directly tell Marius' soldiers where Anthony is, does not stop them from following him while he sings about how he won't reveal Anthony to them. He ends up pointing out the farmhouse where Anthony is in fact hiding, while claiming that Anthony is not there. When Anthony enters, having become worried at his long absence, the Clown tries to warn him to fly, and then curses wine. Although there is no separate exit for the Clown, he announces that he is leaving, and it seems most likely that he would depart before the scene turns serious and Anthony attempts to save his life through rhetoric that almost succeeds.


An alternative designation for Mouse in the Anonymous Mucedorus, a rustic who is the clown of the play.


The Clown is an indentured servant or apprentice to the Smith in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England. Called Adam by the Smith and his wife, the Clown is much given to disorderly behavior. Early in the play, he leads his group of friends in a night of drunken revelry that ends with the stabbing death of the First Ruffian (Peter). He later seduces the Smith's Wife, and when the Smith discovers them together, the Clown beats him until he agrees to become a willing cuckold. After his encounter with the Man in Devil's Attire, the Clown wins some favor (and many rounds of drinks) at court by retelling how he handled that attempt to play a practical joke on him. Unable or unwilling to participate in the movement towards repentance that sweeps through Nineveh, he violates Rasni's orders that everyone fast, and instead he hides food and drink in his clothing. His violation of the king's command is discovered by the two Searchers just five days before the end of the fasting period, and he is taken off by the officials, presumably to be hanged.

CLOWN **1592

The Clown in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, whose real name is Robin, cares for horses at a hostelry and banters about drink, women, and magic with Dick, Rafe, and other illiterates. After Wagner forces the Clown into his service by calling upon devils, in the B-text only the Clown steals one of Faustus' conjuring books to gain his own servant, Dick, the hostler. They try unsuccessfully to use magic to steal a goblet from the Vinter and obtain beer from the Duke. To dampen his foolery, Mephostophilis at one point puts a squib on his back and then turns him into an ape.


The clown in Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus is paid by Titus to deliver a gift of pigeons and a message wrapped around a dagger to Saturninus. Saturninus orders that the Clown be killed when he receives the gift.


The character identified as Clown in some of the speech headings is Ralph Betts in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More.


The Clown is one of the actors in the frame story of (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington, and the only one who speaks with Skelton. He plays Much. (See "MUCH").


Appearing briefly near the play's conclusion at Parnassus in the anonymous Pilgrimage To Parnassus, the Clown is drawn onstage by Dromo, who has tied a rope around him. Dromo tells the Clown that all plays require a clown and instructs him to "drawe thy mouth awrye, laye thy legg ouer thy staffe, sawe a peece of cheese asunder with thy dagger, lape vp drinke on the earth," and the audience will laugh. When Dromo leaves him on stage alone, the Clown delivers a mock soliloquy lamenting his pain from the "great pinne" that "Cupid hath latelie prickt mee in the breech with." Dromo ushers the Clown from the stage when Philomusus and Studiosus arrive at Parnassus.


The play's clown character is a shepherd, the brother of Serena and son of Antimon in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder. The Clown wears ribbons at the shepherds' festival, and the mad Palemon mistakes him for Serena, so the Clown ends up dancing a 'mad dance' with him. He tricks old Antimon out of some of his rich clothes (by making him fear that all the girls will chase him). In the war against Pheander, Antimon and the Clown are sent as the shepherd's herald, and the Clown looks after Palemon during the battle.


An alternative designation for Touchstone in Shakespeare's As You Like It.


One of the Italian bandits, and partner, in both crime and saucy banter, to the Villain in Thomas Heywood's The Four Prentices of London. Assigned to guide the Earl of Boulogne through the mountains, the Clown steals the Earl's gold; his dastardly plan to murder the Earl is thwarted by the arrival of Eustace. In the Holy Land, he attempts to rape Bella Franca but is repulsed by the plucky maid, who bests him in swordplay.

CLOWN **1600

Alternate designation for Hodge in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell.


A servant of Lady Katharine in the anonymous Trial Of Chivalry, the Clown is ordered by her to follow Pembroke. At one point he claims that his name is Bow Wow, probably in jest. In the night, he is arrested by Bowyer's men on his way to spy on Pembroke and Ferdinand. Later, he is dispatched by Katharine to accompany Bellamira to the hermit's, and (dressed as a gentleman) he returns with the cured Bellamira at the end of the play.


The Clown's name in Heywood's Royal King is 'Cocke' and the stage directions and speech prefixes intermittently name him as such. He becomes the Captain's 'man', and accompanies him everywhere, without contributing anything to the plot.


The unnamed Clown appears at Cambridge in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt, cracking jokes about Alexander Brett's having been ordered to quarter his troops in the town when they had not even been drawn yet. The Clown happens upon the cabin where the Duke of Suffolk has just been arrested and observes Holmes enter with a halter about his neck, watches as he buries the gold he has received for betraying the duke, and then witnesses Holmes' hanging himself. The Clown retrieves the gold, saying he will buy himself some new clothes and go to London, and he leaves dragging the corpse to be dumped in a ditch. Later, as Brett attempts to rally his men against Sir Thomas Wyatt, the Clown interposes insulting comments about the Spanish that help to make Brett aware that Wyatt's cause (preventing a Spaniard from marrying the English queen) is in fact his own.

CLOWN **1604

This Clown in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me is loyal to Elizabeth. He has a good deal of fun at Beningfield's expense, pulling a chair out from under the knight upon one occasion and falsely claiming that a man had scaled the garden wall to see Elizabeth on another (the "man" turns out to be a goat).


Referred to as a servant of Nobody in the Anonymous Nobody and Somebody, the clown's marriage to an unnamed wench is nullified by King Archigallo who makes her a lady-in-waiting. The clown attends Nobody in his travels and rescues him from death at the hands of the braggart.

CLOWN **1605

A servant of Thomas Gresham's in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me.


Pompie, also referred to as "Clowne," is a servant of Collatine in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece. He offers comic commentary on the doings of the court and country. He further suggests that the only reason he serves Collatine is his lust for Lucrece. Lucrece says that Pompie is in love with Mistress Mirable, but he denies it; fearful that their lust might taint Lucrece's reputation, she fires them both. However, she later employs Pompie to seek out Collatine. The night Sextus visits her, Pompie wonders why he and the Servingman have not been ordered to attend to Sextus. In the morning, Pompie readies Sextus' horse. Soon after, Lucrece has Pompie deliver a letter enjoining that Brutus, Collatine, Horatius Cocles, Mutius Scevola, Valarius and Lucretius come to her as soon as possible.


The Clown in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra brings Cleopatra asps in a basket of figs. He makes several off color jokes about "the worm" and then departs.


The brother of Joan in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father. He helps her to search for her child's father. Once the child's father is found, he contributes little to the plot. A typical clown figure, his earthy comedy undermines a number of otherwise serious scenes, such as Uter's speech about Artesia, and Merlin's prophecy about Britain's future.


A clown-figure and servant of the Harding family in Heywood and Rowley's Fortune by Land and Sea. He is a greedy pragmatist, but nonetheless takes Philip and Susan under his wing when they are forced to become his fellow servants. The Clown tries to gull Goodwin and Foster into lending Philip money by pretending that Philip has made a fortune and is testing the generosity of his companions: but the scheme is ruined by Philip's honesty. Having a loud voice, he assists the Pursuivant in reading the proclamation of the bounty on Purser and Clinton, but gets the words wrong, with hilarious results. Finally, he announces the death of Old Harding, and reveals the fates of the dissolute John, Will, Goodwin and Foster, by displaying them as if they were in a masque.


The comic in Heywood's The Golden Age. He announces that Sybilla is with child and praises the deeds of Saturn, who has taught his people plowing, sowing, reaping and brought them "that strange engine, called a Bow and Arrow." The clown also serves as messenger between Saturn and Jupiter, essentially acting as the agent informing Jupiter of his true parentage. The clown also instructs Jupiter in the art of disguise when they masquerade as peddlers to enter Danae's tower. The clown diverts the Beldams with gold while Jupiter converses with the young princess. In the tradition of a more farcical–and outmoded–style of clowning pioneered by Will Kemp, the clown (almost certainly portrayed by Thomas Greene) adds a comic energy to the generally solemn play with witty and often sexual puns.


The Old Shepherd's son in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale. He is a clown in the sense of being a rustic young man. He finds and buries Antigonus after the bear's attack. After the Old Shepherd discovers the infant Perdita on the Bohemian shore, she is raised as the clown's sister. During the sheep-shearing festival, the shepherdesses Mopsa and Dorcas vie for his attention. Autolycus overhears his conversation with his father in which Perdita's true identity is discussed. The clown accompanies his father to Sicilia. When his father reveals Perdita's true identity, they are both proclaimed "gentlemen born," and the clown determines to act the gentleman by lying.


Along with the other Neighbours, the Clown bears away the body of Gloucester, which they have found in The Valiant Welshman. He jokes with Morgan because they can both speak Welsh dialect, and engages in a comic discussion with his Neighbours about Gloucester's death.


