The famous Inn in Southwark, on the E. side of the Borough High St., opposite to St. Margaret's Ch. It was burnt down in 1676, but rebuilt, its sign being changed to The Talbot. It disappeared in 1876, but its site is marked by Talbot Inn Yard. The old Kent St. has also been re-christened T. St. in its memory Speight, in his edition of Chaucer (1598), says, "A T. is a jacket or sleeveless coat, worn now only by heralds. It is the sign of an inn in Southwarke by Lond., within the which was the lodging of the Abbot of Hyde by Winchester. This was the hostelry where Chaucer and the other pilgrims met together, and with Henry Bailey their host accorded about the manner of their journey to Canterbury." Chaucer, C. T. A. 20, relates how he lay on the night before the pilgrimage "in Southwark at the T." Taylor, in Carrier's Cosmogr., mentions another T. "in Gracious St. near the Conduit."
See MERCHANT-TAILORS HALL.
A kind of hunting-hound, used as a bookseller's sign in Lond. It was the badge
of the T. family. Three Ladies
was "printed by Roger Wade dwelling near Holbourne Conduit at the sign of the
T. 1584." T. Heywood's Witches was
"printed by Thomas Harper for Benjamin Fisher and are to be sold at his shop at
the sign of the T, without Aldersgate. 1634."
See THAMES STREET.
See THAMES STREET.
(area only; site unmarked)
(Tr. = Templar). A piece of land in Lond., lying S. of the W. end of Fleet St., between it and the Thames, and extending from Bouverie St. to Essex St. Formerly it included the Outer T., to the W. of Essex St. In 1118 the Knights Trs. obtained a settlement in Lond., in Holborn; this Old T. stood on the site now occupied by Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, and extended as far as Holborn. In 1184 they removed to the site S. of Fleet St. which was long called the New T., and included the Outer, Middle, and Inner T. There they built a Refectory, afterwards used as the Inner T. Hall, and the glorious ch. which, happily, still remains.. The Hall was rebuilt on the old foundations in 1870. The first portion of the Ch. to be erected was the W. end, known as the Round; it was designed in imitation of the Ch. of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, and dates from 1185. The Oblong, or Choir, was added in 1240. After suffering many things at the hands of restorers, the worst of which was the destruction in 1825 of the chapel of St. Anne S. of the Round, it was brought back, as nearly as possible, to its original condition in 1842, and many disfiguring accretions were removed. In the Round are the cross-legged effigies of many of the old Knights; and many other distinguished people are buried there, including William of Pembroke and his 2 sons, the learned Selden, and Richd. Martin, to whom Jonson dedicated his Poetaster. During our period the Round was used, like the middle aisle of St. Paul's, as a meeting-place for lawyers and their clients. When the Trs. were suppressed in 1313 Edward II granted their property to Thomas of Lancaster; when he was beheaded in 1322 it went to Aylmer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, and from him to Hugh le Despenser. In 1324, however, it was handed over by Act of Parliament to the Knights Hospitallers of St. John, though they did not actually get possession till 1338; and they leased the Inner and Middle T. to the lawyers, the Outer having been already given to the Bp. of Exeter for his town-house. It is not certain whether the 2 Inns of Court, as they were now called, Were originally separate, but they were early divided into the 2 Legal Colleges of the Inner and Middle T. Henceforward a Tr. means not a warrior-priest, but a gentleman of the Long Robe. The Inner T. used the Refectory of the old Knights as its Hall; but both this and most of the other buildings of the Inner T. perished in the Gt. Fire. The gate-house in Fleet St. erected in the 5th year of James I escapedand still [ed. note in 1925]remains at 17 Fleet St. turned into a hairdresser's shop. The Ch. as used in common by the 2 Inns. The Middle T. Gate was erected in 1684 and replaced an older gate built by Wolsey. The Hall was built in 1572, and is one of the finest specimens of Elizabethan architecture surviving at the present day. In it Tw. N. was first performed on Feb. 2nd, 1601. The T. Gardens, lying between the buildings and the Thames, and including the famous Fountain Court, are still as delightful as ever. It was customary to hold "revels "in the Halls of tile T. from time to time; and the Trs. not infequently prepared Masques on a magnificent scale to present before the King and Court. Noteworthy amongst them are Chapman's Masque of the Middle T. and Lincoln's Inn and Beaumont's Masque of the Inner T. and Gray's Inn, both presented in 16l3 in honour of the wedding of the Princess Elizabeth; Browne's Ulysses and Circe, an Inner T. Masque of 1615; Marston's InnerMiddle T. Masque of Heroes of 1619; and Shirley's Triumph of Peace, given by all the Inns of Court in 1634. Amongst our dramatists, Francis Beaumont and William Browne were members of the Inner, John Marston and John Ford of the Middle T. Chaucer is said to have belonged to the Inner T., but the evidence is not conclusive. One of his Pilgrims (C. T. A. 567) was "A gentil Maunciple of a t. Of maistres hadde he mo than thries ten That weren of lawe expert and curious." Spenser, in Prothalamion 133, commemorates "those bricky towers The which on Thames broad, ancient back do ride Where now the studious lawyers have their bowers; There whilom wont the Templer Knights to bide, Till they decayed through pride."
The Temple in General. In H6 A. ii. 5, 19, the gaoler says to Mortimer, "Richd. Plantagenet, my lord, will come; We sent unto the T. unto his chamber." Jonson, in Underwoods xxx., satirizes the land-pirates who "man out their boats to the T.," i.e. go there to beg, borrow, or steal money. In Mayne's s Match i. 1, Seathrift says of his nephew: "I have not forgot his riots at the T." Students were students then as now, and had their raggings and riots from time to time. In Davenant's Wits v., Ms. Snore says, "I was fain to invite thy clerk to a fee-pie, sent me by a T.-cook, my sister's sweetheart." A T.-cook is a lawyer, a fee-pie a writ. In Stucley 149, Old Stucley says, "I'll to the T. to see my son." But Stucley was never a member of the T. In Brome's Damoiselle ii. 1, Oliver asks: "Where is Brookall's son? He had a hopeful one, and at 16 A student here i' the T."
Templar in the sense of a Knight Templar.Fynes Moryson, Itin. i. 84, speaks of "the Priory of St. John, belonging of old to the Templary Knights, and now to the Knights of Rhodes or Malta." Blount, Glossogr. (s.v. TEMPLARIES) says, "These Trs. first founded and built the Temples or Tr's. Inne in Fleet-greet." In Rabelais i. 5, Gargantua says, "I drink no more than a sponge; I drink like a T. Knight."
Tr. in the Sense of a Lawyer.In Puritan i. 2, Pyebord says, "Let's spend with judgment, like a sober and discreet Templer." In Ret. Pernass. ii. 4, Stercutio says, "You must pardon meI did not know you were a gentleman of the T. before." In Middleton's R.G. iii. 1, Moll, who is dressed as a man, professes to be "one of the T." In his Michaelmas ii. 3, Quomodo says his son "was a Cambridge man; but now he's a Templer." In Cartwright's Ordinary ii. 1, Have-at-all, boasting of the valour he intends to display in a st. fight, says, "None shall hold back this fatal arm; the Templers shall not dare to attempt a rescue," In Cuckqueans i. 2, Shift says, "If so I see a Termer trudgeth toward the T., I take him by the sleeve."
The Temple Church.In B. & F. Captain ii. 2, Clara says, "I would have him buried, even as he lies, Crosslegged, like one of the Trs." In Brome's Couple i. 1, Careless says, "I will rather walk down to the T. and lay myself down alive in the old synagogue cross-legged among the monumental knights." In Penn. Parl. 38, it is provided: "The images in the T. ch., if they rise again, shall have commission to dig down Charing Cross with their fauchions." In Jonson's Alchemist ii. 1, Face says, "Here's one desires You meet him in the T. ch. some half-hour hence And upon earnest business." Later he says, "The T. ch., there have I cast my angle." Surly, however, fails to appear, and in iii. 2, Face says, "I have walked the Round till now, and no such thing!" Middleton, in Hubburd, p. 67, says, "He had made choice of a lawyer, a mercer, and a merchant, who that morning were appointed to meet in the T. ch." W. Rowley, in Search 27, says, "Now we were entred the T. . . . there the pillars were hung with poor men's petitions; nay, the very T. it self stood without his cap and so had stood many years;, . . . somewhat had been gathered in his behalf, but not half enough to supply his necessity." The building had fallen into disrepair in the early part of the 17th cent.
The Temple Hall.In H4 A. iii. 3, 223, Prince Hal says, "Jack, meet me tomorrow in the t. hall at 2 o'clock in the afternoon." In H6 A. ii. 4, 3, Suffolk says, "Within the T.-hall we were too loud; The garden here is more convenient." In both cases the Inner T. Hall is historically the one intended.
The Temple Gate.In Killigrew's Parson i. 1, the Capt. says of a beggar: "He would dive at Westminster like a dab-chick, and rise again at T.-gate."
Temple Gardens.The, scene of H6 A. ii. 4 is laid in the T. Garden, where the white and red roses are plucked that are to be the badges of the rival houses of York and Lancaster. In line 1.25, Warwick says, "This brawl today, Grown to this faction in the T. garden, Shall send, between the red rose and the white, A thousand souls to death." In Davenant's Wits iv., Thrift says that nothing is needed for the funeral but "a little rosemary, which thou may'st steal from the T. garden." In Middleton's Hubburd, p. 67, he says, "They appointed us near the T. Garden to attend their Counsellor." In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] i. 5, Jolly chaffs Cutter and Worm on taking "melancholy turns in the T. walks "and saying to the people they meet: "You wonder why your lawyer stays so long."
