A youth in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece with no other name designation and, by his own admission, a ‘masterless’ man. He begins the play by pretending to be part of the audience, who have apparently just enjoyed a banquet before the play. He becomes a servant to Gaius Flaminius and is ultimately a rival to the so-called B (a character with no other name designation) for the hand of Joan. When they must prove themselves to Joan, they at first sing then wrestle but fail to impress the girl. At last they joust ‘at fart prick in cule (buttock)’: a contest that apparently requires their hands to be bound and ends with the loser creating a foul miasma (Thomas Betteridge and Greg Walker, in The Oxford Handbook of Tudor Drama, opine that in this event ‘they launch[] themselves at each other in squatting positions with poles thrust between their buttocks, joking about incontinence and farting’ although they provide no evidence for this specific interpretation of the activity). B throws A down. When B claims her in victory, Joan informs them that she is already promised to another man but will spin them each a pair of breeches as a consolation prize. She then beats them. After the (apparently lengthy) interval, A delivers a speech reminding the audience of what transpired in the first section of the play which was played ‘To-day when ye were at dinner.’ He comes to Lucrece with a message from Gaius Flaminius but has lost the letter, cannot remember his master’s name, nor, when pressed, can he remember his own name. Later, upon learning from B that Lucrece has chosen his own master, Gaius Flaminius, to wed, he is openly astonished that a woman should choose a man for his virtue alone.

a STILES, JOHN **1636

A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Hollander. The knight of the post. Urinal mistakes that Sconce is referring to John a Stiles when he mentions a city captain, but Sconce assures him that he means another man, who is an honest gentleman.

AARON **1538

A "ghost character" in Bale's The Temptation of Our Lord. When Satan tempts Jesus the final time, Jesus reveals that he knows who Satan is, and accuses him of causing Aaron to doubt his faith.
A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David as an example of an upright, virtuous man.
Only mentioned in Shirley's Contention for Honor and Riches. The Biblical Aaron wore heavily decorated vestments for temple service. Here, the reference is one used by soldiers to refer to state ornaments and honors: "pomegranates in old Aaron's coat."

AARON **1594

Aaron, a Moor in Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus, is the lover of Tamora and helps her take revenge on Titus and his family. Aaron orchestrates the murder of Bassianus, and the rape and mutilation of Lavinia by Demetrius and Chiron. Aaron also deceives Titus into chopping off his hand in exchange for the lives of his sons Mutius and Quintus. The hand and the heads of Titus's sons are later brought to him on a platter. Aaron is also the father of a baby with Tamora. When Tamora delivers the baby to him with the order that it be killed, he refuses and instead kills the nurse who brought it to him. Aaron is captured when he tries to take the baby to his Goth friends, and he offers to reveal everything he knows to Lucius in exchange for the baby's life. At the end of the play Lucius orders that Aaron be buried up to the neck until he starves to death.


"The Sophy," King of Persia in Denham's The Sophy. Abbas, a violent, self-indulgent, and foolish man, is drawn by his favourite, Haly, into fierce jealousy of his son, Mirza, who has just won a great victory over the Turks. Persuaded that Mirza is plotting to usurp him, Abbas has him arrested and blinded; afterwards he feels some remorse, and wishes to save him, but Haly, who has command of the guard, now reveals that he, not Abbas, is the true ruler. After a tearful last meeting with his son, who has been poisoned on Haly's orders, Abbas dies, tormented by a vision of his own father and older brother, for whose deaths he was also responsible.

ABBESS **1589

The Abbess is the leader of the nunnery that is moved into Barabas' house after his goods are confiscated by Ferneze in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. She agrees to allow Abigail to join the nunnery. She is poisoned with the other nuns by Barabas and sends for Bernadine to confess her.

ABBESS **1598

The Abbess of Dunmow, the nunnery Matilda joins in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. She at first defends Matilda's chastity and the sanctity of the nunnery. However, between the persuasion of the Monk, with whom she is in love, and the promise of one hundred marks a year for the Abbey, the Abbess attempts to convince Matilda that she should submit to John. When she is unsuccessful, she becomes fearful that Matilda will expose her, and so leaves her to Brand.

ABBESS **1615

Dorothy and Thomas' aunt in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas, the abbess of Saint Katharine's Nunnery. She receives Cellide when the latter flees Valentine's house. She has to 'conjure' her nephew Thomas out from among her nuns after he enters the convent disguised as Dorothy, but she lets him take Cellide with him when he goes, and thus loses a novice once Cellide realizes that she can marry Francis with propriety.

ABBESS **1631

The Lady Abbesse welcomes Matilda to the safety of Dunmow Abbey in Davenport's King John and Matilda. She refuses the King's demands to surrender her. The letter sent by Eustace, the King's Confessor, fools her, and she gives admittance to Matilda's murderer Brand. She accompanies Matilda's funeral cortège in the final scene.

ABBESS **1640

This unnamed Abbess of a Benedictine nunnery has watched over Fioretta in Shirley's The Imposture. Fioretta vanishes, however, and the Abbess finally agrees to the duke's scheme for Juliana to assume Fioretta's place and dupe Leonato, who has never seen his pledged bride Fioretta.

ABBOT **1540

Seated among the Spirituality in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates, he rejects Chastity and welcomes Lady Sensuality. In the Second Part, he advises the Bishop to charge the Parliament, which is debating ways to reform the church and end simony, with heresy. Under examination, he admits his corruption, and, along with the rest of the Spirituality, is exposed by Flattery and stripped of his ecclesiastical robes, revealing the motley beneath.

ABBOT **1588

The Abbot of Swinstead welcomes the gravely ill and spiritually troubled John to refuge in the abbey in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John. When the Abbot overhears the Monk threatening to murder the king, he applauds the deed and absolves the murderer. He looks on as the Monk and John both die of the poisoned cup, but is himself slain on the spot by the Bastard.

ABBOT **1592

The Abbot of the abbey where Edward II, Baldock, and Spencer hide after failing in their escape to Ireland in Marlowe's Edward II. The Abbot assured the three that neither he nor his monks would turn them over to Mortimer and Queen Isabella. Edward's forces had been defeated, and the fleeing king took refuge in the abbey when their escape vessel ended up in Wales. Chronicler Holinshed states that Edward's refuge was the Abbey of Neath.


The true Abbot returns from his pilgrimage in the fifth act and overhears Curfew's plots in S.S's Honest Lawyer. He appears at the trial and delivers a long sermon that causes Gripe to repent and confess his supposed murder of Vaster's wife. He then presides over the rest of the cases and delivers the final speech, proclaiming the conversion of an usurer a miracle.

ABBOT **1624

In charge of a group of 12 friars, including Friar John and Friar Richard, at the monastery patronized by the Duke of Averne in Heywood's The Captives. After much bickering, the Abbot tells Friar John and Friar Richard to resolve their differences or face expulsion from the order. Early the next morning joins Friars John and Richard near the gate, having also been awakened by the voices of Palestra and Scribonia outside. He pities the women's distress and agrees to give them food, clothing, and shelter in a building outside of the cloister. Later, he is brought by the Baker after the horse bearing the armed corpse of Friar John collides with the horse bearing the escaping Friar Richard. Even though Friar Richard admits to murdering Friar John, the Abbot orders him to stand trial. At the end of the play the Abbot accompanies Friar Richard to his execution and then, after the Duke of Averne pardons Friar Richard, helps to resolve the sequence of events leading up to and beyond the murder of Friar John. The Abbot vows to assist the pardoned Duke to repent for the murder of Friar John.

ABBOT **1629

This churchman in Shirley's Grateful Servant comes with Valentio to bring monk's habits to Foscari and Dulcino. He reminds the would-be monk Foscari of the hardships of living in a religious house, and he prepares to hear Lodwick's confession.


A "ghost character" in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom. The Lord Abbot is the uncle to Iacomo Gentili. Iacomo mentions him when recounting the story of his inherited wealth. In a Faustian pact with the devil, Lord Abbot accumulated immense riches which he hid in secret caves. On his deathbed, however, he declares Iacomo to be the sole inheritor of his wealth under the condition to pray for his soul, and to use the money to help those who are in need. Having caused Iacomo to become wealthy, Lord Abbot also inspires his magnanimity.


The Abbot of Chester in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber receives a letter from the Earl of Chester telling him that the Sydanen/Moorton and Marian/Pembrooke weddings are to take place on that day. In addition, the letter warns that there is danger of an attack from Sir Griffin and Powesse, who might try to abduct the ladies. The letter instructs all the abbey doors to be well guarded, and John a Cumber should watch the only way of access. The Abbot assures the Servant who brought the message that he will fulfill Chester's orders. The Abbot arrives with Llwellen, Chester, Countess, Sydanen, Marian, Oswen, Amery and John a Cumber. They expect the bridegrooms Moorton and Pembrooke to proceed with the weddings. John a Cumber warns the ladies' fathers that John a Kent might try to trick them again and gain entrance into the heavily guarded abbey disguised as the Abbot. For this reason, the Abbot and the ladies go inside the abbey to be ready for the marriage, while John a Cumber waits for the bridegrooms. But John a Kent tricks the over-cautious John a Cumber once again, the Abbot performs the marriages of Sydanen to Sir Griffin (disguised as Moorton) and of Marian to Powesse (disguised as Pembrooke).


This churchman allows Wolsey to retire to his abbey after the Cardinal's deposition in Shakespeare's Henry VIII.


The Abbot of St Swithin's flees the Danish wrath and encourages Cartesmunda in Brewer's The Lovesick King.


A loyal supporter of King Richard in Shakespeare's Richard II. He plots against Bolingbroke's usurpation with the Bishop of Carlisle and the Duke of Aumerle and is eventually executed.


A lord, friend to Prince Mirza in Denham's The Sophy. Before Mirza's arrest, Abdall tries bravely to defend the prince to his father, Abbas; after his arrest, Abdall and his friend Morat organize an army revolt. With the army behind them, Abdall and Morat reach the palace after Abbas's death and take over, putting the young Prince Soffy on the throne and condemning the evil favourite, Haly, to death.


A "ghost character" in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. Abdallas is the traitorous elder brother to Abdelmelec, Abdelmunen, and Muly Mahamet Seth. After reigning his rightful time, Abdallas wrongs his brothers by disregarding the "perfect law" of succession developed by his father, Muly Xarif, and ordering the murder of his brothers to assure the wrongful succession of his son, Muly Mahamet, to the throne of Barbary after his own death.


A "ghost character" in the Anonymous Lust's Dominion. King of Fesse (Fez) and Barbary (Northern Africa), Eleazar's father. He was slain by the old King Philip, and his son Eleazar was then brought to Spain.


Abdella (also called Zanthia in the first act) is a Moorish servant to Oriana in Fletcher's The Knight of Malta. She is in love with Mountferrat, and believes his claims that he will take her away to another country and marry her. Abdella writes a letter in Oriana's hand to the Turkish Basha, so that it will be believed that Oriana was willing to help the Basha conquer Malta. Abdella's mischief is not perceived, and when Oriana is cleared through trial by combat, Abdella continues to serve her and seek a way to destroy her. When Oriana accidentally inflames Gomera's jealousy and then faints, Abdella gives her a supposed cordial that is actually a powerful sleeping potion, making it appear that Oriana has died. When Abdella tells Mountferrat that she has actually killed Oriana, he becomes enraged, threatens to kill her and tells her to leave at once. Despite this, when she reveals Oriana is only drugged, he manages to convince Abdella that he loves only her, and that once he has coupled once with Oriana, he will be content to see her killed and then marry Abdella. They attempt to carry out this plan, but are discovered by Gomera, who has come to visit his wife's grave. Mountferrat, Rocca and Gomera fight, and Gomera has the upper hand until Abdella shoots him in the arm. The shot, however, attracts the attention of Norandine and the watch, who arrest them. After Mountferrat is stripped of his knighthood, Valetta declares that rather than die, Mountferrat must marry Abdella, and both are banished.

Also known as Molocco in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley, the king and general of the combined African armies at the Battle of Alcazar, despite a doubtful beginning, emerges victorious, killing Don Sebastian, King of Portugal. Although he does not slay his nephew Mahamet, he subdues him, dispersing his forces.


Abdelmelec, the uncle to the Moor and one of the two younger sons of Muly Xarif, is the true successor to the throne of Barbary in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. Abdelmelec sent for aid from the great Amurath to avenge his brother Abdelmunen's death. He is a courteous and honorable king and the most heroic figure in the drama. Amurath's soldiers install Abdelmelec in his royal seat after their victory in the early civil war. Abdelmelec dies in the Battle of Alcazar. Abdelmelec is frequently referred to as Muly Molocco or Muly Morocco.


A non-speaking character in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. The Moor's uncle Abdelmunen is strangled by his nephew because of the Moor's eagerness to wear his father's crown.


The ghosts of Abdelmunen and the two young princes murdered by the Moor appear in Act II of Peele's The Battle of Alcazar crying that their murders be justified.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Isaiah as an example of a God's mercy and power.


Abdelmelec's good Queen in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. She gives encouragement and gratitude to those who aid her husband's cause.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by God as an example of man's sinfulness, because of his murder by his brother.


Abel Drugger is a shy little London tobacconist in Jonson's The Alchemist. He is very superstitious, and comes to the magician to learn about the perfect location of his shop, from an astrological perspective. Captain Face recommends Abel as an honest fellow, who gives him good tobacco for free. Using many terms from astrology and chiromancy, Subtle tells Drugger nothing that he does not know already. Drugger wants Subtle to look over his almanac and cross out his unlucky days. Drugger later returns with Captain Face, telling him he wants to introduce a young widow to the Doctor. According to Drugger, this lady wants to know her fortune, but her brother restrains her. Face asks Drugger to bring both brother and sister to the Doctor and give the alchemist a damask suit. In the garden of Lovewit's house, Drugger enters bringing the damask suit just when Surly, still in his Spanish costume, threatens to reveal Face and Subtle as charlatans. Face turns Drugger against Surly, who leaves in defeat. Face tells Drugger that Surly, disguised as a Spanish nobleman, tried to cheat Drugger out of his widow. Drugger, who boasts of having played the fool in several plays, hands Face the damask suit and leaves to procure a Spanish costume, presumably to marry Dame Pliant in it. Drugger returns with the Spanish costume and a Parson, but he is made to wait in another room while the Parson marries Dame Pliant to Lovewit in the Spanish suit. Drugger enters upon the angry congregation of Surly, Mammon, Ananias, Tribulation, and Kastril who are complaining to the officers of the deceits happening in the house. Because Lovewit seems to think Drugger is another extremist Puritan, he beats him away with the others.


Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Albumazar’s magical cant includes this allusion.

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley mentioned as a London companion of Sir Thomas Stukeley.


A "ghost character" in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. One of the Shoemaker's Welsh cousins.


A gentleman of no particular worth or virtue in Thomas Middleton's The Witch. He fathers Francisca's child out of wedlock and subsequently makes arrangements to dispose of his offspring. Pressured by Francisca's brother Antonio, he consents to marrying her, without suspecting that the wedding ceremony is set up by his brother-in-law to be a trap to kill him and the disgraced Francisca. He survives this ploy because Antonio's servant Hermio defies his master's orders to poison the chalice that he offers to the couple.


An executioner in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. As probation for being a pimp, Pompey is assigned to be Abhorson's helper. It is Abhorson's job to execute Barnardine, which he fails to do because Barnardine is drunk, unrepentant, refuses to be executed and is therefore unprepared for heaven. He also fails to execute Claudio when Ragusine's head is substituted for Claudio's.


Abiathar is a priest associated with the high priest Sadoc in Peele's David and Bethsabe. With him he receives information about Absalon's plans from Cusay. Abiathar's son Jonathan helps to carry this intelligence to David.

ABIGAIL **1589

Abigail is the daughter of Barabas in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. She enters after he has been stripped of his goods by Ferneze, and offers to go to senate and try to move them with public mourning. Barabas instead asks that she join the nunnery that has moved into his house, so that she can retrieve his hidden treasure. Abigail does as he requests, drops the bags of treasure to him at night and then leaves the nunnery. Barabas next has her pretend to be in love with Lodowick, despite her feelings for Mathias. She does as he asks, unaware that he is using her to set the two men against each other. After Abigail learns from Ithamore that Barabas' fake challenge has led to both their deaths, she decides to rejoin the nunnery. Barabas sends poisoned rice to the nunnery to kill her and the other nuns, but before she dies, Abigail confesses to Bernadine that her father caused the death of Lodowick and Mathias.

ABIGAIL **1610

Married to Claridiana and close friend of Thais, the wife of her husband's longtime foe Rogero in John Marston's The Insatiate Countess. Together, the two women devise a scheme to teach their ever-clashing spouses a lesson, by leading them to believe that they have committed adultery with their rival's wife. Their plan is complicated by Mendoza Foscari's accident following his failed seduction of Lady Lentulus, for which Claridiana and Rogero are mistakenly arrested and condemned to death. On the day of their husbands' execution, the two women triumphantly resolve the confusion by explaining the situation to the Duke of Venice.


Abigail Younglove is a waiting gentlewoman to the Lady in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady. She is sent by the Lady to Elder Loveless, and presents him with a jewel. She welcomes another suitor, Welford, to the house, and attempts to woo him for herself, annoying her own long-time suitor Sir Roger. With Martha, she carries a posset to Welford's chamber. Abigail carries a letter from the Lady to Elder Loveless, and rebukes him for his treatment of her mistress. Welford consistently rejects Abigail, and eventually she is reconciled with Sir Roger and they are married.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Isaiah as an example of a wicked king.


Eldest son of the Caliph, Almanzor, and the hero of Glapthorne's Revenge for Honor. Loyal to his father, successful in arms, he is popular with his father's subjects. He is equally unsuspecting of both his younger brother's ambition and treachery and the disloyalty of his trusted eunuch, Mesithes. Abilqualit's downfall is his passion for Mura's wife, Caropia, who has chastely refused his brother's advances. Abilqualit is generally known to be in a desperate state of melancholy, but keeps the cause secret. He struggles with his moral dilemma and suffers greatly with his choice between the agony of unrequited love and the guilt of forcing dishonor on a married woman. Knowing himself weak, he commits himself to fulfilling his adulterous ambitions. In attempting to delegate his generalship to his brother, in order to stay behind while her husband goes to war, Abilqualit carelessly allows his motives to be misinterpreted as an attempt to usurp his father. He has confided his debilitating passion only to the old general, Tarifa, in order to explain that his intentions are not disloyal to his father. He is too distracted to take good advice from Tarifa, and decides that love is the highest law. His brother and father both wrongly suspect his motives, and he fails to persuade the Caliph to put the army in Abrahen's charge. He remains obedient to his father's decision, but is persuaded by his brother's exaggerated claims of the Caliph's dangerous suspicions. He successfully seduces Caropia, who loves him for both his beauty and power as general of the army and heir to Arabia. Their liaison is interrupted by the arrival of Caropia's husband. Abrahen warns him to escape in time to avoid discovery in flagrante delicto, but his plot to have Abilqualit accused of rape is successful. Tarifa is forced to arrest him. (Abilqualit's entrance to this scene, accompanied by 'protesting' Mutes, with hindsight suggests that he has foreseen problems and prepared his remedy.) At his trial, Abilqualit decides to preserve Caropia's honor by confessing the alleged rape. He secretly explains the reason for his suicidal gallantry to Tarifa but publicly persists in his false confession. Abrahen's news of the mutiny in Abilqualit's support convinces Almanzor to change his sentence to that of death by immediate strangulation by the Mutes. Abilqualit falls; his father dies of grief and his brother, proclaimed the new Caliph, indulges in a soliloquy revealing his previous and planned villainies beside their bodies. Abilqualit, not dead, thanks to his faked execution by loyal Mutes, hears everything, and plans revenge on his brother. His only regret is that Tarifa has besmirched Caropia's honor in his attempt to exculpate him. By the time he reveals his survival and intentions to his friend Selinthus and loyal Captains, Gaselles and Osman, Caropia has decided to kill her husband in revenge for Abilqualit's presumed death. She also plans to kill Abrahen and die a martyr to their brief love. She is in turn seduced by Abrahen's words and power; when Abilqualit confronts his brother, she is held hostage and Abrahen proposes a duel for both the empire and her hand, to which Abilqualit chivalrously agrees. He hopes to make his brother repent his actions, but Abrahen stabs Caropia and commits suicide, leaving her in turn to stab Abilqualit with the knife originally intended for Abrahen's murder. She protests she prefers to kill him than die and leave him to take another love. Dying as the new Caliph, Abilqualit makes wise and just dispositions: his Empire is left to Tarifa, Caropia is to buried with her husband, himself with his father–and his brother is to be denied an honorable grave. He decrees justice against the treacherous Simanthes and Mesithes, and a reward for the faithful Selinthus. He accepts his death at Caropia's hands as justice, despite her consent, for ruining her honor.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a virtuous man.


A "ghost character" in Peele's David and Bethsabe. Hanon, the Ammonite king, mentions the deaths of Abinadab, Jonathan, and Melchisua, sons of Saul, as foreshadowing what he believes will be the defeat and death of David at Rabbah.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Moses as a sinful man punished by God.


Abisai is Joab's brother and David's nephew in Peele's David and Bethsabe. He fights for David at Rabbah.


A "ghost character" in Peele's David and Bethsabe. Abner's death (at the hands of Joab) is mentioned by Semei as an example of the duplicity of those associated with David.

ABOHALI **1632

Only mentioned in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. Demetrius, disguised as an astrologer, rattles off a list of "the learned Cabalists and all the Chaldees." The list includes Asla, Baruch, Abohali, Caucaph, Toz, Arcaphan, Albuas, Gasar, Hali, Hippocras, Lencuo, Ben, Benesaphan, and Albubetes.


A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. A guest at the wedding of Dissimulation and Love.


Abra is the young female servant in ?Udall's Jacob and Esau. After the issue of the precedence of Jacob and Esau is raised, she argues with Mido, the little boy servant, about the order in which Rebecca should mention their names. She next appears scouring the pots and pans when Rebecca calls her to get ready to cook Jacob's goats for Isaac. Rebecca instructs her on which herbs to prepare. In a scene with Deborra (the nurse) Abra announces she will have no dirt on her cooking utensils, and sings a song while she is sweeping, declaring that the type of person you become is the type of person you were when young. She gives Deborra the broom while she goes into the garden to pick the herbs. She returns commenting on the speed with which she has picked them and the delightful broth and stuffing they will make. When the vengeful Esau, having learnt that he has been supplanted by Jacob, hurls threats at the servants, Abra is very meek until just as she is leaving when she mocks him.


King of Susa and husband of Panthea in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus, Abradates is absent on an embassy while most of the play unfolds. Summoned by his wife, he joins Cyrus in the final assault on Antiochus with his band of 2000 horsemen, and wins the lottery that decides who will be in the van of the attack. There he is killed, and his body brought back in honor to Cyrus's camp.

ABRAHAM **1538

A "ghost character" in Bale's John Baptist's Preaching in the Wilderness. The Sadducee tries to argue that they are the offspring of Abraham and therefore blessed. John Baptist rejects this, arguing in turn that it is the love of God that matters, not bloodlines.
Abraham is the third human to request God's mercy in Bale's God's Promises. He asks God to remember his promises to Adam and Noah. When God declares his intention to destroy Sodom and Gomor, Abraham bargains him down from fifty men to ten. He is then given the covenant of circumcision and sings praises to God.

ABRAHAM **1592

A Jew in ?Greene's Selimus I. Selimus, having seized the crown from Bajazeth, sends for Abraham, whom he orders to poison Bajazeth before he leaves Byzantium. Abraham agrees, but in an aside states he would more willingly poison Selimus. Finding Bajazet and Aga, Abraham offers Bajazet a drink. Bajazet asks Abraham to drink first, and then, after Bajazet has drunk, to assist Aga. After all three have drunk, Abraham reveals that the cup contained poison and that he was sent by Selimus to kill them. Abraham dies, glad to be in the company of Bajazeth and Aga.

ABRAHAM **1595

A servant to the Montagues in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Provoked by Gregory and Samson, Abraham is involved in a brawl.


Sir Abraham is the son of Sir Innocent Ninny and Lady Ninny in Field's A Woman is a Weathercock. Sir Abraham has recently been knighted through the efforts (and money) of his parents; now that he is a knight he hopes to marry Lucida, the second daughter of Sir John Worldly. With them, he attends the wedding of Bellafront and Count Frederick; he is intimidated by Captain Pouts. Lucida rejects his advances and Sir Abraham declares that he will return to his father's house to "pine and die." Sir John, however, persuades him to stay for the wedding. Sir Abraham offers to second Strange in his duel against Pouts, and is mocked by Lucida for his cowardice. Mistress Wagtail and Pendant plot to lay the fatherhood of her unborn child on Sir Abraham, with whom she has been intimate, albeit not enough to make a child. Wagtail proclaims her love for Sir Abraham, who has been to hidden nearby to listen by Pendant; she moves to stab herself, and Sir Abraham, revealing himself, declares his love to her. They are partners in the wedding masque, and after Sir Abraham secures his parents' blessing to marry her they are betrothed.


Slender, cousin to country justice Shallow in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor, is made drunk and then robbed by Falstaff's followers, Bardolph, Pistol and Nym. Falstaff has slighted Shallow as well. To make amends, Evans suggests marriage to Page's daughter Anne because she will inherit £700 on her seventeenth birthday. Anne's father approves of Slender and tells him to steal her away and marry her at the fairy revel set to humiliate Falstaff. Slender makes it possible for Anne and her true love Fenton to marry. He steals away not with Anne but rather with a boy that Margaret Page has placed in a white dress.


Abraham is Oliver Trashard's son and Margaret and Gillian's brother in ?Brewer's The Country Girl. He is given a ring by Sir Robert as a present for Margaret. He foils her plan by telling her suitor that she is at home. Later, in Act II, Abraham comes back home telling Gillian that there is to be a dance, and there he dances with his sister.


Son to Almanzor by a second wife and younger brother to Abilqualit in Glapthorne's Revenge for Honor. In the past he pursued the love of Mura's wife, Caropia, who rejected his advances. His public face is innocent, loyal and deferential. He commands great powers of persuasion and plausibility. Ambitious for the throne, he is cunning, ruthless and has powerful allies in his treacherous plots against his father and brother. He secretly commands the loyalty of the influential lords, Mura and Simanthes, and his brother's eunuch, Mesithes. He is suspicious of his brother's motives for offering to delegate the generalship of the new war to him, wrongly imputing political subterfuge to him. He is determined to supplant him as their father's heir. With the aid of his allies, he poisons their father's mind against Abilqualit and exploits his brother's relationship with Caropia to incense her husband's jealousy. He gloats at his brother's frustration when the Caliph refuses to reconsider the generalship. He tries to lead Abilqualit into disloyal utterances, but is reprimanded for his lack of filial piety. He exaggerates their father's suspicions and lies about himself being forced to spy on his brother. Abrahen learns from Selinthus that his brother's melancholy results from frustrated love of Caropia, and makes further trouble by informing her husband. He then anticipates Mura's return to catch the couple in flagrante delicto by warning Abilqualit; then persuades Caropia to preserve her honor by claiming a rape. He is secretly jealous that his brother succeeded in seducing the lady where he himself had failed, but protests his friendship. He persuades her to kill her husband and become his own empress after Abilqualit is executed for the alleged rape. Abrahen then advises Mura to take full revenge for his wife's rape. Seeming to support his brother in adversity, he encourages the soldiers' mutiny, which ultimately provokes the Caliph's severity and his brother's apparent execution. By the time of the trial, Abrahen has acquired from Simanthes a poisoned handkerchief, with which he originally intends to murder his father. When his father dies of natural grief at his older son's apparent death, Abrahen keeps the handkerchief for future use, and is acclaimed the new Caliph. He incautiously gloats at length over the bodies of his father and brother, not knowing that the latter still lives and listens to every word of his villainy. He is also unaware that Caropia plans to kill him in revenge for her honor and for the death of Abilqualit. Exulting in his new power, he is interrupted by the voluntary arrival of the lady. He welcomes her, flatters her and ultimately offers her marriage, which she accepts. The return of Abilqualit, still alive, interrupts their kiss: Abrahen holds her hostage and proposes to fight a duel for her, and the empire, which his brother accepts. Before they can fight, Abrahen stabs Caropia in defiance and kills himself with the poisoned handkerchief.


Handsome son of David in Peele's David and Bethsabe. Absalon kills his half-brother Amnon for raping his sister Thamar. When David pursues Absalon, Joab works a reconciliation between father and son, but Absalon's pride moves him to usurp David's throne. Foolishly, Absalon rejects Achitophel's advice to attack David at once, preferring instead the suggestion of Cusay (who actually is working for David) that he gather more soldiers before advancing. When David attacks unexpectedly, Absalon flees only to be entangled by his long, flowing locks in the branches of an oak. There, he is stabbed, first by Joab, then by five or six soldiers, and his corpse is buried under a heap of stones, symbolic of the stony-hearted son who sought his father's death.


The Christian name of Sir Boniface, who is addressed only as "Sir Boniface" in Thomas Heywood's The Wise Woman of Hogsdon.

The son-in-law of the Duke of Buckingham in Shakespeare's Henry VIII, Lord Aburgavenny is arrested at the same time as Buckingham.


Abstemia is Lorenzo's wife and sister to the Duke of Venice in Davenport's The City Night Cap. In spite of her husband's jealousy, she has turned out to be virtuous, modest, and chaste. In Act One, she comes to Lorenzo to tell him that Lodovico, Strosmo, Spinoso and Pandulpho are to meet the Duke of Verona, who comes from Venice. When she is left alone with Philippo, she is told to try her husband's faithfulness, but she rejects such an idea because in society it is not the same that a husband suspects his wife than the other way round. Such is the state of suspicion in which Abstemia has been placed that Lorenzo takes her in front of the Duke of Verona accusing Abstemia of adultery. Lorenzo divorces her and she has to flee. Abstemia goes to Milan where she takes the disguise of a bawd called Millicent until she reconciles with Lorenzo.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. A sin destroyer. One among the "true religious" men and "holy women" whom Hick Scorner was glad to see drown in the Irish Sea at the Race of Ireland when their thirteen ships foundered and sank.


Absyrtus is prince of Colchus in Heywood's Brazen Age. He is son of Oetes and brother of Medea. Absyrtus promises Medea that he will not tell Oetes about her meetings with Jason. Absyrtus also delivers a letter from Oetes to Medea instructing her to betray Jason. Absyrtus is taken hostage and killed by Medea in her attempt to assist Jason.


A usurer in the anonymous Timon of Athens. Eutrapelus is sent to prison because he owes him four talents, but Timon provides the money to relieve him. In IV.2 Gelasimus sells all his land to Abyssus to get money for his voyage to the Antipodes.


In a speech whose termini are echoed by Eccho in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus, Academico learns that the surest way to get a clerical living is to bribe the holder. He throws scorn on Amoretto's love-speech, and looks on sardonically as Amoretto negotiates with Immerito and Stercutio. He reminds Amoretto of favors done when both were undergraduates, and asks his classmate's support in seeking the benefice controlled by Amoretto's father, but Amoretto will talk of nothing but hunting, and Academico, unable to match Immerito's bribe, leaves in frustration. He decides to return to the university for lack of anything better. He meets the other scholars, and they all bid farewell to each other and their blasted hopes.


Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Mentioned by Gentleman 1 and by Lord Skales when they are trying to find out the identity of the she-spirit haunting Mistriss Changeable's house. Gentleman 1 describes her as a "harmless Spirit fashion'd from the Aire, / And yet assuming substance, shape and forme, / That where she loves, doth all the offices / Of a faire Lady: can supply with Gold.

ACANTHE **1629

Acanthe, a maid to Honoria in Massinger's The Picture. Both take visors and aid in the kidnapping of Mathias and Baptista.

ACANTHE **1637

An Egyptian Lady in Berkeley's The Lost Lady. Also referred to as "the Moor." In reality, Acanthe is Milesia in disguise, and dares not reveal her true identity upon hearing prince Lysicles's interest in Hermione. She counsels Hermione on issues of love and helps her to put a stop to the prince's claim, since she intends to win his love back. She sends Lysicles to the tomb of Milesia and there, disguised as Milesia's ghost, tells him that "the Moor" was responsible for Milesia's death. She is, therefore, poisoned by Lysicles, who, on hearing that she is no other than Milesia herself, orders the Physician to provide him with the antidote, restores her health and takes her as his bride.


Rhodon's "soule-united friend," a "souldier," and a "jolly swaine" in Knevet's Rhodon and Iris. Acanthus (listed in the Dramatis Personae as "Adanthus") inquires about Rhodon's melancholy at the play's beginning. He is identified by Rhodon (as the two discuss the positives and negatives of love) as one "whose heart loves darts could never penetrate" though Rhodon eventually claims that the shepherd will, one day, "yeeld to the force of Cupid's golden dart." Acanthus readily volunteers to help Rhodon redress Martagon's treatment of Violetta. He requests a "private Conference" with Panace and, when denied, claims that he has feelings for the servant though he vows "not to love too much, or not at all." Thus, his only encounter with love in the play is brief. Acanthus attends the conference set up to address Martagon's treatment of Rhodon's sister, and vows to give his life fighting for Violetta's cause. His excessive "braving language" and "valrous heate" is a large part of the reason why Martagon and Cynosbatus decide that they must resort to underhandedness in order to defeat Rhodon's army. Acanthus helps to assemble troops to assist Rhodon in battle and encourages Rhodon to "transcend" the glories of his ancestors. He informs Anthophotus and Panace that Rhodon "lies at the point of death," and helps to conduct Panace to their "sicke friend" so that the servant can apply Violetta's antidote. Acanthus (correctly) identifies Poneria, Martagon, and Agnostus as the likely culprits in Rhodon's attempted murder, pledges an oath on Rhodon's sword "ne're to lay downe [his] just and lawfull armes, / Untill [. . .] avenged to the full" against Martagon, is sent by Rhodon to invite Martagon "to a bloudy breakfast to morrow morne," and commits Poneria and Agnostus to "safe custody" at Rhodon's command after the witch confesses to her foul deeds. He prepares himself to fight against Martagon's army and announces the advancement of the enemy before Flora arrives and puts an end to the battle.

ACCIUS **1589

The supposed son of Memphio, Accius is actually the child of Vicinia in Lyly's Mother Bombie. His father Memphio keeps him away from the neighbors so that they will not perceive he is a dim-witted fool until Memphio can marry him off to Stellio's daughter Silena. Through the machinations of the clever servants(Dromio, Riscio, Lucio, and Halfpenny), Accius and Silena meet face to face and reveal their foolishness. Their meeting uncovers Memphio and Stellio's plots to marry off their idiotic children to one another. Both Memphio and Stellio agree to go ahead with the arranged match, since Accius and Silena have been publicly revealed as unfit marriage material, but Vicinia intervenes in the final scene, disclosing that Accius is not Memphio's son and that he and Silena are actually brother and sister. Stellio offers to take Accius into his household at the end of the play.

ACCIUS **1601

Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Lucius Accius (170–86 BC) was a Roman tragic poet, born at Pisarium in Umbria. He was a prolific writer and enjoyed a very high reputation, according to Horace (Epistles, ii, I). The titles and considerable fragments of some fifty plays have been preserved. Accius wrote other works of a literary character, Didascalion and Pragmaticon Libri, treatises in verse on the history of Greek and Roman poetry, and dramatic art in particular. He also introduced innovations in orthography and grammar. When Ovid praises the immortality of poetry, he says that Accius will live forever through his verses. Though Ovid describes Accius's poetry as high-reared and strained, he still thinks that it will gain fresh applause in every age.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina. Aceronia is drowned in the boating accident instead of Agrippina.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Isaiah as an example of a wicked king.

ACHATES **1587

Trojan lord who lands in Carthage with Aeneas and Ascanius in Marlowe's Dido, Queen of Carthage.

ACHATES **1601

Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. In Roman mythology, Achates was the constant companion of the Trojan hero Aeneas in his wanderings after his flight from Troy. He typified a faithful friend and companion. Tucca alludes to Crispinus and Demetrius (his Achates) as being inseparable friends. When Lupus falsely accuses Horace of treason before Caesar, Tucca says that Crispinus and Demetrius must enter with Aesop as witnesses. He calls Crispinus a gentleman, who is accompanied by his Achates, thus naming Demetrius as Crispinus's faithful friend.

ACHATES **1635

Achates discovers Cleander sleeping and wakes him rudely in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy.


A warrior and river god that battles Hercules at the beginning of Heywood's Brazen Age in an attempt to win the hand of Princess Deianeira. His weapons are brought onto the stage by water nymphs. Achelous boasts that Hercules is no match for him. He also brags of his ability to shape-shift. During the battle, Achelous transforms into a dragon, fireworks and a bull, all the while being pummeled by Hercules. Achelous escapes his defeat without sacrificing any treasure, since all Hercules seeks is Deianeira's love.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by God as an example of man's sinfulness.


A Roman soldier allied with Caesar in Kyd's Cornelia. Along with Septimius, he assassinates Pompey. Because he has broken the Code of War, Caesar orders him beheaded for the crime along with a fellow assassin, Photis.
Along with Sempronius in the anonymous Caesar and Pompey, Achillas is ordered by Ptolemy to murder Pompey when he reaches shore, and is himself therefore killed by Caesar.
A murderer in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. He, along with Septimius and Salvus, murders Pompey in Lesbos in order to "take his head for Caesar." At the end, Caesar sends him and his confederates off to be tortured–instead of rewarding them, as they expected–and grants Brutus the right of putting them to death. Achillas, an Egyptian army commander who went on to wage war against Caesar in Egypt, was in fact the only one of the three to be executed: Plutarch, Life of Pompey 80.5 credits the death to Caesar, but Dio Cassius, Roman History XLII.40.1 and Lucan, The Civil War X 523, explains that he was later killed by order of Arsinoe, younger sister of Cleopatra.
Achillas is the captain of Ptolemy's guard in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. He is, at first, loyal to him. He supports the decision to confine Cleopatra. He agrees with Photinus' belief that Pompey should be killed although, after Septimus actually does the deed, Achillas mourns over the head. After Cleopatra makes her way to Caesar, Achillas defends himself against charges that he allowed it to happen, and promises to do whatever Photinus feels is best, clearly separating himself from the "ungrateful king" as Photinus describes him. After the masque, Achillas helps Photinus turn Ptolemy against Caesar by reporting his continued fascination with Egypt's wealth. The two turn the repentant Septimus back to his evil ways by comparing him to Caesar, who was also born poor and reached greatness through bloodshed. Achillas agrees to be the one to kill Ptolemy and does enter with his body, although he claims the king was trampled to death by pursuers. He is killed by Caesar and his captains.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Timon of Athens. When Lollio gets drunk during the bacchanalia (II.5) before his sister's wedding, he thinks he is Achilles, and he calls the rest of the party his Myrmidones.
He has a tent onstage in Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida and is visited about two-thirds through the play by Diomede, Menalaus, Ulysses, Ajax, during which time Patroclus is carried in "on his back." At play's end, he appears with Diomede and Troilus and is met by Hector and Deiphobus. Shortly thereafter, the Trojans appear on the wall (Priam, Paris, Helen, Polixina, and Cassandra) while the Greeks (Ulysses, Ajax, Menalaus, and a Herald) meet below. The Trojans then descend to the Greeks. It is not beyond reason to conclude that the final scene of the play, as in The Iliad depicts the death of Hector. If so, Deiphobus in this sequence would probably be Athena in disguise, though the extant plot makes no such mention.
A Greek commander in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. Having fallen in love with Polyxena, daughter to the King of Troy, Achilles decides to stop fighting the Trojans. Urged by Ulysses to return to battle, Achilles fears that his reputation is at stake and thus re-enters the siege against Troy. He invites his Trojan rival, Hector, to the Greek camp in order to over-feed and inebriate him on the night before battle. His plan fails when he is humiliated by Hector in a brief battle the following day. Angered by this failure, Achilles murders Hector in dishonorable fashion and drags his body through the battlefield, raising the ire of the Trojans.
An apparition of Achilles conjured by Proximus in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father.
The son of Peleus and the sea nymph Thetis in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Achilles arrives at Troy with a message for Agamemnon from the oracle at Delphi that indicates an eventual Greek victory over the Trojans. Upon the first meeting of the Greek and Trojan armies, Achilles makes it plain that he sees Hector as his obvious target, but Agamemnon orders lots to be drawn to see which Greek will be the first to take Hector on, and that honor is bestowed upon Ajax. At the banquet hosted by Priam for his Greek enemies, Achilles sees and falls in love with the Trojan princess Polyxena, a fact not missed by Priam. At the same banquet, Achilles wonders if the war might be settled without further bloodshed and suggests that Helen be brought in to choose publicly between Paris and Menelaus. Later, Achilles withdraws from the fighting because Priam has offered Polyxena to him, and even the death of his best friend Patroclus fails to move him. Only when the Trojans torch his tent does Achilles come back into the fight. Upon meeting the young prince Margareton in the field and learning that he is Hector's brother, Achilles slays the young man, a killing that will bring Hector onto the battlefield in search of revenge. When Achilles and Hector do meet, the Greek refuses to fight one-on-one, instead ordering his men to surround Hector and to kill him with their poleaxes, while he contents himself with stabbing the corpse afterward. Achilles again retires from the fighting when he receives a letter from Hecuba that says he will never have Polyxena if he kills another Trojan; however, Ulysses convinces him that the surest way to get the princess is to return to the battle and kill Troilus, because the Trojan royal family would then be so shaken Priam would offer Polyxena to end further losses. Once more in the field, Achilles uses the gang tactic on Troilus that worked earlier with Hector, provoking Paris (with Hecuba's encouragement) to assassinate the Greek warrior when he comes to Troy to claim Polyxena. As he dies, Achilles urges the Greek chieftains to send for his son Pyrrhus so that the youth might avenge his father's death, and Priam agrees to a truce so the Greeks might bury their fallen comrade.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Lovel praises the noble education he received from Lord Beaufort, he distinguishes between the teaching of frivolous courtly manners and the profound righteousness inherited from the great classical epitomes of morality. Lovel illustrates the two types of education with examples from chivalric romance and classical antiquity. In contrast with the superficial courtly manners disseminated by the contacts with chivalric romance, Lovel says that his master taught him the moral strength of the classical heroes, among whom he mentions Achilles, remarkable for his bravery and greatness. It is inferred that Achilles is a classical example of manly conduct in war, though the Iliad presents him as an impetuous commander. Achilles is the most powerful warrior in the Iliad. Proud and headstrong, he takes offense easily and acts with blistering indignation when he perceives his honor has been scorned. Achilles' wrath at Agamemnon for taking his war prize, the maiden Briseis, forms the main subject of the Iliad. Lovel uses the name Achilles eulogistically.


A non-speaking character in Burnell's Landgartha. In the masque, Phoebus wants to stop Achilles to protect Pryam and Hector. He loved his friend, Menetiades, who was killed by Hector. Thus, he takes revenge killing Hector.


A mute character in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. The Ghost of Achilles appears in the second masque presented to Amurath by Lala Schahin. He is symbolic of the type of heroic focus that Lala Schahin and others wish to instill in Amurath after he begins to dote upon his Greek mistress Eumorphe.


A "ghost character" in Peele's David and Bethsabe. Former king of Gath, Achis is the father of Ithay.


Achitophel is Absalon's chief adviser in Peele's David and Bethsabe. When Absalon follows the recommendation of Cusay before the battle with David, Achitophel withdraws with a harness to hang himself, cursing Israel for his disgrace.
Only mentioned in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV, Achitophel, as an advisor to the biblical King David's rebellious son Absalom, is not a character in this play but is the name Falstaff uses to refer to his supplier of cloth goods.


Achitophel is an opportunistic drug-seller in Markham's Herod and Antipater. He sings songs to advertise his wares and admits to King Herod of having concocted a poison potion for Marriam, the Queen. He sells an incredibly strong poison potion to Antipater and implicates Salumith in the plot to destroy Herod and his family. Achitophel meets death when he is made to drink his own poison.


A general, Cherseogles' son, and Isaack's son-in-law in Goffe's Raging Turk. Achmetes agrees to join with Cherseogles and Corcutus to seek a peaceful solution of the imminent war with Baiazet, in the meantime divorcing Isaack's daughter for infidelity. When Baiazet, now emperor, forswears an earlier oath of vengeful enmity, Achmetes agrees to lead the Turkish army against Zemes and the Armenians. He defeats Armenia, and in single combat gives Zemes what he supposes to be a fatal wound, not realizing that Zemes has survived and escaped. Isaack plots against him. At the celebration he recounts the battle. Baiazet responds with a speech of apparent praise, but at the end throws about the general's shoulders the black mantle. At his son's appeal, however, the janissaries rescue him, and carry him off to parade in triumph through Constantinople. He and Baiazet are briefly accorded, but suddenly, without warning, Baiazet turns on him and kills him.


A glutton and libertine in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Roscius characterizes him as "a voluptuous epicure, that out of an immoderate and untamed desire seeks after all pleasures promiscuously, without respect of honest or lawful." His opposite is Anaisthetus.


One of Baiezet's seven sons in Goffe's Raging Turk, Achomates shares in the resentment that his youngest brother Corcutus has been made emperor, but when Baiazet takes power instead he is content. Identified as the emperor-in-waiting by his father, he gathers an army to resist Selymus, and then, his own ambitions aroused, resolves to seek the throne by force. Cherseogles persuades him to a midnight rendezvous, where, expecting to meet and kill Selymus, he himself is killed by the bassas.


Achoreus is a priest of Isis, and an advisor to Ptolemy, although his counsel is regularly rejected in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. In the opening scene, he objects to the confinement of Cleopatra, saying it would not please Pompey or Rome's senate. When Ptolemy asks how he should receive the beaten Pompey, Achoreus believes the only moral and honest course of action is to protect Pompey, since it was Pompey who put Ptolemy on the throne. He also believes Caesar is a noble man and will admire Ptolemy for standing by his friend. His advice is rejected by Photinus and then Ptolemy. When Caesar is enraged at Pompey's death, Achoreus says "I told you so" but his view is again rejected by Photinus, who claims Caesar is only upset publicly. When Cleopatra makes her way to Caesar, Achoreus' advice– to immediately appeal to Caesar for mercy–is finally heeded by Ptolemy. However, when he, along with Photinus, suggests that displaying the wealth of Egypt to Caesar is a bad idea, he is again ignored. His final counsel is simply to pray, and he leaves immediately to do so. However, he is hardly forgiving. When Septimus appears, seeking repentance, Achoreus tells him to stay away, since his bloody hands would pollute the sacrifice. Archoreus' final act is to promise to try to calm the rebels attacking Caesar, but there is no indication he has any success. Indeed, he is killed with Ptolemy, apparently (according to Achillas) trampled to death while they were attempting to escape pursuers.


Priest of Osiris in May's Cleopatra, taken by May from Lucan's Civil War, Book X, where, in May's own translation, he is called "The linen-vested grave Achoreus." In the play, he is snubbed after the Battle of Tarentum by Caesar, who responds to his offered showing of the gods: "Most willingly Achoreus I would see/ Godds but not oxen".


A soldier of Caesar in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. His full name is Marcus Acilius Caninus, and he was one of Caesar's legates.


Son of Bajazet and Soldan of Amasia in ?Greene's Selimus I. After Selimus is defeated in battle by Bajazet, Acomat decides to abandon his life of luxury and take up arms, so that if his father gives him the crown as he has promised, he and his followers will be able to fend off any challengers. While his Vizir warns his arming might harm his father's view of him and Regan counsels him to wait and take up arms once he has the crown, Acomat orders them, in spite of the risks, to march towards Byzantium to discover Bajazet's intentions. He sends Regan to Bajazet to request that he relinquish the crown, but when Acomat receives Bajazet's written refusal he tears it up and vows to take up arms against his father. He plans to march to Natolia and begin his revenge by killing Mahomet, Bajazet's grandson. Later, Acomat appears with the Vizir, Regan, and his soldiers before Mahomet's castle in Natolia and summons Mahomet to a parley, in which he orders Mahomet to surrender the town or face slaughter. When Mahomet refuses to surrender, Acomat orders his forces to scale the walls. They capture Mahomet and Acomat orders that he be thrown off of the castle wall on to a group of upturned spears. They also capture Zonara, Mahomet's sister, who pleads for her life; Acomat has her strangled. He then orders his forces to kill everyone in Natolia. After destroying Natolia, Acomat desires further revenge. He receives Aga, messenger from Bajazet, who warns him that he faces Selimus' fate if he continues to fight against Bajazet. Although Aga warns Acomat that tyranny never succeeds, Acomat vows to continue ruling by force and fear. Acomat pulls out Aga's eyes and orders Regan to cut off Aga's hands, which he stuffs into Aga's bosom. He sends Aga back to Bajazet, promising to inflict greater cruelties on Bajazet himself. Later, having formed alliances with Persia and Egypt, Acomat, along with the Vizir, Regan and his soldiers, welcomes Tonombey, son of the Egyptian Soldan, to the Turkish realm and urges his forces on to Amasia to aid the citizens and his Queen. Acomat and his forces encounter Selimus and his forces and Acomat vows to rightfully take the crown from Selimus. During the battle with Selimus' forces, Acomat is captured by Sinam. After the battle, Selimus orders Acomat to kneel to him. Acomat refuses and defies Selimus and is subsequently strangled by Sinam.


The putative daughter of Edward and Elinor in Peele's Edward I. Joan of Acon is in love with Gilbert de Clare, the Earl of Oxford. Aided by her mother, she gains the king's permission to marry the earl. Near the end of the play, Edward informs her that Elinor has confessed that her natural father was in fact a French friar with whom the queen had an affair, and stricken with grief, Joan dies of shock.

ACRASIA **1607

A "ghost character" in Tomkins' Lingua. According to Mendacio, the last war the five senses fought was against Meleager and his wife Acrasia. They might easily have lost the fight except Meleager was sick and Acrasia drunk. In act five, Mendacio gets wine from Acrasia that will enrage men against each other.


A Gamester in Shirley's The Gamester. He is one of the trio that intends to rescue Beaumont from the custody of the Officers, but is persuaded by Hazard that such a scheme is foolhardy. At the tavern later, he refuses to believe, at first, that Hazard's money is really gold; he laments his own lack of money. He gambles at the ordinary, losing so heavily that he worries that he will have to be sober the next day. He joins in the violent humiliation and correction of Young Barnacle. At Sir Francis Hurry's house, he co-witnesses the marriage of Hazard and Penelope.


King of Argos, father of the beautiful Danae in Heywood's The Golden Age. After his wife's pregnancy, King Acrifius, per custom, consults the oracle to inquire about the fortune of his awaited child. The oracle informs him that he shall have a beautiful daughter who will bring forth a boy who, in time, will turn his grandfather into stone. Fearing this fate, King Acrifius locks his daughter in a "brazen tower," where four Beldams guard her against men. After learning about Danae's pregnancy by Jupiter, Acrifius burns the Beldams and puts his daughter and grandson to sea, leaving them to the mercy of the stormy waves.


Brother of Pretus in Heywood's The Silver Age, he has usurped the throne of Argus, but been defeated by Bellerophon, and imprisoned in the brazen tower he built to confine his daughter Danae. His sentence of death is lifted by the return of Bellerophon with Danae's son Perseus from their conquest of Chimera. The heroes slay Pretus and Aurea and restore Acrisius as a kind of over-king or chairman of the board while Perseus assumes the day-to-day management. But a visit to his tower by his son ends in a confused brawl in which Perseus inadvertently kills him. Pursuant to an earlier oracle, he is turned to stone.
Father of Danae, whom he tries to secure from male contact in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter by shutting her into a tower under the protection of four Beldams. Acrisius is afraid that his daughter will bear a son, who, according to a prophecy, will turn his grandfather to stone. Danae points out to him that this might mean only that his grandson will make a monument for him; he is unmoved. [In fact they both have some right on their side: in The Silver Age, Perseus, Danae's son, accidentally kills Acrisius in the confusion of a fight, and thus commits him to his "marble grave".]
Only mentioned in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. Mythological character, king of Argos, who imprisoned Perseus's mother, Danae, in a bronze tower. He wanted to keep her from all men in order to protect his rulership by preventing the fulfillment of a prophecy that a son of Danae would kill him. But Zeus, who was attracted to her beauty, came to her in a shower of gold, releasing once again the procreative power that Acrisius had attempted to restrain.


Acrisius is a character in the inset play of Shirley's The Bird in a Cage. Played by Mardona, his imprisonment of his daughter, Danaë, parallels the actions of The Duke of Mantua.


A "ghost character" in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday. Montanus shares the "wise and virtuous" words of Acrisius concerning prophecies with the lovesick Thyrsis.


Acrysius is the father of Cloris in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. He is feuding over grazing rights with Montanus, the father of Amyntas who is in love with Cloris. The lawyer Lincus has been fuelling their quarrel, hoping to spur them into litigation. At the shepherds' assembly, Montanus and Acrysius regret that they were deceived by Lincus and pledge their reconciliation. They welcome the betrothal of their children.


See also ACTEON.

ACTAEON **1600

Only mentioned in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Castiliano, who is being cuckolded, has a picture in his gallery of horned Actaeon with Diana.

ACTAEON **1635

Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Actaeon is mentioned by Jealousia when he is telling Doctor Clyster about his obsession with horns since he thinks his wife is being unfaithful to him: "I love not hunting because of winding of horns, nor follow-deer for horns, but especially not stag, in remembrance of Actaeon and his hounds." According to Ovid's Metamorphoses, Actaeon was wandering with his dogs after a day of hunt, saw a cave and entered it–unaware of the fact that, inside the cave, Artemis, the goddess of the wild woods, was about to bathe in the waters of the spring Parthenius together with the nymphs that attended her. As soon as they realised a man had entered the cave, the girls started to cry around and ran to cover the goddess's naked body. Artemis, then, punished Actaeon turning him into a stag, and he, in his new shape, fled away. But his dogs–seeing nothing but a stag–chased him, and when they caught him, wounded him to death.


Acte is a freedwoman in May's Julia Agrippina with whom Otho pretends to be in love so that Nero will not see Poppaea and discover how beautiful she is. Nero therefore takes her as his mistress, and his wife Octavia complains of her gloating behavior.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In Greek mythology, Acteon was a young hunter who stumbled upon Diana and her nymphs bathing. He was in awe of the sight of the naked goddess in the pool. Diana sensed him and she transformed him into a stag, and his own hounds tore him apart. The story's message is that death was the penalty of any man setting his eyes upon the chaste Diana. In the valley of Gargaphie, near the fountain of Self-love, Echo laments her death of her beloved Narcissus. She says that this is the place where young Acteon died, pursued and torn by Cynthia's wrath rather than his hounds. Echo says this place is fatal, since it claims the deaths of young and handsome men. However, Cupid reports that Cynthia has instituted the revels in memory of Acteon's death. After the revels, Cynthia speaks solemnly declaring the celebrations concluded and mentioning Acteon's name concerning the error of self-love. Cynthia says that Acteon, by presuming he was exceedingly fair, has met with a terrible death. Cynthia wants to make his fate a lesson for the self-conceited mortals who dare challenge the divine powers.


Enters after St. Johan's sermon in the anonymous Johan The Evangelist and asks who woke him so early by dousing him with a bowl of water. He tells the audience that he enjoys running away with other men's wives and lying. Eugenio enters to him and they discuss Irisidision's earlier advice to Eugenio. Actio thinks Eugenio is foolish for wanting to give away his wealth and vows never to do the same himself; he advises Eugenio to give up thoughts of charity and remember instead that sport and play bring the most joy. Later, Actio meets up with Eugenio and they stay to listen to St. Johan's parable. After St. Johan's speech, Actio and Eugenio both vow to repent and follow St. Johan's doctrine.


Action is the false name of Treachery in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London.


A non-speaking character in Brome's Court Beggar. The champion of Venus played by Citwit in the masque. He only dances.


A Yorkshire gentleman in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness. After a bloody quarrel with Sir Charles Mountford, he gets his revenge by reducing his enemy to penury. In order to destroy Sir Charles's last remaining pride, he tries to persuade Charles' sister, Susan, to sacrifice her virginity in return for money. But when Sir Charles independently decides to offer her to him, Sir Francis is sufficiently moved that he lowers himself to marry Susan, despite her poverty. Sir Francis is a structural link between the play's two plots: he is the brother of Anne Frankford, and is present at both her wedding and her death.


Along with Beverley, Bourne and Murley in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle, all "friends of Wycliff, and foes of Rome", discusses the best plan for the burgeoning movement. They agree to meet with Oldcastle and several thousand like-minded rebels the following Friday for an uprising. Along with Beverley and Murley, he is captured at Tothill Fields. In interrogation he implicates Oldcastle in the rebellion, but then recants, admitting that his knowledge is based solely on rumor. King Harry orders his execution.

ACTOR **1619

When two different actors fail to remember the prologue in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess, an actor placed in the pit takes the stage and, pretending to be a spectator, delivers a prologue supposedly extempore. He begs the audience to understand that the country matter of the play will be performed in a country style and therefore not to judge it by courtly manners.


Appear "in the habit of Blackamoors" at Quicksands' masque in Brome's The English Moor. They report witnessing the assignation between Nathaniel and the "Queen of Ethiopia."


A comic tailor, associated with Hortano, Rustico, and Vulcano in the Anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. He defends holy days and saints days as worthwhile because they were observed in the past.


Also spelled Accutus in Machin's(?) Every Woman in Her Humour. As Tully explains to Caesar, Acutus's name indicates that "vice to him is a foule eye-sore." From the beginning of the play, Acutus wants to reform the other characters. His first targets are the three dandies, Servulus, Scilicet, and Philautus. He calls them names and picks various fights with them, sometimes as himself and sometimes disguised as a lame soldier, a tapster, or one of his three other unspecified disguises. Scilicet, who emerges from the first beating vowing vengeance, is duped by Acutus into demonstrating that he is a coward. Later, he encourages Scilicet to wear an ass's head in the wedding masque in order to ridicule him in front of the Emperor and Getica. As for Philautus and Bos (servingman to Getica), Acutus encourages them to drink themselves into a sleepy stupor. Bos ends up naked in a barrel. Acutus and Graccus force him to debate on drunkenness before agreeing to provide him with clothes. Acutus gives Philautus a potion to make him appear dead. When Philautus awakes on the bier at his own funeral, Acutus declares that he is a devil. Other characters who are subject to Acutus's scrutiny include the Host, whom Acutus dresses in a goat's head, and Cornutus, whom Acutus dresses as a ram. Along with Scilicet, these men perform in the wedding masque, the moral of which is delivered by Acutus: the Host and Cornutus should not allow their wives to cuckold and reign over them; wives are to be submissive to their husbands.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. One of the kings listed by Caesar as joining Antony's side of the war. He is the king of Thrace.

ADAM **1497

Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. In his argument against Publius Cornelius’s professed nobility of family, Gaius Flaminius reminds Lucrece that all men are descended from Adam and Eve.

ADAM **1527

Only mentioned in ?Rastell's Calisto and Melebea. Sempronio reminds Calisto that Adam's love of Eve brought mankind into sin.


Only mentioned in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Coxcomb. When Mercurie describes his first sight of Maria, he refers to the temptation of Adam

ADAM **1538

A "ghost character" in Bale's The Temptation of Our Lord. When Satan first tempts Jesus, to turn stones to bread, Jesus responds that this would neglect God's word, something that caused Adam to lose his innocence. After Satan's third temptation, Jesus accuses Satan of corrupting the faith of Adam and Eve.
Adam is the first human to request God's mercy in Bale's God's Promises, and he faces God at perhaps his angriest. When Adam suggests that he fell when left to his own choices, God immediately demands to know if that means he is to blame. Adam apologizes for such a suggestion, and repeatedly admits his sin, asking only for mercy. When God grants him mercy, Adam promises never to sin again, and sings praises to God.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. In an attempt to convince the skeptical Surly of the benefits of alchemy, Mammon claims that Adam, the Biblical patriarch, wrote treatises of alchemy in High Dutch. Surly is amazed that Adam could have written of the Philosopher's Stone in High Dutch and concludes ironically that the language must be a primitive tongue. The belief that Adam understood the mysteries of the Stone is a commonplace in alchemical writing, and occurs in Paracelsus.
Only mentioned in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. Adam is mentioned by Brainsicke when he is talking to Miniona about marriage: "To finishe in the way of Matrymonie, / Ould Adam tought vs all good Husbandrie."

ADAM **1590

Both the Smith and the Smith's Wife refer to the Clown as Adam in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England.

ADAM **1599

Adam, the former servant of Sir Rowland de Boys, is the epitome of faithfulness and loyalty in Shakespeare's As You Like It. He warns Sir Rowland's son Orlando that his brother Oliver is plotting his demise, offers Orlando his life savings, and then insists on accompanying him to the forest of Arden. Orlando's integration into the court-in-exile of Duke Senior occurs when the elderly Adam collapses and Orlando demands food for him from the duke's followers. At the end of the play, when virtually all of the characters are reunited in a country-dance, only Adam is absent from the scene. n.b. There are four production practices in dealing with Adam
  • Allow him to disappear silently from stage as he does from the text;
  • Include him as a silent member of Duke Senior's party;
  • Depict his death at the end of his last scene, having Duke Senior's party carry him from the stage;
  • Reintroduce him as the lord who killed the deer, reinvigorated by his stay in the woods.

ADAM **1599

A townsman in Ruggle’s Club Law. He is on hand to help the townsmen beat the “Athenians."

ADAM **1604

Adam is the servant of Polymetes in Day's Law Tricks. He brings Lurdo the news that Polymetes has turned prodigal and is ordered to make note of Polymetes' topsy-turvy plans for the dukedom after the supposed death of Ferneze. Adam is ordered to take Emilia to a justice when Ferneze refuses to believe that she is his daughter, and is sent by Ferneze to bring her back to be confronted with 'Emilia' (really Joculo in disguise).


Friend of Sir Alexander Wengrave in Middleton and Dekker's Moll Cutpurse, The Roaring Girl. Sir Adam joins Sir Alexander, Sir Davy Dapper, and the gallants in Sir Alexander's parlor while he laments his son's decision to pursue Moll Cutpurse.


The landlord of the Fleur-de-luce, where Mosbie lodges in the Anonymous Arden of Feversham. He along with Franklin and Bradshaw is one of the guests who becomes suspicious when he visits the Arden house after the murder.


Adam Overdo is a Justice of Peace, husband to Mistress Overdo, brother-in-law to Bartholomew Cokes, and guardian to Grace Wellborn in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Justice Overdo has a peculiar idea of delivering justice. Since he cannot trust the incomplete and often biased reports of his officers regarding law infringement, he decides to adopt various disguises. He thinks that, by attending several potentially criminal situations, he might be better equipped to detect the wrongdoers and send them to justice. However, Justice Overdo seems to be a poor judge of character. At the Fair, he disguises himself as a madman in the hope of catching thieves. Yet, he thinks the cutpurse Edgworth is an honest young clerk, and attends two situations when Edgworth and his accomplice Nightingale collaborate to pinch Cokes' purse. Overdo cannot see the thefts, though he is present. Moreover, Overdo is accused of committing them, since he was around in his disguise as a mad preacher. In his second disguise as a porter, Overdo attends the puppet-play. He reveals himself only after Busy's interruption. Apparently, Overdo takes a bad puppet-play as the worst offense, even more harmful than robbery. Overdo gives up his intended moralizing speech when he discovers his wife dead-drunk at the Fair, dressed as a courtesan, and realizes that Quarlous has duped him. Reduced to silence, Overdo tries a final act of reconciliation by magnanimously inviting everybody to his home for supper.
A "ghost character" invoked by Cockbrain as a worthy judicial ancestor in Brome's The Weeding of Covent Garden. An homage by Brome to his mentor Jonson's dramatic creation in Bartholomew Fair, a Justice of the Peace renowned for his efforts to purge a neighborhood of vice.


Sir Adam is a wedding guest at the marriage celebrations of Cælestine and Sir Walter Terill and one of the suitors pursuing the widow Mistris Miniver in Dekker's Satiromastix. Sir Adam's defining physical characteristic is his baldness, which occasions the poetic debate over the merits and shortcomings of baldness that occupies much of the middle of the play. Sir Vaughan ap Rees, one of Sir Adam's rival suitors, hosts a party at his home under the pretense of further celebrating Cælestine and Sir Walter's wedding, but he hires the poet Horace to deliver an argument against baldness in order persuade Mistris Miniver to prefer him to Sir Adam. Sir Adam responds in kind by holding another party at which he hires a rival poet, Crispinus, to defend baldness. The baldness debate is largely an occasion to showcase the conflict between the rival poets Horace and Crispinus, however, and is largely forgotten when the plot begins to focus on the public humiliation of the poet Horace. When Tucca reveals in the final moments of the play that he is to be married to Mistris Miniver, Sir Adam seems to take the disappointing news graciously.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Adams was a fellow-actor of Tarlton's. The stage-keeper in the Induction complains that the Author of the play does not observe the characteristics of real life in his theatrical Fair. When the stage-keeper creates a fictional image of Tarlton playing one of the cozening characters in Bartholomew Fair, he says that Adams would have played the rogue, probably Edgworth in the play.


Alternative spelling for Acanthus in the Dramatis Personae of Knevet's Rhodon and Iris.


Adda is the wife of Pheroas, the king's cup bearer, and brother to Herod and Salumith in Markham's Herod and Antipater. She is arrested by Hillus on the order of Herod and on the basis of false testimony given by the Eunuch. She survives a fall from a window—an attempt at suicide—and is racked until she offers false testimony concerning poison found in Alexandra's possession. She also implicates Antipater as the one who planned to use the poison.


A "ghost character" in Glapthorne's Ladie's Privilege. Adorni uses him as an example of pride when he is supposedly teaching Frangipan how to behave, and actually making fun of him.


The daughter of the King of Sicily in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort. Adelizia is sunk in melancholy when Prince Sigismund happens upon her and proclaims his undying love for the princess; she curtly dismisses his suit. She is shipwrecked off the coast of Arcadia where the traitor Oswell attempts to rape her. She is rescued by Alexis but allows Oswell to flee, unpunished, into the forest. When she arrives at court, accompanied by the senators Leonardo and Silenus, she willingly takes Sigismund as husband, restoring his sanity and King's Ferdinand's happiness.


A "ghost character" in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Adelstane (i.e. Athelstan, king of England c. 924-40) was the first of "Seven great Kings" under whom Saint Dunston "flourished." Dunston says "malicious tongues" reported that he (Dunston) defiled Adelstane's niece Elfleda. But Haughton seems to have confused Holinshed's mention of Dunston's youthful lust with the story of King Edgar's niece, the nun Elfleda.

ADICUS **1630

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. He has accused Sophron of flat felony. Justice Nimis learns that he is the richer of the two and condemns Sophron as the thief.


King of Thessaly in Heywood's Love's Mistress, he comes on pilgrimage to Delphi with his three daughters in order to learn from Apollo who shall wed the youngest, Psiche. Apollo tells him that he must leave the girl unattended on a hillside to be claimed by a lover "not of humane race" with a serpent's face. When the other two return from their visit and tell him of the richness and beauty of Psiche's home he longs to see it. He declines to judge the singing contest between representatives of Pan and Apollo. When Psiche returns, ragged and downcast,he disowns and banishes her. Present when the gods assemble for Ceres' celebration, he assures Venus that he would happily turn Psiche over to her if he knew where she was. Invited to judge the conduct of Astioche and Petrea, he sentences them to prison, but withdraws the sentence at Psiche's urging.

ADMETUS **1630

Only mentioned in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. A Thessalonian shepherd. Apollo once watched over his sheep.


Lord Admiral and friend of Navarre in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris. He is murdered by Gonzago at the beginning of the massacre of Protestants.


A ‘ghost character’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. Queen Elizabeth as sent him ahead with his fleet to confront the Spanish invasion at sea. According to Denham, Howard, Commander of the Fleet during the Spanish invasion, acquitted himself well with a bold stratagem that sunk the enemy fleet. This would have been Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham (1536 – 14 December 1624), known as Howard of Effingham, Lord High Admiral under Elizabeth I and James I. He was was chiefly responsible after Francis Drake for the victory over the Spanish Armada.


The Lord Admiral in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Along with Lord Hunsdon and Lord Clinton, he greets the Duchess, Bertie, Sands, Cranwell, and Foxe as they return to London from Europe after Queen Elizabeth comes to the throne.


A "ghost character" in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho. The poet Bellamont is writing a new tragedy, which he hopes will be played at the weddings of the Duke of Orleans and the Admiral of France, in the presence of the King of France.


A "ghost character" in ?Ford's The Laws of Candy. An unspecified Admiral of Venice performed a massacre at sea against a merchant ship from Candy while they were at peace. Gonzalo is believed to have called for the admiral's death instead of a fine; this action is one of the events that precipitated the recent war between Venice and Candy.


A "ghost character" and "the Tyrant of the vulgar simple minds" in Zouche's The Sophister. Demonstration asserts that he has "banished / Grosse ignorance, and that her cursed spawne / Vild superstitious Admiration" from the realm.


A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the fifteen affections and the subject of the play.


Another name for God in the Anonymous Everyman, who is also called Messiah, Jerusalem King, Jupiter, and Redeemer in the play.
Only mentioned in Peele's David and Bethsabe. Essentially a Hebrew word similar to "Lord," Adonai is frequently the title used for God. The speaker of the Prologue calls upon the deity for inspiration in telling the story of David and Bethsabe.


A son of David in Peele's David and Bethsabe. Adonia is present at the country celebration when Absalon kills Amnon for the rape of Thamar. He orders Jonadab to report the murder to David while he undertakes the burial of Amnon. It is he who later explains to David the reason for Absalon's action.


Adonis is a young man pursued by Venus in Heywood's Brazen Age. Adonis refuses Venus's sexual advances and instead joins the hunt for the Caledonian boar. He promises to meet Venus after the hunt. Adonis sounds the horn to release the hounds and start the hunt. His horn playing is widely admired. He is killed by the boar during the hunt.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. In Greek and Phoenician mythology, Adonis is the handsome god of vegetation and nature. When Fastidious Brisk extols the pleasures of life at court, he compares the place with other mythological sites of pleasure, such as the Garden of the Hesperides, the Insulae Fortunatae, and Adonis' Gardens.
Only mentioned in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant., first by the Fairies invoked by the Magician during the creation of a love potion that Antigonus intends to use to make Celia fall in love with him. Also, a Gentleman mentions Adonis in relation to the Lieutenant who claims that Adonis was a devil to him because he had fallen in love with the king after mistakenly drinking the potion. In classical mythology, Adonis was a beautiful youth loved by Venus, the goddess of love.
Only mentioned in Carlell's 2 Passionate Lovers. Mythological character that is remembered by Clindor in Act Two when he wants to see his mistress and Selina does not let him enter. Adonis was the youth whom Aphrodite loved and who was slain by a wild boar. On this matter, Clindor tells Selina that Adonis was not always the favorite of the goddess.


Adorio, a young Libertine in Massinger's The Guardian. He attempts to win Calista but ends up with Mirtilla.


Adorni, once a follower of Camiola's father in Massinger's The Maid of Honor, he now serves Camiola, whom he loves.


Adorni is a close friend of Doria's in Glapthorne's Ladie's Privilege, a professional soldier who speaks the truth and is appalled by the courtiers who will not go to war. He makes fun of other countries, and mocks Frangipan by pretending to teach him French, despite not speaking the language himself.


Listed in the dramatis personae of the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace. Characteristics and actions not given in the surviving plot.


Listed in the dramatis personae of the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace. Characteristics and actions not given in the surviving plot.


Adraste is the queen of Cyprus, wife of Demarchus and mother of Lucasia in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. When some of the ladies of Cyprus—including Cosmeta, Malthora, and Rhodia—plot a Lysistrata-style overthrow of the kingdom and institution of feminine rule, Adraste presides over some of the meetings and pretends to be in on the plot. Secretly she plans to defend the kingdom and successfully preserves it for her husband.


A "ghost character" in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta, Adrastus is King of Argos. He has come to Thebes with his Argive army to help his son-in-law Polynice avenge Eteocles' refusal to honor their agreement. When the assault on the city is repulsed by the Thebans, he withdraws his army to their camp, and gives up the war when Eteocles and Polynice kill each other.


"A Lord" and "former Generall," the brother of Cratus, and a confidante of the King in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia, Adrastus is chided by Sinatus at the play's beginning for his wartime strategies and is given free reign by the King to take his "revenge" upon "the present Generall" Arviragus, who has disgraced him with "his last achievements." He appoints two of his Servants to murder Arviragus and, when they are killed by the Generall, claims that they must have "quareld in drinke" and "killd one th'other." Although the King ponders having Adrastus "poison" Arviragus he decides, instead, to send his "best Servant" (along with Cratus) to "the Cave where th'old Beldam lives" in order to learn the outcome of "the present warre" as well as "when, and what shall be [the King's] end." When Adrastus, himself, is identified as the "Traytor" who will slay the King he becomes angry but, unable to lie to the King out of fear that his brother or the Witch will betray him, he conspires with Cratus to kill their "master." When Cratus expresses regret over the murder Adrastus kills his brother and, caught by Guimantes in his attempted escape, blames the murder on Eugenius, Sinatus, and Cratus. The Lord is "shut in" by Guimantes (who realizes that Adrastus may have participated in the murder of his father) and, although Sinatus and Guimantes each express belief in the fact that Adrastus is "innocent," he confesses to murdering the King and convinces the Prince to break the King's truce with Arviragus,"charge th'enemy," and "let [his] head pay the forfeit" if the battle is lost.
"A Lord" and "an enemy to Arviragus" in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Adrastus discusses the Pictish army's recent victory with the King (Guimantes) at the play's beginning but expresses his concern to the audience that his murder of the former King will be "discover[ed]." After witnessing the successful suits of Artemia and Philicia to the King that Sinatus's and Eugenius's innocent "cause" be "heard," his fears increase and he decides to visit the Witch "that foretold [him] of the King's fate and his Armies" in the hope that she "can foretell something of [his]." When the Witch refuses to tell him of his "fortune" and threatens to inform the King that Adrastus "kill'd his father," the Lord kills her and becomes confident that "no creature now can say, [he] kild the King." However, he is immediately apprehended by 1 Souldier and 2 Souldier who, at the King's orders, have been commanded to "seize [his] person" and, although he attempts to bribe them, he is brought in for "questioning" and "tortures" which are meant to garner his confession to the former King's murder. Later in the play Arviragus "fetches in a head" to show to Philicia (who is disguised as a "Pictish youth") and informs her that it is "Adrastus head [. . .] sent by the King as witnesse of his love, and reconcilement withall."


A lord, brother to Lucinda in Carlell's The Fool Would Be A Favorite. He is in love with Aurelia, for whom he forsook Miranthe. He overhears Philanthus's initial courtship of Aurelia and then makes a plea of love to Aurelia, who rejects him. He pursues a false friendship with Philanthus in order to cross his love. He spreads a rumor that Philanthus is boasting of Aurelia's love. Hearing this, Philanthus (without revealing his identity) challenges him to a combat, during which Aurelia faints. Philanthus stops to help her, but Adrastus ignobly attacks him. Nonetheless, Philanthus wins the combat (but does not kill Adrastus). Adrastus encourages his friends to kill Philanthus. When Philanthus returns to court alive, Adrastus feigns friendship to him again but tries to make him jealous by boasting of Aurelius's love. The Moor predicts that Adrastus will meet with more shame and return to his previous love. Ultimately, he concedes to Philanthus in Aurelius's love and asks for the love of Miranthe, but she rejects him.


A "ghost character" in Brome's Love-Sick Court. Brother to Disanius, husband to Themyle. A beloved General who died 20 years prior to the action of the play, he is the father of Philargus and believed to be the father of Philocles.


After the combat in Carlell's The Fool Would Be A Favorite, the Duke cautions them not to harm Philanthus, but Adrastus incites them to revenge him. Lucinda directs them to the house where they find Philanthus and discover his true identity. They tell Lucinda that he has killed Adrastus to justify their intended murder. Lucinda prevents them, pretending to murder him herself.

ADRIAN **1601

Brother of Albano in Marston's What You Will. He is responsible, along with Jacomo and his other brother Randolfo, for the plan to disguise Soranza as Albano to prevent Celia from marrying Laverdure.

ADRIAN **1608

Adrian is a spy for the Volscians in Shakespeare's Coriolanus. He learns of Coriolanus's banishment from the Roman spy Nicanor.

ADRIAN **1611

A lord attendant to Alonso in Shakespeare's The Tempest. Adrian accompanies Alonso back from the wedding of Claribel, Alonso's daughter, to the King of Tunis, when they are stranded on Prospero's island.


A "ghost character" in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. Adrian Martin is one of the foreign residents of London who becomes a target of the rioters in the uprising of May Day in 1517.


The Pope in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. He returns victorious to Rome with a train of churchmen and the German rival pope in chains. In the B-text only, he sends two Cardinals to retrieve statutes proving his right, and forces Bruno to serve as his footstool. His feast is disrupted so often by an invisible Faustus, who snatches food and drink from his lips, that he retreats from the banquet hall and commands that a dirge be sung. He is Pope Adrian VI (1522-1523).

ADRIANA **1592

Adriana is the wife of Antipholus Sereptus of Ephesus in Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors. She is completely unable to distinguish Antipholus' twin from her husband; she even dines with Antipholus Erotes and swears her dinner companion is indeed her husband. She is a strong-willed woman who plainly speaks her mind throughout.

ADRIANA **1608

Adriana is maid and confidante to Changeable Taffeta in Barry's Ram Alley. She and Taffeta discuss the men who pass below their window, and Taffeta sends Adriana to invite Thomas Boutcher into the house. Boutcher bribes Adriana to press his case with Taffeta. Adriana discusses Taffeta's suitors with her, and flirts with the disguised Constantia Sommerfield. Later, she announces the arrival of the drunken Captain Face and advises Sir Oliver Smallshanks to hide from him under Taffeta's farthingale. She brings the message that Lady Sommerfield needs Justice Tutchin. When Taffeta agrees to marry Sir Oliver, she reminds him that she should be paid 'smock fees," since her mistress will now be a lady. Adriana allows William into the house to see Taffeta when he claims to bear letters from Sir Oliver. The next morning, Adriana and Vi strew herbs before the planned wedding of Taffeta to Sir Oliver.


Armado's full name in Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost. See "ARMADO, DON."

ADRIEL **1585

An angel in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. He helps Gabriel convince Mahomet that he should investigate reports of the Arabs' sinfulness before punishing them. Sings the fifth song–a debate about the relative importance of the virtues–along with Mahomet, Gabriel, the Chorus of Spirits, and Metraon. On Mahomet's order, Adriel goes northward in search of Mahomet's missing agents, Haroth and Maroth. When Epimenide arrives in Heaven, he takes her for some sort of beast.

ADRIEL **1601

An angel in Percy's Arabia Sitiens. He helps Gabriel convince Mahomet that he should investigate reports of the Arabs' sinfulness before punishing them. Sings the fifth song–a debate about the relative importance of the virtues–along with Mahomet, Gabriel, the Chorus of Spirits, and Metraon. On Mahomet's order, Adriel goes northward in search of Mahomet's missing agents, Haroth and Maroth. When Epimenide arrives in Heaven, he takes her for some sort of beast.


A country clown in Whetstone's 2 Promos and Cassandra. Rapax and Gripax arrest him for kissing his father's servant, an offense punishable by death. He fights with them and Phallax intervenes. Phallax has mercy on him and instructs him to bribe Rapax and Gripax, thus buying his freedom. Later, he wanders into the woods searching for his horse and meets Andrugio, although he does not recognize the supposed dead man. In an amusing scene of repeated miscommunication, he tells Andrugio about the King's sentence on Promos. He then heads into Julio to witness Promo's execution.


Adulation explains in the anonymous Godly Queen Hester that Aman loves flatterers and has subdued the law to flattery.


Also called Flattery and Honesty in Udall's? Respublica. He is one of a set of colleagues (with Insolence and Oppression) who attach themselves to Avarice in order to raise Insolence as ruler in the land. When Avarice tells him to change his name he rejects Hypocrisy but accepts Honesty. He has comical problems learning the new names of his colleagues. He dissimulates to Respublica about his own self-sacrifice and that of his colleagues, while at the same time taking property and money from churches and church leaders. In the end Nemesis forgives him. He repents and promises to work for the commonwealth.


Adulation is one of Money's helpers and flatters people for his sake in Lupton's All For Money. With Mischievous Help, he assists Money in giving birth to Pleasure. Then, after the birth of Sin, Adulation goes out with Pleasure.


A scourge of God in Skelton's Magnyfycence. Adversyte is sent from God to punish Magnyfycence for his folly and to test his patience and his strength.