Eventually identified as Galoshio, the Clowne is the servant first of the Passionate Lord and then of the professional masochist Lapet in Fletcher and Middleton's The Nice Valour. During the Lord's angry fit, he beats the Clowne severely; later, the Clowne and Lapet compare notes on the blows they have borne. The Clowne serves as a go-between when Lapet sends his table and book on beatings to the printer, and assists with the proofreading.


Swetnam's servant, Swash, is also referred to as 'Clown' in speech prefixes of the anonymous Swetnam.


The Clown is a jailor in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier. He appears several times, bantering with the Watchmen, the Huntsmen, and Eugenius in prison. He jokes with two Pagans about the impending burning of Bellizarius and Eugenius. He also laughs with Epidophorus about conditions in the jail, and the torture of Victoria. He is last seen wondering at an appearance of an Angel in the jail. The Clown contributes nothing at all to the plot and is simply a source of low comedy.


Lapland is a clown in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador who serves Armante, but craves to be a chronicler. When Colchester dismisses him after Armante's household is broken up by order of the king, Voltimar promises to secure him this post. He duly presents his 'chronicle' to the king at the end, but it proves to be more of a comic prophecy, in the vein of Lear's fool. The clown was to have played Vulcan in the final masque.


Comic servant to Raphael in Heywood's The Captives. Called James by Scribonia. Fetches Mildew for Raphael. Later joins Raphael and Treadway in the search for Mildew after he fails to keep his appointment with them. Raphael sends the Clown off on his own to continue the search, and he meets with the two Fishermen. He asks them if they have seen Mildew and the two women, but they think he is mocking them and they exit. He then encounters Scribonia who has come from the monastery to the town to fetch water. After hearing about Scribonia's and Palestra's shipwreck and recovery he exits in search of Raphael to give him the news. The Clown encounters John Ashburne and Godfrey and asks for their help to rescue Palestra and Scribonia from Mildew and Sarleboys until he can return with Raphael. He brings Raphael and Treadway to the village where Mildew and Sarleboys with the two women captives are confronting John Ashburne, Godfrey, and the assembled villagers. Later, as the trial of Mildew and Sarleboys is proceeding, the Clown is sent back to the village to keep Palestra and Scribonia occupied. On the way he encounters the Fisherman Gripus who has just caught Mildew's bag, containing his gold, and he attempts to gain a portion of the treasure for himself. As the Clown argues that he knows the bag's owner and thus could deprive the Fisherman of all the gold, the Fisherman counters by arguing that he has the right to anything he fishes from the sea. They hear the argument between John Ashburne and his wife and agree to suspend their argument and hide for the moment. After Ashburne's wife exits, the Clown and the Fisherman bring their argument over ownership of Mildew's bag to Ashburne; as they argue he sends Godfrey to fetch Palestra and Scribonia, and the debate over ownership of the bag becomes lost during the discovery of Palestra's true identity as Mirable, John Ashburne's long lost daughter. Ashburne tells the Clown to fetch Raphael and to inform him that Palestra is Mirabel; in return, the Clown makes Ashburne agree to negotiate the Clown's freedom from Raphael. The Clown returns with Raphael and Treadway, confirming the discovery of Palestra's true identity as Mirabel and that John Ashburne will consent to Raphael's marriage to Palestra/Mirabel. After Raphael and Treadway exit, Ashburne stops the Clown and asks to be taken to the Ashburne Raphael, Treadway and the clown were discussing; the Clown agrees in return for money. He then brings Thomas Ashburne to witness the reunion of Raphael and Palestra/Mirabel. After the entry of Friar Richard on his way to execution is halted by the Duke of Averne, who confesses to Friar John's murder, the Clown advises Friar Richard to get his neck out of the halter.


Clown and messenger of Wincott's household in Heywood's The English Traveler. Involved in the riotous parties at Young Lionell's. Tells Young Geraldine that his friend Master Wincott misses him and wants to see him, though Old Geraldine has asked Young Geraldine not to go near Wincott's Wife.


The Clown is the Widow's servant in William Rowley's A New Wonder: A Woman Never Vexed. Although his name is given as Roger, the Quarto labels him 'Clown' throughout. He loves his mistress, and when the Widow decides to marry the impoverished prodigal Stephen Foster, the Clown is offended because he considers himself a worthier choice. He contributes little to the plot apart from finding the Widow's wedding ring in the belly of a fish.


The Clown is Forobosco's assistant, and his job is to prove the latter's skills in magic in Fletcher, Ford, Massinger and Webster's The Fair Maid of the Inn. His method is to quarrel in public with Forobosco and loudly denounce him as a charlatan. Forobosco then 'conjures' him into dancing like a frog. The Clown is of course only pretending to be conjured, but the onlookers are convinced that Forobosco's powers are real. The Clown is captured, along with Forobosco, in the act of stealing from Prospero's room, and he is sent to the galleys.


The Clown (not otherwise identified in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter) accompanies and aids Jupiter in his plan to trick the four Beldams appointed by Acrisius to guard his daughter, Danae. Disguised as pedlars, the god and the Clown induce the greedy old women into admitting them to Danae's tower. The Clown distracts the Beldams as Jupiter begins his courtship of Danae; while Jupiter and Danae are making love, the Clown sleeps. Before leaving, he cheerfully invites the Beldams to kiss him, on the grounds that though they may scratch him, they have no teeth to bite.


The Clown, the widow Sforsa's servant in Heywood's A Maidenhead Well Lost, agrees to accompany her and Lauretta from Millaine to Florence, and there offers to beg for their sustenance. He exchanges witticisms with the Prince and Mounsieur, and otherwise provides low-comic interludes.


In an interlude in Heywood's Love's Mistress, this rustic interrogates the swains about their neighbor Cupid, observes all the pains and follies of love, ascribes its continuing power to poets, and briefly rehearses the story of the Trojan War as a sample of the idiocies of love. Cupid appears, and takes his vengeance by shooting the Clown with a leaden arrow; he exits to look for some Amarillis to woo. In a second interlude, he is asked to sing as Pan's champion in a contest against a Page who similarly represents Apollo. His song runs through a series of puns on Pan's name-Roasting Pan, etc. He returns in a further interlude to celebrate the hideous charms of his new love, Amarillis. When Psiche returns from Hades with the box of beauty, he is an onlooker, and resolves to obtain this treasure for himself and his beloved. Cupid, however, substitutes a box of face paint. The swains laugh at the self-infatuation that deludes him into thinking that the makeup can alter his natural ugliness, or that of Amarillis, but he persists.


The Clown is Lord Bonavida's servant in Heywood's A Challenge for Beauty. He accompanies him on his search across Europe. When Bonavida is sentenced to death after Hellena's seeming inconstancy, the Clown becomes a misogynist.


Suckabus is referred to as 'clown' in all speech-prefixes and stage directions in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom.


The Clown is a servant to the Duke of Mantua in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. He is asked by the Duke to supervise the building of the tower where Valentia is to be locked. Thus, he talks to a Smith, a Mason, a Bricklayer and a Carpenter to divide their responsibilities. However, they are not more that nonsensical directions. He is told by the Architect to build a secret door on the wall. In Act Three, when he thinks that the Architect is committing suicide, he comes back to the court to tell the bad news to his master. He says that the Architect has killed himself not to be a traitor to the Duke. In Act Five, he stays with the Necromancer and learns about the real identity of Antonio, but he has to keep it for himself because the Necromancer also knows about his making of a secret door. He is persuaded by him to call the Duke to stop the suitors that try to see the princess. He catches them red-handed and arrests them with the Duke's army. He takes them to the Duke of Mantua to whom he tells that he saw them going into the tower through a door and that the princess is gone.


A rustic character in Suckling's The Goblins. He is at the country wedding that Samorat, Nashorat, and Pellegrin infiltrate in the guise of fiddlers.


Beaten by a mad Orlando in the woods in Greene's Orlando Furioso. One of the clowns dresses up as Angelica and is again beaten by Orlando.


There are two Clowns in Shakespeare's Hamlet:
  • First Clown, often called the Gravedigger after his profession, discusses the merits of Ophelia's Christian burial, makes several jokes based on class, and then sends the Second Clown for some drink. He sings and throws up old skulls while digging the grave, causing Hamlet to wonder at his treatment of the dead. When Hamlet speaks to him, the Clown jokes with him about graves and then shows him Yorick's skull.
  • The Second Clown talks with the First Clown/gravedigger about whether or not Ophelia should have a Christian burial; he is of the opinion that if she were not a gentlewoman, she would not be so buried. He and the First Clown banter and then the First Clown sends him off to fetch some drink from Johan.


Four Northumbrian laborers in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. They are anxious to celebrate the "holy day" proclaimed by Osriick in anticipation of his marriage to Bertha. When their masters will not provide them enough wood for a bonfire, Jeffrey convinces them to burn their tools instead. They are prevented from doing so by the constable.


A "ghost character" in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. As his son, he was a loyal servant to the Duke of Mantua.

CLUB **1599

A servant at the Bell Inn in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle. He has his clothing stolen by Sir John Oldcastle. He is forced to wear John Oldcastle's clothes, and as a result, he and Kate are arrested for heresy by the Mayor of Albany.


Apprentice to the apothecary Purge in Middleton's The Family of Love. Club frequently attends Mistress Purge and serves as the crier during the trial staged by Gerardine.