The Temples Distinguished by Name.In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 2, Warwick asks: "Where shall this meeting be?" and the Archbp. replies: "At the New T." This was before the coming of the lawyers to the T.; it is called New in distinction from the Old T. in Holborn. In Ret. Pernass. iii. 1, Sir Raderick says, "I am going to speak with an unthrift I should meet at the Middle T. about a purchase." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 323, a Lord says of Dr. Parry: "He did intend the murder of a gentleman, one Mr. Hare here, of the Inner T."
Temple Masques and Revels.In Dekker's Satiro. v. 2, 238, Sir Vaughan says to Horace (Jonson): "You shall swear not to bumbast out a new play with the old linings of jests stolen from the Ts.' revels." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i. 2, Sim suggests that Bloodhound should make the bones of a delinquent debtor into dice, "and then 'tis but letting Master Alexander carry them next Christmas to the T., he'll make 100 marks a night of them." Gambling became so rife in the T. that it was forbidden except during Christmas.
Booksellers Near the Temple.Dekker's Wonder was "printed by Robert Haworth for Nicholas Vavasour and art to be sold at his shop in the T. near the Ch. door. 1636.11 Noble Soldier was "printed for Nicholas Vavasour and are to be sold 4t his shop in the T. near,the Ch. 1634." Davenant's Platonic was "printed for Richd. Meigen next to the Middle T. in Fleet St. 1636." See also INNER TEMPLE, INNS of COURT, MIDDLE TEMPLE.
A gate marking the limit of the jurisdiction of the city of Lond., at the W. end of Fleet St. It was probably at first merely a set of posts and a chain, and is first mentioned in Rolls of Parliament (13145) as "La barre du Novel T. de Lundres." But a building of some sort must soon have been erected, for in 1358 we find it used as a prison. In 1381 it was burned down by Wat Tyler and his crowd; and was replaced by what Stow describes as a house of timber erected across the st., with a narrow gateway, and an entry on the S. side under the house. This was the T. B. as Shakespeare knew it. In 1670 it was taken down and a new gate of Portland stone built from Wren's designs. Until 1753 it was closed every night. Traitors' heads were exhibited on the top of it until as late as 1772, when the last of these grisly trophies was blown down. The Gate was removed in 1878 because of its obstruction to traffic, and its place marked by the notorious Griffin. Happily it was re-erected at Theobalds in 1888, each stone having been marked so that it could be exactly replaced. For a long time the room over the Gate was occupied by Child's Bank and used as a store-room for old ledgers and account-books. Skelton, in Colin Clout 821, scoffs at Dr. Daupatus for not being able to tell "How far T. B. is From the seven starris." In his Elynor Rummin iv., drunken Alice tells "that there hath been great war between T. B. and the Cross in Cheape." The reference is to the fights between the law students of the T. and the prentices of Cheapside, like the Town and Gown fights at Oxford and Cambridge. In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says, "A number of better things between Westminster Bdge. and T. B. are fallen to decay since Charing fell." In Trag. Richd. II. v. 3, 75, Nimble says, "Nay, I have studied for my learning; I can tell you, my lord, there was not a stone between Westminster Hall and T. B. but I have told them every morning." The law-students spent their time between the Inns of Court in the T. and the Courts in Westminster Hall. In Marmion's Companion v. 2, Lackwit says of a newlymarried couple: "If I had not been they had been as far asunder as T.-B. and Aldgate," i.e. the whole width of the city. In Brome's Northern ii. 5, Pate promises: "Thou shalt start up as pretty a gentleman usher as any between T.-B. and Charing Cross." The Strand was then the fashionable quarter of Lond. In Shirley's Pleasure i. 2, Celestina, who is intent on becoming a lady of fashion with a house in the Strand, says, "My balcony Shall be the courtiers' idol, and more gazed at Than all the pageantry at T. B.," i.e. the traitors' heads exposed there, which people used to come to seeso much so that some ingenious persons used to hire out spy-glasses to them, so that they could get a better view.
The laundresses who waited on the Templars had not too good a reputation for chastity. In Dekker's Witch iv. 1, Cuddy says, "The Devil in St. Dunstan's will as soon drink with this poor cur as with any T.-B. laundress that washes and wrings lawyers." The Devil Tavern (q.v.) was next to T. B. In Killigrew's Parson iv. 7, the Parson talks of "the wainscot chamber-maids with brooms and bare-foot madam you see sold at T.-b. and the Exchange." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i. Bloodhound bids his son, "As you come by T.-b., make a step to the Devil." In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] i. 6, Worm says that Cutter was "Cromwell's agent for all the taverns between King's-st. and the Devil at T. B." In Prodigal ii. 4, Oliver proposes: "Let's meet at the Rose at T.-B.; that will be nearer your counsellor and mine "(see ROSE TAVERN). In Middleton's Inner Tem. 19, Fasting-Day says, "The butchers' boys at T. B. set their great dogs upon me." Butcher Row was just outside T. B. on the N. side of the Strand; it was cleared away in i 802.
In Glapthorne's Wit v. 1, a watchman tells of a monster "very like the mandrake was shown at T.-B." Fleet St. was the favourite place for the exhibition of curiosities like this. Lupton's All for Money was "printed by Roger Warde and Richard Mundee dwelling at T. Barre anno 1578."
A quadrangular building for the playing of tennis. There were at least 14 tennis-courts in Lond. at the beginning of the 17th cent. They are given in a list from a MS. of 16l5 as follows: Whitehall (two), Somerset House, Essex House, Fetter Lane, Fleet St., Blackfriars, Southampton House, Charterhouse, Powles Chain, Abchurch Lane, Lawrence Pountney, Fenchurch St, and Crutched Friars. In Puritan ii. 1, Simon says that Edmund "is at vain exercise,dripping in the T.-c." In H4 B. ii. 2, 21, Prince Hal, talking about Poins' shirts; says, "That the T.-c. keeper knows better than I; for it is a low ebb of linen with thee when thou keepest not racket there."
The river on which Lond. stands. The name was originally Tamesis, and became in English Temes; the 'h' was inserted through the influence of French about the beginning of the 16th cent., but it has never been pronounced, and the river is still called, as it always has been, the Temz. It rises in Gloucestershire and, until it joins the Thame near Dorchester, is often called the Isis. Spenser, F. Q. iv. 11, 24, speaks of the Thame and Isis as being the father and mother of "the noble T.," but this is all nonsensethe river was called Tamesis, or T., from its source to its mouth. On its way to Lond. it passes
It reaches Lond. Bdge. after a course of abt. 170 m., and is now [ed note: circa 1923 and before the Thames Barrier was erected] at high tide 800 ft. wide and 30 ft. deep. From the Bridge to Rotherhithe it is called the Upper Pool; thence to Cuckold's Point, the Lower Pool; thence to Deptford, Limehouse Reach; then come Greenwich Reach and Blackwall Reach. Then, passing Woolwich and Gravesend, it reaches the North Sea between Sheerness and Shoeburyness, the beginning of the estuary being marked by the Nore Light, 40 m. below Lond. In Lond. the chief objects of interest on the banks of the river were, on the N. side, starting from Westminster:
- Teddington, and
On the S. side, Lambeth Palace stood opposite Westminster; then came the long stretch of Lambeth Marsh, the Bankside at Southwark and the Theatres, Winchester House, and the Ch. of St. Mary Overy. It was crossed by one bdge. only in Lond., the famous Lond. Bdge. (q.v.), and through its narrow arches the tide ran with great noise and violence, making the shooting of the Bdge. a perilous adventure. The other bdges. that are mentioned were merely gangways leading to the various landing stages. The river was navigable up to the Bdge. for the largest vessels of the time, and the Pool was filled with the shipping of all the world. Though all the sewage of the city fell into the river, most of it by the Fleet Ditch, it was nevertheless a clear stream, in which salmon and other fish could be caught, and on whose bosom a multitude of swans sailed to and fro. It was also constantly used for swimming and bathing; indeed, the citizens had no other means of getting a bath. It was the main thoroughfare of Lond., and watermen kept up an unintermitting cry of "Eastward Hoe!" or "Westward Hoe!" as the case might be. Stow estimates that there were 2000 wherries and 3000 watermen employed. It was not often frozen over; but this did sometimes happen, owing partly to the obstruction of the current by the piers of the Bdge. Such frosts are recorded in 1564, 1608, 1634, and some half a dozen later years.
Jonson, in the verses prefixed to the 1st Folio of Shakespeare, says, "Sweet swan of Avon, what a sight it were To see thee in our waters yet appear, And make those flights upon the banks of T. That so did take Eliza and our James." The reference is to the acting of plays at the palaces of Greenwich and Whitehall. In Middleton's R.G. iv. 1, Moll says she will sing to the viol "like a swan above bdge; For, look you, here's the bdge. (i.e. of the viol] and here am I." Drayton, in Idea xxxii. 1, says, "Our floods' queen, T., for ships and swans is crowned." In M.W.W. iii. 3, 16, Mrs. Ford gives her men directions to empty the clothesbasket in which Falstaff was hidden "in the muddy ditch close by the T. side." In iii. 5, 6, the fat knight exclaims: "Have I lived to be carried in a basket and to be thrown in the T."; and begs for some sack to pour "to the T. water." Later on, he tells Ford how he "was thrown into the T. and cooled, glowing hot, in that surge like a horse-shoe"; yet he vows: "I will be thrown into Etna, as I have been into T., ere I will leave her thus." In H5 iv. 1, 120, Bates says of the K.: "I believe he could wish himself in T. up to the neck." In H6 B. iv. 8, 3, Cade cries: "Up Fish st.! Down St. Magnus corner! Throw them into T.!" In T. Heywood's Fortune v. 1, the Purser greets the river: "Fair T., Queen of fresh water, famous through the world." In his Ed. IV A. i., the Mayor asks: "What if we stop the passage of the T. With such provision as we have of ships?" i.e. to stop the Kentish rebels from crossing. In Dekker's London's Tempe, Oceanus says, "The Grand Canale a poor landscip is To these full braveries of Thamesis." In Caesar's Rev. iii. 2, Caesar says, "Isis wept to see her daughter T. Change her clear christal to vermilion sad." In Webster's Weakest i. 2, Bunch says, "I was as ale-draper, as T. and Tower Wharf can witness." In Nobody 754, Nobody boasts that he will fence Lond. with a wall of brass "and bring the Tems through the middle of it." In More iii. 3, More tells how Erasmus, on leaving for Rotterdam "with tears Troubled the silver channel of the T." In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage ii. 2, the Clown says, "Mine eyes are Severn; the T., nor the river Tweed, are nothing to them." Spenser, F. Q. iv. 11, describes the marriage between "the noble Thamis," the K. of all English rivers, and the Medway. Milton, in Vac. Exercise 100, calls it "Royal-towered T."