Possibly a "ghost character" in the anonymous Temperance and Humility, but probably an actual character from the lost portion of the play. Disobedience names him as a friend.


He first appears, whispering to the Chancellor, when Chabot is being taken to his arraignment in Chapman's The Tragedy of Chabot, Admiral of France. At the trial, he makes several lengthy speeches in an attempt to demonstrate Chabot's disloyalty, but his specific charges are minor. He is successful, however, and Chabot is found guilty. When the perfidy of the Lord Chancellor is revealed before the King, he is ordered to prosecute the case against him, which he does in V.


The Advocate in John Webster's Appius and Virginia brings Oppius the news that Virginius and troops are entering Rome. When the troops arrive, the Advocate plans to speak against Appius and in favor of Virginia.




"Ghost characters" in Brome's A Mad Couple. They have been paid by Sir Thrivewell to defend Carelesse at court.


One of the judges in Hades in Heywood's The Silver Age, he participates in the debate over the fate of Proserpine.
Aeacus (called Eacus in the text) is a "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. He is the son of Jupiter and the father of Telamon. During the debate about who should receive the armor of Achilles, Ajax calls attention to his own connection to the gods by observing that his grandfather Aeacus was a son of the foremost of the Olympian deities.
With Minos and Rhadamanth, Aeacus sits in judgement over souls in hell in Dekker's If It Be Not Good.
Aeacus is in classical mythology one of the judges of the Greek underworld. In Haughton's The Devil and his Dame he is a devil, one of the judges of Hell, and with Pluto, Minos and Rhadamantus sits in judgement on the ghost of Malbecco.


One of Titan's sons in Heywood's The Golden Age. He fights with his father and brothers against Saturn.


Aegiale is the Queen of Egypt, wife to Ptolemy, mother of Aspasia in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. She loves Duke Cleanthes (Irus in disguise), who was exiled because he "attempted [her] with love." She is desperate for his return and consults Irus to determine the best way to make this happen. He advises that she post pictures of Cleanthes throughout the land, offering a reward to anyone who finds him, while threatening with death anyone that succors him. She follows his advice. She also advises Prince Doricles on his suit to her daughter. Later, at the urging of Count Hermes (also Irus in disguise), she plans to use poison (mandrake, to which her son was transformed by Hella, a sorceress) to kill her husband so that Cleanthes can return without risk. She disappears from the play following this scene.


A "rich lame userer" in Wilde's Love's Hospital. Aegidius is Lysander's thrifty uncle and (as a result of his nephew's encouragement and prodding) one of Facetia's suitors. Interested solely in Facetia's money and future inheritance, Aegidius is convinced by Lysander that his "wooden legg" and "clubb foote" are advantageous to his suit and sets out to win the right to marry Facetia. His suit is encouraged by Lepidus and, although Lysander assures his uncle that he is working on his behalf, there is an attempt to "cozen" Aegidius when Lysander suggests that his favorable opinion must be bought. Despite the fact that Aegidius believes that his nephew is "strikeing it up" for him with Facetia, she promises to wed the man who can perform a task which, being lame, the usurer cannot complete.




A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Aegisthus (called Egistus in the text) is the lover of Agamemnon's queen Clytemnestra. In the epilogue, Thersites mentions that he hopes to see Aegisthus among others in the second part of the play.




Adulterer with Clytemnestra in Goffe’s Orestes. He is jealous of Agamemnon’s return and rues losing Clytemnestra. He calls upon Venus and the Eumenides to support his vengeance. He coaxed Clytemnestra to Agamemnon’s murder and stabs the king himself after the queen has stabbed first. When the deed is complete, he kisses his bloody hands and congratulates himself for avenging Thyestes. He next appears in his night clothes and feigns surprise when Orestes tells him that Agamemnon is murdered. Secretly, he and Clytemnestra congratulate themselves and gloat on their victory. When Orestes scolds Clytemnestra, Aegystheus grows suspicious of the boy. As soon as he hears that Orestes is dead, he claims his right to the throne by virtue of being Thyestes’ son. When Tyndarus eulogizes Agamemnon at the wedding feast, Aegytheus stops him. The sorceress Canidia calls up an image of him murdering Agamemnon for Orestes and Pylades to witness. In court, Aegystheus gloats over having gotten a baby with his new queen. He orders a general amnesty for all crimes in honor of the baby’s birth. He sits in judgment when the disguised Orestes and Pylades are brought before him charged with murdering Mysander. Moved to mercy by Clytemnestra and Strophius, and because of his general amnesty, he exonerates them of the murder. He goes to take physic and the disguised Orestes ties him to his chair and must watch as Orestes stabs his son until the blook spurts into the father’s face. He is then made to drink the boy’s blood before Orestes stabs him, too.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina mentioned by Narcissus as the woman he had hoped Claudius would marry instead of Agrippina.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina. Pallas promises Agrippina that he, along with Publius Celerius, will poison Silanus.


Aelius Lamia is a Roman senator in Massinger's The Roman Actor. He is also the first husband of Domitia. When Domitian makes Domitia his empress, Lamia prays that the gods will use Domitia to destroy Domitian. Lamia is executed for treason when he fails to show sufficient admiration for Domitia's singing.


Aemelia is the mother of Lucretia and wife of Lorenzo in Marmion's The Antiquary. Caught by Lorenzo in suggestive conversation with a male Page, Aemelia plans revenge upon her husband once she discovers the Page is indeed a woman—Angelia—in disguise. Proven chaste, Aemelia also works with Bravo, the disguised father of Aurelio, to convict Moccinigo of attempted murder.

AEMILIA **1592

Aemilia is the wife of Egeon in Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors. Before the action of the play the two were separated during a storm at sea, each spouse holding one of their twin sons and one of the twin boys meant as servant companions for their sons. Aemilia lost one of the boys as she was rescued. She is discovered to be the Lady Abbess with whom Antipholus Erote and Dromio of Syracuse take refuge near the play's conclusion, at which time she is reunited with her husband, sons, and the servant boys.

AEMILIA **1602

Aemilia is the daughter of Lorenzo in Chapman's May Day. She resents her father's plan to marry her to old Gasparo. She is in love with Aurelio, but initially flees when Lodovico arranges a meeting between them. Later, however, a second meeting at her home is arranged, and she and Aurelio declare their love. In the final scene, at Honorio's home, both fathers bless their union.

AEMILIA **1633

Aemilia is sister to Valeria and daughter of Mistress Fondling and Littlegood in Marmion's A Fine Companion. Despising old Dotario, her father's choice of spouse for her, Aemilia promises to make Dotario's life miserable if they wed. As part of a plan, Aemilia weds her true love Careless while he is in the guise of Dotario.


Lepidus is the third member of the triumvirate, with Caesar and Antony, but functions more as Caesar's second in command in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. When Antony and Caesar agree to meet, it is Lepidus who reconciles them. When the three make peace with Pompey and dine on his ship, Lepidus becomes completely drunk, and is made fun of by both Antony and the servants. Eros reports that after the wars with Pompey, Caesar had Lepidus thrown in prison on trumped up charges of treason.


Æmulus in Harrison's Philomathes' Dream praises Theophilus for his excellent way of speaking after Theophilus intervenes in the controversy between Theopompus and Ephorus over the proper form of oration. Philomathes then praises Æmulus for his discernment, but suggests that the whole company get back to interpreting the last part of his dream. (The attribution of any lines to Æmulus is uncertain, however, since the speakers' names in this part of the play are often not given).


Hero of Troy in Marlowe's Dido, Queen of Carthage, who escapes the city's downfall with his son Ascanius and a group of Trojan lords. He lands in Carthage, where the Queen, Dido, falls in love with him. Despite his destiny to found a city and dynasty in Italy, he initially accepts Dido's love and plans to remain in Carthage and build a new Troy, named for his late father, there. A message from Jove, via Hermes, persuades him to leave Carthage and Dido.
Only mentioned in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Aeneas was a Trojan who survived the siege of Troy and supposedly founded the Roman race in Italy. Cassius compares his saving of Caesar in a torrent to Aeneas' saving of his old father, Anchises.
A Trojan commander in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. He serves as a herald when he tells the Greeks of Hector's challenge that Hector will do battle with any Greek who will rise to the challenge. He performs a similar heralding function when he tells Troilus that Cressida is to be given over to the Greeks in exchange for Antenor.
Aeneas is a relative of the Trojan royal family and an ally in the war in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. Along with Paris, he urges the voyage to Greece to retrieve Hesione, and he supports Troilus in calling for a war against the Greeks. Aeneas accompanies Paris to Sparta, and upon the return to Troy, he assures Helen that she will be protected. After bearing Priam's offer of Polyxena to Achilles, Aeneas is present at the wedding, informs Priam of the arrival of the Amazon queen Penthesilia, and serves in the Trojan party that returns Achilles's corpse at the end of the play.
Present at the discovery of the giant horse in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, Æneas accepts Synon's treacherous lies and endorses the introduction of the fatal engine into Troy. When the Greeks are inside the city he hurls himself into the fray. He encounters the ghost of Hector, who tells him to escape the destruction of the city so that he can go on to found Rome. In the confusion, he kills his friend Chorebus, who has put on Greek armor as a stratagem to kill more Greeks, then carries his father, Anchises, out of the city, and escapes with 22 ships loaded with compatriots.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Lovel praises the noble education he received from Lord Beaufort, he distinguishes between the teaching of frivolous courtly manners and the profound righteousness inherited from the great classical epitomes of morality. Lovel illustrates the two types of education with examples from chivalric romance and classical antiquity. In contrast with the superficial courtly manners disseminated by the contacts with chivalric romance, Lovel says that his master taught him the moral strength of the classical heroes, among whom he mentions Aeneas. According to Lovel, Aeneas is remarkable for his piety, a religious prince who bears his aged parent on his shoulders, running away from the flames of Troy with his young son. Aeneas is the hero of Virgil's Aeneid. He held a place in the classical tradition as a figure of great piety, just as Ulysses was known for his cunning and Achilles for his rage in battle. The value Aeneas places on the family is particularly evident in the scene in which he escorts his father and son out of Troy, bearing his elderly father on his back. Lovel uses the name Aeneas eulogistically.


Aeneas is a Trojan in Heywood's Brazen Age who first sees Jason and the Argonauts approach the site of Hesione's sacrifice. He flees the city during Hercules's assault.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Caradoc asserts that his own lice are descended from the "magnanimous lice of ap Shinkin ap Shon ap Owen ap Richard ap Morgan ap Hugh ap Brutus ap Sylvius ap Æneas ap Troilus ap Hector."


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Poetaster. Aenobarbus is a fiddler in Histrio's troupe. When Tucca invites himself for supper at Histrio's expense, he tells the player not to bring Aenobarbus, the out-of-tune fiddler, with him. Probably Tucca means that the player's bad music would spoil his appetite.

AEOLUS **1610

Aeolus is a character in the masque in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Maid's Tragedy.

AEOLUS **1610

Homer narrates the story of this "ghost character" at the end of Heywood's The Golden Age. The fates make Aeolus king of the four winds so that these "brothers that still war" would not disturb Neptune, lord of the seas.


Only mentioned in Markham's Herod and Antipater. Aesculapius was the ancient physician to whom Achitophel refers in a song that testifies to the beneficial powers of the drug-seller's wares.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Aesculapius was the son of Apollo and Coronis, the daughter of a Thessalian king. He was committed to the care of the wise Centaur, Chiron, who taught him botany, together with the secret efficacy of plants. By means of this information, Aesculapius became the benefactor of humanity and the father of medicine. When Horace suggests that Crispinus should be given an emetic to throw up all his bad words, Caesar agrees, telling Horace to be Crispinus's Aesculapius, his doctor.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Æsculapius is the Latin name of the Greek god of medicine Asclepios. Son of Apollo, he practiced the arts of healing and surgery, and was able to revive the dead. For this impunity, Jupiter punished him by striking him with lightning. When Mammon wants to ingratiate himself with the mysterious lady he is courting (Dol Common in disguise), he tells her that Subtle is an excellent alchemist, a man whose knowledge is above the art of Æsculapius.
Only mentioned in Marmion's A Fine Companion. Spruse lauds his supposed doctor friend as a man skilled as the ancient Greek medico Aesculapius.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Aesculapius is mentioned by Doctor Clyster when, as he is listening to Master Ominous's superstitions about a maid who took a pin with the point towards herself and "not long after she proved with child", he exclaimed: "By Aesculapius, that was dangerous indeed." Aesculapius is also mentioned by Sir Cupid Phantsy, when the latter is begging Doctor Clyster to let him define love in a few verses before he actually starts his treatment to cure him of his disease: "Good Doctor, for Cupid's sake or Aesculapius'–and I will present him with a cock without a comb, let me but speak a few verses what love is." According to Greek, and, later, Roman mythology, Aesculapius was the god of medicine.
Only mentioned in Salusbury’s Love or Money by Medico, who says he will shave his beard for a disguise even were it as luxurious as Æsculapius’ beard and made of pure gold.

AESOP **1601

Aesop is an actor playing the politician in Histrio's troupe, and a mute character in Jonson's Poetaster. When Tucca invites himself for supper at Histrio's expense, he tells the player not to bring Aesop the politician, unless he can ram up his mouth with cloves. Tucca says the player smells ranker than some sixteen dunghills, and is seventeen times more rotten. When Lupus charges Horace with treason before Caesar, on account of an engraving representing an eagle, Horace defends himself and explains that the drawing represents a vulture and a wolf preying on the carcass of an ass. Seeing that the charges are turned against him, Lupus blames Aesop the player, who first suggested the idea to him. Caesar orders Aesop to be brought in, and he enters with Crispinus and Demetrius. It seems that Aesop is mute with fear and says nothing in his defense. Caesar orders that Aesop should be whipped, and Lictors take Aesop and the banished Lupus away.

AESOP **1629

Only mentioned in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. Aesop is mentioned by Brainsicke when he is talking to Vndermyne, disguised as a "Scrivener". As he is explaining to him how ingenious he is, he compares himself to Aesop in the following terms: "As Aesopps faggott ere the band was looson'd, / Howe could wee ells subsist?" According to Aesop's fable "The Bundle of Sticks", union gives strength. The fable tells us the story of an old man who, "on the point of death, summoned his sons around him to give them some parting advice. He ordered his servants to bring in a faggot of sticks, and said to his eldest son: 'Break it.' The son strained and strained, but with all his efforts was unable to break the Bundle. The other sons also tried, but none of them was successful. 'Untie the faggots,' said the father, 'and each of you take a stick.' When they had done as they had been told, he called out to them: 'Now, break,' and each stick was easily broken. 'You see my meaning,' said their father."

AESOP **1639

Only mentioned by Valentius in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped. Valentius says he could play the madman "so well as Aesop could discharge his scene."


A player in Paris's acting company in Massinger's The Roman Actor, Aesopus takes the part of the son in the first inset play.


An alternative form for Egleredus in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside.


An alternative form for Egleredus in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside.




A virtuous and valiant soldier in Fletcher's Valentinian. Unlike his friend Maximus—who is overwhelmed by his hatred of the tyrannous Emperor Valentinian following his rape of Maximus' chaste and virtuous wife Lucina and her subsequent death—Aëtius is unfailingly loyal to Valentinian, stoically maintaining that a tyrant may be brought to his senses by the honest actions of his subjects. Aëtius criticizes Valentinian to his face and at first earns the Emperor's admiration and respect for his honesty. However, a forged letter circulated by Maximus makes Valentinian suspicious of Aëtius; he hires Pontius—a discontented soldier whom Aëtius had once accused of treason—to kill the loyal subject whom he has begun to see as a threat. Instead of following orders, Pontius stabs himself before Aëtius' eyes to defy his past misjudgment of him. Aëtius, awed by Pontius' heroic self-sacrifice, commits suicide in the same manner. He is avenged by the soldiers Phidias and Aretus, who murder Valentinian for his involvement in the death of Aëtius, escaping punishment by committing suicide themselves.


Afer, an orator in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall skilled at gaining convictions against supposed criminals before the Senate. He assists Sejanus in convicted Silius on trumped-up charges.


One of the eleven virtues that regulate the affections in the anonymous Pathomachia. Morosity and Flattery are the extremes of Affability. One of the vanguard and rides with Charity in the war against the Vices. He is taken to guard King Love. He appears at play’s end because the queen is discontented with being allowed only Disdain and Clemency while the king has taken Reverence, Zeal, Desire, Pity, Justice, Charity, and Affability for himself.


‘Friend to Tremelio’ in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. He bids Tremelio a fond farewell at morning, saying urgent business calls him away. He meets Fulvia for a secret assignation and lays his head in her lap not realizing that her husband, Tremelio, lies close-by. He later refuses to acknowledge several profound portents of disaster, dismissing them as foolish superstition even as he walks directly into Tremelio’s ambush where he is murdered.


A high-ranking army officer in Fletcher's Valentinian, he is the leader of the military rebellion that enables Maximus' ascent to the throne. Although Affranius is thereby instrumental in Maximus' rise, he dislikes the new Emperor from the beginning and criticizes especially his ruling that all friends and followers of Valentinian be killed. Finally, Affranius defends Eudoxa, Valentinian's widow, against the enraged army loyal to Maximus, who threaten to kill her after she has confessed to having poisoned the new Emperor.


A "ghost character" in Kyd's Cornelia. Cassius lists him as only one of the valued Romans who have died because of Caesar.


Burrhus Afranius is appointed commander of the Praetorian guard at the instigation of Agrippina and Pallas in May's Julia Agrippina. Although he is an upright man, he subsequently persuades the soldiers to accept Nero as Emperor. Together with Seneca, he then conspires to encourage Nero to persuade Agrippina to withdraw from affairs of state, which leads Agrippina to quarrel with Nero, who therefore has her murdered. Burrhus has only one hand.


Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. Publius Cornelius refers to ‘Scipio of Afric’, who subdued Carthage, as his great-grandsire.
A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as a great Roman of the past.
A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. Caesar lists Africanius as one of his defeated enemies as he contemplates his victories and what they have and have not gained him.


A "ghost character" in Strode's The Floating Island. Afterwit is the brother of Prudentius. After Prudentius returns to the throne he decides Afterwit should rule the Passions.


Master Afton, a Justice in London in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV, offers that the king's plan for voluntary subscription to the war fund is wiser than implementing taxes to raise the necessary monies.

AGA **1592

Follower of Bajazet in ?Greene's Selimus I. After Belierbey delivers new of Acomat's conquest of Natolia, Bajazet sends Aga to negotiate with Acomat. Arriving before Acomat, Aga reminds Acomat of Selimus' fate and warns him of the dangers facing a ruler who ignores morality and religion. When Acomat promises to kill Bajazet, Aga hopes to never see that day, which prompts Acomat to pull out Aga's eyes. Similarly, when Aga vows to use his hands to murder Acomat, Acomat orders Regan to cut them off; Acomat then stuffs the hands in Aga's bosom. Aga calls on the heavens to avenge this cruelty and asks to be led back to Bajazet. Led before Bajazet, Aga informs him that Acomat vows to take Bajazet's life and has Mustaffa show Bajazet the present Acomat has sent him–Aga's severed hands. Aga agrees to Bajazet's offer to care for him, and, after Bajazet transfers power to Selimus, exits with Bajazet to retire to Dimoticum. While traveling and dressed in a mourning cloak, Bajazet sits with Aga to lament their misfortunes. Abraham offers them a drink and Bajazet asks Abraham to assist Aga. After all three have drunk, Abraham reveals that the cup contained poison and that he was sent by Selimus to kill them. Abraham dies, followed by Bajazeth. Aga finds some consolation in dying with his sovereign and dies himself.

AGA **1624

Aga, servant to Asambeg in Massinger's The Renegado, aids in the arrests of Vitelli and Donusa. He serves as a prison guard for Vitelli and delivers the news at the end that Grimaldi, Paulina, Vitelli, and Donusa have escaped.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Agamemnon was a Greek hero in the Trojan War. When Fastidious Brisk reports to Puntavorlo and his party the episode of his "brave" combat with Signior Luculento, he compares the incentive of their fight with the grand determination that caused Agamemnon to fight in the Trojan War. Agamemnon was the brother of Menelaus, king of Sparta, whose wife, Helen, was carried off to Troy by Paris. This event led Agamemnon to muster the military might of the Greek city-states in a war of revenge. Since Agamemnon was the brother of Menelaus, and therefore directly involved in the conflict of honor over the abducted lady, it is to be inferred that the cause of Fastidious Brisk's duel with Luculento was a dispute over a lady. However, when asked, Fastidious Brisk gallantly says that they should let the cause escape, dismissing the reason for the fight as irrelevant and concentrating on a detailed description of the duel.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Agamemnon, also called Atrides, is a hero in the Iliad. Arrogant and often selfish, Agamemnon provides the Achaeans with strong but sometime heedless and self-deserving leadership. When Tucca enters Albius's house as the jeweler's guest, he calls Albius Agamemnon, probably alluding flatteringly to his leading role among the citizens of Rome. However, since the legend says that Agamemnon's wife, Clythemnestra, viciously murdered her husband on his return from the Trojan War in order to continue her relationship with his brother, the allusion may have subtle connotations related to Chloë's infidelity.
The Greek General in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. He is concerned that the Greek army is losing its potency under a weakening hierarchical structure. He seeks the council of Ulysses and Nestor in order to counteract the mingling of high and low ranks within the army. Much of this effort involves plotting with Ulysses to inspire Achilles to re-enter the war against the Trojans. He welcomes Hector into the Greek camp the night before the battle during which Achilles murders Hector. He calls for reinforcements during this battle, worried that the Greeks are losing badly to the Trojans.
Agamemnon is Menelaus's brother and the commander-in-chief of the Greek forces at Troy in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. When the main warriors become contentious over which of them will face Hector first, Agamemnon takes Ulysses's advice and has them all draw lots. Later, when arguments erupt between Greeks and Trojans at the banquet hosted by Priam, both Priam and Agamemnon (who like the Trojan king is an honorable man) control their men so no blood is shed. When Ajax and Ulysses begin their confrontation over the armor of Achilles, Agamemnon orders a meeting in front of the troops to determine who should receive the valuable prize. In the dumb show that concludes the play, Agamemnon heads the Greek contingent that returns the corpse of Hector to the Trojans.
Agamemnon opens Heywood's 2 The Iron Age by giving the dead Achilles' arms to the hero's son, Pyrhus. He approves of Synon's plan and leads the Greeks away, then returns at night to enter the opened city. He persuades Menelaus to take Hellen back, as a favor to her sister-in-law, Cassandra, whom he fancies, and joins in the final slaughter of the Trojan royal family by stabbing Andromache. Having returned to Mycene, he is about to take his wife to bed after a ten-year separation when Egistus jumps from hiding and kills him.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Lovel praises the noble education he received from Lord Beaufort, he distinguishes between the teaching of frivolous courtly manners and the profound righteousness inherited from the great classical epitomes of morality. Lovel illustrates the two types of education with examples from chivalric romance and classical antiquity. In contrast with the superficial courtly manners disseminated by the contacts with chivalric romance, Lovel says that his master taught him the moral strength of the classical heroes, among whom he mentions Agamemnon, remarkable for his acts of bravery. It is inferred that Agamemnon is an example of manly conduct, though the Iliad presents him as a sometime reckless leader. Agamemnon, also called Atrides, is a hero in the Iliad. Arrogant and often selfish, Agamemnon provides the Achaeans with strong but sometime heedless and self-deserving leadership. Like Achilles, he lacks consideration and forethought. Lovel uses the name Agamemnon eulogistically.
A "ghost character" in Pickering's Horestes. Former King of Mycenae, Horestes's father, murdered by Horestes' s mother (Clytemnestra) and Egistus.
King of Greece in Goffe’s Orestes. He arrives home and greet Clytemnestra as his renewed bride. He is stabbed in his bed by Clytemnestra and Agystheus. He awakes and believes Titius and Megara have put on their shapes to do this deed. He dies cursing them and crying out that Argos has greater enemies than Troy. The sorceress Canidia calls up an image of Clytemnestra and Aegystheus murdering Agamemnon for Orestes and Pylades to witness.


As his father's ghost does to Hamlet in the closet scene, the mute spirit of the murdered king appears while Orestes is confronting his mother (although the spirit remains invisible to Clitemnestra) in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age; the apparition arouses him to reject his mother's false claims of innocence and kill her.

AGAR **1585

A "ghost character" in Lyly's Gallathea. This is the monster sent by Neptune to take the most beautiful virgins in the area as a sacrifice. It never appears onstage. It is not clear from the dialogue what sort of monster it is; it may be a personification of a high estuary tidal wave.

AGAR **1610

Turkish woman, sister to Crosman and Voada, and wife to Benwash, the Jew turned Turk in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk. She seems to have been given in marriage as a reward for his conversion and she appears dissatisfied. Lascivious, like her sister, she enjoys bawdy gossip with the servant Rabshake. She arouses her husband's jealousy. Rabshake is ordered to watch her and guard her chastity, in which he is unsuccessful. Agar desires Gallop, Ward's mutinous officer, at first sight. He assumes she is a prostitute. She is furious at the watch kept over her; with her sister's help, she plans to outwit her guard. Agar demonstrates her fidelity by giving her husband a purse of gold allegedly given by Gallop to buy her favors, but rejected. It is actually her gift to entice and encourage Gallop to proceed, when Benwash angrily but complacently 'returns' it to him. Next seen at her balcony, like an adulterous Juliet, pining for Gallop and fearing his constancy. He arrives, climbs up to her room, where two sailors intent on burglary interrupt their sexual liaison. Benwash discovers the stolen goods, including her lover's breeches and confronts her with her guilt. Agar is terrified, knowing her life is forfeit to her outraged husband. He promises to spare her if she agrees to help him take revenge by murdering Gallop. She plays her part by arranging another meeting with Gallop, but is strangled by Rabshake on her husband's orders.


One of Titania's ladies-in-waiting in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon.

AGATHA **1618

Agatha is the wife of Gnothos in Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law. Gnothos alters the parish register, so that Agatha appears to be sixty years old, and thus marked for execution under the Old Law. Agatha is baffled and terrified to learn that she is older than she thought. She dances, in a mask, with Gnothos when the elderly wives of Creon's servants dance with their husbands, but when she reveals herself after the dance, Gnothos openly spurns her in favour of spending time with his new young fiancée, Siren. Agatha tries to avoid the law by feigning pregnancy, but Gnothos forces her to admit that her 'child' is just a cushion. Gnothos intends to celebrate Agatha's funeral and his new marriage on the same day, but his hopes are dashed when Evander reveals that the Old Law was a fiction. Evander condemns Gnothos to death for his behaviour, but Agatha and the other characters successfully plead for his life to be spared.


The anonymous Mundus et Infans is an unusual morality play in that the protagonist, who begins the play as Infans, is actually renamed and transformed into a different character every time he reaches a new phase in his moral progression (or digression). Age is his final incarnation, a bent and baffled old man who suddenly finds himself bereft of all the worldly companions he knew in youth. Near despair over his misspent life, he finds comfort and forgiveness in the character of Perseverance.

AGENOR **1608

Agenor is a lord at the court of duke Leontius in Beaumont & Fletcher's Cupid's Revenge. With his fellow lords Nisus and Dorialus he speculates about Leontius' birthday gift to his daughter Hidaspes . Leontius has promised to grant Hidaspes any request she cares to make; the lords are doubtful about the wisdom of this decision. On hearing her demand that the cult of Cupid be suppressed in Licia they are even more doubtful: although they agree that the Licians have lived wickedly, they fear the revenge of Cupid and regret that they are unlikely to retain their sexual freedom. The three lords attend Leontius and witness his refusal to grant Hidaspes' request to be allowed to marry the dwarf Zoylus . They later comment cynically on the execution of Zoylus, the dispatch of Leontius' son and heir Leucippus to the wars, and the marriage of Bacha and Leontius. Having roused Leontius' suspicions about his son, Bacha sends Agenor, Nisus and Dorialus to Leontius to defend Leucippus, knowing that this will make him even more suspicious. The lords later discuss the prince's coming execution. Dorialus refuses to watch, and Agenor and Nisus witness Leucippus' rescue by the citizens. Ismenus , Agenor, Dorialus and Nisus bring the news that Leontius is dead. They take Bacha to Leucippus, where the lords witness her murder of Leucippus and subsequent suicide. They will accompany the new duke, Ismenus, and the body of Leucippus back to the court.

AGENOR **1617

Prince of Argos in Fletcher's Queen of Corinth. Having been engaged in war with the Queen of Corinth's forces under General Leonidas, he concludes peace terms with the Corinthians by agreeing to marry Leonidas' sister, Merione. The Queen of Corinth breaks up the engagement between Merione and her own son, Theanor, in order to further this peace. On his arrival at the court of Corinth, Agenor falls passionately in love with Merione and is eager to marry her. His hopes are destroyed when she is raped on the eve of her wedding. Agenor vows revenge on Merione's unknown rapist and begs his fiancée to go through with their marriage, as her mind remains untainted by her ordeal. Merione refuses to burden Agenor with a ruined wife, leaving him only his quest for the criminal for solace. Thanks to the plots of Crates and Theanor, Agenor and Leonidas become convinced that Euphanes, the Queen's favourite, is responsible for the rape. In order to persuade the Queen to give Euphanes up to justice, they capture her son Theanor and hold him hostage. However, Euphanes surrenders himself to them and convinces them of his innocence. Thanks to the conversion of Crates, Agenor and Leonidas discover the guilt of Theanor and expose him to the court. After Theanor agrees to marry Merione in expiation of his sin against her, the Queen proposes marriage to Agenor, making him King of Corinth. He declares this "a blessing which I durst not hope for."

AGENOR **1628

A "ghost character" in Ford's The Lover's Melancholy. Deceased Prince of Cyprus, Palador's father. He exerts a malignant influence on the story from beyond the grave, as it was his lust for his son's bethrothed, Eroclea, that drove her to flee the country and thus threw Palador into his dangerous melancholy. Agenor also banished Eroclea's father, Meleander, and deprived him of his honours and titles after Eroclea's disappearance. He then died, leaving his son to reign in Cyprus. When Eroclea is restored to Meleander, he remarks that he will requite Palador's kindness by forgetting his father's sins.

AGENOR **1633

Agenor is the friend of Basilino, the Prince of Castile in Montague's The Shepherd's Paradise. He is also, secretly, the lover of Fidamira, whom his friend Basilino also loves. After adopting the disguise of Genorio, he accompanies Basilino to the Shepherd's Paradise, where he falls in love with Bellesa, who is in reality Saphira, Princess of Navarre. Leaving the Shepherd's Paradise disguised as a pilgrim, he meets the King of Castile and reveals Basilino's whereabouts to him. He finds that he cannot maintain his faith to Fidamira, who is falsely reported dead, and hints to Bellesa that he loves her. At the end of the play, he is revealed to be Pallante, Prince of Navarre, saved as an infant from the siege of Pamplona and therefore brother to both Fidamira and to Saphira, the two women with whom he has been in love. A match is proposed for him with Arabella, the Princess of Castile and Basilino's sister.

AGENOR **1636

Both a fictional character and a disguise assumed by Philicia in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Arviragus and his Princess attempt to convince Cartandes that the disguised Philicia is actually "Noble Agenor" (the Prince of Scotland) when the Queen discovers Arviragus asleep on the floor of Philicia's "chamber." Despite their attempt to fool her, Cartandes "knows [Philicia] for Philicia, and Mistris to the man she loves," and sends the pair to prison where she tests Philicia's loyalty and claims to have set up a "combat" between Arviragus and Oswald.

AGENOR **1637

A stranger in Berkeley's The Lost Lady. It is because of his conversation with Phormio and his interest on Milesia's story that the play opens with the narrative of Milesia's alleged murder.

AGENOR **1637

Son to the Duke in Carlell's The Fool Would Be A Favorite. He is Philanthus's sworn friend and vows to help him attain his sister's love even if it means opposing his father. He then tells Philanthus of his unrequited love for Lucinda but withholds her name. The Moor predicts that his friendship will prove unfortunate. He arranges for Philanthus to meet with Aurelius. After Philanthus rejects Aurelius, Agenor accompanies him to the Moor disguised as his servant. When Lucinda reveals herself to Philanthus, Agenor grows insanely jealous and stabs Philanthus, appearing to kill him. He then feels guilty and almost kills himself but resolves to live in torment instead. In front of Philanthus's tomb, he attempts to kill himself again but is prevented by two courtiers. Ultimately, Lucinda agrees to marry him.

AGENOR **1638

Agenor is the King of Burgony's eldest son in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers. In Act One, he is complaining about the lack of recognition of the services that warriors render, and blaming the lords for being selfish. Then, he sends Lucidor to see whether the king is ready, and asks Clindor to meet him at his chamber at nine. Meanwhile, Agenor is tempted by Cleon to take over the power, although Agenor doubts what to do. When he meets his father, Agenor begs him to punish those who looked down on him and, being denied this favor, the prince asks him for permission to leave the court. Alone with Clorinda, Agenor is told to wait until he is crowned to show his passion to her, but he does not trust so many secrets. In Act Two, Agenor decides to leave the court and takes a picture of his to his brother to be given to Clorinda. In Act Three, Agenor is organizing his troops with Lucidor to fight and to face the spies that have been sent against them. When he realizes that the king's army is close, he escapes safe and sound with Lucidor. They arrive at Neustrea where they learn that the princess is choosing her husband. Being taken in front of her, he confesses her that he does not love any woman, but war. However, he finally reveals his love for her and Agenor is asked to keep the secret again until it is announced. Chosen as the ruler of Neustrea, Agenor receives the love of his subjects. But, he is not allowed by the princess to sleep with her to consummate the union, what makes him think about abandoning her. Thus, he goes hunting and, chasing a boar, he hears a cry for help. It is Clorinda, who has been abused, what makes him sympathize with the lady whom he takes under his protection. In Act Five, back to the court, Agenor is informed about Clarimant's arrival and comforts Austrella, who still opposes to sleep with him. At court, Clorinda betrays him and his identity would have been revealed if a lady had not come calling for Austrella. Nevertheless, there he is informed that he is to be handed over to his brother, who is waiting in the isle of Ceris. But, before leaving Neustrea, he frees his wife from any marital responsibility, although she promises him to respect their marriage. Later, being turned in to his brother, Agenor is crowned king of Burgony and later challenged to fight Clarimant to clean Clorinda's name. However, they are stopped by Clorinda herself disguised as Agenor's brother. At the end, they go to the temple to celebrate the wedding between Agenor and Austrella.
Agenor is the King of Burgony's eldest son and Austrella's husband in Carlell's 2 Passionate Lovers. In Act One, Agenor tries to comfort Clarimant, who loves Clorinda. In Act Two, however, Agenor also misses Clorinda's love, and he has to hide his feelings in front of an Austrella who is already suspicious. Later, Agenor comes to save Clarimant who has been wounded defending Clorinda from the Prince of Aquitain and calls for Surgeons to treat his brother. Nevertheless, Agenor asks Clorinda to comfort Clarimant because that could cure the prince's wound. In Act Three, Agenor comes to the king to ask for revenge as he is afraid of a future attack by the foreign prince. He wants to plunder his kingdom or at least his fleet to weaken him. But, he has to wait until Act Four when he is appointed general of the king's troops to go after the Prince. In Act Five, Agenor finds the Prince menacing Clarimant, whom he helps with Clindor. They have been watching them from their boat and at the end they go together to celebrate the wedding between Clarimant and Clorinda.


Disguise that Clorinda takes while she is in Neustrea in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers.


A fictional character in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Arviragus and Philicia attempt to convince Cartandes that the disguised Princess is actually Agenor, Prince of Scotland, "whose Father [. . .] hath power to right himself" if the "Prince" "suffer[s] injury" as the Queen's prisoner.


Disguise that Lucidor takes while he is in Neustrea in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers.


An English agent in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers who delivers the King of England's request for the Great Turk to return Thomas Sherley Jr.


A non-speaking part in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris. The English Agent is sent to relate the murder of King Henry III to the English Queen.


A non-speaking character in Brome's Court Beggar. The champion of Venus played by Dainty in the masque. He only dances.


Captain Ager is a young officer in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel who is passionately committed to defending his honor. So too is his friend, the Colonel, and they fall into an argument that results in the Colonel calling Ager "son of a whore." Ager demands a duel to defend this slander. However, his real problems begin when he insists on following the 'dueling code' to the letter: he is afraid to fight defending a falsehood, for this would not be a 'fair quarrel.' So, in order to be certain that he is not a 'son of whore,' he asks his mother, Lady Ager, to confirm that he really is his father's son. Lady Ager angrily insists that he is, but then realizes that the best way to prevent him from dueling is to pretend that the slander is true, so she tells him that he is indeed a bastard. Ager is devastated, but he goes to the duel anyway. He is trapped in a dilemma: he cannot admit the truth because it would lose him honor, but neither can he fight defending a falsehood. So he utters a Christian speech on the folly of dueling. The Colonel, disgusted, calls Ager a coward, and Ager immediately leaps into battle, having been given an insult he knows he can honorably rebuke. He wounds the Colonel grievously. Ager returns to Lady Ager, who is relieved to see him alive, and explains that she was lying. Ager is delighted to hear this news—and he looks forward to dueling with the Colonel again, now to defend the original insult. But at this point, the Colonel's Sister enters to announce that the Colonel has ordered her to marry Ager so that Ager will inherit his estate. Ager is touched and decides to accept the Sister but to return the will. But the Colonel sends the will back to him with even more riches. Ager falls into the Colonel's arms, and the friends are reconciled.


Lady Ager is Russell's sister in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel. She loves her son, but she is angry when he abruptly asks if he is really her husband's son, or if she is not rather a 'whore' (i.e. an adulteress). When, however, she realizes that he is planning to duel the Colonel for calling him 'son of a whore,' she decides to prevent the fight by pretending that she was indeed an adulteress. Ager is devastated. When Lady Ager later learns that her son has fought the Colonel on another matter, Lady Ager thinks it is safe to tell him the truth, so she admits that she was lying. She is then shocked when Ager decides to duel the Colonel on this matter as soon as he recovers; Lady Ager realizes that she cannot win either way. She is present in the final scene when the Colonel and Ager are reconciled, but says nothing.


Agerinus is a servant of Agrippina in May's Julia Agrippina. He comes to tell Nero that she did not drown in the boating accident. Anicetus drops a knife behind him and accuses him of treason; he is taken away to be executed.


Aglaia is the second virgin introduced by Cupid/Anteros as part of the First Masque at Cynthia's revels in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. She is a mute character and is finally discovered to be Gelaia in disguise. According to Cupid/Anteros, Aglaia is represented by the color green and symbolizes delectable conversation, which sometimes induces pleasant laughter. Aglaia's mission at the court of Queen Perfection was to entertain assemblies and create a pleasant and familiar atmosphere. Her emblem is a heart with rays about it within a ring of clouds. The motto is "curarum nubila pello" (chase away the clouds of trouble). This is an allegory of Cynthia's light, which clears the sky, just as the pleasant cheerfulness clears the human heart. At the end of the revels, when Cynthia orders the characters to unmask, Aglaia appears as Gelaia, who is punished together with the other nymphs and gallants.


Zorannes's sister in Suckling's Aglaura (first version), she is in love with Prince Thersamnes. Before the opening of the play, she has secretly married the Prince. Their wedding night is twice interrupted; once when Zorannes rushes in to let the Prince know that he has been betrayed. She is separated from Thersamnes and placed in a small tower. The King, who is in love with her, asks her to become his mistress, but she refuses. She herself puts off the wedding night a second time when Thersamnes escapes, claiming that it isn't the right time. Zorannes sends her to a cave where, armed with a dagger, she expects to meet the King. She stabs Thersamnes fatally instead, and dies from grief.
In the "happy ending" second version, the character engages in much the same action. Zorannes's sister in Suckling's Aglaura (second version), she is in love with Prince Thersamnes. Before the opening of the play, she has secretly married the Prince. Their wedding night is twice interrupted; once when Zorannes rushes in to let the Prince know that he has been betrayed. She is separated from Thersamnes and placed in a small tower. The King, who is in love with her, asks her to become his mistress, but she refuses. She herself puts off the wedding night a second time when Thersamnes escapes, claiming that it isn't the right time. Zorannes sends her to a cave where, armed with a dagger, she expects to meet the King. She stabs Thersamnes, but she only nicks him. Her brother stops her from killing herself, and later she has a touching reunion with Thersamnes.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. A charitable woman whose portrait is admired by Doctor Nowell.


"An Impostor" in Knevet's Rhodon and Iris. Agnostus is Poneria's sidekick and "slave divine" who detests daylight. At Poneria's bidding he agrees to "unite" his "force" with hers and disrupt the "mirth" of the Society of Florists who, according to Poneria, "have determined to keepe their annual festival" and "make this Feast surpasse all feasts besides." Poneria provides Agnostus with the disguise of "a grave and learned Sire" which includes a beard, cap, and gown. The witch introduces him to the frightened Eglantine (as Agnostus, since he maintains his true name even while in disguise), at which point he regurgitates an apparently rehearsed speech concerning his vast knowledge and the power of his art. He repeatedly compliments Poneria on her "art and wisedome" (despite the fact that she often insults him), and claims that her "wit" is unparalleled when she informs him of her plot "to crop the proudest flower that growes / In Hybla or Hymettus." Despite Agnostus's protestations, Poneria promises to bring a suit to "Generall Martagon" to "procure" him "some military office" and, after her representation of "the chiefe properties" of "moderne Captaines," Agnostus agrees to her wishes. He is identified by Acanthus (along with Poneria and Martagon) as a likely culprit in the attempted murder of Rhodon and is made a Colonel by Martagon (due in large part to Poneria's lies about his war experience). After Martagon discovers that Rhodon is not actually dead, he identifies Agnostus as an "Impostor" and banishes Poneria and her sidekick from his "Dominion." Agnostus accompanies Poneria to Rhodon's side, where the witch begs for pardon for her "many mischiefes." After Rhodon recognizes them, he charges Acanthus to "see them to safe custody" and "make them sure for starting." Along with the witch, Agnostus is brought forward at the play's end to be punished by Flora, who banishes them both from Thessaly forever.


Only mentioned in Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. On his first entrance as the grocer in The Grocer's Honour portion of the play, Rafe reads from Palmerin d'Oliva (misidentified in the s.d. as Palmerin of England) in which this character is named.

AGRIPPA **1601

A fictional character in Jonson's Poetaster. Agrippa is Tucca's supposed debtor. While Tucca is trying to extort some money from Ovid Senior, Pyrgus enters and says that Agrippa asks Tucca to forbear his debt till the next week. Actually, this is a ruse devised by Tucca to show Ovid Senior and Lupus that he expects some money from an incoming debt, but he needs a loan in the meantime. Agrippa is a character invented by Tucca when he needs to pull up a situation of incoming money.

AGRIPPA **1626

King of Jewry in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. He is appointed by Nero in an attempt to pacify the province with a native-born ruler. He flees his rebellious realm after the murder of Nero's ambassadors. The play opens with his arrival in Rome from Jerusalem, when he does homage for his crown to the Emperor. He fails to re-appear afterwards, although a formal charge of treason against him is included in the prosecution of the Seditious Captains in I.iv.


Agrippa is a follower of Caesar in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. At the meeting of Antony and Caesar, he suggests that Antony marry Octavia to cement the friendship of the two men. After they have left, he asks Enobarbas about Cleopatra. When Caesar and Antony say goodbye, Agrippa and Enobarbas mockingly comment on the display of emotions. During the second battle, Agrippa enters to call a retreat. After Antony's death is reported, Agrippa notes that it is a strange quirk of human nature that they grieve over the result they sought.
Agrippa is the right-hand man of Caesar in May's Cleopatra. He warns Caesar, after the Battle of Actium, how difficult it will be to get Cleopatra into a triumph. Historically, this was Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.
A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as a great Roman of the past.


A patrician and orator in Shakespeare's Coriolanus. Menenius serves as political mentor and substitute father to Coriolanus. He attempts to manage the effort to make Coriolanus consul and tries unsuccessfully to repair the damage caused by Coriolanus's open contempt for the plebeians and his disgust at the political concessions made to them. He follows Cominius in an attempt to dissuade Coriolanus from attacking Rome. Like the hero's former general, however, he is unsuccessful.


Julia Agrippina, Germanicus' wife in the anonymous Tragedy of Tiberius. She admires her husband's virtues and sees them in her two elder sons, Drusus and Nero. She advises them to be politic with Tiberius until their father, Germanicus, can come to Rome in triumph. She despairs of her youngest son, Caligula, not realizing that he is merely playing the fool in order to win the Emperor's confidence. When Germanicus is sent to Armenia, she begs her husband to take her with him, but he will not. Tiberius tries to murder her with a poisoned apple, when she refuses it, she is strangled by Spurius as he tries to force-feed her.
Agrippina, widow of Germanicus in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall. By having the heart of the people she presents a threat to Tiberius, who vows to remove the throne from her reach. She is arrested and placed on Pandataria.


Agrippina is the wife (and niece) of the Emperor Claudius and the mother (by her previous marriage) of Nero in May's Julia Agrippina. She was sister to Caligula and daughter of Germanicus. For Nero's succession she schemes mercilessly with her lover Pallas, poisoning Claudius to ensure it. She is also responsible for several other murders. She is, however, kind to Octavia, and when Nero turns against her she also attempts to protect Britannicus. She is unsuccessful in this and, after surviving a boating accident, she is stabbed by Anicetus on the orders of Nero.
A "ghost character" in the Anonymous Tragedy of Nero. Nero's late mother and victim, still the subject of gossip that her relationship with her son was incestuous. Nero, recalling his performance of Orestes, confuses her name with that of Clytemnestra; at the point of his suicide, he fears her vengeful ghost will be waiting for him.
Only mentioned in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge. Agrippina was the daughter of Germanicus Caesar and wife of Claudius. She is described by Sharkino as a woman who gave her husband poison in a posset.


Daughter to Athelstane in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. Teases Orleans, who, like the Prince of Cyprus, loves her. At the bidding of her father, she steals the purse from Andelocia while he sleeps. In retaliation, Andelocia tricks her into going with him into the wilderness where she then tricks him by climbing the tree of Virtue in order to retrieve an apple and, wearing the magic hat, returns to the Court. She is given the fruit, grows horns, and in duress, begs a cure from the disguised Andelocia, who cures her (with fruit from the tree of Virtue) once he receives his purse and hat back, and again she is taken away by Andelocia.


A clown in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Roscius characterizes him as "a rustic, clownish fellow, whose discourse is all country; an extreme of Urbanity: whereby you may observe there is virtue in jesting." He speaks in country dialect about "my zon Dick." His opposite is Bomolochus.


Sir Andrew is a clownish a suitor to Olivia in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. He is pushed forward by Sir Toby, who has borrowed a great deal of money from him. He is easily led, believing Sir Toby's claims that he is a gallant and that Olivia only pretends to prefer the disguised Viola to him. He gets drunk with Sir Toby and their resulting racket causes Malvolio to try to discipline them. Sir Andrew is part of the revenge on Malvolio, but does not take an active role. When it is clear that Olivia is in love with Viola, Sir Andrew takes Sir Toby's advice and writes him a challenge, but Sir Toby substitutes an oral challenge for the inept and very timid one Sir Andrew manages. He and Viola are brought together to duel, each believing the other is furious and an excellent swordsman. Their comic attempts to avoid fighting are interrupted by the appearance of Antonio, who believes the disguised Viola to be Sebastian and attacks Sir Andrew on his behalf. After Antonio is taken away by officers, Sir Andrew encounters the real Sebastian and strikes him, resulting in a blow from Sebastian; this second fight is broken up by Olivia's appearance, but in the final scene, Sir Andrew enters wounded from a fight with Sebastian. After accusing Viola of being the attacker, Sir Andrew and Sir Toby are helped off, so they are not present for the final revelations.


Agurtes is an Imposter and master of Autolicus in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. The two work together to gull Trimalchio, setting up Agurtes' daughter Milliscent as a lady and her maid Margery as a Gentlewoman. In the guise of a constable, Agurtes arrests Trimalchio for rioting; in the guise of a Justice he then releases Trimalchio upon the plea of the supposed lady Milliscent. He succeeds in wedding his daughter to Trimalchio by the play's end.


A Median Lord in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1. He is captured along with Zenocrate and begs Tamburlaine to take their treasure but allow them to go free. But, witnessing Tamburlaine's victory in swaying Theridamas to join the Scythian shepherd's army, Agydas–speaking for the Median retinue, and perhaps more resigned to his fate than swayed–throws his lot in with Tamburlaine. He is surprised to learn that, sometime after Tamburlaine's rape of Zenocrate, she has fallen in love with her captor. He tries to dissuade her. Tamburlaine overhears him and sends Techelles and Usumcasane to kill him. Agydas, guessing their mission, stabs himself rather than fall to them, thus impressing his would-be executioners. Usumcasane calls his ending "manly" and goes to Tamburlaine to "crave his triple-worthy burial."


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Isaiah and John Baptist as an example of a wicked king.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as the father of Nero. The name is variously spelled Aenobarbus and Ahenobarbus.


Nero's given name, he is occasionally referred to by this name in May's Julia Agrippina.


Ahimaas is the son of the high priest Sadoc in Peele's David and Bethsabe. Along with Jonathan, the son of the priest Abiathar, he carries the military intelligence of Cusay to David. After the defeat of Absalon, Ahimaas seeks Joab's permission to bring the good news to David, but he is at first denied. His excited condition finally prevails upon Joab, who allows him to follow Cusay, to whom this task has been entrusted. He does manage to arrive before Cusay, but his report is only that David's forces have been victorious; he cannot answer David's question about the fate of Absalon. It will fall to Cusay, who arrives almost at once, to inform the king of his son's death at the hands of Joab and his soldiers.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David as an example of sinful man who should nevertheless not sway God away from his love of the Israelites.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David as an example of an upright, virtuous man.


A non-speaking character in Peele's Edward I. Upon returning to England from crusade, Edward formally recognizes the courage of his veterans and calls for "Aimes of the Vies" to display a cross.


Frank Aimwell loves Violetta in Shirley's The Witty Fair One. His correspondence with her is partly hindered by Brains, but enough messages get through to allow Aimwell and Violetta to accomplish their wedding. Aimwell weds Violetta in her guise as a chambermaid named Sensible.


A disguise assumed by Weatherwise in Middleton's No Wit, No Help Like a Woman's when the four disgruntled former suitors of Lady Goldenfleece (Pepperton, Lambstone, Overdone, Weatherwise) intrude upon the wedding feast of the newly remarried widow. Somewhat remarkably, and in keeping with Weatherwise's interest in almanacs and other arcane subject, the four elements embrace at the end of this pseudo-masque.


Aire is a supporter of Jane Shore in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV. He demands that Master Rufford stop tormenting Jane, and he is later condemned for aiding the lady. The same character as Thomas Ayre of 1 Edward IV?

AJAX **1599

Spelled Aiax in Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida. He is on hand in Achilles' tent when Patroclus is brought in "on his back" and is also present in the final scene when the Trojans descend from the wall.
A Greek commander in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. He physically and verbally abuses Thersites in order to find out the tenor of the Trojan challenge. The lottery that will decide who shall meet Hector in a duel is rigged to ensure that Ajax will be chosen. He fights briefly with Hector, but the duel is stopped when they discover that they are related. The duel ends amicably with both Hector and Ajax expressing compliments and pleasantries.
The king of Salamis in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Ajax (called Aiax in the text) is the son of Hercules's friend Telamon and the Trojan princess Hesione. When the Greeks and Trojans first join battle, Agamemnon has the foremost warriors draw lots to determine who will confront Hector, and Ajax gets that distinction. During their duel, both warriors lose their weapons and are about to attack one another with trees and boulders when Agamemnon intervenes. The two combatants part on friendly terms (they are first cousins), with Hector giving Ajax a sword and shield, and Ajax bestowing on Hector a purple studded belt he had won from an unnamed Prince of Samothrace. After Achilles accepts Priam's offer of Polyxena's hand in marriage and withdraws from the fight, it is Ajax who suggests that Patroclus be allowed to wear Achilles's armor and lead his troops against the advancing Trojans. After the death of Patroclus, Hector is on the verge of destroying the Greek fleet and encampment when Ajax begs him to desist "for Hersiones sake," and Hector agrees to the request. After the death of Achilles, that warrior's famous armor becomes the center of a dispute between Ajax and Ulysses, with each man claiming the right to possess it, and Agamemnon orders a public assembly before the troops at which each might make his case. Ajax begins by pointing to his superior strength, his having routing more Trojans than anyone else, his being descended from Jupiter (through his grandfather Aeacus), and his being Achilles's brother-in-law. In addition, Ajax calls attention to Ulysses's having sought to avoid service in the war, his having left Nestor vulnerable on the battlefield, his having to be rescued from Hector by Ajax himself, and his physical inability to bear Achilles's armor. These allegations at first win over the support of the troops, but Ulysses later manages to swing them his way and gains the armor. Disgusted by what he calls vile politicians and cowards, Ajax joins Thersites in condemning the Greeks generally. When the chief leaders return from a parlay with the Trojan king Priam and ignore him, Ajax feels dishonored, and after ranting and offering to fight any of them, he stabs himself and dies.

AJAX **1600

Only mentioned in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus. Ingenioso applies the Ajax-a jakes pun to the miserly patron.

AJAX **1640

A "ghost character" in Burnell's Landgartha. Aiax is Cowsell's friend who is mentioned when Cowsell and Radger talk to each other in the taverns.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Ajax Oileus (called Aias Oilaeus in the text) is the king of the Locrians and a Greek fighter at Troy. Sometimes known as Ajax the Lesser to distinguish him from Ajax, the son of Telamon, Ajax Oileus is one of the Greeks Hector punishes in revenge for Achilles's having killed Margareton.


Akercock is Belphagor's servant-devil in Hell in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. When Belphagor is sent to earth as the Spanish doctor Castiliano, he takes Akercock with him as his manservant, Robin. As Robin, Akercock provides humorous asides on the action, and has several run-ins with Castiliano's shrewish wife Mariana. After Robin almost discovers Mariana hosting an adulterous tryst, she beats him so hard he decides to run away. He then assumes the traditional attributes of Robin Goodfellow–a leather jerkin, a russet face, and a flail–and decides to intervene in the rivalry between Clack the Miller and Grim the Collier for the love of the virtuous country maid Joan. He invisibly beats Clack and the devious Parson Short-hose so that Grim (with whom he feels a kinship) wins the maid. After sharing a "mess of cream" with Grim and Joan, he follows his master back to Hell, becoming Akercock once again.

ALADIN **1592

Son of Acomat in ?Greene's Selimus I. Receives a message from Mustaffa warning him of Selimus' plan to kill him and his brother, and vows to flee to Persia.

ALADIN **1618

Aladin is the king of Caramania and the son-in-law of Amurath in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. When Aladin rebels, Amurath temporarily breaks off his assaults on the Christians, seizes Aladin's cities of Iconeum and Larenda, and takes the king and his family captive. Aladin presents himself and his family in winding sheets to beg for mercy and ultimately it is granted, although Amurath makes it plain that he will be keeping a close watch on his son-in-law hereafter. Aladin is restored to his lands and ordered to lead his troops against the Christians in Servia.


See also ALONSO, ALONZO, and related spellings.


Alanso is the name of the Governor in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. It is used only once when the Gentleman names the Governor as the husband of Eugenia.


Captain of the Guard in Dekker's Noble Spanish Soldier. In II he is instructed to ready the guards to keep Onælia from the King. Before the wedding between Onælia and Cockadillio, he is ordered to double the guards. He then attends the wedding.


Alarbus, the eldest son of Tamora in Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus, is killed as a ritual sacrifice to the gods demanded by Lucius and allowed by Titus at the beginning of the play. His death initiates the play's cycle of revenge.


She is otherwise designated "first lady" of three unnamed ladies of the court in Davenant's The Fair Favorite. Thorello notes that she is short but disguises the fact by wearing chopines. Her name is variously spelled Olari and Alari.


Alathe is the sister of Lurcher, and the true identity of the boy, Snap in Fletcher's The Night Walker.

ALAZON **1630

Roscius in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass characterizes him as one "that arrogates that to himself which is not his . . . erring in defending a falsehood." His opposite is Eiron.


A don in Dekker's Noble Spanish Soldier. He is present when the King destroys the contract. He swears with Medina to enforce Onælia's contract to the King. In the final act, he votes against killing the King. He attends the wedding of Onælia and Cockadillio.


Brutus' youngest son, Locrine's and Camden's brother in the Anonymous Locrine. After Brutus' death he becomes King of the northern part of Britain, the part that Humber with his Scythians first attacks. Because Albanact is severely wounded and his army defeated, he kills himself. (See also "Ghost of Albanact").


Albano Belletzo is the husband of Celia, supposed drowned in a shipwreck in Marston's What You Will. He returns just after his brothers have launched a plot to pass Soranza off as him (in an attempt to keep Albano's wife, Celia, from marrying Laverdure). Consequently the real Albano goes unrecognized until he appeals to the Duke and convinces Celia of his true identity.


The 'Albanois' presented to Paridel by Palmio in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon represents William Creichton, a well-known Scottish Jesuit accused of confederacy with William Parry. Paridel tries to induce him to affirm that God's law allows him to kill Titania. The Albanois, however, quotes a ream of Latin tags to show that it is not, in fact, lawful to do such evil, even in order to do good.


The Duke of Albany in Shakespeare's King Lear is an initially rather weak-willed courtier easily governed by his sharp-tongued wife Goneril, King Lear's eldest daughter. To his credit, Albany eventually recognizes his wife's treachery and deceit, supporting her father's political and military position both in speech and deed. In some editions Albany utters the play's closing lines.


A Prince in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll. The son of Alfonso, Alberdure is in love with Hyanthe. He is given wine by Flores and Cornelia laced with a drug provided by Dodypoll, and the drug drives Alberdure mad. He hallucinates, talks wildly, runs about, and eventually throws himself in a river. The cold water cures his madness. Meeting the Peasant, he convinces him to exchange clothes and, thus disguised, tests the loyalty of his friend Leander and his beloved Hyanthe. Finding them loyal he quickly reveals his true identity to them and hides himself with Hyanthe in Hardenbergh's house. He is reunited with his father by Leander and, eventually is given permission to marry Hyanthe.

ALBERT **1608

The Archduke of Austria in Chapman's The Conspiracy of Charles, Duke of Byron. He and the members of his court flatter Byron. He vows to maintain the peace between himself and Henry, but his actions subtly undermine this.

ALBERT **1610

French gentleman in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk, who, together with Ferdinand is abducted by Ward the pirate, who is lacking in manpower to crew his ship. Sufficiently gullible to have been tricked into an on-board session of dice and cards with a stranger, and distracted by the excitement of gaming while the ship sails away leaving him helpless. He is resigned to his fate when Ward refuses their offers of ransom to. Next seen at the house of Benwash, where they have caught up with the mutineers, he attempts together with Ferdinand to intercede for the release of the Raymond family. Ward refuses their offered ransom, prayers and appeals to family loyalty, and in anger sells them into slavery too. Seen later with Ferdinand and the two sons of Raymond being taken under guard to serve in the galleys. Their plight now troubles Ward's conscience, but he resists their generous offers to forgive him if he remains Christian. Dansiker later ransoms Albert and Ferdinand, who travel back to Marseilles with him, then return in his service to Tunis. They are present at his death, and appear to survive, although their fates are uncertain.

ALBERT **1613

A gentleman and friend to Carracus in Tailor's The Hog Hath Lost His Pearl. Waits under Maria's window for Carracus in order to assist Carracus and Maria to run away from Maria's father, Old Lord Wealthy and be married. In the darkness, Maria tells Albert to climb up to her window, thinking he is Carracus. Albert decides, despite his friendship with Carracus, to take up Maria's offer, so he climbs up the ladder and joins Maria in her bedchamber. Later, having taken Maria's virginity, Albert (still pretending to be Carracus) descends the ladder to look for Albert and prepare for their escape. In soliloquy he reveals a sense of guilt for what he has done, but consoles himself in the fact that the crime of his licentious appetite cannot be detected. He meets Carracus and explains that he has been to Maria's window and, imitating Carracus' voice, has told her that he was going to find Albert. With Carracus he returns to Maria's window and after she descends, he joins them as they exit to find the horses; in asides he expresses guilt for abusing his friend's confidence. He next appears after Carracus and Maria have been married for about a month, and he is still tormented by his guilty conscience. He stops at Carracus' house and asks Carracus' Servingman about Carracus' and Maria's health, refusing to see them in person. When the Servingman exits, Albert vows to live by himself in the woods as penance for his lust, and to carve his story into the trees. Albert next appears in the woods, lamenting that the contentment of this life would be greater without his persistent sense of guilt for betraying Carracus and Maria. He spies a page and overhears a complaint that identifies her as the disguised and famished Maria. He vows to make good on his repentance by fetching her food, and exits. He returns just in time to hear Maria pardon him and to see her faint. He revives her without acknowledging her true identity; Maria also does not recognize Albert. He promises to help her live in the woods and to lead her to the Albert who has been carving his sorrows into the trees. Later, Albert then discovers Carracus dancing in the woods and leads him towards a grove where he promises to give him curative water. After restoring Carracus' reason, Albert, still disguised as a hermit, asks Carracus to forgive Albert, whose complaints Carracus has read carved into the trees. After Maria steps forward and is reunited with Carracus, Albert wishes that he too could be freed from the burden of his crimes. Carracus reassures him that his penitence will have its reward, and when Carracus asks him to lead them to Albert so that they may forgive him personally, Albert takes off his hermit disguise and is forgiven Carracus and Maria. Initially Albert plans to continue his life in the woods, but Carracus persuades him to return with them to civilization. Albert joins Carracus and Maria at Old Lord Wealthy's, where they are greeted warmly, and where Carracus and Maria's marriage receives Old Lord Wealthy's blessing. At the end of the play, Albert joins Carracus and Maria at Old Lord Wealthy's feast.

ALBERT **1622

Albert is the captain of a French pirate ship and the son of one of the pirates who attacked the Portuguese settlers and pursued their ships when they fled, marooning them on the islands in Fletcher and Massinger's The Sea Voyage. Albert kidnapped Aminta as part of his feud with her brother, Raymond. He has, however, fallen in love with her and has been searching for Raymond on her behalf, much to the disgust of the colonists Lamure, Franville and Morillat—who think that he should be concentrating on finding fertile new lands for them. After the storm Albert swims to shore with Aminta in his arms. He offers to take the Portuguese survivors Sebastian and Nicusa from the island, but he becomes involved in a fight between the Frenchmen over the Portuguese treasure. Albert is wounded in the fight, and Sebastian and Nicusa make off with his ship while he is distracted. Aminta tends to Albert's wounds; revived, he swims the channel to the other island to look for food and assistance. Albert encounters Hippolita, Crocale, Juletta and Clarinda. Clarinda falls in love with him. Albert tells Clarinda that Aminta is his sister, and Clarinda is delighted when Tibalt assigns Albert to her. Albert and the other Frenchmen woo the women by presenting them with the Portuguese treasure; the women recognize the treasure and promptly imprison them. Aminta brings Albert the news that Clarinda is in love with him; he vows that his love belongs to Aminta, even if his life is at Clarinda's mercy. Albert and Aminta are discovered together by Clarinda, and Albert is returned to strict captivity. Albert and Raymond are about to be sacrificed by Rosellia to the memory of her dead husband; their deaths are prevented only by the entrance of Crocale with Sebastian and Nicusa. Albert and Aminta are reunited and their marriage is endorsed by Sebastian, who betroths Clarinda to Raymond.

ALBERTO **1594

Lord of Padua in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies. Enters from the hunt with the Duke, Vesuvio, Turqualo, and attendants just after Pertillo's murder. They discover Allenso wandering lost in the woods and he asks them to direct him back to Padua. They then discover the bodies of Pertillo and the first Ruffian, along with the wounded second Ruffian. Alberto exits with the Duke and his party to pursue Fallerio. At the end of the play, along with the other lords, Alberto brings the disguised Allenso to the Duke and observes as both Allenso and then Fallerio remove their disguises and are ordered hanged by the Duke.

ALBERTO **1599

One of five gentlemen in Piero Sforza's Venetian Court active in Marston's Antonio and Mellida. He first appears in the play's Induction wherein the actors comment upon their parts (though the speech headings identify them only by their character names). Alberto loves Piero's niece, Rossaline, dances and banters playfully with her, but is not wealthy enough to win her hand. Antonio carries Piero's demand to the Genoan ambassador for the heads of the just defeated Duke of Genoa, Andrugio, and his son, Antonio. Later, Alberto announces to the court the arrival of the princes of Florence and Milan.
Alberto is a gentleman of the Venetian court in Marston's Antonio's Revenge. He first appears on stage with Antonio and a group of gentlemen. He teases Matzagente for having a red face. Antonio rebukes Alberto for trying to calm the young man after hearing his father had died and his fiancée was an accused adulteress. Alberto is further surprised when Pandulfo stoically laughs at the site of his dead son. Alberto and Lucio are brushed off by Antonio when they try to console the young gentleman over the death of his father and the alleged infidelity of Mellida. Alberto appears later trying to convince Antonio to abandon his insanity act. He is again rebuked. Antonio turns to Alberto to spread the rumor that he has died. Alberto warns Piero that the scourging Nemesis is coming to torment the Duke for his crimes. He plots with Antonio and Pandulpho to kill Piero. In a dumb show, Alberto and Maria pull knives on Piero while Galeatzo informs senators of Piero's crimes. He dresses in the costume of a masque to gain access to a drunken Piero and kill him.

ALBERTO **1620

A Saxon landowner in the anonymous Costly Whore, summoned to the Parliament at Meath, he sides with Frederick to oppose the Duke's dishonorable marriage to the courtesan.

ALBERTO **1626

A proud, warlike Florentine admiral in Fletcher, Ford, Massinger and Webster's The Fair Maid of the Inn. Infuriated by a quarrel between his son Caesario and Mentivole, he demands Mentivole's hand to be cut off as punishment. Although the punishment is never administered, Alberto's demand creates a division between his family and that of Baptista, father of Mentivole. Alberto is then sent to war against the Turks, and is believed to have died at sea. But he was in fact only captured, and having been rescued by Prospero, he arrives back in Florence to discover that Caesario is not really his son. He continues to love Caesario regardless, and together they try to prevent the marriage of Alberto's daughter, Clarissa, to Mentivole. Alberto's reconciliation is made with the Baptista family after the latter's long-lost daughter, Bianca, is found, and marries Caesario.

ALBERTO **1631

In Brome's The Queen's Exchange Alberto was a banished from Kenwalcus's court for speaking against Segebert although Segebert entreated Kenwalcus to forgive him. Alberto lives as a hermit in the woods, praying and caring for the citizens frequently attacked by outlaws. After Segebert is attacked, Alberto nurses him back to life, for which deed Bertha ultimately reverses his banishment.

ALBERTO **1633

A nobleman of Naples in Shirley's The Young Admiral. He accompanies the king and prince Cesario outside of the city to meet the admiral Vittori. Alberto is innocent of counseling the king to banish Vittori, Alphonso, and Cassandra.

ALBERTO **1641

A gentleman in Shirley's The Brothers; friend and creditor to Luys, who promises to arrange a marriage for him with his sister, Jacinta. Don Carlos, Jacinta's father, at first encourages his suit, but soon gives him up in favour of a richer suitor, Don Pedro. Encouraged by Luys, who wants his debts cancelled, Alberto tries to abduct Jacinta on her way to marry Pedro. He finds, however, that her place has been taken by the wealthy widow Estefania, while Jacinta herself has eloped with the man she loves, Francisco. Making the best of his situation, Alberto marries Estefania instead.


A "ghost character" in [?]Wilson's Fair Em, the Miller's Daughter. One of King William's physicians, to whom Moutney says he will go for assistance in wooing Em. No further mention is made of Alberto.


The name of the Merchant in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll. He is in love with Cornelia and a rival to Dodypoll. After Flores is disgraced, the Merchant renounces his interest in Cornelia. Later, the Merchant convinces Dodypoll that Flores has hatched a plot against him in order to make Dodypoll embarrass himself before the Duke. The Merchant is only sometimes referred to as Albertus.


Cologne is Chancellor of Galia and one of the seven Electors of Germany in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. A supporter of Richard's candidature, he was the first who sent for Richard to come to Germany. In Fortune's Revels, Collen draws the lot of cook. He solemnizes the wedding of Edward and Hedewick. He leaves the castle with Richard and turns soldier, putting his small army at Richard's disposal. He is captured along with Richard in the battle, but is vindicated at the end of the play, pronouncing Richard the new Emperor.


Albertus Wallenstein, Duke of Fridland and erstwhile military hero of the Holy Roman Empire in Glapthorne's Albertus Wallenstein. His long and volatile career as a successful general is nearly over when the play begins. He is Bavarian-born, like Tilly, but a generation younger. Together they have defeated the Protestant Danish forces and Wallenstein has been quick to amass lands and titles. Complaints over his ruthless campaigning have led the Emperor to dismiss him, leaving Tilly in command of both the Catholic League and Imperial forces. After Tilly's defeat by the Swedes, Wallenstein is recalled. His second and final breach with the Emperor is the subject of the play, beginning with the Emperor's call for his resignation. Wallenstein (echoing Coriolanus) is bitterly outraged at what he takes to be the Emperor's ingratitude for his outstanding service-record. (The Emperor, conversely, believes him to be the ingrate, and traitor.) His truly loyal followers are Kintzki, Tertzki and Illawe but he believes the outspoken Scot, Lesle, to be his best friend for advising defiance against the Emperor and arguing its legitimacy. He arranges a muster of supporters at Dresden, impressing them with the justice of his grievances against the Emperor. His wins the support, particularly, of the Elector of Saxon-Waymar, whose daughter, Emilia, is betrothed to Wallenstein's son, Fredericke, to seal their fathers' alliance. The delay in the wedding, mutually agreed on by the young couple, angers Wallenstein: he insists that war should take priority over love as it always has for him, denouncing Fredericke as degenerate and effeminate. Walllenstein's Duchess intervenes gently, but the arrival of the happy fiancés to appease him renders her contribution superfluous. He warns Gordon to return to Egers and prepare for the royal wedding five days hence. He is next outraged by the news of his son Albertus's proposed marriage to Isabella, which he feels would dishonour his entire family. He ignores his Duchess's appeal for moderation and understanding. A huge quarrel between father and son ensues. Wallenstein so deplores the proposed match that, failing to talk his son out of his affection, he decrees that Albertus may wed and bed Isabella if he murders her after the wedding night to wipe out the disgrace. Albertus is appalled at the suggestion that a single night in bed will exhaust his interest in Isabella and he denounces his father as a cruel tyrant. Furious at having his authority challenged, Wallenstein hastily condemns Isabella to death without trial as soon as his Duchess accuses her of stealing a jewel. Albertus tries to prevent the execution and Wallenstein kills his own son as they quarrel further. Like Titus Andronicus, he mourns the loss of his defiant son's potential, but places the family honour above fatherly love. After killing his son, Wallenstein breaks down, suffering melancholy and insomnia and fears he is going mad. His Page soothes him with music. Wallenstein then mistakes the Page for his son's ghost and stabs him too, declaring that his act is not murder, but justice for daring to disturb his rest. His Duchess tells him that she has found the missing jewel. Her grief over the death of the innocent Isabella moves Wallenstein to horrific premonitions of disaster, dispelled by the arrival of the welcoming-committee of Egers. After speeches and copious toasts, Wallenstein excuses himself to rest. In his absence, his allies are murdered by Lesle's Soldiers. Alone and oblivious, in a final soliloquy Wallenstein sees the ghosts of Albertus and Isabella and broods on death. His meditation on his sins and regrets is interrupted by the plotters, Lesle, Gordon and Butler, who stab him. He dies praying forgiveness, not for his ambition, but his cruelty.


Younger son and namesake to the elder Albertus Wallenstein in Glapthorne's Albertus Wallenstein. He is serving in his father's army and is in love with his mother's Gentlewoman, Isabella. He is angered at his friend Newman's advice to concentrate on sex rather than romantic courtship. At first he pursues Isabella, trying to force her to have an illicit affair. He is persuaded by her virtuous and forthright objections to propose honorable marriage to her. He convinces her that her low social status will not prevent their happiness and is prepared to overcome his father's anger at his choice of bride. His brother Fredericke first discovers his lust has turned to honest love and resents the disgrace the marriage would cause for the family. They fight, and Albertus is wounded before they are forced apart by Wallenstein's lords. A second ferocious quarrel takes place between Albertus and his father, the son's defiance being every bit equal to the father's indignation. In turn, Wallenstein so deplores the proposed match that, failing to talk his son out of his affection, he decrees that Albertus may wed and bed Isabella if he murders her after the wedding night to wipe out the disgrace. Albertus is appalled at the suggestion that a single night together will exhaust his interest in Isabella: he denounces his father as a cruel tyrant. When his mother accuses Isabella of stealing a jewel he tries to save her from hanging and is killed by his father in their further quarrel. His father is later haunted by his ghost and that of Isabella.


Albina is Gotharius' long-suffering and faithful wife in Shirley's The Politician. Though despised and mistrusted by Gotharius, Albina yet defends her husband, holding a crowd of rebels at bay while Gotharius escapes, and then deciding that she, too, must die when she discovers her husband is dead.


Does not recognize Alphonsus in Greene's Alphonsus, King of Arragon and mistakenly taunts him, assuming he is a lowly villain. Once he realizes his mistake, he helps Alphonsus enter the service of Belinus, King of Naples, who is fighting the current king of Arragon. After Alphonsus' betrayal of Belinus, Albinius sides with Alphonsus, who in turn rescues him from an angry Belinus. Eventually made king of Arragon by Alphonsus.


Albinovanus is a supporter of Marius in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. He is mentioned in a letter by Cinna to Young Marius, which says that Albinovanus will shortly arrive to visit Young Marius. He is with Young Marius when Marius is discovered near the Numidian mountains, and is the one who tells Marius that their side is now at an advantage and they only need Marius to return to Rome.


A "ghost character" in the Anonymous Locrine, father of a race of giants whose crew (lead by Gogmagog) Brutus defeated.


A "ghost character" in Quarles' The Virgin Widow, whose urine is brought to Artesio for analysis.

ALBIUS **1588

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Timon of Athens. A former lover of Blatt. Blatt rejected him because he was beardless.

ALBIUS **1601

Albius is a jeweler in Rome in Jonson's Poetaster. He facilitates an encounter between Julia and Ovid in his house. Albius welcomes Crispinus at his house. Chloë enters, showing contempt for her husband, while he showers her with compliments and sweet talk. Albius exits, letting Crispinus observe Chloë, because the jeweler had commissioned a poem about his wife. Albius re-enters several times, and finally announces the arrival of important guests. Ovid, Cornelius Gallus, Tibullus, Propertius, Hermogenes, Julia, and Plautia enter, apparently visiting to congratulate the host on the good report they have of him. Albius soon makes himself scarce, calling his wife out on some household pretext. Albius re-enters to invite the guests to the banquet. When his guests depart for the banquet hall, Albius remains to praise his social life and the benefits of having fine guests and a refined wife. At his house, Albius enters introducing Crispinus and Demetrius, followed by Tucca, to the assembly of poets. Crispinus sings a love ditty before the poets and Albius says proudly that the song is dedicated to his wife. Albius shows Gallus the written text, and thus the poets notice that the entire poem was plagiarized from Horace. Albius exits with the poets' party to the carnival at court. Disguised as Vulcan, Albius enters an apartment in the Palace together with the entire party of poets and their ladies, each characteristically dressed as gods and goddesses. All the masks play their assigned roles. When the angry Caesar enters and interrupts the revelry, Albius and his wife adopt a humble attitude. Albius explains that he is a citizen and a jeweler and exits with Chloë.


Captain Albo is an Irish pimp in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel who is harangued by his employees, Meg and Priss, for failing to defend them from brutish customers. At this point, Chough and Trimtram appear and decide to practice their 'roaring' techniques on Albo. Albo demands that they draw arms. Chough and Trimtram respond by farting at him, and Albo is thus overpowered. The whores are delighted, and Captain Albo vows to learn to roar so that he can defend them in the future.


Albon is a Roman lord whose success in the purge of Christians wins him the stewardship of Great Britain in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. However, he is converted to Christianity by Amphiabel, and thereafter demands an end to the persecutions. Albon is arrested by the Roman authorities and endures torture before being executed. At the end of the play he is renamed Saint Albon, and a monastery is built in his honour.

ALBUAS **1632

Only mentioned in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. Demetrius, disguised as an astrologer, rattles off a list of "the learned Cabalists and all the Chaldees." The list includes Asla, Baruch, Abohali, Caucaph, Toz, Arcaphan, Albuas, Gasar, Hali, Hippocras, Lencuo, Ben, Benesaphan, and Albubetes.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. Demetrius, disguised as an astrologer, rattles off a list of "the learned Cabalists and all the Chaldees." The list includes Asla, Baruch, Abohali, Caucaph, Toz, Arcaphan, Albuas, Gasar, Hali, Hippocras, Lencuo, Ben, Benesaphan, and Albubetes.


A cozening Astrologer in Tomkis’ Albumazar. He is a fraud set on gulling Pandolfo of his wealth with the help of his assistant thieves Ronca, Harpax, and Furbo. He tells Pandolfo that he has read in the stars that Antonio is dead. He promises to use “Praestigiatory" to turn a servant into the very likeness of Antonio, so he might return and perform his promise to marry Fulvia to Pandolfo. He instructs Pandolfo to load a room in his house with all manner of rich hangings, plate, jewels, and food (three thousand pounds in sum) for the ceremony of transformation. When Pandolfo finds all his goods gone indeed, he cries out for constables until Albumazar scolds him, saying he has placed everything safely in a closet with the transforming Trincalo. He tells Trincalo that he looks like Antonio for a day but must avoid all looking glasses or the spell will disolve. Once Pandolfo’s goods are collected, Ronca, Harpax, and Furbo turn on Albumazar and refuse him a share, taunting him with his own counsels, and the astrologer vows to be revenged upon them. Offstage, he goes to Lelio and Cricca and tells them where they may arrest Ronca, Harpax, and Furbo. Pandolfo pardons him.

ALCADE **1599

Alcade is the King of Africa in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder. Eusanius and Sophos live in his court. Alcade gives an army to Sophos to help him take the Thracian throne from Pheander. Moor 1 suggests to Alcade that Eusanius is planning to elope with Princess Lillia Guida. Alcade banishes Eusanius from Africa, and plans to marry Lillia Guida to Sophos. Later, he travels to Thrace, arriving in time to assist Sicilia's war against Pheander, but he is captured by Eusanius in the second battle. Alcade agrees to settle the war by single combat between Radagon and Eusanius, and when all the disguised characters have revealed their identities, he allows Lillia Guida to marry Eusanius.

ALCADE **1610

Alcade is a bashaw (pasha) in service to Mullisheg, King of Morocco and Fez in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part One. He encourages the King to tax, and if necessary to confiscate, the ships and the goods of the Europeans who have enriched themselves by trade along the Barbary Coast.
Although he is charged to watch Spencer in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part Two, he allows the Englishman outside the gate, allegedly to seek a prostitute. Alcade assumes that, by keeping Spencer out of the way while Mullisheg is supposedly having a dalliance with Bess, the King will be grateful.


A Spanish courtier, the duke of Medina's son in the Anonymous First Part of Jeronimo. Lorenzo knows that Alcario loves Belimperia, and he tells him to wear Andrea's clothes in order to impersonate Andrea in front of his sister while Andrea is still in Portugal. Alcario does this, and Lorenzo then speaks to him as if he were Andrea, who had just returned from Portugal. Belimperia is duped, takes Alcario for her beloved Andrea, talks to him and kisses him goodbye. Lazarotto sees this and kills Alcario, mistaking him for Andrea.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Alcesimarchus is a character in Plautus's comedy Cistellaria. Cordatus mentions Plautus when he speaks of the device of inserting elements of violence in the comedy. After the episode of Sordido's suicide attempt, Cordatus gives the example of Plautus' comedy Cistellaria, in which such a violent incident happens. The character, Alcesimarchus, tries to commit suicide and is saved by Selenium and the Bawd. Cordatus considers the example from Plautus of the highest authority.


Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Albumazar’s magical cant includes this allusion.