Clunch is a smith and the husband of the "old wife" Madge in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale. He discovers the pages Antic, Frolic, and Fantastic lost in the woods and invites them home. There, Frolic and Fantastic are treated to the old wife's tale of the magician Sacrapant and the rescue of Delia by Eumenides and the Ghost of Jack.


A parator or summoning officer for an ecclesiastical court in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Brings news of Edward VI's death and Mary I's succession to Gardner and Bonner; also brings word of their restoration to their religious and political offices. Sent by Paget to fetch Bertie, whom he brings before Paget, Gardner, and Bonner. Then sent by Bonner to seize the Duchess' London residence and dismiss her servants. Later enters with Foxe to apprehend the Duchess, allowing her to take several servants with her as attendants; exits with the Duchess. Enters with the watch in pursuit of Dr. Sands and is sent off on a false lead by Sands disguised as a tiler. When Clunie and the watch return they encounter Hugh Tiler and Jenkin, who deny any knowledge Clunie or Sands; Clunie has them arrested as accomplices to Sands. Clunie next appears with his Guard searching for the escaped Duchess, nearly catching her as she goes to port to escape on the boat provided by Bertie. Next appears before Bonner and Gardiner with Hugh Tiler and Jenkin, whom he accuses of helping Sands to escape. Joins Bonner and Foxe in the search near Goseling's home for the Duchess and her party. When Foxe knocks Bonner into the well, Clunie fetches rope and the watch for help. After Bonner is pulled out and learns of the Duchess' escape, he sends Clunie and Foxe to pursue her in another boat. Clunie arrives in Europe with Brunswick, Paget, and soldiers to search for the Duchess; he is tricked by the Duchess and her party's bogus funeral procession. Clunie and Foxe are near the Palsgrave's Captain and his soldiers when they apprehend the Duchess, Bertie and the children. Clunie hides in a tree so that the Duchess and Bertie will cooperate with the captain. He falls out of the tree after Foxe cuts the branch, and creeps off vowing vengeance on Foxe. Clunie arrives at Palsgrave's court after the change of regime in England and demands justice against Foxe for cutting the branch, but Palsgrave dismisses his charge and the Duchess forgives him.


Ambush's Yeoman in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho.

CLUTCH **1629

Clutch is one of Brainsicke's keepers in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. He, and often Shackle, accompany the young man everywhere he goes after he is released from jail. Clutch reminds Brainsicke of the fact that he has to write to his father, but when he hears what the young man intends to say in his letter, he is shocked by its contents and tries to dissuade him. Instead, he argues that in the event that his father should not die when reading the letter, he would remember its contents and wish to take revenge on his son. Afterwards, he accompanies Brainsicke and Fewtricks when they go to see Undermine, and there, they meet a Creditor's servant. Clutch advises him to join the rest of the creditors in a "Comission of bankerupt."


A usurer in Jordan's Money is an Ass. He has arranged for his daughters, Felixina and Feminia, to marry Money and Credit respectively. But he is secretly conspiring against the suitors and has promises Calumny Felixina's hand in marriage in exchange for his help deceiving Money. Once Money and Credit sign over their estates to him in return for his consent that they should marry his daughters, he plans to instruct the daughters to withhold their consent and marry Gold and Jewel instead. Delighted that his daughters are of the same mind as he, he agrees to give them half of the estates of Money and Credit as a dowry. Prior to the wedding, Gold and Jewel reveal themselves to be Featherbrain and Penniless, but Clutch sanctions the match anyway. When Calumny denounces him and the lovers, he banishes him from the house, hypocritically claiming that Calumny was the "evil Genius" who "prompted me to deeds most vile."


A "ghost character" in Lyly's Gallathea. A nymph of Diana. She does not appear in the course of the play, but is mentioned as one of the victims of the love plague, having fallen in love with "Tityrus."


Clynton is an English lord in Smith's The Hector of Germany. He is in league with Old Fitzwaters to protect their respective properties by coercing his, Clynton's, daughter Floramell to marry Old Fitzwaters. When Clynton and Old Fitzwaters discover the two young lovers wooing in the garden, Clynton banishes Young Fitzwaters from the house. Clynton does not care that his daughter wants to marry Young Fitzwaters and does not want to marry Old Fitzwaters. Clynton calls for a bishop to come marry his daughter to his friend; however, a Page in Floramell's dress dupes him. Floramell herself escapes with Young Fitzwaters by sea. Clynton and his friend fall out after the aborted wedding. Clynton and Old Fitzwaters blame each other for the calamity and are about to duel when King Edward stops them. He recruits them to assist him in the war. Clynton hosts King Edward and reports to the audience on how well Edward and the Palsgrave performed at the tournament. Clynton is sent with Old Fitzwaters to Germany to free Savoy, Bohemia and Brandenburgh. They are successful and deliver Savoy on stage to be crowned Emperor of Germany. King Edward rules that Young Fitzwaters was betrothed to Floramell before his father and that Floramell should therefore marry Floramell. Clynton and his friend Old Fitzwaters agree to be good fathers-in-law.


Son to the King of Denmark in the Anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. He is a lover of martial games and is known throughout the world only as The Knight of the Golden Shield. Years before the play's start, he took his leave of his father with a solemn vow that he would never reveal his name to anyone who did not first defeat him in battle. Since then, he has become famous, but because he is anonymous, his people believe he has died. He won his golden shield when Alexander the Great gave it him after his defeat of Sir Samuel in a contest. We first meet him in Swavia, where he finds Subtle Shift stuck in a mire. Thinking that Subtle Shift is Knowledge, Clyomon accepts him as a companion and servant. Together, they go to see Clamydes dubbed a knight, but he rakishly interposes himself as the King lowers his mace onto his son and takes the honorable blow himself, thus stealing Clamydes's knighthood. Clamydes pursues him and is willing to fight him to learn his name. Clyomon convinces him to delay the contest fifteen days and gain more honor by meeting in Macedonia in order to fight before Alexander the Great. On his way to Macedonia, however, Clyomon is caught in the play's second tempest and forced to land on the Isle of Strange Marshes, too seasick to continue. Like Clamydes, he fears he will be dishonored for failing to keep his appointment in Macedonia. On the island, Princess Neronis discovers him and nurses him to health. They fall in love, and she gives him a jewel in return for his promise to return in sixty days. He is honor-bound to seek out Clamydes and so continues towards Macedonia. He meets one of the captive knights, whom Clamydes recovered, and is told that Clamydes also missed the Macedonian contest. Relieved, Clyomon decides to return to Neronis, but he learns from Rumor that the King of Norway has kidnapped her and that her father, King Patranius, has died of grief. His death has caused a power struggle on the island between his pregnant queen and his brother Mustantius. They are vassals of Alexander, and it is he who must decide the matter. Clyomon resolves to go to Norway and liberate his love from Thrasellus. He comes upon Thrasellus searching for the escaped Neronis. He fights the Norwegian king and kills him, but is himself grievously wounded in the fight. Corin discovers him, binds his wounds, and together they bury Thrasellus. He places his shield on the grave and also his sword, point downward to signify a defeated knight. However, when he later learns that the Queen of the Isle of Strange Marshes is begging for a champion, he reclaims his shield and sword and disguises himself before setting out. In disguise, he meets a page, who is actually his love Neronis in disguise. Not recognizing one another, Clyomon take Neronis into his service. He arrives too late to fight in the queen's name, but he there begs Alexander to be allowed to fight Clamydes for his vow's sake. Alexander, wishing to avoid conflict between two such fine knights, asks him to reveal his name. Clyomon responds that a solemn vow forces him not to. But when Alexander then asks his country and his birth, he is obliged to answer that he is Prince of Denmark, and by that answer all know him. Because Clamydes is the beloved of Clyomon's sister, they become fast friends. They return to Denmark where Clyomon stands beside the real Clamydes in the face of the imposter Bryan Sans Foy. When all is resolved, "Cur Daceer" reveals that she is actually Neronis, and they are reunited. They plan a double wedding with Clamydes and Juliana.