In St. Hilary's Tears (1642), we read: "The coaches now seem like western barges on the T. at a high tide, here and there one." The barges for the W. would have gone up with the tide, and few of them would be left. In Davenant's Rutland, p. 217, the Parisian says of the T.: "The pleasure of it will hardly be in the prospect or freedom of air, unless prospect, consisting of variety, be made up with here a palace, there a woodyard, here a garden, there a brew-house; here dwells a lord, there a dyer." On p. 228, the Chorus sings of Lond.: "She is cooled and cleansed by streams Of flowing and of ebbing T." In Dekker's Westward ii. 3, Justiniano says, "Come, drink up Rhine, T., and Meander dry." In Kirke's Champions v. 1, the Clown says, "I find whole oxen boiled in a pottage pot that will hold more water than the T." Nash, in Lenten, p. 291, says, "Every man can thrash corn out of the fun sheaves, and fetch water out of the T." In Shirley's Pleasure iv. 2, Frederick says, "We'll have music; I love noise. We will outroar the T. and shake the Bdge." See also under LONDON BDGE.
Jonson, in Epilogue to Ev. Man O., says, "Our city's torrent [i.e. the Fleet Ditch] bent to infect The hallowed bowels of the silver T. Is checked by strength and clearness of the river Till it hath spent itself e'en at the shore." In his Epicoene iv. 2, Daw asks: "Is the T. the less for the dyers' water?" In Brome's Damoiselle i. 2, Bumpsey says, "Let him throw money into the T., make ducks and drakes with pieces, I'll do the like." In Webster's Weakest i. 3, Bunch says, "Ye base butter-box, ye Smelt, your kinsfolk dwell in the T., and are sold like slaves in Cheapside." In Hg B. iv. 4, 125, Clarence says, "The river hath thrice flowed, no ebb between; And the old folk . . . Say it did so a little time before That our great-grandsire, Edward, sicked and died." Holinshed says that this took place on October 12th, 1412; but there is no authority for the statement that it happened before the death of Edward III. Dekker, in Raven's, says, "When the T. is covered over with ice, then mayst thou be bold to swear it is winter." In Mayne's s Match v. 2, Dorcas says to Warehouse, "They would just find you as hot as the sultry winter that froze o'er the T. They say the hard time did begin from you." In Hall's Characters, one of the topics of the Busybody's conversation is "the freezing of the T." Drayton, in Elegy of his Lady (1627) says, "The T. was not so frozen yet this year As is my bosom." W. Rowley, in Search Intro., says that his readers "in the hard season of the great frost . . . slid away the time upon the T."
The T. stands for England. In Fisher's Fuimus iii. 5, Nennius prays: "Grant T. and Tiber never join their channels"; and in ii. 1, he says, "Rhine and Rhône can serve And envy T. his never-captive stream." Daniel, is Epist. Prefatory to Cleopatra, says, "How far T. doth outgo declined Tibur," i.e. in poetry.
- Westminster Hall and Palace,
- Scotland Yard,
- York House,
- Durham House,
- Ivy Lane,
- Russell House,
- the Savoy Palace,
- Somerset House,
- Arundel House,
- Essex House,
- The Temple,
- Bridewell Palace,
- Baynard's Castle,
- Queen Hythe,
- The Three Cranes,
- the Stillyard,
- Cole Harbour,
- Old Swan,
- London Bdge.,
- St. Magnus Ch.,
- Lion Key,
- the Custom House, and
- the Tower.
In Lond., running along the N. bank of the T., from Blackfriars to the Tower. It was divided into Upper T. St. above, and Lower T. St. below, Lond. Bdge. It was thronged with the carts bringing merchandise to the warehouses, or taking it away; and the combined smell of tar and fish made it specially unsavoury. Starting from the W. end it contained, in order, the churches of St. Benet, St. Peter, St. James, and All Hallows the Great; and below the Bdge. St. Magnus and St. Dunstan in the E. Other important buildings were, in the same order, Baynard's Castle, Vintners Hall, Cold-harbour, the Steelyard, Billingsgate Market, and the Custom House. The chief landing stages were Broken Wharf, Queen Hythe, and Old Swan Stairs. Chaucer was probably born at his father's tavern, which was at the spot where the Cannon St. Station now crosses the st. The whole st. from Pudding Lane westward was destroyed in the Gt. Fire. In Fair Women ii. 787, a lord reports ` that a merchant's slain, one Master Sanders, dwelling near Tames st." The title of one of Yarrington's Two Tragedies is "The Murder of Master Beech, a chandler in T.-st." Dekker, in Wonderful Year, tells a ghastly story of the death of "the church-warden in T. st." In J. Heywood's Johan and Tib, p. 70, Johan, the husband, boasts how he will beat his wife; but on her return says he has been talking of "beating stock-fish in Temmes st." The part of the st. near the Bdge. was sometimes called Stockfishmonger Row.
In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 1, Wellbred says, "Would we were e'en pressed to make porters of and serve out the remnant of our days in T. st. or at Custom House key, in a civil war against the carmen." In Feversham v. 1, Will says, "In Temes st. a brewer's cart was like to have run over me." In B. & F. Scornful ii. 3, Savil says, "Come home, poor man, like a type of T. st., stinking of pitch and poor-john." In their Prize v. 1, Livia says, "O what a stinking thief is this! T.-st. to him is a mere pomander." In their Nightwalker iv. 3, Toby says, "You think you are in T.-st. justling the carts." In Cavendish's Wolsey vii., Wolsey's route from York House to Greenwich is described: "He landed at the Three Cranes in Vine-tree, and from thence he rode upon his mule along T.-st., until he came to Billingsgate; there he took his barge, and so to Greenwich." There were some booksellers in the st. Selimus was "printed by Thomas Creede dwelling in T. st. at the sign of the Kathern wheel near the old Swan. 1594." The 1st edition of Howleglas about 1550 was "imprinted at Lond. in Tamestreete at the Vintre on the three-craned Wharf."
(Tr. = Theater). The first London play-house [ed. note: the first permanent London playhouse: the Red Lion of 1567 has prior claims to "first," but it was apparently a temporary structure], erected in 1576 by James Burbage and John Brayne. It stood somewhere on the piece of land between Curtain Rd., Holywell Lane, and Gt. Eastern St, close to the road leading from Bishopsgate to Shoreditch ch. It was an amphitheatre in design, with a movable stage of trestles. It was closed in July 1597, and the timber taken over in 1598 to the Bankside, and used in the erection of the Globe. The price of admission was 2d. John Stockwood, in a Sermon at Paul's Cross (1578), speaks bitterly of "the gorgeous playing-place erected in the fields" called "a Tr." . . . "a shew-place of all beastly and filthy matters." In a letter from William Fleetwood to Lord Burghley, June 18th, 1584, complaint is made of a disturbance "very near the Tr. or Curtain at the time of the plays" and it is related that 2 aldermen were sent to the court "for the suppressing and pulling down of the Tr. and Curtain." Lyly, in Pappe, p. 73, says of a certain play: "If it be shewed at Paules, it will cost you 4d.; at the Tr. 2d." In Tarlton's News, we have: "Upon Whison Monday last I would needs to the Tr. to a play." Nash, in Pierce E. 1, says, "Tarlton at the Tr. made jests of him," to wit, a certain astrologer. Lodge, in Wits Miseries (1596), says, "He looks as pale as the visard of the ghost which cries so miserably at the T., like an oyster-wife, 'Hamlet, revenge!'" This was probably not Shakespeare's play, but an earlier version of the Hamlet story. In Skialetheia (1598), the author says, "See, yonder one, like the unfrequented T., walks in dark silence and vast solitude." Middleton, in Black Book, says, "He had a head of hair like one of my devils in Dr. Faustus, when the old T. crackt and frightened the audience."
(area only; site unmarked)
A short st. in Westminster, curving round from the W. side of King St. to Broken Cross. It was the way by which thieves were taken to the Gatehouse prison: hence the name Thieven L., corrupted into T. L. It was also called Bow St. from its semi-circular course. It corresponded to certain parts of the present Gt. George St. and Princes St. It was a poor st, chiefly occupied by dealers in 2nd-hand goods. In Dekker's Edmonton v. 1, Cuddy says to his dog, "If thou goest to Lond., I'll make thee go about by Tyburn, stealing in by T. L." In B. & F. Wit S. W. iv. 1, the servant says to Credulous, "I'm charged to see you placed in some new lodging about T.-l." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i., Bloodhound says, "Run to Master Earlack's the informer, in T.-l., and ask him what he has done in my business."
THOMAS (SAINT) APOSTLES
A ch. in Lond. In Knightrider St., built in 1371. It was destroyed in the ', Gt. Fire and not rebuilt, the parish being included in that of St. Mary Aldermary. In Middleton's R.G. iii. 1, Moll says to Trapdoor, "Follow me to St. T. A.; I'll put a livery cloak upon your back the first thing I do." The clothiers' shops were in this neighbourhood. In Peele's Jests, we are told: "They parted, she home, George into St. T. A., to a friend of his." There was another St. T. A. on the N. side of St. Thomas St., Southwark. The sculptor of the bust of Shakespeare in the church at Stratford was "Gerard Johnson, a Hollander, in St. T. Apostells."