This character is clearly a charlatan and speaks in alchemical jargon in Lyly's Gallathea. His servant is Peter; later, he is served by Rafe.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Alcibiades (450–404 BC) was raised by the statesman Pericles. As a youth, he seemed inspired by the integrity of Socrates, but soon he turned away from his example to pursue his personal goals. When Socrates was tried and convicted for corrupting the young men of Athens, it is possible that the example of Alcibiades was on the minds of the judges. Intelligent, handsome, and charming, Alcibiades was an outstanding politician and a brilliant general. Yet, he was motivated entirely by personal ambition and his loyalties were determined by expediency. Lupus confirms Ovid Senior's advice to his son that he should study law instead of writing poetry. Lupus looks at the benefits of the lawyers' profession from the politicians' side, saying that, as a lawyer, Ovid could enjoy the power of doing right and wrong at his pleasure. Lupus calls Ovid "my pretty Alcibiades," an allusion to the potentially manipulative political power wielded by a young man with no scruples.


An Athenian general in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens, one of Timon's best friends. He is present at Timon's reception and banquet in the first act, but not at the second banquet. He is banished by the Athenian senate when he pleads too vehemently for the life of one of his soldiers or friends whom the senate has sentenced to death. In his anger he decides to revenge both Timon and himself and raises an army against Athens. During his march towards Athens he visits Timon in his cave, accompanied by Phrynia and Timandra. Timon seems at first not to recognize him, but when he hears that Alcibiades is at war with Athens he gives him gold. Later Alcibiades sends a courier with a letter to Timon, asking him to join him in his march against Athens, but the courier arrives too late and finds only Timon's grave. At the end of the play, Alcibiades and his army have reached Athens, and the senators surrender. Timon's and Alcibiades' enemies will have to fall. A messenger (probably the courier who had been sent to Timon) then comes to inform Alcibiades that Timon has died.


Name taken by Aristocrates in May's Cleopatra. He takes the name in his attempt to help Antonius, who, temporarily beside himself after his defeat at Actium, insists that he is no longer Antonius but Timon, the famous Athenian misanthrope. (Alcibiades was a famously charismatic and destructive Athenian general, said to have been favoured by Timon for the damage he could do the Athenian people.)


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens. A soldier who has been arrested for murder and should be executed. Alcibiades pleads for his friend, but the senators remain firm. When Alcibiades insists, he is banished from Athens.


Mentioned only once by name in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1. He is the Syrian king betrothed to Zenocrate. It is to him she is traveling from Media when Tamburlaine captures her and her retinue. He is usually referred to as THE KING of ARABIA.


Alternative name for Hercules in Heywood's The Silver Age.
Alcides is a surname applied to Hercules in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age.
Only mentioned in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. Doucebella says that Alcides would be deemed a dwarf compared to Latro.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen. Alcides is another name for Hercules. He does not appear in the play but is described by Theseus as an individual with whom Theseus is personally acquainted.
Only mentioned in Salusbury’s Love or Money.
Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Alcides is mentioned by Slightall when, in the haunted Chamber, he faces Anne and tries to identify her "as if she were the Queene grim Pluto stole, / And great Alcides once redeem'd from Hell?" According to Greek mythology, Alcides was the first name of Hercules, until a Pythian priestess first called him by his famous name. She assured him that a deal had been made in Heaven between Zeus and Hera: if he served king Eurystheus, his elder brother, for twelve years, and performed the labors imposed on him, he would become immortal. He is also said to have attempted to rescue Persephone from Hades.


An Egyptian tyrant in Heywood's Brazen Age who succeeds Busiris and fulfills an Oracle.


Alcidon, a friend to Lidian, serves as a second to Lidian in a duel that Lisander stops in Massinger's 1634 Cleander, or Lisander and Calista (a revision of Fletcher's 1623 The Wandering Lovers?). He tells Lisander that Cleander has been murdered and now Caliste must stand trial.


Antharis' son in Wilson's The Swisser. Alcidonus is in love with Selina, the daughter of Clephis, his father's mortal enemy. Antharis is opposed to their relationship, and Alcidonus is afraid of telling him that they are already married. He wants Selina to remain silent about their marriage, too, although her father is less opposed to their love. He dares not speak to her in the presence of his father, but he goes to sing in front of her balcony and makes an appointment with her in the garden grove. When they meet there, they are surprised by Antharis, who comes with a guard looking for quarrelers. Antharis has his guards arrest his son and take him home. He then tells Alcidonus that he is Selina's brother by the same mother. Alcidonus decides to kill himself along with his beloved Selina. They take what they think to be a deadly poison, but Clephis has foreseen their plans and exchanged it against a strong sleeping drug. Antharis sees the couple once again just before they seem to die; he confesses his lie and turns mad.


A robber turned by Castina to an innocent shepherd in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. The play opens with him disguised as a shepherd who has lost his sheep; he is accompanied by the ‘boy’, Alexis, who is guiding him into the shepherd’s valley even though Alcinious plans to rob them and ‘sport’ with the shepherdesses. He is led on by Jarbus and welcomed to Palaemon’s feast celebrating Castina. He offers her a courtly praise and is smitten by her simple answer. He goes to his hidden companions, Autolius and Conto, with a plan to rob and ravish the shepherd revelers. When his wooing of Castina reveals to her his true intent, he threatens to rape her, but he is turned in an instant at her attempt to kill herself rather than face dishonor, and he swears to be worthy of admiration thence. When Alcinous is later seen embracing Castina, Palaemon calls him a ‘smooth-chinned knave’, but the embrace is quickly explained as a chaste celebration of Alcinous’ conversion. When confronted by Autolius and Conto for his betrayal/conversion, Alcinous points out ‘yon miracle of stone’ upon Salisbury field, likely meaning Stonehenge, saying they stand for their tombstones if they should disturb the shepherds. He thereby converts both Autolius and Conto the the shepherd way, has them apologize to Jarbus, and points out that they were his lost sheep all along. After Alexis reveals that ‘he’ is actually Clarinda in disguise, he takes her for his wife.


"A fisher" in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. Alcippus informs Perindus of the victory of Atyches over Malorcha and, later in the play, accompanies Thalander to Olinda's supposed grave. Suspicious of Thalander's intentions, Alcippus decides against "leav[ing]" his friend at Olinda's "temple" alone and chooses to "retire" instead. He re-enters later to find Olinda alive and well, remedies Thalander's disbelief concerning Olinda's existence, and claims that the couple's love "perswades" him "to become a lover." He informs Tyrinthus, who inquires about the well-being of his son and daughter, that Perindus and Olinda are both alive "and now most happy," and summarizes the "triall[s]" of Thalander's and Olinda's relationship at the play's end.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Golden Age. She is mentioned as one of Jupiter's mistresses.
The wife of the Theban hero Amphitrio in Heywood's The Silver Age, she is loved through a three-night night by Jupiter in the form of her husband, and conceives the hero Hercules. When the real Amphitrio returns she mocks him as an imposter, but accepts him back when Jupiter reveals what happened. The jealous Juno takes revenge by preventing Alcmena from giving birth, so that she suffers terrible labor pains for three days. With Galantis' aid the spell is broken, and she gives birth to Hercules and to Amphitrio's son, Ipectetes. The latter is killed by Juno's poisonous snakes, but the former slays them instead, and survives to become a great hero.
Wife of Amphitryo, loved by Jupiter in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter, who comes to her in disguise as her husband while the latter is away leading the Theban forces against the Teleboans. Alcmena is delighted to see her supposed husband, who takes advantage of what he explains is a short holiday from the battlefield by going straight to bed with her –an advantage he maximizes by doubling the length of the night. When the true Amphitryo comes home, he is first hurt and then alarmed by his wife's lack of excitement; he soon realizes that he has been cuckolded, and calls her a "strumpet". Jupiter returns, and complicates the situation still further, cajoling the offended Alcmena back to him and then inviting her to choose the true Amphitryo: she chooses the god, on the ironic grounds that "I knowe you ffor my husband"–the last line she speaks. Finally Jupiter appears "in maiesty" and explains the truth, assuring Amphitryo that his wife has never slept with any mortal except Amphitryo himself, and that he, Jupiter, will always be available to listen to their prayers. A brief, final chorus from Homer assures us that Alcmena will survive the plots against her devised by the jealous goddess Juno. [Heywood took this story from the comedy by the Roman playwright Plautus.]
Only mentioned in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Honorea is compared in beauty to Alcmena, whom Jupiter loved.

ALCON **1590

A poor man married to Samia in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England, Alcon is the father of Radagon and Clesiphon. When he misses the deadline for a loan repayment to the Usurer and cannot redeem the family cow, Alcon joins with the similarly served young gentleman Thrasibulus in suing for justice, but they are thwarted by the corrupt Judge and Lawyer. Alcon later begs his older son Radagon for some relief, but the proud young man rejects him. Reduced to becoming a cutpurse to support himself and his family, Alcon receives restitution from the Usurer after the preaching of Jonas leads to the latter's conversion.

ALCON **1605

Alcon is an exploitative doctor in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. He has come to Arcadia in search of trade. He is a confederate of the lawyer Lincus, the seducer Colax, the bawd Techne and the "disguiser of religion" Pistophoenax. Alcon's trade is thriving; the Arcadians "will be sick for company, they are so kind", and he has treated Phillis, Doris and Melina by giving them a mere placebo. He has introduced tobacco to Arcadia, even though he knows that it is harmful. Daphne, who is torn between Menalcas and Colax, consults Alcon about her health and asks him to give her the same medicine that he gave to Phillis; Alcon disturbs her by talking about "Colaxical hot humours" and "Menalchian Cordials". Alcon comes before Ergistus and Meliboeus, together with his fellow projectors. When the outsiders are banished, Alcon is unrepentant, telling Lincus that they must look for new targets in another city.

ALCON **1634

"An ancient shepherd" and Daphnis's friend in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday, Alcon advises the rich shepherd that, in order to win the love of Nerina, he must first win the approval of her father and then "blind" her with gifts such as the "looking-glass" which he provides and which he claims will make Daphnis "happy." When Nerina accepts the mirror and is, shortly after, pronounced dead, Daphnis seeks out Alcon and promises to have his revenge upon him for taking away the life of his sweet Nerina by tricks. Admitting that the mirror was "poison'd" but promising his friend that if Nerina is actually dead he will "pay [his] life for hers," Alcon goes on to explain to Daphnis, in detail, the inner workings of "the glass" and informs his friend that he possesses the restorative necessary to retrieve Nerina from the death-like state which the mirror has produced in her. Accompanying Daphnis to Nerina's burial site Alcon applies his medicine, waits for Nerina to awaken, gives Daphnis advice on love, and leaves him to his fate.


Alcumena is wife to Amphitruo in the anonymous Birthe of Hercules. She is deceived by Iupiter, who goes to her in her husband's shape to lie with her and engender a son. She is misled to such an extent that, when he announces he has to go because he cannot leave his soldiers alone for too long, she urges him to stay. Once she is alone with Thessala, one of her maids, she complains about all the suffering a woman must endure, and explains that the worst is the "absence of her husband." That leads her to compare herself with Penelope, who had also suffered while waiting for her Ulysses. When, shortly afterwards, the real Amphitruo arrives, they argue because, when he complains that he has not been granted the welcome he deserved after having been away from home for such a long time, she insists on the fact that he had been with her the previous night and that he had only departed that very morning. Having been in the ship, with his men as witnesses, all night, he accuses her of adultery. He even announces he will go back to his ship and bring her cousin Naucrates as a witness of the fact that he is telling the truth. Feeling deeply insulted by her husband's words, Alcumena decides not to stay with him any longer, unless he apologizes. Once her husband has gone, Iupiter returns, in the shape of Amphitruo. She expresses her wish to leave him, but he replies that she will not have to do it because he will be the one to part, and he will leave everything to her. Surprised at this sudden change, she decides to forgive him, and promises to wait for his return. She is further reassured when she hears Sosia support his master's claim that he had just called her "unfaithful" in jest. At the end of the play, she gives birth to two sons, one by her husband and another (Hercules) by Iupiter, and the god reveals the truth and assumes his fault in the misunderstandings provoked. According to Greek mythology, Alcmena was daughter to Electryon and Anaxo, granddaughter to Perseus, and wife to her cousin and uncle Amphitryon, king of Thebes. She was seduced by Zeus, who had taken the shape of her husband, and she gave birth to two sons, Iphicles and Heracles (Hercules), and when Tiresias revealed to Amphitryon that Zeus was the father of the latter, he never again slept with his wife for fear of the god's jealousy.


Aldana is the father of Petrocella in Heywood's A Challenge for Beauty. He hopes that she will marry Valladaura, and is pleased when she does. He is then furious to learn that Petrocella has dishonored him by cuckolding Valladaura. But when the truth emerges, he is delighted to find "my daughter chaste, my house honest, and noble Ferrars my son-in-law."


The Alderman of Foy (Fowey in Cornwall) in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part One learns of the Mayor of Foy's interest in a marriage between Bess and the Mayor's son, and he volunteers to broach the subject to her. When Goodlack later inquires about Bess's character, both he and the Mayor attest to the high quality of her reputation and the virtue everyone notices in her.


Non-speaking aldermen of Nottingham who appear in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker with the Mayor to welcome Queen Elizabeth. There are at least two of them, for according to the Mayor, one is a shoemaker, the other a fellmonger.


“Ghost characters" in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. Grobians. They are on the list of invitees Oyestus is sent to cry into the Grobian feast.


"A Danish Captaine" and part of the Queen's "Counsell" in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Aldred has captured Guiderius in battle with the assistance of a "multitude" and helps to present the prisoners (Arviragus and Guiderius) to Cartandes. He chides Oswald for speaking against "Arviragus government" and accuses him of hoping to "one day [. . .] get the Queene and Kingdome for himselfe" which "thus crost, begets" his "murmurings against the Queen and Arviragus." Later in the play Aldred accompanies Cartandes to the "chamber" where Arviragus and the disguised Philicia are sleeping, prepares "a Cup and a Dagger" for the Queen's visit to the imprisoned Philicia and, at the play's end, presents Eugenius, Artemia, and Guimantes (who have "fled out of the City" and "desire to be admitted to [Cartandes's] presence") to the Queen.


One of the three furies who, in the fourth act dumb show, rise from under the stage driving before her kings and queens who have murdered their children in Sackville and Norton's Gorboduc.
One of the Three Furies appearing in the First Dumb Show of Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur. Only she is named, and named only later in the play. Her name means "Never Ceasing." The other two Furies (or Erinys) are Megaira ("Grudger") and Tisiphone ("Avenger of Blood"). See under "Furies."
The non-speaking furies in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar–Alecto, Megaera, and Tysiphone–are summoned by Nemesis to cry, conspire, complain and moan until Abdelmunen's grieved ghost gains revenge for his murder.
A fury in Wilmot's Tancred and Gismunda. She arises from hell with Megaera and Tisiphone, and the three of them dance. Alecto, along with Tisiphone, is sent back to hell by Megaera.


The disguise assumed by Bidstand in Randolph's(?) The Drinking Academy; he pretends to be a ballad seller to distract Simple, so that Nimmer and Shirke can steal the letters he carries from Pecunia to Knowlittle.

ALEMAN **1599

Inadvertently reveals to Harpool in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle that Sir John, the Parson of Wrotham, meets with a prostitute in his lodging.


A "ghost character" in ?Greene's Selimus I. Eldest son of Bajazet, killed by Ottrante while fighting against Ramurchan and his forces.

ALENÇON **1592

The Duke of Alençon is impressed by the English army's courage in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI. He advises Charles to treat for terms with the English. Historically, he was John, the second Duke of Alençon.

ALENÇON **1599

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry V. The Duke of Alençon is among the French nobles killed in the battle of Agincourt. Alençon kills the Duke of York (offstage). Henry defeats Alençon himself and took his glove (again, offstage). It is this glove that he later gives to Fluellen.


A courtier in Davenant's The Fair Favorite. He advises the King about his personal and political affairs and explains the court situation to Thorello. He also discovers the body of Amadore after his duel with Oramont, saves his life, and keeps his continued existence a secret at the request of the Queen.


Alerzo is a Spanish colonel in Rawlins's The Rebellion. Alerzo travels regularly with Fulgentio and Pandolpho. Alerzo praises Antonio for bravery and is accused by the Count of being a flatterer. When Antonio is accused of treason by the Governor and Machvile, Alerzo protests Antonio's innocence. Alerzo announces that Machvile must succeed the Governor. When Sebastian (disguised as Giovanno) promises to defeat Raymond, Alerzo is skeptical and attacks Sebastian for his impudence. Even after Sebastian defeats Raymond, Alerzo shows him disrespect. Alerzo returns to the stage near the conclusion to witness Machvile and Raymond's demises.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's The Alchemist. The ale-wife is one of Subtle's clients. When Face, Subtle, and Dol Common make an inventory of the goods cheated from the dupes, Subtle comments the money is from the alewife.

ALE–WIVES **1636

“Ghost characters" in Glapthorne’s Hollander. They complained of the training in Islington because the report of muskets made their pies and custards quake in the oven.


A "ghost character" in Armin's The Two Maids of More–Clacke. She is an old woman who brought up John. When she dies, she left John in a hospital.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's Volpone. A detractor of Scoto of Mantua; Volpone mentions him while disguised as Scoto.


Formerly Cardinal Roderigo Borgia in Barnes's The Devil's Charter, Pope Alexander VI is as Lodowick describes him in II,i., "A Pope by nature full of fraud and pride / Ambitious, avaricious, shameless, devilish." Indeed, Alexander makes a Faustian bargain with the Devil in order to attain worldly power for himself and his sons. In a dumb-show before the first act, a pope resembling Alexander is seen bribing two Cardinals, who then depart the stage. At that point, four Devils in quick succession deliver a parchment that contains the Devil's terms. The pope must surrender his soul to the Devil at the end of eighteen years and eight days and in return he and his sons, Caesar, the Cardinal of Valence and the Duke of Candy, will gain great wealth and, more importantly, great power. After he reads the parchment, the pope signs his name in blood, and the devils descend accompanied by thunder and lightening. The real Pope Alexander's sons are involved in an intense rivalry and the Pope hopes to reconcile them and thereby unite the family in power, Candy agrees, but Caesar only pretends to reconcile with his brother. Alexander is being threatened by King Charles VIII of France who invades Italy and demands Castell Angelo from Alexander. Alexander agrees in order to have time to secure his kingdom with the help of his two sons, but Charles dies suddenly and Alexander's enemies, led by the brothers Lodowick and Ascanio Sforza, join with Ferdinand of Spain in a renewed effort to overthrow the now very powerful Borgias and reclaim the integrity of the Vatican. The truce with Charles brings the two noblemen, Astor and Phillipo Manfredi under Alexander's power. Alexander lusts after the innocent Astor who tries to avoid Alexander's lechery but is ultimately destroyed. Another victim of this truce is the Gemen Ottoman who is to be surrendered to King Charles, but because the king dies before the exchange can take place, he is instead murdered by Caesar. Alexander later learns that Caesar has murdered his brother, Candy and that Lucretia has murdered her husband, Viselli. It is at this point that Alexander begins to recognize the malignancies that he has bred, not only in his children, but in the state as well. However, after he confronts Caesar, he acknowledges that he is achieving his desired goal of consolidated power. Nothing can stop him as long as he has Caesar and he needs Caesar's cutthroat tactics and lack of conscience. Caesar tells Alexander that he will lead the Vatican troops in battle and win more power and riches for the family. Alexander then orders the murder of his daughter, Lucretia. After her gruesome death, he orders the murders of the Manfredi brothers, Astor and Phillipo so that he can have their lands, the Faventines. Finally, after he and Caesar attempt to poison Cardinals Modina and Cornetto, the Devils reappear. They switch the goblets containing the poison and as a result, Alexander and Caesar are poisoned instead. Although Caesar does not die from the poisoning, Alexander's poisoning is fatal. As he dies, the devils appear, gleefully discussing how they will torture Alexander's soul once he's dead, and when the Devil appears, Alexander demands an explanation. It has only been eleven years and his charter states that he should still have seven years to live. But the Devil explains that Alexander has misread the ambiguous Latin. He will not die on the eighth day of the eighteenth year, but the eighth day after the eleventh year and the seventh day. His time is up and the devils drag him, still screaming and protesting, to hell.


Servant to Cressida in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. He describes to Cressida that Hector is apparently angry with Ajax having been bettered by him during that day's battle.


Non-speaking role in The London Prodigal. The torchbearer of the Citizen's Wife.


Servant to the Country-woman, Mercurie's mother in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Coxcomb. He announces the arrival of Mercurie and a woman who turns out to be Viola, the daughter of Andrugio.


A "ghost character" in Markham's Herod and Antipater. Alexander is the deceased husband of Alexandra and the nephew of Hircanus.


The Pope in Goffe's Raging Turk receives the fugitive Zemes courteously, but refuses to aid him against his brother. When Baiazet asks him to murder Zemes, however, he assents in order to avoid war with the Turk, and kills his unsuspecting guest with poison.


Alexander is Bloodhound's prodigal son in William Rowley's A Match at Midnight. He drinks, gambles and associates with the highwaymen. Alexander tricks Tim by pawning a fake diamond ring. He invades the Widow's house along with the other suitors, and she finds him attractive. He makes friends with Ancient Young, and reveals to him that Bloodhound has not sold the Ancient's mortgage; he also helps him to meet with Moll. Alexander persuades the Widow to marry him by threatening her reputation. He hides under her bed and surprises her late at night, and, with the aid of Jarvis, makes her believe that people are coming upstairs to search for a villain. He then starts taking off his clothes, refusing to stop unless she agree to marry. The Widow promises to surprise Bloodhound at their wedding by announcing her marriage to Alexander. But she instead disappoints him by announcing that she will never remarry. Alexander therefore resolves to marry himself to obedience, and become a dutiful son.


Alexander Brett is a captain in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt who first serves with the Dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk, but later takes service with the Duke of Norfolk. In the first phase of his employment, he is ordered to quarter his troops in Cambridge and learns at that place that the people are not sympathetic to Lady Jane Grey or her supporters. With the Duke of Norfolk at Rochester, Brett is ordered to take his five hundred Londoners and lead the attack upon Wyatt's forces, but during his speech encouraging his men to fight bravely, he finds himself admitting that Wyatt's attempt to prevent a marriage between Phillip of Spain and Queen Mary is his cause too and leads all his men over to Wyatt's side. When Wyatt attempts to attack London, however, Brett's troops realize that their fellow citizens remain firmly supportive of Queen Mary, and although Brett grudgingly remains with Wyatt, his London troops quietly steal away.


Alexander Court is an English soldier in Henry's army in Shakespeare's Henry V. On the eve of the battle at Agincourt, when Henry puts on Sir Thomas Erpingham's cloak and wanders among the soldiers incognito, he speaks with Court, Williams, and Bate about his responsibilities in battle and their own.


Alexander de Cypres, also referred to as Alexander de Tripes and Alexander de Toledo in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany, is page to Alphonsus and son of Lorenzo. He is a boy at the start of the play, but Alphonsus makes him a man by giving him a ritual box on the ear. Alphonsus then persuades him that his father was murdered by the seven Electors with the connivance of Isabella and Richard, and Alexander embarks on a campaign of revenge against them, aided by the circumstances around Fortune's revels, in which he is allotted the role of master of the triumphs. He sends Hans and Jerrick to kill Edward, and he stabs Mentz to death. At Alphonsus' instigation, he deceives Hedewick in a bed-trick, and fathers her child. He entertains hopes of marrying her and is angered when Saxony murders her and the child. At the end of the battle he falsely tells Alphonsus that he has lost, thinking that Alphonsus will kill his two English captives on the spot. But instead Alphonsus confesses to him that it was he who murdered Lorenzo. Alexander ties him to a chair and makes him swear to renounce God. He then kills Alphonsus with his rapier, and attempts to escape, but is recaptured by the surviving Electors. He boasts of his crimes, and is sentenced to be taken away and hung on a Jewish gallows.


Disguise name of Grig Brandwell in the anonymous The Wasp. He takes on this disguise to help Kenwell court the "lusty widow" of "walltamstowe" the Countess Claridon. He is supposedly the captain of the garrison in Gunpowder Alley. Brandwell is not very clear on his disguise name. Once he says he will be "Alexander Han: Dangerfield." Later, he says he is "Hanniball, Cesar Dangerfield" and "a solyor [soldier]-Alexander himself no more."


A Kentish gentleman in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. After five days of hiding following the failure of his rebellion, Jack Cade is hungry enough to risk being caught. He ventures into a garden looking for sustenance, but is captured by the landowner Alexander Iden, who kills him, brings his head to Henry, and is knighted for the deed.


Alexander Lovell is Lady Marlove's Steward in ?Glapthorne's The Lady Mother. He has risen from the trade class into this aristocratic household, where he pursues Lady Marlove's hand in the hope of improving his status. He is pretentious and flowery of speech, and perceived by Thorowgood to be a competitor for the hand of Lady Marlove. He enters reading from an epistle he intends to drop in her way, which offers a humorous and excessively romantic blazon of her attributes. His love is clearly unrequited. While drinking, he elaborates on the degree of love implied by Lady Marlove's glances, asserting that she cannot miss the worthiness of his manly parts, and exclaiming on his own pride and expectation under what he takes to be her obvious interest in him. He passes out, and while he sleeps, Timothy, Grimes, Crackby and Suckett apply plasters and a bloodied handkerchief to his head. When he awakens, Grimes concocts a far-fetched tale that he had seen Lovell emerge in a drunken stupor from a bawdy house where Lovell had beaten the whores, refused to pay them, and torn up the interior. Grimes concludes that Lovell left the whorehouse and assaulted a Captain who beat him roundly, after which Grimes treated the wayward Steward and brought him secretly home to sleep off his intoxication. Lovell encounters the newly jilted Thurston but is unaware of the agonized suitor's presence. Talking to himself, Lovell works out how Grimes has gulled him, while Thurston takes his monologue as a reasonable response to his own questions. When Thurston claps him on the shoulder to break him from his reverie, Lovell starts and runs off, convinced he's seen a ghost. He encounters the distracted lady Marlove after her rejection by Thurston, and is convinced that she, too, has encountered this ghost. He participates in the search for Belisia and Bonville, and is chastised by Lady Marlove for his impertinence, whereupon he takes refuge in the wine cellar. Upon being rejected by Thurston, she sends him to reward her son with a gold ring and a purse for challenging Thurston to a duel, but Lovell keeps them in case the Young Marlove is defeated. Lovell begs Lady Marlove's forgiveness at the end of the play and receives it, then goes off to the cellar to celebrate in private.

A Scot in league with the Irish forces in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. He fights with O'Neal for command of the force; O'Neal eventually retreats.


Described in the dramatis personae as a "creature" of the gallants in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden, Alexander Pimpwell acts as an assistant to them in the early acts of the play. In Act Four he wanders past the prison and happens to discover the escape attempt of Sir Reverence Lamard when Lamard pisses on his head.


Prince Alexander is King Herod's son in Markham's Herod and Antipater. Antipater urges him into a continual defense of his slain mother Marriam, and he is falsely accused of plots against Herod's life. Herod orders him strangled.


Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. Publius Cornelius compares his family’s fame with that of Alexander the Great.
King of Macedonia in the Anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. Before the play begins, Clyomon once fought and won a great contest before Alexander. He defeated Sir Samuel and won the golden shield that has identified him ever since. Alexander is first seen in the play (at iv) returning from his conquests, anachronistically referring to his conquests of Kings and Keysars. In the midst of his glorying in victory, his First Lord counsels against arrogance. This Alexander accepts as good advice. Throughout the play, Clyomon holds Alexander up as an example of a great man and king. Alexander's court is Clyomon's goal throughout most of the play. When the crown of the Isle of Strange Marshes is contested, Alexander declares that a trial of champions should decide the issue. Clamydes is chosen champion of Mustantius, but when no champion rises for the queen, Alexander wisely brokers a compromise: Mustantius will be king until the queen's child is born. Clyomon arrives too late to declare for the queen but begs to be allowed to fight Clamydes for his honor. Alexander wisely discovers a trick that allows Clyomon to reveal his name without having to battle Clamydes. The revelation that the Knight of the Golden Shield is Juliana's brother makes Clamydes his friend.
Only mentioned in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Alexander is one of the heroes of legend and history that Merrygreek claims all women think of when they behold Ralph Roister Doister.
A "ghost character" in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2. A former conqueror of Babylon to whom Tamburlaine compares himself.
Alexander is the legendary King of Macedonia in Lyly's Campaspe. At the start of the play he has just conquered Thebes; among his prisoners is Campaspe, with whom Alexander becomes infatuated. For a while, his unrequited love distracts him from his military projects. Alexander seeks the advice of the Theban philosophers and especially seeks out the reluctant Diogenes. Eventually, he realizes that Campaspe is really in love with the court painter Apelles, who Alexander had commissioned to paint her portrait. Alexander decides to test Apelles by instructing a Page to run onstage in a panic–as if Apelles' studio is on fire. Apelles' desperation to save the portrait of Campaspe above everything else reveals his true feelings. Alexander gives the couple his blessing and returns to his wars.
In the additional chorus that follows Chorus VI in the quarto, though it is headed '2' in Greene's James IV, Alexander the Great enters to weep over the tomb of Cyrus, signifying that even the greatest king will come to dust.
Only mentioned in ?Rastell's Calisto and Melebea. Sempronio says the conqueror of the world is a more truly heroic person than one who merely conquers a woman. Later, Celestina compares Calisto to him.
Only mentioned in Shakespeare's Henry V. Fluellen makes a lengthy comparison between King Henry and Alexander, whom Fluellen calls "Alexander the pig" in his comic Welsh accent.
Alexander is the ruler of the Greeks and the conqueror of Persia in Daniel's Philotas. He is suspicious of Philotas, who seems to have been courting personal popularity and to have been speaking against him, and consults Ephestion and Craterus. Craterus advises Alexander to keep a closer guard on himself, and to have Philotas watched; Craterus will persuade Antigona to spy on Philotas for him. Alexander approves of his council, but is worried about the power of Philotas's family and friends; he nonetheless refers the business to Craterus. Metron brings Cebalinus before Alexander to tell him about the conspiracy of Dymnus and others. Alexander accuses Cebalinus of delaying, but Cebalinus tells him that the delay was due to Philotas, whom he first told about the conspiracy. Alexander orders that Dymnus and Philotas should be brought before him. Dymnus is brought on stage, but is already dying from a self-inflicted wound. Philotas defends himself by claiming that he thought the conspiracy was a 'rumour vain', since the accused included some of Alexander's most loyal servants. Alexander forgives Philotas and appears to believe his sincerity, but Craterus claims that Philotas is still dangerous and Perdiccas states that Philotas must have been involved in the conspiracy or he would have brought it to light. Alexander feasts with Philotas, but, as Attaras and Sostratus describe, after Philotas's departure, Craterus falls to his knees and begs Alexander to take action against Philotas. As a result, Alexander has Philotas arrested. Before the soldiers, Alexander accuses Philotas and Parmenio of involvement with the conspiracy, taking as his proof a letter from Parmenio to Philotas. Alexander removes himself while Philotas makes his defence. Philotas's defence is ignored by the assembled lords and soldiers, and Alexander finally dismisses the court. Polidamus, a supporter of Parmenio, reveals in conversation with Sostratus that he was seized the previous night and brought into the presence of Alexander, who ordered him to assassinate Parmenio. According to the Nuntius, Philotas is tortured under Alexander's orders, and eventually confesses involvement in the plot. When Philotas will say no more, he and Demetrius are stoned to death. All those who were accused by Dymnus are to be tortured and all those allied with them will also die.
Only mentioned in the Anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. The braggart Lazarillo tells Blurt that he will pass through the world like "Alexander Magnus" did, by conquering it. Not having heard of Alexander the Great, the dull constable understands that Lazarillo is a relative of Alexander of St. Magnus. Considering the Spaniard an important person, whose identity must be kept confidential for political reasons, Blurt invites Lazarillo to stay in his house.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Alexander the Great was the Macedonian conqueror who built an empire extending to the Euphrates river. After his death, his empire was divided between his generals. Dol Common disguised as the "mad" lady pretends to have fallen into a nonsensical fit of talking. Her gibberish incorporates scattered phrases from Hugh Broughton's Concent of Scriptures. Among other things, she speaks about something that happened after Alexander's death, a fragment probably taken from the historical section referring to the state of the empire after Alexander's death.
Only mentioned in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. The land of Alexander the Great had been divided equally among the kings Antigonus, Seleucus, Lysimachus, and Ptolomie.
Only mentioned in ?Brewer's The Country Girl. Historical king of Macedonia and one of the greatest generals in history. He conquered much of what was then civilized world. Alexander brought Greek ideas and the Greek way of doing things to all the countries he conquered. The great general and king made possible the broadly developed culture of the Hellenistic Age.
The Macedonian leader Alexander the Great appears in the second masque that Lala Schahin presents to Amurath in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. The hope is that, when Amurath sees Alexander reject the fleshly pleasures that the captain Philoxenus offers to him (chiefly, the Wife of Darius and a troop of "Ganimedes"), he will similarly reject the charms of his Greek mistress Eumorphe and return to martial pursuits.
Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Lingua. When Tactus puts on Lingua’s robe and crown, he imagines himself a Caesar or Alexander.
Only mentioned in Rowley’s When You See Me. Wolsey compares himself to the great general.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Pathomachia. With the dissolution of the Affections and the fall of Love and Hatred, Malice opines that, as with Alexander’s death, their fifteen generals will carve up the empire into four parts to be ruled over by Hope, Joy, Fear, and Grief. Pride boasts of how he aided him. Later, Malice calls Pride his Alexander.
Only mentioned in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. Conto boasts that if the cart boy were Alexander himself, he would not be spared.
Only mentioned in Mayne’s Amorous War. Artops, still trying to seduce the “Amazons" claims that breeding their commanders to the Bithynian commanders (meaning himself and his comrades) will produce a race of Alexanders. Alexander is mentioned several other times to similar effect.


A non-speaking character in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. The Spirit of Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.E.), described in the play as "Emperor Alexander," is conjured up by Faustus at the German Emperor's request. In the A-text, Alexander merely appears, but in the B-text, Alexander fights the Spirit of Darius, kills him, and places Darius' crown on Alexander's own Paramour's head.


Main character, though mute, of one of the five dumb shows Jupiter orders which features those slain by the machinations of Venus and Fortune in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Pathomachia. Pride boasts of how he aided him amongst the Christians and infinite other authors of heresies and schisms.


Father of Sebastian Wengrave in Middleton and Dekker's Moll Cutpurse, The Roaring Girl. When Sir Alexander had a disagreement with Sir Guy Fitzallard, he forbade his son from marrying Mary Fitzallard. This causes Sebastian to devise a plan to force his father into agreeing to the wedding. He pretends that he wants to marry Moll Cutpurse instead, and because Moll is so undesirable, Sir Alexander will be relieved when Sebastian weds Mary instead. Sir Alexander is duly horrified at the prospect of his son marrying Moll, and gathers his friends Sir Adam Appleton, Sir Davy Dapper and the gallants in his parlor to lament his son's behavior. He hires Ralph Trapdoor to spy on Moll and to entrap her, and when Trapdoor tells him that Moll will meet with Sebastian in Sir Alexander's chamber, he leaves out valuables to tempt her into stealing them in order that he might have her arrested and sent to prison. When Moll fails to take the bait, Sir Alexander decides to give her money, intending later to claim that she stole it; she later returns the money to him. In the end, Sir Alexander is reconciled with Sir Guy, and, when Sebastian and Mary do wed, Sir Alexander is happy to take her as his daughter-in-law.


Alexandra is the only surviving child of the Assyrian general, Gobrias, in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus. Captured by Antiochus in a surprise attack on her father's castle, she changes clothing with her page Libanio, and, so disguised, bears to her father a letter from Antiochus offering to exchange her life for Gobrias' return to Antiochus' service. She arrives safely, but is anxious about Libanio and asks Cyrus to rescue him. Libanio, however, escapes on his own and they are reunited. By a kind of lottery, she is married to Histaspis.


Alexandra is the mother of Queen Marriam and the sister of Aristobulus the Elder, High Priest of Judah in Markham's Herod and Antipater. She and her brother are caught attempting to flee Herod's court hiding in trunks. Although both are forgiven, Aristobulus the Elder is drowned in a swimming contest, and Alexandra dies when she is made to drink poison that Antipater had intended for Herod. She dies recognizing her prior error in believing her daughter Marriam had been unfaithful to the king.


Portuguese nobleman, Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. He is falsely accused of killing Lorenzo, son to the Viceroy of Portugal, and using the battle with Spain to cover his treachery. His accuser, Villupo, is discovered in the lie and sent off to execution.


A Portuguese Lord, friend of Balthazar's in the Anonymous First Part of Jeronimo. Before it comes to the battle, the two parties attack each other verbally. Then they decide who is going to fight whom. Alexandro should fight with Lorenzo, but in the end he kills Rogero.


Alexas attends on Cleopatra in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. He brings in the Soothsayer to amuse both Cleopatra and her maids. He reports on Antony's departure for Rome, stating that his last thoughts are of Cleopatra. Later, when Cleopatra has beaten the Messenger that reported Antony married, Alexas excuses his fear, saying even Herod would only look on Cleopatra when she was happy. Although he appears loyal to Cleopatra all the time he is on stage, Enobarbas reports that he eventually revolted and persuaded Herod to join Caesar, and that Alexas' reward for this was to be hanged.


Alexio is one of Montalto's cohorts and a court attendant in Shirley's Royal Master. He works with Aloisio and Guido in carrying out Montalto's scurrilous plots, and he reaps the reward of banishment at the play's end.


Alexis is a shepherd in Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess. In the past he had wooed Amoret, sending her lambs and doves, but now he is the ardent wooer of Cloë. He goes to the wood to meet her and is injured by the Sullen Shepherd who challenges him for Cloë's love. The Satyr rescues Alexis and takes him to Clorin to be healed. He cannot, however, be healed until his thoughts are chaste, and his wounds reopen when Cloë is present. Alexis finally conquers his desire and is healed. He returns to the village with the other shepherds.


The young Acadian Alexis was engaged to Silvia, in a union arranged by her father, Medorus in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. Two years after her disappearance and apparent death, he is engaged to marry Galatea. On the day of his marriage, the disguised Silvia tells him the story Sulia and Syrtis, which is actually that of Silvia and Thyrsis. He does not get the point, and recognizes her only after the jealous Montanus has stabbed her, thinking that she is Clorindo.


Son of the shepherd Lisippus in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort; his suit for Gisbert's daughter Urania is frustrated when the shepherd installs Lucius (disguised as Lisander) his heir and husband to Urania. He subsequently rescues Adeleizia when she is shipwrecked off Arcadia and Oswell attempts to rape her.


The first of four Shepherds in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess who plan a country entertainment for Diocles. They are Alexis, Egon, Ladon, and Thirsis.


Rival to his best friend, Damon, for Laurinda's love in Randolph's Amyntas. Unlike Damon, he is innocent of spurning any other woman in his single-minded pursuit of Laurinda. Their courtship tactics are identical, both pleading together for her favor and thwarted by her riddling replies. They agree jointly to press her to a decision; while waiting Alexis prefers to hunt. He stubbornly rejects her advice to seek another love and, like Damon, grows more impatient for her to decide between them. They resolve to fight each other with spears to decide between themselves who better deserves her, but they consent to her offer to allow an arbitress to choose between them the next day at the temple. Both swear to abide by this final decision, Alexis is content to do so when the arbitress is revealed as Amaryllis. Damon accuses him of conspiracy to rig the result. He despairs when Amaryllis's letter choosing Damon is read out, but is left to claim Laurinda when Damon is sentenced to death. The couple is now impetuous for marriage but take Medorus's advice to wait until the curse on marriage is lifted. Damon's pardon and change of heart in loving Amaryllis removes all remaining bars to their future happiness.


A shepherd searching for a lamb in Tatham's Love Crowns the End. Alexis in the opening scene hears groans and finds Clinton asleep in a grove suffering a nightmare. Alex awakens him and Clinton tells Alexis that he has killed Florida out of jealousy and came to the grove to hide. Alexis urges Clinton do holy works as acts of contrition. Later in the play, Alexis encounters Leon, senior, and tells him to have courage in his search for Gloriana.

ALEXIS **1637

Clarinda disguised in a boy’s apparel in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. Alexis speaks the epilogue, calling for the ladies’ favour, saying that he has succeeded in turning monsters into men.


A swain in Glapthorne's Argalus and Parthenia, seen in the company of his fellows, Clitophon and Strephon, persistently flirting with the nymphs Aminta and Florida and the shepherdess Sapho. He later hints that he has fallen in love in all seriousness with a particular, but unnamed nymph. He objects to Strephon's verses in dispraise of women by protesting that Strephon loves for sport only, and not with his heart. He later accompanies the disguised Parthenia to her uncle's castle upon her return from Corinth. He brings the news of her return to his rustic companions, just after they have collectively made a stand against the misogyny of Clitophon, and persuaded him to a semblance of remorse for his offense. There is a further hint that Alexis's secret love is Aminta. As part of Sapho's plan to expose Strephon's vanity, Alexis and Aminta are paired off for a lovers' dance. Sapho then denounces Strephon to his great fury, but it remains unclear whether the match between the couple is truly made, as the conclusion of the rustic sub-plot is neglected.


See also ALFONZO, ALPHONZO, and related spellings.


Alfonso is an Athenian merchant, father to Kate, Phylema and Emelia in the Anonymous The Taming of a Shrew. He insists that no suitors to his two younger daughters will be allowed unless the eldest, Kate, is married. When Ferando comes to woo Kate, Alfonso is pleased and sets the wedding date. He tries to convince Ferando to change into better clothing for the wedding, and to stay for the wedding feast, but fails in both. He believes the deception of Aurelius and Phylotus, and willingly agrees that Aurelius, whom he believes to be a merchant's son, should marry Phylema. At the wedding celebration, he is convinced that Ferando will lose the bet because Kate will not come when he commands and that Emelia and Phylema will. When the opposite occurs, he is astonished and gives Ferando a hundred pounds, claiming he is owed another dowry since this is clearly another daughter.


The Duke of Saxony and father of Alberdure in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll. Alfonso is betrothed to Katherine, and though he is in love with Hyanthe, he claims he is still obligated to honour his engagement. Nevertheless, when it is demanded of him why he delays the marriage, he continues to make excuses and continues to pursue Hyanthe. Seeing his son mad and Hyanthe apparently in love with him, Alfonso claims that Hyanthe has enchanted Alberdure and orders her imprisoned - all in an effort to force her to change her affections. When Alfonso learns that Alberdure has been driven mad by the drug given to him by Flores, and later believes him to be dead, he vows that he would give up his love for Hyanthe if he could be reunited with his son. Soon after, Alberdure, still alive, appears in court, but Alfonso is angry at having been tricked and insists on marrying Hyanthe despite his previous pledge. When Katherine and Constantine arrive to demand an explanation of Alfonso's behavior, Alfonso changes his position again, insisting he has no love for Hyanthe and that she is his son's.


Alfonso is Rosania's father and witness to Ferdinand and Rosania pledging themselves to each other in his house in Shirley's The Doubtful Heir. When Ferdinand is captured and imprisoned–along with Rosania who is disguised as Alfonso's page Tiberio–Alfonso assumes the disguise of Mendoza in order to be in charge of the prisoners.


An alternative spelling for Alphred in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside.


Younger brother of the Duke in the anonymous Costly Whore, he plots with Hatto to gain powers as regent in Meath that will allow them to enrich themselves at the expense of the poor. He seconds the Duke's tyrannical behavior toward Frederick, Euphrata, and Constantine, but is exposed by Valentia and condemned by her to servitude in the mines.


Edmond Ironside's loyal counselor, general of Edmond's army in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside.


Osrick's daughter, a beautiful lady in the Anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave. King Edgar has heard of her beauty and wants her as his concubine. He sends Ethenwald to court her, but Ethenwald marries her himself and tells the King that she is not fit to be the wife of a king. When Edgar comes to visit them, she has to disguise herself as a kitchen maid, but Edgar discovers her and becomes angry because Ethenwald tried to cheat him.


A Northumbrian Lord in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. Alfride selects Jeffrey as court fool to entertain King Osriick, who has fallen into melancholy. Later he and Edelbert find Anthynus asleep and mistake him for Osriick. While Anthynus is left in Osriick's place at the Northumbrian court, Alfride accompanies the disguised Osriick to Mildred's house.


Non-speaking characters in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. Sergeants of the law who attend Bartolus's breakfast as servants until he serves legal punishments to his guests. The Algazeirs then reveal themselves and stand guard to dissuade the guests from either attacking Bartolus or leaving. This is one of the first uses of the word in English and is a corruption from the Spanish alguazel, a warrant officer.


Master Algebra is a philosopher in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. He, as he reveals to Master Caution, believes "the greatest riches in this world is knowledge." But his interlocutor–a more materialistic man–quickly replies that knowledge does not buy any of the necessary things in life. Master Algebra listens, patiently, to Master Caution's arguments, and then he reprimands him, since he realizes that the latter is a selfish man, as: "the prosperity of others, indeed, hinders your trade." Besides, when Master Caution explains how he uses his money, Master Algebra realizes he is a usurer–and no matter how hard the former tries to hide it, the latter faces him with the truth: he lends money at an interest rate, as if he were a Jew. They go on discussing on the subject, the former defending riches, the latter defending knowledge, until the matter is settled when Master Algebra reproaches Master Caution that he has nothing in his life but money and that he has forgotten how to behave, and he explains that "covetousness is a sluttish, sordid, and a base sin." Then he asks Master Caution where the "rare and learned" he had promised to bring him to see were, but he is told that they will leave that visit for some other day, since Caution needs to deal with them about some business in private. Master Algebra then suspects those "rare and learned men" could be cheaters, and he then determines to find them out when he speaks to them. Thus, later, he goes to visit Master Silence, Doctor Clyster and Bill Bond, explaining that their reputation reached him, and, after some previous ceremony, he tells them he would like to "discuss a little," and to tell them of "some infirmities" he has. He begins by enquiring them about the mysteries of nature, explaining his point of view on the matter, and waiting for their own perspectives on the same issue to be revealed. When the discussion is over, he urges either them to offer him a cure or to admit he is right. Clyster then decides to offer a cure, advising him "not to taste Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, or Kepler, but especially Galileo." Clyster decides not to charge Master Algebra for his advice. Bond, on his part, quickly advises him to abandon his dangerous opinions, because many people were severely punished when expressing similar thoughts. He also lets the Philosopher leave, not charging him for their service. That surprises Master Algebra, who had expected to be cozened by them. Therefore he concludes that they are "ignorant impostors." Afterwards, as he passes by their house again, he sees a lot of furious people–their cozened victims–outside, shouting and threatening them. Then he offers to act as a fair judge between both parties, and he turns out to be fair indeed: he explains to each of the victims they had no disease, but just common trouble to all mankind–thus curing them; then he makes the cozeners give their victims their money back; he tells the victims to pardon the cozeners; and he even offers to share the money the victims gave him, as a reward for his fair services, with the three former cozeners–now new and honest men. Bond, extremely grateful and indebted to the wisdom of that man, asks him to accept some present from him and his two friends, which Master Algrebra does very gladly.


Justice Algripe is an avaricious old man and the intended match for Maria in Fletcher's The Night Walker. He was previously engaged to Alathe, Lurcher's sister, but broke the engagement and refused to return the dowry. When he discovers Hartlove attempting to seduce Maria, he renounces his newly made vows, leading to Maria's apparent death and, once again, he refuses to return the dowry. On his way home he encounters Lurcher and Snap in the cemetery with the body of Maria. Snap pretends to be the ghost of Maria and tells Algripe of the eternal torments he will suffer for his treatment of both Maria and Alathe. Later Lurcher and Snap lure Algripe to a remote area where he is threatened by furies and brought to repentance by Snap, disguised as an angel. He returns Alathe's dowry to Lurcher and Maria's dowry to her mother. Snap reveals "himself" as Alathe; Algripe reproposes, and Alathe accepts the offer.


Alguazier, a dishonest constable in Fletcher, Beaumont, and Massinger's, Love's Cure, works with Pachieco, Metaldi, Mendoza, and Lazarillo to rob and steal. During a street brawl (in which Metaldi, Mendoza, and Lazarillo pickpocket Alvarez, Anastro, Lucio, Bobadilla) Alguazier pretends to arrest the thieves. He, in turn, is arrested and tried by the Assistant, who sentences him to a whipping and an unspecified term in the galleys.


Alibius is the owner of a lunatic asylum in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling. He allows paying visitors to see his "brainsick patients", but he is a jealous husband, and worries about the gallants who admire his young wife, Isabella. To this end he confines Isabella to the madhouse, ordering Lollio to guard her when he is away from home. The plan fails: two gallants disguise themselves as madmen in order to seduce Isabella. Alibius, remaining blissfully ignorant, is hired by Vermandero to present a "madmen's morris" at the wedding of Beatrice-Joanna. He oversees the rehearsal. Then, Isabella tells him about the counterfeit madmen (this event is not dramatized). Alibius and Isabella go to the castle, to inform Vermandero. In the conclusion, Alibius says he has learned his lesson, and will try to become a better husband.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. King Licanor is a character in a comedy by Pedro Calderón de la Barca, entitled El Castillo de Lindabrides. This play deals with the chivalric world and King Licanor is Lindabridis's father. When Amorphus instructs Asotus in the art of being a courtier, Asotus says he will call his fictional lady "my dear Lindabrides." Since Amorphus wants details about this exotic-sounding name, Asotus explains that Lindabrides is the emperor Alicandroe's daughter and the Prince Meridian's sister in The Knight of the Sun. It seems that Asotus collates two chivalric romances, taking the title from one and using the badly distorted characters' names and plot from the other. In Asotus's interpretation, King Licanor becomes emperor Alicandroe.

ALICE **1591

Arden's wife in the Anonymous Arden of Feversham. She hates her husband and loves Mosbie. To that end she plots to murder Arden. She plots with Mosbie. She has one attack of conscience but quickly shrugs it off. After Black Will drags Arden to the ground with a towel during the backgammon game, Alice is one of the three who stabs Arden. The other two are Mosbie and Shakebag. When Alice is brought before the body of her husband, the wounds open and bleed, thus condemning her. Alice is sentenced to be burned to death at Canterbury.


Alice is Katherine's attendant in Shakespeare's Henry V. She shares her rudimentary grasp of English with Katherine, and later serves as her interpreter in the "wooing scene" when Henry has conquered France and is seeking to marry Katherine.

ALICE **1615

Valentine's unmarried sister in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas. She has governed his household in his absence at sea and has helped to foster his ward Cellide's affection for him. Hylas describes her as "forty, and somewhat fulsome," and praises her attractive legs. She helps to nurse Francis when he becomes ill. At the end of the play she is one of the first to recognize Francis as Valentine's long-lost son.


Alice is Vermine's daughter in Brome's The Damoiselle. She is advised by her father to save money because she is a woman and therefore is not socially protected. To get that protection, she is going to inherit all the property of her father, who wants her to marry Sir Amphilus, a knight she does not love. Left alone with Sir Amphilus's servant, she rejects his advice as she knows that Sir Amphilus is a covetous and miserly knight. She thinks that Sir Amphilus wants to marry her because of her money. She asks the Country Servingman to tell Sir Amphilus and her father that she is not going to marry him, but rather she plans on marrying somebody that they do not like. She goes to a brothel in Brainford with her brother, Wat, where she has to disguise herself. There she is protected by her brother and Dryground. At the end, she marries Frank, Brookall's son, and then she restores him with the property that Vermine had taken from his father.


Alice Drowzy is a kitchen-wench in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden whom Flylove has made pregnant. She is described by the other characters as whorish, ugly and greasy. She tries to confront Flylove, but he runs away, and she therefore (at Mr Trimwell's instigation) has him arrested. Flylove, however, is released, and marries his true love Bellaflora: nothing further is heard of Drowzy at the end of the play.


She is the wife of Francis Ford in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. Furious at having discovered that she and Mistress Page have received the same letter from Falstaff, she plots with Margaret Page to "cozen" Falstaff by agreeing to his wooing. First, Falstaff is humiliated in Margaret Page's home (in three laundry basket incidents ending in a wetting in the Thames), next at Ford's (where, disguised as 'Mother Prat," he is beaten by Francis Ford), and finally at Herne's Oak, this time by a myriad of "pinching" fairies.


A "ghost character" in Greene's James IV. Alice, daughter of Goodman Grimshave, is mentioned by Slipper as one of the two possible wives he considers but rejects.


A friar's mistress in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John, Alice is found hiding in a chest when the Bastard comes to look for the monastery's treasure. She tries to save herself by showing him another chest supposed to contain a thousand marks in gold and silver; when opened, however, it reveals not money but Friar Laurence, her lover.


Mistress Alicia is Mr Saleware's light wife in Brome's A Mad Couple. She runs a cloth shop that belongs to her husband, who does not pay too much attention to her. Thus, she decides to make him jealous. In Act One, Sir Thrivewell comes to court her. Alicia does not give up so easily, but she cannot say no to 100 pieces of gold. Betrayed by her suitor, she will avenge his offence soon. When she is courted in Act Two by Bellamy, she gets rid of him by saying that he has to sleep with Lady Thrivewell first. Later, on her husband's arrival, she decides to depart for a business and spend the night out. Alicia is to sleep with Bellamy after he has carried out the task assigned. She is caught red-handed, but she is finally forgiven in the last scene of the play.


Celia's disguise in Shakespeare's As You Like It. Celia adopts the disguise of an inconspicuous young woman and the name Aliena when she leaves her father Duke Frederick's court for the forest of Arden. As Aliena she assists "Ganymede" in "his" love cure for Orlando and falls in love herself with Oliver.


This group of mute characters appears briefly in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids along with the Doctor in Corolus' chambers.


Alinda is the disguise name of young Archas, Archas's youngest son in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject. As Alinda, he is introduced to Olimpia as a foreign princess and becomes Olimpia's lady in waiting. She informs Olimpia that they were both born on the same day. The Duke forms a liking for "her", but Alinda tells Olimpia she will never let her mistress down. When the Tartars threaten Moscow, Alinda advises Olimpia to ask for Archas's help. When Olimpia brings Archas to the Duke, Alinda joins in the others' pleas for help. She appeals to his honor and virtue, and Archas notices that she looks and speaks like his virtuous wife. When Olimpia brings Alinda the Duke's ring, sent as a token of his admiration for Alinda, she refuses it. Olimpia and Alinda exchange their rings. When the Duke makes Alinda a direct proposition of sex, which Olimpia overhears, Alinda says she must ask her mistress about it. Olimpia, angered, orders her to leave her service. Alinda protests her innocence and goes to the Duke to give him back his ring. Seeing the Duke in intimate conversation with Honora and Viola, Alinda warns Archas's daughters (young Archas's sisters) about the Duke's insincerity and blames him for "her" disgrace with Olimpia. Alinda comes to Olimpia's quarters dressed as a young gentleman. Pretending to be Alinda's brother, he makes Olimpia see the injustice she has done Alinda. Finally, Alinda is revealed as Archas's youngest son in female disguise, and the Duke gives him Olimpia's hand in marriage.


Daughter to Alphonso in Fletcher's The Pilgrim. At only fifteen years old, she is widely known for her beauty, modesty and extreme charity to the poor and needy who frequent her door. For reasons that are never altogether clear, her father wishes to marry her to the outlaw Roderigo, but her heart is already given to Pedro, the son of her father's and Roderigo's enemy. She thus resists any marriage plans. When Pedro appears at her door in the guise of a pilgrim, she initially fails to recognize him. Upon doing so, she covertly escapes from her father's house in order to follow him. Disguised as a boy, she is taken into the band of Roderigo's outlaws, and soon has to exercise all her skills of persuasion to convince Roderigo not to kill Pedro when the latter comes into his power. She flees Roderigo's camp to pursue Pedro, but loses him again and arrives in Segonia exhausted and slightly disoriented, with her father, Curio and Seberto, and Juletta all in hot pursuit. Still disguised as a boy, she is taken into the madhouse at Segonia. Here she meets Pedro, who recognizes her; she once again escapes in order to follow him, but (unsurprisingly by this point) loses him again. Her father fails to recognize her when he meets her, taking her for a mere fool; but Juletta knows her when they meet. Together, Alinda and Juletta disguise themselves as old women, tell Pedro that he will soon enjoy Alinda and convince Roderigo to forego his evil ways. Alinda then attends the King's birthday celebrations in the guise of a shepherd, is recognized and forgiven by her father, and is reunited with Pedro, with whom she presumably lives happily ever after.


Daughter to General Sforza in Brome's The Queen and Concubine. She is ambitious to become King Gonzago's mistress and Queen. She is presented as the King's betrothed after Queen Eulalia's trial, and interprets Eulalia's meekness and patience as a manipulative attempt to win the sympathy of the courtiers. She conspires against the banished Eulalia in a number of ways, sending Flavello to see to her death, and grows steadily more frenzied in her demands that the King execute all who might be loyal to Eulalia, including the King's own son, Prince Gonzago. Offstage suffering a fit of rage when King Gonzago reconciles with Petruccio and Sforza, she then travels to Palermo with the King and there heaps spite on Eulalia. Ordered by King Gonzago to make her three ritual requests there rather than in Nicosia, she demands the deaths of Horatio and Lodovico, the disinheritance of Prince Gonzago, and the blinding and banishment of Eulalia. She is punished with banishment herself, and seems near death until Eulalia cures her; Alinda then begs pardon of her father and everyone else, promising to enter a nunnery. (Also spelled Elinda in the play text.)


Alternate spelling of Allenso in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies.


Alisandra, also once spelled Alesandra in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom, is the daughter of Lord Nicoletto Vanni and Dariene. She has been secretly in love with Tibaldo Neri ever since she first saw him at their initial meeting at the court of the Duke of Florence. She only appears again when she attempts to persuade Tibaldo, disguised as a woman, to be her bedfellow for the night. However, Alisandra mistaking the disguised Tibaldo for his sister, Alphonsina, Alisandra confesses her love for him. Tibaldo later tells his sister that he has changed his mind about Dariene and wishes to marry Alisandra instead. Shortly after, Cargo, a servant to Nicoletto Vanni, informs his master that he saw Tibaldo "kiss my yong Mistris." Lord Vanni finally gives his blessings to their marriage.


A "ghost character" in Edwards's Damon and Pithias. Alison is the wife of Grimme the collier. When Grimme explains to Iacke and Wyll the advantages of being a collier over a courtier's life, he states that he is happy to come home every night and sit down in his chair by his wife Alison.


Alison and Custer Codrus, wife and husband in (?)Johnson's Misogonus, are long-time tenants of Philogonus. Alison was midwife at the birth of Philogonus' twins twenty-four years before the action in the play begins, and sent the oldest of the two infants, Eugonus, to live with his uncle, his mother's brother, in Apollonia. Since Philogonus' wife died one week after the twins were born, only Alison knows that Philogonus has a second son and what happened to him. Through gossip Alison eventually told her friends, Madge Caro and Isbell Busby, of Eugonus' existence, and just before the action in the play begins, Alison also told her quarrelsome husband, Codrus.


Sister to Lemot, a French gentleman, and betrothed to Raymond junior in Daborne's A Christian Turned Turk, she is traveling to her wedding when Ward captures their ship. To avoid the threat of rape, she disguises herself as a boy, using the name Fidelio, but declares that she would choose death rather than dishonor if the disguise fails. Horrified at her brother's summary murder on Ward's orders, she is still grieving when brought to Tunis and the house of Benwash, where the rebel pirates Gallop and Gismund sell their captives into slavery. She is consumed with grief for her brother, wishing to die, and unaware that Voada desires her at the first sight of her male disguise. (The script is unhelpful but–) Alizia appears to be present when her fiancé's family is also brought captive by Ward to Benwash's house, when neither she nor young Raymond recognize each other. As some point she becomes Ward's pageboy. [the following section is a debated scene–the quarto has FRANCISCO acting as dissuader, the Vitkus editor argues for 'Fidelio' being the intended character. Thes notes have duplicated the content, as the reallocation makes sense. It significantly enhances Alizia's agency in the play, but there are doubts that it can be fully justified, ed.] When Ward decides to turn Turk, Alizia, as Fidelio, pleads with him to reconsider, begging on her knees that Ward resist the temptation to sell his soul and deny his redeemer. Her eloquence troubles Ward's conscience and he briefly recants his decision, before being quickly turned again by Voada, furious at the intervention and forcing Fidelio from the room. Presumably present at the fire in Benwash's house, when Voada contrasts her hatred for Ward with her passion for his page. Her relationship with Voada is developed offstage: Fidelio agrees to sleep with Voada on condition that his 'brother' (really, her fiancé, Raymond) is ransomed. She warns Ward of Voada's lust for 'Fidelio'. Ward grants Fidelio freedom as a reward for his honesty, and Alizia is unaware that she is being tricked into her own murder. Planning to escape with Raymond, they have arranged the code word 'Fidelio'. When Alizia arrives to meet Raymond, he has already been shot by Voada. Dying, he denounces Alizia as a whore, but they are reconciled and swear mutual constancy. She stabs herself against his wishes and they die together.


All For Money is a corrupted and greedy judge in Lupton's All For Money. He is delegated by Money to substitute him in assisting whoever asks for his help and has enough money to pay. Sin ushers the suitors to him. All For Money helps the rich suitors to escape the law, but he refuses to assist the poor Moneyless And Friendless, who will be hanged for having stolen a few worthless rags. As Sin foretells, All For Money's greediness will bring him to Damnation.

ALLAN **1619

Hamond’s brother in Fletcher’s Bloody Brother. He is sentenced to die because he buried his master, Gisbert, against Rollo’s orders.


She is beloved of Laertes and daughter of Tesephon in the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune. Her father wishes her to marry Carynus. When she chooses Laertes instead, her father condemns her to prison. While there, she and Statyra overhear Carynus and Prelior discussing the plan of Tesephon and Allgerius, who plan to drug the women and force them to marry the men that their fathers have chosen. With the aid of the jailor, they summon Laertes and Eschines to their rescue. The women then pretend to have been poisoned by the drug while the magician Urganda accuses the fathers of murder. Urganda later punishes the wrongdoers and restores Allcyane to her chosen lover.


A servant of Chabot in Chapman's The Tragedy of Chabot, Admiral of France. In the opening scene, he explains to Asall why Chabot is admirable, though some don't consider him so; he also discusses how Chabot's rival, Montmorency, differs from Chabot (he is more likely to trust others' opinions rather than staying true to his own). In the second act, he warns Chabot that his friends and servants have abandoned him. The Chancellor tortures him (offstage) in an attempt to entrap Chabot. He reveals nothing, survives the torture, and is reunited with Chabot when the Admiral is cleared of the charges against him. He expresses dismay at the state in which he finds the Admiral.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Elias Allen is mentioned by Bill Bond at the end of the play, when he is asking Master Algebra to accept some presents from them–after having acted as so fair a judge: "our request is that you would be pleased to suffer us to present you with a pair of Hondius globes, a glass of Galileo's with brass mathematical instruments of Elias Allen making." Elias Allen, Master of the Grocers Company and, later, of the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers, was the leading mathematical instrument maker of his time. According to Thomas Bretnor, in his book A New Almanacke and Pronostication, for the year of our redemption 1618 (London, 1617: c8v), Elias Allen (c. 1588-1653) had a shop "at the Bulls Head ouer against Saint Clements Church in the Strand." It was the 'Sign of the Horse Shoe' and he was still keeping it in 1652.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Pond, Booker, Allestree, Jeffry, Neve Gent, and Merlinus Anglicus were good astronomers, according to Carion, who nevertheless cannot predict so well as Chremyla's corns.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Alleyn is mentioned by Doctor Clyster, when he catches Sir Cupid Phantsy versifying again, when he had made him assure him he would not do it again. Sir Cupid, in an attempt to avoid being reprimanded, replies he was at his prayers, but the Doctor, ironically, asks him: "What, so loud, and acting, as if Burbage's soul had newly revived Hamlet and Jeronimo again, or Alleyn, Tamburlaine?" Edward Alleyn (1566-1626)–the greatest actor of his time, according to many contemporaries–was the leading player in the Admiral's Men. He succeeded playing the title roles in Tamburlaine and Dr Faustus, and Barabas in The Jew of Malta–the three plays written by Christopher Marlowe.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. A former mayor of London whose portrait is admired by Doctor Nowell.


Son of Fallerio and Sostrata in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies. Also spelled Alinso. Attends, along with his parents, Pandino and Armenia on their deathbeds. He promises to help look after Pertillo, and after the deaths of Pandino and Armenia, asks his father to erect a memorial to them. When his father refuses and tells him to look forward to possessing his uncle's land instead, Allenso questions why his father, who is already wealthy, should need more land. Later, summoned by his father, Allenso reveals his affection for Pertillo and his horror at his father's suggestion that by murdering Pertillo Allenso could be ensured of a larger inheritance. When Fallerio threatens to kill him, Allenso exits, stating that he would rather be dead than face the consequences of Pertillo's murder. He then joins Fallerio and Sostrata as Pertillo prepares to depart for university with the Ruffians. Allenso expresses a desire to go along with Pertillo, which Fallerio refuses, and then expresses his concerns about the looks of the two Ruffians. Fallerio reassures him that the two men are reliable. Allenso has a tearful parting from Pertillo and then goes in pursuit of him but becomes lost in the woods until he is found by the Duke of Padua and his hunting party. Allenso and the Duke's party then discover the bodies of Pertillo and the first Ruffian, along with the wounded second Ruffian. Allenso identifies the dead Pertillo and expresses his grief, which prompts the Duke to apprehend him on suspicion of involvement in the crime. Allenso protests his innocence, which is confirmed by the testimony of the second Ruffian, who, before dying, reveals Fallerio's plot to murder Pertillo. Allenso grieves as the corpse of Pertillo is carried off, and the Duke warns him, on pain of death, not to assist Fallerio. After the Duke and his party exit, Allenso welcomes the opportunity the Duke has given him to meet his death, as that is the only remedy he can find for his grief at the loss of Pertillo. Allenso returns to his parents grieving the death of Pertillo and angered by his father's role in the murder. He angrily roars that Pertillo was murdered, the shock of which kills his mother. He then relates to Fallerio the details of Pertillo's murder and the subsequent discovery of Fallerio's involvement through the second Ruffian's confession to the Duke and his hunting party. He suggests that he disguise himself as Fallerio while Fallerio take on the disguise of a shepherd. After his father exits with his mother's body, Allenso looks forward to both his own and Fallerio's deaths to end his miseries. Later, disguised as Fallerio, he pretends to discuss sheep with Fallerio, who is disguised as a shepherd. They are met by Vesuvio, Turqual, and Alberto, who have been sent by the Duke to arrest Fallerio. Allenso as Fallerio proclaims his innocence and demands justice, and is led away by the lords. He is brought, disguised as Fallerio, before the Duke, where he denies murdering Pertillo and even denies that he is Fallerio. Allenso pulls off his disguise and happily embraces the Duke's death sentence. As Fallerio begins to plead for Allenso's life, Allenso insists that his sentence be carried out, vowing to kill himself if the Duke doesn't hang him. Allenso and Fallerio forgive one another for their misdeeds and prepare to be executed.


Statyra's father in the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune. He wishes her to marry Prelior. With Tesephon, he plots to drug their imprisoned daughters and force them to marry the men their fathers have chosen. The magician Urganda tricks them into believing that they have instead poisoned the women. They are then arrested and brought before King Egereon. He is spared from execution only when Urganda sends faeries to dismiss the executioner. He is then reunited with his daughter and reconciled to her choice of husband.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Just Italian. After Alteza finds that she cannot buy jewels from the Millanoise Jeweler because of Altamont's orders, she orders Niente to ask Signore Allidore for credit. He is one of the merchants or bankers.


A decayed clothworker and suitor to Mistress Ursely for the parsonage’s sake in Hausted’s Rival Friends. He is hoarse when he woos from railing against bishops and the church. When Bully Lively pretends to die, he and the other suitors begin pulling at Ursely as on a rope to win her quickly. When Anteros receives the parsonage deed and Sacrilege Hook drives Tempest off, he and the other suitors flock to Anteros and call him patron. He is driven off by Anteros as unworthy to marry his sister.


Allobroges are the ambassadors of the northern nation of the Allobroges in Jonson's Catiline. According to Lentulus, the Allobroges are a neighboring warrior nation, dissatisfied with the heavy tribute imposed by Rome, and who have made many complaints about this situation. The conspirators intend to align the Allobroges to their cause and expect to meet their ambassadors at Sempronia's house. It is understood that Allobroges have addressed their patron, the senator Fabius Sanga, who reports to Cicero that the conspirators intend to use them against Rome. When Cicero hears that Allobroges are outside his office, he invites them in. Informing Allobroges that the Senate has decreed to send an army against Catiline, Cicero implies that whoever sides with the conspirators is an enemy of Rome. Concurrently, Cicero alludes to certain advantages directed towards Allobroges, should they accept his design. Allobroges respond that they have nothing to hide and, although the conspirators had contacted them, their allegiance lies with Rome and the Senate. Cicero explains them the plan. Allobroges are supposed to attend the meeting with the conspirators, pretending to accept their proposal, but they should demand letters from them, apparently needed to convince their senate. According to Cicero, Allobroges are to be intercepted by his men, so he will be able to lay his hands on material proof of the confederates' treason. Allobroges accept the plan and exeunt to put it into practice. At Sempronia's house, Allobroges require to speak with Lentulus in private. It emerges from Lentulus that they have asked for letters for their senate, which are given to them, together with a message for Catiline, whom they are supposed to see on their way. At the Milvian Bridge, the praetors intercept Allobroges, who surrender easily and are taken to Rome. Allobroges testify against the conspirators before the Roman Senate and are granted an exemption from their debt and a reward from the public treasure.


One of Doll Hornet's duped lovers in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho. He lends her fifty pounds and some sugar. Captain Jenkins informs him about Doll's tricks. Together with Hans van Belch and Jenkins he follows her to Ware with a warrant, but her new husband Featherstone agrees to pay her debts.


Allured is the King of Britain in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. He dies in the opening scene after a battle with the Romans. His dying request is for the Queen and the two princes, Elred and Offa, to flee.


A wittol in Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside. He allows his wife to bed and breed with Whorehound in return for the standard of living it provides him as husband to the wealthy man's kept woman. When his wife gives birth to a baby girl, he names Whorehound one of the godparents (to avert suspicion) and also elects Moll and Touchwood, Jr. as godparents. He is called Jack only once, by Whorehound, as they leave the christening. When Davy informs him that Whorehound is to marry Moll, Allwit attempts to thwart the marriage. Posing as Yellowhammer's cousin, Allwit tells Yellowhammer of Whorehound's lechery with the Allwits. When Whorehound is wounded and remakes his will cutting out the Allwits, Allwit orders him from his house. The Allwits decide that, as they are well provided with a house and elegant furnishings, all of which are paid for, they should hire it out and take apartments in the Strand—that, or turn the place into a bordello.


She is Whorehound's kept woman and is pregnant with his child in Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside. This activity proceeds with the full knowledge and consent of her husband, Allwit. She is delivered of a baby girl, and Whorehound is named a godparent along with Moll and Touchwood, Jr. When at play's end Whorehound curses them, Mrs. Allwit stands by her husband and orders him from the house. The Allwits decide that, as they are well provided with a house and elegant furnishings, all of which are paid for, they should hire it out and take apartments in the Strand—that, or turn the place into a bordello.


Twice towards play's end in Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside, servants enter to inform the Allwits and the wounded Sir Walter Whorehound that Touchwood Jr. is a) grievously wounded and b) dead.


A ridiculous and vain gentleman in Thomas Middleton's The Witch, he pursues Amoretta without serious intentions. He is used by the Duchess in her plot against her husband, but defies her orders to kill the Duke and thus enables the reconciliation of the noble couple at the end of the play.


One of the leading lords of Arragon in ?Ford's The Queen, he is always seen in the Queen's train and is her loyal counsellor. Nevertheless, he strongly objects when the Queen declares her intention to pardon Alphonso, arguing that the Captain is such a self-serving malcontent that even if he were King he would give favour only to his own imitators and flatterers. Almada must accept Alphonso's ascendancy once the Queen marries him, but he repeatedly rebukes the new King for his cruelty to his wife. When Alphonso pretends to reconcile with the Queen, he entrusts Almada with the message and drinks a health to him. Thrilled by this apparent solution to the Queen's problems, Almada is horrified when Alphonso proceeds to condemn his wife for adultery. He objects that such a charge must be proved in open court, but is stymied by Alphonso's argument that kings are not subject to the law and by the Queen's declaration that no man should stand as her champion against her husband. With Collumello, Almada decides to offer a large reward in gold to any champion who will fight for the Queen's honour against her own wishes. The two lords use the reward to convince Salassa to release Velasco from his vow of non-violence, but when an angry Velasco refuses to bend to her will for a second time they condemn her to death as a destroyer of the realm's peace. Almada attends Salassa's execution and speaks bitterly to her, but is jubilant when Velasco relents and agrees to stand as champion to the Queen. Almada then supports the Queen at her own trial, applauds Muretto's stratagem for reuniting the Queen and King, and is present at the play's happy ending.


Alternative name for Almeno in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom.


One of the jeerers (idle hecklers) in Jonson's The Staple of News. Shunfield, Piedmantle, Madrigal, Fitton, Cymbal, and Almanac hound Pennyboy Senior, mocking him, and also a suitor to Pecunia, Infanta of the Mines. An astrologer/physician, he is exposed as a mere "canter" or jargonist by Pennyboy Canter.


Caliph of Arabia and father to Abilqualit and Abrahen by different wives in Glapthorne's Revenge for Honor. He is a severe but noble ruler, planning wars on Persia to extend his empire. He intends the army to be led by his loyal, experienced and popular heir, Abilqualit. Abilqualit, secretly planning to seduce Caropia, tries to persuade his father to place the army in the charge of his younger brother. Abrahen's co-conspirators, Mura and Simanthes, persuade Almanzor that his heir's popularity and reluctance to depart conceal a threat to his authority. He is made to doubt his son's duty and gratitude, and agrees to have Abilqualit spied on. He remains ignorant of the treachery of his other son and his advisors. Almanzor presides over Abilqualit trial on the charge of rape, constantly intending to mete out impartial justice to his own son, knowing that his sentence of blinding will also disqualify Abilqualit from the succession. Almanzor is an inexorable judge, believing his son's false confession and refusing to offer clemency at Tarifa's protest that a prince should be above the law. He refuses to believe Abilqualit a coward, and judges that his son could not in fact dishonor a woman. He gives the judgement of blinding but the sentence is interrupted by Abrahen's contrived mutiny in Abilqualit's favor. He changes the sentence to immediate strangling. Almanzor's grief over his son's body causes him to collapse and die without ever knowing that Abrahen would otherwise have poisoned him to take his throne or that the strangulation was staged and his elder son lives.


Callapine's keeper in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2. He accepts a kingly bribe to help Callapine escape from Tamburlaine. He attends Callapine when the latter is reinstated to his throne. Callapine affirms his promise to make Almeda a king. Almeda then accompanies Callapine to Aleppo to fight Tamburlaine. At the parley before the battle, Callapine makes Almeda King of Ariadan near Mecca mainly to pique Tamburlaine, who is present. Still fearful of his former lord, Almeda foolishly asks Tamburlaine's permission to accept the crown from Callapine. Tamburlaine likens Almeda to Mycetes, who cowardly hid his crown during battle. Almeda disappears from the play, unpunished, after III.v.


Almeno is a lord of Tartary in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. He is beaten by St. David in a joust, and is resentful of David's popularity. But when David accidentally kills Arbasto, the heir to the throne, Almeno argues against executing him.


Rebel against King Sigismond in Suckling's Brennoralt. He is in love with Francelia, the daughter of a fellow-rebel. He is also the childhood friend of Iphigene, whom he does not know to be a woman and in love with him. Captured in battle at the beginning of the play, Almerin is condemned to death; Iphigene (unknown to him) arranges to have herself caught by the rebels in order to provide a hostage for him - a move which turns out to be unnecessary, since he escapes on his own, but has the effect of bringing Iphigene into the rebels' camp. When his subordinate Morat informs him that Iphigene is paying court to Francelia, Almerin refuses to believe it, but is forced to do so on finding them together at night; he attacks Iphigene and fatally wounds Francelia before Iphigene can tell him the truth. He finally fights a despairing duel with Francelia's other suitor, Brennoralt, who kills him.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Never-good invokes Dr. Faustus, Mephistopheles, Asmodeus, Termagant, and Almeroth of Cantimeropus in his impotent attempt to curse Goggle and Carion.


Almira is the Viceroy's daughter in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman. She was engaged to Don Martino Cardenes, and harbors a deep hatred for Don Juan Antonio, the Prince of Tarent. When the former is wounded—a wound that at first seems fatal—in a duel her love, she takes up a sword and nearly kills Antonio. As Cardenes recovers, she spends time with Borachia, a drunkard, who is enamored of her newly purchased slave, who is actually Antonio in disguise. Almira falls in love with him. She asks for his name. He tells her that he will not give her his real name, but that she may call him Don Juan Antonio. She is shocked that the man whom she loves has the same name as the man she professed to hate. However, this odd circumstance only seems to reinforce her affections. When she publicly declares her love for him, her father is outraged and orders that the slave be arrested and tortured. She, in turn, swears to die alongside the man she loves. After Antonio's true identity is revealed, she is shocked that she preferred the love of a slave to that of a prince. Her father, now pleased, promises a suitable dowry.


Alternative name for Almeno, used in the dramatis personae of Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom.


Aloisio is one of Montalto's cohorts and a court attendant in Shirley's Royal Master. He works with Alexio and Guido in carrying out Montalto's scurrilous plots, and he reaps the reward of banishment at the play's end.


See also ALANSO, ALONZO, and related spellings.


The King of Naples, and father of Ferdinand and Claribel in Shakespeare's The Tempest. Before the start of the play, Alonso was a political enemy of Prospero, who as the Duke of Milan, a free state, was not subject to Alonso. Prospero's brother Antonio, wishing to govern Milan completely, conspired with Alonso to overthrow Prospero and place Milan under Neapolitan rule. The play begins twelve years later, while Alonso and company are returning from Claribel's wedding to the King of Tunis. The ship transporting Alonso and his retinue encounters a storm conjured by Prospero, and they are stranded on Prospero's island. Thinking his son and heir drowned, Alonso becomes depressed, guilt-ridden and inconsolable, causing his brother Sebastian and Antonio to plot his murder. They are prevented by Ariel, who leads the party to Prospero, who in turn reveals to Alonso that Ferdinand still lives and has fallen in love with Prospero's daughter Miranda. In gratitude, Alonso reinstates Prospero as Duke of Milan, relinquishing his control of the province, and agrees to Ferdinand's marriage to Miranda.


Described by Roderigo as Pedro's father in Fletcher's The Pilgrim; presumably the first name of Ferando.

ALONSO **1637

A courtier in Rutter’s The Cid. He brings the king news that Roderigo has killed Count Gormas in the duel. He enters later, while Roderigo is recounting his battle with the Moors, to announce that Cimena has arrived to renew her plea for justice.


See also ALANSO, ALONSO, and related spellings.


Alonzo is captain of a castle where Spanish soldiers are lodged during the war against the Moors in William Rowley's All's Lost by Lust. Alonzo admires Antonio's military prowess, and offers his daughter Dionyzia for marriage, not knowing that Antonio is already married. Alonzo is a supporter of Julianus's rebellion against King Roderick.


A gentleman of Lisbon, the nephew of a 'great captain' in Fletcher and Massinger's Custom of the Country. Alonzo is said to have cast aspersions on the pre-eminence of Don Duarte as a courtier and swordsman. A quarrel results between Alonzo, caught out without a sword, and Duarte; the latter fully armed, prepared to attack an improvident enemy. Alonzo is no coward: he first asks time to fetch a sword, then proposes to exchange weapons with Rutillio, who refuses to trade, but who takes up the quarrel on Alonzo's behalf when Duarte basely sets about kicking his opponent. Rutillio seems to kill Duarte in a fair fight. Alonzo warns him of the danger he has brought upon himself and leaves the scene with him, but is not seen again.


A pox-ridden soldier, fond of whoring in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife. He longs to marry a rich wife, and is jealous of Leon for marrying Margarita.

ALONZO **1631

Alonzo a nobleman who, along with Cosmo, reports to the Duke that Deprazzi is spreading rumors of the Duke's assassination in Shirley's The Traitor. In the last scene he helps to capture Petruchio and place Cosmo on the throne.