Clyster went to university, but he, as well as Silence, "endured expulsion from the College" in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Then he served as a soldier in the Low Countries during the war with Spain, and there "he felt the miseries of a siege and the dangers of an assault," and he suffered "under brave officers and state's policies." Nevertheless he explains that was nothing compared to what he has to endure now that he is working for an attorney: he has to carry his bag from his office to Westminster, and back again, and he also has to be his pack horse. He finds he has no honour left. Then, he is invited by Silence to take part in a plot he is planning with Bill Bond. However, he will only accept when he is assured they will be "equal all three in this our policy." Bond informs him that he will have to play the role of a grave physician. But Clyster is not sure about whether he will know how to do it, thus, he shares his doubts with Bond, who quickly reassures him. Once he begins to perform the role of Doctor Clyster, his first patient arrives–Master Fright. After learning that the latter is afraid of the dark, and that his fear made him see strange things, related to evil, Doctor Clyster reaches the conclusion that he has been "unseasonably catechized" and frightened with the devil. Therefore he will make the devil leave him alone. His patient thanks and rewards him, and Master Fright leaves content. Later Doctor Clyster is visited by another patient–Sir Cupid Phantsy–who gives him clear hints that the root of his disease lies in the fact that he is in love. Thus, he informs Sir Cupid about all the possible symptoms of his disease, and the latter realizes that he has them all. Besides, from time to time, he also suffers from poetic fits. Doctor Clyster witnesses one of those fits, and he thinks his patient's disease is a serious thing. Sir Cupid then explains the change he has experienced since he is in love: on the one hand, now he can speak long speeches in verse, and, on the other, he has become obsessed with clothes and fashion–a characteristic of lovers. The doctor tells him he will have to study his case, but, meanwhile, he advises him to "forbear all pastorals and quit the church while the psalms are singing." He wants to keep him away from songs and poetry, and advises him to read prose instead. Then he receives some money from his patient, as a token of gratitude, and his 'victim' happily leaves. His next patient is Master Sickly. He admits he goes to see him only after he has been treated by doctors in England and abroad. When Doctor Clyster asks him to tell him about his symptoms, his new patient specifies all sorts of silly affections, nevertheless the doctor seems to have a cure for each of them, though he pretends that to cure his many diseases is going to be hard work–he also explains that, should he fail, he would put his reputation at risk. Then, Master Sickly offers him twenty pounds in gold then, and forty more, when he finishes. Still, the doctor pretends to be reluctant, since so many doctors had failed to cure him before. Master Sickly raises his offer to a hundred pounds when he is recovered. But, still, the doctor goes as far as to ask him for fifty now, and his 'victim' accepts. Finally, Clyster offers his patient a 'medicine' he has prepared as a remedy for his disease, as well as a paper containing a fake charm for sweaty toes–thus, the doctor receives the sum of fifty pounds in gold they had agreed on. The next patient to visit Doctor Clyster is Signor Jealousia. His problem is that he is terribly jealous of his wife, to the extent that he tries to avoid anything related to horns–from hunting to even staying at the Bull's Inn, or at the Saracen's Head, just because both the Bulls and the Saracens have horns. The cure Clyster offers for his patient's disease is to find his wife in the act, but he reacts affirming that he would "rather be still in doubt than know that." Then the doctor tries another solution, and promises to prepare a cure for him. Signor Jealousia, very grateful to him, offers him ten pieces of gold. When his victim leaves, Clyster swears he will cozen him as well as the rest. Besides, he complains that his earnings have fallen from fifty pieces of gold to ten–though he also admits that is far more than what he used to earn before. Afterwards, he is visited by Master Fright again and, on listening to more of his episodes of fear of darkness–which turn out to be perfectly explainable in daylight–he concludes he suffers from 'melancholy'. And hearing all his patient had to say, Clyster explains that "it was more in a divine than a physician to cure" him, and he advises him to go and see Master Silence, whom he describes as "one of the rarest men in Europe." Then, Doctor Clyster receives Master Ominous, who was recommended to him by Master Silence. Master Ominous starts to report the somatic effects of his superstitions, and the doctor diagnoses he suffers from "melancholy, which must be purged", and he assures him he knows how to do it. Thus, he tells him to "forbear the Roman history awhile, to forget the entrails of beasts, birds, flying or pecking of chickens," and to forget about "augurs and soothsayers" and all their superstitions. When Master Ominous offers him a recompense for his services, Clyster refuses it at first "till the cure is finished", but, on his victim's insistence, he takes it. A new patient enters–Sir Conquest Shadow. He explains he suffers from imaginary valour: he thinks of quarrels with brave swordmen, and he always ends up being victorious. The trouble is that, if he is brave in his imagination, he is a coward in real life: he dares not fight when he is conscious. The doctor–impressed by his fantastic accounts–exclaims that if he had that imagination, he would not want to be cured. But his patient explains that those thoughts "trouble me very much and keep me from my business." He then begs Doctor Clyster to cure him, and he offers him ten pounds in gold aforehead, if he does. The doctor forbids him "all foreign corantos, be they gazettes either in French or Dutch," conversing with merchants, living near the coast–so that he cannot hear of "setting out of ships"–and being in the company of swordmen. Besides, he will not read stories about fights, nor letters or news in times of war. Doctor Clyster explains to his 'victim' that, should his prescription fail to work, he would try a "physical cause" with him. Later, Master Algebra arrives and Doctor Clyster and his two friends agree to listen to him. At some point, the doctor is urged, by the philosopher, either to cure him, or to accept he is right. Clyster then decides to offer a cure, advising him "not to taste Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, or Kepler, but especially Galileo." Clyster decides not to charge Master Algebra for his advice. The reason for that is revealed when the patient leaves: Clyster calls Silence and explains to him he had recognized Master Algebra–he was a bright man, who might have discovered their ignorance, if not their knavery. Then, Signor Jealousia comes back to Doctor Clyster again, in search of his cure–but it is not ready yet. Instead, the doctor explains he needs more information from him, so that he can "add or diminish my ingredients according to the accidents." Thus, when he hears his patient say he has strange dreams, he offers him "the devil's ring" as a cure. In fact, Clyster guesses the suspicions, problems and even conversations that Signor Jealousia may have with his wife, so precisely, that the former starts to think that the doctor may have been spying on them. But Clyster urges him to dismiss that thought, since his words are just intended to cure him. And, to that aim, he enquires about the origins of his illness, to which his patient replies his disease began when he was a knight bachelor: he was jealous of the husband of a married lady he was in love with. Now, he explains, the problem is that he does not trust his wife because she is a widow–in fact, he does not trust woman's nature. After listening to him, Doctor Clyster offers him a solution: "to wear a purse of a cuckoo's skin [...] and have a stag's head in your chamber to hang your hat on and other things." He wants him to be surrounded by horns "to make them familiar to you." Furthermore, he asks him to acquaint himself "with country knights and gentlemen, that bring up their fair wives and daughters to a lodging in the Strand," so that he gets accustomed to that place, and take a lodging for his wife in the Strand. He assures him that, if he follows his prescription, he will be cured. But Signor Jealousia would rather take a medicine than follow the doctor's advice. Nevertheless, Doctor Clyster assures him that, should his advice fail, he would have a medicine ready for him the next time he came. Then Clyster is gladly surprised to see that he receives ten extra pieces of gold from his 'victim'. Once again, Sir Cupid Phantsy comes to see the doctor–suffering from new fits of poetic speech. He wants the doctor to cure him, but not before he writes a play. However, Doctor Clyster explains that writing a play can be dangerous for him and tries to dissuade him. Then his patient encourages his doctor to write some poetry, to which the latter replies he lacks the main ingredient: he is not in love. And that is precisely the source of his patient's illness: his being in love makes him speak in verse. After discussing about poetry and about Sir Cupid's beloved lady's attitude to him, the doctor decides it is time to cure him. He finds out his patient did not follow his former prescription, and now he forbids him to rhyme in his company, and to make or think in verse; and, since he seems to be getting worse, he is going to put him on a diet: "I prescribe you Littleton's Tenures to read in French, with Lambarde's Justice of Peace, Dalton, Crompton, and Fitzherbert, Pulton's Statutes, and Coke's Reports." And he threatens him that, should he put those into verse, he will prescribe him "huge volumes of civil law." But, as soon as Doctor Clyster leaves him alone for a moment, Sir Cupid Phantsy starts writing verses again. However, when the doctor comes back, he catches him at it. Then, he urges to give him or throw away any token from his lady he may have. Sir Cupid happens to have a purse, which was hers, and which is tied so hard that he is unable to get the twenty pieces of gold it contains out of it. Hearing that, the doctor insists on keeping the purse, he gets it and they part. Later, when Master Sickly comes with Damme de Bois to meet Doctor Clyster in an attempt to make him realize he should abandon his skepticism and trust the doctor. Once there, Damme de Bois reveals that he believes they are mere cozeners. After a long speech on cozening, he asks for leave to take a nap, which he is granted. But, while he sleeps, Bill Bond, Doctor Clyster and Master Silence will be busy devising a plot to cheat him; then, they suddenly wake him up and try to make him believe that he is dying. After a while, when they tell him that he seems to have come to himself, he realizes he is being cozened, and he decides to follow their game. Thus, after speaking to Doctor Clyster, he expresses his wish to write his last will and testament before the lawyer. Damme finally leaves the place, but dressed in old clothes–having been cheated by Doctor Clyster. Nevertheless, Damme de Bois was not going to accept being cheated so easily, and he comes back again, this time accompanied by all their cozened victims, encouraging them to ask for what they had offered them as recompense for their fake services. Master Caution, since Bond threatened to sue him as soon as he heard his accusations, afraid of being sued, pays Clyster forty pounds of gold to kill Bond and save him–promising to make it a hundred when Bond is actually dead. Clyster assures he will do it for a hundred and twenty pounds, and he actually gets that sum from Master Caution. Then, Master Sickly comes to Bond, seeking counsel with respect to what legal action he can take against Doctor Clyster, on the charges of having cozened him. Bond then offers to indict the Doctor for practicing without a license. Master Sickly still rewards him with ten pounds of gold and assures him he will give him more when the matter is over. Signor Jealousia also accuses Clyster of having cozened him, and he threatens to "have him indicted for a man-witch." When Master Fright arrives, also accusing him, the fake doctor threatens to raise "strange apparitions and ghosts" to haunt him, and his fearful victim ends up leaving. Then, it is Sir Cupid Phantsy's turn to ask for his money back and also for satisfaction, but Clyster threatens to tell his mistress about his folly, and this victim also leaves. Later, Sir Conquest Shadow also comes, aware of the fact that he has been cozened, to see the doctor. But, being a coward, he leaves as soon as the doctor threatens him with proclaiming him a coward. Damme de Bois, on his part, demands, from the cheaters, a share in their exploits and his clothes to be restored–threatening to bring trouble to them should his petition be unheard. But Doctor Clyster, in his cheating mood, remarks that, by his lousy looks, he looks like a thief rather than like a victim. On his insisting on his wanting his coat and cap back, Doctor Clyster takes the old ones from him, but, rather than restoring his, he locks the door, leaving him outside claiming for revenge. Then the three cheaters discuss whether they can find a means of getting away with it with the help of the law. But, soon, they are sieged by all their cozened victims, and they resolve to hide on the upper floor of the house. Their victims knock on the door, not receiving any response. After a while, the cheaters reply, announcing they will keep their door shut until the authorities break it open. Then, Master Caution, incensed, suggests going to the Lord Chief of Justice for a warrant to apprehend them. But Algebra, who was passing by, offers to act as a judge, and he actually solves the case satisfactorily for all the parties involved, and he is recompensed both by the victims and by the cheaters.