THOMAS (SAINT) A WATERINGS
A watering place for horses at the 2nd milestone out of Lond. on the Old Kent Rd., where it crossed a small stream. The name was given to it because the Pilgrims to the shrine of St. T.;k Becket at Canterbury passed this way. The exact point was the junction of the Old Kent Rd. and Albany Rd. It was the boundary of the borough liberties, and was the place of execution for the county of Surrey, as Tyburn was for Middlesex. Regular executions were discontinued about the middle of the 18th cent, but 2 men were hanged here for a murder in Chester in 1834. Chaucer, in C. T. A. 826, says, "Forth we riden, a litel more than paas, Unto the wateryng of Seint T."
In Peele's Ed. I xii., the Farmer says, "I am his [St. Francis's] receiver and am now going to him; a bids St. T. a w. to breakfast this morning to a calve's head and bacon." The reference is to, the hanging which the Farmer was about to earn by robbing the Friar of St. Francis. In Hester, Anon. Pl., p. 267, Adulation speaks of him "that from stealing goeth to St. T. Watering"; and, later, Handy-dandy says, "They gave you all their pride and flattering, And, after that, St. T. Watering, There to rest a tide." In Fulwell's Like, Dods. iii. 324, Newfangle proposes to Tosspot and Royster the acquisition of a piece of land called "St. T. a W. or else Tyburn Hill." In Hycke, 195, Frewyll says of highwaymen: "At St. T. of Watrynge an they strike a sail, Then must they ride in the haven of hemp without fail." In Jonson's New Inn i. 1, the Host says, "He may perhaps take a degree at Tyburn; come to read a lecture upon Aquinas at St. T. a W., and so go forth a laureat in hemp circle." Aquinas was St. T. Aquinas; and there is a pun on Aquinas, from Latin aqua (water), and Waterings. In Owl's Almanac 55, it is said, "A fair pair of gallows is kept at Tyburn; and the like fair (but not so much resort of chapmen and crackropes) is at St. T. a Watrings." Lyly, in Pappe, p. 73, says of Vetus Comedia: "If it be shewed at Paules it will cost you 4d.; at the Theatre 2d." at Sainct T. a Watrings nothing." The suggestion is that Penry (Martin Marprelate), against whom this pamphlet was written, will be hanged at St. T. a W.; which actually came to pass in 1593. Taylor, Works 1, 77, says, "I have seen many looking through a hempen window at St. T. W."; and in ii. 162, "He at St. T. W. may go swing." In Puritan i. 1, Moll, mocking at her mother's lamentations for her dead husband, says, "A small matter bucks a handkercherand sometimes the spittle stands too nigh St. T. a Watrings." She means that a widow who weeps extravagantly often comes to be a prostitute, and has to be sent to the Spittle.
THOMAS (SAINT) OF AKERS, ACRES, or ACON
A ch. and hospital in Lond., on the N. side of Cheapside, near the corner of Ironmonger Lane, where now is the Mercers' Hall and Chapel. It was built by Agnes, sister of T. 'd Becket, on the site of the house in which he was born. The name was given to it because Becket's mother, of whom the well-known and pathetic story is told how she followed her lover to Lond, knowing only his name Gilbert, and found him by repeating it, was born at Acon, or Acre; another and less likely account is that it is said that St. T. assisted miraculously in the capture of Acre. On the dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII sold it to the Mercers' Company, who made it into their chapel. In Latimer's Sermon before Edward VI, April 12th, 1547, he tells a story of a lady who said "I am going to St. Tomas of A., to the sermon. I never failed of a good nap there." In Skelton's Colin Clout, the prelates complain, "At St. T. of Ackers They carp us like crackers." The 4th Merry Jest of the Widow Edyth (15.25) tells how she "deceived a Doctor of Divinity at St. T. of A. in Lond. Of 5 nobles he laid out for her." In Deloney's Reading xi., a report is brought to Colebrook "that Lond. was all on a fire, and that it had burned down T. Becket's house in W. Cheape." As the supposed date is in the reign of Henry I, this is a curious anachronism. Milton, in Areopagitica, p. 41 (Hales), refers to it as "our London trading St. T."from its connection with the Mercers.
Lond. It ran from the Stocks Market, where the Mansion House now stands, to Bishopsgate. The W. end has been absorbed by the approach to the Royal Exchange. The name appears to have been originally Three Needle St., from the arms of the Needlemakers' Company, viz., "Three needles in a fesse argent." On the S. side were the Royal Exchange and the Merchant-Taylors' Hall; on the N. the hospital of St. Anthony, where the Bank of England is now, and St. Bartholomew's Ch. The street was famous for its taverns, which were 20 or more in number, and included the Cock, the Crown, and the King's Arms. Hence the allusion in Jonson's Christmas, where Christmas, introducing the Masquers, says, "This, I tell you, is our jolly Wassel, And for Twelfth Night more meet too. She works by the ell, and her name is Nell, And she dwells in T. St. too." In his Magnetic v. 5, Sir Moth says, "We met at Merchant-tailors-hall at dinner in T.-st."
A tavern sign in Lond. From the quotation it appears that there was a Three Bears in the neighbourhood of St. Katharine's, q.v. In Jonson's Augurs, Notch says, "His project is that we should all come from the three dancing bears in St. Katharine's hard by where the priest fell in, which ale-house is kept by a distressed lady whose name will not be known."
A tavern at Mile-end Green, Lond. There was another on the S. side of Bevis Marks. In Day's B. Beggar iv., Strowd says, "Go thy ways to Mile-end-green to my father's lodgings at the Three Colts."
(only wharf marked)
A famous Lond. tavern, in Upper Thames St., just below the present Southwark Bdge, at the top of T. C. Lane. It was named after the three cranes of timber on the adjacent Vintry Wharf, which may be seen in Vischer's View of London (1616). There was only one crane on the wharf until some time between 1550 and 1560, for Foxe, in Acts and Monuments (155.2) vi. 293, calls the Wharf "the Crane in the Vintry." The 2 others were added soon after 1550. The sign of the tavern was punningly blazoned as 3 birds of the crane species. It seems to have been a resort both of wits and a# thieves. There were several printing establishments in the neighbourhood. An undated black-letter edition of Bevis of Hampton was "imprinted at Lond. in the Vinetre upon the thre Crane Wharfe by William Coplande"; and the 1st edition of Howleglas was "imprinted at Lond. in Tamestrete at the Vintre on the three-Craned Wharfe." The date is soon after 1550. In Yarrington's Two Trag. i. 3, Williams says, "i. will seek some rest at the T. C." Dekker, in Bellman, says, "You shall find whole congregations of thieves at St. Quintens, the T. C. in the Vintry." In Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, Littlewit says, "A pox o' these pretenders to wit, your T. C., Mitre, and Mermaid men!" in his Augurs, Urson, the master of the bears, sings: "Nor the Vintry-C., Nor St. Clement's Danes, Nor the Devil can put us down." There was a constant feud between the dramatists and the promoters of bear-baiting, which interfered with the attendance at the plays. The Vintry C. and the Devil are taverns frequented by the wits, and St. Clement's Danes stands for the lawyers of Clement's Inn, who would be on the side of the playwrights. In his Devil i. 1, Iniquity says to Pug, "From thence [Billingsgate] shoot the bridge, child, to the C. in the Vintry And see there the gimlets, how they make their entry." In Abington iv. 3, Nicholas says, "Patience in adversity brings a man to the T. C. in the Vintry." In Jonson's Epicoene ii. 3, Morose says of his nephew: "It knighthood shall go to the C. or the Bear at the Bridge-foot, and be drunk in fear." Harman, in Caveat 24, speaks of it as a haunt of morts and doxies. See also VINTRY.
A common tavern sign in Lond. There was one in St. Giles's, another in Holborn, where 16 to 21 Featherstone Buildings now stand; others in St. John St., Broad St., and Goswell St. In B. & F. Wit S. W. ii. 4, Witty-pate says, "You know our meeting at the T. C. in St. Giles's." In Merry Jests of the Widow Edyth the 12th Jest shows "how this widow Edyth deceived the good man of the T. C. in Holburne."
THREE PIGEONS 
A famous tavern at Brentford, or Brainford as it used to be called, which was at one time kept by John Lowin, one of the first actors in Shakespeare's plays. It was a favourite resort of Londoners intent on a day's outing in the country. In Jonson's Alchemist v. 2, Subtle says to Doll, "We will turn our course to Brainford westward: we'll tickle it at the P." In Middleton's R.G. iii. 1, Laxton says to Moll, who appears in man's dress, "thou'rt admirably suited for the T. P. at Brainford." In iv. 2, Mrs. Goshawk tells how she has heard that her husband "went in a boat with a tilt over it to the T. P. at Brainford, and his punk with him." In Peele's Jests, "My honest George" is said to be "now merry at the T. P. in Brainford."
THREE PIGEONS 
A bookseller's sign in Lond. Davenant's Love and Honour was "printed for Hum. Robinson at the Three Pigeons. 1649."
A tavern in Southwark the exact position of which is uncertain. In Glapthorne's Hollander i. 1, Urinal says of the brothel: "The T. S. in the town I warrant a very sanctuary to it." In iii. 1, Sconce calls the same tavern "the Three skipping Conies in the town." In both cases the town means Southwark, as distinguished from the city of Lond. In Brome's Moor iv. 2, Quicksands says he knows his wife's haunts "at Bridgfoot Bear, the Tunnes, the Cats, the Squirels."