ALONZO **1636

Alonzo is nephew and ambassador to Lorenzo in Massinger's The Bashful Lover. He presents Gonzaga with terms for peace: surrender of both his land and his daughter. Gonzaga rejects the offer. With Pisano, Alonzo captures Matilda, who is disguised as a peasant. They tie her up and fight for her. Alonzo kills Pisano, but before he can rape Matilda, Hortensio enters, grievously wounds him and leaves him for dead. Octavio, Gothio, and Maria find Alonzo dying in the forest. They strip him of his purse. Octavio asks his daughter Maria what she wants to do with him. Maria used to be engaged to Alonzo, but he ended the relationship when Octavio fell into disfavor. Alonzo slept with Maria and then broke his promise of marriage. No one would deny her revenge. Yet, she asks her father to save Alonzo, and further asks that she be allowed to tend him. Both are hopeful that, should Alonzo recover, he will marry Maria because she still loves him. As he recovers, Octavio visits him in disguise as a Priest. Alonzo unburdens his heart. He is ashamed of his past conduct, particularly with a maiden named Maria. Maria enters as a ghost, but she soon after reveals herself. Octavio gives him back his money as part of a dowry, and he marries Maria.


A "ghost character" in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar Aquilaz conducts the third battalion of King Sebastian, which mainly consists of German soldiers.


Alonzo de Piracquo, a nobleman, has arranged with Vermandero to marry his daughter, Beatrice-Joanna in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling. Alonzo is a trusting innocent, and cannot accept his brother Tomazo's opinion that Beatrice shows "small welcome in her eye". Alonzo is murdered by DeFlores at Beatrice's request. DeFlores cuts off one his fingers. Later, Alonzo's ghost haunts DeFlores, showing his hand with the missing finger.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. Leandro's recently dead father. Leandro fabricates a letter of introduction and signs it with the name Alonzo Tiveria in order to ingratiate himself with Lopez. Of course, Lopez and Diego do not remember Alonzo at first; they never met him, but their memories quickly "return" after Leandro mentions the five hundred ducats that will be paid to Lopez as a gratuity for finding a law tutor for Leandro. Lopez and Diego go on to describe their "old friend" as a "grave staid gentleman" with a white beard, a good posture, and a reputation as a brave soldier.


Early in the anonymous A Larum for London, Verdugo appears with a Spanish group. He participates in the battle, killing Champaigne and threatening Egmont. He advises Dalua to arrange for dividing the resources of the town before he takes retribution on the citizens. He tries to obtain ransom from Factor and hangs him when convinced that he has no money.


One of Sardinapalus' concubines in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appears in the second playlet.


A friar in Dekker's If It Be Not Good.


Alphonsina, also once called Angelica in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom, is Tibaldo Neri's sister. A self-confident woman, she is repeatedly torn between fidelity to her convictions and practical necessities that demand that she break them. Namely, to help her brother attain his beloved Dariene, she must betray her own sex. In the play's initial scene, Alphonsina dismisses Nicoletto Vanni's advances. Later, she finds her brother Tibaldo dispirited; he explains that he is in love with Vanni's wife Dariene. Alphonsina mocks his love, and only seemingly agrees to help him win Dariene. She advises him to go to a tavern, get drunk, and forget her. Soon after, Alphonsina receives a jewel and a letter from Vanni. In the letter, he expresses affection for her and invites her to come to his house. Despite her initial protest she finally concedes to her brother's request and accepts Vanni's invitation, knowing that she has "walls of chastity / strong enough [...] to keep him from making any breach". At Lord Vanni's home, when Alphonsina indignantly complains to her brother about the part she will play only to satisfy her brother's desire, he tells her that he has changed his mind and wants to marry Alisandra. Alphonsina, then confesses to her brother that she has fallen in love with Trebatio. Having conferred with Dariene and Trebatio earlier, Alphonsina has agreed to mock Nicoletto's advances. Finally, as Dariene uncovers her scheme to Lord Vanni, she reveals to him Alphonsina's role and forthcoming marriage to their son.


See also ALFONZO and related spellings.


A Duke and father to Vincentio in Chapman's The Gentleman Usher. Older man and widower who hopes to wed the young Margaret, daughter of Lasso. He creates a pageant to woo her when he comes to her father's home. In it, he appears bound and only she can free him. He regales her as his "duchess" at the evening masque. The next day, he leads a hunting party; when he returns from the hunt, he (with Cortezza, Lasso, and Medice) spies on Margaret and Vincentio (his son), as the young lovers meet. They attempt to confront the lovers (and their go-between, Bassiolo), but Vincentio flees. Alphonso sends his favorite, Medice, after Vincentio, but orders that his son not be injured. When Vincentio returns, seriously wounded, Alphonso recognizes his love for his son, and acknowledges his son's love for Margaret. He gives up his own suit. He turns over Medice to Strozza, who forces him to confess his crimes and reveal his true identity.


A Sicilian courtier in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. Alphonso is asked to second the Duke of Epire in the double combat against the King of Cyprus and Philocles, and is defeated by Philocles. Attracted to Lollia, the wife of Prate the Orator, Alphonso attempts to seduce her and is invited to visit her while her husband is arguing before the Senate. When Mariana is faced with execution, Alphonso offers to beg the King to rescind the sentence, but his pleas are unsuccessful. He meets Lollia for their assignation; when Prate returns unexpectedly, Alphonso is forced to leave the house in Prate's unfashionable clothes and thus attired is later arrested by the Watchmen for persisting in his efforts to see the King. When the King discovers Alphonso's plain outfit, the courtier confesses his attempted seduction, and the King uses this confession to assure Prate that his wife has not been unchaste.


The first name of the King of Naples in Dekker's If It Be Not Good. Under the influence of the devil Ruffman, the recently crowned King of Naples decrees that he will dedicate some of his time to the pursuit of pleasure. He mocks the sober entertainments encouraged by his uncle Octavio, instead preferring the strange and exciting offerings of Ruffman. At Ruffman's prompting, he rejects Erminhilde, to whom he is engaged. He also dismisses the suit of the two gentlemen whom Bartervile has cheated, and then extorts Bartervile when he catches him perjuring himself. In response to the Subprior's request for help in bringing order to the priory, the King gives management of it to Brisco, a courtier. When Erminhilde disappears, and the Duke of Calabria, her father, marches against Naples, he stays behind rather than hide with the rest of the courtiers. Although Ruffman tries to persuade him to kill himself, he resolves to live. He disguises himself as a friar and discovers Bartervile's plan to betray the courtiers to the Duke of Calabria. He follows Bartervile to the priory, where he is found by the Duke. At the priory, he finds Erminhilde, who has been hiding there. He asks for her forgiveness, and is reconciled with the Duke. Finally, he celebrates his return to moral rectitude by setting fire to the priory and burning the friars to punish their wrongdoing.


Alphonso is the true identity of Gerrard in Fletcher's Four Plays in One.


Alphonso is the father of Theodosia and Philippo in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. He is continually angry and accusatory. He arrives on Leonardo's doorstep, demands the return of his daughter, and refuses to believe Leonardo when he says neither Theodosia nor Mark-Antonio is present. He insults both Leonardo and Sanchio, and threatens to challenge Leonardo to a duel, but eventually leaves. He returns to Leonardo's house and finds him gone. After arguing with Sanchio over who has the better claim to kill Leonardo, Alphonso sets out to follow Leonardo to Barcelona. He arrives (with Sanchio) in Barcelona and immediately finds Philippo with Leocadia, who is recognized despite her male dress. Both Alphonso and Sanchio threaten Philippo and then each other. The Governor and his men enter and disarm the two fathers. At the Governor's house, Alphonso and Sanchio continue to quarrel and desire a duel. Eugenia agrees that they will be given the chance to duel, but they must duel according to Caranza's rules (rules that she has a right to determine because he was her kinsman). She has Alphonso bound in a chair so that he has no advantage over Sanchio, and gives them each a pistol. She then has Theodosia and Leocadia stand between them, and declares that if they wish to fight, the fathers must fire at each other through their daughters. Of course, they cannot, and Eugenia declares that they must be friends.


A sea captain in May's The Heir. He returns to Sicily after a twenty-year absence, bringing with him vital information about the true identity of Francisco, at the precise point when all hope seems lost for Francisco's forbidden love of Luce. Twenty years ago, Euphues entrusted his younger son Lysandro to the tutorship of Alphonso; the boy's noble birth was always kept secret, even from himself, for fear of pirates. Five years ago the men were parted in a storm at sea. Alphonso is reunited with his old friend Euphues, and they arrive at Francisco's wedding in time to announce the timely (if outrageous) revelation of the bridegroom's true identity. This leads to a happy ending for the sub-plot's embattled hero and his true love, when the sudden realization that his daughter loves the son of a rich lord is precisely the information needed to appease Franklin and gain his blessing for their marriage. Alphonso is not named as attending Philocles's trial, but his absence is unlikely.


Father to Alinda in Fletcher's The Pilgrim. A cruel, covetous man, he is determined to marry his saintly daughter Alinda to the wealthy outlaw Roderigo despite his friends' pleas that he show some consideration of her feelings for Pedro. He condemns and mocks Alinda's charity, and his obnoxious behaviour drives her to flee his house in order to seek her beloved. Incensed by her escape, Alphonso pursues her, but is frustrated in his efforts by the machinations of his daughter's devoted and mischievous maid, Juletta. He eventually meets Alinda, first in her disguise as a boy and then in her disguise as a madwoman, but with a signal lack of paternal intuition he fails to recognize her on both occasions. On his arrival at the Segonia madhouse where Alinda has been ensconced, his raving and Juletta's trickery convince the Master that Alphonso is himself mad, and he is mistakenly incarcerated. His time in the madhouse cows Alphonso. By the time Curio and Seberto manage his release, he is a changed man, and on Alinda's appearance at the King's birthday celebrations he begs her forgiveness and agrees to her marriage with Pedro.


Alphonso, a captain of the Emperor along with the other captains Medina and Hernando in Massinger's The Duke of Milan.


Alphonso, one of the counselors to the Duke along with Hippolitto and Heironimo in Massinger's The Great Duke of Florence.


An Arragonian Captain in ?Ford's The Queen, he is young, brave and handsome, but has one near-fatal flaw: his rampaging misogyny. As the play opens, he has just led a rebellion against the Queen of Arragon on the grounds that as a woman she is unfit to rule. Influenced by the pleas of Velasco, the Queen decides to reprieve Alphonso from his death sentence for treason; influenced by Alphonso's charms and his vow to serve her, she marries him and makes him King of Arragon. Despite her impeccable submission, however, Alphonso retains his hatred of femininity and decides to test his new wife's fidelity. He commands her to avoid his presence for a week, but then proceeds to avoid hers for a month. When she finally protests this usage, Alphonso accuses her of shrewishness and continues to avoid her. Worse still, he surrounds himself with his old flatterers, Bufo, Muretto and Pynto. He is taken in by their slanders both of the Queen and of his own saviour, Velasco. With Muretto, he hatches a plot to condemn the Queen for her supposed adultery with Petruchi. He employs Muretto to give Petruchi a ring that the Queen once gave him. When the Queen takes it from Petruchi and returns it to Alphonso, he declares that Petruchi must have given it to her as a lover's gift. Alphonso thus condemns the Queen to death for adultery; he will spare her only if a champion of her honour can beat him in single combat. Having thoroughly humiliated Velasco, he assumes that no one in Arragon will rise to this challenge (the Queen's insistence that no man fight against her husband helps him considerably in this regard). However, Alphonso does not realize that Muretto, apparently the grossest of his flatterers, is actually on the Queen's side and has cunningly designed the whole situation to amplify Alphonso's jealousy and thus to force him to realize his own love for his wife. Influenced by Muretto's words in the Queen's praise, Alphonso becomes increasingly obsessed with her beauty and reluctant to kill her, but feels that he cannot spare her without destroying his own reputation and condoning adultery. He is about to fight Velasco in the trial of honour when Muretto suddenly confesses to his whole plan and proves the Queen's honesty. At this, Alphonso admits that he has always loved his Queen and that his misogyny was an evil calumny on such a virtuous woman. The whole of Arragon heaves a sigh of relief as Alphonso and his Queen embark on a period of calm rule and happy marriage.


Alphonso, the King of Naples in Massinger's The Guardian. He aids in resolving all conflicts and misconceptions.


Alphonso is the father of the admiral Vittori in Shirley's The Young Admiral. He is first arrested by Prince Cesario upon accusation of treason and later is asked to take arms and fight for Naples against his own son.


The alias Flavello uses in Brome's The Queen and Concubine when he attempts to entrap and murder Eulalia.


Clarinda’s lover and Julio’s son in Rider’s The Twins. He does not know where his father has been these past ten years. Lurco takes Carolo and Clarinda to see Alphonso and Julietta speaking alone and tries to sew the seeds of jealousy in them though it works only on Carolo. When Carolo and Clarinda slip away, Alphonso sees them and also grows jealous, thinking they have dishonest, guilty consciences. Lurco lures Carolo and Alphonso to meet in Pale’s wood where they fight and Alphonso falls. Carolo, fearing to be taken in the murder, determines to disguise himself and hide in the woods. Alphonso rises and, discovering he is not mortally wounded, realizes he may not go back to court because he will be suspected of murdering Carolo. He disguises himself as a soldier named Petrarcha and delivers a letter to Clarinda that purports to be from Carolo. In it, he says that he has killed Alphonos and fled Italy. He asks Clarinda to take the soldier into her service. He learns from her reaction that his jealousy was causeless. He must hide when Corbo comes to invite the court to the yearly shepherd’s fest for fear he will recognize him. He goes to the shepherd’s festival. When Julio prepares to kill Carolo for being a murderer, Alphonso unmasks to prove that all is well. He is reunited with Clarinda, his friend Carolo, and Julio, his long-banished father.


Courtier in Dekker's Match Me in London. He arrives at Prince John's to give Valesco a bunch of grapes. These are the grapes that the prince pretends are poisoned in order to trick Valasco into drinking poison disguised as medicine. In the king's name, he gives "Lupo" five hundred pistolets.


Don Alphonso is a family friend of Antonio and Proteus in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona. He is chosen by Antonio as mentor and escort for Proteus' journey to the emperor's court.


The action of Fletcher's A Wife for a Month begins three months after the death of Alphonso's and Frederick's father, the King of Naples. For those three months, Alphonso has been afflicted by a melancholy that has resulted in silence, and all attempts to cure him have been unsuccessful. Although Alphonso is the eldest and, therefore, the rightful King of Naples, he has been passed up either because of his muteness or because his brother has usurped the throne. (The play is unclear on this point.) Alphonso has been sent to live in a monastery, where Rugio and Friar Marco care for him. Once a day, Alphonso visits his father's tomb, still mourning his death. Meanwhile, the Neapolitan lords (Camillo, Cleanthes, and Menallo) and other subjects of Naples consider Alphonso to be their rightful king. They lament his illness and criticize the wicked Frederick. Frederick engages the ambitious Sorano to poison Alphonso; however, the poison proves an antidote, and Alphonso is restored to full health and finally takes the throne. He sentences Frederick and Sorano to confinement in the monastery and blesses Valerio's and Evanthe's marriage.


A "ghost character" in Ford's Love's Sacrifice. The name of the artist whose portraits of Biancha and Fiormunda are used by D'avolos to trap Fernando into revealing his love for the Duchess. The picture-maker is said to reside 'by the castle's farther drawbridge, near Galeazzos'.


Carinus' son in Greene's Alphonsus, King of Arragon, Alphonsus vows to get revenge on those who usurped his father, Carinus, and kept him from inheriting the throne. As the first step in his revenge, he enters the service of Belinus in his fight against Arragon and convinces Belinus to grant to him any territories captured as a result of Alphonsus' efforts. Therefore, after killing Flaminius, Alphonsus is given the crown of Arragon. Upon claiming the throne, he turns on Belinus, telling him that Naples is now subject to Arragon. He gives away the newly acquired crowns of Naples and Arragon to Laelius and Albinius, respectively, and sets his sights on Turkey. Meeting Amurack's forces in Naples, he fights with Amurack and defeats and imprisons him. Next, he meets Iphigina on the battlefield, offers to marry her, and after her refusal, fights with her, taking her prisoner. He is reunited with his father, who helps him to properly woe Iphigina, who finally agrees to marry him.


Alphonsus is the Emperor of Germany in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany, although he himself is Spanish in origin, and the King of Castile. He is married to Isabella. The Emperorship of Germany depends on the continuing support of the seven Electors of Germany, and although these electors have previously installed Alphonsus as sole Emperor, they are now considering the idea of demoting him in favour either of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, or of the King of Bohemia. Alphonsus therefore asks advice of his secretary Lorenzo, who shows him some poisons he could use, whereupon Alphonsus poisons Lorenzo with them, to ensure secrecy. Demoted to co-Emperor with Bohemia, Alphonsus tricks Lorenzo's son Alexander into joining in his intriguing against his enemies - the seven Electors, Richard of Cornwall, and Isabella, by whom he feels betrayed. During Fortune's revels, Alphonsus (who wears the costume of a forester) poisons Bohemia with a slow-acting poison in his drink, and feigns the same symptoms himself to divert suspicion. He has Mentz killed, and then denounces his wife Isabella, accusing her of adultery with Palatine. He intends to execute Isabella together with her nephew Edward, and does not take part in the battle with Richard, preferring instead to wait some distance off with Edward and Isabella, so that even if the battle is lost he can kill them personally. Alexander joins them there, telling them the battle is lost, and the astonished Alphonsus confesses to Alexander that it was he who killed Lorenzo. Thereupon Alexander ties Alphonsus to a chair, and reveals that the story of the lost battle is a lie. Alphonsus pleads for his life, and Alexander makes him swear to renounce God, and then kills him.


(Alphred) Son of the late King Egleredus from his second marriage, Edmond Ironside's half-brother in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside. When the civil war between Ironside and Canute starts, his mother Emma sends him and his brother Edward to her brother Richard, Duke of Normandy.


Alsemero is a Valencian soldier in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling, who falls in love with Beatrice-Joanna, daughter of Vermandero. Beatrice loves him in return, but her father has already matched her to Alonzo de Piracquo. Not realizing his feelings toward Beatrice, Vermandero invites Alsemero to stay in his castle. There, Alsemero meets with Beatrice in secret, and offers to duel with Alonzo. Beatrice, fearful of losing him, secretly hires DeFlores to murder Alonzo, but DeFlores forces her to sacrifice her virginity as payment. Thinking that Alonzo has run away, Vermandero chooses Alsemero as Beatrice's new fiancé, and they are married. After the wedding, Alsemero's friend Jasperino informs him that Beatrice may have had sex with DeFlores. Alsemero is incredulous, and uses a virginity test on Beatrice, but she outwits him, and convinces him of her innocence. She then tricks him into sleeping with Diaphanta, rather than herself, on the wedding night. But afterwards, Jasperino shows Alsemero ocular proof of Beatrice's adultery. He confronts her with the evidence, and she confesses, explaining that she did it all to marry him. Alsemero locks her in his closet, and, when DeFlores confesses his crimes, thrusts him in after. There, DeFlores stabs Beatrice and himself. Alsemero offers a moral commentary in the conclusion, and promises to act as a son to Vermandero. He also speaks the epilogue at the end.


A "ghost character" in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling. The deceased father of Alsemero, a former acquaintance of Vermandero.


Wife to Don Carlos, mother to Jacinta and Luys in Shirley's The Brothers. Luys refers to and addresses her, with cheerful brutality, as old and ugly. She does her muted best to restrain her husband's greedy plans for their children, but her most arresting characteristic is her cough, the sound of which enables Alberto to follow the carriage in which she and Jacinta are travelling so that he may kidnap Jacinta.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's Michaelmas Term, the presumed mutual acquaintance of Shortyard and Easy.


Altamont is the husband of Alteza in Davenant's The Just Italian. He opens the play complaining that his wife of two months no longer loves him and now treats him with disdain. He and Mervolle agree that her wealth and relationship with her uncle, the Duke, are to blame. Altamont attempts to make Alteza jealous by pretending that his sister, Scoperia, is his mistress, but the pretense fails when Alteza produces her own lover, Sciolto. Altamont confronts Sciolto and challenges him to a duel, but Sciolto refuses to fight. After Sciolto rejects Alteza for Scoperia, Altamont comes across the humbled Alteza and accepts her change of heart while revealing that he has not had a lover, but declares that he will never see her again. That night, he sees Sciolto and Scoperia together and decides they must die. He first confronts his sister and does not believe her protestations that she remains innocent despite her love for Sciolto. He confines her to her room and challenges Sciolto, telling him that if he is disarmed, Sciolto can go free. In the duel, Sciolto is wounded and Altamont has Mervolle and servants bind his wounds so that he will have time to pray before his death. However, Altamont discovers he has been wounded as well. His death is reported to Alteza, Florello and Charintha. Mervolle brings Scoperia and Sciolto before Alteza and tells her that Altamont wished her to have them executed. Alteza agrees that Sciolto should die because he has killed Altamont, but she decides to take Scoperia's place as it was her disdain that precipitated all the trouble. At this, Altamont reveals himself and all three couples (including the estranged Florello and Charintha) are happily reunited.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Just Italian. When Altamont threatens Scoperta with death for her supposed fornication with Sciolto, she asks if he has no drop of blood from their mother that will speak for mercy. Altamont responds that his mother was a pattern of modesty who on her deathbed spoke of Scoperta's virtue, an assertion he now believes (wrongly) to be proved false.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. Altea is one of the young women pursued by the bawd Leucippe for the pleasure of King Antigonus.


Margarita's witty waiting-woman in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife. She recommends Leon to Margarita because she believes that a fool is the best husband.


Altesto is a solider in Davenant's Love and Honor. He is a friend of Frivolo, Tristan and Vasco, but also serves Propsero and so serves as a link between the plot and subplot. After the battle, he announces that he has captured a maid, Melora, in addition to two chests of the plate. Altesto is given the charge of taking Evandra to Prospero's house, but returns her to Prospero when asked. The Duke, who wishes to kill Evandra to repay the death of his brother, threatens to rack Altesto to discover her location, but is satisfied when Altesto admits he returned her to Prospero. Altesto tells his friends how dainty and modest his prisoner Melora is, and that he is in love with her, but when Prospero asks that Melora be handed over to wait on Evandra, he agrees at once. With Frivolo, he helps to convince the Widow to marry Vasco, all the while mocking her for her age and weakness. When Melora presents herself to the Duke as Evandra, Altesto recognizes her, but is silenced by Vasco. When the Duke tells Vasco to have a group of soldiers guard Melora and Evandra, he deputizes Altesto to gather the men, while commenting that it is hardly necessary. Altesto also mocks the need to guard two women locked in a prison, but does as requested.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's Love and Honor. Altesto comments that he has sent his prisoner to his mother's house.


Alteza is the wife of Altamont in Davenant's The Just Italian. She is far superior in wealth and rank, a fact that causes her to become cold and disdainful to him a few months after their marriage. She is only interested in material goods and becomes angry when Altamont sets a limit on her credit with local merchants, claiming that her dowry is still hers to do with as she pleases. She then declares that she will no longer share Altamont's bed. He produces a pretend concubine to make her angry, but this fails miserably as she herself produces Sciolto as her lover. However, when alone with him, she refuses to kiss him, saying she needs to be wooed. When Florello arrives in disguise as Dandolo, she tells her sister Charintha to take all his jewels but give him nothing in return. Alteza's character changes when Sciolto, now in love with Scoperia, rejects her and tells her she is ugly. She realizes that her husband was a good and loving man and apologizes for her behavior on her knees. He accepts her changed attitude and reveals that he has not had a lover, but declares that he will never see her again. Mervolle then reports to her that Altamont has died from wounds received in a duel with Sciolto. Alteza is presented with Scoperia and Sciolto by Mervolle, who tells her that she is responsible for executing them, as Altamont wished. Alteza agrees that Sciolto should die since he killed Altamont, but decides to take Scoperia's place since it is her disdain that caused all the trouble. At this, Altamont reveals himself and the couple is reconciled.

ALTHAEA **1602

Only mentioned in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. Rhodaghond swears that never was Althaea revenged upon Meleager as she will be upon Fulvia for striking her in front of Sir Jeptes.


A queen who had slain her own children, driven before the furies Alecto, Megera, and Ctesiphonein the fourth act dumb show in Sackville and Norton's Gorboduc.


Queen of Calidon in Heywood's Brazen Age. Wife to King Oeneus and mother to Meleager and Deianeira. Sister to Plexippus and Toxeus. Since Meleager's birth, Althea has kept hidden a particular fiery brand because it was prophesized that the boy would die at the moment the brand was completely consumed. After Meleager kills Plexippus and Toxeus in a dispute, Althea fires the brand, killing Meleager. She then kills herself with his sword.


Giovanni Altofronto, the deposed Duke of Genoa in Marston's Malcontent, is the real identity of the disguised malcontent, Malevole.


Altomaro is the false identity assumed by Bonamico in Shirley's The Bird in a Cage. As Altomaro he claims the ability to make himself and others invisible.


A "ghost character" in Shirley's The Politician. Altomarus is the dead count who was Marpisa's first husband and Haraldus' father.


A Duke, and General recently returned from a successful campaign in Davenant's The Unfortunate Lovers. He is loved by Amarantha, but is in love with Arthiopa, whom he has been supporting financially. On his return, he determines to marry Arthiopa despite the public charges of unchastity against her. His fidelity to her is constant despite a number of obstacles:
  • the Prince's attempts to marry Arthiopa himself,
  • capture and imprisonment,
    • first by the Prince, and
    • then by Heildebrand and Galeotto, and
  • the kindness of Amarantha.
He kills Galeotto in a duel then fights Heildebrand and is fatally wounded. He dies with Arthiopa.


Alternate name for Dalua in the anonymous A Larum for London.


Aluida is the wife of the King of Paphlagonia in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England. After the death of Remilia, Radagon encourages Rasni to take Aluida as his mistress. When the King of Paphlagonia makes Rasni temporarily ashamed of what he has done and Rasni orders Aluida to return to her husband, the woman agrees on the condition that her husband promise publicly to forgive and forget, and that he signify his good intentions by drinking a toast with special Greek wine. Aluida uses this occasion to hand him a poisoned goblet, and when her husband dies on the spot, she and Rasni cheerfully resume their affair. Later, she attempts to seduce the King of Cilicia, telling him that she loves Rasni for the social status he provides but that she loves the King of Cilicia for physical reasons. Her pursuit of him is broken off by the increasing number of portents indicating that God intends to punish Nineveh for its sinfulness. She, like the rest of the court, comes to regret the sins she has committed, and she leads her ladies-in-waiting in prayer and fasting. At the end of the play, Jonas certifies the genuineness of the conversions and approves Rasni's intention to marry Aluida.


A Florentine apothecary working in England in Sharpham's The Fleire. Setting off to visit his homeland, he is happy to turn over the operation of his shop temporarily to Antifront who poses as Iacomo, an another apothecary of Florence.


Alured, the brother and heir of King Ethelred in Brewer's The Lovesick King, escapes from the defeat at Winchester by disguising himself as the commoner Eldred. He is taken prisoner by Erkinwald, by whom he is employed as a go-between to Elgina, but Elgina woos him for herself. He responds, but Erkinwald sees them and kills Elgina. Alured then kills Erkinwald and escapes to Scotland, where he is helped by King Donald. He eventually defeats Canutus, though he spares his life for Elgina's sake.

Attendant of King Phillip of Spain in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley, he, along with Sancto Dalia, advises his sovereign to pursue the Portuguese throne "either by force or corrupting gold."

ALVAREZ **1623

Alvarez is an old lord in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy. He has been banished from Madrill for killing another lord, De Castro, in a feud. He does not leave Madrill but instead poses as a leader of a gypsy band, which includes his wife, Guyamara, and his niece, Constanza. After staging entertainments at Francisco's house, he casts off his disguise and reveals himself to Lewys, De Castro's son, who forgives him.


Alvarez, a noble gentleman and father of Clara and Lucio in Fletcher, Beaumont, and Massinger's, Love's Cure. He has raised Clara as a man, and his wife has raised Lucio as a woman. Upon the granting of a pardon for unspecified crimes, he returns, wanting to see his son and daughter transformed into their true genders. He has an ongoing feud with Vitelli and fights him twice. His daughter falls in love with Vitelli, and his son falls in love with Vitelli's sister, Genevora. At the end, Alvarez calls off the duel with Vitelli, hoping for both families to make amends.


Potentially a "ghost character" in Dekker's Noble Spanish Soldier. There is a character only identified as the Cardinal. However, Balthazar refers to seeing a picture of Hell in Cardinal Alvarez's gallery, but there is no clear indication that these two characters are the same person. The King sends the Cardinal (Alvarez?) to Onælia with a message that he intends to honor the contract. When the King destroys the contract instead, the Cardinal is outraged and promises that the act will lead to the King's great shame. He brings Medina (disguised as Dr. Devile) to the King. He advises the King against murder and hopes that Devile/Medina will be able to cure the King's soul. He attends the wedding of Onælia and Cockadillio.


Alvaro, an Italian merchant, is the suitor Pisaro chooses for Marina in Haughton's Englishmen for My Money. He is over-confident and eager. As the two other merchant-suitors, he speaks a comic English. Alvaro receives news that the ship Pisaro had feared lost has actually been blown to Candy. Pisaro is delighted that his future son-in-law has brought such good news. The daughters ignore Alvaro, however, as well as his colleagues, complaining that they cannot be understood. Marina complains that Alvaro is boring, bawdy, and obscene. Pisaro tells Alvaro and the other merchants to adopt the names of the young English suitors and to arrive that night in their stead. The Englishmen discover the merchants' plan and plot to misdirect them. Alvaro arrives first, fearful that he might end up with the wrong woman. The Englishmen accuse him of being drunk and of breaking Ferdinand's glasses; they convince him that he has come to the wrong house and tell him how to get to Crutched-friars, where the three daughters live. Alvaro leaves, becomes lost, and is further confused when Frisco takes him and Delio, another merchant, through London trying to find Pisaro's. When Alvaro and Delio finally arrive, Pisaro has managed to confine his daughters to keep them from eloping with the Englishmen. Anthony convinces Alvaro that Harvey, Marina's English suitor, is about to die. If Harvey marries her immediately, she will inherit all of his land and thus become a wealthy widow. Wishing to marry into land, and despite Pisaro's objections, Alvaro insists that Marina marry Harvey. Harvey and Marina are married there and then, and when Harvey "recovers" Alvaro and Pisaro are both defeated.


Alvaro is the Prince of Savoy and son of the Duke in Davenant's Love and Honor. He praises Vasco for his feats in battle, but when he discovers that Prospero has taken Evandra hostage, Alvaro is outraged that he would do so, and worried what will happen when she is presented to his father. He threatens to kill Prospero for acting like a beast, and even after he is stopped by Calladine, he tells Prospero never to come near him unless he can restore Evandra's liberty. Once Evandra is safely hidden in Prospero's cave, they reconcile. Alvaro visits Evandra and promises that he will do all he can to get her home and that he will not compromise her in any way. He then attempts to reason with the Duke, pointing out that Evandra had nothing to do with the death of the Duke's brother, and that it would be a nobler act to break his vow to execute her than to keep it. The Duke's response is to give him one day to produce Evandra, or die in her place, which Alvaro accepts. He goes to make his final farewell to Evandra, but when she hears he is going to die for her, she tricks him into descending into the cave, and locks him in. He and Prospero are freed by Leonell, and all three mourn Evandra's loss. Alvaro reconciles Prospero and Leonell and declares that since all three love Evandra, they are brothers. Together, they travel to the prison where Evandra and Melora are held. Alvaro tells the women that all three begged on their knees that they be released, but to no avail, so they have come to see them die. Prospero and Leonell are for fighting, but Alvaro declares they are beyond help and that the men must instead watch the women executed and then die themselves (it is not clear if he believes they will spontaneously die, or that they should commit suicide). Once the Duke of Milan and the Duke's brother reveal themselves, Alvaro asks the Duke to forgive Prospero, so that all can be happy. The Duke does so at once, and then suggests that he be married to Evandra to seal the joy. Melora steps in and announces that not only does she love Alvaro, but that he is promised to her, five years ago. Alvaro remembers that he did swear to marry her if their fathers ever made peace and happily agrees to be joined to her, stating that his love for Evandra is changed to peace at seeing her happily joined to Leonell.


A "ghost character" in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. Alvaro Peres de Tavero leads the first of the Portuguese battalions, which consists of light-armed horse and garrisons from Tangier.


A "ghost character" in Haughton's Englishmen for My Money. He looks after Alvaro's business abroad and writes to Alvaro that the ship Pisaro thought the Spaniards had captured was in fact blown to Candy.

ALVAS, DUKE **1636

A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Hollander Sconce’s family may be traced back to Duke Alvas’ time when one of his ancestors kept the Inquisition out of Amsterdam.


A Spanish courtier, father of Hortenzo and Maria in the Anonymous Lust's Dominion. His daughter Maria is married to the Moor Eleazar, but he knows that his son-in-law cheats on her with the Queen Mother. Alvero is an important man in the state. He is present in most scenes of the play, but he has little importance in the plot of the play. Eleazar plans to kill him but never succeeds.


The family name of Lady Alworth, Tom, and Tom's late father in Massinger's A New Way to Pay Old Debts.


Lady Alworth in Massinger's A New Way to Pay Old Debts is the stepmother of Tom Alworth and the widow of Alworth's father (also referred to at times as Alworth) who, due to her late husband's request, demonstrates a filial responsibility toward the well being of her stepson. Still in mourning for the death of her husband at the play's beginning, Lady Alworth refuses to see any of her many suitors (including Sir Giles Overreach) until she is approached by the "down-trod Welborne," who requests her help in a plot to avenge himself upon the cheating Overreach. Banking on his longtime friendship with Lady Alworth's late husband, Welborne convinces her to pretend to be romantically interested in him; thus, she takes the biggest part in his charade to outsmart Overreach. Her help with Welborne's plan leads her to Lord Lovell (whose role in Alworth's suit to Margaret has stayed his own suit to Lady Alworth) and, thus, to his marriage proposal that, near the play's end, she happily accepts.


Tom Alworth is the son of the deceased Alworth, the stepson of Lady Alworth, and the young gentleman page of Lord Lovell in Massinger's A New Way to Pay Old Debts. In love with Margaret Overreach, he conspires with her and Lord Lovell to trick her father, Sir Giles Overreach, into assisting their marriage, and is, thus, appointed to deliver Lovell's apparent "love letters" to Margaret, which results in his becoming Margaret's husband and Overreach's son-in-law. A friend of his stepmother's servants and doted on by the Waiting Woman and Chambermaid, Alworth is, at the play's beginning, one of the only characters to offer help to the unfortunate Welborne. At the play's end he is appointed guardian (along with Margaret) of his distracted father-in-law.


Annot Alyface is, like Tibet Talkapace, one of Dame Custance's maids in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Only slightly less talkative that Tibet, Annot seems especially fond of singing and initiates the first of the songs that are spread throughout the play.


Amada is Borgias and Timoclea's daughter in Mason's Mulleasses. Amada is assigned by Borgias to act as her cousin Julia's companion and guard. When Julia is reported to the public as dead, Amada vacillates between her senses of duty and justice. Soon after, Amada is instructed by Borgias to spread the word that Timoclea has died. In addition, Amada is informed that she must marry the Muslim Mulleasses. During a dual courtship scene, Amada refuses to marry Mulleasses on account of her faith while Julia rejects Borgias's incestuous advances. Timoclea surprises Amada by appearing before her. In a jealous rage over the affection of Mulleasses, Timoclea kills Amada.


Amadine is the daughter of the King of Aragon in the Anonymous Mucedorus. The King of Valencia proposes Amadine as a bride for his son, Mucedorus, and Mucedorus decides to travel to Aragon disguised as a shepherd and make an informed decision about her. Mucedorus arrives just in time to save Amadine from a bear and to displace Segasto as her favoured suitor. Mucedorus is banished from Aragon and Amadine agrees to run away with him, but their rendezvous in the forest is prevented when Amadine is captured by Bremo, the wild man of the forest. Bremo intends to kill and eat her, but a magical power prevents him and he decides to make her his mate instead. Bremo soon captures Mucedorus as well, who is now disguised as a hermit, and even though Amadine does not recognize him she persuades Bremo not to kill him. Eventually Mucedorus and Amadine escape, return to Aragon, and obtain her father's consent to their marriage. Mucedorus' father arrives just in time to help celebrate the match.


Only mentioned as an epithet in Jonson's The Alchemist. Amadis de Gaul was a hero of Spanish chivalric stories. In the garden of Lovewit's house, while Surly is still in his Spanish costume, Kastril abuses the false Spaniard, whom he thinks responsible of seducing his sister. Kastril calls the Spaniard derisively an Amadis de Gaul.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Amadís de Gaule is the hero of a chivalric novel by García Rodríguez de Montalvo, governor of Medina del Campo, which appeared at Zaragoza in 1508. Of all the European romances of the sixteenth century, this was the most popular story in the chivalric tradition. The heroes of chivalric romance are considered public nothings sent out to poison courts and infest manners. Truewit, Clerimont, and Dauphine discuss the behavioral characteristics of court ladies and their ways of hiding various defects. Truewit shows excellent expertise in this matter and offers instructions on how women should conceal their physical blemishes. Dauphine is impressed with Truewit's competence and asks him how he came to study court ladies so thoroughly and give such exact descriptions of their manners. Truewit responds that one must go out and study court ladies where they are, at court, not stay inside and read courtly romances. Truewit implies that it is not efficient for a gentleman to stay in his chamber and read Amadís de Gaule or Don Quixote, the stock romance characters. Instead, Truewit recommends a direct involvement in the life of the court and a live study of ladies' behavior, which would allow an educated choice of a future wife.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Lovel praises the noble education he received from Lord Beaufort, he distinguishes between the teaching of frivolous courtly manners and the profound righteousness inherited from the great classical epitomes of morality. Lovel illustrates the two types of education with examples from chivalric romance and classical antiquity. Deprecating the frivolity of chivalry, Lovel says his noble tutor taught him no such things, because his education had no Amadis de Gaules. Amadís de Gaule is the hero of a chivalric novel by García Rodríguez de Montalvo, governor of Medina del Campo, which appeared at Zaragoza in 1508. Of all the European romances of the sixteenth century, this was the most popular story in the chivalric tradition. The heroes of chivalric romance are considered public nothings, abortive notions of the fabulous, sent out to poison courts and infest manners. Lovel uses the name Amadís de Gaule deprecatorily.

AMADIS de GAUL **1607

A fantasy "ghost character' in The Grocer's Honour portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. One of the Knight of the Burning Pestle's ancestor's according to Rafe's invented genealogy.


The son of the Tuscan general in Davenant's The Fair Favorite. He has become friends with Oramont, effected his ransom, and visits him in Naples in disguise. Seeing that his friend is distraught about his sister Eumena's supposed unchastity, Amadore offers to question her. At the end of his conversation with her, he is utterly convinced of her innocence, and also in love with her. Refusing to explain matters to Oramont–because to explain would suggest that her behavior required an explanation–Amadore instead fights a duel with him. He is injured and seems to be dead, but actually he is still alive. Aleran discovers him and saves his life. Amadore reconciles with Oramont and marries Eumena at the end of the play.


‘A French Lord a man perfectly grown about some 50’ in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. He has wooed Florimel for twenty months and demands that she now accept or deny him. He promises to steal her away quickly and quietly and remain always true to her. In act four, he waits in his garden to be secretly wed attended by the vicar, Vasco, and sends Sohier to fetch Florimel to him. Clodio discovers him there, and Amadour accepts a gift of a citron (lemon) from him. At the beginning of act five, Florimel is his bride. When Florimel begs a citron from the garden as a wedding treat, Amadour informs her that they are not ripe and calls for Vasco to bring in the citron that Clodio gave him. When Florimel is poisoned, he realizes at once that it was Clodio’s doing. He stabs Clodio with his rapier. At Florimel’s death, he delivers a heartfelt speech and, embracing her body, dies of grief. Rhodaghond then recounts how Florimel, who once despised Amadour, grew to love him when he earned great praise at the Duke of Vacunium’s games.


The Duke of Venice and also Mendoza Foscari's uncle in John Marston's The Insatiate Countess. The embodiment of political authority and the law. Attempts to extract the truth from Claridiana, Rogero and his nephew, who all adamantly claim to be guilty of crimes they did not commit. He condemns them to death and thus ultimately co-ordinates reconciliation.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. A devil God gave man victory over.


Aman is the King's Chancellor, the highest officer of the crown in the anonymous Godly Queen Hester. He is proud, ambitious loves flatterers and disregards the law. He is appointed governor of Israel by King Assuerus, but his covetousness induces him to bring forth false accusations to persuade the king to banish the Jews from the country on pain of death. However, Queen Hester succeeds in exposing his treachery. Aman is put to death.


Aging maidservant to Eurithea and sister to Castraganio in Davenant's The Platonic Lovers. She is the first woman met by the young soldier Gridonell. Gridonell conceives a strong, if muddled, desire for her. At the request of Castraganio, whom the devious Fredeline has duped, she tries unsuccessfully to talk Eurithea into a less platonic frame of mind. Tricked herself by Fredeline into believing that he can reward her with Gridonell as a husband, Amandine agrees to pretend that Castraganio has slept with Eurithea on her wedding-night. After securing her testimony, Fredeline reneges on the deal, and locks Amandine and Castraganio in a garret. When the truth comes out, Theander, Eurithea's new husband, leaves the plotters' punishment to Eurithea, who announces that it will be "easy."


A “ghost character" in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. When Timeus finds the body of his slain father he calls for support from Clitus, Charisius, Erastus, and Amathes but none are at hand.


Wife of Bartolus in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. Her beauty, virtue, and inaccessibility prove irresistible to Leandro. Despite her tenacious protestations, Amaranta is seldom allowed to leave her husband's house and is never allowed to make the acquaintance of other gentlemen. When Leandro appears in her house as her husband's shy law student, Amaranta instantly sees through his ruse and admits her attraction to him in asides to the audience. The pair find time alone, but Leandro proclaims her virtue after Bartolus's breakfast. Despite her own misgivings, Amaranta proves her devotion to her husband by following his order to take the guests' swords during the breakfast.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill. Amaranta was the nurse of the baby Florimell. She was eaten by a bear, after which Florimell was rescued and raised by Franio and Gillian.


Galeotto's daughter in Davenant's The Unfortunate Lovers; she is as kind and virtuous as her father is evil. She tries to defend Arthiopa, her rival, against charges of unchastity. Sent by Ascoli to undermine Altophil's loyalty to Arthiopa, she rescues the couple and helps Arthiopa to escape from the advances of Heildebrand. When Altophil kills her father, she kills herself in grief and horror.


See also AMARYLLIS and related spellings.


Amarillis is in love with Carinus, but he is in love with Cloris in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. Amarillis discusses her situation with Dorinda, claiming that Dorinda has no cause to complain because she is loved by Mirtillus. Dorinda, however, is torn between Mirtillus and Colax and envies Amarillis. Dorinda and Amarillis converse with Cloris, who recounts how she was betrayed by the bawd Techne and how she rejected Colax's advances. They discuss their dreams. Amarillis dreamed that she was chased by a wolf and was trying to get help from someone who ran away from her. As she finally reached him she woke up. Amarillis lures the dog Lelaps from Carinas in an attempt to gain Carinas' attentions for herself. Carinas, however, rebukes her for spoiling his hunting. She tells Carinas that Cloris loves Amyntas; Carinas vows that when Cloris finally rejects him in favour of Amyntas he will submit to Amarillis. On hearing Mirtillus recount Amyntas' suicide attempt and Cloris' reaction to it, Carinus realises that Cloris loves Amyntas and that he will never have any hope of winning her. At the shepherds' assembly, Meliboeus asks Carinas to look favourably on Amarillis, and they are betrothed.


Amarillis is a shepherdess in Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess. She is in love with Perigot, and when he rejects her she determines to break up his relationship with Amoret. She teams up with the Sullen Shepherd, who agrees to help her in return for sex. The Sullen Shepherd dips her in the enchanted well, using a magic charm, and Amarillis takes on the form of Amoret. Pretending to be Amoret, she makes sexual advances towards Perigot. Perigot is appalled to find his lover unchaste and pursues her with his sword drawn. The Sullen Shepherd rescues Amarillis and removes her enchantment. She later finds Perigot contemplating suicide and confesses her trickery, vowing to return in Amoret's shape to prove that she is telling the truth. Coming across Amoret, she instead directs her to Perigot, resulting in Perigot wounding Amoret for a second time because he thinks that she is Amarillis. Meanwhile, Amarillis rejects the Sullen Shepherd's advances and seeks protection from the Priest of Pan. She repents her degenerate behavior and passes the chastity test imposed by Clorin. Amarillis then returns to the village with the other shepherds.


The Clown's ugly mistress in Heywood's Love's Mistress.


A "ghost character" in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday. Amarillis is identified by Mirtillus as one of his many lovers.


A "ghost character" in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. When Cloris sends her Clorindo to make plead her suit with Thyrsis, she tells Clorindo she has heard a rumour that Thysis is now in love in Amaryllis. When Clorindo returns, he assures Cloris that there is no Amaryllis.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess. A shepherdess named by the Shepherds and Countrymen as they plan their entertainment for Diocles. Perhaps one of the shepherdesses who dance for Diocles and Drusilla at play's end.


A distressed shepherdess in Randolph's Amyntas. She is daughter to Claius and sister to Amyntas, unrequited in her love for Damon and patiently enduring all his hostility to her. Her aunt Thestylis intercedes for her with Laurinda, wooed equally by Damon and Alexis. Laurinda promises to help her win Damon if she can. Meanwhile Amaryllis comforts her mad brother and his betrothed, Urania. She is further distressed when Damon rejects her gift of an (embroidered) emblem of Echo and Narcissus and accompanies Urania to the temple, for consolation. Amaryllis considers suicide. Laurinda persuades her to spend the night with her, preparing a plan. She is therefore absent when their father, incognito, cures Amyntas. According to Laurinda's plan, she appears veiled and wearing Damon's garland, to stand as arbitress between the rival suitors. Damon violently breaks his oath to stand by her decision, attacks and wounds her on sacred soil and leaves her to die. She succeeds in writing her decision in her own blood, delivering the letter via Dorylas. To save Damon's life, she maintains that she has killed herself for unrequited love. Her meditation on death is interrupted by Claius, whose first attempt to cure her fails because he does not know the identity of her assailant. He knows she is innocent of attempted suicide, or he could have cured her, and facing great danger reveals his identity to compel her on a father's authority to tell the truth. Damon's conscience-stricken return reveals him to be the assailant. She blames herself for the death sentences passed on both her true love and her father. Grieving, she takes Amyntas to prison to be reunited with Claius. Together, the siblings interrupt the human sacrifices. Amyntas identifies his sister's blood, already spilled in the attack, as having already satisfied the terms of the oracle. Her selfless love has won Damon's heart and they are free to marry.


Amasa is David's nephew in Peele's David and Bethsabe and serves as Absalon's chief military leader. After Absalon's death, Joab offers pardon to all who will swear loyalty to David, and Amasa is the first to do so. He then encourages his men to follow suit, which they do, and Joab allows them to retain their swords. Absalon's defeated army then follows Amasa to present itself to David.


Spelled "Amozins" in the plot of the anonymous Tamar Cam. One of the groups of envoys sent from the conquered races. They enter in procession at play's end to do homage to their conqueror, Tamor Cham.


Only mentioned in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. Amazons were legendary women warriors. Showing his hatred of women, Gondarino says that the much-praised Amazons, knowing their own infirmities so well, condemned all men who lived among them to death. Gondarino interprets this habit attributed to the Amazons as a just understanding of the fact that any man who has been tainted with the company of a woman deserves to die. The woman hater's philosophy turns classical mythology on its head and interprets history according to his personal views.


During the first banquet in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens (scene I.ii) a group of ladies performs a Masque of Cupid and the Amazons, a masque that might also represent the five senses. After their performance they dance with the guests, and then they all are entertained. Apemantus describes them as prostitutes.


See also "EMBASSADOR."


The Ambassador from Gaul is sent by the Gallian King in the Anonymous King Leir to ask Leir to forgive Cordella and visit her in France. He first visits Cornwall, after Leir has left, and agrees to stay at Cornwall until Leir returns. After several days, he decides to travel to Cambria. When he arrives there, Ragan accuses him of murdering Leir on Cordella's orders. He maintains his innocence, and exits, presumably to return to Gallia. He states that his king will answer this insult.


The Danish Ambassador arrives in England in [?]Wilson's Fair Em, the Miller's Daughter to inform King William that King Zweno will invade if his daughter Blanch is not returned. William, who does not realize he has stolen Blanch by mistake, scoffs at him.


The Ambassador from England arrives in Shakespeare's Hamlet to bring the news that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been put to death in accordance with the directions in the altered letter. Finding only corpses at the Danish court, he wonders who there is to receive the news.


An ambassador comes from Portugal in the Anonymous First Part of Jeronimo, with the news that the Portuguese no longer intend to pay the tribute they owe to Spain. The King then sends Andrea on a mission to Portugal.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Birthe of Hercules. He is mentioned by Sosia, when he explains that an Ambassador was sent to the enemy to offer them peace on the condition that they restored all the things they had taken from them.


A Russian ambassador in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me.


The Ambassador appears to Caesar in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra after the sea battle and delivers Antony's request that he be allowed to live in Egypt, or anywhere, as a private citizen, and Cleopatra's request that she might keep her crown for her children. He returns Caesar's answer to Antony, which is that if Cleopatra will kill Antony she can remain Queen. Antony sends the Ambassador back to Caesar with a challenge of single combat.


The British ambassador informs Octavian that King Gederus desires assistance in the war against the invading Romans in The Valiant Welshman.


A "ghost character." Referred to only by others in Shakespeare's Henry VIII, the Ambassador is reported as having nothing to say now that France has violated the treaty and seized British goods at Bordeaux.


A mute character in Goffe's Raging Turk, sent by Baiazet to inform Achometes of the people's refusal to accept the emperor's offer to abdicate; the unwelcome message provokes his instant death. When his body is shown to the emperor and the court, it moves Baiazet to choose Selymus, not Achomet, as his successor.


The Duke of Ferrara disguises himself as an ambassador to the court of the Duchess Urbino in Shirley's The Opportunity. In his disguised role, the duke is able to watch Aurelio pretending to be Borgia and attracting the attention of both the duchess and Cornelia. The Ambassador/Duke is also involved in the sundry games and series of mistaken meanings and identities presented by Cornelia and the duchess. The Ambassador is revealed as duke at the play's end and will wed the Duchess Urbino.


Amurath, in Goffe's The Courageous Turk, sends the Ambassador to his son-in-law Aladin, the king of Caramania, to berate him for having rebelled and to warn him that Amurath is coming to take the cities of Iconium and Larenda.


A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. The Duke asks if the French Ambassador demonstrated discontent after meeting with the Duke. Foreste confirms that he was angry at the English-Leiger for opposing a proposed treaty.


A "ghost character" in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. Sir Thomas Palmer mentions to the Earls of Surrey and Shrewsbury that Sherwin cannot get a hearing to complain of Francis de Bard's abuse of Sherwin's Wife because the unnamed French (or Lombard) Ambassador uses his influence with Henry VIII to protect the foreigners in London. Although the names of many of the foreigners who have abused the common folk of London are French, the people who have suffered abuses usually refer to them as Lombards, a generic label for any foreign resident.


This character enters in Massinger's The Bashful Lover to announce the unexpected death of the Milanese duke, John Galas, and to reveal the true identity of Hortensio.


The Ambassador of Crete (called the Embassador of Crete in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age) informs Menelaus that he has been offered the Cretan throne. Menelaus's departure to take that crown provides Paris and Helen the opportunity to flee to Troy.


The unnamed Phrygian Ambassador in Goffe's The Courageous Turk brings Amurath the proposal from Germaine Ogly, the Phrygian king, that the king's daughter Hatam and Amurath's son Baiazet be married so as to create an alliance between their two nations.


A ‘ghost character" and likely fictitious in Dekker’s Match Me in London. One of the gentlemen of court tells Cordolente that the Welsh Embassador sends him a message that he will be with him soon, when the moon’s horns are full. The meaning is Cordolente will soon wear cuckold’s horns.


The Moor's ambassadors in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar beseech Sebastian, King of Portugal, to aid Muly Mahamet in reacquiring his royal seat. The ambassadors engage in a grim branding ceremony in order to prove their loyalty to King Sebastian.


Sent from Persia to negotiate the release of the princess Cassana in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess. The Ambassadors, in a dumb show, assist the soldiers who release Cassana and capture Aurelia, Charinus, and Maximinian.


Group of messengers in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers that tells the Duke of Verona that the wedding between Prospero and Valentia has been cancelled because the bride has been undervalued by the groom's father. Later, they inform the Duke of Mantua about the Duke of Verona's resentment and the possibility of a military conflict.


Venetian ambassadors in Dekker's(?) Telltale arrive with ransom for Hortensio and Borgias, and are met by Aspero and the court party. Aspero informs the Ambassadors that, due to the Duke's disappearance, there is no one to accept the ransom. The Ambassadors ask to see the captive princes while agreeing to await the Duke's return. When Borgias enters the Ambassadors warmly greet him, and they learn from Borgias of Hortensio's distracted state. They observe Hortensio first hand when he enters to the court party and speaks nonsense. They later enter with Aspero, Cosmo, and Gismond to see Hortensio in his distraction. Hortensio, restored to sanity, apologizes to them and explains that Elinor has revealed her love, curing him. When the real Elinor enters, the Ambassadors thank her for curing Hortensio, which leads to her denial of any affection for him. After she exits, the Ambassadors follow, promising Hortensio to do what they can to win her affections for him. They enter with Aspero and the Doctor to Cosmo, Gismond, Fernese and Bentivoli and express satisfaction with their treatment at court. When Elinor enters, they join Aspero in advancing Hortensio's suit. They watch her reaction to the news of Garullo's marriage to Lesbia and her reconciliation with Hortensio.


Two men disguised as ambassadors figure in Davenant's Love and Honor.
  • The First Ambassador is the disguise of the Duke of Milan, which he wears to gain entrance to the Duke's court and to attempt Evandra's release.
  • The Second Ambassador is the disguise of the Duke's Brother, who works with the First Ambassador in trying to assist Evandra.


Two French ambassadors arrive at Henry's court, bearing the Dauphin's derisory gift of tennis balls in Shakespeare's Henry V. They return to France with a message, Henry's warning that the Dauphin's joke will have lethal consequences for France.


King Philip's ambassadors promise aid to Sebastian in the form of men, ammunition, and war supplies in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar.


“Ghost characters" in Sharpe’s Noble Stranger. They come in act five to meet with the King of Naples and hurry back to Portugal again with his answer that the princess should marry the King of Portugal’s son.


The Vice character in Preston's Cambises, Ambidexter enters the play dressed in mock armor and promises to corrupt all those with whom he comes in contact. Aids Sisamnes in his corruption and addresses his cousin the cutpurse who is in the audience. Lies to Cambyses that Lord Smerdis is anxious to inherit the throne from him, thus setting up Cambyses' treachery toward his brother. Upon hearing of the impending marriage of the King, he proposes to a young woman in the audience, and then, after fighting with and making up with Preparation, invites his cousin the cutpurse to attend the King's wedding banquet. Foretells the accidental death of Cambyses.


Fallacy's servant in Zouche's The Sophister. Ambiguity claims at the play's beginning that he cannot sleep because "Melancholy keeps [Fallacy] alwayes waking, and [Fallacy's] envy will not suffer [Ambiguity] to take any rest." Ambiguity describes the "buzzing Suitors" which "flock" to his Master, and delivers "two Violls [. . .] of water of the same colour" to him. Fallacy keeps the one which causes madness, but gives Ambiguity the one that causes drunkenness for the servant's future use. Ambiguity witnesses Fallacy's tampering with Discourse's drink as well as the man's immediate madness, and hopes to make his Master "doate" on him by conveying Intellect to a closet rather than the library to which he promises to lead him. He complains that Fallacy sends him on "idle errands" and expresses his hatred for Distinction to the audience. However, in order to convey Distinction away from the place set for Opposition to meet with Fallacy, Ambiguity professes his love for Distinction and invites him to have a drink. The servant proceeds to place "two or three drops" from his "Violl" into Distinction's drink which causes him to "talke on both sides" and then fall asleep. At this point Ambiguity steals Distinction's money and "cloake," leaving him to answer to the Drawer who later demands payment for the wine which Ambiguity had promised to pay for. Ambiguity delivers Fallacy's letters to Opposition and informs Fallacy of Opposition's promise to assist him. Distinction thinks that Ambiguity has sent Ignoratio to laugh at him, but Ignoratio mistakenly believes that Distinction is Ambiguity (since Distinction is wearing Ambiguity's cloak) and gives him the keys which Fallacy has instructed "the foole" to deliver to Ambiguity. Ambiguity speaks to the mad Discourse and meddles in Ignoratio's delivery of Fallacy's letter to Scientia, claiming that he doesn't care if he "crosse[s]" his Master "in this project." He convinces Ignoratio to "counterfeit" himself as a "captive" after encouraging him to woo Scientia himself rather than for Fallacy, and leaves him gagged and blindfolded for Contradiction to find. Trying to requite Ambiguity's "kindnesse" in the bar, Distinction sends a tainted drink around to Fallacy's followers and is disappointed when he realizes that Ambiguity is not "amongst them." Ambiguity delivers to Fallacy some "accusations" which he has contrived against the "Ladies of Verona" at Fallacy's command, and informs him of the fight between Contradiction and Opposition, their recovery due to Equipolency, and Analysis's letting of Discourse's blood. At this news Fallacy becomes desperate, and makes plans for his escape. He and Ambiguity exchange clothes in order to practice what Fallacy will say when inevitably called to appear before his cured father, and then Fallacy decides to "faine some present business" and "muffle [his] selfe." Ambiguity won't reveal to Proposition, Description, and Conclusion where Fallacy is and chides them for their disrespect towards him. He is arrested by them on the charge of Capital Treason for his and Fallacy's contrivances against Discourse, Discourse's sons, the state, and the "Ladyes of poore Verona." He claims that he was used by Fallacy and Distinction reminds Discourse not to leave Ambiguity unpunished at the play's end. Though Distinction suggests that Ambiguity be "rack't," Discourse claims that it would be "but folly to torture him" and pronounces that he must be "whipt out of these parts" and that Distinction may be "his friendly executioner." Distinction gladly accepts but, when he attempts to capture him, "Ambiguity flips his gowne and runs away" and "Distinction follows."


Ambition informs the audience in the anonymous Godly Queen Hester that Aman's greed for power and money has reduced the country to poverty.


Ambition is dressed like a bishop in Bale's Three Laws. He claims the responsibility for Lucifer's fall, having encouraged him to attempt to rival God. He plans to corrupt the Mosaic Law by obscuring the Ten Commandments and ensuring that the clergy lead lives which openly break the laws they claim to uphold.


Ambition, along with Tyranny and Pride, is one of the invading Spanish lords in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London. He calls himself 'Honor.' His shield bears the image of "a black horse salient, with one hinder foot upon the globe of the Earth, one forefoot stretching towards the clouds." He hopes to claim Love for his prize. When the lords of London attack, the Spaniards "suddenly depart." The lords of London hang up their shields and hide to see what the Spaniards do. The Spaniards return and "flourish their rapiers" but do not dare to touch the shields. They then hang up their own shields, whereupon the lords of London retrieve their shields and batter those of the Spaniards. The Spaniards "do suddenly slip away and come no more."


Ambition accompanies Warre in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.


The young Duchess's eldest son in [?]Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy. He pretends to plead for his step-brother Lussurioso's release from jail. In fact he is eager to have him killed so he might step in line for the dukedom himself. He is fooled into thinking that he is ordering Lussurioso's death when he in fact orders the execution of his own youngest brother. When the head is brought to him and his other brother, Supervacuo, they at first gloat over the deed but are horrified and angered when they learn the truth. Ambitioso joins with his brother Supervacuo, step-brother Spurio, and an unnamed lord to present a masque of revenge. The masque is to end with knives produced and Lussurioso murdered. However, when they come to fall upon the party, they find that everyone is already dead. Ambitioso then proclaims himself Duke, and Supervacuo stabs him to death.


Amble is Lady Alworth's "gentleman usher" or "go-before" in Massinger's A New Way to Pay Old Debts. He, along with Order, Furnace, and Watchall, assists Lady Alworth in Welborne's charade.


Lady Tailbush's gentleman usher in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass. He has been hired by Merecraft to pretend to be the producer and agent for the new "fucus" or cosmetic for court ladies that Lady Tailbush is investing in. His are the clothes that Pug stole upon entering his borrowed body; they were taken while Ambler enjoyed a tryst with a "gentlewoman" near the gallows at Tyburn.


A "ghost character" in Jonson's The Staple of News. The emissary or reporter to the Staple of News for St. Paul's.


The neighbor of Robin Pewterer and John Cobbler in the Anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V, his role is not essential to the plot.


Subtle Shift, who prides himself in shifting for himself in the Anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes, calls himself "an Ambodexter" at one point.


Sir Janus Ambodexter is a guest at Bloodhound's 'wedding' in William Rowley's A Match at Midnight. He is a Justice of the Peace, and escorts Mistress Coote and Sue to Bridewell.


A lawyer in Brome's The Sparagus Garden, employed by Striker but a friend to Samuel, who tries to convince Touchwood to allow Samuel to marry Annabel on the grounds that she is worth six thousand pounds on her marriage. She will also receive two thousand more on the birth of her first lawfully begotten child, and much more money at Striker's death. Touchwood rejects him as a knave, but is convinced by his proposals.


A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Wit in a Constable. Valentine claims that, if he wishes, he can dress as a woman and pass for a bouncing Mary Ambree.


Ambrose is a gallant in Brome's The Damoiselle. He is Valentine's friend. He goes together with his friends to the brothel looking for fun.


Referred to as "Drawer" in Brome's The English Moor; also known as Host. He alone knows that Meanly and Rashwell counterfeited their feud and deaths.

AMBROSE **1637

Only mentioned in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. Jarbus relates how this king of Britain’s noble barons were killed by Vortiger in the year 575.


The younger son of the Duke of Northumberland and brother to Guildford Dudley in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt, Ambrose brings his father the bad news that the royal commissioners have forsaken Lady Jane Grey and pledged their loyalty to Queen Mary. Further, he tells the duke that the Lord Mayor of London and many sheriffs have decided to proclaim Mary their queen and that Guildford and Jane have been sent to the Tower.


Initially one of Lucina's suitors in Shirley's The Ball, Lamount falls prey to Lucina's joke that sends three suitors running after useless marriage licenses. Failing in his suit here, Lamount then courts Honoria, claiming he had loved her long but had never spoken. Once again Lamount is duped, this time by the combined efforts of Honoria and Rosamond.


A Sergeant, sent to arrest Monopoly in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho. At Clare's direction, he keeps Monopoly at his house rather than in jail. He admits to Tenterhook that Clare gave him her diamonds in return for Monopoly, and accompanies him to Brainford to retrieve her.


A "ghost character" in Cooke's Greene's Tu Quoque. Ambush is a London broker and money-lender referenced by Scattergood.


These pagan soldiers in Heywood's Four Prentices of London, under the command of the Sultan of Babylon and the Sophy of Persia, repeatedly attempt to subdue the Christian forces to no avail. They are conquered outright when the four brothers kill their four leaders.


Amedeus, an elderly Florentine in (?)Jeffere's The Bugbears, loves his money more than he loves his son, Formosus' happiness. He refuses to allow Formosus to marry his sweetheart, Rosimunda, because her father, Brancatius, cannot pay a dowry of 3,000 crowns. Instead, Amedeus accepts this sum from Cantalopo as dowry for the latter's daughter, Iphigenia, to marry Formosus. Amedeus relents only after being fooled into thinking that his house is haunted by spirits (buggbears) who stole the 3,000 crown dowry out of Amedeus' own strongbox and threatened to burn down his mansion with all its occupants.


Amelus, "the trusty," is a friend to Nearchus, prince of Argos in Ford's The Broken Heart.


Amerula is a lady of the court in Lyly's Midas. She offers to tell Sophronia and the other ladies a story while they wait for news of Midas' trip to Pactolus.


Young Amery Lord Montaigue is a nobleman at the court of Chester and a companion to Oswen in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. When the Earl of Chester receives the two future bridegrooms Pembrooke and Moorton ceremoniously, Pembrooke observes that Marian does not look so pleased with her future husband. Because Oswen fears that his sister's demeanor might offend the Earl of Pembrooke, Amery comments diplomatically on the fact that women pretend to dislike the man they most appreciate. Amery and Oswen accompany Pembrooke and Moorton to their lodgings outside the city. Amery and Oswen attend the crude pageant the amateur actors have prepared in honor of the bridegrooms. During the night, the lords are startled with a song lamenting that their ladies are gone and Amery and Oswen attend the commotion. Amery and Oswen are introduced into Gosselin's castle illicitly, as part of the masque created by John a Cumber disguised as John a Kent. Amery and Oswen accompany the ladies as their guardians on their way to Chester. With the help of magical music and hypnotic chimes, Shrimp puts Amery and Oswen to sleep, while the lords Powesse, Sir Griffin, Gosselin and Evan make away with the ladies. When Amery and Oswen wake up, Shrimp pretends to be John a Cumber's apprentice and tells them to follow him on a shortcut through the woods. After the performance on the lawn before Gosselin's castle, Shrimp leads the confused Amery and Oswen, who have been walking around a tree believing they are in search of the ladies. At Chester Abbey, where the marriages of Sydanen to Moorton and of Marian to Pembrooke are to take place, Amery and Oswen are tricked into witnessing the marriages of Sydanen to Sir Griffin (disguised as Moorton) and of Marian to Powesse (disguised as Pembrooke).


A Cyprian nobleman, brother to Thamasta and thus cousin to Prince Palador in Ford's The Lover's Melancholy. He is the bosom friend of Menaphon, and is in love with Menaphon's cousin, Cleophila, but cannot marry her because she insists on staying beside her father in his madness and desolation. Amethus is angry with his sister for her pride and coldness in repeatedly refusing Menaphon, and chides her for these faults frequently. Initially pleased when he finds Thamasta appearing to melt toward Menaphon, he is disgusted and angry when he discovers that her real interest is in Menaphon's impoverished young friend, Parthenophill. Their quarrel is eventually healed by Thamasta's contrition after she discovers that Parthenophill is really Eroclea in disguise, and by Cleophila's intervention. Having repeatedly tried to win Cleophila from the mad Meleander, Amethus is overjoyed to be present at the restoration of Eroclea to her father's bosom and of Meleander to health. Palador begs Meleander to grant Cleophila to Amethus, the old man agrees, and all ends happily.


Daughter of Basilonte, who guards her jealously in Davenant's The Spanish Lovers. Amiana, a girl of relentless innocence, is involved in a love affair with the light-minded Androlio, who visits her secretly but refuses to marry her on principle. He offers a pact to his friends Orco and Orgemon: let them all share their mistresses. Orgemon, faithful to Claramante, refuses, but Orco decides to try it, and later returns to Amiana's house, secretly and in disguise. She begs the stranger to take her to Androlio's house, which she has decided must be better than life at her father's. Orco takes her to his own house, where she is discovered by Balthazar and Argilo, who are looking for Claramante. While Orco is out, they rescue her from the house. She is soon abandoned, however, when Balthazar realizes she will not take him as her lover. Orco finds her again, and, after teasing her, promises that this time he will really take her to Androlio, who is now with Claramante at the house of Marillia. He does so, and Amiana now takes a firm line with her errant lover: Androlio must marry her tomorrow. Next morning, her father Basilonte finds her and challenges Androlio to fight him. The only other solution is to marry her, so, between the two of them, Androlio finds himself doing so rather to his own surprise.


Amidea is the honorable ingenue in the mold of Sophonisba and Shakespeare's Isabella in Shirley's The Traitor. She is willing to die or sacrifice her brother before bedding a man not her husband. When she must die or else succumb to the Duke's lust, she shows spirit by lying to her brother in order to force him to murder her without incurring damnation to his own soul. She heroically defends her chastity in her first encounter with the Duke by wounding her own arm to convince him of her sincerity. Her willingness to inflict such torture upon herself rather than face dishonor may place her even above Sophonisba.


A silent character in Brome's A Mad Couple. She is Fitzgerrard's sister. She left her town and acquaintances two years ago when she had an affair with Lord Lovely. Her brother comes in Act Five looking for her. She marries Bellamy at the end of the play.


Amie is the niece and ward of Master Clack in Brome's A Jovial Crew. He plans to marry her to Master Tallboy. Amie runs away with Martin and, dressed clownishly, encounters Springlove, Meriel, Rachel, Hilliard, and Vincent, to whom she gives money generously. While in their company, she falls in love with Springlove, and the announcement of their engagement concludes the play.


A courtier in Shakespeare's As You Like It. When Duke Senior is banished, Amiens remains loyal and joins his court-in-exile located in the forest of Arden. Amiens' chief contribution to their pastoral enjoyment is his singing.


Brother to Lady Orleans and neutral in the conflict between Orleans and Montaigne in Fletcher's The Honest Man's Fortune, Amiens nearly duels with Orleans when Orleans accuses Lady Orleans of adultery but is stopped by Lady Orleans's false confession, whereupon he goes to duel with Montaigne. Lady Orleans prevents that duel as well by admitting that she lied about having committed adultery in order to prevent the first duel. Amiens does not fight Montaigne, but neither does he help Lady Orleans, who is homeless and penniless. Amiens hears that Longavile has been dueling on Amiens' behalf and goes to duel him for his presumption, but Longavile's noble behavior wins him over, and Amiens takes Longavile into service. Amiens employs Longavile as a messenger to carry a love-letter to Lamira and a challenge to Orleans; Amiens goes to duel Orleans, but the duel is prevented by Longavile's actions. Amiens is believed to be Lamira's choice as husband, but accedes graciously to Lamira's choice of Montaigne as husband and blesses the wedding.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. Hiacinth's father. Apollo makes reference to him when he is telling the Charities the reason why he is grieving.


The same character whom Discourse refers to as "Anima" in Zouche's The Sophister.


A pedantic schoolmaster in (?)Heywood's How A Man May Choose A Good Wife From A Bad. Tries unsuccessfully to teach the two Boys and Pipkin their Latin grammar lesson and also threatens to beat Pipkin for arriving late. After Pipkin and the Boys leave, Aminadab meets Young Master Arthur, who asks about a pretty young woman he has seen; in an aside, Aminadab reveals that this woman, Mistress Mary, is his love. He promises to help Young Master Arthur as long as Arthur tells him how he fares. After Young Master Arthur exits, Aminadab vows revenge if Young Master Arthur proves successful with his love, but he also wonders how he can take revenge, since he is at heart a coward. Later, having armed himself with a bill and a headpiece, he arrives at Mistress Mary's house, where he vows to hide by the door and drive off any rival suitors. When Brabo arrives armed with a sword and threatening to hang up Aminadab like a dried sausage, Aminadab does nothing as Brabo exits with Mistress Mary. After she exits, Aminadab discards his weapon and vows, since he has been abandoned by his love, to commit suicide. Later and still in despair, Aminadab cannot decide how to kill himself, finally settling on poison. He meets Master Anselm and Master Fuller and tells them he needs poison for some rats in his house; Fuller gives him a sleeping potion which he claims is rat poison. Aminadab thanks him and exits. Later, Aminadab arrives at Young Master Arthur's feast, where he says grace and then questions his pupil Pipkin, who answers him comically. At the end of the feast, after Young Master Arthur and Mistress Arthur have reconciled, Aminadab says another grace. Aminadab escorts Mistress Mary home from the feast. Later, Aminadab is teaching some of his Boys when they see Mistress Arthur (in her shroud) returning from the tomb; they flee, thinking they have seen a ghost. At the end of the play, Aminadab is led in by Hugh and the Officers, having been charged with selling poison. When Young Master Arthur admits to taking the poison from Aminadab rather than buying it, Justice Reason then asks Aminadab where he got the poison from; Aminadab indicates that Fuller provided him with the powder. After Mistress Arthur's entry and the negation of the murder charge, Aminadab wonders how Mistress Arthur could have survived his supposed rat poison; he learns from Fuller that the powder was in fact a sleeping potion.


Aminta is the sister of Raymond in Fletcher and Massinger's The Sea Voyage. Albert has kidnapped her as part of his feud with her brother, but has fallen in love with her. During the storm she tells Albert that the danger to the ship is divine retribution for her abduction, but when he saves her life she regrets her harsh words and begins to return his love. Aminta is the first to see Sebastian and Nicusa make off with the ship during the fight over the Portuguese treasure; after the fighting she binds Albert's wounds with her hair. Albert leaves Aminta and swims the channel to the fertile island in search of food and assistance. Aminta is attacked by Lamure, Franville, Morillat and the Surgeon, who are so hungry that they plan to eat her. They are particularly keen to eat Aminta because they believe that she has distracted Albert from finding fertile lands for them to colonize. Aminta is rescued by Tibalt and the Master; she forgives the gallants for their behavior and is the first to offer them food when Albert returns. Aminta is distressed to be told by Albert that she must pretend to be his sister. She is welcomed by the women, who leave her free when they imprison the men. Aminta is appalled by Clarinda's confession of her love for Albert, and tries to dissuade her, saying that she has another, worthier brother. Albert and Aminta are discovered together by Clarinda, and Aminta is bound to a tree by Hippolita and Juletta, who pity her but do not dare to go against Clarinda's orders. Aminta is found by Raymond, who begins to untie her; both, however, are captured by the amazons, because Raymond is unwilling to fight women. When Sebastian enters and prevents Rosellia's sacrifice of Albert and Raymond, Aminta and Albert are reunited.


Aminta is a gentlewoman of the house of Bellides in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill. She aids Ismenia in her pursuit of Antonio, but secretly fancies him too. She accompanies Ismenia (who is disguised as a shepherdess called Isabella) to the country. Also disguised as a shepherdess, Aminta tells Antonio that 'Isabella' loves him. She then disguises as a page in order to deliver a letter to Antonio from Ismenia to test his reaction. When Ismenia's deception has been revealed, and she and Antonio have agreed to marry, Aminta waits at Ismenia's window with a priest and a bed ready, hoping to fool Antonio into marrying her. But it is Martine, dressed in Antonio's clothes, who arrives, and the couple are married, both thinking they are marrying someone else. When Aminta realises her mistake, she accepts it as poetic justice.


A nymph in Glapthorne's Argalus and Parthenia, friend of Florida, Castalia and the shepherdess Sapho. The over-sexed swain Clitophon's first attempt to flirt with her leaves her skeptical and scornful of him. It seems that Alexis falls in love with her for real and they are later matched in a lovers' dance by Strephon. It remains unclear whether they are united, as she is last seen with Sapho and Florida, accompanying Parthenia to her fight with Amphialus. Aminta suggests that the maidens all choose to die with Parthenia and the swains are nowhere to be seen, but her suggestion is overruled by Sapho, who instead delivers a formal elegy upon the heroine.


Aminter is a friend of Julio in Day's Isle of Gulls and with him plots to abduct the princesses Hippolita and Violetta from the fortified island on which Basilius keeps them. They arrive in disguise as a poor soldier and a poor poet, and are about to be dismissed by Dametas before they remove their disguises. It turns out that they have been conspiring with Dametas to win the challenge, and Dametas is to help them seize Hippolita and Violetta during a hunting party. Julio and Aminter disguise themselves as sylvans, and snatch the princesses, but Hippolita and Violetta are rescued by Lisander and Demetrius and Julio and Aminter are frustrated. They return in disguise as Lacedemonian intelligencers, and Basilius orders Dametas to reward them with 200 crowns for the news they bring. Instead, he keeps them hanging on for two months and eventually gives them only 50 crowns. Julio and Aminter are debating their frustrations and planning to inform on Dametas via Zelmane, when they overhear Lisander and Demetrius plotting to elope with the princesses. Lisander and Demetrius decide to hire Julio and Aminter to convey the princesses from the island. Unfortunately for them, this gives Julio and Aminter the opportunity to take Hippolita and Violetta for themselves. Lisander and Demetrius are furious and draw their swords, but Basilius approves the claim of Julio and Aminter within the rules of the challenge.


Amintor is the wronged husband in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Maid's Tragedy. He was betrothed to Aspatia, whom he loved, but marries Evadne, the sister of his best friend, Melantius. When he discovers that the wedding is only a ruse to conceal Evadne's fornication with the King, only Amintor's belief in the Divine Right of Kings keeps him from killing his rival. He is tricked into killing Aspatia when she appears dressed as a man and challenges him to a duel. When he rejects Evadne for her murder of the King, she kills herself. When he discovers that the young man he killed was actually his love Aspatia in disguise, he kills himself.


A "ghost character" in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England. When the Angel first informs Jonas of God's order that he should go to Nineveh and preach, he addresses the prophet as the son of Amithais.


A mute character in Pickering's Horestes. Said by Revenge (the Vice) to be someone in whose presence he cannot bear to be and to have sat beside Menalaus at Horestes's wedding


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a sinful man.


Only mentioned in Peele's David and Bethsabe. King Ammon was a son of Lot and the founder of the Ammonite kingdom.


One of David's sons in Peele's David and Bethsabe. Amnon becomes obsessed with his half-sister Thamar and rapes her. He is then killed by Thamar's brother Absalon (his own half-brother).


A "ghost character" in Jonson's The Alchemist. Mistress Amo is a brothel keeper in London. When Face wants to terminate his association with Subtle and Dol Common, he says Dol should leave through the back door, and he will send her letters to Mistress Amo. Dol is angered by the suggestion.


Amoret is a shepherdess in Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess. She loves Perigot and is loved by him. They agree to meet in the wood at night to make vows to one another. However, Amoret meets Perigot after he has already come across Amarillis in Amoret's shape, and he stabs his beloved because he believes her to be lustful and unchaste. The Sullen Shepherd throws Amoret into the well, but she is rescued by the River God, who is able to heal her because she is a chaste virgin. The River God woos her, but she rejects him because she is still in love with Perigot. Amoret is directed to Perigot by Amarillis, but he stabs her for a second time because Perigot now believes her to be the disguised Amarillis. The Satyr finds Amoret and takes her to Clorin to be healed. After a false alarm when the presence of the unchaste Cloë inhibits the healing process, Amoret is restored to health. She is reconciled with Perigot, and they renew their vows to one another before returning to the village.


The Duchess's woman in Thomas Middleton's The Witch. She is wooed by Almachildes with the aid of charms procured from Hecate. She is instrumental in the arrangements between Almachildes and the Duchess, who tries to get the former to kill her husband. At the end of the play she clears her mistress from the charge of adultery.


Amoretta, daughter of Trelcatio, is a comic character with inflated social expectations and a lisp in Ford's The Lady's Trial. Piero and Futelli, with the blessing of Trelcatio, arrange to have her courted by Guzman and Fulgoso, also pretentious fools. Amoretta emerges from the trick unscathed. She enjoys their courtship well enough, but when Futelli finally chases them off, she is quite unconcerned. At the end, she and Futelli are betrothed—apparently to their mutual satisfaction.


Literally, one who loves (Latin). Amoretto resides in the Land of Poetry in the anonymous Pilgrimage To Parnassus, and is reading Ovid when he encounters Philomusus and Studiosus. He quickly expresses his relief that the pilgrims have left the company of Stupido, whom he describes as a "moving piece of clay" and a "speaking asse." Philomusus and Studiosus are attracted by the promise of verse and sex in the Land of Poetry, and Amoretto promises to satisfy their urges, telling the pair to abandon the journey to Parnassus and take advantage of their youth.


In the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus, Having brought his amorous proclivities from Parnassus to London, Amoretto wonders aloud how he can find the money he thinks he needs to make a good impression on his mistress, and considers selling the benefice that his father, Sir Raderick, controls; as he talks, Academico makes fun of his affected language. Amoretto agrees to request the living for Immerito in exchange for a bribe of eighty pounds. When Academico makes the same request, citing favors he did Amoretto when both were students, Amoretto puts him off by talking inanely about hunting. When Ingenioso and his associates approach, he insists on nattering about the law with the Recorder, and exits having giving them nothing but an occasion to rail.


Herod's brother, "a sickly knight" in Marston's Parasitaster, or The Fawn. His name translates to "lover with a feeble back," i.e., impotent. He is accused of impotence during the Masque of Cupid's Council. His wife, Donna Garbetza, admits that her child is not her husband's during the Council, but as punishment, Sir Amoroso is forced to acknowledge that the child is his.