Mother of Horestes and wife of Agamemnon in Pickering's Horestes. After murdering Agamemnon, she jointly took over the throne of Mycenae with her lover Egistus. She first appears exchanging a love song with Egistus. When the Messenger from Horestes's invading army arrives, she offers to remain and organize the defense of Mycenae while Egistus goes off to raise more men. Soon afterwards she scornfully rejects the Herald's request for surrender. She is captured and executed by Revenge at Horestes's command.
Spelled Clitemnestra in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age. While her husband has been off fighting the Trojans, she has entered into an adulterous relationship with Egistus. Cethus persuades her and her lover that her husband will kill them when he discovers their adultery, and that their only choice is to strike first; they do so, flee from Mycene, and take refuge in a strong citadel, where they plot to kill Orestes and rule all Argos. Orestes and Pillades, in disguise, gain entrance, and Clitemnestra first watches Orestes kill her lover, then is killed in turn by her maddened son. See also MOTHER of ORESTES.
The queen in Goffe’s Orestes. She makes a show of greeting Agamemnon home with pomp. (There is now purple tapestry in this play for her to entreat her husband to walk upon.) She goes with Aegystheys in I.iv to stab Agamemnon in his bed. She is first to stab him whilst remembering how he raped Briseis. She next appears in her night clothes and pretends to faint when Orestes tells her that Agamemnon is murdered. She kneels with Orestes and formulates a curse upon the murderer. Secretly, she and Aegystheus congratulate themselves and gloat on their victory. When Orestes scolds her for her lack of mourning, she chafes, tells Aegystheus to cut off his head, and says a son’s disobedience is “more harsh than adders hisses." She does not mourn to learn Orestes has died but weds Aegystheus as planned. The sorceress Canidia calls up an image of her murdering Agamemnon for Orestes and Pylades to witness. In court, Clytemnestra bears Aegystheus a baby. She is moved by the pleas of the disguised Orestes and Pylades to save the other and begs Aegystheus to excuse the murder of Mysander. She goes to take physic and the disguised Pylades ties her to her chair. Orestes murders her youngest child, shows her Agamemnon’s bones to remind her of her sin, and makes her drink the child’s blood before stabbing her. She dies confessing she deserves it.


Clytus is one of Alexander's warriors in Lyly's Campaspe. On return from Thebes, Clytus praises Alexander's courage.

CLYTUS **1638

Thracian lord in Mayne’s Amorous War. Clytus and Hyppocles bring in the captured Orythia, Thalaestris, Menalippe, and Marthesia trussed like Amazons in golden fetters pinioned with silken cords. They release their prisoners, with gallant apologies, after their prince reveals all to be a ruse to get close to and woo Barsene.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Catiline. Cneus Piso is a Roman general, commander of the army in Spain. He is Catiline's ally. When Catiline incites the conspirators to rebellion against the Roman Senate, he lists their main allies and enemies. While Pompey in Asia is considered an enemy, Cneus Piso is listed as an ally.


A character played by Singer (so W.W. Greg) in the anonymous 2 Fortune's Tennis. The name has been lost in the disintegration of the plot. Greg warns against identifying this fragmentary name with the character Compaine listed elsewhere.


The Coachman in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho! is hired to take Gertrude on her journey to Sir Petronel's fictional castle in the country. Early in the morning at the inn, the Coachman complains that these citizens who want to go away from London are too impatient. Still eating, the Coachman complains that these lords and ladies want him to move so fast that he cannot have his breakfast.


A coach driver of London, hired by Laxton in Middleton and Dekker's Moll Cutpurse, The Roaring Girl. Laxton intends to have sex with Moll Cutpurse in the coach.


Unlike most of his servants, Creon's Coachman (like his footman) is retained by Simonides when he inherits his father's estate in Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law. He retains the Coachman because he needs someone to transport him to his whores.


A "ghost character" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Indulgence instructs Jugge Rubbish to tell her Coachman to "lay the Coach-bed backward" since they will be climbing uphill to Apollo's Court. Jugge later informs her Mistress that "the Coachman talks like a rogue, and sayes that nothing but a wife will tame him" and Indulgence claims that he is likely "three quarters drunke." At the sentencing of disobedient characters at the play's end, Drudo informs the crowd that Indulgence's coach overturned after she "scowred away in her Coach with her sonne" following her appearance in Apollo's Court.


Near the end of Cavendish's The Variety, Simpleton tries to spirit Lucy away to his country house with the aid of a "lusty" coachman. Simpleton's man, James, exposes the plan to Newman, who rescues Lucy.


A silent character in Brome's A Mad Couple. In Act Two, he opens the door of the coach to his lady when she goes shopping.


A "ghost character" in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. When the disguised Lacy at Harleston Fair claims to be a farmer from Beccles, Richard inquires after "goodman Cob" who had sold his father a worthless horse there years before.

COB **1641

A “ghost character" in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. Grobiana’s favorite suitor, or so she says. He has a large, half-moon beard with crumbs that stick in it “like stars." At dinner with Grobiana and her father, he made a “pretty jest" of letting a tremendous fart, which they all laughed at.


Oliver Cob is a water bearer and Tib's husband in Jonson's Every Man in His Humour. Bobadill lives in his house as a lodger. Cob is a loquacious character, always ready to share his homespun philosophy with his interlocutors. At Kitely's house, Cob enters with his tankard to deliver the water for the household. After emitting some of his witticisms concerning the maids' immorality, Cob exits. Cob re-enters with his tankard for his afternoon delivery and sees the gallants smoking. Cob speaks vehemently against tobacco, which attracts Bobadill's anger and a good beating. At Justice Clement's house, Cob enters with Kitely, reporting on the party of gallants at the merchant's house. When Kitely exits abruptly, Cob is contaminated with the merchant's jealousy and reveals his suspicion that Tib seems to treat their lodger Bobadill too gently. When Justice Clement enters, Cob complains against being beaten and requires a warrant for Bobadill's arrest. Though narrowly escaping another beating, Cob finally obtains his warrant from the capricious judge. In a lane before his house, Cob enters and knocks at his own door, calling for Tib. When his wife opens the door, he accuses her of immorality and shows her the warrant against Bobadill. Cob instructs Tib to go inside the house and lock the door. Cob re-enters to find Dame Kitely, Knowell, and Kitely before his house. Each is accusing the other of adultery, and Kitely tells Cob that Tib is the bawd who encouraged the illicit assignations. Cob beats his wife and then joins the party of misguided people, all intending to take their case before the judge. In the final scene before Justice Clement, Cob is reconciled with his wife and declares that she is honest.


One of the Madmen of Goteham (together with Miller and Smith) in the Anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave. In a comic interlude they decide to deliver a petition to the King. They want a license to brew strong beer three times a week.

COBBLER **1637

Disguise adopted by Warehouse in Mayne’s City Match. He hears Frank declare himself glad that Warehouse has drowned.


A poor shoemaker in the Anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V, neighbor to Lawrence Costermonger and Robin Pewterer. He is impressed by the English captain and joins Henry V's military campaign in France. During the war, both he and Derrick constantly try to escape the battlefield, rob the shoes of the dead French soldiers, and eventually return to England disguised as members of the Duke of York's funeral procession.


Raph is the eponymous cobbler, who is chosen by Mercury to deliver a prophecy to Mars in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. Raph is alarmed and upset when Mercury punishes his shrewish wife, Zelota, by driving her mad. But he accepts the mission, and sets off on an epic journey to find Mars. On the way he encounters Sateros the Soldier, Emnius the Courtier, the Scholar, and the Country Gentleman debating who is the most worthy. Raph prophesies the absurdity of their pretensions in the face of the end of the world. He travels to Mars with Sateros the soldier, who plans to deliver a petition to Mars. They meet the Muses but Raph is misled by an Echo and runs off, thinking it is a person calling to him. He meets Charon and learns that Hell is overflowing with sinners. He and Sateros then meet the Porter and Herald of Mars, from whom they learn that Mars now resides at Venus's court. Raph delivers his prophecy to Mars. The prophecy announces that Mars is a cuckold. Raph then accompanies Sateros to the Duke of Boetia's court, where he saves the Duke's life by prophesying Emnius's treachery. Emnius is forgiven, but he then attacks Raph, who is saved by the mad Zelota who kills Emnius. The Duke sends Raph and Zelota to prison for murder. Raph leads the prisoners in a jailbreak, and they join the army Sateros is raising against the invaders of Boetia. At the end of the play, Raph complains to Mercury of his treatment, and Mercury asks Sateros to ensure that Raph and Zelota are pardoned by the Duke. The Duke obliges and all ends happily.