The arms of the Vintners' Company, and therefore a favourite Tavern sign in Lond. The most famous T. T. was in Guildhall Yard, but there were many others, including one in Southwark. In . Cuckold iv. 1, Compass says, "T. T. do you call this tavern? It has a good neighbour of Guildhall." This is the tavern celebrated in Herrick's lines "Ah Ben! Say how or when Shall we thy guests Meet at those lyric feasts Made at the Sun, the Dog, the triple Tunne?" In Deloney's Craft ii. 3, Margaret "got Robin to go before to the t.-Tunnes." In the list of Taverns in News Barthol. Fair, we have "T. T., Newgate Market." In Brome's Moor iv. 2, Quicksands says that he knows his wife's haunts "at Bridgfoot Bear, the Tunnes, the Cats, the Squirels." This refers to the T. T. in the Borough High St., Southwark, near St. George's Ch.
A piece of ground close to Whitehall Palace, used for tournaments in the first instance, but also employed in the reigns of Elizabeth and James for Masques; and even for bull- and bear-baitings. It occupied the part of the parade in St. James's Park just S. of the Horse-guards, over against the Banqueting House. It was the scene of a great Tournament held by Henry VIII in 1540; and during Elizabeth's reign an annual festival was held there on her birthday. In H4 B. iii. 2, 347, Falstaff says of Shallow: "He talks as familiarly of John a Gaunt as if he had been sworn brother to him; and I'll be sworn 'a ne'er saw him but once in the T.-y.; and then he burst his head for crowding among the Marshall's men." In H6 B. i. 3, 62, the Q. says sarcastically of Henry VI: "His study is his t.-y." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 1, Shift promises his pupil in the art of drinking tobacco: "I will undertake in one fortnight to bring you that you shall take it plausibly in any Ordinary, Theatre, or the T.-y." In B. & F. Scornful i. 1, Loveless says of Abigail: "She heard a tale how Cupid struck her in love with a great lord in the t.-y., but he never saw her." In Marston's Malcontent Ind, Sinklow explains the pride he has in the feather he is wearing, "because I got it in the t.y., there was a herald broke my pate for taking it up." In the Triumph of Charles (1641), mention is made of" the T.-y. over against His Majesty's palace of Whitehall." In Shirley's Servant ii. 1, Lodovick asks: "When shall we dance and triumph in the T.-y. In honour of the nuptials?" In Dekker's Satiro 1, 2, 479, Asinius says of Horace (Jonson): "He was dashed once worse, going in a rainy day with a speech to the T.-y." In Middleton's Five Gallants ii. 1, Pursnet says that Fitzgrave is at "some pageant-plot or some device for the T.-y." In Partiall 1, 5, a woman asks: "Which is the way to the T.-y.?" The scene is in Corsica.
A bookseller's sign in Lond. The figure no doubt was the familiar one of an old man with a scythe and hour-glass. Lyly's Love's Meta. was "Printed by William Wood dwelling at the W. end of Paules, at the sign of Time. 1601."
One of the many variations on the name of Turnbull or Turnmill St., q.v. In Dekker's News from Hell, his Ghost speaks of "a pot of that liquor that I was wont to drink with my hostess at the Red Lattise in Tormoyle St."
TOTHILL FIELDS, TOTHILL ST.
See TUTTLE FIELDS, etc.
(Tm. = Totnam). A village abt. 5 m. N. of Lond. on the North Road, between Stamford Hill and Edmonton. The full name of the place is T. High Cross, from the ancient Cross at the N.E. end of the Green. This Cross is mentioned as early as 1456; it was first made of wood, but early in the 16th cent. was rebuilt in brick, which in 1809 was covered with stucco. The river Lea flows past T. and used to be a favourite resort of the followers of Isaac Walton, who himself describes its beauties with enthusiasm. Bruce Castle, now a school, is on the site of an ancient castle once iii the possession of Robert Bruce. The Ch. of All Hallows dates from the 14th cent.
In Merry Devil i., Fabel says, "I'll make my spirits dance such nightly jigs Along the way 'twixt this [Edmonton] and Tm. Cross, The carriers' jades shall cast their heavy packs." In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Satan taunts Pug for priding himself on such paltry feats as "crossing of a market-woman's mare 'Twixt this and T." In Tomkis' Albumazar, Trincalo has a farm at Tm., for which he pays a rent of £10; and the Epilogue invites the audience "to come to Tm. and ask for Trincalo at the sign of the Hogshead." In J. Heywood's Weather, p. 100, Merry Report claims to have been "at T." In Oldcastle iii. 2, Acton reports that the rebels are quartered "some with us in Hygate, some at Finchley, Tm.," etc. In Marston's Mountebanks, the Mountebank says, "I could encounter thee with Tottnam Hie Cross or Cheape Cross." J. Heywood, in Proverbs 14, says, "Their faces told toys that Tm. was turned French." A. Hall, in Iliad iv. 60 (1581), says, "Do what thou canst, the time will come that Tm. French shall turn," i.e. the unexpected will happen. See, however, under TOTNESS. The burlesque Turnament of Totenham is the subject of a 15th cent. ballad preserved in the Percy Reliques ii. i. In Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, Quarlous says, "She may ask your blessing hereafter, when she courts it to Totenham to eat cream." In Brome's New Academy ii. 1, Valentine says to Hannah, "When shall we walk to Tm., or cross o'er the water, or take a coach to Kensington or Paddington or to some one or other o' th' city outleaps for an afternoon?" In both these passages it is possible that T. Court is meant; but I think it more likely that the reference is to T. See under TOTTENHAM COURT.
An ancient manor-house which stood at the junction of T. C. Rd. and Hampstead Rd., on the site now occupied by the Adam and Eve Tavern. It is mentioned in Domesday Book as the property of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's; and is called, up to the time of Elizabeth, Totten, Totnam, or Totting Hall, but never T. It was leased to Elizabeth, and was thereafter called Totten Court; and ultimately, through confusion with T., T. Court. During the 17th cent. it became a favourite resort of Londoners who went out along the country lane, now T. C. Rd., to eat cakes and cream. George Wither, in Britain's Remembrancer (1628), speaks of the cakes and cream at "Totnam C." In the books of St. Giles's Parish (1645), Mrs. Stacey's maid is fined a shilling "for drinking at Tottenhall C. on the Sabbath day." In Nabbes' Bride ii. 4, Squirrel says, "This is some hide-bound student that wencheth at T. C. for stewed prunes and cheese cakes." The passages quoted above under T. from Jonson and Brome probably refer to T. In Jonson's Tub, Squire Tub, of Totten-court, is one of the leading characters; the scenes of i. 1 and v. 3 are laid before his house at Totten-court. Nabbes wrote a play entitled Totenham C., the scene of which is for the most part laid there.
The ancient fortress in Lond., on the N. bank of the Thames, at the S.E. corner of the old city walls, something less than 1/2 mile below Lond. Bdge. A common legend attributed its foundation to Julius Caesar; this is impossible, but it is likely that there was a fortress here in the Roman times. The present building, however, dates from William the Conqueror, who erected the central keep, called the White T., and some part at least of the inner wall, or Ballium. His architect was Gundulf, Bp. of Rochester. Henry III made considerable additions to it, including the embankment and the wharf. Edward I rebuilt the ch. of St. Peter; and by the time of Elizabeth the T. presented much the same appearance as at present, except that the Royal Palace, then lying S. of the White T., was pulled down by Oliver Cromwell. The whole fortress was surrounded by a moat, which was filled from the river. The entrance was at the S.W. corner through the Middle and Byward Ts. The Ts. in the Inner Wall, starting from the Byward T., were, on the W. side, the Bell, Beauchamp or Cobham, and Devereux or Devilin Ts.; on the N., the Flint, Bowyer's, Brick, and Martin or Jewel Ts.; on the E., the Constable, Broad Arrow, and Salt Ts. and on the S., the Lanthorn, Record or Hall, and Bloody T. In the outer wall along the river front were, from E. to W, St. Thomas's T., under which was the Traitors Gate, which gave admission to boats from the river; the Cradle T., the Well T., and two Ts. Protecting the at the S.W. corner. At the S.W. corner of the White Tower was the building called Coldharbour; on the E., the Wardrobe T. S. of the White T. were the buildings of the Royal Palace, of which only the Hall T. is left. Between the outer gate and the Middle T. on the S.W., was the famous menagerie, started by Henry III with 3 leopards, to which lions and other animals were added from time to time; in 1834 they were transferred to Regent's Park, and the refreshment room and ticket office now occupy the site. In the White T., on the 1st and 2nd floors, Ls the chapel of St. John, one of the finest examples extant of Norman architecture. Above it was the Council Chamber. Near the N.W. corner of the White T. is the Chapel of St. Peter ad Vincula, opposite the door of which is the spot on T. Green where the block used to be placed for the execution of prisoners; amongst those who suffered there were Lady Jane Grey, Anne Boleyn, and the Earl of Essex. The T. was without and independent of the jurisdiction of the city. It was at once a fortress; a royal palace; a State prison; a mint; an armoury; the treasury of the Crown jewels, which were at this time kept in a small building S. of the White T., but were removed by Charles I to the Martin T.; and the storehouse for the records of the Courts.
The Origin of the Tower.In R2 v. 1, 2, the Q. says, "This is the way To Julius Caesar's ill-erected T. To whose flint bosom my condemned lord Is doomed a prisoner"; though, as we learn from line 52, Richard was sent "to Pomfret, not unto the T." In R3 iii. 1, 69, Prince Edward says, "I do not like the T. of any place. Did Julius Caesar build that place, my lord?" to which Buckingham replies: "He did, my gracious lord, begin that place, Which, since, succeeding ages have reedified." In Peele's Ed. I v., Lluellen says, "Lluellen May chance to shew thee such a tumbling cast As erst our father, when he sought to scape, And broke his neck from Julius Caesar's T." Griffin, Prince of Wales, tried to escape from the White T., but fell and was killed. In More iv. 5, More says, "I will subscribe to go unto the T. . . . and thereto add My bones to strengthen the foundation Of Julius Caesar's palace." In Deloney's Reading vi., the clothiers' wives "went to the T. of Lond., which was builded by Julius Caesar, who was Emperor of Rome."