Amorous is one of the Passions in Strode's The Floating Island. He revolts against Prudentius when Prudentius installs a rule of chastity and Morphe then refuses Amorous's attentions and also because Prudentius banishes Amorous' daughter Concupiscence from the Island. Amorous tries to seduce Fuga, but is rejected; he then tries to woo Morphe again but she also rejects him. He sees Livebyhope wounded by Audax and Irato. Believing Livebyhope dead, Amorous tends to Morphe, who has fainted. He takes her to Desperato and asks him to make a love potion for Morphe. After he is falsely told by Model that Morphe is dead, Amorous regrets attempting to seduce her. He at first vows revenge on Desperato but is then persuaded to take poison at Desperato's dinner. He asks forgiveness of Prudentius and accepts the latter's decree that he can never marry Morphe.


Sir Amorous La-Foole is a foolish knight in Jonson's Epicoene. At Clerimont's house in London, La-Foole enters to invite Clerimont and Dauphine to a party at Haughty's. Speaking of his ancestry, La-Foole says he is descended lineally of the French La-Fooles. After delivering his invitation, La-Foole exits, while Clerimont and Dauphine comment critically on his affectation. At Otter's house, La-Foole enters to attend a party given in his honor by his cousin, Mistress Otter. La-Foole meets the gallants, who persuade him to have the party transferred to Morose's house. La-Foole exits to make the arrangements. At Morose's house, La-Foole enters with Otter and Daw, joining the party of merry gentlemen. All the gallants drink heavily in the sound of blasting trumpets and drums. When Morose drives the noisy intruders away, La-Foole and Daw run off. In a long open gallery at Morose's house, La-Foole enters with Haughty's party. When Epicoene pretends that her husband is mad, La-Foole barges into the conversation at the most inappropriate moments. La-Foole exits with Haughty's party. La-Foole re-enters and Truewit ridicules him by locking him and Daw in separate rooms, setting one against the other, and forcing them to accept satisfaction through what they think to be private humiliation. Dauphine in disguise, pretending to be Daw, tweaks La-Foole's nose while the ladies are watching from above. Truewit instructs La-Foole to behave with Daw as if nothing happened. When, later, La-Foole and Daw are summoned from their separate rooms they embrace like the best of friends. When the furious Morose chases everybody away, La-Foole runs off with the ladies and Daw. In the final reconciliation scene, La-Foole and Daw are forced to admit that Epicoene was their mistress before her marriage. When, however, Epicoene proves to be a boy, the two foolish knights are publicly humiliated and La-Foole exits with Daw in disgrace.


Aside from Fidelio, he is the only Servant to continue to follow the usurped King of Lydia in Act One of T.D.'s The Bloody Banquet. In the next Act, he helps to rescue Lapyrus from the trap, and continues to search for the distressed Lydian Queen and her children. In Act Five, he assists with Lydia's counter-coup of the usurping tyrant, Armatrites.


Amorphus or the Deformed is a traveler that has drunk of the fountain of Self-love and publicizes the wonders of the water in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. Amorphus might represent Anthony Munday, Jonson's contemporary and fellow-playwright. Before the Fountain of Self-love, Amorphus enters, drinks of the water, and suddenly becomes enamored with himself. Asotus and Crites enter, and the poet introduces Asotus to Amorphus. Amorphus promises Asotus to initiate him in the courtly manners and he exits with Asotus, followed by their pages. At court, Amorphus enters with Asotus, teaching his new disciple variants of courtly behavioral stereotypes. In an apartment at the palace, Amorphus enters with Asotus to join the nymphs' company. After gallant conversation and games, Amorphus and the other members of the party of nymphs and gallants drink of the miraculous fountain water and become even more self-conceited than they already were. Amorphus exits with the party of revelers. In another room at the palace, Amorphus enters with Asotus, explaining his disciple the theory of colors while waiting for the guests to arrive at the party. When the party begins, Amorphus introduces Asotus as the champion in the contest of elegant behavior. However, when Mercury disguised as a Frenchified Gentleman appears as the other contestant, Amorphus takes the challenge. The result of the competition is total disgrace for the nymphs and their gallants, whose affected ways are exposed. At Cynthia's revels, Amorphus is disguised as Eucosmos in the Second Masque. In the end, Crites pronounces the punishment for the self-infatuated nymphs and gallants. Amorphus exits with the others singing a Palinode. The song is an invocation of the god Mercury, who is asked to defend them against the dangers of counterfeit and vanity. As part of the penance, the affected nymphs and courtiers must go to Niobe's stone and repent. After being purged, they are invited to taste of the water of the Well of Knowledge and then report of Cynthia's grace.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a prophet.


Eldest son to Fortunatus in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. Unlike his younger brother, Andelocia, he is careful with his money. After their father's death, Ampedo takes the magic hat, while his brother takes the purse. Once he is reunited with Andelocia, he burns the hat and purse so that they can do no more mischief. He is arrested by Longaville and Montrose, who accuse him of complicity in the disappearance of Agripyne; soon after, he dies.


Amphiabel is a British nobleman, warrior and Christian missionary in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. He encourages Winifred to devote herself to God, and converts the Roman lord Albon to Christianity. When he returns to visit Winifred, Roman soldiers arrest them. Amphiabel endures torture, and is then sentenced to a gruesome death by disembowelment.


A noble Lord in Glapthorne's Argalus and Parthenia. He is in love with his cousin, the princess Philoclea. He first appears after Argalus kills Demagoras in single combat to revenge the attack upon Parthenia, discussing the tragedy with the lord Philarchus. Amphialus identifies himself with Argalus, in that both are experiencing tragic frustrations in their pursuit of love. He himself has abducted and imprisoned his reluctant beloved and her sister in order to force the hand of their father the King. His romantic strategy will be doomed to failure, as she loves Pyrocles: at this stage, the King has proposed a single combat for the release of the princesses, to which Amphialus assents. He awaits the news of the King's choice of champion to face him. The King subsequently chooses Argalus as his champion to fight Amphialus. Man-to-man and attended by the noble Philarchus, the two champions agree honorably to protect each others' ladies, whichever of them survives the combat. They fight and Parthenia interrupts, horrified at the sight of her husband's blood: Argalus is mortally wounded and dies. Amphialus departs, hating himself for the deed. Later, Philarchus discusses his chances of success in winning the hand of Philoclea, given the King's grief over the imprisonment of his daughters and the death of Zelmane, but Amphialus is too wretched with grief over the death of Argalus to rally. Disguised in male armor, Parthenia challenges him to combat. She denounces his cowardice for first refusing, then provokes him by reviling Philoclea's beauty. They fight. Wounded, her angel-like hair is revealed and she dies calling Argalus's name. Amphialus departs in further grief, having killed both the play's hero, reluctantly, and its heroine, by accident.


"A perplexed schollar" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Amphibius hides from Philoponus at the play's beginning because he is ashamed of his "passions" which (though previously directed towards his scholarly endeavours) are now newly "inthrald" and have caused him to "turn [. . .] souldier." He identifies his crisis in detail for the audience before deciding to flee to "some cave" in the "thickest groves." After receiving "from grave Museus's hand Apollos benediction" Philoponus recalls past discourses with Amphibius and seeks out his friend whom he claims "promised to overtake [him] at this morning's sacrifice." After searching high and low for Amphibius, Philoponus finally finds him. Amphibius informs Philoponus of his changed affections and the two discuss Amphibius's desire to "untwist" himself from his "bond of service to Apollo"–the result of Amphibius's previous encounter with Siren and his receipt of what he sees as a very convincing letter from Queen Hedone encouraging him to give up his scholarly ambitions. Philoponus reads his friend's letter from Siren and Queen Hedone, and the two discuss it and then depart for the "laurell Grove" to get to the bottom of what Philoponus refers to as the "fardell of false wares." Amphibius claims, later in the play, that (while in the laurel grove) Philoponus "dispel'd those mists" which Siren had "cast before" his eyes. When Amphibius expresses his desire for revenge upon Siren, Philoponus advises him "no more to speake with her by word or pen." After Amphibius thanks Philoponus for leading him out of "this Labyrinth," the friends depart for the "Session" at Apollo's Court which "is long since begunne." He is present at the sentencing of disobedient characters at the play's end, where he expresses his hatred for Siren and has "one kick more at her" before she is led out after being sentenced by Museus for her mischievousness.


Sir Amphilus is a Cornish Knight to whom Vermine wants to marry his daughter, Alice in Brome's The Damoiselle. He does not have too much property but he has a lot of money and dignity. He is fifty-two years old. He has made a fortune by marrying young ladies with a good dowry. He is worried about how much money he can get with the next marriage. He had rejected his matching with Reynold Pengutling's daughter because he thought that he could get more money marrying Alice. He is told that Alice has dies when she has really eloped with her brother. To entertain himself, he gets a dog. Later, he sees Vermine in Bumpsey's house and he asks him about his daughter. There, Trebasco will find him and inform him about the disappearance of his dog. Sad, he goes to a tavern with Trebasco.


Also "Amphytruo" in the anonymous Birthe of Hercules. Amphitruo is a great lord of Thebes, deputy general of King Creon's army against the Teleboians. He sends two messengers to his wife, Alcumena, announcing his victory over the Teleboians and his imminent arrival home, but Mercurius sends them back to prevent them from disturbing his father, Iupiter, as he is pretending to be Amphitruo in order to seduce Alcumena. When Amphitruo sees that Sosia is back to him, not having delivered his message, he reprimands him severely. Later, as he is approaching his house, he reveals–to Sosia–his anxiety about the fact that his wife must have missed him in his long absence, although he hopes his news of victory over the enemy will excuse him. Instead, he finds a wife who is convinced he has been there the previous night. Incensed, he assures his wife that she has been unfaithful to him, he asks Sosia to go and bring Naucrates, his wife's cousin, who will act as a witness for him, since he was also on board his ship the previous night. Later, Amphitruo himself also leaves in search of Naucrates. However, unable to find him, he goes back home again, where he is denied entrance by Dromia. In his attempt to find an explanation, Amphitruo guesses the gods must be angry with him, and he is being punished by them. Amphitruo asks Blepharo to prove his wife is unfaithful, but the Blepharo suggests that a magician must have enchanted Amphitruo's family, and persuades the latter to check if that is true before taking any revenge. After a while, Iupiter–still in the shape of Amphitruo–goes out of the house, and the general and the god face each other for the first time, and ask Blepharo to decide which one is the real Amphitruo. This is impossible because, no matter the nature of the questions posed by Blepharo, both Iupiter and Amphitruo answer them correctly. Therefore, Blepharo gives up, and Amphitruo despairs. Being exhausted, he finally resolves to sleep outside his house. He is soon awakened by Bromia, who announces that his wife had given birth to two sons. She also reveals that Iupiter himself had talked to Alcumena. As he accompanies the maid into the house, he sees Dromio, who seems to be glad to see his master, and tells him about a strange dream he had: that his wife had given birth to two sons and two serpents–one of the serpents would kill one son, and the other son would kill both serpents. Then Iupiter addresses to Amphitruo and reveals that he had caused the confusion in his house, and that one of the sons his wife had given birth to had been engendered by him, and the other by her husband. He also adds that one of them is going to crown his mortal head with immortality. He finally asks him to reconcile with his wife, to which Amphitruo consents.


This Theban general in Heywood's The Silver Age returns from a foreign victory too late to prevent the liaison of his wife with Jupiter. He and his servant Socia are mocked as imposters by the household, until Jupiter reveals his disguise and urges the mortal to forgive his wife and the other servants.
Spelled Amphitrio in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter. Husband of Alcmena and dupe of Jupiter. Amphitryo is the leader of the Theban forces, whose absence from home on campaign gives Jupiter his opportunity with Alcmena. Amphitryo's confusion at finding himself usurped by his own double is the source of an extended, uncomfortable comedy. (In comparison with most Amphitryos, from Plautus to Giraudoux, Heywood's hero takes it all fairly well, a little servant-beating and wife-slanging apart.)


The daughter of the King of Cicilia in T.D.'s The Bloody Banquet. In Act One, she deplores the tyranny of her Father, Armatrites. She pledges love to Tymethes, the Son of the King that Armatrites has deposed. In Act Two, she confers with Tymethes, dismissing his worry that she will succumb to the advances of the parasite, Mazeres. In Act Four, she demands and receives the jewel that Tymethes has removed from her veiled Mother at the banquet. She is coerced into giving the jewel to Armatrites, who realizes that it is the Queen's, and that Tymethes has had access to his Queen. Now, she dismisses the disgraced Tymethes, and pledges her hand to Mazeres. In Act Five, she is outraged when her Brother tells her that he has precipitated the downfall of her newly-favored suitor, Mazeres. She poisons her brother's wine, successfully killing him. She also poisons her own wine, ruing that her brother acted to 'divide love'.


Only mentioned in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Amphytrio was the husband of Alcmena, who was beloved of Jupiter; so Jupiter came to Alcmena's bed in Amphytrio's shape. Honorea is compared in beauty to Alcmena; and although no specific connection is made, Jupiter's shape-shifting is reminiscent of Belphagor's guise as Castiliano, and the "extra" devil's disguise as Musgrave.


Lady Ample is a young and wealthy widow in Davenant's The Wits. She has been under the control of her parsimonious and greedy guardian, Sir Tyrant Thrift. She, like many of the other characters in this play, lives on her wits. In her case, this means convincing gentlemen to give her extravagant gifts without compromising her virtue. She undertakes the reeducation of the elder Pallatine by pretending to be in love with him and then assisting his brother, the younger Pallatine, in springing a trap designed to show up his vanity. She also instructs Lucy to take money from her lover, not give it away, and pretends to have died, convincing her guardian that he has inherited everything. After extracting a promise of implicit lifelong obedience from the elder Pallatine at the end of the play, she marries him as soon as her wardship expires.


Sides with Belinus in Greene's Alphonsus, King of Arragon in an attempt to stop the advancement of Alphonsus. In a dream, he envisions the slaughter of his men at the hand of Alphonsus, and as a result he decides to marry his daughter, Iphigina, to Alphonsus in order to protect his kingdom. Not believing Fabius' report of Mahomet's prophesy that they should hurry off to war (given the superior numbers of Alphonsus, he rightly assumes victory is impossible), and then upon news that Mahomet has in fact tricked them, he has Fabius arrested and then killed. He is defeated by Alphonsus and taken prisoner, but in the concluding scene celebrates the marriage of his daughter to Alphonsus.


A "ghost character" in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. Amurath, the mighty Emperor of the East sent great aid to Abdelmelec. The son to Sultan Solimon, king of the Turks, Amurath sent Bassa to aid Abdelmelec. The "god of earthly kings" received abundant praise after his aid helped Abdelmelec win the civil war.


Brother of Soliman in Kyd's Soliman and Perseda. In the first act, he supports Soliman's plan to conquer Rhodes. When his brother Haleb expresses concern about the plan, he is enraged and murders him. Soliman then murders Amurath.


Turkish Emperor in ?Greene and Chettle's John of Bordeaux. Having been defeated at Ravenna by the forces of Frederick, he captures Friar Bacon, only to be tricked by him into giving up his imperial robe and crown. He returns to fight at Ravenna, is victorious and burns the city.


Son of Acomat in ?Greene's Selimus I. Receives a message from Mustaffa warning him of Selimus' plan to kill him and his brother, and vows to flee to Egypt.

AMURATH **1597

Only mentioned in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV, Amurath was a sixteenth century sultan who had all of his brothers strangled on assuming the throne. King Henry V reassures his own brothers that he is not like Amurath.


Amurath is the "Courageous Turk" of Goffe's The Courageous Turk. After subjugating part of Greece and falling in love with the beautiful Greek captive Eumorphe, he becomes lethargic and excessively focused upon the woman, and not until Lala Schahin presents him with a masque depicting the importance of fame and Alexander the Great's having rejected the pleasures of the flesh in favor of war and conquest, does he resume his first course. He signals the change by summoning his captains and beheading Eumorphe in their presence before sending them to attack Thrace. Becoming increasingly brutal, he relishes the devastation of Christian Servia (Serbia) and Bulgaria wrought by Lala Schahin, Chase Illibegge, and others. When his son-in-law Aladin, the king of Caramania, rebels, he attacks him, and after his victory, threatens to kill Aladin, Aladin's Wife (his own daughter), and his two grandsons. After much pleading from his daughter, Amurath agrees to spare them, but he pointedly notes that he will be keeping check on Aladin hereafter. Following the last battle in Servia, Amurath sees portents in the heavens that he takes as divine encouragement for further attacks upon Christian Europe and is thwarted only when the wounded captain Cobelitz approaches him as if to surrender but instead stabs him with a hidden dagger.


Amyclas is a good king in Ford's The Broken Heart. He does little more than admire Ithocles the warrior, wonder about Orgilus' return, and make ready Calantha's accession to the throne, however.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. One of the French commissioners at the peace negotiations in Edinburgh.


Amyntas (also listed as Cimyntas) is a shepherd in Lyly's Midas. He and the other shepherds learn that Midas' ears have been transformed into those of an ass. The reeds overhear the shepherds talking about Midas.


Amyntas is a "ghost character" in Daniel's Philotas. Amyntas is a friend of Philotas, and according to Dymnus is part of a plot to kill Alexander. Alexander fears that Amyntas will mutiny if Philotas feels that he is being badly treated.


Amyntas is the son of Montanus in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. He is in love with Cloris and quarrels with Carinus, who also loves her, watched by Ergastus and Meliboeus, and Colax and Techne. Techne is attracted to Amyntas and she attempts to persuade him that Cloris cares nothing for him. Finding herself rebuffed, Techne claims that if Amyntas goes to Erycinas Grove he will see that Cloris is unfaithful to him. Amyntas sees Cloris exit the cave with Colax and despairs; after he leaves, distraught, Techne worries that he will commit suicide. She sees no alternative but to find Cloris and persuade her to deter him. Mirtillus brings news to Carinas and Amarillis of Amyntas, who was found lying comatose by Mirtillus, Tytirus and Menalcas. They find that he has taken poison and send for Urania, whose skill with herbs they hope can cure him. Mirtillus describes the arrival of Cloris, how they saw her love for Amyntas manifest itself in her face, and how she held him in her arms. Urania heals Amyntas, and Cloris brings him to the shepherds' assembly, reuniting him with Montanus. Montanus and Acrysias welcome the betrothal of their children.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. One of the kings listed by Caesar as joining Antony's side of the war. He is the king of Lycaonia.


A mad shepherd in Randolph's Amyntas. He is son to Claius and brother to Amaryllis, beloved by Urania. His madness is the result of his failure to decipher the riddling oracle, which dictates the dowry he must provide to win Urania. It is believed that their impossible love is the goddess's punishment to Urania's father for his vengeful prayers, which have already killed Amyntas's mother and doomed his exiled father to death should he ever return to Sicily. Amyntas has been loyally nursed in his long ravings by his true love and his devoted sister. His madness takes the form of rambling hallucinations: he mistakes Mopsus for Chaeron the ferryman of Hades, Urania for Proserpine, and his sister for the Fury, Tysiphone. He still rants on the frustrations of his love and the insoluble oracle and calls on his imaginary dogs. He mistakes Mopsus for a dog, a charade the foolish Mopsus keeps up for several comic scenes, even out of the invalid's presence. Claius returns incognito and cures Amyntas. It is agreed that, to prevent a relapse into insanity, Urania will swear perpetual virginity to the goddess and place beyond all hope marriage to Amyntas, and therefore, any need to solve the oracle, but he is not privy to the decision. He is taken by Amaryllis to visit their doomed father in prison. Together the siblings interrupt the joint executions of Claius and Damon because Amyntas has now had time and grace to interpret the goddess's riddles correctly. He expounds the first oracle at great length, proving that his father's blood has already been spilt, in his sister's injury; also that the 'fire' of the riddle is the love between the children of the fathers at enmity. He thus saves his father's life and that of Damon, who is now free to marry Amaryllis. Amyntas still grieves for himself that the impossible dowry remains unsolved and his love for Urania remains unrequited, but joins in the public rejoicing for his lifting of the island's curse. Amyntas is shocked to discover Urania's intention to vow chastity at the altar. Her prayers and his are echoed by divine intervention, and the Echo gives Amyntas the solution to the remaining oracle. What he cannot and may not have, but must give to Urania for her dowry, is a husband–himself. The goddess blesses his solution, and he may marry and join in the general happiness.


Tamburlaine's middle son in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2. He resents Tamburlaine's pleasure over Celebinus and asserts his own valor. He later places a streamer where his mother died to signify she was a princess born. When Tamburlaine wounds his own arm to show his boys how to be a soldier, Amyras and Cerebinus plead to be cut as well. Though Tamburlaine is pleased, he says the boys will shed no blood until they taste battle against the Turks. In Aleppo Amyras helps bring in the conquered Turks and suggests that they let them go so they might have future sport in defeating them again. When Tamburlaine becomes enraged that Calyphas failed to enter the battle, Amyras begs for his brother's pardon. Later, when Tamburlaine enters his chariot drawn by Trebizon and Soria, Amyras wants a chariot too so Orcanes and Jerusalem might draw him. When Tamburlaine later falls ill, Amyras is crowned at his father's behest. He and Celebinus are bequeathed all the unconquered world. He reluctantly mounts his father's chariot with Tamburlaine's encouragement. He has the final lines of the play, speaking immediately after his father's death.


See also ANNABELL, ANNABELLA, and other spellings.


Mute character in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap that plays a marginal role in the play. She comes to stage with sowing work together with Wynnifred and she sings.


Champernell's niece in Fletcher and Massinger's The Little French Lawyer. Her presence is not announced until the "bed trick." She pretends to be her sleeping uncle while Cleremont pretends to be Lamira in the marital bed. Neither are aware of the other's true identity. The "bed trick" is a ruse to allow Lamira to have her vengeful assignation with Dinant. While in bed, Anabell falls in love with Cleremont. Later, kidnapped on her way to the summerhouse, she is threatened with rape by the Second Gentleman, draws a knife, but is knocked down and disarmed. Defiant in captivity, Anabell finally calls out to Cleremont, and the ruffian gentlemen bring him before her in chains. Assuring Cleremont she wishes she had slept with him when she had the chance, Anabell is locked in a vault by the villains and continues to defy her captors. She confesses that her pride is the cause of her imprisonment. Seeing Beaupre and Verdoone being taken away to be hanged, she offers to trade places with one of them. Cleremont enters in disguise and, after seizing her, reveals his identity to her. She kisses him, to the dismay of Lamira who assumes he is one of the ruffians. Anabell leaves with Cleremont, returning to the vault after Dinant confesses his love for Lamira. When Anabell is reunited with her uncle, her blushes reveal that she and Cleremont have become intimate, and her uncle consents to their marriage.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Anacreon (582?–485? BC) was an ancient Greek poet, born in Teos, Ionia. He praised love and wine in many short poems, which remain only in fragments. Anacreon influenced many Latin, Italian, and English poets. The Anacreontic meter is named for him. At his house, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When Clerimont asks him about the classical poets, Daw refers to them in a deprecating manner, including Anacreon in the long list of unworthy poets.


Anaides or the Impudent is a gallant in the fustian country of Gargaphie in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. The character ridicules John Marston, Jonson's contemporary and fellow-playwright. According to Mercury, Anaides would speak any impudence without blushing. He is very proficient in all the illiberal sciences, such as cheating, drinking, bragging, and whoring. In an apartment at court, Anaides enters accompanied by Hedon and Gelaia. Seeing Crites walk in meditation, both gallants calumniate the poet, calling him a candle-waster. In an apartment at the palace, Anaides enters with Mercury and Hedon, joining the party of nymphs and gallants. After courteous conversation and games, Anaides and the other members of the party of nymphs and gallants drink of the miraculous fountain water and become even more self-conceited than they already were. When Gelaia complains of Anaides's jealousy, appealing to her mother Moria as a mediator, Anaides tries to redress the situation with a kiss, but without renouncing his impudent ways. When Arete announces that Cynthia does not need the nymphs and gallants for the revels that night, the party disperses. In an apartment at the palace, Anaides enters with the nymphs and gallants to have a party, but he is finally disgraced, like the others, when Mercury ridicules their affected ways. At Cynthia's revels, Anaides is disguised as Eutolmos in the Second Masque. In the end, Crites pronounces the punishment for the self-infatuated nymphs and gallants. Anaides exits with the others singing a Palinode. The song is an invocation of the god Mercury, who is asked to defend them against the dangers of counterfeit and vanity. As part of the penance, the affected nymphs and courtiers must go to Niobe's stone and repent. After being purged, they are invited to taste of the water of the Well of Knowledge and then report of Cynthia's grace.


Aunt of Kataplectus (though he calls her mother) in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Roscius characterizes her as "Impudence, a bawd." Her opposite is Kataplectus.


A dour Stoic in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Roscius characterizes him as "a mere anchorite, that delights in nothing, not in those legitimate recreations allowed of by God and nature." His opposite is Acolastus.


A surgeon in Zouche's The Sophister. When Judicium asks for a "cunning Chirugeon" in order to let the blood of Discourse and, thus, remedy his madness, Proposition identifies "one well practis'd skillfull, fortunate / Analysis, who hath well nigh recur'd / the life-despairing brothers, Topicus and Demonstration." Thus, Judicium and Proposition set out to bring Analysis to Discourse. Analysis congratulates Equipolency on coming to him "so timely" concerning Contradiction's and Opposition's wounds. He advises Equipolency, asks Invention to "provide some show, / And Musick" for the moment when Discourse "welcome[s] home his wnadring senses," and proceeds to let Discourse's blood. He comments to Judicium on the state of Discourse's blood as it is let, and helps Judicium to lead the revived Discourse in to "rest a while upon his pallet." Ambiguous later informs Fallacy that Analysis has "let mad Dicourse blood" which is, in part, why Fallacy grows desperate and begins to make plans for his escape. As Mercury states in the play's Prologue, "all that is amisse, / Is rectified by Analysis."


‘Memorie’s’ page in Tomkis’ Lingua. He wears a grave purple satin suit, buskins, a garland of bays and rosemary, a “gimmall" ring with on link hanging, ribbons and threads tied on his fingers, and he carries a pair of table books. He is sent to find Memorie’s purse, which Memorie has lost. He finds the purse and discovers it is full of IOUs. One of the memoranda indicates that Memorie owes Anamnestes a beating. Anamnestes tears that one up. Heuresis and Anamnestes get into a biting-scratching fight because a quick invention and a good memory can never agree. He speaks the epilogue, asking the audience to applaud in order to awaken his sleeping friend, Appetitus.


Ananias is an Anabaptist deacon of Amsterdam in Jonson's The Alchemist. The group of fanatical Puritans who moved from England to Holland hoped to reinforce their discipline by using the Philosopher's Stone. It appears that Subtle has extorted money from the Puritans, apparently for the necessary instruments to achieve the project. Ananias wants to see results as soon as possible. Pretending that Ananias's incredulity has spoiled the concoction for the orphans, Subtle sends Ananias away. While Ananias maintains that Subtle is a heathen and a devil, Tribulation says that they must use any means they can to help further their Cause. Subtle promises Ananias and Tribulation, inter alia, to make golden Dutch dollars for the cause. Ananias and Tribulation are sent to see the inventory of the goods they are going to take home. Subtle later turns Ananias against Surly, whom he says is a Spanish spy looking for Anabaptists. Ananias rails against the profane, lewd, superstitious, and idolatrous Spaniards. Ananias promises to pray for Subtle's success. Later, Ananias with Tribulation and Kastril complains of having been cheated. When Face, disguised as Jeremy, shuts the door on them, Ananias shouts vituperations against the house, calling the people inside sons of fire and abomination. The frustrated Ananias and Tribulation leave with Kastril. Ananias and Tribulation return with the other complaining defrauded dupes and the authorities, cursing all those inhabiting that damned house. When Lovewit threatens to send the Puritans to Amsterdam to their cellar, Ananias and Tribulation leave.


High Priest of Jerusalem and father of Eleazer in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. In Agrippa's absence, he tries unsuccessfully to control the city and kingdom. He presides over the trial of Skimeon and Jehochanan for treason, banishing the former and pardoning the latter, to defuse the threat of civil war. He makes arrangements for the defense of the kingdom from the Roman army. He is betrayed by the plots of the former rebels, who now conspire with his own son. Eleazer further defies him publicly and strips him of his patriarchal robes. He takes sanctuary in the Temple but is murdered there by Eleazer's agent, Zareck. Ananias's Ghost later appears to warn Eleazer of his impending doom.


An Amsterdam-man in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. He comes looking for Plutus to restore his lost wealth. He speaks in the grandiloquent style of the Puritan orator. He disdains the "Popish" Never-good and, at Carion's suggestion, strips Never-good of his finery to give that to Plutus instead of his own poor cloak and shoes.


An old widower in Tomkis’ Albumazar. He promised his daughter to Pandolfo before going away to Barbary. As the play opens, he is believed dead as he has disappeared into Barbary for six months and was supposed to return after three. He and Pandolfo once agreed to swap and marry one another’s daughters. As act four begins, the real Antonio returns home from shipwreck and everyone believes him to be Trincalo transformed to look like Antonio. He is first abused by Cricca then hounded by Pandolfo for the three thousand pounds in riches Albumazar said he left with Trincalo. He goes to his house but Fulvia abuses him from the window and Armellina dumps a chamber pot on him. Lelio sends him away. Still outside his house, he meets Trincalo who (not knowing Antonio) tells him that he is himself Antonio. When Cricca and Lelio see them together, they discover the deceit. Antonio, angered at Pandolfo’s cheat to get his daughter, repents his earlier design and gives his blessing to marriages of Fulvia with Eugenio and Lelio with Sulpitia if only they can convince Pandolfo to agree. He agrees to Cricca’s plan to turn the table on the tricksters. He has Pandolfo (believing he is Trincalo) and the young lovers (who are in on the trick) swear to be guided by his judgment. He first decrees that Trincalo be married to Armellina with two hundred crowns for their portion, to which Pandolfo agrees. Pnadolfo betters this by granting Trincalo a lease of twenty pounds per year. He next bestows Sulpitia upon Lelio (Pandolfo believing this is Trincalo avoiding having to marry her as Antonio). He then matches Fulvia with Eugenio and Pandolfo, so he’ll not be cold in bed, with Patience. Offstage, he holds the arrested brigands locked in his cellar along with Pandolfo’s recovered treasure.


Anastro, an honest gentleman in Fletcher, Beaumont, and Massinger's, Love's Cure, serves as Vitelli's confidant. He is also a friend to Lamorall.


Anaxarchus is one of the Theban philosophers in Lyly's Campaspe whom Alexander consults after his conquest.


Anaxarete is a character in the second inset play of Massinger's The Roman Actor. Played by Domitilla, she scorns Iphis, her would-be lover.


"Ghost characters" in Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers. They are used as a claim to the right to the throne of Burgony.


"Ghost characters" in Brome's A Mad Couple. In Act Two, she says that she can rest in piece with her ancestors if she sees that her lady gives a baby to her master.


"Ghost characters" in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. Part of Sir Goosecappe's family that came from London. They were members of the nobility.


"Ghost characters" in Chamberlain's Swaggering Damsel. Mentioned in Act One by Hilts to talk about his master's property. They are Sir Timothy's father and grandfather.


"Ghost characters" in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. They are Tales Kingcob's relatives and they are thought to have come from Canterbury.


Ancetes is a lord of Trebizond in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. He tells the Emperor about the knights Niger, Palemon and Antigonus who hope to kill the dragon. Later, he greets St. Andrew and St. Anthony after they have successfully slain the dragon.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's Brazen Age. Anceus is a Greek lord killed by the Caledonian Boar.


A mute character in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, Aeneas's father, carried on his son's back out of the burning city.

Only mentioned in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Anchises, Aeneas' aged father, was rescued from a torrent by Aeneas; Cassius compares his saving of Caesar in a torrent to Aeneas' rescue of Anchises.
Only mentioned in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. In explaining to Faustina her role in tricking an unnamed Lord, Fidelio mentions Anchises' rescue by Aeneas.


Anchises is a Trojan in Heywood's Brazen Age who binds Hesione to the rock as a sacrifice. He later reports Hercules's return to Troy. Anchises flees during Hercules's assault upon the city.


A non-speaking character in Peele's Edward I. In the scene of Edward's return from crusade, the Ancient enters with the royal standard. When the king encourages the lords to contribute funds to support his wounded veterans, the Queen Mother promises five thousand pounds for that cause and a special pension of forty pounds a year to the Ancient if he will become her beadsman.


The Ancient is an old soldier in Archas's army in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject. When Archas takes his farewell to arms, he thanks his "good Ancient" personally. The Ancient tells Putskie and the soldiers that he will no longer fight in an army that is not led by his General. Foreseeing that very soon the old General will need his army, the Ancient advises the Soldiers to refrain from fighting under the new general Boroskie. Learning that the Tartars are at the borders, the Ancient relishes the idea that Moscow will be burnt. When Archas returns victorious from the war with the Tartars, the Ancient sees that Archas and his soldiers are not given due honors for their victory, and he refuses the humiliating pay of eight pence a day, inviting the soldiers to play dice for his share. Dismissed from the war and having no other means of subsistence, the Ancient sells brooms. The Ancient informs Theodor that, during his trips through the city as a broom salesman, he has managed to round up a thousand ex-soldiers, ready in time of need for their general. After Archas' arrest, the Ancient, Putskie, Theodor, and the faithful soldiers claim their general's freedom. When Archas reprimands his soldiers for having forgotten their allegiance and rebelled against the Duke, the Ancient asks forgiveness and promises to be the Duke's loyal subject.


A mute role in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. A soldier who enters with Caesar in I.ii..


Officer in the Florentine army in Dekker's(?) Telltale. Enters with the Captain and the Lieutenant to Aspero complaining about his withholding of their pay and their rewards for the capture of the Venetian princes. When they threaten to complain to the Duke, Aspero gives them gold to share amongst themselves and their soldiers, and promises to divide the Princes' ransom amongst them when it arrives. Joins the Captain and Lieutenant in their discussion with the disguised Duke regarding their grievance with Aspero over lack of pay. The Lieutenant and Ancient observe the Captain's transformation of the disguised Duke into the supposedly missing Duke, as well as Victoria's reaction when she sees the trimmed and costumed Duke. The remainder of this scene is missing from the manuscript. At the end of the play, the Ancient returns to court with the Duke, Duchess, Julio, the Captain, and Lieutenant, all impersonating their spirits. Picentio, disguised as the French Doctor, commands them to indicate their approval or disapproval of Aspero. After showing signs of approval the spirits perform a dance, during which the Duke takes the crown and the Duchess the scepter. They witness the Duke resume his authority, listen to Bentivoli's tale, witness the purged Garullo's return, and exit with the court to the weddings of Picentio and Isabella and Hortensio and Elinor.


A young soldier, with whom Moll Bloodhound is in love in William Rowley's A Match at Midnight. When he arrives at Bloodhound the usurer four days late to pay his mortgage, Bloodhound tricks him into thinking that he has sold it, due to his extreme poverty. The Ancient believes him, and joins the other suitors at the Widow's house in the hope of marrying her. The Widow shows no interest in him, but when he talks to Alexander, the Ancient learns that Bloodhound still has the mortgage in his house. He therefore decides to steal his mortgage back, and marry Moll. With Alexander's help, he pretends to be engaged to another woman in order to break Moll's affectation of disinterest. Moll steals the mortgage, but when she goes to Leadenhall to meet the Ancient, it is dark, and she gives it to Randall by mistake. The confusion is sorted out in the conclusion: Randall generously returns the mortgage, and the Ancient marries Moll.


Disguise adopted by Cleanthe in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady. Anclethe is a male servant, a disguise adopted by Cleanthe with the aid of Phyginois, and retained throughout most of the play. She takes on this disguise in order to follow, serve, and observe her beloved Carionil. Discovered weeping in this disguise by Carionil, she 'confesses' that she cries out of sympathy for her master's unhappiness over his unrequited love of Lucora, and pledges her life to recovering Carionil's happiness. She reassures him as he loses hope, and when he stabs himself out of frantic misery at his most recent rejection, she believes him dead, agonizes, curses Lucora, and vows to follow him in death. Before she can kill herself she is interrupted by Falorus, and agrees to spread the word that Carionil is dead, although he has merely fainted and quickly recovers. She participates in Falorus's plan to reveal Lucora's true feelings by bringing Lucora to the feigned deathbed of Carionil. In her last scenes in this disguise, Anclethe is told by Carionil that he no longer loves Lucora, and she offers to introduce him to another woman, who will be herself undisguised.


A "ghost character" in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. The Moon Goddess, Diana. She does not appear on stage, but the druids Belinus and Lantonus receive her oracle: "Loud doth the King of Beasts roare, / High doth the Queene of Birds soare: / But her wings clipt soone grow out: / Both repent they are so stout. / Till C. gainst C. strike a round, / In a perfect Circle bound. " At the end of the play, when Caesar and Cassibelane have made peace, Lantonus solves the riddle: Lion and eagle stand for the Britains and the Romans: "The Semicircles, / First letters of the Leaders names, we see / Are ioyn'd in true loues endlesse figure. / Both come of Troiane race, both nobly bold, / Both matchlesse Captaines, on one Throne behold."


Younger son of Fortunatus in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. Loses much of his money gambling and carousing, and after the death of his father, he takes the magic purse and, with Shadow, travels to England. After Agripyne steals his purse (and after giving all his money and treasures away as gifts to the court of England), he plots to steal his brother's magic hat. Once he does, he takes Agripyne to a wilderness, where he plans to live with her forever. In the wilderness, they stand before the trees of Vice and Virtue, and Agripyne tricks him into giving her the hat to protect herself from the sun, at which point she wishes she were back in England, and she is magically transported back to the Court leaving Andelocia stranded. Andelocia pleads for a shortened life, which Fortune denies him, but she does direct him to take fruit from the trees of Virtue and Vice and to return with them to the English Court. There he will be able to use them to retrieve his hat and purse. Returning to the Court, along with Shadow, both now disguised as Irish fruit-mongers, Andelocia sells horn-inducing apples to Montrose and Longaville. He then enters disguised as a French Doctor, agreeing to remove the horns in exchange for money and his magic items, which he receives. After this he again disappears with Agripyne. Arrested and tortured by Montrose and Longaville, he dies asking forgiveness from Virtue.


Family name of Sir Cuthbert and Lady Anderson in Greene's James IV.


Lady Anderson is the wife of Sir Cuthbert, who rescues the disguised Dorothea after she has been wounded by Jaques in Greene's James IV. Lady Anderson falls in love with "him," not realizing that it is Dorothea in disguise, and is ashamed when she learns her true identity.


One of the twenty-four Electors for the Burgomastership in Ruggle’s Club Law.


Tormiella’s father in Dekker’s Match Me in London. He awakes to find his daughter missing. He sends Bilbo to see if Gazetto has stolen her. Discovering she is not with Gazetto or in Cordova, he decides to look in Seville with Gazetto. He meets Cordolente there and is quickly reconciled to the situation. After the king takes Tormiella to court, he offers to make Malevento Vice Admiral of the Navy. He loses the title at play’s end when the repentant king likens him to a bawd who sold his daughter for gain. He does not care, however, because he had been “like a Lord in a play, and that done, my part ends."


Andrages is a character in Suckling's Aglaura (second version) who does not appear in the first version. Andrages is a doctor who comes along just in time to diagnose Thersamnes as only slightly hurt and to save him from loss of blood and Aglaura from killing herself.


A disguise that Alcario assumes in order to fool Belimperia in the Anonymous First Part of Jeronimo. It works, and she takes Alcario for her beloved Andrea, talks to him and kisses him goodbye. Lazarotto sees this and kills Alcario, also believing that he is Don Andrea.


Servant of Henrique in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. Andrea informs Jamie that he is forbidden to visit Henrique's house upon his "danger."


Eulalia's fool in Brome's The Queen and Concubine. He follows her into banishment even though the new Queen, Alinda, wishes to retain him. Lodovico accompanies Andrea, disguised, into the wilderness to search for Eulalia. Finding her, Andrea volunteers to precede her into plague-ravaged Palermo, returns infected, and is cured by Eulalia. In Palermo, he banters with and gently mocks the pretensions of the countrymen.


A Spanish Lord, Belimperia's lover in the Anonymous First Part of Jeronimo. The King chooses him as an ambassador to Portugal to ask for the tribute of three years. Andrea then says adieu to Belimperia, Lorenzo's sister. She is afraid because she knows both his own and Balthazar's temper, and entreats him at least to try to reach a peaceful solution. In Portugal Andrea delivers his message, but when the King of Portugal tells him that he does not intend to pay the tribute that his father owed—a father who has been dead for three years—Andrea declares war on Portugal. Balthazar and Andrea challenge each other and agree to meet in a fight during the next battle. When Andrea returns to Spain, Rogero and others receive him. They hear groans and come across Lazarotto who has just killed Alcario, mistaking him for Andrea. Andrea is now warned that somebody wants to kill him. He is just reporting Portugal's answer to the King when a messenger comes and announces that the Portuguese are in arms. Andrea again takes his leave from Belimperia, who gives him a love knot to remember her. Before it comes to the battle, the two parties attack each other verbally, and they agree who is going to fight whom. Andrea should fight with Balthazar, but in the actual battle he can't find him for a long time. Finally they meet, and Balthazar wins, but Horatio comes to Andrea's help. In a new fight, Andrea has Balthazar down when two Portuguese come and kill him. Horatio deplores his death and fights Balthazar, he "has him down" when Lorenzo comes, seizes his weapons and claims to have won the prince as his prisoner. After a long quarrel they decide to leave this to their King to judge. Horatio takes Andrea's badge (Belimperia's love knot) and carries his body from the field/stage. As a ghost (see "Ghost of Andrea") Andrea takes part at his own funeral and tries to thank his friend Horatio for his help in the battle.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Blepsidemus believes Penia-Penniless looks like Jeronymo, Don Andrea, or perhaps the Ghost in Hamlet in her rage.


Enters the stage at the end of the Anonymous First Part of Jeronimo, during Don Andrea's funeral. Lorenzo does not notice him, but Horatio sees him waiting to get into Charon's boat. He wants to thank his friend for his help in the battle, but Revenge tells him that he is not allowed to speak as a Ghost. (See also "ANDREA, DON").
He was a Spanish Courtier (in Induction and Chorus), in Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. Andrea was beloved of Bel-imperia. At war with Portugal, he was killed by Balthazar. His ghost returns with Revenge from the underworld to witness the consequences of his death. At play's end he returns to the underworld satisfied with the outcome of the play's action.


Appears in scenes 3, 6, 9, 12 of the Anonymous plot of Frederick and Basilea; played by the actor Pigg (or Pigge or Pyk).


A "ghost character" in Shirley's The Opportunity. Paolo Andreozzi is the major domo to the Duke of Milan and is the father of Aurelio.


A "ghost character" in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel. A servant of Russell. Russell calls for him but he does not appear.


Andrew is Don John's gypsy identity in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy.


The loyal, witty, Greek-reading servant of the hapless scholar Charles in Fletcher's The Elder Brother. Andrew defends his master's devotion to study and helps protect Charles from Brisac and Eustace's efforts to disinherit him. Andrew overhears and reports on Brisac's plot to persuade Charles to sign away his birthright, and also learns of and foils the old man's efforts to seduce Andrew's wife Lilly, threatening to write a ballad, "The Justice Trap," to publicize Brisac's sexual indiscretion. Wounded in the fight between Charles and Eustace, Andrew is also hurt when he attempts to prevent Angellina's kidnapping. Andrew tells Charles and Eustace of the kidnapping and accompanies them as they rescue Angellina and her father Lewis.


Andrew is the son of Simon Credulous, a rich citizen who has ruined Sir Thomas Littleworth in Cartwright's The Ordinary. He is the pupil to Littleworth's son, who is in disguise as "Meane-well," and is also supposed to be wooing Mrs. Jane Bitefigg. An exceptionally slow-witted character, he is easily fooled into marrying Jane's maid Priscilla instead.


Sir Andrew is a clownish a suitor to Olivia in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. He is pushed forward by Sir Toby, who has borrowed a great deal of money from him. He is easily led, believing Sir Toby's claims that he is a gallant and that Olivia only pretends to prefer the disguised Viola to him. He gets drunk with Sir Toby and their resulting racket causes Malvolio to try to discipline them. Sir Andrew is part of the revenge on Malvolio, but does not take an active role. When it is clear that Olivia is in love with Viola, Sir Andrew takes Sir Toby's advice and writes him a challenge, but Sir Toby substitutes an oral challenge for the inept and very timid one Sir Andrew manages. He and Viola are brought together to duel, each believing the other is furious and an excellent swordsman. Their comic attempts to avoid fighting are interrupted by the appearance of Antonio, who believes the disguised Viola to be Sebastian and attacks Sir Andrew on his behalf. After Antonio is taken away by officers, Sir Andrew encounters the real Sebastian and strikes him, resulting in a blow from Sebastian; this second fight is broken up by Olivia's appearance, but in the final scene, Sir Andrew enters wounded from a fight with Sebastian. After accusing Viola of being the attacker, Sir Andrew and Sir Toby are helped off, so they are not present for the final revelations.


The birth name of Sir Andrew Lethe, by which he is known through most of Middleton's Michaelmas Term. See "ANDREW LETHE."


The name preferred by Sir Andrew Gruel in Middleton's Michaelmas Term because of his chronic forgetfulness–he has, both literally and symbolically forgotten his own parents. The newly knighted Scotsman is, along with Rearage, a suitor for Susan, the daughter of Ephestian Quomodo. Despite being preferred by both Susan herself and her father, Susan's mother Thomasine dislikes him, preferring Rearage instead. He hopes to obtain part of Quomodo's fortune because he has introduced his courtesan, a comely "country wench," to a number of gallants throughout the city. Through them, Thomasine discovers that he is keeping a mistress. He is forced by a judge to marry his courtesan. Ironically, he is forgotten by his own parents at the play's conclusion.


A "ghost character" in Middleton's Your Five Gallants. Briefly mentioned as one of Frippery's clients.


A knight in Brome's Court Beggar. After the death of his wife, he sold his country house along with all of his land and livestock to finance a series of projects designed to make quick money. Because of his reliance on court suits he has been dubbed the "court beggar." At the beginning of the play, he rejects new projects, but he believes that the only way to regain his money will be to marry Charissa to Ferdinand, a royal favorite. Mendicant persuades Lady Strangelove to allow the supposedly mad Ferdinand to convalesce in her house, but he also begs his estate in case he does not recover. When Raphael is unable to secure a jointure equal to the £10,000 with which Mendicant hopes to supplement Charissa's dowry from Ferdinand's estate, he forbids Frederick from seeing her. Enraged that Gabriel should allow the two lovers to meet, he wounds him and throws him out of the house. Believing that his daughter will be married to Ferdinand, he admits a priest to the house who actually marries her to Frederick. When the trick is revealed, he flies into a fit, covers himself with patents, petitions, suits and projects and wears a windmill on his head. These adornments are stripped from him in a culminating dance, and he returns to his senses and blesses the marriage.


An aging knight in Middleton's A Mad World, My Masters who, along with Sir Aquitaine Colewort, is a companion to Sir Bounteous Progress. Neither knight plays a significant role in the play's action.


St. Andrew is one of the six champions of Christendom imprisoned in the cave of Calib the witch in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. George releases the champions, and they make him their seventh member. They vow to travel the world, doing battle with unbelievers. Andrew and Anthony arrive in Trebizond and slay the dragon that is terrorizing the countryside. But the Emperor of Trebizond, when he learns that they are Christians, orders them to convert to the Greek gods or die. Andrew and Anthony bravely choose death, and the Emperor allows them to choose their executioners. They choose the princess Violeta and her maid Carintha, who refuse, saying they'd rather kill themselves. So Andrew and Anthony offer to kill each other. The Emperor releases them and provides swords, whereupon Andrew and Anthony frighten them all away. Later, they join with St. Patrick, St. Denis, St. James and St. David in an attempt to slay Brandron the giant and rescue the King of Macedon's daughters. But they are betrayed by Suckabus, who tricks them into disarming and then imprisons them. They are forced to support Brandron or die, and so, when St. George arrives, they are obliged to fight him. George defeats all six of them. When Brandron commits suicide, the champions are free to join with George again. At the end of the play, they perform a dance to celebrate the marriage of the Daughters of the King of Macedon to Patrick, Denis, and James.

ANDREW, ST. **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Brun, the Scots soldier, swears by St. Andrew.


Andrew Shark the barber is one of the many identities that Cockledemoy, a city knave, assumes in order to swindle Mulligrub, an underhanded vintner in Marston's Dutch Courtesan. Wearing this disguise, Cockledemoy offers Mulligrub a shave; soaps up his entire face (including his eyes); and, while Mulligrub is unable to see, steals a bag full of his money.


A "ghost character" in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho. The Bawd, a patient of Bedlam (mental hospital), thinks that Bellamont is a certain Sir Andrew, and that he has got a brother named Timothy.

ANDREW, SIR **1621

Sir Andrew is the disguise name adopted by Franklin when he comes to Chamlet's shop, accompanied by George Cressingham disguised as "Gascoyn," his tailor in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. As "Sir Andrew," Franklin demands expensive silks and pretends to ask for his tailor's opinion. After having purchased expensive cloth of gold, "Sir Andrew" promises to pay with money borrowed from the Barber. "Gascoyn" is sent to the Barber to confirm the loan, and Chamlet sends Ralph along with him to collect the money. Before Sweetball's house, "Sir Andrew" makes Ralph leave the stuff with his "tailor" while the apprentice goes into the barber's surgery to get the money. Once the cloth of gold is in "Gascoyn's" hands, "Sir Andrew" pretends to send the "tailor" to his fictional "wife" to show her the materials. Meantime, he has told Sweetball the barber that Ralph is there to have a rash removed from his penis, so Sweetball knows nothing about paying him money. "Sir Andrew" then asks the Barber's apprentice, Toby, for a brush to clean the cloth. "Sir Andrew" thereby manages to get rid of all witnesses to his trick and leaves with Sweetball's new brush.


Andrew Snoord puts up a 'bill' advertising for employment [sometimes called a si quis] at the same time as Nano and Slipper do in Greene's James IV, and enters the service of Ateukin with them. He is beaten by Ateukin for the loss of the letters that Slipper stole, and when he discovers that Slipper was the real thief Andrew arranges to have him robbed. He continues as Ateukin's supporter, but, reasoning that the parasite's career is bound to be short-lived, he sends a letter to the King of England to inform him of the treatment meted out to his daughter. When James IV repents of his behavior, he orders Andrew hanged.


A Courtier in Middleton's(?) Puritan. He is a suitor to Frances, whom he marries.


Listed in the dramatis personae of the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace. Characteristics and actions not given in the surviving plot.


King Lud's son, the elder brother of Themantius in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. After their father's death, their uncle Cassibelane has become protector of Britain, the two princes being too young to rule the country. At the beginning of the play, everybody is still pleased with this arrangement. Cassibelane remains the ruler of the whole country with all its little kingdoms, but he confers Troynovant (London) and Kent to Androgeus, and Cornwall to Themantius. When he hears of Caesar's plans to invade Britain, Cassibelane sends Androgeus to the Scots and Picts to ask for help, and Androgeus returns with their combined forces, lead by Cadallan. Caesar has to flee. During the celebration of the victory, the two princes start a playful fencing match. Two courtiers, Eulinus and Hirildo imitate them, and Hirildo, Cassibelane's nephew, gets unfortunately killed before his uncle's eyes. In his anger, Cassibelane declares that Eulinus should be executed for this, whereas Androgeus maintains that Eulinus as his own kinsman should have a fair trial by the laws of Troynovant. Cassibelane still insists on his authority. Because of this incident, Androgeus and Themantius plan to fight the usurper of their throne. Together with Mandubrace they contact Caesar. Caesar returns with a bigger army, and Androgeus, Themantius and Mandubrace with the Trinobants, Cenimagnians, Segontiackes, Ancalites, Bybrockes, and Cassians join his side. After Eulinus' suicide, Androgeus feels guilty of having raised a civil war. He urges Caesar to make peace with Cassibelane, defers his rights to the throne to his brother Themantius and Troynovant to Mandubrace. He leaves the country with Caesar.


A mute role in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. He is not mentioned in the dramatis personae. Mandubrace brings him as a hostage to Caesar.


A hermaphrodite in the service of Volpone in Jonson's Volpone. Androgino's main duty is to participate in shows to entertain his master. In one show, Androgino is said to possess the soul of Pythagoras and is questioned about the various bodies his soul has inhabited.


Son of the governor of Cordua and lover of Amiana in Davenant's The Spanish Lovers. He is a frivolous character who tries to avoid marriage by setting up a communal arrangement with his friends whereby they will share their mistresses. His friend Orco takes him up on the suggestion and secretly kidnaps Amiana. Meanwhile, his friend Orgemon arrives at Androlio's house with a teen-aged boy whom he asks Androlio to conceal: the boy is in fact Orgemon's mistress, Claramante, eloping with him in disguise. Androlio quickly sees through the disguise and attempts to seduce Claramante—much to her distress. But he soon goes off to Orco's house, hoping to meet a lawyer's daughter whom Orco has promised to show him there. This "she-advocate," in fact Amiana, is no longer there: she has been rescued by Balthazar and Argilo. On his return home, he finds that Claramante has also gone: she has been rescued by Orgemon, to whom she sent a message through one of Androlio's own servants (q.v. under "Servant, First, Second, and Third"). Disguising himself, Androlio sets out in pursuit of her, with Orco and a band of hired bravos, and soon finds Orgemon and Claramante in the woods. He ties up Orgemon and carries off Claramante to the house of the disreputable old Marillia, whom he has known since childhood. There he confounds expectations by doing nothing to her: the point was just to score off another "cavalier," and having done so, he is content. Amiana, meanwhile, has been abandoned by her rescuers and is now back with Orco, who, in the same softer spirit, takes her to Androlio. Between them, Amiana and her father, Basilonte, persuade him to marry her after all—a change in lifestyle to which his whimsical nature seems to adjust quite easily.


Wife to Hector in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. Along with Casandra and Priam she urges Hector not to go into battle for fear that he will be killed.
Andromache is Hector's wife and Astyanax's mother in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. When Cassandra urges her to speak against sending Paris to Greece (because she knows that there he will meet Helen and provoke the war that will destroy Troy), Andromache remains silent, even though Cassandra predicts the death of Hector in that war. On the day following Hector's attack upon the Greek encampment, Andromache begs him to stay out of the fighting because she has had a dream in which all the Greek warriors pierce Hector with their javelins, but Hector rejects her plea, arguing that dreams have no significance. Only when Priam, Hecuba, and Helen support Andromache's request does Hector agree to it.
Hector's wife and mother of Astianax in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, she is killed by Agamemnon in the final slaughter.
Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Andromache is mentioned by Slightall when he is instructing his friends on how to love any creature, even if it is the "loathed'st", by taking no notice of their imperfections. He illustrates his point with the following words: "Andromache was of too large a stature, / One loving Hector praised her gifts of nature." According to Greek mythology, Andromache was Hector's loving wife. She was about five feet tall and had long wavy black hair and warm, dark eyes.
A “ghost character" in Goffe’s Orestes. Cassandra calls upon her to glory in the Greeks enacting Troy’s revenge.


Appears in the Anonymous Locrine in the dumb show in II.i, hand in hand with Perseus, and is taken away by the Aethiopians. Atey compares her to Gwendoline.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In Greek mythology, Andromeda was the daughter of Cassiopeia and Cepheus, the king of Ethiopia. Andromeda's mother claimed that they were more beautiful than the sea nymphs, the Nereids. The Nereids felt insulted by this and complained to the sea god Poseidon. Poseidon threatened to send a flood and a sea monster to destroy the kingdom of Ethiopia. The king was advised by the oracle to sacrifice his daughter. Andromeda was chained to a sea-cliff to be devoured by the sea monster. Perseus rescued her and then married Andromeda. After the marriage, Andromeda left her country to live with Perseus, who later became the king of Tiryns and Mycenae. The goddess Athena placed the image of Andromeda among the stars as a reward for keeping her parents' promise. While waiting for the water from the Fountain of Self-love, so much publicized by Amorphus, the nymphs discuss fashion and their admirers. When they describe Amorphus, Philautia says he has a very imperfect face, and Phantaste adds that he looks like the sea-monster about to ravish Andromeda from the rock. The reference is to the classical story of Andromeda and is part of the nymphs' spectacle of self-infatuation.
Only mentioned in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. In Greek mythology, Andromeda was the daughter of king Cepheus and queen Casiopea of Ethiopia. Andromeda became a sacrificial offering to a sea monster raised by the angry sea-god Neptune, but the hero Perseus saved her and married her. When Boy prepares to present Lazarillo with the menu taken from the Duke's kitchen, Lazarillo says he was waiting for him with impatience. Such was his craving, Lazarillo says, that it can be compared to sweet Andromeda's waiting for her savior Perseus, when she was chained on the rock ready to fall prey to the sea-monster. The allusion is to Lazarillo's craving as a terrible monster of gluttony.
Only mentioned in Brome's A Mad Couple. Andromeda is a mythological character with whom Lady Thrivewell is compared due to her beauty. She was a beautiful maiden chained to a rock as prey for a sea monster. She was rescued by Perseus, who then turned her uncle Phineus to stone by showing him the head of Medusa.
Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Andromeda is mentioned by Slightall when he is instructing his friends on how to love any creature, even if it is the "loathed'st", by taking no notice of their imperfections. He illustrates his point with the following words: "Andromeda was belly, sides, and backe / To Perseus seene, he did not tearme her blacke." According to Greek mythology, Andromeda was an Ethiopian (therefore black) princess, daughter to King Cepheus and Queen Cassiopeia. When the latter boasted that her daughter was more beautiful than the Nereids–sea goddesses–, these were furious and asked their father Nereus for revenge. Thus, he sent the sea monster Cetus to attack the Ethiopian coasts. An Oracle, then, explained to Cepheus that the only solution to calm the Nereids down was to offer them a sacrifice: he would have to chain his daughter to the side of a rock on the seacoast for her to be devoured by the sea monster. However, brave Perseus–returning victorious from his fight against the Gordon Medusa, flying with Hermes winged shoes on his feet over Ethiopia–saw Andromeda in danger. Then, she was rescued by Perseus, who turned the sea monster to stone with the head of Gordon Medusa, and, later, the Ethiopian princess married the brave young man.


She is traveling with her new husband, Perseus, toward a meeting with his family in Heywood's The Silver Age, when they encounter Bellerophon, and she is sent on to Argos with Danaus while Perseus accompanies Bellerophon to battle the Chimera.


Family name that includes Titus, Marcus, Lavinia, Lucius, Martius, Publius, Quintus, and Young Lucius in Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Titus Andronicus is the protagonist in Shakespeare's eponymous tragedy. When Scrivener in the Induction reads the articles of the contract between the Author of Bartholomew Fair and the Spectators, he says that members of the audience are entitled to their own opinions of the play, which must be consistent and objective. The contract includes the examples of the plays featuring Jeronimo and Andronicus as models for the audience's constancy in criticism. The member of the audience who would have sworn that Andronicus (Titus Andronicus) is the best play ever written should have kept the same opinion for the past twenty-five or thirty years. The article in the contract is ironic, since by 1614 both The Spanish Tragedy and Titus Andronicus were old-fashioned, heavily rhetorical, and over-bloody Elizabethan revenge plays. However, Jonson's "twenty-five of thirty years" deliberately exaggerates the time in which these plays have been performed.


Count Aribert assumes a disguise and calls himself Andrucho, a Swisser in Wilson's The Swisser. He is Eugenia's father. Aribert has been banished from the Court for two years because of some intrigues, but he has returned to observe the courtiers and find out who had been responsible for this. Nobody recognizes him in his disguise as a Swisser with his false beard and longer hair, only his friend Arioldus knows about it. As a Swisser, Andrucho has won the King's favor by openly commenting upon everybody's follies, vices and intrigues. The King calls Andrucho his "bandog". Together with Iseas and Asprandus, Andrucho plays a trick on Timentes, the fearful general. They make him believe that his life is in danger and hide him in a coffin. When they reopen the coffin, Timentes seems to have died of fear and they risk losing their own lives as well. Andrucho goes to the court to beg a pardon from the King, but he is not admitted because the King is seducing Eurinia, Arioldus' prisoner. When Timentes arises from his supposed death, Andrucho swears to become more serious. He discovers that Eurinia is his daughter Eugenia, whom he had believed dead. He now wants to revenge himself on the King. Hidden behind a curtain he overhears the King's conversation with Arioldus and interferes when they start their duel. Together with Arioldus and Panopia, he organizes a plot to punish the King and teach him a moral lesson. Arioldus asks the King to use his sister in the same way as he had used Eurinia, and Andrucho wants him to marry his daughter, a poor Swiss girl. When everything is discovered, the King marries Eugenia, Arioldus marries Panopia, and the "Swisser" is reinstated as Count Aribert.


A young gentleman and Cassandra's brother in Whetstone's 1 Promos and Cassandra. Offstage, Promos' court condemns him to execution for committing adultery (specifically, fornication). When Cassandra comes to his prison window, he implores her to beg Promos for his life. After Promos offers to pardon him in exchange for sex with Cassandra, Andrugio begs his sister to submit. She eventually agrees. Promos betrays his vow and orders Andrugio executed, but the jailer takes pity on him and frees him, displaying the mangled head of another executed prisoner and claiming it to be Andrugio's. Andrugio flees in secret, anguished that Cassandra and Polina ignorantly mourn for him.
A young gentleman and Cassandra's brother in Whetstone's 2 Promos and Cassandra. He has been hiding in a cave in the woods, living off his own hunting. John Adroins happens to meet him and tells him of the King's sentence on Promos. After singing a song of Thanksgiving to God, Andrugio disguises himself and goes into Julio to see the proceedings. He overhears Cassandra imploring Ulrico to help her save Promos. He is distressed by his sister's grief and decides to reveal himself in an effort to save Promos. Once Promos is reprieved, he tells his story to the King, Cassandra, Polina and the assembled. The King forgives his offense on condition that he marry Polina and Andrugio willingly agrees.


Former Duke of Genoa in Marston's Antonio and Mellida. Just before the play begins, Andrugio, Duke of Genoa, is defeated by Piero Sforza's forces in a naval battle during which he believes his son, Antonio, is killed. The wise and philosophical Andrugio finds himself hiding in full armor in a Venetian thicket with aged advisor, Lucio, and a young page. He learns that Antonio is alive when his son stops briefly at his hiding place disguised as a sailor. Knowing that Antonio loves Mellida and that Piero has offered a huge reward and enduring love to whomever delivers Andrugio's head, Andrugio with visor down at the prenuptial banquet Piero is holding for Mellida and Galeatzo. He reveals his face and claims Piero's love and the cash reward. Moved by Andrugio's "high-tow'ring heart," Piero says his hate for Andrugio has turned into love. Andrugio delivers "an armed epilogue" soliciting applause.


Viola's father and a neighbor of Antonio in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Coxcomb. After Ricardo and Andrugio realize that Viola is missing, Andrugio foolishly promises Ricardo that he can marry his missing daughter (Viola) if he can find her and bring her back home.


Andrugio is a popular general who returns in triumph to Milan in Middleton's More Dissemblers Besides Women. He is devastated to learn that his beloved, Aurelia, is being forced to marry the Governor of the Fort. Andrugio goes to the fort in disguise and reveals his identity to Aurelia, who pretends to be overjoyed (but is really in love with Lactantio). Andrugio organizes her escape: with the aid of some gypsies. But while waiting for Aurelia, he is arrested by Lactantio and brought before the Duchess (who has fallen in love with him). She shows him love letters that he has supposedly written, pretending to be outraged by them. But when they are alone, she reveals that she loves him. To keep their love secret, she orders him to be sent to prison, and Andrugio goes with this, pretending still to be the bewildered victim in front of Lactantio. In prison, however, he bribes a keeper to let him meet with Aurelia (who is still disguised as a gypsy). When the Duchess finds out about this, she is furious that Andrugio prefers an unworthy gypsy to her, but when she demands to see the "gypsy," Aurelia appears in her own attire. The Duchess admits that Aurelia is worthy and pretty, and says she can marry whoever she wants. Aurelia surprises all by saying she wants to marry Lactantio. But Lactantio rejects her, believing that he has won the Duchess. Aurelia therefore apologizes to Andrugio and asks if he'll marry her instead. He agrees, saying his love will cover all her faults.


A courtier and friend of Riviero in Shirley's Royal Master. Andrugio deplores the parasitism of Montalto and companions. He is aware that the banished Riviero has returned in the guise of Philoberto, secretary to the duke, and he facilitates a reunion of Riviero son Octavio.


Andrugio, Antonio's father and Maria's husband, was fatally poisoned by Piero and Strotzo before the beginning of Marston's Antonio's Revenge. It is reported to the public that Andrugio died of overexertion in celebration of Antonio's then immanent wedding to Mellida. Andrugio is a very active ghost; he appears on stage quite often. The audience first hears of Andrugio's spirited visitations from Antonio, who reports that his father visited him in a dream. While Antonio prays at the foot of Andrugio's hearse, the father's ghost appears to inform Antonio that Mellida is innocent of infidelity, Piero is guilty of Andrugio's murder and Maria is set to marry Piero. The ghost also tells Antonio that he is in danger from Piero. The ghost demands vengeance against Piero. The ghost appears again after Antonio threatens Maria. The ghost appears to Maria and chastises her for her engagement to Piero. The ghost instructs Maria to help Antonio plan Piero's downfall. When Antonio arrives to kill Maria, the ghost tells Antonio to forgive her and concentrate instead on eliminating Piero. The ghost watches with approval during a dumb show where Maria and Alberto hold Piero at bay with knives while Galeatzo informs a number of senators of Piero's many crimes. The ghost then introduces the final act by reporting that the Venetian court has condemned Piero. The ghost attends the final masque in order to see Piero killed. He leaves the stage once Piero is dead. Antonio pledges to lead a virgin life in honor of Mellida.


Father of Asotus in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Roscius characterizes him as "an illiberal, niggardly usurer, that will sell heaven to purchase earth." His opposite is his son, Asotus.


A shepherd, in love with Florimène in [?]Queen Henrietta's Florimène. He is finally allocated by Diana to Florelle, Florimène's friend and kinswoman.


The angel appears after Everyman descends into the grave in the Anonymous Everyman, declaring that Everyman's soul will be taken into Heaven.


The Angel first appears on stage in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England to escort the prophet Oseas to Nineveh so that he might observe the sins of its king and people. The Angel informs Oseas that later he will be returned to Jerusalem to denounce the sins he sees among the Hebrews. The Angel next appears to Jonas with God's command that he go to Nineveh and preach to its inhabitants, and when the prophet is cast out of the whale's mouth, the Angel is there to chastise him for neglecting God's work. He later escorts Oseas back to Jerusalem so that he may warn the Hebrews to change their ways, and when Jonas sees how many residents of Nineveh are seeking pardon for their sins and worries that sparing so many will make his predictions of mass destruction seem only fables, the Angel assures him that what has happened is God's will.


An Angel appears to King Athelstone in the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick. In a dream the Angel instructs the Englishman to go outside of the castle and appoint the first person he sees as champion against the Danish giant Colbron. The angel also appears twice to Guy of Warwick. The angel first tells Guy that he will die in seven days. The angel returns a week later to tell Guy he has successfully completed his pilgrimage.

ANGEL **1604

At play’s end of Verney’s Antipoe, an Angel appears, floating over the heads of the ghosts, and calls upon all to ‘adore great Jove’ the Elysian king.


An Angel rises out of Winifred's well, praising Christians, and cursing misbelievers in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. Its appearance convinces Amphiabel that Winifred is a holy woman.


Disguise taken by Snap (Alathe in disguise) in Fletcher's The Night Walker. Snap helps Lurcher rob Algripe and then lure him to a secluded place where he poses as an angel who chases away the furies and offers Algripe salvation if he mends his ways.


An Angel, "shaped like a patriarch," appears before Cyprian to prophesy that he will renounce magic and become a Christian in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. When Cyprian does indeed convert to Christianity, the Angel reappears to banish the Devils that Cyprian conjured, and to prophesy the martyrdom of Cyprian and Justina.


An angel in Richards' Messalina accompanies the ghosts of the three ladies when they appear to Saufellus.


The Angel appears to Harrold and Eric in Burnell's Landgartha. The Angel tells them to go back to the emperor because this battle belongs to Landgartha, who will reign with Reyner and whose virtues will make a Christian of her.


A mute character in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England. When the Usurer is overcome by guilt for his evil acts and contemplates suicide, the Evil Angel encourages him by producing a rope and a knife.


Evil Angel, always paired with Good Angel in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, appears early in the play and at the 11th hour to urge Faustus to remain true to his evil arts and to his contract with the Devils. As Faustus approaches death. Evil Angel shows him the "vast perpetual torture-house" of hell and warns him that "ten thousand tortures that more horrid be" await him.


Two Angels figure in Bale's The Temptation of Our Lord. After Jesus has been tempted three times, two angels descend and bring him food:
  1. The First Angel announces that the Father has sent them and expresses his amazement that Jesus could take on human form, which is so weak and fragile. The First Angel then directly addresses the audience, pointing out that the Lord has become mortal, been born and circumcised, and fasted, specifically for them, and that Jesus has conquered the frail nature of Man.
  2. The Other Angel announces that they have brought food, and that they were the ones who first announced his birth to the world. He then comments that, although God created the world, there are few who show him (in his human form Jesus) any sort of respect or love. He then addresses the audience directly, stating that they need to take up faith as a shield, and that if Man does so, the angels will rejoice.


Two Angels appear in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier:
  1. The First Angel appears to Bellizarius and converts him to Christianity. It also appears to Eugenius, advising him to heal the King and set the Christians free. It ascends out of the cave (presumably a trapdoor) where Victoria is imprisoned and sings to the astonished Vandals. Finally, it appears in the final scene, accompanied by a second Angel: they descend to sing an encouraging song to Bellizarius and Victoria, and then freeze Victoria to death to prevent her from being raped by King Henrick.
  2. The Second Angel accompanies the first Angel in the final scene: they descend to sing an encouraging song to Bellizarius and Victoria, and then freeze Victoria to death to prevent her from being raped by King Henrick.


Good Angel pleads desperately with Faustus to repent and save his soul in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, but the counter arguments of Evil Angel win out when Lucifer and Belzebub appear with threats and sinful pleasures. As "the jaws of hell are open to receive" Faustus in the last hour of his 24-year pleasure jaunt, Good Angel laments Faustus' choices and recalls the "cellestial happiness" he lost.


Angelia is the sister of Lionell in Marmion's The Antiquary. Disguised throughout most of the play as a male Page, Angelia's scheme, at least in part, is to wreak revenge upon Petrutio for abandoning his courtship of her. By the play's end she is indeed wed to Petrutio, who at first believes he has wed the Duke's'sister.


Daughter to Marsilius in Greene's Orlando Furioso. In the contest arranged by her father, Marsilius, she chooses Orlando. After refusing the advances of Sacripant, she reaffirms her love for Orlando. Banished and forced to dress as a poor woman, Angelica finds herself alone and chased by Rodamant and Brandimart and their soldiers. She is saved by Orlando, who does not recognize her, and is knighted by him. She is captured by the Twelve Peers of France, who sentence her to death by fire, but she is again saved by a now sane Orlando.


Capulet urges her to help prepare food for the planned wedding of Juliet and Paris in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Angelica may be the first name of Lady Capulet or of the Nurse.


Alternate name of Alphonsina, used once in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom.


Angelina is a character in "The Triumph of Love," the second play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. She is the wife of Benvoglio. She helps to conceal her daughter Violanta's marriage to Gerrard, as well as the birth of their child.


A virtuous and dutiful 14-year-old in Fletcher's The Elder Brother. Angellina wants to be married and agrees to abide by her father Lewis's choice of a husband. He is to choose between the two sons of his neighbor, the scholar Charles and the courtier Eustace. Impressed with Eustace's courtly polish, Lewis selects him as the groom, and Angellina agrees to marry him even though she finds the courtier superficial. During a meeting at Lewis's house, at which Charles is to sign over his inheritance to his younger brother, Angellina is confronted by Eustace's uncle Miramont, who excoriates his fashionable nephew, and who later praises Charles and explains his shyness to Angellina. After Charles's studies are interrupted by the noise of the wedding preparations, he abandons his books to take a closer look at Angellina, and promptly falls in love with her. He courts her with an impromptu ode and with several beautifully phrased declarations of his love; recognizing his worth, she accepts his proposal. Angellina explains this decision to her father, calling his judgment into question, and is promptly disowned and ordered to leave the house. She and Charles take refuge with Miramont, and Angellina is alarmed to find that Charles follows her everywhere, contemplating her beauty. In fear for her chastity, she consults her witty maid Sylvia who explains that Charles's innocence and lack of experience renders him harmless. Angellina valiantly resists Eustace's effort to kidnap her and knocks his hat off. After being kidnapped by friends and kinsmen of her father to prevent her marriage to Charles, Angellina tries to pacify her father's rage. When Charles and Eustace, now reconciled, arrive to rescue her, Angellina joins them in trying to persuade Lewis to accept Charles as Angellina's husband. Although Lewis does not give his verbal consent to the marriage, Miramont reads it in his looks, and the marriage will presumably be allowed.


The younger of the two "sisters" in Shirley's The Sisters; sister to Paulina and niece to Antonio. Angellina's character is the reverse of her sister's. She is modest and devout and wants only to enter a convent. This frustrates her uncle, Antonio, who loves her and wants her to make a good marriage. Antonio takes her from her sister's castle to his own house, where he gives her money for fine clothes and sends her love-poetry, erotic pictures, and a dancing-master. It is all in vain. She has no interest in any of it, and he is disgusted to learn the extent of her charity when he disguises himself as a beggar and receives all the clothes and money as alms. Lord Contarini falls in love with her while visiting Paulina, and sends his servant Vergerio to court her in his place. She falls in love with Vergerio, but Vergerio turns out to be a woman, Pulcheria, Contarini's former love, who is presumed dead. Angellina rises to this situation with laconic generosity. She blames no one, and in the last scene speaks only to ask pardon for Frapolo and the other bandits, and to promise money for Paulina when it turns out that she is not her elder sister after all.


See also ANGILO and related spellings.


Angelo is the Ephesian goldsmith commissioned by Antipholus Sereptus to fashion a gold chain for Adriana in Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors. The chain, of course, ends up with the wrong Antipholus, and Angelo sues the wrong man for payment.


Confidant to Lord Paulo Ferneze, who asks him to protect his beloved, Rachel de Prie, while he is away at war in Jonson's The Case is Altered. Angelo flirts with Lord Paulo's sister, Aurelia, with her apparent encouragement, but Count Ferneze tells Aurelia he has numerous mistresses. Angelo denies this, but he does intend to seduce Rachel away from his friend Paulo. He woos her in the guise of comforting her at the news of Paulo's capture, but she rejects him. Returning to Jaques de Prie's with Christophero, who also hopes to marry Rachel, he advises Christophero to lure de Prie out of the house with a trail of gold coins and then hide. Meanwhile, Angelo claims, he will take Rachel to a priory and await Christophero to be married. However, Angelo really plans to marry Rachel himself. As de Prie follows the golden trail, Angelo tells Rachel that Paulo Ferneze has escaped and awaits her at the priory, and she willingly follows him. He makes love to her at the priory and she rebuffs him, horrified, calling upon Lord Paulo, who returns at that moment and attacks Angelo, accusing him of treachery. Angelo begs forgiveness and promises to redeem himself.

ANGELO **1602

Angelo is Aurelio's servant and is also related to Franceschina in Chapman's May Day. He agrees to act as Lorenzo's messenger to Franceschina at the same time mocking the old man. He lures Lorenzo from home so that Aurelio can woo Aemilia, and persuades Lorenzo to come in disguise as a chimney sweep to Franceschina. When Lorenzo returns home to discover Aemilia with someone unknown, Angelo has Franceschina don Aurelio's suit in order to convince Lorenzo that she has followed him home. In the final scene, he assists Lorenzo by pretending to find the chimney sweep, and then introduces the now revealed Lucretio to those in attendance.


Angelo is a counselor in Day's Law Tricks. He attends Ferneze, the duke of Genoa.

ANGELO **1604

A learned and morally upright citizen of Vienna in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. Angelo was originally betrothed to Mariana, but he forsook her when her brother Frederick drowned at sea with her dowry. Duke Vincentio, wishing to have Vienna's laws against fornication enforced but not by himself, appoints Angelo governor while he, unbeknownst, disguises himself as a friar to observe what happens. Angelo orders brothels to be torn down and has Claudio arrested and sentenced to execution for impregnating Juliet. However, when Isabella meets with Angelo to plead for Claudio, Angelo is aroused by her virtue and attempts to seduce her, promising to pardon Claudio in return for her yielding her virginity to him. At the disguised Duke's direction, Isabella agrees but performs a "bed trick," substituting Mariana for herself. Angelo, thinking he has bedded Isabella, orders Claudio executed anyway to hide his misdeed. Isabella and Mariana, again at the Duke's direction, reveal everything to the "returning" Duke, who publicly disgraces Angelo and forces him to marry Mariana. The Duke orders Angelo to be executed, but relents when Isabella pleads for him.


Angelo is the true name of Collonna in Fletcher's The Knight of Malta. His name is revealed only in the final scene as he steps forward to claim Lucinda as his fiancée.


Angelo is a good spirit in Massinger and Dekker's The Virgin Martyr, serving and comforting Dorothea in the habit of a page; later, he appears to Theophilus as a small boy. He is set off again Harpex, an evil spirit.


A non-speaking character in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom. Angelo is a servant to Alphonsina. Together with Luca, he is asked to play music to Tibaldo Neri.


Lotti, often called by his first name, Angelo in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom, is the banished lover of Fiametta. Banished from Florence for his supposed treasonable dealings with the Genoway's, Lotti first appears with his servingman, Baptista. He confronts Piero, the Duke's son, and his friend Iaspero, and Piero accuses Lotti not only of having stolen his sister's heart, but also of making her reject a marriage proposal from the Prince of Pisa. Lotti acknowledges the accusation, but denies responsibility for Piero's rage. They briefly fight, but Lord Vanni suddenly enters and appeases them, asking Lotti the reason for his return to Pisa in spite of his banishment. Angelo replies that he came back only to take his leave. He then exits, but soon returns, disguised as a physician from France. He is received by the Duke of Florence, who, thinking Lotti to be a real doctor, appeals to him to cure his daughter from an unknown illness. Lotti's diagnosis is that the Duke's daughter has a "great desire of a man," that is, she is lovesick. The only cure for Fiametta to overcome her love is for Angelo to kill the man she loves, take his heart, grate it, mix it with wine, and finally administer the resultant potion to her. Shortly after his discussion with the Duke, Angelo secretly reveals himself to Fiametta and attempts to explain his plan to escape with her when the Duke enters. Lotti, who is still disguised as a doctor, continues his part, whilst Fiametta reveals the truth to her father, who believes she has gone mad. Lotti reaffirms that the potion made of Angelo's heart is the only cure with which to save Fiametta's wits. After the Duke leaves, Lotti decides to abandon the court and seek sanctuary with a friar. Dressed as a friar, Lotti is discovered by Piero, who brings him back to the Florentine court. There, Lotti meets Fiametta again and asks her whom she seeks among the people present. She questions him about his love for her, but when he is asked whether Angelo would marry her, he publicly refuses. A heart-broken and enraged Fiametta decides to marry the Prince of Pisa, but asks her father to take the friar with her, so he could be her confessor for the night. On the next morning Fiametta reveals to her father and the Prince of Pisa that the friar has secretly married her to Lotti. After some dispute, the Duke reluctantly agrees to Lotti and Fiametta's marriage


A respected gentleman and friend of Leandro and Arsenio in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. Milanes assists Leandro in his plan to seduce Amaranta, helps Lopez and Diego pull a practical joke at Bartolus's expense, and suffers through Bartolus's revenge breakfast. His name is sometimes rendered "Millanes" in the text.


See also ANGEL.


Non-speaking roles in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London. Two Angels "with bright rapiers in their hands" accompany London when she speaks the Preface to the play.

ANGELS **1604

Unnamed Angels appear in a dumb show in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me; they stop the Fryers from murdering Elizabeth.


Accompany Patrick's Guardian Angel, Victor, in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland when he descends from heaven to warn Patrick about Archimagus' plot to have him killed by Snakes.


A "ghost character" in Sharpham's Cupid's Whirligig. A lawyer and a customer in Mistress Correction's brothel.

ANGER **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the fifteen affections and the subject of the play as mentioned in the dramatis personae but not otherwise mentioned in the play proper.


Angharat is the sister of Gueneuora, Arthur's wife in Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur. When the queen gives up her initial plan to assassinate Arthur upon his return and then decides that her only course is to kill herself, Angharat convinces Gueneuora to accept what has happened, especially the queen's affair with Mordred, as the work of fate and to conclude that suicide is not the solution. By the end of their conversation, Gueneuora gives up the thought of killing herself, but she determines to withdraw from the world and enter a convent.