A Christian captain in Goffe's The Courageous Turk, Cobelitz attempts to counsel Lazarus of Servia and Sesmenos of Bulgaria in their campaigns against the Turks. The seemingly inexorable advances of the Turkish forces causes him to wonder why the Christian deity would allow his enemies so to triumph, but he always concludes that his God must have a reason and convinces the two rulers to believe that as well. Grievously wounded by Eurenoses in the final battle in Servia, he revives on the battlefield just as Amurath is surveying the aftermath and pretends to be seeking the king's mercy. When Amurath approaches him, however, he plunges a dagger into the Turk, expresses his joy at having been allowed to be God's instrument, and dies of his wounds.

COBHAM **1599

Title of Lord and Lady Oldcastle in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle.


Eleanor, Duchess of Gloucester, second wife of Humphrey in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, encourages her husband to usurp King Henry and claim the crown for himself. At Eleanor's behest, the duplicitous priest Hume arranges a séance in which Roger Bolingbrook, the priests Hume and Southwell, and the witch Margery Jourdain conjure a spirit who will ostensibly help Eleanor to become queen. Hume is secretly working for Cardinal Beaufort and Suffolk, who plan to use Eleanor to discredit her husband. With Hume's collusion the séance is interrupted and the participants arrested. King Henry condemns the three men to the gallows, Margery Jourdain to Smithfield where she will be burnt as a witch, and Eleanor to the Isle of Man where she will live in exile. As a prelude to her banishment, Eleanor is led through the streets barefoot.


Worries in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle that her husband, John Oldcastle, is not well and is not spending enough time at home.


A "ghost character." A member of Bolingbroke's army, which, the Earl of Northumberland tells us at the end of II.i, is making its way to England in Shakespeare's Richard II.


Cobweb is one of the fairies in service to Titania the fairy queen in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. Titania encourages Cobweb to "be good" to Bottom, and Bottom plans to make good use of Cobweb in the event of a cut finger because cobwebs were often used at the time to stop minor bleeding.


Gammer's boy in [?]Stevenson's Gammer Gurton's Needle. He is called to bring a candle so Hodge can search the house for the needle. He relates Hodge's humorous search to Gammer and Tyb. He finds a straw that he at first thinks is the needle. Gammer sends him to Dr. Rat the parson to have him persuade Dame Chat to return the needle.


The King's foppish barber, also identified as a don in Dekker's Noble Spanish Soldier. He is disdainful of Balthazar upon his return. At the end, he is married to Onælia to secure peace, but the King invalidates the marriage on his deathbed by recognizing Onælia as his own lawful bride.


A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Hollander. One of the sisters of the order of the Twibill Knights.


  1. Family name of Cockbrain and his son Anthony.
  2. A Justice of Peace and the Weeder of Covent Garden in Brome's The Weeding of Covent Garden. He is also the title character of the play's alternate title, The Middlesex Justice of the Peace. Cockbrain adopts the role of an itinerant minstrel to infiltrate the criminal elements of Covent Garden. He is a keen observer of dishonest retail practices and notes the various illicit activities of the neighborhood rogues. While defending the Citizen from Betty and Francesca, he is himself attacked and his disguise (though not his true identity) is discovered. He is then protected by his estranged though still disguised son, Anthony. At the complaint of the Citizen, he arrests wholesale the various members of the Philoblathici, but, in the final swell of amity, merely banishes them from Covent Garden.


The Clown's name in Heywood's Royal King; he is intermittently named as such in the speech prefixes and stage directions.


The dramatis personae of Marston's Dutch Courtesan describes Cockledemoy as "a knavishly witty city companion." He is the lover of the bawd Mary Faugh, his sometime accomplice, and to everyone else he is a trickster. In particular, Cockledemoy's attentions are directed at Master Mulligrub, the swindling owner of a bawdy tavern, whom Cockledemoy attempts to reform by giving him a taste of his own medicine. Assuming a series of disguises, first as Gudgeon, then as Andrew Shark the barber, then as a French peddler, then as the servant to Master Burnish the goldsmith, then as a sergeant, Cockledemoy tricks Mulligrub out of three bowls, a bag full of money, a cup, and a salmon, and he ends up getting Mulligrub sent to the stocks and then to prison. On his way to be hanged, Mulligrub delivers a confession and offers to forgive Cockledemoy. Upon hearing this, Cockledemoy, disguised as a sergeant so as to more easily steal Malheureux's purse, reveals himself. Mulligrub, now a free man, is overjoyed.


The only one of three creditors that is named in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. Cockpit and his two comrades have financed Witgood's wanton lifestyle, but they are persuaded from calling in their loans because of his impending marriage to Jane Medler. They are even convinced to furnish Witgood with more goods to hasten the upcoming match, Cockpit offering goods from his shop. Consequently, they spread rumors of Medler's wealth to Hoard.


Along with his fellows Salewood and Rearage, Cockstone is a London gallant in Middleton's Michaelmas Term. Although he does not play a major role in the play's plot aside from his loyalty to Rearage in his suit for Susan, Cockstone nevertheless represents the typical behavior of London gallants, fawning to Easy and Quomodo and unduly impressed with the Lethe's courtesan, the country wench.


Horatius Cocles is a supporter of King Servius in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece. After Servius' death, Horatius Cocles instantly switches allegiances to Tarquin. Soon after, he voices dissatisfaction with Tarquin, whom he finds to be too proud and too tyrannous. He is ordered to join Sextus, Collatine, Brutus, Valarius, and Mutius Scevola in Ardea, leaving Porsenna's forces in charge of Rome He is part of a drunken banquet in which Sextus belligerently denies Collatine's claim to having the most virtuous wife. Collatine decides that is might be nice to visit Horatius Cocles', Aruns', Valarius' , and Mutius Scevola's respective wives, and then Collatine's wife, Lucrece. Soon after, Pompie delivers a letter to Horatius Cocles, Brutus, Collatine, Mutius Scevola, Valarius, asking them to come quickly to Lucretius' house. When they arrive, Lucrece tells how she was raped. Brutus swears revenge. They all agree. Lucrece then kills herself. In the civil war, Tarquin and his army are beaten off but for reasons that are not fully explained, Brutus retreats, leaving Horatius Cocles to man the bridge alone. Tarquin and his army re enter and attack. For reasons that are not explained, the bridge falls. Was it by divine intervention or the sheer weight of Tarquin's army? Inexplicably, Horatius Cocles then decides to kill himself by jumping from the bridge. Miraculously, he survives and swims to shore, where Brutus' cheering army greets him. Later in the same battle, he further distinguishes himself by killing Aruns.


Cod is the local perfumer in James Shirley's The Wedding; by the morning of the wedding, he has not yet brought the wedding gloves to Belfare's house.


Codigun is a base-born son of Octavian, King of Wales in The Valiant Welshman. He is angered when Octavian spurns him by making Caradoc his heir. When Caradoc is away fighting the Romans, Codigun allies with Gloucester and Cornwall. They poison Octavian, and imprison Guinever and Voada. Codigun is then crowned King of Wales, and leads an army against Caradoc. He agrees to a single combat with Caradoc, and is defeated. Spurning Caradoc's offer of half the kingdom, he joins with the Romans and encourages them to fight Caradoc. Gald kills him in the final battle.


'Geffery Codpeice' is the insulting title Master Slightall gives to his former servant Geffrey when the latter offers to kick him in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil.


A "ghost character" in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon. The priest who confesses Paridel when he arrives in Venice and receives him back into the service of the Empress of Babylon.


Family name of Custer and Alison in (?)Johnson's Misogonus.


A wretched man in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. He wants to travel to Hell because he thinks it will be less tormenting than life on earth. Charon tells him there is no room in Hell, and he will have to wait until it has been enlarged.

COELUM **1607

He is part of Visus’ grand entrance of in Tomkis’ Lingua. He is clad in azure taffeta, dimpled with stars, a crown of stars on his head and a scarf of the zodiac about his shoulders.


The name Neronis adopts in her second disguising as a page in the Anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. This is her guise while in service to Clyomon. Clyomon glosses the name for the audience "Heart of Steel." In this disguise Neronis accompanies Clyomon to the Isle of Strange Marshes and, after Clyomon and Clamydes become friends, is sent to Denmark to announce to the King and Queen that Clyomon is alive and returning home.