The Tower as a Royal Palace.H6 C. iv. 4 should be laid in the T., which was a favourite residence of Edward IV; and Stowe says that in 1470 the Q. "stole secretly out of the Towre by water to Westminster"; iv. 6 is also in the T. In R3 iii. 1, 65, Gloucester counsels the young K., Edward V, to repose himself "at the T.," and sends word to the Q.-mother to come to him there. In line 172, Gloucester sends a summons to Lord Hastings "tomorrow to the T," and in the next scene Hastings and Stanley go thither together. In iii. 4, the Council is held in the chamber in the White T., at which Hastings is condemned to death and led away to the block on T. Green. In iii. 5, Gloucester and Buckingham appear on the T. walls to meet the Mayor and Catesby. Act iv. sc. 1 is laid before the T. In iv. 2, 75, Richard commissions Tyrrel to kill "those bastards in the T.," and in the next scene their death is described and Tyrrel reports: "The Chaplain of the T. hath buried them." The traditional place of their death is a room in the Bloody T.; they were first buried near the gateway wall, then re-interred by Richd. under a staircase in the White T.; there Charles II found their bones and had them removed to Henry VII's chapel at Westminster. In v. 5, 151, their Ghosts appear to Richd. and bid him "Dream on thy cousins smothered in the T." The scene of Ford's Warbeck ii. 2 is the Council Chamber in the T.
The Tower as a State Prison.In Nobody 1431, Vigenius anachronistically condemns Elidure to live "within the T." In Marlowe's Ed. II i. 1, Edward says of the Bp. of Coventry: "He shall to the T., the Fleet, or where thou wilt." In Oldcastle iv. 3, the Bp. orders: "To the T. with him," i.e. Oldcastle. H6 A. ii. 5 is laid in the T. where Mortimer is confined. But Edmund Mortimer was not a prisoner in the T. at any time, nor did he die there. He was made LordLieutenant of Ireland in 1422, and died in 1424 at Trim Castle. In H6 B. iv. 9, 38, the K. promises York that he will send "D. Edmund to the T," i.e. the D. of Somerset; and he was so sent in 1453. In H6 C. iii. 2, 120, Edward commands that Henry should be "conveyed unto the T." Henry was released by Warwick in 1471; but in iv. 8, 57, Edward once more says of Henry: "Hence with him to the T.; let him not speak." In v. 5, 50, Gloucester leaves the field of Tewkesbury exclaiming, "The T.! the T.!" and in line 85 Clarence says he has gone to Lond. "To make a bloody supper in the T." In v. 6, the scene is in the T.; and Gloucester murders Henry there. This was on May 21st, 1471; though it is doubtful whether the K. was murdered or died a natural death. In R3 i. 1, 45, Clarence comes in under arrest and, as he is going to the T., Gloucester suggests that he is to be re-christened there; and in line 68 recalls how Hastings had been sent to the T. Clarence's arrest took place in 1478; it is not certain that Hastings was sent to the T. at all. In i. 3, 116, Gloucester says, "I dare adventure to be sent to the T."; in line 119 Margaret accuses him: "Thou slewest my husband Henry in the T." In i. 4, Clarence is introduced in his cell in the T., and his murder there by drowning in a butt of Malmsey is related. The traditional scene of the murder is a room in the Bowyer's T. In H8 i. 1, 207, Brandon informs Buckingham: "'Tis his Highness' pleasure You shall to the T." In i. 2, 192, the Surveyor gives evidence of what Buckingham had said he would do if he were committed to the T. In v. 1, 107, the K. bids Cranmer for the present "make your house our T." In v. 3, 54, Gardiner proposes to commit Cranmer to the T., and this is agreed to. In S. Rowley's When You, the K. gives order about Brandon: "Bid the Capt. of our guard Convey him to the T." The scene of More iv. 4 is the T. on the occasion of the arrest of Fisher, Bp. of Rochester; he was confined in the vaults of the White T. In iv. 3, Lady More tells of her dream in which she shot the bdge. in a boat, and then "our boat stood still Just opposite the T, and there it turned, Till that we sank." v. 1 takes place at the T.-gate when More is brought there in custody. In v. 4, More says. "Here's a fair day toward; It were fair walking on the T.-leads." Skelton, in Colin Clout 1160, says, "I say, Lieut. of the T., Make this lurdain for to lower; Lodge him in Little Ease; Feed him with beans and pease." Little Ease was a cell in the vaults of the White T., so small that the prisoner could neither stand, lie, nor sit with comfort. In Roister i. 2, Merrygreek says, "The toure could not you so hold But to break out at all times ye would be bold." In Webster's Law Case iii. 2, the Surgeon says, "This is like one I have heard in England was cured of the gout by being racked in the T."[ed. note: There are several references to the Tower as a place of confinement in Looke About You, and several characters including Gloster and Skinke are said to be held there, but the playwright conflates the Tower and the Fleet prison q.v. throughout, and it is ultimately clear that it is the Fleet that is intended.]
The Tower as outside the jurisdiction of the City.In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iv. 6, Wellbred sends to his sister Bridget to meet him "at the T. instantly"; for, he says, "we must get our fortunes Committed to some larger prison, say; And, than the T., I know no better air; Nor where the liberty of the house may do us More present service," i.e. he and his lady could be married there. Deloney, in Newberie xi, tells of a couple whose marriage "was solemnized at the T. of Lond."
The Tower as a Fortress.In Straw i., the K. says to Morton, "You shall in our T. of Lond. stay." In Oldcastle iii. 4, the K. says, "Command the postern by the T. be kept." In Trag. Richd. II. v. 2, 212, Bushy, after the defeat of the K. by Lancaster, says, "Let's fly to Lond. and make strong the T." H6 A. i. 3 is laid before the T, where Gloucester demands that the gates should be opened to him and is resisted by Winchester. In H6 B. iv. 5, the scene is the T.; the Lord Mayor sends to Lord Scales to get "aid from the T. to defend the city from the rebels"; and he replies, "The rebels have assayed to win the T." In iv. 6, 17, Cade exhorts the rebels: "Burn down the T. too." It was defended by guns mounted on the walls. Middleton, in Hubbard, says, "His pen lay mounted behind his ear like a T. gun." In his R.G. v. 2, the messenger, who brings word that the runaway lovers have gone to the T.-stairs, does it "With a full-charged mouth like a culverin's voice." In Davenport's New Trick ii. 1, Changeable says to his wife, "I never hear thy tongue but I think of the T. ordnance." Jonson, in Underwoods xc. 1, says, "This is K. Charles his day. Speak it, thou T. Unto the ships and they from tier to ter."
The Tower as an Armoury.In H6 A. i. 3, 67, Winchester says that Gloucester "would have armour here out of the T." In Verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Peacham mentions, among the sights of Lond., "The lance of John a Gaunt, and Brandon's still i' the Towere."
The Tower as the Mint.Chaucer, C. T. A. 3256, says of the Carpenter's wife: "Ful brighter was the shyning of hir hewe Than in the Tour the noble yforged newe." In Jonson's Alchemist iv. 4, Subtle fears that he and his accomplices may all be "locked up in the T. for ever To make gold there for the state." Barnfield, in Pecunia (1598), says, "New coin is coined each year within the T." Fuller, Holy State ii. 19, 120, says, "He knows, if he sets his mark (the T.-stamp of his credit) on any bad wares, he sets a deeper brand on his own conscience."
The Tower Lions.In Braithwaite's Barnabie's journal, "The lyons in the T." are mentioned as one of the 7 sights of Lond. In Webster's White Devil v. 6, Flamineo says, "Let all that belong to great men remember the old wives' tradition, to be like the lions in the T. on Candlemas Day; to mourn if the sun shine, for fear of the pitiful remainder of winter to come." Candlemas day is February 2nd, when the winter is by no means over [ed. note: the lions seeing the sun on this day is an early manifestation of what Americans now celebrate as "Groundhog Day"]. Peacham, in Worth of a Penny (1641), says of a discontented man: "He cannot stand still, but, like one of the T. wild beasts, is still walking from one end of his room to the other." In Jonson's Volpone ii. 1, Peregrine says it is true "of your lion's whelping in the T.," which Sir Politick considers quite a prodigy. The lioness in the T. whelped on August 5th, 1604; and again on February 26th, 1606. In Dekker's Hornbook vii. he speaks of "a country gentleman that brings his wife up to learn the fashion, see the tombs at Westminster, the Lyons in the T." In Two Gent. ii. 1, 28, Speed says, "You were wont, when you walked, to walk like one of the lions." In Verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities 1611), Holland says, "He hath seen Paris Garden and the Lions."
The moat round the T. of Lond, made by the Bp. of Ely in the reign of Richd. I. The City moat, or Town D., which was practically a common sewer, sometimes overflowed into the T. D. and filled it with filth. In Middleton's Quarrel iv. 4, Chough prays for Priss that she "may die sweetly in T.-d." Jonson, in Epigram to Inigo Marquis Would-be (i.e. Inigo Jones), says, "When . . . Thou canst of truth the least entrenchment pitch We'll have thee styled the Marquis of T.-d." W. Rowley, in Search 16, says, "Return if ye be wise, you fall into the d. else." The searchers were in Rosemary Lane, hard by the T.
