A spt. and fishing station at the mouth of the Yare, just at the boundary of Norfolk
and Suffolk; the main part of the town is in the former county, but a small part
is in the latter. It is 122 m. N.E. of Lond. It is an ancient town, and part of
its old walls still remains. The parish ch. of St. Nicholas, founded in 1101,
is one of the largest in England. The Roads afford good anchorage. It is especially
famous for its herring fisheries, and Y. bloaters are renowned throughout the
world. There was a theatre here in the 16th cent. The alternative title of Nash's
Lenten is "Concerning the Description and first Procreation and Increase of the
town of Great Y. in Norfolk." In Jonson's Alchemist
v. 3, Face says, "You shall hear of the Captain at Y., or some good port-town
else, lying for a wind." In Brewer's Lovesick
King ii., Randolph says, "Bid them put in at Lyn and Y." Dekker, in News from
Hell, says, "More salt water runs out of them [Charon's eyes] than would pickle
all the herrings that shall come out of Y."
A town in N.E. Spain in Catalonia, 36 m. N.W. of Barcelona. In B. & F. Pilgrimage,
ii. 4 and iii. 1 and 2 are laid in an inn at Y. and its neighbourhood.
The county town of Yorks., lying at the junction of the Ouse and Foss, 188 m. N. of Lond., on the North Road. Originally it was a British town and was called Caer-Ebroc or Eorauc. Under the Romans it was known as Eboracum and was their military centre in the N. Of the original Roman walls some parts remain near Bootham Bar. The Emperor Hadrian held his court here in A.D. 120; here Severus died in 211 and Constantius Chlorus in 306; and here his son Constantine the Gt. was declared Emperor. After the English conquest it was named Eoforwic, and Edwin after his conversion in 627 made it an archbp.'s see, with jurisdiction over the northern province of England and the whole of Scotland. Under Alcuin it became one of the most famous seats of learning in Europe. The first English Parliament was held at Y. in 1175. The walls of the English city are in good preservation, and are entered by 4 fine gates or bars:
The Castle was enclosed by its present wall in 1836, but it includes remains of the structure of William the Conqueror in Clifford's Tower; it is now (in 1925) used as a gaol. The Minster, dedicated to St. Peter, occupies the site of the ch. in which K. Edwin was baptised in 627; the oldest part of the building is the transepts, which belong to the 13th cent.; the nave was completed in 1345; the new choir in 1400. The towers were built during the 15th cent.; and the building as it now is was consecrated in 1472. The ruins of St. Mary's Abbey date back to the 11th cent. The Ouse has been crossed from time immemorial by a bridge at the point where the Ouse Bdge. now stands. From its position Y. was subject to attacks from the Scots in times of border warfare.
The phrase "from Lond. to Y." is used to mean the whole length of England. Y. is famous in the history of the Drama for the performance by the craft-guilds of a cycle of Mystery Plays from the middle of the 14th cent. till about 1580. This Cycle has been happily preserved and consists of 48 scenes, extending from the Creation to the Day of judgment; but there were originally 57 scenes. The performances took place at the festival of Corpus Christi, on the Thursday after Whit-Sunday.
In Val. Welsh. iv. 5, Caradoc
says, "At Y. the noble Prince Menusius dwells." In Brewer's Lovesick
King, iv. 1, the K. of Scots says, "Alone the city Y. holds firm again,
Whose buildings we will level to the earth Unless they yield up the city." In
Marlowe's Ed. II ii. 2, Lancaster reports:
"Upon the walls of Y. the Scots make road And unresisted draw away rich spoils."
In Ed. III i. 2, K. David says,
"We will so persist With eager roads beyond their city Y." In R2
v. 5, 73, the Groom tells how "travelling towards Y." he has managed to come
to Pontefract to visit the K. In H4
A. v. 5, 36, the K. orders Prince John and Westmoreland to bend "towards
Y. to meet Northumberland." In H4
B. iv. 3, 80, Lancaster, after his victory in Gaultree Forest, says, "Send
Colville with his confederates To Y. to present execution." In ii. 1, the Chief
justice tells Falstaff: "You should have been well on your way to Y." In H6
C. i. 4, 179, Margaret, having captured Richd. of Y., commands: "Off with
his head and set it on Y. gates; So Y. may overlook the town of Y." In ii. 1,
65, the Messenger reports: "They took his head and on the gates of Y. They set
the same." The scene of ii. 2 is laid before Y., and Margaret cries to Henry
"Welcome, my Lord, to this brave town of Y." In ii. 6, 53, Warwick commands:
"From off the gates of Y. fetch down the head, Your father's head, which Clifford
placed there." Act iv. 7 is laid before Y.; the Mayor of Y. and his brethren
appear on the walls; and Edward addresses them: "What then remains, we being
thus arrived From Ravenspurgh before the gates of Y. But that we enter as into
our Dukedom?" In line 79, he decides: "For this night Let's harbour here in
Y." In H8 iv. 2, 12, Griffith
tells Q. Katharine how "the stout Earl Northumberland Arrested him [Wolsey]
at Y." In Preston's Cambises, O.E.D.
i. 294, Hob says of a chine of pork: "There is no vatter between this and Y."
In Dekker's Northward i. 1, Greenshield
quotes an old prophecy: "Lincoln was, Lond. is, and Y. shall be." In Brome's
Northern ii. 1, Widgin says, "I
have a great many southern songs already; but northern airs nips it dead. Y.,
Y. for my money!" In Edwards' Damon
xiii., Jacke sings, "Here is the trimmest hogs-flesh from Lond. to Y." In Wilkins'
Enforced Marriage ii., the Clown,
setting out from Lond. to Yorkshire, says, "I will cry, and every town betwixt
Shoreditch-ch. and Y.-bdge shall bear me witness." Drayton, in Idea xxxii. 6,
says, "Y. many wonders of her Ouse can tell." W. Rowley, in Search Intro., tells
of a man who for a wager hopped "from Y. to Lond."
The title of Duke of Y. was first held by Edmund Langley, 5th son of Edward
III. He was created D. in 1385 and died in 1402. In Egerton MS. Play ii., he
is spoken of as "The counterfeit, relenting D. of Y."; and later on it is said
"The D. of Y. is gentle, mild, and gracious." He is an important character in
R2, where he is called twice "good
old Y.," and again "the good D. of Y." and "kind uncle Y." He is also prominent
in Trag. Richd. II; in ii. 1,
126, the K. says, "Y. is gentle, mild, and generous." In Span.
Trag. i., Hieronimo says, "The 2nd knight that hung his scutcheon up Was
Edmund, Earl of Kent in Albion; When English Richd. wore the diadem, He came
likewise and razed Lisbon walls; for which He after was created D. of Y." The
K, of Portugal, Ferdinand, sought help
- Micklegate Bar on the S.;
- Bootham Bar on the N.;
- Monk Bar, formerly Goodramgate Bar, on the W., on the Scarborough road; and
- Walmgate Bar on the S.E.