Coggin is Dissimulation's man in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. He reads the guest-list for Dissimulation's wedding, and fetches Doctor Hypocrisy.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Richard II. Although he does not appear on stage, he is a member of Bolingbroke's army, which, the Earl of Northumberland tells us at the end of II.i, is making its way to England.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Coke is mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he is explaining to Sir Cupid Phantsy that he can see he is getting worse, and, thus, he is going to put him on a 'reading' diet: "I prescribe you Littleton's Tenures to read in French, with Lambarde's Justice of Peace, Dalton, Crompton, and Fitzherbert, Pulton's Statutes, and Coke's Reports." Sir Edward Coke (1552-1634) was a lawyer of the Inner Temple. He was the founder of English administrative law. He is also the author of Le Reports, a compendium of law bearing on cases which was published in 11 volumes between 1600 and 1615.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Cokely was a Jacobean jester and entertainer. Speaking of the puppeteer (Lantern/Leatherhead), Trash describes him as a man who is invited at the great City suppers to represent Coryat and Cokely, making people laugh.


Bartholomew Cokes is an esquire of Harrow, soon to be married to Grace Wellborn in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Cokes comes to Littlewit's house, accompanied by Mistress Overdo and Grace, apparently to retrieve his marriage license. Cokes does not sparkle by his wit, and Grace is none too happy at the prospect of marrying a fool. Cokes goes to the Fair, in the company of Mistress Overdo, Grace, and Wasp. At the Fair, while Cokes listens to Overdo's anti-tobacco speech, Edgworth pinches Cokes' purse. In another scene at the Fair, Cokes admires all the junk that Leatherhead and Trash have for sale. In his naiveté, Cokes offers to buy the entire shop of Leatherhead, and Trash's gingerbread basket. Nightingale and Edgworth enter, and Cokes boasts his full purse, defying any cutpurse around. Nightingale pretends to have a spell against cutpurses. While Nightingale is singing, Edgworth tickles Cokes in the ear to make him draw his hand out of his pocket, and he pinches his purse. When Cokes notices that his purse is gone, he blames the Madman (Overdo disguised) for the theft. Cokes follows Overdo/Madman to the stocks, and he is thereby separated from his companions and becomes lost at the Fair. Cokes falls into a third trap designed by Nightingale and Edgworth, who steal his sword, cloak, and hat. Unable to find his way home, Cokes wanders to the puppet-theatre, where he sees Littlewit and asks him to lend him some money, which he uses to pay his entrance into the play. During the play, Cokes makes foolish remarks regarding the plot. In the final scene, when he learns that his marriage license is no more, Cokes seems to be easily placated with the promise of a puppet show. When Overdo invites everybody to his home for supper, Cokes tells them to bring the actors along and have the rest of the play performed there.


A flattering Egyptian lord whom the Soldan makes Lieutenant of Damascus in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. Colactus supports the Soldan in his bid to marry Miranda, and persuades him that Lysander aided Miranda's escape. He is wounded by Miranda/Armidan during the battle with the Babylonians.


Only mentioned in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. Ardelio compares Fidelio to Colatine (also known as Tarquin), whose son raped Lucrece.


Colax is a serial seducer and the son of Nicoginus in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. He was born and brought up in Arcadia, but has been corrupted by his travels in other lands. He is a confederate of the bawd Techne and an associate of the corrupt lawyer Lincus, the physician Alcon and the "disguiser of religion Pistophoenax. They have come to Arcadia and plot to exploit and corrupt the innocent nymphs and shepherds. Colax and Techne watch Carinus and Amyntas quarrel over Cloris. Colax mocks the fervour of Carius and Amyntas, and asks for Techne's help in getting Cloris for himself. Techne objects that he will thus desert Dorinda, whose affection she took great pains to gain for Colax. Colax, who has already seduced Daphne and has spread lies about Palaemon and Silvia in the hope of gaining Silvia's attentions for himself, explains that he desires variety. When Techne tells him of Cloris' resistance to him, it makes him keener. Techne informs Colax that she has arranged meet Cloris at Erycinas Grove to fit her with new clothes, and that this will give him an opportunity to work on her. Cloris later describes how she was accosted by Colax and how she rejected him. Colax comes before Ergistus and Meliboeus, together with Techne, Alcon, Lincus and Pistophoenax. When the outsiders are banished, Colax proposes to Techne that they must now marry each other and relocate to Corinth or another city in order to continue their trade.

COLAX **1630

Roscius in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass characterizes him as one "that to seem over-courteous, falls into servile flattery." His opposite is Dyscolus. He remains on stage to flatter the other vices and so demonstrate how all are susceptible to base sycophancy.


Colbron is a giant in the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick. He is the Danish champion King Swanus offers for one-to-one combat with the English champion Guy. Colbron is overconfident and disdainful of having to fight an elderly foe like Guy. Guy quickly slays Colbron.


Only mentioned in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Colbrand is a Danish warrior killed by Guy of Warwick in the medieval romance that bears the latter's name. Merrygreek asserts that he is one of the heroes all women think of when they encounter Roister Doister.

COLBY **1599

A collier in Ruggle’s Club Law. 'Headsman ' or member of the Corporation along with Colby and Rumford and Cipher. He gets permission from Niphle to carry away the students’ corn under the guise of his coal wagon. Philenius and Musonius arrest him on the warrant from Rector. The Rector soon releases him with a hefty fine, and Philenius believes it is to allow Colby to get himself into real trouble. In the fight, Musonius bests him. He and Rumford plan to complain to the duke with Niphle, but Brecknocke changes Colby’s mind. He agrees to Niphle’s compromise plan to appear to make peace with the students and look for an opportunity for revenge.


Colby’s wife in Ruggle’s Club Law. She would do anything for Musonius but is annoyed with him that he doesn’t seem to understand her hints to bed her. She tells him of her husband’s plan to have the town’s boys beat the students with their own clubs at the Cudgill play. She conspires with Musonius to let the students steal the townsmen’s arsenal of staves and poles from Colby’s storehouse.


A Friar in the Anonymous Lust's Dominion. One of the two friars that the Queen Mother knows, Cole and Crab, who would do anything for money. They are promised a cardinal's hat if they spread the news that Prince Philip is a bastard. In Eleazar's castle they help Philip and the Cardinal to escape an assassination planned by Eleazor to be carried out by Baltazar and Zarack. The friars give Philip and the Mendoza their robes and have themselves gagged. When they are discovered, they say that Philip and Mendoza had done this and fled. Baltazar kills Cole, and Zarack kills Crab, just as the two are spreading the news of Philip's bastardy, propagating Eleazar as the new king.


Colevile is a knight of the Percy faction in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. He is accosted by Falstaff and surrenders to him just prior to the Gaultree disband announcement. He is ordered executed as a famous rebel.


An aging knight in Middleton's A Mad World, My Masters who, along with Sir Andrew Polcut, is a companion to Sir Bounteous Progress. Neither knight plays a significant role in the play's action.


A typical lovesick swain from the pastoral tradition in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris. Colin is inconsolable when his beloved Thestylis rejects him, and after singing of his pain, he dies of a broken heart. Because his name appears with those of the shepherds Diggon, Hobbinol, and Thenot in Spenser's Shepherds' Calendar (1579), the assumption is that Peele has borrowed these pastoral figures from Spenser's work.


A gallant in Chapman's An Humourous Day's Mirth. He goes on Lemot's (as well as his own) behalf to request Foyes to allow his daughter Martia, with whom he is in love, to visit the Countess Moren. Foyes will not allow him to wait upon Martia, whom he puts under Labesha's care. When he appears at the Count and Countess Moren's home after Martia's arrival, he allows the Count to woo on his behalf, but does not seem unduly distressed when Lemot allows Labesha to take her home. He urges the others to go wait upon the King to see Dowsecer's humour. While he appears and has a single line in scene 7, no more is made of this plot element.


A friend of Lollia's in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. Collaquintida scorns husbands, provides a frank account of female sexual desires, and serves as a go-between for Lollia and Alphonso. Collaquintida witnesses the near-confrontation between Alphonso and Lollia's husband Prate when the latter returns home unexpectedly during his wife and Alphonso's assignation.


A character in the Anonymous Band, Ruff, and Cuff. He represents the part of an article of clothing that encircles the neck, or a separate detachable piece worn to cover the neck. Collar is referred to as an ally of band, and during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the terms were frequently interchangeable. Ruff seems threatened by the late appearance of Collar, and alludes to the fact that bands and collars came into fashion at about the same time: bands did not "peep out" before "Collar came to town." If we accept the definition of collar as being part of the shirt, it is possible that Ruff is referring to the fact that bands fastened on the collar, thus could not be seen without the collar, or perhaps that the prominent standing band was not in fashion before the collar was there to support it.


Collatine is the husband to Lucrece and is loyal to Servius in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece. When he meets the singing Valarius, Collatine alone suspects that his friend is merely mad-in-craft, biding his time before striking at Tarquin. He soon after councils Brutus and Valarius, Horatius Cocles and Mutius Scevola to be a frivolous and apolitical as possible, thus seeming "offencelesse"; however, he also counsels them to plot secretly against Tarquin carefully. He, Mutius Scevola, Valarius, and Horatius Cocles visit Lucrece as part of a bet to see who has the most virtuous and most beautiful wife. Riding back to camp, Collatine asks Sextus to deliver a ring to Lucrece. Pompie delivers a letter to Brutus, Collatine, Horatius Cocles, Mutius Scevola, and Valarius, asking them to come quickly to Lucretius' house. When they arrive, Lucrece declares that Sextus forced himself upon her. She blames Collatine for sending Sextus with the ring. He seems deaf to what she says and forgives her for being raped. Brutus swears revenge. They all agree. Lucrece then kills herself. As civil war breaks out, Sextus is captured and confesses his guilt. He argues, however, that if the army kills him, Collatine will loose honor. Brutus agrees to a single combat in which they are both killed. Collatine is made Counsel. (Why Collatine did not fight Sextus himself is unclear.)