The hill on the W. and N. of the T. of Lond. At the top of it, N.W. of the T., a scaffold was kept in perpetuity for the execution of state prisoners, on which much of the noblest blood of England has been shed. The last execution was that of Simon Lord Lovat, on April 9th, 1747. In Ford's Warbeck iii. 1, the K. commands: "Let false Audley be drawn upon an hurdle from the Newgate to T.-h.; there let him lose his head." This was in 1497. The scene Of v. 3 is the T.-h., where Warbeck is put into the stocks. The execution of Sir T. More on T. H. is the subject of v. 4 of the play of that name. In Webster's Wyat i., Lady Jane Grey says to Guildford, "Out of this firm grate you may perceive The T.-h. thronged with store of people." This was at the execution of Northumberland. In xii., Winchester sentences Guildford and Lady Jane: "You shall lose your heads Upon the T.-h." Guildford was beheaded there, but the Lady Jane suffered on T.-Green. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. A. i., p. 221, Elizabeth asks: "Is yet the scaffold standing on T. H. Whereon young Guildford and the Lady Jane Did suffer death?" In Skelton's Magnificence, fol. xxv, Liberty says of those who oppose him: "Some fall preaching at the Toure H." In Overbury's Vision (1616) 84, it is spoken of as "that T.'s fatal h. Whereon That scaffold stands, which e'er since it hath stood Hath often licked up treason's tainted blood."
In Dekker's Shoemaker's i. 1, Dodger says to Lacy, "My lord, your uncle on the T.-h. stays With the Lord Mayor and the aldermen, And doth request you to hasten thither." In Haughton's Englishmen i. 2, Heigham says, "This walk oer T. H, Of all the places Lond. can afford, Hath sweetest air, and fitting our desires"; and Harvey rejoins: "Good reason so, it leads to Crutched Friars Where old Pisaro and his daughters dwell." In Middleton's No Wit ii. 1, Weatherwise says, "She was brought a-bed at the Red Lion about T.-h." In Sharpham's Fleire iii. 347, Fleire mentions among his customers "Master Match the gunner of T.-H." In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] v. 2, Worm, pretending to have just returned from Africa, says, "Little thought I to see my old house upon T.-H. again." In H8 v. 4, 65, the Porter says, "These are the youths that thunder at a playhouse and fight for bitten apples; that no audience, but the tribulation of T.-h., or the limbs of Limehouse, their dear brothers, are able to endure." Apparently the Tribulation of T. H. was a nickname for the crowd of hooligans who attended the executions there; what would be called here in Melbourne "the T. H. push." Nash, in Lenten, p. 296, speaks of "T.H. water at Lond., so much praised and sought after." This came from a spring near the T. Postern. Deloney, in Craft i. 14, mentions "the Abbey of Grace on T. H." See GRACE, ABBEY OF.
A gate between George Yard and the T. Ditch, at the S. end of Lond. Wall, N. of the T. It was originally built of Kent and Caen stone, when the T. was erected; and was finally taken down in 1720. Deloney, in Craft i. 14, tells how John "got him presently to the Constable of the Postern Gate, and told him that Nick had laid a man for dead in T. st."
Now GREAT TOWER ST. Lond., running W. from T. Hill to Eastcheap. In Dekker's Shoemaker's i. 1, the hero says, "I am Simon Eyre, the mad shoemaker of T. St."; and later he exhorts Ralph, "Fight for the mad knaves of Bedlam, Fleet-st., T.-st., and Whitechapel." From iv. 3, we learn that Eyre lived "at the sign of the Last in T.-st." In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 1, Heigham says to Frisco, "How, loggerhead, is Crutched-Friars here? I thought you were some such drunken ass, that come to seek Crutched-friars in T.-st." For reference in Deloney's Craft, see above.
area only; site unmarked)
A wharf along the river-front of the T. of Lond., 1,200 ft. long, with 3 stairs: the T. stairs at the W. end, the Queen's stairs beneath the Byward T., and the Galleyman stairs under the Cradle T. It was erected by Henry III. In Webster's Weakest i. 1, Bunch says, "I was an ale-draper, as Thames and T.-w. can witness." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Puntarvolo says, "Upon my return [from Constantinople] and landing on the T.-w., I am to receive 5 for 1." In Davenant's Wits iv., Thwack speaks of "midnight lectures preached by wives of comb-makers and midwives of T.-w." In St. Hilary's Tears (1642), in the title, "from the T.-stairs to Westminster Ferry "is used for the whole extent of Lond. The T. ordnance, from which salutes were fired on occasions, were mounted on the walls overlooking the w. In Jonson's Epicoene i. 1, Truewit advises Dauphine to have Morose "drawn out on a coronation day to the T.-w., and kill him with the noise of the ordnance." In iv. 2, Morose is willing, if he can get rid of his wife, "to do penance in a belfry, at Westminster Hall, in the Cockpit, the T.-w., when the noises are at their height and loudest." In Overbury's Vision (1616), it is said of the T.: "On the w. fast by Those thundering cannons ever ready lie."
Sometimes used of the Borough of Southwark, as distinguished from the City of Lond. In Glapthorne's Hollander i. 1, Urinal speaks of "the Three Squirrels in the town." See SQUIRRELS, THREE.
A variant for Turnbull St., q.v.
The moat surrounding the City of Lond. See HOUNDSDITCH, SHOREDITCH.
(area only; Trig Lane marked; stairs not indicated)
A landing place on the N. bank of the Thames, at the bottom of T. lane, which runs S. from 34 Upper Thames St. to the river. It was named after one John Trigge, who owned it in the reign of Edward III. In Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, Littlewit explains how, in his puppet play, "Leander spies her [Hero] land at T.-s. and falls in love with her." In Middleton's Chaste Maid iv. 2, Tim says, "My sister's gone; let's look at T.-s. for her."
A name for Lond., much used in our older authors, and derived from the legend, popularized by Geoffrey of Monmouth, that after the Trojan war a company of Trojans led by Aeneas came to Britain and became the ancestors of the British, who took their name from Brut, the great-grandson of Aeneas. This Brut was supposed to have founded Lond., and called it Troja Nova, or Troy-novant. An alternative form of the word is Trinobant, which suggests that it was the chief town of the Trinobantes, who lived in Essex. Spenser, F. Q., uses the word frequently; in iii. 9, 45, he says, "It T. is hight, that with the waves Of wealthy Thamis washed is along"; and adds that it was founded by "the Trojan Brute." In Fisher's Fuimus i. 3, Cassibelaunus says, "Androgeus, hold unto your use Our lady-city, T." in Locrine i. 1, Corineius says, "March to T. There to provide our chieftain's funeral." In Greene's Friar xvi. Bacon predicts the glories of Elizabeth "here, where Brute did build his T." In Trouble. Reign, Haz., p. 299, Lewis calls Lond. "T., your fair metropolis." In Nobody 1104, Elidure says, "Then to T. we'll speed away." In T. Heywood's Iron Age B. ii., Hector predicts: "These shall nor honours nor just rectors want, Lumbardies Rome, great Britain's T." Nash, in Pierce, calls Lond. "this great-grandmother of corporations, Madame T." In Dekker's Dead Term, Lond. says, "Brute called me T. or Trinovant, and sometimes Trinobant." In King Leir (Haz., p. 319), the servant says, "Ere we get to T., I see, He quite will tire himself, his horse, and me."
A Lond. tavern, half way up Shire Lane on the W. side. It was afterwards made famous by Steele, who introduced it into the Tatler. In Shirley's Ball v. 1, Freshwater says of Mantua: "Their strong beer [is] better than any I ever drank at the T."
(area only; site unmarked)
A prison in Cornhill, Lond., opposite the end of Change Alley; it was so called from its round shape. In 1405 it was made into a Conduit or water-cistem, and a prison of timber, called the Cage, was erected,over it, with a pillory for fraudulent bakers on the top. Stow, p. 189, says, "The Tunne upon Cornhill, because the same was builded somewhat in fashion of a Tunne standing on the one end."
See THREE TUNS.
A humorous name for TURNBULL STREET, q.v.
Lond., running S. from Clerkenwell Green to Cowcross St., just E. of Farringdon Station. The Metropolitan railway has occupied the W. side of it, and it has recovered its original name, Turnmill St., derived, according to Stow, from the Fleet River, which ran down at the back of its W. side and was called Turnmill, or Tremill, Brook, from the mills which were supplied by it with water-power. In our dramatists the commonest spelling is T., but we also find Turnball, Townbull, and Tunbold as variants. It was the most disreputable street in Lond., a haunt of thieves and loose women.