See also "ANGELO."


A friend to Julio in Fletcher's The Captain. Angilo tries unsuccessfully to prevent him from returning to Lelia's house when he declares himself to be cured of her. Angilo unwillingly accompanies Julio to Lelia's to witness his friend's reformation; Angilo is smitten but forces Julio to leave, saying that he would kill Julio rather than allow him to be dishonored by marrying her. Angilo later returns and bribes Lelia's Waiting Woman to let him hide and watch Lelia. He observes Lelia's attempt to seduce her father and reveals himself in time to prevent Lelia's father from killing himself for having such a daughter. He assists Lelia's father in carrying Lelia away to his house where she repents. Angilo also provides the house for the post-nuptial festivities.


A nun pregant with Romelio's child in Webster's The Devil's Law Case. In the end, she reluctantly marries Romelio, hoping that others will learn from her example not to take religious vows lightly. Along with Leonora and Jolenta, she promises to build a monastery.


A non-speaking character in Peele's Edward I. Lord Anglesey is one of the Welsh Barons who is present when the infant Edward of Caernarvon is presented the "mantle of frieze," in recognition of the child's status as Prince of Wales.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Pond, Booker, Allestree, Jeffry, Neve Gent, and Merlinus Anglicus were good astronomers, according to Carion, who nevertheless cannot predict so well as Chremyla's corns.


A thane of Scotland in Shakespeare's Macbeth. Angus, along with Ross, is sent by Duncan to escort Macbeth to meet with the King. They also inform Macbeth that Duncan has made him Thane of Cawdor as reward for his bravery, loyalty, and skill in battle. Later, after Macbeth usurps the throne, Angus joins with Menteith, Caithness, and Lennox in leading the Scottish forces in the revolt against Macbeth.


Anicetus is Nero's loyal servant in May's Julia Agrippina. He plans the boating accident and, when that fails, stabs Agrippina.


A "ghost character" in Zouche's The Sophister. Intellect's "carefull Mother," and the "great Empresse of the Isle of Man," Discourse claims that Intellect "was hither sent" by Anima. She is, presumably, the same character referred to by Invention as "Amina" when he asks for her pardon concerning the duty which he owes to her son, Intellect.


Only mentioned in Zouche's The Sophister. Definition, Division, Opposition, and Description mention Animatum while attempting to "draw out" for Discourse "the pedigree, which is a true lineall discent of all the chiefest inhabitants within these provinces." Animatum is the successor of Corpus.


Animis is an Herodian officer in Markham's Herod and Antipater. He follows Herod's orders strictly throughout the play, ending by conducting Antipater to what will be the prince's execution.


Zenocrate's handmaid in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1. While Zabina and her maid Ebea scoff at Zenocrate, Annipe suggest that when Tamburlaine has defeated the Turks, Zabina and Ebea should be made to do the work that Anippe's chambermaid disdains. After the Turks are defeated, Zabina becomes her slave. She threatens to have Zabina whipped for chastising Tamburlaine. Later, she confirms to Zenocrate that both Bajazeth and Zabina have killed themselves and blames Tamburlaine's ruthless cruelty–which has also allowed the slaughter of Damascus.


A Duke in the court of France and brother to King Charles IX in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris. He supports and participates in the massacre of Protestants. He accepts the throne of Poland on the condition that should he become King of France he will return there to rule. When Charles dies, he returns to France and is crowned King Henry III. (See "HENRY III").


Also known as Nan in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. Daughter to old Boote, she has been promised in marriage to Young Bateman, with whom she is in love. However, her father now opposes the match because Young Bateman is not rich enough. When her lover leaves to join the army in Leith, she vows to be faithful to him unto death. Scarcely is he gone, however, before her father convinces her to marry the elderly German for his wealth. When her former lover returns on her wedding day, she rejects and mocks him. After he refuses to curse her and swears that he will enjoy her living or dead, she is seized with remorse. Nevertheless, she greets Young Bateman's suicide with heartless derision, declaring that now she may sleep quietly. This proves a delusion, for she immediately finds herself haunted by his ghost, which only she can see. Pregnant, she begs the ghost to kill her, but it declares that it cannot touch her until she is delivered. She visits Bateman's father, who pardons her. She bears German's daughter, but is troubled by dreams in which she drowns herself. After her gossips fall asleep, she is summoned by Young Bateman's ghost and rises from her childbed to follow him to heaven or hell. Her gossips find her drowned by the riverside.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. One of the "three wenches" that Hick Scorner keeps upon his brothel-ship, The Envy.

ANNA **1587

Sister of Dido in Marlowe's Dido, Queen of Carthage. Anna is in love with Iarbas, who hopes to wed Dido and unite their kingdoms. Following his suicide, she kills herself.

ANNA **1610

Isabella's maid, confidante and go-between in the various stages of the relationship between her mistress and Count Massino in John Marston's The Insatiate Countess. Anna sets up Isabella's house in Pavia in preparation for her rendezvous with the Count and subsequently wards him off once Isabella is smitten with Gniaca. Brings Isabella the news that Gniaca has not murdered Massino but that instead the men have parted as friends. She then bears the brunt of Isabella's rage.


Annabel is a fictional character in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. During the gallant conversation with the nymphs at Cynthia's court, the self-infatuated Amorphus narrates a fictional tale in which a certain lady Annabel fell in love with him. Amorphus says that he was the guest of the emperor once. After having been entertained by the Kings of France and Aragon, as well as the dukes of Savoy, Florence, Orléans, Burbon, Brunswick, and the Count Palatine, he had to wait for a few minutes to be received by the emperor. While he was retired to a bay window in the palace, the beautiful lady Annabel, niece to the empress and sister to the King of Aragon, fell in love with him at first sight. So sudden was her coup-de-foudre that she swooned. Despite all the physicians' attempts, Annabel languished for a few days and ultimately expired with Amorphus's name on her lips. Amorphus continues his extravagant story by telling how, a few hours before her death, lady Annabel bequeathed to him a glove, which the emperor ordered to be sent to him ceremoniously in six coaches dressed in black velvet and attended by guards. On this mournful occasion, Amorphus said he composed an ode, which he intends to sing to the audience, in accompaniment of his lyre. The ode is addressed to the glove that is supposed to have been kissed by Cupid. Cupid and Mercury listen to this ode and comment critically on it. Mercury said it is not fit to lament the death of a lady. Ultimately, after having been entreated several times, Amorphus accepts to give a copy of the ditty to the nymphs. He adds that he denied giving a copy of it to princes, but he would depart with it for the true female twins of perfection.


Annabel is Elenor's maid in Chapman's Bussy D'Ambois. She reports to Monsieur that Bussy utterly ignores Elenor.


Annabel is the daughter of Woodroff and the bride of Bonvile in Webster and Rowley's A Cure for a Cuckold. She is baffled when Bonvile disappears on their wedding night. She follows him down the road, but is accosted by Rochfield, an inexperienced thief, who tries to rob her of the jewelry that is locked around her body. Annabel easily outwits Rochfield by grabbing his sword, but she pities him, and suggests that if he comes to her house, she'll give him the jewelry's monetary value. She introduces Rochfield as a wedding guest, and slips him the money, which then uses to becoming a venturer in Woodroff's shipping scheme. Annabel receives a letter from Bonvile explaining that he's engaged in a duel. When she finally meets him after his return, Bonvile, influenced by Lessingham, is suspicious of her relationship with Rochfield and threatens to disinherit her. But when Clare and Rochfield explain their actions to everyone, Bonvile is satisfied and he and Annabel are reconciled.


A "timorous virgin" in Brome's The Sparagus Garden, daughter to Sir Hugh Moneylacks and granddaughter to Striker (who has reared her, and sometimes calls her his "niece"). She has fallen in love with Samuel Touchwood, the son of her grandfather's bitterest enemy. When she hears that her grandfather has cursed her love, she faints but is revived by the appearance of Samuel, who gives her a paper in which he has described his plan to save their love. She vows not to read it until he has departed, and then to follow its instructions no matter how painful they may be. They require her to pretend that Samuel has impregnated and then abandoned her, a report that causes her grandfather to threaten to disown her and then to fall into a near fatal fit of illness; in the end, however, he resolves to frustrate Touchwood's malice by cherishing her. When Sir Arnold Cautious arrives to court her on his nephew's behalf, she puts on a great show of chastity and disdain for young men, inspiring him to claim her for himself. When he comes to wed her, however, she appears dressed in mourning and apparently heavily pregnant; he repudiates her, and Striker accedes to Touchwood's declaration that she and Samuel must marry. Confessing that her dishonor was only a pretence, the two lovers are reunited.


The virtuous Annabel, daughter of Sir Godfrey, is the eponymous character in the Anonymous The Fair Maid of Bristow. She marries Vallenger but is immediately scorned and neglected by him. She remains unswervingly loyal, even disguising herself as a man and offering to die in his place. She is eventually rewarded by his repentance and reformation.


A character name is nearly lost, only –lla remains in the anonymous 2 Fortune's Tennis. It is perhaps referring to a character of this name.


Annabella is a strange female of the Renaissance stage in Ford's 'Tis Pity She's a Whore. She enters into her incestuous deflowering eagerly unlike the many virgins of other plays who fight for their honor. She does repent the act after time, but her repentance serves mainly to juxtapose Giovanni, her brother-lover, who remains unrepentant to the end.

ANNE **1520

A "ghost character" in J. Heywood's Johan Johan, the Husband; Tyb, His Wife; and Sir Johan, the Priest. Anne, the daughter of a neighbor to Johan Johan and Tyb, does not appear on stage but is mentioned by Tyb as collaborating with her, her friend Margery, and the local priest Sir Johan in the manufacture of the pie that will be eaten later by Tyb and Sir Johan. Because the pie and its consumption clearly symbolizes the sexual activity of the wife and the priest, and because Johan Johan comments upon Margery's reputation (the most infamous bawd between their village and Coventry), the reference to Anne and her colleagues suggests the rampant promiscuity of the group.

ANNE **1588

A "ghost character" in Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur. Twin sister of Arthur and Mordred's mother.

ANNE **1609

Anne is the young second wife of Old Harding in Heywood and Rowley's Fortune by Land and Sea. She is upset by Old Harding's cruel treatment of Philip and Susan, and when he forces them to become servants, secretly ensures that their workloads are lessened. She also takes pity on Young Forrest when he flees after killing Rainsforth: she hides him in the hay-loft, and then sends him to her brother, the Merchant, to aid his escape. When Old Harding dies, Young Forrest returns a rich man, and Anne marries him.


Anne is the Physician's sister in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel. She acts as a female ear to whom Jane can explain her pregnancy. When the Physician tries to blackmail Jane to extort sexual favors, he orders Anne to persuade Jane into compliance. But Anne encourages Jane to tell the truth rather than submit to her brother's demands. Anne tries to persuade her brother not to reveal Jane's pregnancy to Chough, but he ignores her.


Also spelled An. in speech headings and also Nan in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Anne is daughter to Master and Mistriss Changeable. She is in love with Slightall. When she learns her father agrees to her marrying her beloved one, she urges the former not to tell her mother about it, since she knows she would not agree to it. However, when, later, Treatwell arrives with the news that Lord Skales wants to marry her, the young girl puts in the balance her love for Slightall–a squire of low degree–and the honorable title of 'Lady' and 'Madam' she would gain by marrying the Lord Baron. Finally, it seems that her greed for a good position–instigated by her mother–is stronger than her feelings for Slightall, and she resolves to marry Lord Skales. When she learns that the latter comes to visit her, as his prospective wife, she is all excited about it and–not belonging to the nobility–she is worried, because she does not know how to behave when he arrives. But, when she finally meets him, she is deeply disappointed because she had assumed that 'Lordship' implied 'good looks', and now she discovered that she could not feel attracted to the young man she had before her. Thus, after a private discussion with her mother and a talk with the gentleman, she turns him down–to Mistriss Changeable's dismay–and goes in search of her beloved Slightall. But it is too late, because she only finds him once he has lost both all his fortune and his mind. Besides, he does not believe her when she claims she loves him–he actually blames her for his misfortune, and announces he has determined to turn a savage and live in a cave. Anne, on her part, blames her parents for her present unhappiness and resolves she will recover her beloved Slightall. Then, incensed, she releases her fury against her mother, Lord Skales, Treatwell and Geffrey, speaking to them openly and telling them, frankly, what she thinks about them, and how unhappy they have made her. Afterwards, Anne pretends she has gone mad, and agrees to accept her father's help to recover Slightall. Thus, when–with the help of Master Changeable–Slightall stays in a supposedly 'haunted' chamber of their house, expecting to face a 'she-spirit', Anne appears before him. Infatuated by her beauty, and not recognizing her, he desperately tries to find out who she is. In the end, thanks to the help of her father–and pretending she is ill, in order to cheat her mother and Lord Skales–she manages to reach her goal and marry her beloved Slightall.


Anne and Mary are daughters to Sir John and Lady Frugal in Massinger's The City Madam. Like her mother and her sister, she is given to extravagance, and mistreats Luke. She also abuses her suitor, Sir Maurice Lacy, on the advice of her mother and Stargaze. When Luke takes control of the family finances, she is stripped of all finery and is to be shipped to Virginia for Satanic sacrifice. She sees the error of her ways close to the end of the play, and laments her mistreatment of Lacy. She is engaged to marry Sir Maurice Lacy at the play's close.


Only mentioned in Rowley’s When You See Me. Wolsey takes pride in having “wrought such means" with the king that she lost her head.
Beginning simply as Queen Katherine's Maid of Honor in Shakespeare's Henry VIII, Anne meets the masked King Henry at Wolsey's dinner. Though originally feeling sorry for what King Henry is doing to Katherine, Anne nevertheless accepts first the title of Marchioness of Pembroke and later that of Henry's second wife and queen, mother of Elizabeth.


Mrs. Anne Crostill is a rich vintner's humorous widow in Brome's A Mad Couple. In Act Three, she receives in error the letter that Carelesse had written to Phoebe. She is told not to interfere in his affairs when the suitor really wanted to marry her. Thus, when he visits her in Act Four, she rejects him in spite of loving him. Mistress Crostill marries Carelesse at the end of the play.


Also spelled Drurie and Drewry in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women. Surgeon, soothsayer, and widow; employer and partner of Roger, her trusted associate and companion in crime; and false friend to George and especially Anne Sanders; Drewry agrees to accept George Browne's money to lure Anne Sanders into sleeping with him. Knowing how devoted Anne is to her husband, she cunningly uses her soothsaying prowess to convince Anne that she is destined to marry Browne. Anne resists but succumbs to adultery. Drewry then pushes and abets Browne into murdering George Sanders, providing Roger's help at every stage, particularly when Browne waivers in his intention. After the murder she helps Browne escape, fearing for her own safety, by enlisting Roger to sell plate to raise the necessary funds. When Browne is caught, and she, Roger, and Anne Sanders are brought in for questioning, she pleads not guilty but later accepts her fate. She implicates Anne Sanders and refuses to recant when Anne asks her to do so to save her life. She is with Anne Sanders at the end when they both make confession to the Doctor before their execution.


The beautiful, educated sister of Sir Francis Acton, and wife of Frankford in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness. Anne has an adulterous affair with her husband's friend, Wendoll. When Frankford finds out, he banishes her. Anne is overwhelmed with repentant grief and starves herself to death.


Otherwise known as Anne of Bohemia, Queen of England, first wife of Richard II in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock. From her first appearance, at the coronation, Anne tries to calm the anger and suspicion between Richard and his uncles, in particular Woodstock, and her own charity and high reputation does Richard some good among his subjects. But her husband's reckless behaviour makes her first sad, then ill. The Duchess of Gloucester, Woodstock's wife, is her friend, and, on her husband's insistence, leaves their home at Plashy to go to the Queen on her deathbed; in the Duchess's absence, Richard carries out his plot against Woodstock. Anne's death plunges Richard into deep grief. [The historical Anne of Bohemia died before the plotting of Woodstock's murder.]

ANNE of CLEVES **1604

A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. She is mentioned the first time at line 1423 when Henry orders her to be sent home.


Widow of the Lancastrian Prince Edward and later wife of Richard III in Shakespeare's Richard III. Lady Anne is the daughter of Warwick "the Kingmaker," and her sister is married to Clarence, making Prince Edward and Clarence brothers-in-law. Richard III chooses to marry her as a political maneuver to unite the Yorks and Lancasters. He accosts her on the street as she is escorting the corpse of Henry VI, her father-in-law, from St. Paul's Cathedral to be reinterred in Chertsey monastery. Lady Anne curses Richard and spits in his face because he murdered Henry and, along with his brothers, killed Prince Edward in battle. Richard claims that he killed them out of love for her, and she ultimately agrees to marry him. After Richard becomes king, though, he decides that he needs to marry his niece Princess Elizabeth to better secure his claim to the throne, so he has Lady Anne killed. Her ghost later visits Richard and Richmond on the night before the Battle of Bosworth, cursing Richard and blessing Richmond.
Anne is to be the wife of King Richard III, successor of Edward IV in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV.


She is the daughter of George and Margaret Page in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. She wishes to marry Fenton. She agrees to both her father and her mother's marriage choices, but is rescued by Mistress Quickly who makes sure Anne can be spirited away from Herne's Oak by Fenton to be married.


A countrywoman who is driven into suicidal madness by Mother Sawyer and the Dog in Rowley, Dekker and Ford's The Witch of Edmonton.


Anne Sanders in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women is the loving and devoted wife of George Sanders who is lured into adultery with George Browne by wily Anne Drewry, her seeming friend and confidant. Apparently consenting to the murder of her husband by Browne, she is immediately distraught upon seeing the bloody handkerchief sent as a sign of his death. She wants to kill herself and refuses to see Browne, but she contributes plate and cash to assist in his escape. Brought before the Lords after Browne is sentenced to death, she pleads not guilty and lies about her knowledge of the murder. Sentenced to death as an accessory, she begs Drewry to clear her, but Drewry refuses, leading her to make a complete confession to the Doctor. In her final scene she says farewell to her children, praising their late father and asking mercy of him, God, and her children. She beseeches her children to be virtuous, and she gives them each a kiss and a book of meditations to help them receive God's blessing.


Anne Vaster is the daughter of Vaster in S.S's Honest Lawyer, although in his jealousy Vaster disowns her. She appeals to Benjamin for mercy when his father sends him to throw them off their lands, and Benjamin immediately falls in love with her and proposes marriage. However, Gripe enters and threatens to disown Benjamin, at which Anne insists she and her brother would rather be beggars than see that happen. They appeal for aid to first Bromely, then Gripe, then Nice, and are all three times turned down. Finally Sagar offers to help them, although his own legal troubles have left them almost penniless. Benjamin enters and promises to help them and to marry Anne. She appears, married to Benjamin, in the final scene, and when she hears the disguised Vaster claim that Benjamin has killed Vaster, mourns that she must lose both father and husband.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Annis Clare was a rich London widow, and a spring was named after her. When Whit invites Mistress Littlewit to sample Ursula's porcine wears, he says the lady will have the clean side of the table, and a dry glass washed with water from Dame Annessh Clare. Since Whit's accent is "stage Irish," he seems to have a problem with pronouncing sibilants and the name is distorted, but recognizable.


Annetta is Lelio's wife in the anonymous Knack To Know An Honest Man. After her husband flees from Venice for apparently killing Sempronio for trying to seduce her, she allows Fortunio (the Duke's son), Marchetto (a senator), and the guard into her home to search for Lelio. She rejects Marchetto's advances. Later when Fortunio tries to seduce her daughter, Lucida, with gold, Sempronio tries to persuade Annetta to reject him on the grounds that she will become a bawd. (She doesn't need persuading.) She rejects Fortunio's advances on her daughter and Marchetto's advances on herself again when the two men come at night to force themselves on the women. (Annetta's brothers, Orphinio and Zepherius, defend them and are arrested for their action). Later, she meets the disguised Lelio when he returns to surrender to the authorities. At Lelio's subsequent trial she pleads for mercy for her husband, and when Fortunio supports her plea, she pardons Fortunio for his past wrongdoing.


A "ghost character" in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon. The priest who confesses Paridel when he arrives in Venice and receives him back into the service of the Empress of Babylon.

ANNIE **1641

A “ghost character" in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. One of Ursin’s bears is Nan Stiles. Grobiana thinks the bear’s name is probably Annie and Ursin has nicknamed her Nan.


Sister to Antinous and daughter to Cassilane in ?Ford's The Laws of Candy. Annophil is an attendant of Erota's until Cassilane decides to retire to the country and asks his daughter to accompany him. Annophil reassures Antinous that she will attempt to reconcile him to Cassilane. Despite her commitment to being an obedient daughter, she supports Arcanes when he protests Cassilane's threatening Decius simply for bringing a letter from Antinous. Annophil comes to love Fernando while he is staying at Cassilane's. After Cassilane accuses Antinous of ingratitude, Antinous accuses Erota, and Erota accuses Cassilane, Annophil accuses the entire Senate of ingratitude for not paying Cassilane's debts after he mortgaged his property to pay the soldiers to help protect the city. She forgives them and asks their forgiveness when the accusations are withdrawn. She is betrothed to Fernando at the end.


Annot Alyface is, like Tibet Talkapace, one of Dame Custance's maids in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Only slightly less talkative that Tibet, Annot seems especially fond of singing and initiates the first of the songs that are spread throughout the play.


A "ghost character" and probably fictional in Chapman's All Fools. The Notary refers to the case the duke as proof of his learning and knowledge, but "anonimo" is Latin for "anonymous."


A "ghost character" in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday. Alcon identifies an anonymous male source who gave him the "poison'd" mirror and who also "taught [him] the cordial water which he us'd To restore spirits and heat unto those vitals."


Ansaldo is the male name and personality assumed by the disguised Martia, daughter of the Widow's First Suitor in Thomas Middleton's The Widow. Robbed by Latrocino, Ansaldo brandishes a pistol and retrieves the stolen goods. Upon revealing (unknowingly) to Latrocino's confederate that the pistol is uncharged, however, Ansaldo's goods and clothing are taken again, and Ansaldo ends up at Brandino's home, where Philippa provides first a suit of Brandino's for Ansaldo to wear and later a gown of her own. Ansaldo does not reveal himself as the maid Martia until play's end.


Discusses with Master Fuller his transformation from a man of judgment and reason into a helpless lover of Mistress Arthur in (?)Heywood's How A Man May Choose A Good Wife From A Bad. Meeting again with Fuller the next day Anselm still finds himself in love. He is advised by Fuller to be more aggressive in pursuing his love, since, according to Fuller, women frequently dissemble. They arrive before Mistress Arthur's door and step aside when they hear Young Master Arthur, Mistress Arthur, Young Master Lusam, Old Master Arthur, Old Master Lusam, and Pipkin coming out. When Mistress Arthur is left along, Anselm comes forward and speaks with her, asking her why she suffers such abuse from her villainous husband. She rejects the charge against her husband and exits. Anselm is encouraged to try again by Fuller, and he vows to continue. Later, Anselm listens to Fuller's tale concerning his false mistress and then decides to continue his pursuit of Mistress Arthur by attempting to make her hate her husband. When Mistress Arthur enters, Anselm and Fuller try to persuade her that Young Master Arthur is spending all of his time at Mistress Mary's house being unfaithful to her, and that she should divorce him. After she exits, Anselm refuses to abandon his devotion to Mistress Arthur, despite Fuller's protestations. Anselm and Fuller then spy on Aminadab, in despair over the loss of his love Mistress Mary. Anselm refuses to believe Fuller's claim that his love makes him as ridiculous as Aminadab, but he does agree to go along with Fuller's jest: to give Aminadab a sleeping potion and tell him it is poison. After Aminadab exits, Anselm and Fuller encounter Young Master Arthur, who is in pursuit of Aminadab. Anselm invites himself to Young Master Arthur's house for dinner, and Young Master Arthur asks Fuller to come along as well. Master Anselm and Master Fuller arrive at Young Master Arthur's feast together. After Mistress Mary drinks a toast to Young Master Arthur, Anselm hopes that Mistress Arthur will drink a toast to him, but instead she toasts Justice Reason. After Fuller tells his tale, Young Master Arthur and Mistress Arthur drink their toast of reconciliation, which disappoints Anselm. As the feast ends and the guests begin to leave, Anselm finds his love for Mistress Arthur is even stronger due to her constancy and modesty, while Fuller again advises him to abandon his hopeless love for her. Pipkin then enters to them with the news of Mistress Arthur's supposed death: Anselm is devastated by the news while Fuller finds it intolerable that Anselm should swoon at the news of a woman's death. Later, Anselm finds himself haunted by memories of Mistress Arthur. He meets Master Fuller, who tells him about Mistress Arthur's funeral. After initially vowing to entomb himself with Mistress Arthur, he promises Fuller that he will simply pray at her tomb for an hour. In the tomb, Master Anselm kisses Mistress Arthur's body and discovers that her lips are warm. When she revives, Anselm identifies himself and proclaims his love for her and then offers to lead her out of the tomb. After telling her about her husband's disloyalty and his attempt to poison her, he asks her to grant him one favor, which she accepts, so long as it does not compromise her virtue. Anselm asks Mistress Arthur to live in secret with his mother in order to witness the behavior of her husband for herself. She agrees on the condition that he does not press his love for her again. Anselm later meets Master Fuller and tells him about Mistress Arthur's return from the dead and how she is staying with his mother. Fuller tells Anselm that Young Master Arthur has married Mistress Mary and Anselm asks him to tell Mistress Arthur himself, so that she may take pity on Anselm. When Mistress Arthur enters, Anselm listens as Fuller tells her that her husband has remarried Mistress Mary. After Mistress Arthur reaffirms her love for her husband, Anselm vows to have his virtue master his love and cease in his pursuit of her. At the end of the play Master Anselm and Master Fuller attend Young Master Arthur's trial. When Master Fuller attempts to explain how Aminadab came into possession of the poison and Master Anselm attempts to justify Fuller's actions, Justice Reason wants them both charged as accessories to the crime. After Mistress Arthur enters and negates the murder charge against her husband, Master Fuller explains that the poison was in fact a sleeping potion, and Master Anselm explains his rescue of Mistress Arthur from the tomb.


The proper name of the Hermit in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet who, along with his sisters, is invited to the Capulet feast.


Friar Anselme in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV is a churchman who, while alive, uttered a prophecy about "G" being dangerous to King Edward IV. Doctor Shaw deliberately misinterprets Anselme's prophecy, and Anselme's ghost appears to the treacherous Shaw late in the play, promising doom to Shaw for helping produce so much evil.


They are "ghost characters" in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet who, along with Ansleme, are invited to the Capulet feast.


Anselmo helps his friend Mucedorus disguise himself as a shepherd in the Anonymous Mucedorus so that he can travel to Aragon and meet Amadine. Eventually, moved by the grief of Mucedorus' father (King of Valencia), Anselmo tells the king where his son has gone. Anselmo and the king travel to Aragon with other Valencian courtiers, arriving just in time to celebrate Amadine and Mucedorus' wedding.


Anselmo is a friar at Bethlem Monastery in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore who agrees, despite his fear of the Duke, to marry Hippolyto and Infelice secretly. When he hears that the Duke is on the way to the Monastery, he marries the two at once and disguises both of them as well as Matheo as friars. After requesting that they remove their weapons, he shows the Duke the madmen who are kept at the Monastery and explains how they went mad. When Hippolyto, Infelice and Matheo enter dressed as friars, he tries to sneak them past the Duke, but the apparently mad Bellafront discovers their ruse. Anselm then explains that through this marriage he hopes to end the feud between the two families and pleads successfully with the Duke to accept the marriage and end the feud. When Viola enters seeking her husband, Anselmo brings in Candido.


Anselmus is the brother of Govianus in [?]Middleton's The Second Maiden's Tragedy. He is a conventional jealous husband, who cannot believe that his wife is chaste until she has been tested. He persuades his resident friend, Votarius, to seduce his wife and test her reaction. She is unresponsive, but to be more certain, Anselmus decides to increase the temptation by leaving home for a few days. On his return, he is happy to learn that his wife was never tempted. But Votarius later tells Anselmus that he noted a "yielding" in her, and that he suspects her of sleeping with Bellarius. Anselmus, seeing Leonella with Bellarius, attacks her, thinking she is his wife's bawd. Votarius persuades Anselmus to hide in the closet and watch him seduce his wife. There, Anselmus is delighted to see his wife stab Votarius to death. He leaps from the closet and kills Leonella for slandering his wife. Bellarius attacks him in turn, and Anselmus' wife runs between their swords and dies. Wounded by Bellarius' poisoned blade, Anselmus drags himself across the stage so that he can die next to his wife's body. But, when he hears Bellarius telling Govianus that his wife lusted after Votarius, he pushes her body away, calls her a whore, and then he dies.


Anselmus cannot believe that his wife is virtuous until she has been proved resistant to temptation in [?]Middleton's The Second Maiden's Tragedy. He persuades his resident friend, Votarius, to seduce his wife and test her reaction. Although the Wife is initially unresponsive, Anselmus' indifference has made her lonely, and as Anselmus demands that Votarius increase the temptation, she and Votarius begin to fall in love. Although Anselmus is fooled for some time, Votarius lets slip that she is "yielding". To confound Anselmus' suspicions, the Wife decides to stage a scene in which she will spurn Votarius while Anselmus is watching. Having agreed the plan with Votarius, she later hits on an improvement: Votarius will wear armor under his shirt, and she will stab him with a sword. She sends Leonella to inform Votarius of this. But Leonella does not tell him, and puts poison on the sword, so the Wife ends up killing Votarius. When Anselmus is attacked by Bellarius, the wife runs between their swords, and dies.


Ansilva is waiting-woman to Catalina and Berinthia in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge. Though she should be loyal to both ladies, Ansilva believes that her greatest chance of preferment lies with the elder sister Catalina. Consequently, she assists Catalina's plot to poison Berinthia and have Berinthia kidnapped. She also agrees to add a love potion to Catalina's drink as Count de Montenegro has requested.


He is pursued by Diomede early in Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida and is likely captured by Diomede and Ajax. It is possible, if this action follows Shakespeare's, that he is later exchanged for Cressida. He meets with Hector midway through the play and later with Priam, Hector, Paris, Helen, Cassandra, and Polixina. He does not seem to be present in the final scene.
A Trojan commander in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. A prisoner of the Greeks, Antenor is exchanged for Cressida.
Antenor (referred to as Anthenor in the text) is a Trojan noble and the brother-in-law to the Trojan queen Hecuba in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. Priam sends him to Greece to negotiate the release of Hesione, but when he returns to Troy, he reports that he has been rejected and dishonorably used by the Greeks. Further, his report that Hesione is regarded in Greece as a strumpet provokes Hector to support the expedition to rescue the woman, something that he had spoken against earlier. Antenor accompanies Paris to Sparta, and at the end of the play is a member of the Trojan party that returns Achilles's corpse to the Greeks.
This Trojan prince appears in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age but takes no significant part in the struggle to save the city, from which he manages to escape with 500 other Trojans.


At Cynthia's revels, Cupid is disguised as Anteros and introduces the four cardinal virtues as part of the First Masque in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. Cupid/Anteros begins with a praise of the goddess Cynthia, then tells how the four fair virgins, Storge, Aglaia, Euphantaste, and Apheleia, have come from the palace of their queen Perfection to visit Cynthia's imperial court. Cupid/Anteros presents each of the four cardinal virtues of courtly manners, adding the symbols of their colors, iconography, and their Latin mottoes. After having introduced the four virgins, Cupid/Anteros explains that his name means "love's enemy" and he is, therefore, more qualified to be at the court of the virgin Cynthia than in the palace of Cytherea, the goddess of love. Cupid/Anteros thinks he is the best person to introduce the four virgins because they profess as adversaries of love. After the First and second Masques, the dance begins and Cupid/Anteros retires to the back of the stage with Mercury/Page. Mercury challenges Cupid to use his bow, but the god of love says he fears Cynthia's wrath if she hears the twang of his bow. Instead, he just waves his arrow at Phantaste and Amorphus, and they instantly fall in love, not with each other but with themselves. During the next dance, Cupid/Anteros waves his arrow at Argurion but notices the same effect. Mercury confirms that all have drunk of the fountain of Self-love and Cupid's arrows are ineffective. Cupid wants to wave his arrow at Crites, but Mercury warns him that the venom of his arrow cannot pierce the poet's soul. Finally, when Cynthia orders the revelers to unmask, Cupid is discovered under his disguise as Anteros. Cynthia is displeased and chases him away in disgrace.

ANTEROS **1632

Terpander’s son in Hausted’s Rival Friends. He is a “humorous mad fellow that could not endure women." He believes that it is his nose, made rosy and bright as the sun with drink, that attracts the women to him. He intends to live with Stipes as a shepherd and so avoid all women. He is the opposite to the woman-loving Loveall, yet they like one another. He and Loveall make sport by setting William Wiseacres, Noddle Empty, Mr. Mongrel, and Hammershin to insult one another. He climbs a tree to avoid Placenta and Pandora when they come along with Endymion. While up there, he overhears Ursely beg her father to get her Anteros in marriage. He resolves to take on his shepherd disguise at once to avoid the marriage. He gulls Hammershin into believing he has killed Noddle Empty and gets him to hide in a rabbit chest and hides Mr. Mongrel in a pig sty. Anteros disguises himself as a shepherd named Geoffrey and becomes Stipes’s servant. He is shocked to learn that the shepherd has a daughter and that he further imagines Geoffrey a good match for his Merda. Stipes, believing ‘Geoffrey’ has lain with Merda, tricks him by tying him to a tree. Loveall happens along while Stipes is getting a cudgel and unties Anteros, who takes off his shepherd garb, disguises again with Loveall’s hat and sword, and has Loveall tie him again to the tree and hide. He then convinces Stipes that it is a magic tree that turns people into gentlemen and ties the shepherd to it. Stipes insists that Merda be tied to the magic tree with him, and she lends ‘Geoffrey’ her garters to do it. The jest is interrupted by the appearance of Hook and Anteros’ father, Terpander. In obedience to his father, Anteros agrees most unwillingly to marry Ursely but not before he has first torn up the debt papers that Hook holds on Terpander and further forces Hook to agree to give him the parsonage after Lively’s death. He resolves to run away to Belgia and become a soldier, but Loveall delivers the happy news that Anteros cannot marry Ursely because they are actually brother and sister. He pulls a final jest on the fools that are still shut in the rabbit chest and pig sty before he speaks the Epilogue.


An old nobleman, father of Alcidonus, and mortal enemy of Clephis in Wilson's The Swisser. Antharis is the typical courtier and flatterer who knows what his king wants to hear, but his counsels always serve his own interests. He has convinced the king to make his kinsman Timentes general because he hates Clephis, who is in favor of Arioldus. But Timentes' turns out to be incapable of leading an army, and the soldiers insist on having Arioldus as their leader instead. Like Iseas and Asprandus, Antharis goes immediately to visit Arioldus to announce the King's arrival and to flatter the new general. He knows that his son Alcidonus is in love with Selina, the daughter of his mortal enemy Clephis, and tries everything to keep them away from each other, without knowing that they are already secretly married. When he discovers them together in the garden grove, where he is looking for quarrelers, he has his guards arrest Alcidonus and take him home. He tells him that Selina is his half sister. Alcidonus, who believes this, decides to commit suicide with his beloved wife and supposed sister. Antharis finds the pair together after they have taken what they think to be a mortal drug, he confesses that the incest story had been nothing more than a lie he had invented to separate them. He turns mad.


Anthony is a consul and supporter of Scilla in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. He is also famous for his oratory skills. After the opening debate, Anthony tries to persuade Scilla not to attack Rome. Scilla says that he will not listen to him, lest he be swayed by Anthony's persuasive words. After Scilla leaves, Anthony laments the state Rome will be in and blames Fortune. After Scilla has taken Rome, Anthony again tries to sway Scilla, and is partially successful, although Scilla warns that he still thinks of revenge. When the young and old citizens meet to argue the case of Marius or Scilla, Anthony speaks out for the first time for Scilla, arguing that it is better that Scilla continue to rule than that Marius become a tyrant. As a brawl breaks out, thunder rumbles several times and Anthony claims that this is the gods, who are displeased with Rome. In this way, he persuades the citizens to go home rather than fight. When Marius is about to enter Rome, Anthony tells Octavius and Lepidus that the civil war is a punishment for their sins. When Marius does actually enter, Anthony flees. He attempts to remain hidden, but the soldiers sent by Marius find him by following his servant, the drunken Clown. Anthony persuades the three soldiers not to kill him, turning their anger into pity with his words. However, the Captain enters and kills Anthony before he can speak again, only to have Lectorius enter and announce that Marius is dead. The Captain comments that Anthony could have lived if they had foreseen this turn of events.


A servingman in the Capulet household in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet.


A tutor in Pisaro's house in Haughton's Englishmen for My Money. Anthony also appears as Monsieur le Mouche. Anthony is the man Pisaro has hired to teach philosophy to his daughters, Laurentia, Marina, and Mathea. He presents such a bleak picture of moral philosophy that the young women are eager to read the notes he has brought them from three young Englishmen. He affirms that though the young men have no wealth, they love the women deeply. Pisaro overhears the conversation and discharges Anthony. As Anthony leaves Pisaro's house, he finds Harvey, Ferdinand and Ned, the young English suitors. Anthony, who wishes to be revenged, explains that Pisaro has sent Frisco (the clown) to find a French tutor to replace the dismissed Anthony. Frisco will come to them for advice. They are to direct him to St. Paul's Church where Anthony, disguised as a Frenchman, will be waiting to be hired. Frisco ultimately finds Anthony and, after a comic interview, hires him. As Monsieur le Mouche, he arrives at Pisaro's when all six suitors and three daughters are at dinner. He is horrified when Delio, the French merchant, addresses him in French because he does not actually speak the language. Mathea, Harvey, Ferdinand and Ned intervene to prevent Anthony's exposure. Frisco (who calls him Master Mouse) takes him off to eat. Anthony learns of Pisaro's plan to have the foreign merchants enter the daughters' bedrooms by pretending to be the three Englishmen and warns the daughters. Pisaro has had Mouche/Anthony lock the doors. Anthony then sets his plan into action. He has Ned disguise himself as Susan Moore, who has access to the house and Mathea's bed. He disguises Laurentia as himself (Mouche/Anthony), and she escapes the house to marry Ferdinand when Pisaro thinks he is sending Mouche/Anthony on an errand. Finally, he has Harvey pretend to be deathly ill. Pisaro, fearing he may lose Harvey's land, allows the Englishman to marry Marina. Harvey, of course, recovers immediately. Anthony thus sees all the lovers united and avenges himself on Pisaro.


Antonio, Leonato's brother in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, is sometimes called Anthony.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry V. Duke of Brabant, brother to Burgundy. He is reported among the French dead on the Agincourt battlefield.


Anthony is a Vandal lord in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier who comforts Genzerick on his deathbed by reminding him of the atrocities he has committed. He seems to be the highest-ranking lord because he crowns Henrick when his father dies, chooses Hubert as leader of the purge of Christians, and proclaims Hubert to be king in the conclusion.


Anthony is Don John's servant in Fletcher's The Chances.


George Browne's Brother, Anthony, is in Newgate Prison for a murder committed in York in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women. When George is brought there for execution. The Lord Justice discovers this when trying Browne, and the two brothers are allowed to meet briefly before George is hung. They compare crimes, and Browne boasts that "Englands two greatest townes, [are]/ Both fild with murders done by both the Brownes."


Son to Cockbrain in Brome's The Weeding of Covent Garden. Thwarted by both fathers in his hopes of marriage to Katherine Crosswill, he is the prodigal son who leaves his father's house, disguises himself with a beard, and becomes a primary spark in the dissipations of the Philoblathici crew. He recognizes his father when he is unbearded in the defense of the citizen and, despite his bitterness, protects him. He is married, through Mihil's intervention, to Katherine Crosswill, his long-time love. He finally reveals himself to his father, acknowledges his match, and creates concord thereafter.


Sir Anthony Denny is commanded by King Henry to summon Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, during Queen Anne's labor in Shakespeare's Henry VIII.


A constable in Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost, Dull brings Costard before Ferdinand and gives him into Armado's custody. He is a pragmatist with words. In the pageant of the Nine Worthies, he agrees to dance and play the tabor.


Disguise that Lodovico takes in Act Three of Davenport's The City Night Cap to find out whether his wife has been unfaithful to him or not. He is thought to be supported by Madona Lussuriosa. In the confession with his wife, he is informed about her sins. However, it is the third one which annoys him the most, as he finds out that he is a cuckold. He decides to take his revenge in a masque by making his wife say to her husband that he is not the father of a son and to unmask her lover. It is the perfect occasion because masques are thought to be the place where women are dishonored.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Fitzherbert is mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he is explaining to Sir Cupid Phantsy that he can see he is getting worse, and, thus, he is going to put him on a 'reading' diet: "I prescribe you Littleton's Tenures to read in French, with Lambarde's Justice of Peace, Dalton, Crompton, and Fitzherbert, Pulton's Statutes, and Coke's Reports." Sir Anthony Fitzherbert (1470-1538) was the Justice of the Common Pleas at Gray's Inn. He wrote La Graunde Abbregement de le Ley (1514), which constituted the first important attempt to systematize the law. He was also the author of La Novel Natura Brevium (1534)–a manual of procedure–and of L'office et Aucthoritie de iustices de peace, in part collect per Sir Anthonie Fitzherbert Chiualer, iades vn de les iustices del common Banke, translated into English as The New Book of Justices of the Peace–a commentary on municipal courts, which was still being reprinted in 1594 and even later.


This elderly English monk in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John tries to resist the Bastard's quest for the monastery's treasure, even though threatened with hanging.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Swetnam; Leonida's confessor. Lisandro manages to gain access to Leonida by disguising himself as the Friar, and even deceives Nicanor into confessing his plans to him in this guise.


The second of the three Golding brothers in [?]Heywood's The Fair Maid of the Exchange, Anthony (like Ferdinand and Frank) is in love with the fair Phillis. When he learns at the play's end that he has been gulled by Frank, Anthony vows to have nothing more to do with love because it is so full of treachery.




St. Anthony is one of the six champions of Christendom imprisoned in the cave of Calib the witch in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. George releases the champions, and they make him their seventh member. They vow to travel the world, doing battle with unbelievers. Anthony and Andrew arrive in Trebizond and slay the dragon that is terrorizing the countryside. But the Emperor of Trebizond, when he learns that they are Christians, orders them to convert to the Greek gods or die. Anthony and Andrew bravely choose death, and the Emperor allows them to choose their executioners. They choose the princess Violeta and her maid Carintha, who refuse, saying they'd rather kill themselves. So Anthony and Andrew offer to kill each other. The Emperor releases them and provides swords, whereupon Anthony and Andrew frighten them all away. Later, they join with St. Patrick, St. Denis, St. James and St. David in an attempt to slay Brandron the giant and rescue the King of Macedon's daughters. But they are betrayed by Suckabus, who tricks them into disarming and then imprisons them. They are forced to support Brandron or die, and so, when St. George arrives, they are obliged to fight him. George defeats all six of them. When Brandron commits suicide, the champions are free to join with George again. At the end of the play, they perform a dance to celebrate the marriage of the Daughters of the King of Macedon to Patrick, Denis, and James.


Sir Anthony Sherley is one of the eponymous English brothers in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers. He leads an expedition to Persia, where he befriends the Sophy and helps him fight the Turks. He convinces the Sophy to make a league with Christendom against the Turks, but is distrusted by Halibeck and Calimath. To further the league, Anthony visits the Emperor of Russia, and the Pope. But he is accompanied by Halibeck, who continually tries, and fails, to poison their minds against him. In Venice, Halibeck witholds the Sophy's money, so that Anthony is imprisoned by Zariph the usurer (q.v.). The Venetians find out the truth, and Anthony is freed. Finally, he travels to Spain, where he receives the order or St Iago.


Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Van Dyke is mentioned by Master Silence when he is explaining Master Bead the nature of the relic he is giving him: "'tis a Tyburn martyr's blood upon a straw, where you shall see that holy martyr's face more exactly done than had Van Dyke with his rare pencil drawn it." Sir Anthony Van Dyke (1599-1641) was a painter, who was appointed principal painter in ordinary to their Majesties by Charles I, in 1632–and he held the office until mid 1640.


Proper name of Rivers in Shakespeare's Richard III.


A "Shepheard," Iris's brother, a "souldier," and a friend to Acanthus and Rhodon in Knevet's Rhodon and Iris. Anthophotus claims that Rhodon's "sweet presence" has caused Hymettus to "flourish." He often compliments Rhodon and vows to "second" him in any action which he takes against Martagon for Violetta's cause, though Anthophotus later chides Rhodon for their "losse of time" in taking action against the "Tyrant" as he claims that his troops are "in perfect readinesse, / And long to meet their foes in open field." He is informed by Acanthus that Rhodon "lies at the point of death," and he helps to conduct Panace to their "sicke friend" so that the servant can apply Violetta's antidote. He claims that he would "chaine" his sister "to a fatall stake, / And sacrifice her Corps in hideous flames" if she were guilty of the attempted murder of Rhodon. Anthophotus pledges an oath on Rhodon's sword "ne're to lay downe [his] just and lawfull armes, / Untill [. . .] avenged to the full" against Martagon, and prepares himself to fight with Rhodon against Martagon's army though, like the others, he is prevented from fighting when Flora stops the battle.


Anthropos is a character in "The Triumph of Time," the final play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He sends Desire out to gather wealth from Craft, Lucre, Vanity, Pleasure, and Flattery. They all refuse to serve him. Anthropos goes on a journey with Poverty. Jupiter has pity upon him and sends Plutus and Time to help him. Anthropos reforms his ways, and his wealth is restored.


Segebert's eldest son in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. Anthynus is physically indistinguishable from Osriick. Although Anthynus is humble, pious and honorable, Segebert thinks ill of him because he refuses to flatter him. Segebert leaves control of his estate to Anthynus's younger brother Offa, but agrees to take Anthynus with him as a servant. After they are attacked by outlaws hired by Offa to kill them, Anthynus tries to care for his wounded father. While Anthynus is searching the woods for a remedy, Segebert is taken into Alberto's care. Returning to find his father gone, Anthynus swears not to sleep until he finds him. On the point of exhaustion, after chasing an echo through the woods, Anthynus sees the ghosts of six West Saxon Kings, who indicate that he shall be the next King. After this vision, he falls into a deep sleep and is mistaken for Osriick by Alfride and Edelbert who take him to the court. Hoping that his subjects will mistake Anthynus for himself, Osriick leaves Anthynus with Edelbert and Ethelswick and sets out to court Mildred. When Anthynus wakes up, Edelbert and Ethelswick have to tie him to the bed to maintain the illusion that Osriick is incapacitated by melancholia. Theodwald and Eaufride free Anthynus, mistaking his claims that he is not the King for Osriick's delusions. Genius whispers to Anthynus and instructs him to play they part of Osriick, which he does and is married to Bertha. Returning to the West Saxons, he finds himself called upon to sit in judgment over Osriick, whom they believe to be Anthynus, on charges of patricide. Anthynus reveals his true identity, and the charges of patricide are dropped when Jeffrey enters with Segebert. He is reunited with his father and remains married to Bertha.


Antic is one of the three pages lost in the wood who receives shelter from Clunch the smith in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale. Forced by Madge to retire with Clunch, Antic does not hear the old wife's tale.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. When Ananias sees Surly disguised as a Spaniard, complete with ruff and wide-brimmed hat, the Puritan says he looks like the Antichrist in that lewd hat.


The stage direction that opens the Induction of Greene's James IV specifies simply "an Antic," but because the verb is plural it appears that there are more than one. The Antics dance in the Induction and later with Slipper, and they also rob Slipper at Andrew's instigation.


The former Duke of Florence and father of Felecia and Florida in Sharpham's The Fleire, Antifront has been deposed by a rival. Fleeing Florence, Antifront disguises himself as Fleire (the name by which he is usually known throughout the play). He travels to England and, still in disguise, enters his daughters' service. There, he conceives a plan whereby Florida would marry Piso, the son of the usurping Duke of Florence and Felecia would marry Sir John Havelittle; Antifront believes the marriages would both correct his daughters' wayward morals and help restore his family to their rightful place in Florence. Learning that Piso and Havelittle have been persuaded by his daughters to murder Ruffel and Sparke, Antifront recruits Nan and Susan to help him prevent the killings. Disguised as an apothecary, Antifront pretends to sell poison to Piso and Havelittle, but sells them a non-lethal sleeping potion instead. After reviving Ruffel and Sparke, Antifront poses as a judge and presides at the trial of Piso and Havelittle. At the trial, he produces a letter showing that Felecia and Florida planned the murders, motivating their repentance. Then, he reveals that Ruffel and Sparke are not dead, clearing the way for the marriages he had planned.


Antigona is a Persian, born at Pidna in Daniel's Philotas. She was the mistress of Darius, but is now the lover of Philotas. Thais asks Antigona to prove Philotas's love for her; Antigona tells her of Philotas's secret statements against Alexander, claiming that the fact that he confided in her demonstrates how much he loves her. Thais reports Antigona's words to Craterus, and Craterus threatens Antigona with torture if she does not co-operate with him. She laments that she must choose her lover or a disgraced death, but decides in the end to co-operate with Craterus. Meeting with Thais, Antigona accuses her of having betrayed her confidence.


The mother of Simonides and wife of Creon in Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law. Antigona tries and fails to plead for Creon's life.


Oedipus' and Jocasta's daughter in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta, Antigone announces to Bailo her allegiance to Polynice rather than to Eteocles. She accompanies her mother to the battlefield, watches the brothers kill each other and the suicide of her mother, and after the Theban soldiers rout the Greeks brings the royal bodies back to the city. She summons Oedipus to witness the dire results of his crimes. Creon reaffirms her betrothal to Haemon, but when the new king banishes Oedipus and denies burial rites to Polynice she rebukes him bitterly, and resolves to accompany her banished father to Athens.


A "ghost character" in the Anonymous Locrine, fought against Brutus in Greece.


Antigonus is a "ghost character" in Daniel's Philotas. Ephestion says that Antigonus and Philotas won joint second place in honour in battle after Alexander.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Antigonus was one of Alexander the Great's generals, who tried to found an empire in Asia but was defeated and killed at Ipsos in 301 BC. Dol Common disguised as the "mad" lady pretends to have fallen into a nonsensical fit of talking. Her gibberish incorporates scattered phrases from Hugh Broughton's Concent of Scriptures. Among other things, she speaks about something that happened after Antigonus was killed, a fragment probably taken from the historical section referring to the state of the empire after Alexander's death.


Antigonus is Paulina's husband and a lord at Leontes' court in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale. After Leontes' public accusation of Hermione, Antigonus defends her chastity and urges Leontes not to be rash. Once Hermione has given birth to Perdita, Leontes orders Antigonus to bear the babe away to some deserted spot and leave her to her fate. Antigonus deposits Perdita on the Bohemian shore before becoming the subject of Shakespeare's most famous stage direction, Exit, pursued by a bear. Unlike Perdita, who escapes the tragedy of the play's first half to participate in the comic resolution that reunites her with her parents, Antigonus dies before the tragic action can give way to comedy.


Antigonus, the king of Syria, is an old man with young desires in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant. He takes over provinces belonging to Seleucus, Lysimachus, and Ptolomie, creating conflict. After sending his son Demetrius to command the war against these kings, he instructs his servant to bring Celia, Demetrius's love, to the court in order to discern her worthiness. Once he sees Celia's beauty, he decides that he must have her for himself. Despite threats, gifts, and a failed attempt to use a magic potion, Celia stands firm against the King's advances. When Demetrius returns from battle Antigonus informs him that Celia was killed because she was a witch who had confessed to charming Demetrius in order to have the empire overthrown. After recognizing Celia's virtue and loyalty to his son, the king is finally shamed, confesses his wrongdoing, and sees that Celia and Demetrius are reunited.


A "ghost character," Antigonus is mentioned by Alexandra in Markham's Herod and Antipater as being the uncle of Marriam the Queen and brother of Alexandra's own father.


A "ghost character" in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. A knight with a white horse and white armor, who hopes to slay the dragon of Trebizond. The dragon, aided by its friend the lion, kills him.


A court attendant in Shirley's Coronation, Antigonus' primary role of the carrying of messages.


One of the centaurs invited to the wedding of Hypodamia and Perithous in Heywood's The Silver Age, his attempt to kiss Hypodamia iniates the quarrel with the heroes. In the battle that follows he is killed.


Antimon is a shepherd living outside Venice in the anonymous Knack To Know An Honest Man. With Coridon and Menalchus, he sees Lelio apparently kill Sempronio in a duel. He retrieves some of Sempronio's bloody clothing and tells Servio, a gentleman of Venice, of the death of his kinsman. Antimon confirms to the Venetian court that Sempronio is dead.


An old shepherd, father of Serena and the Clown, who rescues Ariadne and the baby Eusanius from the shipwreck in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder. Many years pass. After Pan's festival, Antimon tries to woo Ariadne, and when she rejects him, he banishes her from his house. Driven mad by love, he joins in the mad dance of Palemon and the Clown, and then dresses himself in fine clothes, hoping to attract Ariadne. But the Clown tricks him into giving up some of the clothes, and Antimon ends up looking like an idiot. When the shepherds declare war on Pheander Antimon and the Clown are sent as their heralds.


Antinous, son to Cassilane, the general of Candy in ?Ford's The Laws of Candy, returns with his father to Candy at the beginning. Each believes himself to deserve recognition as the greatest champion of the country; according to Candy's laws, the man who gains that title, through recognition of the soldiers and Senate, earns the right to ask one boon of the government. Antinous eventually proves the winner but chooses to ask the Senate to recognize his father's fifty years of service as a soldier by erecting a statue to his father. By doing so, he also hopes to convince his father that he is not being ungrateful; according to a different law, ingratitude is a capital offense. With the ransom money he receives from capturing Fernando, Antinous uses half to pay the soldiers and contributes half to fund the statue. Disinherited by Cassilane, Antinous wishes to go into self-imposed exile, but Erota commands him to stay. Antinous accedes, but he continues to be depressed. His sister, Annophil, wishes to reconcile Antinous and Cassilane, but Antinous worries that she will only succeed in antagonizing Cassilane herself. He sends a letter via Decius, but Cassilane continues to refuse him. When Decius returns not only with Cassilane's rejection but with the news that Fernando revealed a plot against Candy by Gonzalo, Antinous finally capitulates to Erota's wooing on the condition that she save Cassilane from being impoverished but conceal that Antinous had asked her to do so. In the final scene of judgment, accused by Cassilane of ingratitude for his role in making Cassilane indebted to Erota, Antinous agrees that he is guilty and accuses Erota of ingratitude because he saved her life by agreeing to love her. After Cassilane forgives Antinous, Antinous forgives Erota. Finally, Erota releases Antinous from his promise to marry her because compelled romance will not generate love.


A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a sinful man.


Made King of Assyria by his father's death in the war against Cyrus in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus, Antiochus offers Ctesiphon a thousand talents to insinuate himself into Cyrus's service as Gobrias has and then to kill the Persian king as he walks unguarded through his camp. He surprises Gobrias' castle, and is persuaded by Libanio dressed as Alexandra to send a message to Gobrias offering to spare her life if Gobrias will return to Antiochus' service. He calls up his armies to confront Cyrus in the field, receives the information from Cyrus about Ctesiphon's treachery and condemns him to a traitor's death, and accepts the equally treacherous Arastus into his camp. Apparently but not clearly, he is defeated in the final battle.


King of Antioch in Shakespeare's Pericles. Antiochus has an incestuous relationship with his daughter. To keep his crime secret, and to keep his daughter away from potential husbands, he devises a riddle for suitors; Antiochus supposes none will be able to solve it, and those that fail are put to death. When Pericles solves the riddle and learns Antioch's secret, the king plots to have Pericles murdered. Later, Antiochus and his daughter are struck down by divine fire.


Antiochus, the King of Lower Asia in Massinger's Believe As You List, has been absent from his throne for twenty-two years. He returns to Carthage to find the Romans firmly in control.


A “ghost character" in Goffe’s Orestes. Whilst being stabbed, Agamemnon cries out piteously that he will not be able to tell Orestes of what he saw in Troy, including the death of Antiochus at Hector’s hands.


Daughter of the King of Antioch in Shakespeare's Pericles. She has an incestuous relationship with her father who attempts to prevent suitors such as Pericles from marrying her. A suitor must solve a riddle before he can marry the girl. The answer to the riddle, however, reveals the incest, and forces Pericles to flee for his life. Along with her father, she is struck down by fire from heaven.

ANTIOPE **1638

A disguise adopted by Barsene in Mayne’s Amorous War. Menalippe and Marthesia, dressed as Amazon warriors, claim that their queen Hippolyta and her sister Antiope offer their army to help defend Bithynia.


Antipas is one of two grandsons to Herod in Markham's Herod and Antipater. He is brother to Archelaus, who is made King of Judah by Augustus when Herod dies.


Nothing but evil flows through the veins of Antipater, bastard son of King Herod in Markham's Herod and Antipater. Antipater, often plagued by bizarre visions, offers an obedient countenance to Herod while systematically destroying Aristobulus the Elder, Queen Marriam, Joseph, and the king's other sons. He also plots to poison Herod himself. He is aided and abetted throughout by Salumith. Arrested on his return from Rome, Antipater believes he is bound for glory, but he is instead led to execution.


Antiphila is, along with Olimpias, Aspatia's waiting gentlewoman in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Maid's Tragedy. She commiserates with her mistress when Aspatia's betrothed, Amintor, marries Evadne instead.


A young lady pursued by Polidacre and Philander (father and son) in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady. She is unimpressed with the love poems of Philander, and indicates that she would as soon marry Polidacre as Philander, although she doesn't really care for either. She is wooed by Polidacre as his disguised wife observes, and she agrees to help him persuade his daughter Lucora to marry the man he has chosen for her, Falorus. Antiphila is later wooed by Philander, whom she rejects, scolding him for his persistence. In order to be rid of him, she tells him that she is betrothed to another, but not to Polidacre. She names the servant Tandorix as her husband-to-be, and contrary to his recent promise, Philander vows to kill him. This action leads to the revelation of Tandorix's true identity as Philander's mother, who was thought dead. This series of events renews Philander's hopes of wedding Antiphila, since his father will no longer be eligible. In response to his machinations, Antiphila sends a letter to Philander agreeing to marry him if his father will not have her. In the end, she is forced to fulfill this commitment to marry Philander.


This Syracusan, the twin of Antipholus Sereptus of Ephesus in Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors, meets more than he bargained for during a layover in Ephesus. Always on the lookout for the brother lost years ago during a sea storm, Antipholus Erotes does indeed find not only long-lost brother but also his father Egeon and his mother Aemilia, the latter having become the Ephesian Lady Abbess. The happy ending, however, does not arrive until Antipholus has been thoroughly confounded by events in Ephesus, which include being mistaken by everyone for the Antipholus who has dwelled in Ephesus for years. Antipholus Erotes evens dines with the other Antipholus' wife to whom, in his amazement, he says nothing that would discover his true identity.


This Ephesian, the twin of Antipholus Erotes in Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors, has built a life in Ephesus. He and his wife Adriana have owned the Phoenix Inn for years. Antipholus Sereptus ends up incarcerated for a debt owed to the goldsmith Angelo, from whom he ordered a gold chain that ended up in the hands of Antipholus Erotes. Complicating that particular legal affair is the fact that Antipholus Sereptus, piqued that his own wife has locked him out of the house, has promised the chain to a Courtezan; of course this woman, along with the goldsmith, duns Antipholus for the piece of jewelry or for its equivalent value. Antipholus Sereptus is reunited with brother, father, mother, and servants at the end of the play.


He is the respected vanquisher of Bohemia and Greece in Verney’s Antipoe, yet hated by his usurping king, Dramurgon. When he reports that Bohemia and Greece have broken their truce with Dramurgon, the egocentric king uses this as a pretext to have him jailed in the opening moments of the play. Although Antipoe’s fate is much discussed, Antipoe does not return again until III.i, where he is found fettered in prison. He laments in soliloquy ‘fortune is fickle’. Marcos disguised as Sorcam brings the writ for Antipoe’s execution, reveals himself, and helps him escape disguised as a wizard complete with long white beard, head of hair, and philosopher’s gown. He vows vengeance upon the tyrant. He enters with the masquers before the king of Bohemia dressed as a blackamoor and wearing a crown and after a dance takes away Bohemia’s four daughters. After Dramurgon swoons on the field of combat, Antipoe appears as Tartar’s champion, kills Corinth and Thrace, and subdues Bohemia, who yields to him. He then informs Bohemia that it was he who took the king’s daughters to his friends. He refuses to give Bohemia to Dramurgon and kills the knights who try to compel him. In III.iv. he enters into a de praesenti marriage with Cleantha. After Cleantha sends Dramurgon away, Antipoe secretly watches over her where she sleeps on the grass. When Dramurgon returns to rape her, Antipoe runs him off. Macros offers Antipoe the crown if he will help to unseat Dramurgon, but Antipoe is true to the crown even though he hates the man and goes instead to subdue Africa at which he enriches himself and his four friends who follow. Upon returning he meets and defeats Dramurgon’s army and takes the tyrant prisoner. Ever loyal, he believes Dramurgon’s promise to put aside tyranny and promises to return his crown. When he later discovers Dramurgon’s body, he swears to avenge the murder and then discovers that his friend Macros killed the tyrant, Antipoe places him under arrest for treason. Despite his friends not wishing to pass judgement on Macros, Antipoe condemns him not only to death but torture and death. On the day of execution, Antipoe kneels before the People and asks to die in Macros’ place, but they speak, saying that both should continue to live. He calls upon his friends to instate old Roman values into the laws of this country. When later the four worthy knights offer him the crown again, he rejects it disdaining Caesar, who only pretended to reject the crown. The Ghost of Dramurgon appears and reminds him that his vow to avenge his murder is yet unfulfilled, so Antipoe kills himself with his sword. He is later seen as a ghost, clad in white, ascending to the throne with the others at the behest of Brutus.


The Italian antiquary is a fictional character in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. According to Amorphus, who wants to boast his traveling exploits to the courtiers and the ladies, he drank an exquisite Greek wine from the hand of an Italian antiquary, who claimed to have taken it authentically from the Duke of Ferrara's bottles.


Four characters called "Antiques" figure in the masque from Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. They are each masquers in the masque arranged by John a Cumber (disguised as John a Kent), to deceive the lords Powesse and Sir Griffin and secure the entry of the rival party, Moorton, Pembrooke, Chester, and Llwellen.
  • The First Antique is Llwellen in disguise and he arrives from the door to the left. After delivering his song and curtsy, the First Antique retires into the castle, while the false John a Kent explains to Powesse and Sir Griffin ironically that the masque represents Llwellen, Sydanen's father, who has come to his daughter's wedding.
  • The Second Antique is Chester in disguise, and he arrives from the door to the right. After delivering his song and curtsy, the Second Antique retires into the castle, while the false John a Kent explains to Powesse and Sir Griffin ironically that the masque represents the Earl of Chester, Marian's father, who has come to his daughter's wedding.
  • The Third Antique is the Earl of Moorton in disguise, and he arrives from under the stage. After delivering his song and curtsy, the Third Antique retires into the castle, while the false John a Kent explains to Powesse and Sir Griffin ironically that the masque represents the Earl of Moorton, asking Sir Griffin how he feels about having his rival come to his wedding to Sydanen.
  • The Fourth Antique is the Earl of Pembrooke in disguise, and he arrives from a tree. After delivering his song and curtsy, the Fourth Antique retires into the castle, while the false John a Kent explains to Powesse and Sir Griffin ironically that the masque represents the Earl of Moorton, asking Powesse how he feels about having his rival come to his wedding to Marian.


A Lord of Egypt in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. Antisthenes borrows a substantial sum from the usurer Leon (Irus in disguise), which he then repays. Leon, however, has him arrested and taken before Ptolemy by the Burgomaster and accused of failing to repay it. Count Hermes (Irus in disguise) and Irus are brought as witnesses against him, and though Ptolemy believes their testimony, he elects to free Antisthenes and pay his debt.


He tries in Salusbury’s Love or Money to talk Pamphilus out of marrying the fair-but-poor Maria and rather choose a wealthy woman for a wife as he has done. He is hopeful for the death of his own elderly, shrewish but rich wife, Xanthippi. He is nevertheless obliged to perform the part of the obedient husband to her whims and endure her derision. He humours her when she chides at him, knowing that he must remain in her good graces if he wishes to win her money when she dies. He promises her Ostriches and Cassowaries to keep her happy. He calls in the musicians and, against her will, has them play gay music for the company to dance, telling them that Xanthippi is a carefree old soul that loves drink and dancing. He proceeds to get her drunk until she passes out, having discovered that he can still enjoy life if he includes her, killing her, as it were, with kindness (or rather boisterous excess).


A ‘ghost character’ in Salusbury’s Love or Money. Xanthippi makes several derogatory references to her husband’s brother.


A ‘ghost character’ in Salusbury’s Love or Money. Xanthippi tells Antius plainly that her money has made him a man more surely than anything his parentage might have accomplished.


A ‘ghost character’ in Salusbury’s Love or Money. Xanthippi tells Antius plainly that her money has made him a man more surely than anything his parentage might have accomplished.


Servant to Lady Plus and Sir Godfrey in Middleton's(?) Puritan. A kinsman to Idle, he joins with Oath in attempting to free him. He is not convinced by Idle to steal his master's gold chain, which Idle will use to purchase his freedom; instead, he "loans" it to Pyeboard, who convinces Nicholas to tell his master that Idle can retrieve the stolen item, if he is freed from jail.


Antonelli is a friend of Lodovico in Webster's The White Devil. He later becomes a co-conspirator with him in his revenge. He tells Lodovico that the Pope is dying.


A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina. Antonia was the daughter of Mark Antony, the mother of Claudius and Germanicus, and the grandmother of Agrippina and Caligula. Nero wants Agrippina to move into the house that was once Antonia's.

ANTONIO **1593

Antonio is the father of Proteus in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona. Taking the advice of his servant Panthino, Antonio sends Proteus to the court of the emperor, where Antonio hopes his son will learn something of the world and no longer idle away his days.

ANTONIO **1594

A "ghost character." The deceased father of Petruchio in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. After Antonio's death, Petruchio uses his inheritance to see the world and to find a wife.

A duplicitous representative of King Phillip of Spain at the court of Don Sebastian, King of Portugal in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. He brings military assistance to the Portuguese King for the Battle of Alcazar; for this munificence, Sebastian makes him his heir. He never does ascend the throne of Portugal, even when the king is slain in battle because, while observing the campaign and its aftermath while disguised as a priest, he is captured by Turkish soldiers who spare his life but sell him into slavery.


Antonio is the titular merchant and a good friend of Bassanio's in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. When the play opens, he is melancholy, but cannot say why. When Bassanio asks to borrow money so that he can court a rich lady, Antonio immediately agrees to help him, but does not have the money at hand. He suggests going to Shylock and there agrees to give Shylock one pound of his flesh if he does not repay the money in three months. However, all his ships wreck and he is unable to pay the money. He writes to Bassanio, now in Belmont with Portia, asking him to come see him before the pound of flesh is taken. In court, Antonio is willing to die for his friend. In a turnabout orchestrated by the disguised Portia, Antonio is not only freed but placed in the position of showing mercy to Shylock. Antonio responds by taking in trust one half of Shylock's estate (to ensure Jessica's ultimate inheritance) and requiring Shylock to become a Christian. After the disguised Portia overcomes Shylock, she asks for Bassanio's ring, and, when he refuses, Antonio asks Bassanio to give it up, which he does. Antonio then travels to Belmont where Portia asks for her ring. Antonio regrets being the cause of so much trouble, but once her disguise is revealed all ends happily.


Antonio, Leonato's brother in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, reports that his men have overheard Don Pedro and Claudio discussing their plan for Don Pedro to woo Hero on Claudio's behalf. After Claudio accuses Hero of adultery, Antonio confronts Claudio and offers to fight with him.


He first appears the Induction of Marston's Antonio and Mellida wherein the actors comment upon their parts (though the speech headings identify them only by their character names). As the play opens, Antonio, son of Duke Andrugio of Genoa, has just seen the Genoan fleet destroyed and his father apparently slain by Duke Piero Sforza's Venetian ships. In love with Piero's daughter, Mellida, Antonio disguises himself as an Amazon with the fictitious name, Florizel, and is made a guest of the Venetian court. Alternately elated and despairing, he casts off his woman's garb, reveals himself to his beloved, and asks her to flee with him. Disguised anew in sailor garb provided by Feliche, Antonio escapes from Piero and his knights, meeting briefly in the countryside first with his father and then with Mellida. Reunited only for a moment, perhaps for the last time, Antonio and Mellida break into a loving, kissing dialog in Italian. Later, at Mellida and Galeatzo's prenuptial banquet, just after Andrugio offers his own head for Piero's reward, Lucio arrives with Antonio's seemingly lifeless body born in a casket. When Piero declares that he wishes Mellida's love could restore Antonio's breath, Antonio sits up and asks him to keep his vow. Galeatzo agrees to relinquish his engagement, and the play ends with Antonio and Mellida poised to wed.
Antonio is son to Maria and the late Andrugio in Marston's Antonio's Revenge. He is betrothed to Mellida. At the beginning of the play, Antonio tells a group of his friends about a bad dream he has recently endured. He dreamt that two ghosts, one being the spirit of his father, came to him and called for revenge. This dream alarms Antonio, since he does not know yet of his father's passing. Antonio tells the gentleman that when he rose from the bed he saw the sky set on fire and a comet stream across his field of vision. Antonio reports that he sunk to his knees and suffered a nosebleed. Antonio's wedding day gets off to a bad start when the young man finds Pandulpho's dead son hanging from Mellida's bedchamber window. Piero soon after informs Antonio that his intended bride is an indicted whore. Antonio does not believe the charge against his beloved. To his credit, unlike in the majority of Renaissance plays, Antonio never wavers in his belief of Mellida's innocence. Just to make a bad matter worse, Antonio hears soon after from Strotzo that Antonio's father has died of overexertion. In a fury, Antonio rebukes Alberto for trying to comfort him. Unlike Pandulpho, Antonio takes no stock in Seneca's stoicism. While reading the Roman philosopher, Antonio shouts back at the book that the author never felt Antonio's pain. Antonio speaks briefly with Mellida the day before her trial. She assures him that she will die. He kisses her hand and they part. Soon after Antonio is angered to a murderous pitch upon detecting that Maria might grant Perio's suit for marriage, Antonio feigns madness to secure him enough time to plot his next move. Antonio goes to pray at his father's hearse and apologizes for being a weak son. The ghost of his father interrupts the prayer and assures Antonio, who really didn't need reassurance, that Mellida is innocent. The ghost also tells Antonio that he, Andrugio, was poisoned by Piero. He further reveals that Maria has agreed to marry Piero and Piero has decided to kill Antonio. Antonio is instructed by the ghost to seek vengeance upon Perio's head. Feigning madness again, Antonio informs Maria that he is going to seek vengeance for his father. He also suggests that he plans to kill her, Piero, Julio and Strotzo. The ghost then visits Antonio again, accompanied by the ghost of young Feliche, to goad Antonio to revenge. Antonio agrees and promises to "suck red vengeance out of Piero's wounds." He spots Piero and young Julio in a church at night, but decides to wait before he kills Piero in order to maximize his agony. When he is left alone with the boy, Antonio stabs Julio, explaining that he loves the boy but hates the boy's father. After he kills the boy, Antonio sprinkles Julio's blood over Andrugio's hearse as a sacrifice. Antonio goes to kill Maria, but is stopped by the ghost of his father. The ghost tells Antonio to forgive ignorance. Antonio feigns madness again and waits for the chance to kill Piero. His method of acting mad is to play with a walnut shell while making soap bubbles and wearing a funny cap. Just before Mellida's trial, Antonio spreads the rumor that he has drowned. He dresses in the costume of a fool and goes to the trial. While waiting for Mellida to appear, Antonio taunts Balurdo with bubbles. When Mellida falls fatally ill upon the news that he is dead, Antonio goes to her bedside as she passes peacefully away. Soon after, he plots with Pandulpho and Alberto to kill Piero. He dresses in the costume of a masque to gain access to a drunken Piero and kill him. To add torment to injury, Antonio presents a dying Piero with the cooked corpse of his son Julio.


Antonio is a naval captain who rescued Sebastian from the sea and becomes his deeply devoted friend in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. When Sebastian declares his intention to travel to Orsino's court, Antonio follows him despite the warrants for his arrest there. When they arrive in Illyria, Antonio gives Sebastian all his money so the latter can amuse himself at the market while Antonio goes to get rooms at the local inn. When Sebastian does not arrive at the inn quickly enough, Antonio goes looking for him and finds the disguised Viola in the midst of a comic duel with Sir Andrew. Believing she is Sebastian, he jumps in to defend her and is then arrested by two officers. Antonio asks for his purse and is refused by the bewildered Viola; he expresses a deep hurt at this apparent betrayal and continues, when brought before Orison, to blame Viola for his troubles. Sebastian enters after his fight with Sir Andrew and Sir Toby, and clearly expresses his relief at finding his friend, but the fate of Antonio is left unclear in the revelations concerning the twins and Malvolio's imprisonment.


A non-speaking part in Shakespeare's All's Well. The eldest son of the Duke of Florence, and an officer of his army.

ANTONIO **1605

A "ghost character" in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. Antonio hates John Gresham who is having an affair with his wife.


Antonio (Anthonio in Q1 and Bullen), banished Duke of Mantua in Day's Humour Out of Breath. He is father to Aspero, Hermia and Lucida, now lives as a fisherman, with his daughters as country maids. He is content, unlike his son Aspero who swears revenge against his father's enemy Octavio Duke of Venice. While fishing and meditating he encounters Octavio's sons Francisco and Hippolito who, disguised as shepherds, have been wooing his daughters Hermia and Lucida, thinking they are country maids. Octavio, himself disguised as a servingman, enters and, not recognizing Antonio in his fisherman's guise, tries to persuade him of the unfitness of their children for each other. But when Antonio accepts Francisco and Hippolito as his sons in law, Octavio reveals himself, forbids the matches and banishes the fisherman, who is of course the already banished Antonio. But Antonio soon finds that in his absence some loyal Mantuan Lords have rallied and retaken the city in his name, and that his some Aspero has brought home as his betrothed none other than Octavio's daughter Florimel. He is blessing their union when word is brought that Octavio's army is approaching Mantua. However, battle is averted, the three young couples are joined, and Octavio is reconciled to the matches. Although Antonio enters "on the walls" at the beginning of 5.3 (the final scene) and is presumably present or even prominent amongst the reconciliations, he is given no lines in this scene.


The Coxcomb, Maria's husband, and Mercurie's comrade in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Coxcomb. They are of the same class and socialize frequently along with Andrugio and his daughter, Viola. One evening, Antonio insists that Mercurie stay overnight at his home. He is awakened in the middle of the night when Mercurie wants to leave, even though both Antonio and his wife, Maria, insist that Mercurie stay. Seeing Mercurie's determination to leave, Antonio sends his wife back to her bed while he remains with Mercurie to find out why his friend appears so anxious to depart. Their conversation is interrupted by Viola knocking at the door to Antonio's house. Antonio does not believe that it could possibly be Viola, since she is a gentlewoman and would not be out unaccompanied that late at night; he tells the servant to dismiss the stranger. He then turns back to his conversation with Mercurie and discovers to his surprise that his friend is in love with his wife; Mercurie is fearful of making Antonio a cuckold if he stays any longer. Antonio confides in Mercurie, telling him that their friendship is more important to him than his marriage to Maria. In fact, he tells his friend, Mercurie is more than welcome to remain in his home and try to win Maria's affections. Antonio will even help Mercurie seduce Maria, and he does what he can to fulfill his promise. Antonio disguises himself as an Irish footman in order to deliver a letter from Mercurie to Maria, but Maria rejects him. Later, Antonio rides to the Country-woman's house to deliver a letter that he has written to Maria. The letter suggests that she should become closer to Mercurie. Because Antonio has apparently disappeared, Maria and Mercurie are accused of his murder. However, due to his sudden reappearance and confession, they are released and the charges are dismissed.

ANTONIO **1611

The brother of Prospero in Shakespeare's The Tempest. Before the play begins Antonio was appointed by his brother to execute the duties of the Duke of Milan while Prospero prefered to seclude himself in his library. Antonio was unhappy with the arrangement because he had the responsibilities of the Duke without having the title or revenue of the position. He therefore conspired with Alonso, the King of Naples, to overthrow Prospero. The play begins twelve years later, after Antonio has accompanied Alonso to the wedding of the King's daughter Claribel to the King of Tunis. While returning from the wedding, the ship transporting them encounters a storm conjured by Prospero, and they are stranded on Prospero's island. Alonso, thinking his son and heir Ferdinand has drowned, becomes depressed, guilt-ridden and inconsolable; seeing this, Antonio (hoping to free Milan from Neopolitan subjugation) persuades Alonso's brother Sebastian to depose Alonso, and together they plot to murder him. They are prevented from doing so by Ariel, however, and Antonio and the others are led by Ariel to Prospero. Prospero forgives Antonio and reclaims the Dukedom of Milan from him.

ANTONIO **1614

Antonio Bologna is steward of the Duchess' household in Webster's The Duchess of Malfi. When the Duchess confesses her love, he secretly marries her. They have three children together, but when the Duchess' brothers, the Cardinal and Ferdinand, come close to learning their secret, the Duchess conspires to make Antonio seem a thief. Under this guise, Antonio is able to escape to Milan with some of the Duchess' riches there to await her flight to him. When the plan fails and the Duchess is killed, Antonio returns to seek justice. He is ironically murdered when Bosola, who seeks to join him, mistakes him for Ferdinand.

ANTONIO **1615

Married to Isabella in Thomas Middleton's The Witch after having falsely led her to believe that Sebastian, her contracted husband, is dead. Soon after their marriage, his sister Francisca tells him that his wife is deceiving him. Jealous, he sets a trap to catch Isabella and her lover red-handed in his own house. Instead of his adulterous wife and her lover, however, he merely finds and attacks Florida, his own courtesan, and Gaspero, his servant, lured into Isabella's chamber under a pretext by Francisca. Francisca admits that leading Antonio to believe in his wife's infidelity is a ruse to forestall discovery of her own unwanted pregnancy by Aberzanes. By way of punishing his disgraced sister, Antonio sets up a putative wedding ceremony during which he means to poison her and her lover. His ploy fails because his servant Hermio defies his master's orders to poison the chalice that he offers to the couple. Having learnt from Florida about an adulterous assignation between his wife and her servant Celio (Sebastian in disguise) in Fernando's house, the infuriated Antonio meets his end when he falls through a false trap-door into a dungeon.


The name assumed by Lactantio's mistress while disguised as a page in Middleton's More Dissemblers Besides Women (see more at "Lactantio's mistress"). The name is mentioned once in the dialogue, and never used in stage directions or speech prefixes.


An Englishman in the Anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools, born "plain Anthony" according to Proberio, whose travels in Italy have taught him all manner of Machiavellian tricks for making money–he sponges off friends and acquaintances for meals, skips out of inns without paying the bill for food and lodging, and so on. Newly returned to England, he immediately gulls Simplo out of a piece of land worth £150, then goes on to various other underhanded schemes. Given the date of the play, it is tempting to see him as an avatar of the monopolist Sir Giles Mompesson (1584–?1651), who, from 1617, licensed alehouses and inns (for heavy fees and fines) and became the surveyor of profits of the New River Company at the rate of £200 annually. Massinger directly satirizes Mompesson in A New Way to Pay Old Debts.

ANTONIO **1619

Antonio is a Spanish nobleman in William Rowley's All's Lost by Lust. He falls in love with and secretly marries Margaretta, a lowborn woman, against the advice of his confidante Lazarello. Immediately after the marriage, Antonio is sent to the wars. There, he meets the aristocratic Dionyzia and falls in love with her. Tortured by conflicting emotions, Antonio is gradually persuaded by Lazarello to commit bigamy. When Margaretta's brother, Jaques, sees him with Dionyzia, Lazarello persuades Antonio to get rid of Margaretta thus: Lazarello will disguise himself as Antonio, sleep with Margaretta, and then reveal his identity. Antonio will then be able to divorce Margaretta for adultery. The plan goes wrong when Margaretta murders Lazarello in the belief that he is Antonio. Antonio joins Julianus' uprising against King Roderick, but is later wounded to the death by Muly Mumen for criticising the uprising. Margaretta triumphs as she watches him die.