Cologne is Chancellor of Galia and one of the seven Electors of Germany in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. A supporter of Richard's candidature, he was the first who sent for Richard to come to Germany. In Fortune's Revels, Collen draws the lot of cook. He solemnizes the wedding of Edward and Hedewick. He leaves the castle with Richard and turns soldier, putting his small army at Richard's disposal. He is captured along with Richard in the battle, but is vindicated at the end of the play, pronouncing Richard the new Emperor.


Two Colliers are responsible for the arrest of Ely in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington:
  1. The First Collier is one of the men who finds Ely dressed as a woman and trying to escape after falling from John's favor. The First Collier is the more talkative of the two, who describes how the "monster" was taken, and is surprised to discover the disguised man is Ely. He hopes the colliers will not be hanged for arresting him, and he is quite relieved to be given one hundred marks instead.
  2. The Second Collier is the other who finds Ely dressed as a woman and trying to escape after falling from John's favor. The Second Collier calls him a monster and claims he must be the thief that robbed Master Michaels. The First Collier addresses someone offstage as "Robin" and this appears to be the Second Collier.


An unspecified number of colliers in Brewer's The Lovesick King are under Grim's command and fight in the final battle with him.


A group of colliers help Colby steal the students’ corn in Ruggle’s Club Law. The first is named John, the second Dick, and the third remains unnamed. They gloat as they put coal in the top of their sacks already full of corn. Philenius and Musonius arrest them on the warrant from Rector.


Collin is the King of Aragon's faithful advisor in the Anonymous Mucedorus.


A ‘ghost character’ in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. Rhodaghond recounts how Guasto, the Duke of Vacunium, called forth a ‘solemn cheer’ and his noblemen came from far and near to participate, including Camillo, Bentivole, Lepido, Collinio, Ursino, Novoli, Gonsagua, Columna, Flaminio, ‘and twenty more’. It was during this event that Florimel, who once despised Amadour, grew to love him when he earned great praise from the Duke of Vacunium for his prowess in the games.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Collins is mentioned by Narrowit when he is explaining to Silence how a brother in the Low Countries established his faith, and now believes in all the stories contained in Foxe's Book of Martyrs, including "Collins his dog and all." According to Foxe's Acts and Monuments or The Book of Martyrs (c. 1554, p. 570), in 1538, Collins, having lost his wife–and also his mind–entered a church while a mass was in progress, and "beynge beside his wyttes seyinge the priest hild up the host ouer his head, and shew it to the people, he in like manner counterfaytinge the priest, taking vp a little gogge by the legges, holdinge him ouer his heade, shewed him vnto the people." The outcome of this unfortunate episode was that both Collins and the dog were burned.


After the sea battle won by Norandine and Miranda in Fletcher's The Knight of Malta, Collonna approaches Miranda and describes himself as a Turkish slave who broke his chains and swam to shore. He asks Miranda for help, and Miranda agrees to take Collonna as a servant. Miranda then sends him to collect Lucinda from Norandine. When Miranda, after a considerable delay, finally sends for Lucinda, Collonna counsels her first to be glad that she is the prisoner of such a respectful gentleman and then to make herself look as ugly as possible for the meeting. When Miranda attempts to seduce Lucinda, Collonna, apparently hidden, comments on the action, and praises Lucinda for rejecting Miranda and Miranda when the latter claims he was only testing Lucinda's virtue. Collonna accompanies Miranda and Norandine to Oriana's tomb and helps to transport the revived Oriana to Miranda's house. When Oriana is restored to her husband, Miranda asks that she allow Lucinda to serve her in Abdella's place, and Collonna steps forward and refuses. He then reveals that he is actually Angelo, an Italian captured by the Turks, who fell in love with Lucinda in Constantinople, and not only became engaged to her but also converted her to Christianity.


A leading Arragonian lord and counsellor to the Queen in ?Ford's The Queen. He always attends the Queen, and is with her at Alphonso's planned execution, where he condemns the rebel's "prating." Like Almada, Collumello shows respect for Alphonso once the Queen has married him, but is shocked and reproachful at the younger man's ill-treatment of his new wife, especially when Alphonso accuses the Queen and Petruchi of adultery. With Almada, Collumello decides to offer a large reward in gold to any champion who will fight for the Queen's honour against her own wishes. The two lords use the reward to convince Salassa to release Velasco from his vow of non-violence, but when an angry Velasco refuses to bend to her will they condemn Salassa to death as a destroyer of the realm's peace. Collumello speaks unkindly to Salassa at her execution, but is very pleased when Velasco relents and agrees to stand as champion to the Queen. He supports the Queen at her own trial and enjoys the play's happy ending.


A character in the anonymous Tamar Cam whose name comports with geography more than history. He is described at one point in the plot as entering disguised "like a post." Shortly after this entrance, a group of rebels are discovered and executed. The disguise could well be part of a trap in the play.


Daughter to the Duke's counselor, Petruchio, and cousin to Fernando in Ford's Love's Sacrifice. She is the Duchess's maid. Besotted by the lecherous courtier, Ferentes, Colona is one of the three court ladies to be seduced and made pregnant by him. Like the others, she his innocently believed his promises of marriage. When he rejects her and her disgrace is made public, her father first disowns her. Together with Julia's father, Nibrassa, Petruchio insists that the betrayed women seek revenge on Ferentes. They join with Morona, his third victim, and contrive to murder him during the masque they perform as part of the ceremonial welcome to the Abbot of Monaco. They present the Duke with their infants, but he is unmoved. He first condemns them to death for treachery, but the extenuating circumstances of their revenge allow them to be pardoned later, after their fathers plead their provocation. She continues to serve the Duchess, escorting Fernando to her presence for an innocent tryst, and shouts an ineffectual warning that the Duke has contrived to discover them together. She is not subsequently mentioned by name, but her attendance at the Duchess's tomb with the rest of the court, may be inferred.


The hot-blooded Colonel in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel is a quarrelsome soldier. He and Captain Ager engage in verbal sparring and fall into an argument about the cruelty of Ager's Uncle Russell toward the Colonel's kinsman Fitzallen, which results in the Colonel calling Ager "son of a whore." Ager demands a duel to defend this slander. At the dueling field, the Colonel is disgusted when Ager utters a Christian speech on the folly of dueling. He calls Ager a coward and is bewildered when Ager immediately leaps into battle. Ager wounds the Colonel grievously. The Colonel's Surgeon claims that death is near. On hearing this, the Colonel's anger abates, and he becomes incredibly generous. He decides to leave everything in his will to his Sister, and then orders her to marry Ager so that Ager will inherit all his wealth. Ager is touched by this offer, and decides to accept the Sister but return the will. At this point, the Colonel recovers. He sends the will back to Ager with even more riches. Ager falls into the Colonel's arms, and the friends are reconciled.


The colonel is an officer in Pisa's military and is the personal friend of Foscari, governor of Pisa in Davenant's The Siege. He is by disposition calmer than Foscari. He frequently tries to comfort the governor. For instance, the colonel tries to temper Foscari's fury after Bertolina imperils Pisa by refusing Florello's suit.


The Colonel's Sister tends her injured brother in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel. On his deathbed (as he thinks) the Colonel leaves her all his wealth in his will, but he orders her to marry Ager so that his friend will inherit everything. The Sister is reluctant, but the Colonel angrily demands her compliance, so she goes to Ager and submits to him. She remains silent throughout the play's conclusion.


Friend to the Ferneze family in Jonson's The Case is Altered. Courts Phoenixella. One of those who tries to dissuade Count Ferneze from hanging Jasper. (Sometimes spelled "Francesco" in text)

COLOR **1607

He is part of Visus’ grand entrance of in Tomkis’ Lingua. She wears “changeable silk with a rainbow out of a cloud on her head."


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Penia-Penniless says there is no such giant that follows in her train.


Columbo is nephew to the Cardinal in Shirley's The Cardinal . He is betrothed to the Duchess in an alliance that will secure his place in court. When he dismisses Hernando in battle for cowardice, he earns that man's enmity. When he returns from war only to murder his rival, D'Alverez, during that man's wedding masque, he earns the Duchess' hatred. He is killed in a duel with Hernando.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. In 1492, Christopher Columbus stepped ashore on an island in what has become known as the Americas. In the final revelation scene, Justice Overdo reveals himself under the Porter's disguise. He prepares to deliver his exemplary justice to the people at the Fair, and compares his grand discoveries to those of Columbus.
Only mentioned in Fletcher's The Knight of Malta. The Second Gentlewoman claims it requires a new Columbus to find chaste Knights.
Only mentioned in Hausted’s Rival Friends. Lively dec