ANTONIO **1621

Antonio, a rich man who wishes to test his mettle against Gasparo in battle in Massinger's The Maid of Honor.


Antonio is a gentleman of Vermandero's household in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling. He enters Alibius's madhouse, disguised as an innocent fool, in order to seduce Isabella. When Lollio is distracted, Antonio reveals his true identity to Isabella, and tries to kiss her. But Isabella is unimpressed, and when Antonio tries again, Lollio sees him. Later, with the complicity of Lollio, Isabella disguises as a madwoman, and approaches Antonio with wild sexual abandon. Antonio is disgusted, and so Isabella, revealing her identity, tells him that she is rejecting him as a lover because he cannot see beyond her outward attire. Antonio decides to leave the madhouse, but Lollio reawakens his lust by telling him that Isabella will love him if he fights Franciscus, the counterfeit madman. When Alibius learns that two gentlemen have infiltrated his madhouse, he tells Vermandero, who assumes that Antonio and Franciscus are the murderers of Alonzo. Fortunately, the truth is discovered before Antonio can be hanged, and he shamefacedly admits before the assembled cast that he has been proven a true fool.

ANTONIO **1623

Antonio is a gentleman of the house of Julio in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill. He falls in love with Ismenia, of the rival Bellides house, when she prevents a fight between the young men of the households. He meets Ismenia at her balcony and asks her to accompany him on his forthcoming visit to the country. Ismenia does not dare, but when he arrives in the country, Antonio meets a shepherdess named Isabella, who looks exactly like her (and is of course Ismenia in disguise). Antonio's friend Martine, hoping to gain Ismenia for himself, encourages Antonio to marry Isabella, and Antonio is racked with indecision. When Ismenia reveals her disguise, Antonio is ashamed of his behaviour. But she forgives him, and they plan a secret marriage. But when Antonio and Martine approach her house, Martine persuades him to swap clothes, ostensibly to confuse anyone who attacks them. They are attacked, and Antonio rescues Martine by pursuing their enemies. He is then angered to learn that Martine has used the clothes to trick Ismenia into marrying him. He fights Martine and is arrested. Julio and Bellides, blaming Antonio for the disappearance of Ismenia, demand that he marry 'Isabella' the shepherdess as a punishment. When 'Isabella' reveals that she is Ismenia in disguise and that Martine married Aminta by mistake, all is resolved.


Antonio is a gentleman disguised as a gypsy in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy.


Antonio is the Duke of Milan's son in Davenport's The City Night Cap. In Act Four, he shows up at the bawd house with his Turk, where Antonio has gone at night looking for pleasure. Such a behavior is not well considered by Millicent, with whom he has fallen in love. She will teach him a lesson on true love that will make him leave his lecherous life.


A hot-blooded relation of Petruccio's in Fletcher's The Chances. Antonio is the most blood-thirsty in pursuit of the Duke's blood. In the fight against the Duke and John, Antonio is wounded by John. He is taken to a Surgeon, then discovers that his wench (Second Constantia) and Francisco have robbed him meanwhile. He goes to Peter Vecchio's to consult him about his missing Second Constantia, where he hits Don John in his disguise of Asteroth.

ANTONIO **1625

Antonio is the son of Cornelio in Shirley's The School of Compliment and in love with Rufaldo's daughter Hilaria. Frustrated with Bubulcus, an arrogant competitor for Hilaria's hand, Antonio literally kicks the man when he is down. Antonio is also one of several characters assuming disguises in this play. Determined to deceive Rufaldo, whom Antonio sees as a "damnable, usurious, stinking wretch," Antonio dresses in his sister Selina's clothes and goes through a marriage ceremony with the old man. Afterward, he refuses the marriage bed, completely dominating the relationship, and of course thoroughly demoralizing Rufaldo when Antonio's true identity is discovered. The play's end finds Antonio and Hilaria planning to wed.


A gentleman and a friend of Aramant in Wilson's The Inconstant Lady. Antonio teams up with Aramant's other friend, Trebutio, to introduce the play, discuss the nature of women, make fun of Pantarbo, find Aramant in the forest, and provide narrative links and character sketches throughout the play. When Cloris escapes from confinement by Emilia through the garden gate, Antonio enters the garden and confronts Emilia with a charge that she is false and inhumane.

ANTONIO **1631

Antonio is a false name given for Milliscent's father in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer.


Antonio is a Spanish count admired by a majority of his fellow soldiers in Rawlins's The Rebellion. When praised by his colonels, Antonio chides his men for their obvious attempts at flattery. Antonio is furious when he comes upon his sister Evadne in the embrace of Sebastian disguised as a tailor named Giovanno. Antonio unknowingly becomes the target of Machvile's obsessively jealous plot. Machvile convinces the Governor that Antonio has made a secret agreement with the enemy French. Although his colonels defend his honor, Antonio is denounced as a traitor. In a fury, Antonio stabs to death the Governor for making the accusation. Once Machvile becomes prisoner, Antonio is arrested. Antonio escapes with the assistance of a group of tailors led by Sebastian disguised as Giovanno. While sleeping, Antonio dreams of Cupid who presents the image of a beautiful young made saving Antonio from Death. Cupid (Love) sends Antonio to Flanders in search of the woman in the dream. When Antonio sets out after his dream vision, he is arrested and placed into the hands of his family's sworn enemy Petruchio. His dream lover appears in the person of Aurelia, Petruchio's daughter, and she requests the honor of crushing Antonio to death beneath Filford Mill. Fortunately for Antonio, Aurelia is smitten by Antonio and helps him escape rather than kills him. While fleeing Aurelia's father, Antonio and Aurelia meet Evadne and Aurelia's brother Sebastian. Antonio and Sebastian agree to end the hostilities between the two houses. When Antonio meets Philip, the king promises to facilitate Antonio and Evadne's union. Antonio goes to Machvile's court disguised as a Frenchman and delivers poison to Auristella. At the conclusion of the play, Antonio is stabbed to death by a mortally wounded Machvile. With his dying breaths, Antonio accepts his demise as just punishment for the Governor's murder. Antonio is given a proper military funeral and his love Aurelia devotes herself to a convent.


Disguise that Prospero uses to stay at the Mantuan court in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. As Prospero, he tells the Duke of Mantua that he knows a stranger that is so intelligent and witty that he could help him in the construction of the tower. The stranger turns out to be Prospero, disguised as Antonio, who becomes the guardian of the building. He is praised and compared to Hector. Antonio meets Valentia in the tower and reveals her his identity and all that he has done for her love. Now, he is to try to win her father's favor. Being accused of having visited the lady in the tower, Antonio has to convince the suitors that they have been betrayed by their imagination. He tells Montescelso to get prepared to pay another visit to Valentia at midnight, what is heard by Julio and the Duke of Verona. However, Antonio escapes through the secret door before the Duke arrives. In Act Four, Antonio announces the arrival of a Spanish Lady whom he is to marry, and the celebration of a big banquet. Before that, he meets the Necromancer, who knows all about him so Antonio gives him 100 ducats to keep his identity in secret. He marries Valentia in front of a father that discovers the trick too late to do something against it.


Antonio is the son of Arbaces, friend of the gallants Lodowick, Valentius and Tomazo, and beloved of Phemone in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped. Julio tricks Fransiscus into believing that Antonio is having an affair with Fransiscus's wife, so Fransiscus stabs him to death (or so he thinks). He is nursed to recovery by an old Shepherd. Disguised as a shepherd, he meets Cornelia and Phemone, also disguised. He recognizes them, and engages in a pastoral dialogue without revealing his identity, then invites them for hospitality in his cave. He, Cornelia, Phemone and the Shepherd dramatically return to Venice at the crucial moment in the trial of Fransiscus. Julio is punished, and Fransiscus and Antonio make friends again.


Antonio's role in Shirley's The Imposture is that of gentleman acquaintance of Fioretta in Ferrara.

ANTONIO **1641

Antonio is the Duchess' secretary in Shirley's The Cardinal . He alone is trustworthy among her servants. He laments her insanity and tells Hernando that he is obliged to him for exacting his mistress' revenge. In the end he falls in love with Celinda and goes off with her.

ANTONIO **1642

A gentleman of Parma, uncle to the two sisters, Paulina and Angellina, and governor to Paulina in Shirley's The Sisters. Antonio is frustrated by both his nieces:
  • Paulina because of her pride and pretentions,
  • Angellina for her humility and disinterest in such worldly concerns as clothes and marriage.
After trying, vainly, to cure Paulina's fantasies of grandeur by a variety of means—
  • by pretending to go along with them,
  • by inviting Contarini to pay her a mock-courtship, finally
  • by shouting at her
he leaves her castle, taking his other niece, Angellina, along with him. He tries to sophisticate Angellina in the hopes that she will marry Contarini, who has fallen in love with her. Nothing comes of this, but Antonio is delighted to learn, at the end of the play, that Paulina is not really his niece at all but the daughter of her old nurse, Morulla.


An old widower in Tomkis’ Albumazar. He promised his daughter to Pandolfo before going away to Barbary. As the play opens, he is believed dead as he has disappeared into Barbary for six months and was supposed to return after three. He and Pandolfo once agreed to swap and marry one another’s daughters. As act four begins, the real Antonio returns home from shipwreck and everyone believes him to be Trincalo transformed to look like Antonio. He is first abused by Cricca then hounded by Pandolfo for the three thousand pounds in riches Albumazar said he left with Trincalo. He goes to his house but Fulvia abuses him from the window and Armellina dumps a chamber pot on him. Lelio sends him away. Still outside his house, he meets Trincalo who (not knowing Antonio) tells him that he is himself Antonio. When Cricca and Lelio see them together, they discover the deceit. Antonio, angered at Pandolfo’s cheat to get his daughter, repents his earlier design and gives his blessing to marriages of Fulvia with Eugenio and Lelio with Sulpitia if only they can convince Pandolfo to agree. He agrees to Cricca’s plan to turn the table on the tricksters. He has Pandolfo (believing he is Trincalo) and the young lovers (who are in on the trick) swear to be guided by his judgment. He first decrees that Trincalo be married to Armellina with two hundred crowns for their portion, to which Pandolfo agrees. Pnadolfo betters this by granting Trincalo a lease of twenty pounds per year. He next bestows Sulpitia upon Lelio (Pandolfo believing this is Trincalo avoiding having to marry her as Antonio). He then matches Fulvia with Eugenio and Pandolfo, so he’ll not be cold in bed, with Patience. Offstage, he holds the arrested brigands locked in his cellar along with Pandolfo’s recovered treasure.


Pageant-maker for Milan and confidante to Lord Paulo Ferneze in Jonson's The Case is Altered.


A good friend of Sebastiano in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge, Antonio falls in love with Berinthia, Sebastiano's sister. Catalina, however, has eyes only for Antonio, and her jealousy prompts her to try a combined poisoning and kidnapping scheme to rid her of Berinthia. Antonio foils the scheme when he takes Berinthia to Elvas Castle. Honor-bound to duel for his sister's return, Sebastiano fights and kills Antonio.


Don Juan Antonio, referred to on most occasions as Antonio, is the Prince of Tarent in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman. He duels with Don Martino Cardenes for the affects of Almira, yet she hates Antonio as she loves Cardenes. Antonio wounds Cardenes, who swoons. Thinking him dead, Almira, takes up a sword and wounds Antonio slightly. Pedro intervenes before more blood can be shed. Allowed into Pedro's custody, the two men exchange vows of eternal friendship. Antonio boards a pirate ship and later returns disguised as a slave that is sold into Cuculo's household. Antonio comes back a chastened, pious man. In Cuculo's household, he attracts the lascivious eye of Borachia. He meets Pedro but does not reveal his identity to him, although they were close friends. Through Borachia, Antonio is introduced to Almira, who is strongly attracted to him. He tells her he will not give her his real name, but that she may call him Don Juan Antonio. She is shocked that the man whom she loves has the same name, Christian or not, as the man she professed to hate. Nevertheless, this odd circumstance only strengthens her affections. After he saves her from pirates who wanted to kidnap and sell her into sexual slavery, she publicly declares her love for him. Her father is outraged that she would love a slave and orders Antonio's arrest. She, in turn, swears to die alongside the man she loves. After Antonio's true identity is revealed, Almira is shocked that she preferred the love of a slave to that of a prince. Her father, now quite pleased, promises a suitable dowry.


A poor scholar in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore. Antonio Georgio dedicates a volume to Hippolito and is rewarded with gold when the count discovers that Georgio has not dedicated his book to several possible patrons, but instead has addressed it to Hippolito alone.


A noble and just man of the corrupt Duke's court in [?]Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy. He bears up with nobility and pathos after his honorable wife is driven to suicide when (before the play starts) she is raped by the Duchess' youngest son. At play's end Antonio is left in charge. Upon learning from Vindice how he and Hippolito murdered the corrupt ducal family, Antonio orders their executions.


Marc Antonio is the father of Fortunio and Rinaldo in Chapman's All Fools. He is a gentle, quiet man; when Gostanzo tells him that Fortunio is secretly married, he plans to forgive him, saying that one word from his son would completely destroy his anger. Gostanzo is appalled by this lack of authority and lectures him severely on how he should treat his son, and the consequences if he does not. Marc Antonio is involved in further plots when Gostanzo tells him that they are all to pretend that Valerio and Gratiana are married (neither of the older men realize this is the truth), so that Gostanzo can show how a wayward son should be treated. Marc Antonio agrees to all the tricks without complaint, but when all is revealed, he mocks Gostanzo for being too wise and ending up caught in his own traps.


A "ghost character." Although he never appears on stage in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona, this brother of Antonio has influenced Panthino regarding Proteus' idle, stay-at-home ways. It is the brother's initial suggestion that Proteus should travel that ultimately results in Antonio sending his son to the emperor.


A fictitious character in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. After Borachio has revealed the plot to discredit Hero, Claudio repents and offers to fulfil any penance Leonato can devise. Leonato tells Claudio to tell Messina of his error, to visit Hero's grave and pay tribute to her there, and finally to marry Antonio's daughter. It is, in fact, Hero he will marry under guise of being Antonio's daughter.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing. After Borachio has revealed the plot to discredit Hero, Claudio repents and offers to fulfil any penance Leonato can devise. Leonato tells Claudio to tell Messina of his error, to visit Hero's grave and pay tribute to her there, and finally to marry Antonio's daughter, now the sole heir of Leonato and Antonio. Apparently Leonato has forgotten about Antonio's musical son, mentioned in the first lines of I.ii, who would presumably inherit at least some of his father's property.


Antonio's Man arrives in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice to tell Salerio and Solanio that Antonio wishes to speak to them both at his house.


A "ghost character" in [?]Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy. Raped by the Duchess' youngest son before the start of the play, she commits suicide over the shame. Her corpse is displayed on stage during the course of the play.


Antonio is the eldest son of Sir Oliver Younglove and a suitor to Caelia in Baylie's The Wizard. His father believes Antonio is his proxy to Caelia, but Antonio is actually wooing her for himself. When the disguised Clerimont rails against Sir Oliver for the worthlessness of his suit, Antonio pursues him and forces him into a duel. When Caelia declares that she will leave her choice of suitors to a conjurer, Antonio despairs and decides to exile himself, but Clerimont persuades him to disguise himself as an ancient conjurer instead. In this disguise, Antonio meets with Caelia and Penelope, who have changed clothes. When he is able to correctly identify them, they believe he is a true conjurer. Antonio then tells Caelia that she will marry the man who most resembles himself, a prophecy she believes means she is destined to marry old Sir Oliver. Antonio also tells Penelope that she is to marry Sebastian. Next, the disguised Antonio meets with Sebastian, and promises him he is to marry Caelia. Sebastian is joyful until he overhears the supposed conjurer promise his next visitor, Sir Oliver, that he will marry the virgin Caelia in the morning if she live that long. Antonio escapes Sebastian's anger by promising that he will spend the night with Caelia, and by Antonio's apparent ability to conjure spirits (really Caelia and Penelope behind a screen). Antonio then induces Penelope to spend the night with Sebastian, pretending to be Caelia. In the morning, Antonio, now disguised as his father, pretends to Caelia that he has been wounded in a duel for her by Clerimont, He then appears as the conjurer, but when both ruses are found out, he reveals himself and he and Caelia are married. Antonio appears as the conjurer a final time in the final scene, revealing himself and all the various tricks that have been played.


Antoninus, son of Sapritius in Massinger and Dekker's The Virgin Martyr, is supposed to marry Emporer's daughter, Artemia. He delays because he is in love with Dorothea. He dies at the same moment Dorothea is executed.


Gentleman and friend of Petronius in the Anonymous Tragedy of Nero. He has fallen in love with Poppaea. Petronius arranges an encounter with the Empress, whom he fails to impress. When she rejects him in favor of her current lover, Nimphidius, he forswears love. He brings the news to Seneca and Petronius of the worsening fire in Rome. Not implicated in the conspiracy, he survives to recognize the likely success of Nimphidius after Nero's fall, and offers to support him. Nimphidius names him Tribune, not realizing Antonius plans to betray him to Galba's agents. Both are captured by Galba's friends and condemned to death.


Caius Antonius is a consul of republican Rome, together with Cicero, but Catiline considers him his ally in Jonson's Catiline. In his address to the conspirators, Catiline lists his allies and possible enemies, saying he hoped to have Caius Antonius as a colleague. In the Senate, Antonius enters with the other senators. He has just been elected consul, together with Cicero. However, Cicero delivers his address of gratitude, while Antonius is strangely silent. When Crassus addresses him directly, telling him he looks neglected, Antonius responds he does not care. Having been privy to Catiline's plot, Antonius wants to keep a low profile, now that the things have turned out differently than he had expected. When Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy in the Senate, Caesar wants to know Antonius's position. Since Cicero had bribed him by naming him the governor of a province, Antonius responds he does not know anything and retires from the debate. In private, Antonius admits that Cicero has bought him with a province. When the Senate decides to send an army against the self-exiled Catiline, Antonius refuses to become involved in the conflict, pretending to be suffering from gout. However, since he cannot refuse Cicero, Antonius sends his lieutenant, Petreius, as a general of the senatorial army. Because he wants to keep aloof, Antonius has no further direct role in the conspirators' arrest and punishment.


A "ghost character" in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling. Mizaldus, a real scholar (1520-78), is noted as inventor of the virginity test in Alsemero's Book of Secrets.


Antony, the head drawer at the George, is courting the chambermaid Madge in Quarles' The Virgin Widow.


A Roman commander (spelled 'Anthony') in Kyd's Cornelia; loyal to Caesar, Mark Anthony stands by his commander and warns him that there are men in the Senate who see him as a threat to Rome, who envy his military brilliance and his success with the people of Rome. He begs Caesar to set a guard and keep a vigilant watch about his person. Mark Anthony is convinced that the threats to Caesar are real and vicious and that the conspirators will eventually kill Caesar if Caesar is not more careful. Caesar leaves his life in the hands of the gods.

Antony, Caesar's loyal supporter in the anonymous Caesar and Pompey, crowns him after the battle of Pharsalia. He then accompanies him to Egypt, where he too is struck by Cleopatra's beauty, and after the departure from Egypt he does little but lament her loss, until his Genius rouses him. He mourns Caesar's death and, after initially opposing Octavian, joins with him to seek revenge at the prompting of Caesar's ghost.
Antony is one of Caesar's captains in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. He does not, in this play, demonstrate any of the characteristics of his later career. He is loyal to Caesar, admiring him for weeping at Pompey's death, and defending his infatuation with Cleopatra, although wishing he would abstain. He is appalled by Septimus' rich appearance, and suggests that if he were armed he would make Septimus "blush" for his behavior. After the revolt begins, Antony counsels Caesar to kill both Ptolemy and Cleopatra, but Caesar is not sure if Ptolemy is treacherous and is sure Cleopatra is not. When the fight is going badly, Antony suggests they die nobly on each other's swords (suggesting his ultimate end), but Caesar does not believe the battle is lost. Along with the others, he rejects Septimus' attempt to hide them in a cave, assuming it is treachery. Although he is part of the party who rescues Cleopatra and kills Photinus and Achillas, he has no lines in the last scene.
Marcus Antonius, or Mark Antony in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. He eulogizes Caesar in such eloquent terms that the Roman citizens rebel against the conspirators. Part of the triumvirate governing and battling after the death of Caesar, Antony expresses little faith in the abilities of co-triumvir Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Antony gets a taste of things to come when Octavius will not allow Antony to dictate who assumes what battlefield on the plains of Philippi. Significantly, Antony's are not the last words of the play; those go to Octavius, though Antony's final speech is memorable in its commentary about Brutus: "This was the noblest Roman of them all."
Marcus Antonius is the hero of May's Cleopatra; famous Roman general now dangerously besotted with the exotic Cleopatra and outmaneuvered by his younger rival, Caesar. May makes his besotted state much softer than does Shakespeare: talked into agreeing to her participation in the Battle of Actium, he never reproaches her with its disastrous outcome, but instead retreats into generalized melancholia and assumes the identity of Timon the misanthrope (a Plutarchan scene that Shakespeare omits). He makes little objection to her meetings with Thyreus, the messenger of Caesar, and does not blame her (as in Plutarch and Shakespeare) for his final defeat at Tarentum. After this, he fails to persuade his freedman Eros to kill him, and succeeds, with some difficulty, in killing himself; May omits Plutarch's scene between Cleopatra and the dying Antonius, so the relationship, never very emphatic in this play, fades away in silence.
Spelled ‘Anthony’ throughout Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. One of the chorus of men and women who enter at the beginning of the play and place the instrument of their deaths upon Cupid’s altar. He carries a dagger. See CHORUS for more details. (n.b. in the Paul’s version, only Antony and Cleopatra were employed for the chorus, and special dialogue written for that production.)
Mark Antony is a triumvir of Rome, and the lover of Cleopatra in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. His men, and he himself, are worried that he is too influenced by the sensual life of Egypt, and after he hears of the death of his wife, Fulvia, Antony declares that he must break free of Cleopatra. He travels to Rome to meet with Caesar, and is reconciled with him by Lepidus and Agrippa. The latter suggests that to cement the reconciliation, Antony should marry Caesar's sister, Octavia, which Antony agrees to. However, he quickly returns to Egypt and Cleopatra, setting himself up as Emperor. Caesar declares war on him for this. Despite protestations by Enobarbas and Canidius (and the Soldier), Antony agrees to fight at sea, which turns out to be a mistake. Not only are the Romans superior, but when Cleopatra runs from the battle, Antony follows her, and therefore the battle is lost utterly. Antony becomes depressed, but is brought around by Cleopatra. When Caesar sends Thidias to Cleopatra to offer her safety if she will turn against Antony, Antony has Thidias soundly whipped, but then turns on Cleopatra and accuses her of treachery. She soon convinces him of her loyalty, and a second battle is joined. Antony at first triumphs on land, but then loses at sea and Antony believes again that Cleopatra has betrayed him. He viciously accuses her, and she locks herself in her monument and sends Mardian to tell Antony that she has died. Antony believes the lie and decides that he too should die rather than lose Cleopatra and surrender to Caesar. He first asks Eros to stab him, but Eros chooses instead to kill himself. Antony then stabs himself, but botches the job. He asks his soldiers to finish the job, but no one will. Mardian then returns and tells him that Cleopatra is not dead. Antony has himself carried to her monument, where she and her maids haul him up to safety. He dies in her arms.
Antony is a devoted follower of Caesar in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. Before the war, he supports Caesar's bid to have his army admitted; once the fighting has started, he encourages his commander when he is depressed at his early tactical mistakes, and, later, urges him to go on after Pompey has refused peace. He is assigned a co-command with Caesar for the final battle.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Antony is mentioned by Doctor Clyster, when he explains the parts each of the cozeners had in their 'triumivrate' (sic): "One strives to be Augustus, the other Antony; I shall be Lepidus." Marc Antony (C. 83 B. C.–30 B. C.) was a Roman politician and soldier who belonged to a very distinguished family, being related to Julius Caesar through his mother. It was when Antony returned from Gaul with Lepidus that Augustus joined them to establish the Second Triumvirate. Thus, Antony obtained Gaul, Lepidus, Spain, and Augustus, Africa, Sardinia and Sicily. They made their power absolute by massacring all those who were unfriendly to them in Italy, and by their victories over the republican army in Macedonia, under Brutus and Cassius.
A "ghost character" in Markham's Herod and Antipater. According to Hillus the centurion, Antony has died in Egypt after losing his battle with Augustus.
A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as a great Roman of the past.
Only mentioned in Marmion's A Fine Companion. In decrying a separation from Aurelio, Valeria compares their state to that of Antony and his Egyptian Queen.
Only mentioned in Shirley's The Young Admiral. Mark Antony formed part of the triumvirate who ruled after the murder of Julius Caesar. Cesario mentions Antony in speaking of the ways in which honored men of the past had become vain and sought personal advancement instead of putting their country's welfare first. Cesario believes Vittori is so self-centered.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Mentioned several times as joining Fulvia in going to war against Caesar.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Pompey reminds Antony that he took in Antony's mother when Caesar and Antony's brother were at war.


"Ghost characters" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Caesar reports that Antony has set himself up as Emperor of Egypt and proclaimed his sons kings of kings.

ANUS **1627

A lustful old woman in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Carion likens her to the Witch of Endor. She is angry with Plutus because she can no longer keep her young gigolo, Neanias, in her bed because he is rich enough no longer to need her money. She mistakes Scrape-all's offer of assistance for seduction and rejects him because he is old. Chremylus calls her a "skinful of lechery." When Neanias and Chremylus deride her, she beats Chremylus and begs Neanias to kiss her and return to her bed. Failing in her every attempt, she comes across the distressed and starving Pope and for a bit of food gains his favor to condemn Neanias and require him to go to bed with Anus for his penance, but nothing comes of this.


A braggart in Brome's The Northern Lass, supposedly a soldier, who makes a hundred pounds a year as 'Governor' to the dim-witted Master Widgine. Having overheard Sir Philip calling Mistress Trainwell a bawd, he appears at her house in search of sex, but is beaten by Tridewell and Beavis for his impudence. Somewhat chastened, he joins Tridewell, Mistress Trainwell and Constance among the Masquers at Sir Philip's wedding, and explains its meaning to the wedding guests afterwards. He helps to set up Constance Holdup's seduction and deception of Sir Paul Squelch. In the end he departs on a European tour with Master Widgine.

AORGUS **1630

Roscius in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass characterizes him as "a fellow so patient, or rather insensible of wrong, that he is not capable of the grossest abuse." His opposite is Orgylus. When Orgylus kicks him, he controls his anger by reciting the alphabet first in Greek, then Hebrew, then English.


For Welsh names that include “ap" such as THOMAS apWILLIAM ap MORGAN ap DAVY, see also “up."


Appearing early in Peele's Edward I with his mistress Guenthian and his novice Jack, Friar Hugh ap David soon falls in with Prince Lluellen and his party. In the Robin Hood role-playing scenes, he assumes the role of Friar Tuck, actually calling himself Friar David ap Tuck. When Lluellen is defeated, the friar "retires" his pick-staff (nicknamed Richard) by hanging it in a tree and is pardoned by the victorious Mortimer.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's Royal King. The Welshman's uncle, to whom he will relate the size of the organ at St Paul's.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


Rice ap Howell, a Welshman, appears with the Mayor of Bristol before Queen Isabella and Mortimer in Marlowe's Edward II. As a demonstration of support, he presents them the captive Spencer Senior as a gift. Later he captures the defeated Edward II, hiding in the Abbey of Neath, along with Spencer and Baldock, and turns them all over to the Queen's party. Rice promises to reward the mower who alerted him to the whereabouts of the king and his final faithful courtiers.

ap HUGH **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Caradoc asserts that his own lice are descended from the "magnanimous lice of ap Shinkin ap Shon ap Owen ap Richard ap Morgan ap Hugh ap Brutus ap Sylvius ap Æneas ap Troilus ap Hector."


Meredith is the chief retainer and closest advisor to Lluellen in Peele's Edward I. In the Robin Hood role playing scenes, he assumes the character of Little John.


A Welsh knight who courts Gwnethyan in Chettle, Dekker and Haughton's Patient Grissil. He marries her but finds that unlike the well-known Grissil, his new wife is loud and trying. When she humiliates him by ruining a dinner to which he has invited the Marquess and others, he is outraged and hopes for some way to tame her. In the end, he is relieved to find that her behaviour was merely an act and that she will be more obedient in the future.


Name adopted by Eldred in his disguise as a Welsh servingman in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador. The first time he says it, it lacks the 'ap Vaughan.'

ap MORGAN **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Caradoc asserts that his own lice are descended from the "magnanimous lice of ap Shinkin ap Shon ap Owen ap Richard ap Morgan ap Hugh ap Brutus ap Sylvius ap Æneas ap Troilus ap Hector."


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.

ap OWEN **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Caradoc asserts that his own lice are descended from the "magnanimous lice of ap Shinkin ap Shon ap Owen ap Richard ap Morgan ap Hugh ap Brutus ap Sylvius ap Æneas ap Troilus ap Hector."


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.


A Welsh knight whose malapropisms and butchery of the English language was no doubt a great source of topical humor in Dekker's Satiromastix. Sir Vaughan is a wedding guest at the marriage celebrations of Cælestine and Sir Walter Terill and one of the suitors pursuing the widow Mistris Miniver. Having perceived the bald-pated Sir Adam Prickshaft to be his most formidable rival for Mistris Miniver's affections, Sir Vaughan invites her and other ladies to a party at his home under the pretense of further celebrating Cælestine and Sir Walter's wedding. He hires the poet Horace to deliver an argument against baldness in order persuade Mistris Miniver to prefer him to Sir Adam. Sir Adam responds in kind by holding another party at which he hires a rival poet, Crispinus, to defend baldness. In the meantime, Sir Vaughan decides to challenge Tucca to a duel over his mishandling of a monetary love token meant for Mistris Miniver. Tucca and Sir Vaughan reconcile their differences verbally, however, and Tucca tells Sir Vaughan of Sir Adam's plan to present to the widow a poetic counter-argument on baldness. Sir Vaughan and Horace, with the aid of Tucca, crash Sir Adam's party in order to disrupt Crispinus' defense of baldness, but the baldness debate is soon forgotten as Tucca turns the company against Horace instead by revealing Horace's hypocrisy. The party determines to subject Horace to a mock trial before the court. In it, Sir Vaughan plays the role of the court prosecutor, reading off the list of offences. When Tucca reveals in the final moments of the play that he is to be married to Mistris Miniver, Sir Vaughan seems to take the disappointing news in a fairly good-natured way.


Owen is one of Lluellen's followers in Peele's Edward I. When the prince's party first meet Friar Hugh ap David, it is Owen who hints at a dalliance with Guenthian, the friar's mistress, thus provoking a demonstration of the friar's skill with a pikestaff.

ap RICHARD **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Caradoc asserts that his own lice are descended from the "magnanimous lice of ap Shinkin ap Shon ap Owen ap Richard ap Morgan ap Hugh ap Brutus ap Sylvius ap Æneas ap Troilus ap Hector."

ap SHINKIN **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Caradoc asserts that his own lice are descended from the "magnanimous lice of ap Shinkin ap Shon ap Owen ap Richard ap Morgan ap Hugh ap Brutus ap Sylvius ap Æneas ap Troilus ap Hector."

ap SHON **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Caradoc asserts that his own lice are descended from the "magnanimous lice of ap Shinkin ap Shon ap Owen ap Richard ap Morgan ap Hugh ap Brutus ap Sylvius ap Æneas ap Troilus ap Hector."


Friar David ap Tuck is the name assumed by Friar Hugh ap David when he joins Lluellen and Elinor de Montfort in the Welsh mountains in Peele's Edward I, and all the rebels decide to assume the names of characters from the Robin Hood legends.


Although he is listed as Sir Rees ap Vaughan in the dramatis personae of Dekker's Satiromastix and also so designated in some of the stage directions, Sir Vaughan introduces himself as "Sir Vaughan ap Rees" in II.i. He is also called Sir Vaughan ap Rees by Sir Quintilian, "Ap Rees" by Tucca, and is usually only addressed as "Sir Vaughan" elsewhere in the play. This discrepancy is present in the quarto versions of the play, and it is unclear which name order is most appropriate, the order of Welsh names being often interchangeable. Because the character would be known as "Sir Vaughan ap Rees" by an audience listening to the play, Sir Vaughan's full entry has been listed under "AP REES, SIR VAUGHAN."


In the masque of beasts (IV.i) that Stremon organizes in an attempt to restore Memnon to his wits in Fletcher's The Mad Lover, the First Servant takes the role of the Ape.

APE **1641

A “ghost character" in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. Ursin has missed seeing the white bear baited as well as the sports with the ape and horse at the garden.


Apelles is the court painter in Lyly's Campaspe. He is commissioned to paint a portrait of Campaspe, a Theban woman that the King has fallen in love with. Apelles himself falls in love with Campaspe but keeps his feelings secret from the court as he fears Alexander. However, the King realizes that Campapse and Apelles love each other. Alexander decides to test Apelles by instructing a Page to run onstage in a panic–as if Apelles' studio is on fire. Apelles' desperation to save the portrait of Campaspe above everything else reveals his true feelings. Alexander gives the couple his blessing.

APELLES **1631

Only mentioned in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. Apelles was a third century BCE painter in the court of Alexander the Great. He is mentioned by Ardelio as one who painted a picture of Homer.


A cynical philosopher in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens who attends Timon's banquets to criticize Timon's stupid generosity and to warn him of his false friends. After Timon has left Athens, Apemantus goes to see him in his cave because he has heard that Timon has now assumed his manners and indulges in misanthropy and poverty. After a long dispute and mutual insults Timon drives him away with stones.


The emperor Numerianus' provost in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess. Aper has killed the emperor but has created an elaborate fiction that Numerianus is still alive but in seclusion because his eyes are extremely sensitive to light. Although Aurelia claims her brother's eyes are "wept out," Aper implies that the weak eyes are due to syphilis. Aper has a large army, who fear him, at his command. When Diocles wishes to see the emperor, Aper conducts an elaborate charade using a covered litter. The charade is complicated by the fact that the emperor's corpse is beginning to putrefy. Diocles captures Aper and confronts him with evidence that the emperor is indeed dead. Aper confesses and is killed by Diocles, thereby punningly fulfilling Delphia's prophecy that Diocles will become emperor "cum Aprum gradem interfeceris" ("when he has killed a mighty boar"). As Aper dies, Delphia causes the music of the spheres to sound to show her approval.


Aphebetus is a "ghost character" in Daniel's Philotas. According to Dymnus, Aphebetus is part of a plot to kill Alexander.


Apheleia is the fourth virgin introduced by Cupid/Anteros as part of the First Masque at Cynthia's revels in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. She is a mute character and is finally discovered to be Moria in disguise. According to Cupid/Anteros, Apheleia is a nymph as pure and simple as the soul, she appears in white, and symbolizes Simplicity. She emerges without folds, plaits, colors, or ornament. Her emblem is blank and the motto reads "omnis abest fucus" (this lacks all color), alluding to Cynthia's purity. Apheleia's symbol suggests that Cynthia is pure and immortal. At the end of the revels, when Cynthia orders the characters to unmask, Apheleia appears as Moria, who is punished together with the other nymphs and gallants.


Daughter of Brissac and sister of Charles in Hemming's Fatal Contract. A virtuous but compromised heroine. Her secret betrothal to Clovis is the 'Fatal Contract' of the play's title. Castrato lures her to an attempted rape by Clotair, prevented by Clovis's intervention. She witnesses Clovis's apparent death in the subsequent fight, and she is imprisoned by Clotair and sentenced to be sacrificed on Clovis's tomb. Her beauty still enthralls him, and she is forced into marriage instead. Clovis intended to save her from death but cannot prevent the marriage. Her (unwilling) betrayal of their former vows provokes his revenge. Clovis's faked proof of her adultery with Landrey provokes Clotair to violent jealousy, causing Aphelia to flee on her wedding night. She is recaptured and tortured by Clotair to confess her adultery. Clovis leads the revolutionary army to rescue her and depose Clotair, but her injuries are fatal and she dies forgiving Clotair and is buried with him and Crotilda.


A nickname for Luparius in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass, given to her by Roscius to indicate that she is the opposite of the neatly dressed Philotimia.

APHOBUS **1630

Roscius in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass characterizes him as one "that out of an impious confidence fears nothing." Flowerdew says that he looks like Presumption. His opposite is Deilus.


A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. Achillas, describing the camp of Pompey, says that it is full of delicacies brought in by sea, more like a Roman feast presented by Lucullus and Apicius than a battle camp.


A gentleman in Whetstone's 2 Promos and Cassandra. He and Bruno patronize Lamia's house.


A judge in [?]Bower's Apius and Virginia. Tormented by his love for Virginia, he decides to follow Haphazard's advice and have a lord question Virginia's legitimacy by claiming that Virginius kidnapped her as a child: this will give Apius the opportunity to detain Virginia. As he starts to exit, Apius' personified Conscience and Justice "come out of him" and warn him of the consequences of his plan; Haphazard, however, persuades Apius to continue with the plan. Burning with lust, Apius sends the lord Claudius to summon Virginius and Virginia before him; as he waits, he debates with Conscience, who "speake[s] within" and tells him his conscience is dying at the hands of his lust. Apius next sits in judgement as Claudius accuses Virginius of kidnapping Virginia as a child; Apius orders Virginius to bring Virginia to him to be kept in custody until the matter is resolved. When Virginius returns with Virginia's head, Apius curses him and calls on Justice and Reward; they, however, instead of acting against Virginius, condemn Apius for his lawlessness and sin and order his death. Virginius is told by Reward to take Apius to prison and lock him up. In prison, Apius kills himself from despair.


Aplotes, whose name means "simplicity," is the name Orgilus adopts in his guise as scholar in Ford's The Broken Heart. As Aplotes he pretends to meditate with the wise man Tecnicus while in truth spying on his sister, Euphranea.


A "ghost character" in the Anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. Disguised as Knowledge, Subtle Shift claims that Apollo is his father.
Apollo, the god, competes with Pan in a musical competition to be judged by Midas and the nymphs in Lyly's Midas. Midas prefers the sounds of Pan's pipes. Angry, Apollo transforms Midas' ears into those of an ass and only restores them when Midas abases himself before the oracle and ends his needless wars.
Apollo, the god of the sun and of prophecy, serves as a member of the tribunal hearing the charges brought against the Trojan prince Paris by the disaffected goddesses Pallas and Juno in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris. It is Apollo who suggests that Diana make a final decision about the fate of the golden apple because she is the goddess in whose territory on Mount Ida the contention over the prize first began. And he adds that only a female deity is likely to have the impartiality necessary to make a satisfactory determination in a dispute involving three of the chief goddesses in the pantheon.
The Greek god of the arts in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. Apollo walks across the stage with the other gods in the opening dumbshow.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Asper announces that the play exposing vice is about to begin, he invites the audience to judge the comedy. He wishes that Apollo and the Muses feasted the audience's eyes with artistic delectation. Through his reference to these Greek mythological deities that patronize the arts, the author implies that his play observes the classical decorum and displays the features of an accomplished art.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In Greek mythology, Apollo was the sun god and the protector of the arts. He was also the music maker and the god of light and song, being worshipped by the poets. When Cupid enumerates Mercury's famous actions of legerdemain, he says that Mercury stole Apollo's bow. Reporting that Mercury stole Apollo's most treasured and symbolic possession Cupid emphasizes his cousin's ability as a deceiver.
Apollo figures twice in Jonson's Poetaster.
  • Gallus is disguised as Apollo at the masquerade banquet at court. Apollo is the Greek name of the god of music and poetry, corresponding to Phoebus in Roman mythology. Gallus's disguise as Apollo probably alludes to his essential role among the poets of Rome. When Albius/Vulcan tries to placate the pretended dissension between Ovid/Jupiter and Julia/Juno, Gallus/Apollo commends Vulcan's intervention and orders music to sound, because a song can startle people's spirits. When Caesar enters and rails at the debauched party banishing Ovid, it is understood that Gallus/Apollo sheds his disguise as the god of music and poetry and is forced to face the harsh reality of disgrace.
  • The god is only mentioned. In Greek mythology, Phoebus (the bright) was the name given to the sun god Apollo and, also, poetically, to the sun. Apollo was also the god of song, music, and poetry. He charmed the gods with his playing at the banquets on Mount Olympus and was crowned with myrtle leaves. When Ovid meditates on the immortality of poetry, he expresses his wish to serve bright Phoebus eternally and fill his cups from the Muses' fountain. As a poet, Ovid wants to be crowned with myrtle and his poetry to be read by sad lovers. When Horace wants to disentangle himself from Crispinus's irritating and impudent conversation, Horace invokes Phoebus, the archer of heaven, to take his bow and nail to earth this Python. The legend says that one of the earliest deeds of young Phoebus Apollo was the slaying of the deadly serpent Python, which lived in the hills near Delphi. Apollo used one of his golden arrows to kill the serpent. By Comparing the poetaster to the serpent Python, Horace alludes to Crispinus's deceitfulness, loquacity and impertinence.
Only mentioned in Verney’s Antipoe.
Mute character in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. Lyriope mentions Apollo when she refers to Tyresias as "holy priest of Apollo." Later, she utters his name again when she exclaims that "Apollo cries, gnotti seauton." According to Greek mythology, he was the god of sunlight, arts and sciences (the Roman version of this god is known as Phoebus. He was son to Jove / Jupiter.)
A "ghost character" in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday. Thyrsis tells Montanus of how Apollo answered his inquiry concerning Sylvia's whereabouts with a riddle which he construed to mean that he would never see his lover again.
The god of learning and music receives Admetus at Delphi in Heywood's Love's Mistress, and tells the king in the customarily ambiguous way that his daughter Psiche must be placed on a hillside to encounter her mysterious non-human lover. He appeals to Venus to relent in her persecution of Psiche.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale. Leontes sends his courtiers Cleomenes and Dion to Apollo's temple at Delphos, where Apollo issues an oracle declaring Hermione's innocence. Despite the oracle, Leontes persists with his accusation that Hermione has committed adultery with Polixenes, and he sees the death of his son Mamillius as Apollo's reaction.
The sun god in Heywood's Brazen Age. He specializes in exposing crimes and sins at dawn. He exposes Mars and Venus's elicit affair and reports the adultery to Vulcan.
Also known as Phoebus in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. Greek god of sunlight, arts and sciences (Phoebus, his other name, refers to the Roman version of this god. He was Iove's son.) When he appears in the play for the first time he is grieving, but unwilling to reveal the reason for his suffering, he blames the weather for his gloomy appearance. However, the Charities' insistence on his telling them the cause of his suffering, he tells them he is grieving for Hiacinth, a boy he intended to make his page, had died accidentally when trying to imitate him in a game. Once he is alone, however, he confesses to the audience that the real reason for his agony is his love for the beautiful Eurymine. He later meets her in the forest, opens his heart to her and begs her to stay. But the girl asks him for the favor of being turned into a man. At first he refuses, since he will not be able to have her if she becomes a man, but he ends up granting her wish, though also imposing a penance: she will love a man desperately, and she will wish to be a girl again. Later, when the Muses implore him to have mercy on Eurymine, he at first refuses. But when he hears the Muses say they will spread his fame if he hears their prayers, he tells them he will show his clemency and returns Eurymine to her former shape. At the end, Apollo reveals that Aramanthus is Eurymine's father, and that the girl's real name is Atlanta. He rewards the old man for his suffering by placing him amongst the nine muses until he dies, and then he will exchange his mortal state and live with the rest of the immortal gods. Apollo's sole condition for his beloved Atlanta is that she will wear a branch of laurel in her netted cap for her to remember him, even in his absence. Apollo will also reward Gemulo and Silvio (also unrequited lovers of Eurymine) by playing his harp and letting the muses dance for them.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Birthe of Hercules. Dromio mentions Apelles (a blunder for 'Apollo') when, keeping his master out of the house under the influence of Mercurius, Mercurius corrects his mistake saying: "Apollo man thou wouldest saie I knowe", but, to this, Dromio replies, again blundering it: "I soe I saie, if Pollio guide my right."
A "ghost character" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Apollo is "the Lord and Master of the Muses" who is known and referred to by all other characters. As Prologus points out, "his Throne and Court [. . .] is the shoppe and staple of learning." It is Apollo's school which the scholars attend and Apollo to whom they pay "sacred homage." Lauriger, Drudo, and Preco pronounce the Proclamation of Apollo's "yeerly visitation," and Lauriger later claims that, after he, Preco, and Drudo informed Apollo of their efforts spent in the "publishing of his Mandates," Apollo "charged [them] that this inquiry should be more strickt then heretofore." For this reason, Preco and Drudo are sent to notify those who must appear in the Court at Apollo's command. Siren attempts throughout the play to "subvert [. . .] Apollos subjects" and Ludio asks Lauriger to "intreat" Apollo to play with him. Slugge asks Drudo to play the part of Apollo so that they won't have to complete the trek to Apollo's Court and Drudo refuses, but allows him to "say what [he] canst" since "Apollo sees and heares all things in all places." He presides over the court where disobedient characters are forced to appear and where others are free to express concerns, and his "doom" and mercy are pronounced at the play's end to each character by his "Priest and Judge," Museus. In this way, Apollo "weeds out" his garden so that "each tender plant, and goodly flowre" may be able to "grow up, and thrive, by heavens assisting power."
A mute character in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. The Roman sun god Apollo appears in the first masque that Lala Schahin devises for Amurath and dances with the goddess Pallas.
A "ghost character" in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. God of prophecy, his priests appear at the end of the play to reveal his divination from Delphi. The vows of Lucasia's love to Charistus fulfills the oracle of Apollo that peace will only come when he becomes his enemy's slave—that is to say, when he marries Lucasia and forms an alliance between the two countries.
He appears in the masque in Burnell's Landgartha. He is the mythological Greek god of the arts. He tells Pallas that they have to stop Achilles and help Pryam and Hector. Later, with the death of Hector, he tells Pryam about the foundations of Britain and the city of Rome.
Only mentioned in Brome's Love-Sick Court. Philargus and Philocles consult Apollo's oracle at Delphi (off stage) to determine which of them will marry Eudyna.
Only mentioned by Dorus in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber in reference to the music Dorus has composed in honour of Avonia.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Comedy was first recognized over Tragedy by Apollo, according to Comedy. At play's end, Roscius says that the Muses' Looking-Glass was created by Apollo by taking water from the muses' spring and freezing it into a mirror finish. Its reflection shows every man his deformities. It does not last long, however, but when the glass is broken, its virtue is transfused "to live in comedy."
He sings a song with the two Sybills in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. He tells Lariscus that he is destined to be crossed in his love and yet derive new blessings from that. He says they cannot be together until she is dead.


Apollo is an attendant of Harmony in the masque with which Brome's The Antipodes concludes.


Apollodorus is the guardian of Cleopatra in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. He is loyal to her, and tries to make her confinement more comfortable by bringing a boy singer to amuse her. He tells her of Pompey's arrival in Egypt and Cleopatra then asks him to help her secretly travel to Caesar. He agrees, although he does not actually appear with the packaged Cleopatra. After the masque, he brings Cleopatra word that Caesar wants to see her, and she attacks him for ever bringing her to Caesar. Apollodorus replies that it was her wish and that he suffered great danger for her sake. When the palace is attacked, Apollodorus suggests that they are in a defensible position and can hold out until relieved. He is with Caesar in the next few scenes, but does not have any lines, and does not appear in the final scene, when Cleopatra is rescued from Photinus.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Apollodorus carried Cleopatra, wrapped in a rug or mattress, to Julius Caesar, according to a tale asked about by Pompey and confirmed by Enobarbas.


Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Ronca tells Pandolfo that Albumazar creates instruments of greater wonder than Apollonius.


"Ghost characters" in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. The Emperor of Trebizond orders them to pray for Niger, Palemon and Antigonus.


The "Pothecary" is an outright merchant. The Foure PP. He believes in his remedies as the Pardoner only pretends to believe. He is also just a little Machiavellian and mercenary in his prescriptions.


The apothecary in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris prepares a pair of poisoned gloves for Guise.


A poor apothecary of Mantua in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Although it is illegal to sell deadly poisons in Mantua, the apothecary, motivated by his poverty, sells such poison to Romeo.


Disguise that Humil uses in Armin's The Two Maids of More–Clacke so not to be recognized after having written the letter to Sir William. He poisons the Lady.


The Apothecarie in Fletcher's The Woman's Prize is summoned along with the doctor by Jacques when Petruchio is allegedly stricken with the plague. The doctor directs him to bleed Petruchio, but the angry Petruchio shoos off the Apothecarie. Although listed as Apothecarie among the chart of players, this character appears as Pothecary in the text.


A non-speaking role in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas. The stage directions suggest that he attends on the sick Francis with the Physicians. He never speaks.


Together with the Broker, the Apothecary is one of the parasitical characters in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom. He appears at Iacomo Gentili's home to ask him for money under false pretences. At his entry, the Apothecary bribes one of Iacomo's serving-men with gold for preferment. When brought to Iacomo Gentili, he offers his services. When his offer to become Iacomo's apothecary is rejected, he is indignant about the refusal and attempts to get back the money he gave to one of Iacomo's serving-men. He demands fifty crowns from Iacomo. Through the naming of a number of treatments, such as purgation and a vomit, suggested by the Apothecary, Iacomo discovers that the Apothecary has bribed one of his servants, and has him led away.


The First Apparator in Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IV is a Bishop who discovers Mistress Jane Shore in the house of Mistress Blages. He orders the disgraced Jane to proceed through the streets stripped of her finery, wearing only a white sheet and carrying a taper.


See also "SPIRITS," "GHOSTS," and "FIENDS."


An Apparition in Massinger's 1634 Cleander, or Lisander and Calista (a revision of Fletcher's 1623 The Wandering Lovers?). The ghost of a Host first appears to Cleander and Dorilaus while the two are having a drink. Cleander makes him promise to return just before Cleander is to die. The ghost agrees, and duly appears just before Leon kills him.


Visions Macbeth sees during his second encounter with the Witches in Shakespeare's Macbeth:
  • The first Apparition is an armed head that warns Macbeth to beware of Macduff;
  • the second takes the form of a bloody child and claims that no one born of a woman shall harm Macbeth;
  • the third is a vision of a crowned child holding a tree. This vision claims Macbeth shall not be overthrown until Birnam Wood marches to Dunsinane, the seat of Macbeth's kingdom.
  • Finally, Macbeth sees Banquo standing with eight kings, the last holding a mirror that reflects many more.
The final vision signifies the line of kings descending from Banquo, culminating in England's King James I, for whom the play was written. He would be the ninth king in the line and first reflected in the mirror. In this manner Shakespeare has paid James a compliment and skirted the ban against presenting a living Christian monarch on stage.


A rowdy drunk in Rastell's Four Elements who tries to distract Humanity from his studies. He brings Humanity to a Tavern and arranges for food, drink, and women; he becomes angry, however, when Humanity chooses to talk with Experience rather than continue their feasting. He rejoins Humanity and gets into a tavern brawl with him, then leaves Humanity with Ignorance to arrange a musical interlude, which he with performs with dancers.


Gustus’ hungry parasite in Tomkis’ Lingua. He is long, lean, and raw-boned and wears a soldier’s coat and sword. He is cowardly and would that wars were fought with food and drink rather than stell and gun balls. He tells Mendacio that he knows only Hellno the Bear-Herd, Gulono a gouty sergeant, and Delphino a vintner. He presents a parchment to Common Sense from the five senses detailing ten reasons that Lingua should not be considered a sense including her babbling, that she debases language, is a witch, and has imprisoned the lady Veritas. Later, Crapula beats Appetitus out of doors for giving the five senses new appetites after each course at the banquet until their guts nearly burst. Mendacio gives him a bottle of Lingua’s wine to give the five senses as a peace offering. Appetitus does this and then returns with Irrascibile and beats Crapula until Somnus puts Appetitus to sleep.


Appius is a crafty Roman, claiming to be unworthy of election as a Senate Decemvir in John Webster's Appius and Virginia. All the while he gloats that attaining such a position had been his plan all along. He desires to wed Virginia, daughter of the soldier Virginius. His plot to obtain her involves depriving the troops of sustenance, assuming that Virginia will be handed over in return for supplying the soldier's needs. He works closely with Marcus Clodius, who writes courtship letters for Appius and takes them to Virginia. Appius also gives Clodius leave to declare Virginia a bondwoman instead of a daughter of Rome, intending to enslave her by this stratagem. Appius' plans are foiled, however, and he is imprisoned when Virginius' troops enter Rome. Appius commits suicide when Virginius' offers him this more honorable death.

APPIUS **1636

The prince of Calabria, a young, fair-haired man in Killigrew’s Claricilla. Seleucus and Appius overtake Melintus (disguised) wooing Claricilla, and Seleucus takes her from him saying that he is unworthy such a reward. Appius stops Seleucus’ quarrel by insisting he make friends with the man. Later, when he woos Claricilla, she tells him that Melintus has her heart and is in court in disguise. Appius withdraws his affection honorably in light of so worthy a rival. Melintus reveals to him all of Seleucus’s plottings, and he goes to the king with the news but not before he tells Seleucus his intentions. He will help Melintus and Claricilla escape to Messina. After the duel between Seleucus and Melintus, Appius is able to tell Claricilla that Melintus has escaped safely. He also tells her that she cannot trust Olinda. When Claricilla receives Melintus’s letter, he follows her with Manlius to check her haste. He counsels her to send Manlius, pretending to betray Melintus and Philemon, in order to trap the king and Seleucus. He is taken captive during the final trick but is redeemed according to plan and tells the king that he gives his blessing to the match between Clarissa and Melintus.


Master Apple-John is the name by which Clove knows Shift in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. At St. Paul's, Clove enters and greets Shift by the name of Master Apple-John. Clove invites his friend to sup together and have a good time with the wenches, but Shift says he is busy and exits. It appears that Carlo Buffone knows Shift as Signior Whiffe, and when he hears Clove call him Master Apple-John, Carlo Buffone concludes that Shift adopted a double impersonation. When Carlo confronts Shift with these two names, Shift admits that, when he is a tobacconist, he adopts the name of Signior Whiffe, and when he is a poor squire about the town, he takes the name of Master Apple-John.


Frank Barker once refers to Jack Freshwater's servant Gudgeon by the nickname of Apple-John in Shirley's The Ball.


Friend of Sir Alexander Wengrave in Middleton and Dekker's Moll Cutpurse, The Roaring Girl. Sir Adam joins Sir Alexander, Sir Davy Dapper, and the gallants in Sir Alexander's parlor while he laments his son's decision to pursue Moll Cutpurse.


A justice in Brome's The Northern Lass, friend to Mistress Fitchow, for whom he performs 'a father's part' (i.e., giving her away) at her marriage to Sir Philip Luckless. When she realizes her mistake, she asks him for advice on obtaining a divorce. At Sir Paul Squelch's dinner party he almost condemns his friend Sir Paul, disguised as a Spaniard, to prison.


See also "PRENTICE."


Accused by his master of being drunk in an alehouse in the Anonymous Nobody and Somebody, his reply that he was drunk with "nobody" is refuted by Nobody, who, rightly, accuses him of carousing with Somebody.


There are two apprentices in Thomas Heywood's 1 Edward IV:
  1. The First Apprentice, a citizen of London and loyal to the king, applauds Lord Mayor Crosby's speech as giving courage to London's defenders against the Falconbridge faction.
  2. The Second Apprentice offers the pledge that all the local apprentices will gladly die before losing their London liberty to Falconbridge's rebels.


Candido has three apprentices in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore. They are all loyal to their master. One of them is named George (See "GEORGE"), and the other two are unnamed:
  1. The First Apprentice is less vocal and active than the Second Apprentice. He mocks Viola for calling herself patient, but does not speak singly again while Castruchio, Fluello and Pioratto are in the shop. After Candido is distracted, the First Apprentice threatens Fustigo, along with George and the Second Apprentice, although he is the only one who keeps up the pretense that the apprentices are talking about the fabrics to a customer. He has no lines in the scene where Crambo and Poh beat Candido mistaking him for George, but he exits and reenters with Viola when she goes to fetch the Officers to take Candido to the madhouse.
  2. The Second Apprentice is the more active and aggressive of the two. When Castruchio demands a pennyworth of cloth, the Second Apprentice objects, along with Viola, to such a small sale. When Fustigo swaggers and takes wares, the Second Apprentice proposes a plan to repay Fustigo. George is to distract Candido by claiming Signor Pandulfo desires a meeting while he deals with Fustigo. He not only threatens Fustigo, but he also tells Viola she should blush for shame for trying to vex their master. When George is dressed in Candido's clothes, Viola warns the apprentices not to react, and the Second Apprentice claims that no one can make him laugh, no matter how funny. He waits on Crambo and Poh, and then helps George to disarm them when they attack Candido.


"Ghost characters" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Slugge claims that he has "bin entertain'd evermore by some of Apollos prentises. They have kept [him] and fed [him] in their chambers, and hug'd [him] in their bed." The "lazy droane" claims that he "never wanted among them, those that would rather rest with [him] in a cold morning, then dance after the Muses pipe with benum'd hands and chattering teeth."


Does not appear in play. A whore of Flowerdale's acquaintance, from whom he tries to reclaim a debt in The London Prodigal.


Having been transformed into an ass, and then restored in Heywood's Love's Mistress, he seeks the way to Helicon, so as to sacrifice to the Muses, and asks Midas for directions. Rebuked by the churlish king, he offers to show the story of Cupid and Psiche by way demonstrating that the Muses deserve to be honored. When Midas belligerently interrupts the story, Apuleius restores him to good humor by means of a comic dance, and explains how the allegorical meanings of the story of Cupid and Psiche make it valuable. When Midas interrupts a second time he agrees to watch a rustic dance and then explains more of the allegory. Two more interludes, the contest between Apollo and Pan and the dance of Love's Contrarieties, introduce two more explorations of the allegory. His efforts fail, and Midas remains unmoved by art, but Cupid honors him with a laurel crown.


Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Albumazar tells Trincalo that Apuleius was transformed from an ass to a man by the power of a rose and that a looking glass will dissolve Trincalo’s transfiguration to Antonio by the same power.


A "ghost character" in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar Aquilaz conducts the third battalion of King Sebastian, which mainly consists of German soldiers.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Host rails against the current decayed ways of the nobility, he says that the young gentlemen use their liberal arts education to cheat and steal. Ironically, Host says that these rascals take a degree at Tyburn (a place where convicted felons used to be hanged), and read a lecture upon St. Thomas Aquinas at St. Thomas a Waterings. St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-74) was a Catholic theologian and philosopher, declared a Doctor of the Church in 1567. Host uses the reference to Aquinas to emphasize the youths' scanty education.


This armed forces captain in Shirley's The Politician brings the king news from the field and receives a ring as reward. In the shifting series of loyalties that ensues, Aquinus is believed murdered. Still alive, however, Aquinus remains true to the cause of the king's son Turgesius; by the play's end Aquinus has been made captain of the king's guard.


An aging knight in Middleton's A Mad World, My Masters who, along with Sir Andrew Polcut, is a companion to Sir Bounteous Progress. Neither knight plays a significant role in the play's action.


A "ghost character" in Montague's The Shepherd's Paradise. Arabella is the daughter of the King of Castile and Basilino's sister. At the end of the play, she is proposed as a consort to Prince Pallante, formerly known as Agenor. She does not appear in the play.


The Prince of Aragon is the second suitor for Portia's hand in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. He chooses the silver casket because he believes he deserves Portia. Instead he finds a portrait of an idiot.


A young nobleman at the court of the Duke of Burgundy in Wilson's The Inconstant Lady. Aramant adores Emilia and wishes to marry her. Unfortunately, his father disapproves of Emilia, and forces Aramant to choose between her and his inheritance. Aramant chooses Emilia, and his father dies, leaving the entire estate to Aramant's younger brother, Millecert. Seeing Armant disinherited, the inconstant Emilia abandons him in an instant and woos Millecert. Enraged at learning the two are to wed, Aramant draws his sword on Millecert and has to be restrained by Serius and Tonsus. Disinherited and jilted, a despondent Aramant wanders into the forest where he meets Cloris and is immediately smitten. She sings him to sleep but disappears before he wakes. Later he finds her at the palace where the Duke has confined her, intending to make her his wife. With the help of Gratus, who is really his brother, Millecert, in disguise, Aramant helps Cloris escape from the palace. Later, when the Duke learns that Cloris is actually the daughter he thought dead, the Duke bows to Cloris' pleas and allows Aramant and Cloris to marry.


Aramanthus is a holy man who lives in the woods in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. Morpheus, in the shape of Eurymine, reveals to Ascanio that this hermit will inform him about his beloved one and will bring them both together. Later when Ioculo, Frisco and Mopso go to visit the old man in the hope that he should help them to find their respective masters' mistresses, Aramanthus, in a riddle, reveals that they are all looking for the same woman. When, in their astonishment, the boys pose him more specific questions, he explains, in parables, that Eurymine has turned into a man. He also tells Ioculo that his master will be the one who will get the lady in the end, and he indicates him how to find Ascanio. Aramanthus meets Ascanio, and he tells him about his own life: He was a most loved prince at Lesbos Isle, but one day he was betrayed by his own brother, and exiled. He listens to Ascanio's story, and reveals to him that his beloved Eurymine is a boy now. He advises the lovers to ask Apollo to restore her to her former shape, and, when she replies that the god will be reluctant to do it, he advises them to go and see the Graces, and ask them to intercede with Apollo for her. Once the girl is restored to her former shape, Ascanio asks Aramanthus how he can reward him, but the honest man explains that their happiness is sufficient recompense. At the end, he is rewarded by Apollo, since the old man learns that Eurymine is his own lost daughter, Atlanta, and that he is going to be awarded with the laurel and sent to live among the Nine Muses until his death, after which he will enjoy fame among the gods.


Arane is the queen mother of Arbaces and Panthea of Iberia in Beaumont and Fletcher's A King and No King. In Act two, Arane is brought before Arbaces, charged with plotting his assassination. Arbaces pardons his mother. In act three, when she meets Arbaces, Arane expresses no motherly love for the king and announces that she feels guilt only as a royal subject. At the end of the play, Arane returns. She tells the story of Arbaces origins. Arane confirms that she was the young wife of an old king and that the court feared the king's death without an heir. Arane refused to seek pregnancy by another man. She instead faked a pregnancy and made a deal to raise Gobrias's son, Arbaces, as the heir. Soon after, against the odds, Arane was impregnated by her elderly husband, resulting in the birth of the princess Panthea. Arane's anger at having another woman's child rule as king caused her to plot his death. After revealing Arbaces's parentage, Arane is silent onstage and silent for the remainder of the play.


One of Cyrus's captains in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus, he participates in dividing the spoils of the victory over the Assyrians, and having praised Panthea's beauty to Cyrus, is assigned to care for her. Inflamed by love, he tries pleading, threats, and magic, but she remains steadfastly faithful to her husband. When she reveals his behavior to Cyrus, Araspas pleads for mercy, and agrees as penance to go as a spy into the Assyrian camp. He is received by Antiochus, then returns to Cyrus with a detailed account of the enemy's forces.

ARATUS **1635

A melancholy lord and leader of the secret conspiracy against the usurper in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. The king gives him the honor of greeting the newly arrived prince, Clearchus. He secretly plots with Phronimius and Eurylochus to raise a rebellion and unseat the king. Aratus, Phronimius, and Aratus, meet Pallantus, who has killed his assailants, and without learning his name they befriend him for his valiant act. They go greet Cleararchus together. He later tells Clearchus that the king has two peerless princesses. He later recommends Pallantus to be Melissa’s servant. Clearchus and Haimantus disguise themselves as holy men to see Hianthe with Aratus’ assistance. He later introduces Clearchus to Cleander as their secret prince. Later, Clearchus brings news to Aratus and Pallantus that Phronimius and Eurylochus were captured along with the young king, Cleander. The camp mutinies at the news. Demophilus delivers good news to Aratus in act four that Phronimius and Eurylochus have not been captured along with the young king, Cleander. They are well and advancing to their positions. Two others were captured and slain by the enemy. When the day is won, Rodia reports how Aratus appeared in the marketplace to reveal the true king to his people and affect a peaceful change of power. Aratus is also named the king’s successor should the king die without issue. He praises the king by noting that the war was won with little loss of life when the usurper’s army voluntarily laid down their arms. He is on hand when the king visits Eudora and sees his reign peacefully begun.


A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. A general of Persia, under whom Sateros fought at Marathon.


Arbaces is the king, but at the same time not the king, of Iberia in Beaumont and Fletcher's A King and No King. We hear of Arbaces before he enters the stage. Arbaces is described by his most competent counselor Mardonius as "vain-glorious and humble, angry and patient, merry and dull, joyful and sorrowful." Arbaces comes onto the stage for the first time in the company of Tigranes, King of Armenia. Arbaces's forces have defeated the Armenians and Tigranes is a prisoner. Arbaces wants Tigranes to feel grateful for losing to such a worthy foe. Arbaces also plans to cement a union between nations by marrying Tigranes to Arbaces's sister Panthea. While Tigranes considers his options, Arbaces is scolded by Mardonius for his ill behavior as king. Arbaces initially rejects Mardonius's advice, but accepts the idea that his, Arbaces's temper must be controlled, not eliminated. Arbaces acts nobly when confronted by his mother's assassination plot. Arbaces announces that he will never wash away danger with his mother's blood. He pardons her with no strings attached. Arbaces continues to insist that Tigranes marry Panthea, even after Gobrias suggests that Panthea should be given leave to approve the match before it is settled. Arbaces humiliates Tigranes by presenting him before the Iberian people as a trophy. In act three, Arbaces shows respect for Arane and forgives her for plotting his assassination. Immediately following Arane's exit from the stage, Arbaces is dumbfounded by Panthea's entrance. The brother and sister had not met in years and Arbaces is overcome by attraction. The comic highpoint of the play comes when Arbaces stubbornly refuses to acknowledge Panthea as his sister. He vacillates between jailing her for bewitching her and releasing her to gain her favor. After meeting Panthea, Arbaces decided that she must not marry Tigranes and prevents the two to speak to one another by throwing Tigranes in prison. Arbaces then temporarily gains his senses, acknowledges Panthea as his sister, offers her a brotherly conciliatory kiss, becomes aroused and throws her into prison, too. Arbaces tells the audience he has been poisoned with incestuous thoughts. Arbaces confesses his desires to Mardonius and nearly loses his best counselor. Mardonius agrees to stay if Arbaces mends himself. Arbaces sends Mardonius away and recruits the coward Bessus to send Panthea a ring as a love token. Arbaces changes his mind when he sees how quickly Bessus agrees to the sin. In act four Arbaces releases Tigranes and tries to mend diplomatic fences, until Arbaces sees one of Panthea's servants speaking to Tigranes. He mistakenly assumes Tigranes is still pursuing Panthea and arrests Tigranes, along with Tigranes' secret lover Spaconia, again. After this outburst, Mardonius again scolds Arbaces. Arbaces agrees to Gobrias's request that the king speak with Panthea. When Arbaces sees Panthea, he explains that she is imprisoned to keep her from himself. He offers to grant her freedom if she will agree to be his mistress. He is surprised when Panthea rejects his offer, but expresses a desire for him. Arbaces and Panthea kiss and begin to plot an escape from their kingdom so that they can pursue their passion together. Just before Arbaces begins to murder his friends to free himself of their disapproval, Mardonius and Gobrias confront him. Arbaces first blames Gobrias for planting the seeds of incestuous desire in Arbaces's mind. Arbaces is surprised when Gobrias admits to the charge. Arbaces is overjoyed to learn from Gobrias and Arane that he, Arbaces, is not really Arane's son. In fact, Arbaces is Gobrias's son, taken secretly by Arane to serve as heir to Iberia's elderly childless king. Happily, the play ends with Arbaces free to pursue a marriage with Panthea.


A Venetian senator, father of Antonio in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped. Arbaces is devastated when Antonio is killed (as he thinks) by Fransiscus, and seeks revenge on Cornelia's family, whom he blames. With Julio's help, he finds Fransiscus and has him arrested. But the truth is revealed in court, and Arbaces makes up with Cornelia's family and Fransiscus.


A Captain under Sardinapalus in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. He discovers Sardinapalus' hedonism and cross-dressing and attacks the King. He and the other captains successfully defeat the King.


The heir to the throne of Tartary in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom, Arbasto is accidentally killed offstage by St. David during a joust. His body is carried across the stage in a funeral march, and everyone laments.


A servant to King Assuerus in the anonymous Godly Queen Hester. He is charged with putting Aman to death.


Arcadia is one of two younger sisters of the emperor in Massinger's The Emperor of the East. She acts as a champion of Eudocia's cause and sometimes her confidante. At the end, she wishes to be married—to whom seems of little consequence.


The nephew of Macarius in Shirley's Coronation. The long-standing bad blood between Eubulus and Macarius of course affects Arcadius as well. Though he loves Polidora and wishes to travel to other scenes and courts, Arcadius ends up being the chosen of the queen Sophia, who has abandoned her former love Lisimachus. Before Arcadius and Sophia can wed, however, the Bishop informs them that Arcadius is really Demetrius, son of the former king Theodosius and given away by the king to protect the child from political upheaval. Demetrius is therefore Sophia's brother and the true king. He holds his throne but briefly; Leonatus, the supposed son of Eubulus, is proven to be Theodosius' older son and therefore the rightful heir to the throne, leaving Demetrius free to pursue his love Polidora.


Cassilane's best friend in ?Ford's The Laws of Candy. Arcanes continually tries to repair the breach between Cassilane and Antinous. He accompanies Cassilane into his retirement in the country, where he urges Cassilane to be temperate and not to kill Decius when Decius brings a letter from Antinous.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. Demetrius, disguised as an astrologer, rattles off a list of "the learned Cabalists and all the Chaldees." The list includes Asla, Baruch, Abohali, Caucaph, Toz, Arcaphan, Albuas, Gasar, Hali, Hippocras, Lencuo, Ben, Benesaphan, and Albubetes.


Arcas the weaver in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen is a friend of the Second Country Person and will attend the Duke's games.


King of the Moors in Greene's Alphonsus, King of Arragon. Fights on the side of Amurack.


Sophonisba's waiting woman in Marston's Sophonisba.


One of the princes captured by Scilla in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. When threatened with death, he begs for his life and to be ransomed. It is not clear if Arcathius is killed with the other captives, but this seems likely.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Arcesius is a son of Jove and is Ulysses's grandfather. During the argument over the arms of Achilles, Ulysses calls attention to his descent from this son of Jove to counter Ajax's claiming descent from Aeacus (Eacus), another of Jove's human offspring.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. Archander was the King of Antioch, and true father of Lysander.


Son of Jupiter and Calisto in Heywood's The Golden Age. After Jupiter rapes and casts Calisto away from Diana, she rears Archas in a cave (as his father had been reared). In Act III, Archas pursues his mother with the intention of killing her because she has angered him. Calisto runs to the town to seek help. There, she meets Jupiter who embraces his son and gives him the kingdom of Pelagia (now named Archadia after Archas). Archas fights along with his father and King Melliseus against Titan and his sons who are attacking Saturn and the Cretes.


Archas is a Greek lord in Heywood's Brazen Age who accompanies Meleager in the hunt for the Caledonian Boar. He is killed during the hunt.


Archas is the loyal subject to the Duke of Moscow in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject. A general in the Old Duke's army, Archas is now retired due to animosity with the young Duke. Charged with the young Duke's military education, the boy would take no advice from the old General. Archas bids farewell to his war paraphernalia in the presence of his soldiers and the members of the church. When the Tartars threaten Moscow, Archas decides to lead his soldiers against them. Returning victorious from the war, Archas receives a cold welcome. At Archas's home in the country, the Duke visits and discovers a treasure in a locked room. The Old Duke had entrusted Archas and Boroskie with a considerable fortune to help the young Duke in case of necessity. The Duke demands the treasure, but he grants Archas his wish to keep an old coat and a copy of Seneca, symbols of his friendship to the Old Duke. Archas comes to court for a banquet and is arrested by Boroskie, who tortures him without the Duke's approval. His faithful soldiers mount a rebellion and free him, but Archas reprimands them for disloyalty to the Duke, and he receives the Duke's apologies. During the military crisis, when the soldiers led by Theodor threaten to retire and leave the city at the mercy of the enemy, Archas faces his son's army–raised against the Duke–and demands capital punishment for Theodor's disobedience. Revealing that he has another son raised secretly by his brother Briskie, Archas is on the point of stabbing Theodor. Only when Putskie (alias Briskie) threatens to kill Young Archas (alias Alinda) does Archas agree to forgive Theodor. Archas is honored when the Duke offers Olimpia's hand to Young Archas, asks Honora to marry him, and nominates Theodor as the new General.


Young Archas is Archas's youngest son in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject. For fear of the Duke's persecution, Archas's brother Briskie raised young Archas secretly. Young Archas is disguised as Alinda and placed into service as Olimpia's gentlewoman. Late in the play, he appears to Olimpia as a young gentleman, and he pretends to be Alinda's brother. Speaking to Olimpia about Alinda's faithfulness towards her, the alleged brother succeeds in making Olimpia see her misjudgment in dismissing Alinda. When the Duke asks Olimpia if she loves Young Archas and she responds affirmatively, Young Archas kisses her. The Duke gives him her hand in marriage.


He is also known as the Duke of Burgundy and Monsieur Le Cole in the Anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V. See "LE COLE."


Stevyn Langton, in reality Sedicyon in disguise in Bale's King Johan, Part 1.
Stevyn Langton, in reality Sedicyon in disguise in Bale's King Johan, Part 2.


Appearing once in the Anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V, he advises King Henry V to attack Scotland prior to undertaking his campaign in France.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Jack Straw. One of the offices the rebels seek to assume.


The Archbishop of Canterbury in Marlowe's Edward II sends his attendant to the pope to protest Edward II's imprisonment of the Bishop of Coventry and the confiscation of Coventry's property, but he rejects the noble's urging to take up arms against the king to rid England of Gaveston. Instead, he shelters Lancaster, the Mortimers, and other conspirators in Lambeth Palace, urges Edward to banish Gaveston anew, and is relieved when the king acquiesces to the exile demand. Years later, Canterbury declares the deposed Edward II's son, Prince Edward, to be King Edward III at the latter's coronation ceremony.


Follower of Canute in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside. As primate of the English bishops he tries to keep the church behind Canute, but both the church and the nobility are split.


The Archbishop of Canterbury in Shakespeare's Henry V advises Henry about his right to invade France. In a long and convoluted speech, Canterbury explains that the Salic law would justify Henry's invasion. His is motivated to do so through self interest as Henry has suggested taxing the church if he remains in England.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Costly Whore. Deceased brother of the Duke of Saxony. The beggars recount how this prelate's disdain for the poor, which he expressed by assembling many of them in a barn and then setting it on fire, led to his being eaten alive by rats.


Only mentioned in Ford's Love's Sacrifice. The masque arranged for him by the Duke of Brabant is the inspiration for the revenge of the pregnant court ladies on their seducer, Ferentes.


The Archbishop of Rheims thanks the Pope for inviting him to sit with him at the Pope's victory banquet in the B Text of Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. In the A Text a similar role is played by the Cardinal of Lorraine.


A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. John claims to have received letters from Richard telling him to take the regency from Ely and to give the seal into the hands of three (unnamed) temporal lords and the Archbishop of Roan.


The Archbishop of York, a Cardinal in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III, appears to the Queen while she is seeking sanctuary from Gloucester, the Lord Protector. The Cardinal presents her with a letter demanding that Richard, Duke of York be delivered into Gloucester's custody so that he might attend his brother at the coronation. When the Queen Mother objects, the Cardinal assumes responsibility for the boy's safety. He tells her that York will sleep safely in the Tower of London.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI. When Warwick and his allies capture Edward, Warwick tells Somerset to convey the erstwhile king to the Archbishop of York, Warwick's brother. Later, Elizabeth and Edward refer to him as the Bishop of York.


Follower of Edmond Ironside in the Anonymous Edmond Ironside. He disregards the Archbishop of Canterbury's order to support Canute.


Richard Scroop, Archbishop of York, belongs to the Percy faction opposing King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. The king is aware of the Archibishop's dissent, and Scroop fears the Percy faction is too weak to defeat the forces loyal to the king.
The Archbishop of York belongs to the Percy faction opposing King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. Adding religious fervor to political arguments for war and rebellion, the Archbishop, armed and ready after Shrewsbury, agrees to Prince John's promise of redress of grievances and disbands his troops. He is then arrested for treason.


A mute character in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. One of the princes captured by Scilla. He is killed with the others.


Archelaus is one of King Herod's two grandsons in Markham's Herod and Antipater. Augustus makes him King of Judah when Herod dies.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. One of the kings listed by Caesar as joining Antony's side of the war.


Archelopis is a "ghost character" in Daniel's Philotas. According to Dymnus, Archelopis is part of a plot to kill Alexander.


Kills a Lion running after a Bear or "any other beast" in the dumb show to I of the Anonymous Locrine. Ate compares the Lion to Brute, the Archer to Death.


Archibald is the Earl of Douglas and part of the Percy faction opposing King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. At Shrewsbury, he is quite proud of himself for killing the man that he thinks is the king; he discovers, however, that he has instead killed Sir Walter Blunt, who along with others has been engaged in a common battle stratagem of the time: that of dressing in the king's armor.
Part of the Percy faction against King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. Archibald the Earl of Douglas is mistakenly reported as having killed both Blunts and Prince Henry at Shrewsbury. In fact, we learn from Morton that Douglas was captured at Shrewsbury while in cowardly flight.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. One of the Scottish lords taken hostage by the English after the battle of Dunbar.


A friend of Gilbert and a wholly honorable man in the anonymous The Wasp. He prefers to be though of as "plain, homespun Tom" rather than lord. He tells Marianus that Gilbert has died and also that the barons are treacherously unhappy about Varletti's preferments. He says that the commons will rebel if Varletti is not banished. When war is about to erupt, he talks the barons into supplicating before their Prorex, Marianus. In return, Marianus offers them a paper to sign without reading, which Archibald nobly declines. This act is seen as traitorous, and Archibald is banished. He lives simply in the woods and is on hand to thwart Varletti and Gerald's attempt on Marianus' life. Marianus is on the point of pardoning him when a letter arrives from Varletti that convinces Marianus that Archibald stage-managed the rescue to curry favor. Marianus condemns him to be sent to the mill and grind meal like a workhorse. Though he works a torturous routine, Archibald remains loyal. Conan, disguised as his keeper, reveals the plot to bring Katherine's Uncle Percy back from exile in France to lead the conspirators against Marianus. When Archibald's son breaks the law to bring food to him, Archibald reacts by calling the boy traitor and turning him over to the authorities. As Percy, Archibald takes Marianus' crown during the coop. He seats Gerald and Varletti to a banquet and encourages their revels, then literally turns the table to reveal a banquet of snakes, toads, and newts. He causes Gerald and Varletti to renounce their designs on the throne, loyally protects Marianus, and returns the crown to the Prorex.


Archidamus is a Bohemian lord in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale.


Archidamus, the praetor of Syracusa and father of both Timagoras and Cleora in Massinger's The Bondman, turns the city over to Timoleon's power, and asks all the women to be nice to him and his soldiers. Yet, he protects Pisander from being killed by Timagoras.


King of Bithynia and Barsene’s brother in Mayne’s Amorous War. He has wooed and taken Roxane from Thrace and brought on the current war because he did not ask the king of Thrace’s permission to marry her. He will not yield his own sister to Eurymedon to end the war because, he says, she has free choice in the matter of whom she marries. Upon learning that the Thracian camp is a colorful city rather than an armed camp, he wonders if they intend a war or nuptial. When the “Amazon ambassadors" arrive, he is completely taken in by the ruse and gladly accepts their offer of assistance. He orders a masque of Moors to be performed for them. Only after this does he learn from Lyncestes and Polydamas that the ladies have been captured by Eurymedon. He falls into a melancholy that the two “Amazon princesses" seek to dispel by offering him choice of one of them to be his queen. He is reluctant, but agrees at least to attend their feast before giving his answer. He refuses both Amazons and stays true to Roxane. He meets Eurymedon in battle, and both agree to single combat until Barsene and Roxane appear, undisguised, and plead for peace. All are reconciled happily as two priests sing the nuptial song over the new-made couples.


The tyrannous king of Britain in the Anonymous Nobody and Somebody. His throne is usurped by his reluctant brother, Elydure, on the advice of his younger brothers, Peridure and Urgenius, as well as the feudal lords. He and his wife are taken prisoner and subsequently banished after his deposition, but, at Elydure's urging, he is reinstated as king after he repents of his tyranny. He dies immediately after his second coronation.


Thyrsis's real name in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday, Eubulus claims that he has written it in "a circle 'bout his [Thyrsis's] neck" in a code which is only known to himself and Euarchus. It is by this name that Thyrsis is welcomed into the court by the King at the play's end.


A "ghost character" in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer. The Soldan's father; he found the child Eugenius and brought him up as Lysander.


Chief priest in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland. To his inferior Pagan priests, he boasts supreme confidence, but tells us that he is desperately worried about a prophecy that predicts a stranger arriving and wielding spiritual influence to eclipse his. He tells Leogarius, the King of Ireland to ignore his ominous dreams. He expresses outrage at the 'base apostasy' of Dichu who converts to Christianity under Patrick's influence. Archimagus agrees to assist the King's daughters by sheltering Dichu's sons in the temple–the King has ordered them to be killed; he also agrees to help Prince Corybreus win Emeria from his brother, Conallus. He presides over a ceremony in which Jupiter's statue orders the death of Patrick. Then brings the sons of Dichu out of hiding for dalliance with the King's lusty daughters. He participates in the King's failed attempt to poison Patrick. He brings Corybreus to Emeria, unwittingly disturbing her from killing herself. Archimagus presides over the blood sacrifice to Jupiter and Mars, hoping that the next death will be that of Patrick. He notes the distracted state of the King, who orders that Archimagus be guarded. He further assists Ferochus and Endarius by cooperating with their bid to encourage the notion that they are their own ghosts–he drives them out, as if he is the controller of them, thus helping the two brothers to escape from the King. His plot to have Patrick killed by Ireland's reptiles goes wrong when Patrick drive the reptilian assailants into the sea. The ground opens up, and Archimagus, Faustus-like, is dragged down into hell.


Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. Archimedes (287-212 BC) was a Greek mathematician and inventor, the first scientist to recognize and use the power of the lever. He invented the compound pulley and Archimedes' screw. He was a brilliant mathematician, who helped develop the science of geometry. Host mocks Tipto's extensive but circumscribed knowledge of fencing, as well as Fly's confusion of great names in classical and early modern science. Host says ironically that Euclid is a fencer in the Elysium, playing a game with Archimedes. Host declares that the information is true, and Fly confirms it. The mathematicians and physicists Euclides, Archimedes, and Stevinus are presented ironically as fencing masters, in order to mock Tipto's limited intellect.


Only mentioned in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. Archimedes was a third century BCE Greek mathematician. Agurtes says Autolicus is beyond Archimedes in skill.


Archippus is an Ephesian captive in Cartwright's The Royal Slave. One of a group of four, he is tricked by several lords of Persia into trying to assassinate Cratander, and makes the mistake of asking what method he should use.


Rubin Archis is Abdelmunen's raging widow in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. She lives for the sole purpose of gaining vengeance for her husband's murder. Rubin's madness is emphasized when she sacrifices her son to Amurath in return for his aid in Abdelmelec's brief victory in the first civil war.


One of the disguises Paulo reportedly adopts in order to cure Don Martino of his melancholy in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman.


Disguise that Montescelso uses to win the Duke of Mantua's favor in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. As an Architect, he tells the Duke that they should build a shelter by the tower where the guardian of the fortress could dwell. He also asks the Clown to build a secret door on the wall to which only Prospero, as Antonio, would have access. Meanwhile, he is commanded by the Duke to send a message of love to the Duchess. However, he reveals her his identity and his friend's, and begs for her love as he has fallen in love with the lady. He gets his wish but he regrets not having been blessed by his parents. Montescelso has to hide their agreement from the Duke. In Act Three, he lies to the Duke by telling him that everything has gone all right and that the Duchess also loves him. To have the Duchess's love, he plans to pretend to drown himself in order to see if she really laments his death. If so, he will come back to her. But, if that is not the case, he will leave Mantua forever. He performs his death in front of the Clown. In act Five, he will be "resurrected" by Montescelso as a Necromancer to finally win the Duchess's heart.


Arcite is the nephew of Creon, King of Thebes, and one of the two kinsmen for whom Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen is named. Critical of Creon, Arcite plans to leave Creon's court but goes to battle as a loyal Theban and is injured in Athenian territory. Arcite and his brother Palamon fall in love with Emilia, sister-in-law to the Duke of Athens; the result of the brothers' fighting over Emilia is Arcite's banishment and Palamon's imprisonment. Arcite eventually wins a battle with Palamon and is given Emilia, but just before Palamon is to suffer death on the Duke's order, Arcite is trammeled to death by a horse, and his brother wins the lady.


Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Arctos is mentioned by Slightall when, realizing he has wasted all his fortune, he states: "I am ready / With a pinch'd stomacke, and cold Arctos breath, / With a bare breast, armed with patience / Against the sharpest storme, and thin necessity." According to Greek mythology, Calisto bore a child of Zeus, called Arcas (name which comes from the Greek word for bear: Arctos). When Hera, Zeus's wife, found out, she became jealous and transformed Calisto into a bear as punishment. One day, Arcas, as he was hunting, saw his mother in the shape of the bear, and not recognizing her, shot at her. But Zeus felt pity for them, and changed them into the constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor.


Like Piramont, a former servant to the father of Orsabrin and the Prince in Suckling's The Goblins. When he and Piramont are captured by Tamoren and his band of thieves, Ardelan tells them the great secret that Orsabrin, in infancy, was smuggled out of Francelia for safety with some servants, including Piramont and himself; the group was quickly captured by pirates, who killed all but Ardelan, Piramont, and the infant prince. Ardelan and Piramont seem to have continued in the role of Orsabrin's servants, without letting him in on the secret; they had long hoped, says Ardelan, that they would one day return to Francelia, but on their recent voyage there, they lost Orsabrin, who they believe has drowned in a storm. The thieves spare their lives, and later capture Orsabrin, who is not really dead at all. At the end of the play, Ardelan is able to produce a token (a diamond elephant) that convinces the court that the now-sentenced Orsabrin is indeed the Prince's long-lost brother.


One of two old panderesses in Fletcher's Valentinian trying to arrange an affair between the chaste and virtuous Lucina and the Emperor Valentinian. She is killed in the wake of the military rebellion that enables Maximus' ascent to the throne.

ARDELIA **1636

Though betrothed to Bentivolio, Ardelia has captured the attention of the Duke of Parma in Shirley's The Duke's Mistress. To explain her interest in Bentivolio, she tells the duke that Bentivolio resembles a brother of hers who died at sea. Despite the attention from the duke, Ardelia swears to Bentivolio that their contract remains unchanged. She manages to convince Bentivolio of her faithfulness, but Valerio discovers her betrothal and promises silence only if Ardelia will grant him sexual favors. She eventually must draw a pistol for protection when Valerio enters her chamber and becomes insistent. The play ends as she is to wed Bentivolio with the duke's blessing.


Ardelio is assigned to manage Philautus' estate in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. However, he mismanages it, removing items from the home and depositing them-along with a mistress-in the home of Jeffry. Ardelio loses his position when his dishonesty is discovered by Philautus.


A hard-hearted landowner and target of a series of murder plots in the Anonymous Arden of Feversham. Alice, his wife, and her lover Mosbie conspire with Richard Greene, Black Will, Shakebag, the servant Michael and a painter named Clarke to kill him. He fortunately avoids many attempts before finally being overtaken during a game of backgammon with Mosbie. Arden's body is first carried into the counting house. Next, Mosbie and Greene transfer it to the Abbey and bury it there. The body is found there, and Franklin discovers the knife and towel used to kill him, which Michael in his fear forgot to throw down the well. Franklin also find rushes in Arden's slippers that indicates he was killed in his home. Under the rushes he along with the Mayor and Watch find the bloodstains. In the Epilogue, Franklin tells us that Arden was buried on the plot of ground that had belonged to the sailor Reede, and the print of his body could be seen on the ground for two years and more after the deed was done.


Areo is a devil along with Eo and Meo conjured by Mago in Cokain's Trappolin. He delivers a magic cape to Trappolin as part of his transformation into the false Duke Lavinio. The cape contains the demon of this name. Trappolin is warned to wear this cape, along with the hat and mirror, at all times in order to maintain the transformation.


Arete or Virtue is a nymph of Cynthia's train in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In an apartment at court, Arete enters and finds Crites meditating on the evils of detraction. Arete assures Crites that envious people will be swept away from Cynthia's court once the glorious deity appears. Arete recommends Crites to converse with his true friends and exits with the poet. Arete enters upon the party of nymphs and gallants, after they have just drunk of the miraculous fountain water, and announces them that Cynthia does not hold her revels that night. However, Arete invites the nymphs and gallants to devise entertainment for Cynthia's next attendance, with the help of the poet Crites. Arete exits to search for Crites. In an apartment at the palace, Arete enters right after Mercury in disguise has ridiculed the vain courtiers and nymphs. Arete informs Crites that he should provide a masque for Cynthia's revels. Though Crites is too modest to accept, Arete informs him that Cynthia is aware of the foolish courtiers around her and intends to make amends. When Cynthia makes a ceremonious entrance at the revels, Arete follows in her train. When Cynthia demands to know the order of the revels, Arete informs the goddess that Crites will conduct the ceremony. Arete exits to order the start of the revels. After the First and the Second Masques, followed by the dance, Cynthia declares the ceremony closed and orders the revelers to unmask. When seeing that the nymphs and the gallants have impersonated virtuous characters, Cynthia nominates Arete and Crites to judge them. Arete delegates Crites to pass the judgment on the self-conceited courtiers. When Cynthia exits with her nymphs, Arete and Crites hold a place of honor in the goddess's train.


Only mentioned in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. In Greek mythology, Arethusa was a favorite nymph of Diana, who was pursued by Alpheus and changed into a fountain to preserve her chastity. Arethusa is a character in Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster or Love Lies Bleeding. In his apology to the ladies in the audience, Prologue says that, when the women see that a member of their sex is abused, they should not think her defect is a general trait belonging to all women. More likely, the author referred only to a particular example, because the play's criticism relies not on truth, but on life's variety. According to Prologue, the poet was carried on the wings of his imagination and the same poet who gave life to Evadne, Aspatia, Arethusa, and Panthea pleads to the ladies to bear with him.
This river-nymph tells Ceres about Pluto's abduction of Proserpine in Heywood's The Silver Age.


Arethusa is the daughter of the King of Calabria in Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster, or Love Lies A-Bleeding. Not at all enamored of Pharamond, the foreign prince to whom her father has pledged her, Arethusa instead loves Philaster, the true heir to the kingdom. Accused by Megra of having illicit relations with her page Bellario, Arethusa suffers condemnation from both her father and Philaster; the latter even wounds her with his sword. Her name is cleared when Bellario is discovered to be Dion's disguised daughter Euphrasia, who in her love for Philaster assumed her page's disguise to serve him. In greatness of trust and spirit, the newly wedded Arethusa and Philaster accept the celibacy-sworn Euphrasia into their service.


A "ghost character" in Marston's What You Will mentioned by Quadratus as a satirist whose opinion he would respect and to whom he compares his friend Canaidus.


Aretinus is Caesar's spy in Massinger's The Roman Actor. He accuses Paris and the other players of treason for their libelous depictions of the state. He curries favor with Caesar by informing against Junius Rusticus, Palphurias Sura, and Aelius Lamia, leading to their execution. However, when he informs Domitian of Domitia's love of Paris, his reward is to be strangled.


A noble soldier, friend of Phidias and supporter of Aëtius in Fletcher's Valentinian. He avenges Aëtius' suicide by poisoning Valentinian before Maximus can use this death as a pretext to murder the Emperor and simultaneously commits suicide with a slow-working poison.


The old tutor of Palador in Ford's The Lover's Melancholy, Aretus has been acting as a counsellor to the state of Cyprus since the Prince's accession to the throne, but declares himself "zealous...of shaking off / [His] gay state fetters" and of curing his sovereign's melancholy. He calls upon Corax to find the root of Palador's disease, and tries to shake the Prince himself by telling him that he suffers too much from self-love and sloth. He prods Corax to work more quickly, and is pleased with the physician's plan of using a masque to help disclose what ails Palador; he himself attends the ensuing Masque of Melancholy and is convinced by the result that it is indeed love that has caused the Prince's illness. Perplexed like most of the court by the Prince's violent reaction to the sight of Parthenophill, he is happy to discover that the foreign youth is in fact Eroclea, and is one of the first to announce to Meleander the restoration of his daughter and fortunes. Palador describes him as one of "a guard / Of truly noble friends and watchful subjects."


Argalio is an enchanter in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. He lives in a cave with his "minion" Leonides whom he loves. He persuades Leonides that the mournful ghosts of his family are mere illusions. When Saints James, Denis and Patrick attack them, Argalio and Leonides escape on an ascending throne.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Argalus is a lover in Sir Philip Sidney's pastoral romance Arcadia. When Quarlous and Winwife argue over Grace's hand, she proposes a chance game by which she would choose her husband. Each suitor is supposed to write a secret code-name on a writing table, and the first person passing by should draw a name at random. The code-name Quarlous picks is Argalus. Argalus and Palemon are typical figures from romance, and it is ironic that Quarlous and Winwife should associate their names with such courtly paragons. When Trouble-all selects the winner, it is Palemon (Winwife).


Beloved of Parthenia in Glapthorne's Argalus and Parthenia. A true hero of courtly romance and a paragon of chivalrous lovers. His rival suitor, the violent bully Demagoras, derides him frequently as 'effeminate'. Other characters precede his first appearance by listing his many virtues and talents, not least his modesty, which slightly hampers the progress of his courtship of the equally worthy, but to him far-excelling Parthenia. He is not present at the pastoral entertainment originally planned for him by Sapho, but given for Demagoras, and is at first unaware that Demagoras has taken great offence at being satirized and has vowed revenge. He has Kalander's approval for pursuing his niece's hand and the support of the lord Philarchus, who teasingly encourages him to overcome his modesty. When Parthenia appears, cruelly disfigured by Demagoras's attack, Argalus is horrified and furious for her sake. He vows revenge and renews his proposal of marriage, to reassure her that he truly loves her for her mind and is not deterred from marriage by her ravished beauty. She firmly declines both revenge and marriage and leaves him to live out her life in a desert exile, still feeling unworthy of him in disfigurement. After her departure, he is warned by Demagoras's Servant of the impending attack on Kalander's castle. He challenges Demagoras to a duel to revenge Parthenia, stands firm against the villain's vicious defiance and kills him in single combat. His brave and patient endurance of her absence is described to Amphialus by Philarchus, allowing the latter to identify with his romantic cause, and emulate him in chivalry. Kalander fears, however, that Argalus is pining away with grief. He plans to take Argalus out hunting to cheer him up, but is forestalled by the return of Parthenia in disguise. Argalus knows her at once but is persuaded of her story: that Parthenia is dead, herself an identical twin sent as Parthenia's dying wish as her legacy to him, to be loved and married in Parthenia's place. Argalus delights her by refusing the offer, vowing his love and fidelity for the true Parthenia until they are reunited in death. She reveals herself and explains. Their reunion is blessed by Kalander. The wedding follows soon after, graced by verses by Sapho, singing and dancing, and the news that the King has chosen Argalus as the champion to fight Amphialus. Argalus is honoured by the decision, Parthenia afraid for his safety. He is honour-bound to show his valour and asks for her trust. She has a premonition of disaster despite his confidence, but gives him her blessing. Man-to-man and attended by the noble Philarchus, the two champions agree honorably to protect each others' ladies, whichever survives the combat. They fight and Parthenia interrupts, horrified at the sight of her husband's blood: Argalus is mortally wounded and dies. Amphialus departs, hating himself for the deed.


An old, covetous, rich knight in May's The Old Couple. Said by his neighbors to be ninety-five years old at least, too crippled with age to walk. He and his betrothed, Lady Covet, are the Old Couple of the title. He is uncle and heir presumptive to the fugitive, Eugeny, who believes that only Sir Argent's intervention can clear his name of murder. Sir Argent is first believed to be working to arrange a pardon for his nephew- extenuating circumstances for the crime are frequently hinted at but never clarified- but Theodore discovers the truth and reports to the despairing Eugeny. Sir Argent is greedy for the additional £1500 per year he will gain if he ensures his nephew is captured and executed and is laying plots and offering bribes to ensure a miscarriage of justice enriches him. His corruption is confirmed when he explains his strategy to Lady Covet in a private conversation overheard by Euphues and Barnet. It is also clear that their forthcoming marriage is entirely mercenary on both sides. Each hopes to outlive the other and inherit everything. In a long soliloquy Sir Argent passionately declares that the anticipated riches of his marriage, gold and power, are restoring his youthful vigor. His gloating is interrupted by "Fruitful" who enrages him with the news of Lady Covet's pre-nuptial conveyance of her estates to trustees, safely out of his hands. He immediately plans to cancel the wedding and leave. The couple meet and have a furious quarrel in front of their guests. Freeman persuades Sir Argent not to leave. Meanwhile, Sir Argent's anonymous agent betrays Eugeny's hiding-place to Officers, who arrest him. Euphues reports an offstage incident: the satisfying spectacle of the reformed Earthworm denouncing Sir Argent for his own avarice in general, his disgraceful betrayal of a kinsman in particular. Sir Argent returns to take his leave, but before he can depart is confronted by the arrival of the captive Eugeny. He reproaches Sir Argent and warns him of the shame he has earned by his betrayal. Instead of fraudulently increasing his wealth at the expense of his kinsman's life, at his age he should be using his existing fortune to do good works in the community. This fierce denunciation causes Sir Argent to repent. When Scudmore reveals his true identity and releases Eugeny from the threat of execution, Sir Argent is given no lines to reveal his reaction. Nor is it clear whether his marriage to Lady Covet will proceed, in the concluding celebrations of the betrothals of the two younger couples to be reunited.


One of Timeus’ guards along with Coracinus in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. He and Coracinus fight Pallantus upon Timeus’ order and almost lose until Timeus himself enters the fight.


A "ghost character" in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta. Argia is Adrastus' daughter and Polynice's wife; she has stayed in Argos and does not appear on stage.


Friend and cousin to Balthazar in Davenant's The Spanish Lovers. He is present at the beginning when Balthazar is wounded, he accompanies Balthazar and Leonte in their search for Claramante, and he helps to escort the wounded Dorando to Leonte's house.


Argurion or Money is a nymph and a court lady in the country of Gargaphie in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. According to Mercury, Argurion is inconstant; she would run from gallant to gallant, and her disposition changes. She likes players, lawyers, but mostly fools, and is very influential at court, being able to open many doors. In an apartment in the palace, Argurion enters with the other nymphs. They are expecting the miracle water so much publicized by Amorphus. While waiting, the vain nymphs discuss fashion and their admirers. Argurion says she prefers Asotus to Hedon, her former paramour, because he is a most delicate youth and has a sweet face and tender voice. When the gallants enter, the party engages in affable conversation and society games. Argurion declares her admiration for Asotus and gives him a diamond ring as a token of her love. At some point, Asotus lavishes rich gifts on the other ladies. In order to prevent him from spending his money on the other nymphs, Argurion pretends to swoon and is carried away by Asotus and his page, Morus. Later, Morus re-enters reporting that Argurion made a pass at him, saying that she used to love his master Asotus, but now she loves his page. In an apartment in the palace, Argurion enters with the nymphs and gallants to have a private party, but Mercury, disguised as a Frenchified gentleman, ridicules their self-conceited and affected ways. Argurion attends Cynthia's revels with the other nymphs and gallants, and it is understood that she shares their final disgrace and punishment.


A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Silver Age, Juno's hundred-eyed watchman, lamented by Juno in her diatribe against Semele.
Only mentioned in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. Argus was a figure of Greek myth who possessed a hundred eyes and therefore made an excellent sentry. Jamie compares Bartolus with Argus because of his jealousy.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. In an attempt to convince the skeptical Surly of the benefits of alchemy, Mammon claims that the ancient myth of Argus's eyes is an alchemical parable. In Greek mythology, Argus was a prince who had a hundred eyes, of which fifty remained always open.


The Duke of Arguile, a leading Scottish nobleman in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. He and his force of "two thousand hardy Scots" fight on the English side against the French at the Battle of Leith. He is one of Lord Grey's right-hand men, and marches to take the hill at Brey during the battle. He highly praises the valor of his men, and of the English side in general. Queen Elizabeth returns the Scottish hostages from the Battle of Dunbar to him after the Battle of Leith is won and the peace concluded.


Daughter of King Pheander, Ariadne angers her father by secretly marrying and having a child with Radagon, son of his enemy, the King of Sicilia in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder. Pheander banishes them, and after a shipwreck, Ariadne and the baby Eusanius are washed up on the Thracian countryside, and rescued by Antimon. Ariadne lives among the shepherds under the name of Mariana not knowing that Radagon is also living nearby. Many years pass, during which time Eusanius goes missing. At the shepherd's festival, Ariadne dances with Radagon without realizing it, and they are crowned King and Queen of the Shepherds. Antimon and Titterus fall in love with her, and she angrily rejects both. She then encounters the grown-up Eusanius; they do not realise they are mother and son, and Ariadne becomes attracted to both Radagon and Eusanius, not realising that they are her long-lost husband and son. She is then abducted by Pheander (who doesn't realise she is his daughter). After the war, she watches the single combat between Radagon and Eusanius. When Radagon reveals his true identity, she reveals hers. And when she describes losing her son, Sophos realises it must be Eusanius, and Ariadne is reunited with her entire family.

ARIAS **1637

A courtier in Rutter’s The Cid. He advises Gormas to beg the king’s pardon for the offense to Diego, but his words fall on deaf ears. He reports the insult to the king. He also brings news that the Moors are anchored off the coast and mean to attack.


Brother of the King in Suckling's Aglaura (first version), and plotting to usurp the crown. He gives the Queen, Orbella, a box of poison and battles with Zorannes and his men outside the cave; Zorannes kills him.
In the "happy ending" second version, the character engages in much the same action. Brother of the King in Suckling's Aglaura (second version), and plotting to usurp the crown. He gives the Queen, Orbella, a box of poison. When Zorannes has the King taken prisoner, Ariaspes is left behind; Zorannes is enabled to kill him but thinks better of it and takes him prisoner. The King later sentences him to perpetual banishment.


Count Aribert, who has been banned from the court in Wilson's The Swisser, disguises himself as Andrucho, the Swisser. (See under "ANDRUCHO" for complete description).


A spirit that inhabits Prospero's island in Shakespeare's The Tempest capable of taking many forms. Prospero releases Ariel from a pine tree, in which the spirit was imprisoned many years earlier by the witch Sycorax for refusing to obey her commands. Ariel is forced to become Prospero's servant and do his bidding for one year, after which time Prospero promises to release the spirit from servitude. It is Ariel who, at Prospero's behest, raises the storm that strands Alonso and his retinue on Prospero's island. Ariel saves Ferdinand from drowning and, in the form of a water nymph, leads him to Miranda, with whom he promptly falls in love. Ariel then charms Alonso and his attendants into falling asleep, leaving Antonio and Sebastian awake to plot Alonso's murder; Ariel prevents the murder by awaking Gonzalo, who rouses Alonso from sleep. Ariel also overhears Caliban plot with Stefano and Trinculo to murder Prospero, and prevents that murder as well by leading them around the island until they fall into a pool. Prospero then commands other spirits to set a banquet before Alonso and his party to feed them; when they go to eat, however, Ariel, following Prospero's orders, appears as a harpy and causes the banquet to vanish while accusing them of the crimes they committed against Prospero. Ariel, along with other spirits, then enact a Masque or "revel" to entertain Miranda and Ferdinand. Finally, Ariel leads Alonso and his party to Prospero. It is Ariel who helps Prospero recall the goodness of Gonzalo thereby allaying the magician's vengeance and averting a tragic conclusion. Prospero frees Ariel as he promised.


Ariena is Amadine's maid in the Anonymous Mucedorus.


Lady in waiting attendant on Atossa in Cartwright's The Royal Slave.


A "ghost character" in Berkeley's The Lost Lady. Also referred to as Strimon. Mentioned by Phormio to narrate Milesia's presumed murder. Governor of Thessaly, father to prince Lysicles and commander of the Thessalian fleet. He defeats the Duke of Argos, commander of the Spartan fleet and uncle of Milesia. He is succeeded as governor by Eugenio.


Platonic mistress to Duke Phylomont and sister to Theander in Davenant's The Platonic Lovers. Like Theander and Eurithea, Ariola and Phylomont are supposed to be "platonic lovers," interested only in the union of the spirit and thus both rational and unconstrained in each other's presence. In fact, they both find this a considerable strain, and quickly decide that the best solution would be marriage. When Phylomont suggests this to him, however, Theander breaks off their friendship, and imprisons Ariola. Soon after, thanks to the drugs of Buonateste, he relents and allows the marriage, but by now Ariola has changed her mind about it. To the great frustration of Phylomont, she decides to be a "platonic lover" in earnest. Phylomont's only hope is Buonateste, who is skilled in argument as well as drugs. An hour with him ends her platonic fit, and she advises Phylomont to marry her quickly, in case it comes back.


The King's cousin, a valiant nobleman, who, disappointed by the intrigues at the King's court, has assumed the life of a stoic in his retirement in Wilson's The Swisser. Andrucho, Clephis and the soldiers want him as their general against the enemies from Ravenna, who have invaded the Lombardy. Announced by the courtiers Iseas, Asprandus and Antharis, the King comes to see Arioldus in his private seclusion, asks him to excuse his former behavior, and tells him that it is the soldiers' wish that he should lead them now. Arioldus is so pleased with the King's honest excuses that he accepts, and he leads the army to an immediate victory. He is only disappointed that he could not give his life for his King. Among the prisoners that have been taken is Eurinia, a beautiful girl. He takes her to his house because her story moves him. She tells him that she had been secretly in love with a nobleman who had not noticed her. To be near him, she had disguised herself as a boy. Arioldus, who thinks that she is what she pretends to be, i.e. a prisoner from Ravenna, does not understand that she is talking about him, and he swears to protect her chastity. The King, hearing of her beauty, comes to see her and falls in love with her because she reminds him of Eugenia whom he believes to be dead. Arioldus protects her with his life, and the King is about to kill him when she agrees to follow the King to his palace in order to save her protector's life. There, she the King rapes her. She returns to Arioldus to take leave, confessing that he had been her love and that she had served him for some time in the disguise of a boy. Having lost her virginity, she wants to hide herself in a cave and die. When Arioldus hears that the King has raped her, he swears revenge. The King offers him his own sister Panopia in marriage to make amends, but Arioldus declines this immoral offer. Next, the King offers a duel, with a guarantee that if he be killed Arioldus would not be punished. Arioldus accepts this as the only possibility to save Eurinia's honor in some way, but when they start to fight, Andrucho throws himself between them. He tells Arioldus that Eurinia is his daughter, Eugenia. Together with Panopia, they organize a plot to punish the King and teach him a moral lesson. Arioldus asks the King to use his sister in the same way as he had used Eurina, and Andrucho wants him to marry his daughter Eurina, a poor Swiss girl. When everything is discovered, the King marries Eugenia and Arioldus marries Panopia, whom he has always loved.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Arion was another musician at the court of Periander, king of Corinth. He went to a musical contest to Sicily and, after winning the contest, embarked on a Corinthian ship for home. The seamen plotted to seize his treasure and wanted to take his life. Arion was granted his last request, to die singing as a musician, and he leapt onto the sea. While he struggled on the waves, a dolphin carried him on his back safely to the Corinthian shore. Spencer represents Arion, mounted on his dolphin, accompanying the train of Neptune and Amphitrite. When Tucca listens to Crispinus's song, apparently dedicated to Chloë, he calls the poetaster an Arion riding on the back of a dolphin. By referring to Crispinus as another Arion, Tucca wants to impress upon his audience the poetaster's apparent artistic qualities.


An honest lawyer in Webster's The Devil's Law Case. After Crispiano becomes involved in the legal proceedings involving Romelio, Ariosto replaces him as judge.


Ariotto is a volunteer soldier under General Castracagnio in the Duke of Tuscany's army in Davenant's The Siege. Ariotto and Lizaro frequently mistake Soranzo for a fellow volunteer and often corner him in tedious, humorously inappropriate conversations. Ariotto and Lizaro are first extorted out of their pay by Captain Piracco, then by the captain's ensign Mervole. The two men are particularly humiliated on those occasions when they are accosted in public. They ask Mervole to sign a sheet of paper promising that he will not reveal their relationship in public, nor will he label the men cowards. Ariotto and Lizaro win their freedom by appearing to fight enthusiastically against one another as the doubles in Soranzo's duel with the Mervole. After that display, Mervole respects the pair. Ariotto, Lizaro, Mervole and settle their accounts peacefully and join forces to gain up on Piracco. They rob him of everything he owns, including his shirt. At the end of the play, they report his abuse of power to General Castracagnio.


A "ghost character" in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. The German King whom Caesar has defeated before he turns against Britain (I.ii.)


The careless shepherdess, daughter of Bacheus and beloved of Philaritus in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. She is cold to her many suitors so they won’t languish in expectation, for she thinks love is a mischief of the heart. She sings “Now fie on love." She tells Philaritus plainly that she does not love him. When she sees him transfer his affections to Castarina, she is confused by her own ambivalence. She forms an alliance with Lariscus to seem to be in love with him to vex Philaritus. Graculus leads her to the satyrs and abandons her there. The satyr attempts to ravish her, but Philaritus saves her from him. He offers her his heart, but she again says she cannot love him. As Philaritus and Lariscus begin to duel, Arismena and Castarina come in with bows and arrows and threaten to kill Arismena should Philaritus wound Lariscus or Castarina should Lariscus wound Philaritus. Arismena admits love for Philaritus as Lariscus and Castarina reconciled, but the satyrs take up the weapons and steal the women away. It is a joke, however, and the women are safe with Cleobulus and Bacheus until the actual satyrs attack and steal them in earnest. She and Castarina briefly escape and fall asleep beneath an arbor where a satyr finds them and carries Arismena away whilst leaving Castarina to her fate. She and Castarina are reunited, disguised, and made to sing ‘Sigh, Shepherds, sigh’ to the captured men in the Grand Satyr’s presence. She and Arismena are brought in, coffined, but they rise up and explain that all was a ruse to bring exiled Peromett back into the good graces of the land. She happily takes Philaritus for her husband.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Asper announces that the play exposing vice is about to begin, he invites the audience to judge the comedy. The author rails against some foolish members of the audience, who try to influence the others negatively, though they are not intellectually equipped to criticize. Such a spectator, in Asper's description, would sit like an Aristarchus among the audience, trying to vilify the author's text and influence other people. Aristarchus of Samos was a third-century B.C. Greek philosopher who theorized the radical view that Earth and planets revolve around the Sun. This model was too revolutionary to be accepted by his contemporaries, who debunked the theory because it conflicted with geocentric religious principles, as well as Aristotle's principle that all objects move towards the center of the Earth. By comparing a foolish member of the audience who criticizes the play with Aristarchus, the author visualizes this person sitting among the audience like the Sun among the planets, or like Aristarchus among his disciples, though everybody rejected his theories.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. Aristarchus of Samos was a third-century BC Greek philosopher who theorized the radical view that Earth and planets revolve around the Sun. This model was too revolutionary to be accepted by his contemporaries, who rejected the theory because it conflicted with geocentric religious principles, as well as Aristotle's principle that all objects move towards the center of the Earth. When Mercury describes Amorphus to Cupid, he says that the man is a traveler who takes up all fashions and likes to imitate people so much that he lost his individuality. For instance, Mercury says, Amorphus's beard is an Aristarchus. The allusion points to the similitude between the philosopher's and the courtier's beards.


A shepherd, brother to Florimène, who falls in love with Filène in the latter's disguise as Dorine in [?]Queen Henrietta's Florimène. Eager to learn what his chances are, Aristée borrows his sister's clothes in order to have a confidential chat with his beloved en femme; his disguise makes him look so much like Florimène that Filène (also disguised as a woman, "Dorine") is misled in turn and declares "her" love for "her." Disconcerted to discover that "Dorine" is in fact a man, Aristée turns at last to Lycinde, who has been in love with him from the start and has the advantage of being a woman in fact. Unfortunately, she is by this time no longer keen on Aristée, and requires to be pushed into marriage with him by Diana.


One of the princes captured by Scilla in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. When threatened with death, he begs for his life and to be ransomed. He is killed.


Aristippus is a courtier and an opportunist at King Dionisius' court in Syracuse in Edwards's Damon and Pithias. He practices "courtly philosophy." The cynical philosopher Diogenes once called him the King's Dog. Disdaining this derogatory description, Aristippus professes to serve his own ends and make the best of his education. Aristippus seems to accept Carisophus' offer of friendship, despite his allegations of flattery and arbitrary use of his learning, though later Aristippus confesses he never meant friendship to Carisophus, whom he considers a moron and liar. Aristippus encounters Carisophus, who boasts that he has caught an important spy named Damon. Eager for personal gain and to outshine Carisophus before the king, Aristippus offers to speak with the prisoner. Aristippus describes how Carisophus is not seen favorably at court for having falsely accused Damon before the king. He reports that Carisophus returned beaten up, complaining that one Onaphets had broken his head. Aristippus observes that Onaphets is Stephano spelled backwards and suspects foul play. Pitying Pithias' imminent death, Aristippus exits. Carisophus later asks Aristippus to find out the reason for the king's displeasure with him. Aristippus supposes it is the result of Carisophus' malice. Aristippus refuses to speak for Carisophus to the king, arguing that to swear for Carisophus' honesty would mean to lose his own. In the ensuing controversy over betrayed trust and dishonest friendship, both Aristippus and Carisophus accuse each other of false dealing. Aristippus admits he only pretended to be Carisophus' friend, knowing him to be dishonest and selfish. Aristippus admits that, by not speaking for him to the king, he shows his first act of sincerity and friendship towards Carisophus. Aristippus exits leaving Carisophus confused.


Aristippus lodges at the Dolphin tavern where he teaches his loyal disciples and new pupil Simplicius the virtues of wine in Randolph's Aristippus. He denies the ruined tapster Wildeman's accusations that he is a conjuror like St. Dunstan, Friar Bacon or Merlin, or that he is son-in-law to Doctor Faustus. His fame rests on having brought sack to town. He orders the First Scholler to beat Wildeman offstage and invites Simplicius to study with him. He instructs the Schollers to matriculate the new student. His lecture to Simplicius, after a great deal of drinking, is a denunciation of beer. Small beer and sobriety have caused errors and students have returned home from Cambridge more ignorant than when they arrived. He explains that beer drinking has undermined justice, horsemanship, the law and the court as well as the university. He advocates the drinking of sack and spirits only and explains the good effects: wines give the Promethean fire of courage to soldiers, the elixir of philosopy to scholars and the truth generally (in vino veritas). He lists sack, claret, malmsey, white-wine and hippocras, which along with tobacco and money offer all that needs to be known about alchemy, logic, grammar and rhetoric. He delights his new pupil with his arguments, and recites a hostile beggar's rhyme that has done much harm by praising moderation. He instructs his scholars to read poetry condemning beer and praising wine. After a song, Wildeman and two Brewers beat them all off the stage, and Aristippus is severely wounded in the head. His scholars bring him back in a chair to meet a repentant and converted Wildeman and Medico de Campo. The quack cures him with a powder in sack, and he proclaims his instant and miraculous recovery. He offers Medico any fee he names, which is to forgive Wildeman and admit him as a new disciple. Aristippus gives Wildeman a formal gown and sings a song in praise of sack and conviviality.
[n.b. The Jovial Philosopher is the namesake of the pupil of Socrates who advocated the chief good of pleasure and founded the Cyrenaic school of philosophy.]


Fuscus Aristius is a friend of Horace in Jonson's Poetaster. He addressed an ode and an epistle to him. The mischievous character may be a stage representation of Thomas Nashe. On the Via Sacra in Rome, Aristius enters while Horace is trying to disentangle himself from Crispinus's tedious and exasperating conversation. After hearing Horace's complaint and his plea for help, Aristius says he will help him, but he adds in an aside that he must tell Maecenas first. Aristius exits, leaving Horace to lament his unfortunate situation.


An Assyrian warrior in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus, he participates in the trial and death of Ctesiphon.


Prince Aristobulus is King Herod's son in Markham's Herod and Antipater. Antipater urges him into a continuous defense of his slain mother Marriam, and he is falsely accused of plotting to take the king's life. Herod orders him strangled.


Aristobulus the Elder is High Priest of Judah and brother to Alexandra in Markham's Herod and Antipater. He and Alexandra are caught attempting to escape Herod's court; though both are forgiven, Antipater later drowns Aristobulus in a swimming contest, and Alexandra must eventually drink poison.


A Thracian soldier and courtier, Suavina's secret lover, banished by Philander in the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace. Apparently ignoring the advice of his supposed father Euphrastes to take part in the war between the Epirots and Achaeans, he makes his way to Macedon, joins the Macedonian army, and is the hero of a battle against an enemy who seems from the sequel to be the Thracians. The King of Macedon honors him, but when Salohcin and Philander make peace they also agree to banish Aristocles from both countries. He persuades Corintha to mediate with Philander on his behalf, and wins the latter's pardon. Alhough Suavina takes this a sign of betrayal, and allows Salohcin to gain her promise of love, she is undeceived by Corintha, and reunited with Aristocles, who undertakes to disengage her from Salohcin in some nonviolent way. The jealous King of Macedon banishes him, and recruits Phonops to murder him; when the assassin and two henchmen attack him in a retired grove he kills the underlings, learns from Phonops that it is Salohcin who has laid the plot, and orders Phonops to report to his employer that Aristocles is dead. He disguises himself as Philocles, a cast-off soldier, and sends Suavina a letter to inform her of the change. In this disguise, he is recruited by Phonops to help kill Ascania, and persuades the villain that she should be seized and thrown into a chasm on the coast. But the place of death is also a secret entrance to the cave of the Sibyl, with whom Aristocles places the queen for safe-keeping.


A Greek in May's Cleopatra, called by Plutarch a "rhetorician"; along with Lucilius the only person admitted by Antony in his alienated state after the Battle of Actium. As Antonius claims that he is the misanthrope Timon, Aristocrates takes on the character of Alcibiades, and the two rant generally against the world–including Antonius's own earlier behavior during the period of the proscriptions in Rome. Aristocrates and Lucilius try to open Antonius's eyes to the treacherous dealings of Cleopatra with Caesar, but without much success. Faithful to the end, they bring the news of his suicide to Caesar, and then accept the latter's offer of employment.


A "ghost character" in Shirley's The Arcadia. A rich man who has been banished from Arcadia. Alleged by Misodorus to have buried a large amount of gold under a tree in an effort to distract Dametas.


A "ghost character" in Day's Isle of Gulls. Demetrius tells Dametas that Aristomones buried a large quantity of treasure beneath Diana's Oak.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Mitis asks Cordatus about the comedy they are about to see, whether its author observes the classical rules regarding the unity of time, place, and action, Cordatus embarks upon a lengthy and learned incursion into the history of comedy. Cordatus mentions all the important names of classical comedy, including Aristophanes, who added the structure of comedy and the characters. Aristophanes was a fifth-century B.C. Greek writer of comedy. He is thought to have written forty plays, of which eleven survive almost in their entirety. His success is attributed to his witty dialogue, comical though sometimes spiteful satire, brilliant imitations, and clever and absurd situations. Criticism of his comedies has centered on the loose construction of plots and the feeble development of characters. Aristophanes' comedies are famous for boldness and fantasy, for merciless insight, for unqualified indecency, and for outrageous political criticism.
A “ghost character" in Tomkis’ Lingua. Memorie remembers a time in Athens when Aristophanes put Memorie on the stage and Socrates was put down by it.
Appears in the Introduction of Randolph's Plutophthalmia. He wants to know the news from London. Cleon's ghost calls him "a wicked Cavalier" and a "scoffing Royalist, Fennor of Greece, Tarlton of Athens." He and the Translator conjure away Cleon's ghost.


Aristotle is one of the Theban philosophers in Lyly's Campaspe whom Alexander consults after his conquest. Alexander accuses Aristotle of treason but the philosopher denies the charge and submits himself to his new King.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Timon of Athens. Stilpo and Steusippus refer to Aristotle and Plato in their pseudo-philosophical disputes. According to Stilpo Aristotle was "a blockhead, besides his beard he had not one hayre of learning" (V.4).
Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Clove wants to impress the group of gentlemen at St. Paul's and he tells Orange to pretend they are two learned scholars. In order to be more persuasive, Clove launches into a sophisticated but incongruous exposition about various philosophers and their writings, in order to seem that they are having a learned conversation. In fact, it is a one-sided monologue produced by Clove, since Orange only confirms off and on. Clove says that Aristotle, in his daemonologia, approves that Scaliger is the best navigator in his time, and in his hypercritics, he reports him to be "Heautontimourumenos," which Clove pretends to be a Greek word. Actually, Aristotle did not write any of these works, some are treatises written by others, Scaliger lived centuries after Aristotle, and the allegedly Greek term is a combination of the words haughty, tonto, meaning stupid in Spanish, and moron.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Aristotle (384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and one of the greatest thinkers of all time. His work in the natural and social sciences greatly influenced virtually every area of modern thinking. Aristotle's works were very influential in the Renaissance. At his house, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw pronounces one of his sententious maxims, saying that, when he praises sweet modesty, he praises sweet beauty's eyes. Promptly, Clerimont pretends to identify the dictum as originating from one of the great philosophers. Daw denies it, saying that these are his own creations, and he shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. Daw calls Aristotle a mere commonplace fellow. Daw adds that he can utter wise aphorisms every hour and, if only they were collected, he would become equally famous. When La-Foole recommends reading from Raynard the Fox as a possible cure for Morose's madness, Daw retorts that Morose must have Aristotle's Ethics read to him. According to Daw, the ancient moral philosophers and their sober teachings are appropriate reading for melancholic persons.
Only mentioned in Shirley's Contention for Honor and Riches. Ancient Greek philosopher mentioned by Riches, who considers Aristotle to have been "rank-smelling," as are all scholars.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Aristotle is mentioned by Bill Bond when, talking about the planets with Master Algebra, he asks him: "what do you with all the spheres Aristotle spoke of?" Afterwards, Master Algebra, in his turn, also mentions Aristotle when he replies: "Aristotle was a worthy man, and so was his master, Plato, and yet they differed . . ." Later, Aristotle is mentioned by Doctor Clyster too, when he reveals Master Algebra's identity to Master Silence: "Dost not thou remember one Algebra that was the greatest plodder upon Aristotle and Euclid in all the college?" Aristotle (384-322 B. C.) was son to Nichomachus, the court physician to the Macedonian royal family. After being trained in medicine, he was sent to Athens in 367 B. C. to study philosophy with Plato. He was a brilliant pupil who dared oppose some of his master's teaching, thus, when Plato died, Aristotle was not appointed to succeed him as head of the Academy. It is believed that he wrote 150 philosophical treatises (only 30 survive) on a wide range of subjects: philosophy, biology, physics, earth sciences, morals, aesthetics and politics.


Only mentioned in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Roscius, in his first address to the audience, at the end of act one, asserts that their "author" owes "all the poor skills he has" to "great Aristotle."


Arithmatick accompanies Peace in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.


Arithmetica is in love with Geometres in Holiday's Technogamia and patiently endures his verbal abuse when he believes he is in love with Astronomia. They eventually marry.


Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Arius is mentioned by the Divell (Master Changeable in disguise), when he addresses to Slightall: "I read that great Doctor Arius, / That poison'd three parts of the Christian World." Doctor Arius, Bishop of Alexandria, was the founder of Aryanism–a popular religious movement that began in the early 300's, and lasted for, approximately, 400 years. Its doctrine claimed that Christ could not have been equal to God, nor could he have coexisted with him, but rather, he was a created entity, through whom God had created everything.

ARIUS **1626

Greek philosopher, native of Alexandria, honored by Caesar on the latter's triumphant entry to the city after Actium in May's Cleopatra. Arius is maneuvered by the philosopher Fergusius into pleading with Caesar for Fergusius's life; a plea which is granted before Arius can get past the first three words.


Don Adriano de Armado is a Spaniard sometimes identified as "the braggart" in Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost. He reports that Costard has violated Ferdinand's edict against conversing with women by wooing Jaquenetta. After Costard is imprisoned, Armado begins courting Jaquenetta himself. In the Pageant of the Nine Worthies, Armado plays Hector.


A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI. The Earl of Armagnac tries to achieve peace between France and England by offering his daughter as King Henry's bride, accompanied by a substantial dowry. Although Henry accepts the offer, he subsequently decides to marry Margaret of Anjou instead.


Armante is the daughter of the Duke of Colchester and the cast-off mistress of the king in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador. She had borne a son to the king but he tricks her out of the written promise of marriage. She resents this treatment, and the king's suggestion that she should marry the Welsh ambassador instead, but she declines Voltimar's offer to kill the king and wants to disregard her father's advice not to send her son to court. When she is overruled on this, she takes her son to see Carintha, by whom she is reassured that all will be well. At the end of the play the king agrees to marry her.


Armanus is one of the faithful friends of the title in the Anonymous The Faithful Friends. A Roman gentleman, he is asked by Tullius to look after Tullius' bride, Philadelpha, while Tullius is off fighting the Sabines. The emperor Martius tries to suborn him to aid in the seduction of Philadelpha, but although he pretends to go along with the plot, he remains faithful, and becomes an important witness against Martius when the plot is exposed.


The tyrannical King of Cicilia in T.D.'s The Bloody Banquet. By the end of Act One, he has helped Lydia repel the Lycians, but he seizes the Lydian throne. Accepting the hawkish cajoling of Mazeres, he ignores the moderating influence of his son, Zenarchus. He tells us that he doesn't trust women, including his "fair-framed" wife. In Act Four, he sees Aphrodite kiss and receive a ring from Tymethes (the one that Tymethes has stolen from Armatrites' cheating wife), to his rage. He believes Mazeres' claim that the couple have been meeting secretly at lavish events. He rages at Amphrodite and seizes the jewel. Realising that it is actually his Queen's ring, he hears from Mazeres (who is disguised as the Queen's Keeper) that Tymethes has cuckolded him. He finds the Queen with her now-dead lover, promising death to her. Firstly, though, he orders that Tymethes' body be cut up and displayed. In Act Five, he reasons that Mazeres has facilitated the progression of the Queen and Tymethes' adultery; he demands that Mazeres be tortured and killed. He makes the "pilgrims" (the disguised Lydians) observe the eating of Tymethes' flesh by the Queen. Realising that he has been outmaneuvered by the King of Lydia, he faces up to his inevitable slaying, which is briskly carried out by Lydia's King and his followers.


A spirit in flame-coloured attire who leads in the apparition of Hector summoned by Proximus in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father. He is sent back to Hell by the Hermit's heavenly power.


Antonio’s maid in Tomkis’ Albumazar. She is at first charmed by Trincalo’s verbose wooing, but when she learns he wishes marriage she calls him fool and leaves. When the real Antonio returns, she believes it is Trincalo transformed and dumps a chamber pot over him. Later, when the tables are turned. She pretends he is Antonio long enough to entice him into the house and lock him up (at the same time confessing that she does want to marry him). She is promised to Trincalo by play’s end.


Wife of Pandino and mother of Pertillo in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies. First appears on her deathbed alongside her husband, who is also on the verge of death. Her chief concern is that Fallerio and Sostrato look after Pertillo and raise him well. After Pandino dies, she blesses her son and reminds Fallerio and Sostrato of their promise, and then dies.


Son of Phizantius in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune, he accuses his sister Fidelia of dishonoring the family name by falling in love with Hermione, who is not thought to be of noble birth. After Hermione wounds him, Hermione is banished. He is tipped off to the young lovers' plans to reunite, and he captures Fidelia and takes her back to the court. While escorting her to the court, he is mysteriously struck dumb. He recovers his speech after being cured by Fidelia's blood and blesses her marriage to Hermione.


The male disguise taken on by Miranda in the anonymous Two Noble Ladies and the Converted Conjurer when she seeks to escape her father.


"A Shepheard, and acquainted with Perindus" in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. He claims that his "arrivall" in Sicely was "late," Armillus questions Perindus's decision to abandon the "Shepheards lawes" and become a Fisher at the play's beginning, inquires about Olinda, and is informed by Atyches of Olinda's proposed execution at the hands of Malorcha. Because he is "delighted" with the "accidents So strange and rare" which Atyches relates to him, Armillus decides to "make some longer stay" in Sicily and asks Perindus to inform him of "what he [Atyches] is, and what his country" (prompting Perindus to "give him all this story"). He professes his love for Cosma, claiming that her beauty "farre [. . .] excels" that of the other Nymphs, and offers Conchylio money in return for a meeting with the page's "Mistris" (during which he and Cosma are frightened away by Pas, who is disguised as a Fury). Despite the fact that when he meets Cosma again shortly after he claims that he would "rather dye, then leave [her] wisht embrace," he flees the "woods" when the disguised Pas returns.


A "ghost character" in the Anonymous The Faithful Friends. A noteworthy Sabine warrior, from whom Sir Pergamus mendaciously pretends to have won a shield.


A mute character in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Hector's Armor-Bearer is upbraided by the Trojan hero for dressing him too slowly the day after Hector had spared the Greek ships (at the request of his cousin Ajax). Hector's irritation with the servant stems from his recognition that he has made a mistake by not burning the fleet when he had a chance and from his desire to be first in the field this day to finish with the Greeks once and for all.


The Armorer, with the other workers in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green, comes to collect his debt from Mumford. Mumford gives the Armorer, the Carter and the Vitler 30 pounds to divide among themselves.


Armostes is little more than a messenger in Ford's The Broken Heart. He brings the cryptic prophecy from Delphos and gives it to Tecnicus. He later takes Tecnicus' translation of it to the other characters. Finally, it is Armostes at play's end that realizes the truth of the final prophecy that "the lifeless trunk shall wed the broken heart." His name means "appeaser."


Along with Stutchell Leg in Hausted’s Rival Friends, one of two young scholars, robustious football players, and suitor to Mistress Ursely for the parsonage’s sake. When Bully Lively pretends to die, he and the other suitors begin pulling at Ursely as on a rope to win her quickly. When Anteros receives the parsonage deed and Sacrilege Hook drives Arthur off, he and the other suitors flock to Anteros and call him patron. He is driven off by Anteros as unworthy to marry his sister.


Sir Gilbert Armstrong is one of the rebels against King Edward in Greene's George a Greene. He agrees with Bonfield that they need provisions from the towns. He is with Bonfield when the latter visits Grimes, and is one of the lords who meets up with George a Greene in the field. When the three lords visit the disguised George, believing he is a magician, Armstrong is at first impressed and then, when George reveals himself, eager to kill him. Instead, George kills Armstrong.


A Persian warrior in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus.


A valiant and noble Portuguese soldier in Fletcher's The Island Princess. Armusia and his companions visit the island of Sidore (also called Tidore in the Cast List) only to discover that the king of the island country has been captured and is now the prisoner of the evil Governor of Terna, ruler of a neighboring island, and malicious would-be suitor to the Princess. The king's sister, the Princess Quisara, has offered herself in marriage to any brave man who rescues her brother and returns him to safely home. While Ruy Dias hesitates, Armusia, with his comrades-in-arms Soza and Emmanuel, acts. They disguise themselves as Merchants, travel to Terna, and purchase the building next to the prison. They set a powerful charge of dynamite against the common wall between the house and the prison, allowing them to gain access to the king's cell, and hurry him out and onto a waiting boat. Armusia then expects the Princess to marry him happily and willingly, but he discovers that she is in love with another man, Ruy Dias, and will only marry Armusia because of her promise. Armusia, being a noble and honorable soldier, wants a willing bride and a happy marriage so he decides to try to win her love with words. Emanuel and Soza tell him to act like a man and have sex with the Princess, by force if necessary, and she will then change her mind, as all women prefer rough treatment. Instead, Armusia takes the Princess's waiting-woman, Panura, into his confidence, and she lets him stay in her room to wait for the Princess. When Armusia first enters the Princess's chambers she is furious and defiant. However, he begins to win her over with a persuasive, sincere, and romantic speech. As he is leaving her room, Ruy Dias enters. The jealous Ruy Dias is determined to kill his rival and sends his nephew, Pyniero, to challenge Armusia to a duel. Reluctantly, Armusia agrees; since Armusia is a superior swordsman, Ruy Dias falls first. Armusia could kill Dias, but he spares his life at the request of the Princess. Seeing the quality of his character, the Princess asks him to meet her in the garden. She then tells him (on the advice of the Moor-Priest) that she is willing to be his wife, but only if he is willing to convert to her pagan religion and abandon his Christian faith. Armusia, honorable and committed to Christianity, refuses this offer and rejects her since he believes her request to be dishonorable in the extreme. As the king and the disguised Governor of Terna (the Moor-Priest) eavesdrop on the conversation, Armusia declares that his immortal soul is more valuable than any earthly treasure. While the king is hesitant about the morality of arresting his rescuer, the Moor-Priest convinces the king that Christianity and the destruction of their pagan religion will destroy the kingdom. The King is duped by Terna until Pyniero, with the help of his men and Panura, reveals the Governor's true identity and evil intentions. Armusia is released into the arms of his future bride and the Governor is imprisoned.


In Act IV of Verney’s Antipoe, the army speaks with a single voice, declaring that they would rather die than disappoint Dramurgon in the fight.


Army is a branch of the commonwealth (Utopia) represented in the aborted masque following the beggars' wedding in Brome's A Jovial Crew. It is to be played by the decayed soldier. Army "overtops" and cudgels City, Country, Court, Divinity, and Law.


Non-speaking characters in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. In Act Five, they arrest the suitors who try to enter the tower through the secret door.


Non-speaking characters in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. In Act Five the army is led by Cosmo to confirm the marriage of prince Prospero.


A physician in Berkeley's The Lost Lady. He provides Lysicles with the poison for Acanthe the Moor and, once it becomes known that Acanthe is no other but Milesia in disguise, he provides the antidote to restore her health.


Only mentioned in Glapthorne's Albertus Wallenstein. Another Lord summoned by Wallenstein to meet in league against the Emperor at Dresden. Unlike Brandenburg and Saxon-Waymar, his arrival there is not specified.


Arnold is an old servant in Offa's household in Brome's The Queen's Exchange. When Osriick comes to court Mildred and is mistaken for Anthynus and charged with Segebert's murder, Arnold prevents Offa from killing Osriick, insisting instead that he should be taken to prison.


Rashly's old serving man and Theophilus' confidant in Brome's The English Moor. Fired by Theophilus for laughing at the tale of Millicent's disappearance, he is enlisted by Nathaniel to aid in the ruse of Quicksands' bastard son. He accompanies Buzzard to Quicksands' feast, disguised as "John Hulverhead," an old country-man, and is happily reunited with his old master in Testy's court.


Uncle to Walter Chamlet in Brome's The Sparagus Garden. Sir Arnold is a fifty-year-old bachelor who loves beautiful women but refuses to marry because he believes that no beauty remains a maiden for long. Dubbed "the peeping knight" by Martha, he is a client of the Asparagus Garden and likes to walk about it order to leer at the faces and peep at the pretty insteps of its female clients. While there, he meets his nephew who is with Gilbert and the soldier-poet Bounce (really Samuel Touchwood in disguise); when he insults poetry, Bounce 'attacks' him and is 'attacked' in turn by Walter in a plot designed to move Sir Arnold to help abet Walter's 'marriage' to Annabel. He goes to court Annabel on Walter's behalf, but is so taken with her that he ends by courting her for himself. He is about to marry her when she appears, seemingly heavily pregnant, at which point he repudiates her, leaving her free to marry Samuel when the plot's many strands come together in the lovers' favor.


Lord Arnold of Benthuisin follows Gerrard (disguised as the beggar king Clause) into exile in Fletcher's Beggars' Bush and assumes the alias of Ginks among the beggars. He pretends to be deaf and dumb.


A Roman gentleman, younger brother to Rutillio, and husband to Zenocia in Fletcher and Massinger's Custom of the Country. He has traveled with his brother to the unknown 'country' of the title. Here, he falls in love with and prepares to marry Zenocia. Outraged and distressed by the threatened 'custom' of droit de seigneur, he escapes with his bride, accompanied by his brother and pursued by the Count. The refugees are intercepted by Portuguese pirates. Despite a brave defense, Zenocia is abducted but the brothers leap into the sea to avoid the humiliation of capture and slavery, the fate they somewhat unchivalrously thereby leave her to endure alone. The brothers swim to safety as destitute refugees in nearby Lisbon. Arnoldo there catches the attention of the lustful Hippolyta. He is lured to her luxurious house by her servant Zabulon, but resists all her attempts to seduce him and flees when she attempts to ravish him by force. The jewels she gave him she reports as stolen. Arnoldo is arrested as a thief and sentenced to death, protesting his innocence. Meanwhile Zenocia is sent to Hippolyta's house and is seen in her company by Arnoldo when Hippolyta, changing her mind, confesses her false accusation. Arnoldo fears for his bride's honour in such lecherous company and pretends to be reconciled to Hippolyta's love in order to check on Zenocia's chastity. Zenocia has equal fears for her husband's fidelity. Their loving reunion is doubly spied on by Hippolyta and her suitor, Leopold: both rejected parties decide on bloody revenge for being slighted. Leopold soon overhears enough to persuade him that Arnoldo is no threat to him, but Hippolyta sends stranglers to murder her rival, whereupon Arnoldo offers himself to her in exchange for the life of his bride. The Governor's arrival with Count Clodio and Zenocia's father prevents a disaster and Zenocia is freed. Hippolyta employs Sulpitia to cast a fatal charm on Zenocia but Arnoldo shares her suffering and is likely to die with her. To save his life, Hippolyta again recants her revenge. The spell is lifted and, moved by their true love, Hippolyta gives a huge dowry to Zenocia and the restored couple plan to live happily ever after.


An attendant to Theander in Davenant's The Platonic Lovers.


Arnoll Butler travels to Bosworth Field in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III to join Richmond against Richard III. Although Butler had betrayed Richmond in the past, Henry, unlike Richard, shows the capacity to forgive.


Along with Philander and Eubulus, a long-trusted counselor to King Gorboduc in Sackville and Norton's Gorboduc. He agrees with the king's plan to divide his kingdom between the princes Ferrex and Porrex. He later tries to calm Gorboduc so the king might hear good counsel and stop the war.


Only mentioned in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants as a king who has ‘worn Vulcans badge’ by being cuckolded.


Arrigo is a courtier in the Duke's confidence in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. In a street at night, Arrigo enters with Lucio following Duke in disguise. When Duke asks for their opinion regarding his intentions, Arrigo says he supposes it is some high matter of state. Duke discloses his intention of seeing a girl, and Arrigo responds his master is a loving prince. After discussing Lazarillo and the advisability of a prince accepting his subjects' flattery, Arrigo exits with Lucio following Duke. At Gondarino's house, Arrigo enters with Lucio and Duke. They attend the scene in which Duke accuses Gondarino of duplicitous attitude, and when Gondarino promises to prove that Oriana is a whore. In an antechamber in the palace, Arrigo organizes the entrance to the Duke. He introduces Valore and tells Gondarino to wait. Arrigo takes money from the Gentlewoman for delivering her petition to the Duke and then leaves her to wait next to Gondarino, insinuating he might help her with the petition. In a street before the brothel, Duke, Valore, Gondarino, and Arrigo enter disguised. They see Oriana at the window. When Oriana is asked to come down, Arrigo says there is a back door she could use, admitting he has been in the house. In a room with a gallery in the palace, Arrigo and Oriana enter below, while Duke, Valore, and Gondarino enter above. Arrigo informs Oriana that Duke and Valore have found her guilty of dishonesty and sentenced her to death. When Oriana is ready to face death with dignity, though saying she is innocent, Arrigo proposes sex in exchange of her life, which she refuses. It appears that Arrigo had an understanding with Duke to test Oriana's chastity. Arrigo participates in the final reconciliation scene.

ARRIUS **1617

Only mentioned in the anonymous Pathomachia. Pride boasts of how he aided him amongst the Christians and infinite other authors of heresies and schisms.


Arruntius (Lucius), a senator and friend to Agrippina in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall . He is the group's firebrand, an outspoken man. When Tiberius wishes to have him arrested, Sejanus convinces the Emperor that Arruntius is valuable because he encourages the Emperor's enemies into revealing themselves. He and Lepidus act as chorus during the play.


A once virtuous woman in Chapman's The Widow's Tears. She has fallen on hard times and become a pandaress and a tenant of Eudora. She agrees to help Tharsalio woo Eudora by telling her of his prodigious sexual ability. In return, she is to get her house rent-free after Tharsalio has wed Eudora.


King of Persia in Cartwright's The Royal Slave. For religious reasons, it is necessary to find a prisoner to become King temporarily and then to be sacrificed to the gods. After selecting Cratander, Arsamnes becomes aware that Cratander is his superior as King and that his queen Atossa admires him. He is dissuaded from his plan to sacrifice Cratander by the plotting of Atossa and the intervention of the sun, which is suddenly eclipsed, and finally admits that such virtue ought to be rewarded. He then sends Cratander back to Ephesus as a governor in his name.


A respected gentleman and friend of Leandro and Milanes in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. Arsenio assists Leandro in his plan to seduce Amaranta, helps Lopez and Diego pull a practical joke at Bartolus's expense, and suffers through Bartolus's revenge breakfast.


Arsinoe is the sister of Cleopatra and Ptolemy, however, she has no desire for power in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. She tells Apollodorus that Cleopatra has found him a noble and caring guard. She takes no part in any of the various plots and is not present at the mask where Caesar ignores Cleopatra due to his wonder at the displayed wealth, but afterwards, Arsinoe attempts to calm Cleopatra's anger. In the final scene, Arsinoe enters with Eros, both in terror at what may happen to them, but Arsinoe is strengthened by Cleopatra's bravery. Her newfound bravery is not apparent in words, since she is the only one to mourn her brother's death, and her only other speech is relief at their rescue by Caesar.


In Lupton's All For Money Art laments that, because of greediness, much vice is used in the arts in contemporary society.

ART **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the intellectual Virtues whom King Love wishes would join him in his war. Unhappily those Virtues are at war with some of their ‘home-bred’ enemies.


Artaxes's companion, a nobleman in the anonymous Tamar Cam.


A "ghost character" in May's Cleopatra. King of Armenia, beheaded by order of Cleopatra. (Artavasdes is mentioned at III ii.)


King of Armenia, called "Artaxes of Artaxias" in the original plot of the anonymous Tamar Cam. One of the Shah of Persia's attendant noblemen. He, along with Otanes and Trebassus behead the rebels off stage.


One of the chorus of men and women in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium who enter at the beginning of the play and place the instrument of their deaths upon Cupid’s altar. Her name is edited to ‘Sophonisba’ in the ms. She carries a ‘hazer’ (or cup). See CHORUS for more details.


Artemia, the daughter of Dioclesian in Massinger and Dekker's The Virgin Martyr, is in love with Antoninus. She is also later engaged to Maximinus.


The daughter of Eugenius and sister of Guiderius in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia, Artemia is described by her father near the play's beginning as "pin[ing] with griefe, not having seene [Guiderius] this seven yeares past, having remaind, during these warres in Pictland." The King "withdraw[s]" Eugenius from the side of Arviragus by promising him that Guimantes would marry Artemia, although the "Goddesse" claims that she "will have sufficient tryall" and must remain Guimantes's "Mistris" for one year or "never [his] wife." When Eugenius falls out of favour with the King Guimantes claims that he will "have [his] pleasure of [Eugenius's] scornefull daughter" either "by faire means, or by force," although Artemia later informs her horrified father that she was able to protect herself against him with a knife.
The daughter of Eugenius and sister of Guiderius in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Artemia fears at the play's beginning that her brother has been killed in battle but sues (along with Philicia) to the King on Eugenius's and Sinatus's behalf. In order to "remove all possibility of doubt how much [he] love[s] [her]" the King (Guimantes) agrees to set Eugenius and Sinatus free from prison, although he does not do so until later in the play when Artemia begs again for "justice to [her] father and Sinatus" after receiving a letter from Eugenius which is meant to "incite [her] to a full revenge, for all [hers] and [her] fathers wrongs." Despite the warnings of Philicia and her father and the fact that Guimantes had once attempted to ravish her, Artemia reciprocates the King's love and appears distressed later in the play when Eugenius orders his daughter to "leave the City" with him. Informed by Sinatus of Artemia's and Eugenius's planned "escape to Arviragus," Guimantes disguises himself and accompanies them. At the play's end the King reveals himself and, given leave by Cartandes to "dispose all how [he] please[s]," Arviragus (at Eugenius's consent) allows the King to live and marry Artemia.


Daughter to Freeman, cousin to Euphues and in love with Eugeny in May's The Old Couple. She is devoted to him and loyal, despite his admitted guilt for the murder of Scudmore. She is amazed at his news that his safety and their future happiness have been entrusted to his best friend, Theodore, by an amazing coincidence the son of their miserly neighbor, Earthworm. She accepts Eugeny's report of Theodore's trustworthiness and agrees to confide in him as a go-between. She asks her cousin Euphues to arrange an introduction, which awakens the curiosity of the latter to investigate whether she is having a secret affair with the boy next door. They meet and agree on comforting messages from her to be delivered to Eugeny, which will much relieve his melancholy. Alone, she still pines for her lover and expresses her futility and loneliness at length. Euphues inquires into her secret business with Theodore. She resourcefully pretends that they are old friends, having once met in Venice. The astute Euphues reveals that he has uncovered her secret contact with Eugeny and offers to help her. Theodore accompanies Artemia to the forest to meet Eugeny and warn him to escape. Confirmation of his uncle's treachery, provided by Euphues, has made evasive action most urgent, but they arrive too late to prevent his arrest. She swoons in distress and is comforted by Eugeny, although he seems doomed. When Eugeny's name is cleared by the reappearance of Scudmore, alive, the couple are free to be married the next day, with the complete approval of her father and cousin.


Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. To Artemidorus of Daldis, we owe one of the first and most famous books on dream interpretation–Oneirocritica–the Interpretation of Dreams. Artemidorus lived in Greece about 140 AD and he almost certainly drew on older works. However, Artemidorus added many personal observations and he believed that dreams could be understood best not from divine inspiration but by observing the details of ordinary everyday life. When Mistress Otter intends to show her psychic qualities in front of the collegiate ladies, she narrates a dream she had the other night. She says she dreamt of the Lady Mayoress, which is always very ominous to her. Although Mistress Otter does not reveal the exact content of her dream, she interprets it as a bad omen because every time she dreams of the city a bad accident happens. To give credit to her interpretation, Mistress Otter says she submitted it to Lady Haughty's examination. Haughty interpreted it out of Artemidorus and found it very true.


Artemidorus of Cnidos teaches rhetoric in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar and has written a warning note to Caesar. Its intended recipient never reads the note.


Artemone is the daughter of Melesippus and sister of Theocles in Mead's Combat of Love and Friendship. She is in love with Lysander, but is annoyed because he asks permission to woo Panaretta for a while in order to help his friend Theocles woo Panaretta's sister. Artemone is reluctantly driven to switch her affections to her pompous suitor, Philonax. Theocles then goes to Artemone and (reluctantly lying) tells her that Lysander is in love with Panaretta. Artemone is heartbroken. She agrees to marry Philonax out of revenge and hopes to reform him. When Theocles is wounded, he confesses his treachery to Artemone, and she is consumed with guilt over her treatment of Lysander. It is then revealed that Philonax was only pretending to be pompous because he was reluctantly wooing Artemone on the orders of his true love, Panaretta. However, as Artemone pledges to marry him, his love for Panaretta melts, and as he is revealed as a decent man, Artemone and Philonax become a betrothed couple.


A devious princess sent by the Saxons as ambassador to Britain in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father. Aurelius falls in love with her, and makes her his queen, but she sows dissension in the British ranks by seducing Uter, and then accusing him of conspiring with the British lords to abduct her. In the war that follows, she is captured, and laughs defiantly, even as the Britons devise imaginative methods of killing her.


The doctor Artesio in Quarles' The Virgin Widow is the father of Rosia and Marina, and supposedly of Kettreena, for whose sake he has honours heaped on him by the king. Venal, he has married Kettreena to Pertenax only because of the latter's wealth, and sacks Quack because a patient whom the latter has inadvertently killed was rich. When it is eventually revealed that he colluded in the swapping of Kettreena and Augusta, he is imprisoned for life on Kettreena's orders.


A Captain under the command of Duke Theseus in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen, Artesius is commissioned to make the necessary preparations to avenge the deaths of the three queens' husbands.


Daughter of a former Veronese general in Davenant's The Unfortunate Lovers; she is the betrothed of Altophil. Left a pauper by her father, she has been maintained by Altophil. At the beginning of the play, she has been accused of unchastity and forced to perform public penance. Though she insists that her lover not ruin his reputation by marrying her, she agrees to marry him. She is prevented by the Prince's sudden determination to marry her himself. She is rescued by her rival Amarantha, but is ravished by Heildebrand, King of the Lombards, and dies in the same moment as her wounded lover Altophil.


A "ghost character" in Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. Historically, Arthur was the nephew of Richard I—son to his brother Geoffrey—and believed by some to be Richard's chosen heir. He died under mysterious circumstances. He appears in the dumb show and is mentioned several times to show the way both John and Hubert treat children.


Family name of Mistress, Old Master, and Young Master Arthur in (?)Heywood's How A Man May Choose A Good Wife From A Bad.


Servant to Hoard in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One who introduces the would-be liveried members of his household.


Servant to Frippery in Middleton's Your Five Gallants. He is busy in negotiations with customers to the pawnshop in the opening scene. He later accompanies his master to the Mitre, and is sent back to the shop with items pawned by various characters to supplement their immediate gambling needs. Tailby's servant Jack later describes him as old.

ARTHUR **1634

A gallant, and nephew to Old Seely in Heywood and Brome's The Late Lancashire Witches, Master Arthur is often in the company of his friends Masters Bantam and Shackston. He is less skeptical about witchcraft than his friends, and is quick to attribute their hunting failures to witchery. Arthur is also in some financial trouble, needing funds to pay rent on his estate, and because of the chaos in the Seely household he is forced to secure a loan from Master Generous. He is invited, along with the other gallants, to dine with Master Generous, on the condition that they tolerate Generous' foolish nephew Whetstone. They agree, but Bantam breaks the promise when he loses patience and insults Whetstone; although it is Bantam's indiscretion, and Arthur chides Bantam, he is still considered guilty by association in Whetstone's eyes and becomes a target of Whetstone's later revenge. Arthur is one of the guests at Lawrence and Parnell's wedding celebration, and despite the witches' mischief he witnesses there he remains stalwart. He is also one of the onlookers during the Skimmington ritual performed outside the Seely house. Arthur, along with Bantam and Shackston, goes to Whetstone's for supper, in the hopes of reconciling with Whetstone and thus repairing his relationship with Master Generous. After dinner Whetstone retaliates for the earlier insult by offering to conjure the gallants' fathers, and Arthur is confronted by a spirit in the form of Robin, who in a dumb show claims him as his son. Shaken by this, he later confronts the real Robin about his paternity, but Robin vehemently denies fathering him, and Master Generous proves that Robin could not have appeared before Arthur the previous night because both he and Robin have been away on business. This mollifies Arthur, but he begins to suspect Mrs. Generous of witchcraft; when she is later revealed to her husband as a witch, Arthur also informs Master Generous of Whetstone's activities. Arthur is among those who confront the arrested witches in the final scene, and Master Generous, disgusted with his nephew's consorting with witches, confers his inheritance on Arthur instead.


(Originally spelled "Arthure" in Brome's The English Moor.) Meanwell's son and Dionisia's brother. As the play begins, he is paralyzed with grief over his father's murder by Rashly. Dionisia urges him to seek revenge, but he is distracted by his servant, Rafe, who invites him to put on a disguise and observe the attempts by Nathanial, Vincent, and Edmond to cuckold Quicksands. After inadvertently saving Theophilus from the rakes, he plots to use his disguise to become closer to Theophilus, the better to be revenged on him. However, he is in love with Lucy, and faces his sister's anger when the fact is revealed. He attends Quicksands' feast, where, discovering Millicent un-disguised, he promises, in honor of her true love and despite his hatred for Theophilus, to convey her safely to him. He delivers Millicent to Theophilus and then slips away, but re-enters with his father and Rashly. The families are re-united, and he and Lucy are betrothed in Testy's court.


Along with Stutchell Leg in Hausted’s Rival Friends, one of two young scholars, robustious football players, and suitor to Mistress Ursely for the parsonage’s sake. When Bully Lively pretends to die, he and the other suitors begin pulling at Ursely as on a rope to win her quickly. When Anteros receives the parsonage deed and Sacrilege Hook drives Arthur off, he and the other suitors flock to Anteros and call him patron. He is driven off by Anteros as unworthy to marry his sister.


Sir Arthur Clare, husband of Dorcas, father of Milliscent and Henry Clare in the Anonymous The Merry Devil of Edmonton. His daughter Milliscent and Raymond Mounchensey have been engaged for two years and are prepared to marry the next day. The two families meet at the St. George, an inn in Waltham. But Sir Arthur Clare has heard that Sir Richard, Raymond's father, has lost his fortune. He therefore wants to prevent the marriage. He takes Milliscent to the nunnery in Chester, where she has to stay for a year, after which she is to marry Frank Ierningham, whose father, Sir Ralph, is more prosperous and has already agreed to the match. The young men, Harry Clare, Raymond Mounchensey and Frank Ierningham hear about this plan. Together with Peter Fabell, Frank's friend and university teacher, they try to cross Sir Arthur's plans. Milliscent wants to confess her sins before she enters the convent. Her mother, Dorcas, has to remain in the nunnery and keep an eye on her, while Sir Arthur goes to fetch the nuns' confessor, friar Hildersome. This scene is not dramatized, but we hear later that Peter Fabell, disguised as Father Hildersome, duped Clare. Sir Arthur accompanies Father Hildersome's novice Benedic to the nunnery, but the young monk is actually Raymond Mounchensey in disguise. The lovers arrange Milliscent's escape from the nunnery. Sir Arthur Clare and Sir Ralph Ierningham try to catch the lovers in Brian's Wood, but the gamekeeper Brian and his men delay them. In the meantime the inn signs in Waltham have been exchanged, and when the two knights return they sleep in the wrong house. In the morning they find that Milliscent and Raymond are in the real St. George and have already been happily married by Sir John, the vicar of Enfield.


A wealthy landowner, who has sexual relations with his maid, Winifred, and reneges on his promise to support her and Frank when they marry in Rowley, Dekker and Ford's The Witch of Edmonton. When Frank is executed, the Justice names Sir Arthur as the cause of his misfortune, and he agrees to pay a fine to Winifred in ompensation.

A mercer in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. Along with many other tradesmen, he gossips about the impending marriage of Captain Stukeley and Nell, daughter of the wealthy Sir Thomas Curtis. Immediately after the wedding, they seek to abscond with Stukeley's newfound money, citing debs both real and fabricated.


Arthur is son of Jeffrey Plantagenet and of Constance, nephew of John, grandson of Elianor in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John. His mother and her French friends urge his claim to the British crown. As part of the peace John confirms his rule in Brittany. When hostilities resume he is captured by John and placed in the charge of Hubert de Burgh. Threatened by Hubert with the loss of his sight, he argues so eloquently that the keeper spares him.
Son of Jeffrey Plantagenet, and nephew of Jeffrey's younger brother King John in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John, Arthur's claim to the English crown was supported by France in Part 1, where, having been captured by John and imprisoned under Hubert de Burgh, he has persuaded his keeper not to blind him. As Part 2 begins he takes advantage of Hubert's absence, and preferring death to imprisonment, leaps from the castle walls, is broken on the rocks, and dies.
Arthur is Duke of Brittany and the son of Geoffrey, the second son of Henry II in Shakespeare's King John. He is considered by his mother, Constance, and Philip of France, to have a better claim to the throne than John, and Philip and John fight a battle over the throne which Arthur does not participate in. Instead, he weeps over the trouble his claim has caused. After the second battle, Arthur is taken prisoner by John, who asks Hubert to have him put to death. At some point offstage, this order is changed, since Hubert arrives at the prison to blind Arthur. Arthur begs for Hubert's compassion, reminding Hubert that he has loved him. Hubert is won over and hides Arthur. However, Arthur decides to escape and leaps from the prison wall, dying on the ground below.


A low-ranking army officer, whose principal occupation is pressing men into the service in The London Prodigal. He is a suitor of Luce, but her father will not allow the match because Sir Arthur is unlikely to become a rich man, on account of his honesty. Despite this snub, Sir Arthur generously gives a diamond to Luce and Flowerdale in the conclusion.


A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker, son to Lord Grey of Wilton and mentioned by him. With Sir George Howard and Sir James Croft, he is charged by Lord Grey to show Queen Elizabeth's grievances to the Queen Regent of Scotland. At the Battle of Leith, he assaults the stone walls of the town.


Only mentioned in Medwall’s Fulgens and Lucrece. Publius Cornelius compares his family’s fame with that of King Arthur.
Arthur is King of Great Britain in Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur. Before the action of the play, his father, Uther Pendragon employed the power of Merlin the magician to seduce Igerna, the wife of the Cornish king Gorlois. The union produced Arthur and a twin sister Anne, with whom Arthur later has an incestuous relationship, one that results in the birth of the villainous Mordred. Arthur's nine-year absence fighting on the Continent is the occasion for an affair between Mordred and Arthur's wife Gueneuora and for Mordred's attempt to seize his father's throne. The play begins with Arthur returning to Britain. Arthur is at first unwilling to attack Mordred, but he is finally convinced by his father-in-law Cador of the need to confront Mordred. The subsequent battle in Cornwall between the armies of father and son results in Arthur's killing Mordred, but only after Mordred has delivered a blow to Arthur's head that itself will prove fatal.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Lovel praises the noble education he received from Lord Beaufort, he distinguishes between the teaching of frivolous courtly manners and the profound righteousness inherited from the great classical epitomes of morality. Lovel illustrates the two types of education with examples from chivalric romance and classical antiquity. Deprecating the frivolity of chivalry, Lovel says his noble tutor taught him no such things, because his education had no Arthurs. The heroes of chivalric romance are considered public nothings, abortive notions of the fabulous, sent out to poison courts and infest manners. Thus, Arthur, the legendary founder of the Round Table Knighthood, becomes a disparaging reference related to the Arthurian cycle of chivalric romance.
Only mentioned in Rowley’s When You See Me. In Will Sommers’s fooling, he says that the gossip is that Arthur and his knights have risen again in Glastonbury and will march on Rome.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Lovel praises the noble education he received from Lord Beaufort, he distinguishes between the teaching of frivolous courtly manners and the profound righteousness inherited from the great classical epitomes of morality. Lovel illustrates the two types of education with examples from chivalric romance and classical antiquity. Deprecating the frivolity of chivalry, Lovel says his noble tutor taught him no such things, because his education had no Arthurs. The heroes of chivalric romance are considered public nothings, abortive notions of the fabulous, sent out to poison courts and infest manners. Thus, Arthur, the legendary founder of the Round Table Knighthood, becomes a disparaging reference related to the Arthurian cycle of chivalric romance.


A gallant, and nephew to Old Seely in Heywood and Brome's The Late Lancashire Witches, Master Arthur is often in the company of his friends Masters Bantam and Shackston. He is less skeptical about witchcraft than his friends, and is quick to attribute their hunting failures to witchery. Arthur is also in some financial trouble, needing funds to pay rent on his estate, and because of the chaos in the Seely household he is forced to secure a loan from Master Generous. He is invited, along with the other gallants, to dine with Master Generous, on the condition that they tolerate Generous' foolish nephew Whetstone. They agree, but Bantam breaks the promise when he loses patience and insults Whetstone; although it is Bantam's indiscretion, and Arthur chides Bantam, he is still considered guilty by association in Whetstone's eyes and becomes a target of Whetstone's later revenge. Arthur is one of the guests at Lawrence and Parnell's wedding celebration, and despite the witches' mischief he witnesses there he remains stalwart. He is also one of the onlookers during the Skimmington ritual performed outside the Seely house. Arthur, along with Bantam and Shackston, goes to Whetstone's for supper, in the hopes of reconciling with Whetstone and thus repairing his relationship with Master Generous. After dinner Whetstone retaliates for the earlier insult by offering to conjure the gallants' fathers, and Arthur is confronted by a spirit in the form of Robin, who in a dumb show claims him as his son. Shaken by this, he later confronts the real Robin about his paternity, but Robin vehemently denies fathering him, and Master Generous proves that Robin could not have appeared before Arthur the previous night because both he and Robin have been away on business. This mollifies Arthur, but he begins to suspect Mrs. Generous of witchcraft; when she is later revealed to her husban