In H4 B. iii. 2, 329, Falstaff says of Shallow: "This same starved justice hath done nothing but prate to me of the wildness of his youth, and the feats he hath done about T. St." In Jonson's Ev. Man I., iv. 5, Bobadil says, 11 They have assualted me as I have walked alone in divers skirts i' the town, as T., Whitechapel, Shoreditch, which were then my quarters." In Barthol. ii. 1, Ursula says to Knockem, who is described as "Master Daniel Knockem Jordan, the ranger of T., a horsecourser," "You are one of those horse-leeches that gave out I was dead in T. St. of a surfeit of bottle-ale and tripes." In iv. 3, Ursula calls Alice "your punk of T." and "Thou tripe of T." In B. & F. Pestle iii. 4, one of the men who is being treated for syphilis says, "I fell in love with this _ my lady dear And stole her from her friends in T.-st." In their Scornful iii. 2, Savil says, "Here has been such dismal drinking, swearing, and whoring, we've lived in a continual Turnball St." In Greene's Thieves, Kate says, "We poor wenches are your sure props and stay. If you will not believe me, ask poor A. B. in Turnemill St." In Middleton's Chaste Maid ii. 2, one of the promoters says, "I promised faithfully to send this morning a fat quarter of lamb to a kind gentlewoman in T. St. that longs." In Field's Amends i. 1, Lady Honour says, "You talk like one of those same rambling boys That reign in T. St." In ii. 2, Subtle says, "Your whore doth live in Pickt-hatch, T. St." In iii. 4, the scene is a tavern in the st., and the Drawer pleads, "Gentlemen, I beseech you consider where you areT. St.a civil place; do not disturb a number of poor gentlewomen!" In Webster's Cuckold iv. 1, Pettifog says, "This informer comes into T. St. to a victualing house and there falls in league with a wench." In Middleton's Inner Tem. 174, Dr. Almanac says, "Stand forth, Shrove Tuesday I in your charge to pull down bawdy houses, cause spoil in Shoreditch, deface T., and tickle Codpiece Row." The Apprentices had licence on Shrove Tuesday each year to make a raid on houses of ill-fame. In his No Wit ii. 1, Weatherwise speaks of "one Taurus, a gentleman in Townbull st." In Barry's Ram iii. 3, Mrs. Taffata calls Puff "Your swaggering, cheating, T.-st. rogue." In Randolph's Muses iv. 3, Justice Nimis mentions among the sources of his income "the lordship of T." In his Hey Hon. he talks of "The whores of Pickt-hatch, T., the unmerciful bawds of Bloomsbury." In Barnes' Charter iii. 5, Bagnioli mentions "Marga Marichalus That in Turnulibull doth keep an ale-house," where Turnulibull is a transparent alias for T. Nash, in Pierce G. 1, says, "I commend our unclean sisters in T. st. to the protection of your [the devil's) portership." In Davenport's New Trick i. 2, Slightall, wanting a woman, bids Roger "go search Turnball," amongst other places of ill-repute. In iii. 1, the Constable brings along "a bottle of the best wine in Turnball, which they say all Lond. cannot better." In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, the President of the Twiball knights, a company of blackguards, takes the title of "Duke of T., Bloomsbury, and Rotten Row." In Brome's Antipodes v. 7, Lefoy says to Barbara, "Go with thy flesh to T. shambles." In his Damoiselle ii. 1, Amphilus keeps his water-dog with a cobler in T. st.; and in his New Academy ii. 1, Valentine says, "Your husband kennels his water-dog in T. st." In the title of St. Hilary's Tears (1642), "the T.-st. trull" is specified. In Marston's Mountebanks, the Mountebank says, "If any be troubled with the Tentigo, let him travel to Japan, or, because the forest of Turnbolia is . . . at hand, let him hunt there for his recreation."
See TURNBULL STREET.
There were 2 Turnstiles on the S. side of Holborn, Lond.:
They were passages leading to Lincoln's Inn Fields, and were closed at their S. ends by revolving barriers to keep out horses and cattle. Glapthorne's Hollander was "Imprinted at Lond. by Tho. Paine for George Hutton, and are to be sold at his shop within T. in Holborne. 1640." The sign of Hutton's shop was the Sun.
- one in a line with the E. side of Lincoln's Inn Fields, called the Gt. T., and
- the other in a line with the W. side, called the Little T.
See TURNBULL STREET.
TUTTLE, or TUTTLE FIELDS
A large piece of open land in Westminster on the left bank of the Thames, S. of Tothill St. Its exact boundaries are vague, but it extended as far as Vauxhall Bridge Rd., and the actual Tot, or Toot, Hill seems to have been at the point where Horseferry Rd. forms an angle at its junction with Carey St., and it included what is now Vincent Square. Tournaments were held there, and wagers of battle decided; and till the end of the i 7th cent. it was a common place for duels. It was also a training ground for troops, and a practising place for archers. A fair was held annually from 1542 till the beginning of the 19th cent. There was an artificial maze which was frequented by pleasure-seekers. In Kirke's Champions iii, the Clown, talking of a monstrous giant whom he claims to have killed, says, "He was just about that stature that T.-f. would fitly make a grave for; 'Tis near to Lond. in England, where men go a-training to get them good stomachs." In Oldcastle iii. 4, the K. gives order: "Let our forces Make speedy rendezvous in T. F." In Dekker's Shoemaker's i. 1, Lacy reports: "Suffolk and Essex train in Tothill-f." In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, Gossip Mirth says, "My gossip Tattle knew who conjured in T.-f., and how many, when they never came there." In Deloney's Craft ii. 3, Gillian goes "into T. f." to gather herbs. In Randolph's Hey Hon., one says, "I have done him no injury, but once I stroke his shins at foot-ball in T."
In T. Heywood's Hogsdon iv. 2, Luce's father, insisting on fighting a duel, says, "When I was young, I knew the way into St. George's F. twice in a morning. T., Finsbury, I knew them all." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 553, Spendall, arranging for a duel with Staines, fixes the place "beyond the Maze in T." In Shirley's Wedding iv. 3, Lodam says, "I have expected you these 2 hours, which is more than I have done to all the men I have fought withal since I slew the High German in T."
Westminster, running W. from Broad Sanctuary to Broadway. It is a very old st. and was formerly occupied by mansions with gardens stretching back to St. James's Park. At No. 72 was the old Cock Tavern, one of the oldest inns in Lond. It was puffed down in 1873 to make room for the Aquarium, which has now given place to the Wesleyan Methodist Hall. Much of the S. side of the st. had to go when Victoria St. and the Westminster Palace Hotel were construct. In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, Gossip Tattle claims to have all the news "of T.-st., and both the Alm'ries." In Webster's Cuckold iii. 2, Compass says, "All the law betwixt Blackwall and Tothill st., and there's a pretty deal, shall not keep it from me."
In the Counters and the Fleet Prison in Lond. there were various degrees of accommodation, according to the amount which the prisoners were prepared to pay. The most expensive was the Master's Side, then came the Knights' Ward, the T. W., and, worst of all, the Hole for those who could not pay anything. In Eastward v. 2, Wolf says of his prisoners in the Counter: "The knight will be in the knights' w., and Mr. Quicksilver would lie in the Hole, if we would let him; only Security lies in the t. w., far off." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. v. I 1, Macilente says to Brisk, who is in the Counter, "Remove yourself to the T. w. quickly, to save charges." See also under COUNTER, KNIGHTS' WARD, HOLE.
(To. = Tyborne). Properly the name of a brook which rose in Hampstead, and flowed across Oxford St. near Stratford Place into the Green Park, and so into the Thames in 2 main streams; hence, perhaps, the name of the Twy-burn. From this brook the place of execution for Middlesex criminals took its name. There are records of executions as early as the reign of Edward III at the Elms at. These trees grew along the side of the brook, and Elm Lane, Bayswater, long preserved their memory. Some time in the later half of the 14th cent. the place of execution was removed to a point near the junction of Oxford St. and Edgware Rd.; the exact spot where the gallows stood is said to have been No. 49 Connaught Sq., in the angle between Edgware Rd. and Bayswater Rd. Condemned criminals were taken in a cart, or, in the case of traitors, dragged on a hurdle, from Newgate to Holborn Hill and along Oxford St., often called T. Rd., to the place of execution. The gallows seems to have been a permanent structure, and consisted of a horizontal triangle of beams, supported by 3 legs. The prisoner was strangled by a rope hanging from one of the beams, the cart being driven from under him. Hogarth's picture of the Execution of the Idle Apprentice shows the gallows and a sort of grandstand or the accommodation on of spectators.
The Hangmen of Tyburn:
In the C. text of Piers, but not in the earlier versions, we find "the hangeman of To." among the company of Glutton at the Boar's Head; and in xv. 130, Imaginatif says, "Dominus pars hereditatis mee is a murye verset; Hit hath y-take fro To. 20 stronge theeves." The allusion is to the neck-verse by reading which a criminal could claim benefit of clergy and so escape hanging. In Hycke, 104, Frewyll says, "That rock Of to. is so perillous a place, Young gallants dare not venture into Kent"; i.e. to commit highway robbery on Gad's Hill and elsewhere. Later, Imagination swears "by saynt tyburne of Kent"; possibly he means St. Thomas a Waterings, which was the place of execution for Surrey and places S. of the Thames. Again, Imagination says, "At tyburne there standeth the great frame And some take a fall that maketh their neck lame." In Poverty, 329, Envy says to Conscience "They will hang you up at the Tyborn if they find you in this place." In Youth ii. 100, Riot says, "The Mayor of Lond. sent for me forth of Newgate for to come for to preach at T." In Skelton's Magnificence fol. xi., Courtly Abusion says of his dupe: "A to. check Shall break his neck." In John Evangel., Courage says to Cut Cutpurse, "At To. I may chance clap thee on the breast." In Three Lords, Dods., vi. 499, Simplicity,says of Fraud: "My Lords, I beseech ye, that at T. he may totter." In Fulwell's Like, Dods., iii. 324, Newfangle promises to Tosspot and Roister a piece of land called "St. Thomas a Waterings or else T. Hill." Gascoigne, in Steel Glass 203, says, "Soldiers sterve or preach at To. Cross." In Middleton's No Wit Epilogue, Weatherwise says, "T. cracks the pipe and spoils the music," sc. of a whistling thief. In Dekker's Westward iii. 2, Monopoly says, "I would make them scud so fast from me, that they should think it a shorter way between this [i.e. Shoreditch] and Ludgate than a condemned cut-purse thinks it between Newgate and T." Cf. As You Like It iii. 2, 347, where Rosalind says that Time gallops "with a thief to the gallows." In Shirley's Pleasure iii. 2, Celestina says, "They cannot satisfy for wrongs enough Though they should steal out of the world at T." In Eastward iv. Touchstone predicts to Quicksilver, "They'll look out at a window as thou rid'st in triumph to T." In v., Quicksilver gives advice to his friends how they may escape "T., Compters, and the Spittle." In Randolph's Muses iii. 2, Colax expresses the hope that Banausus will "repair old T. and make it cedar." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque i. 2, Bubble says, "If we be taken, we'll be hanged together at T.; that's the warmer gallows of the two"; the other being at Wapping, where the criminal was hung in chains at low-water mark, and left to be drowned by the rising tide. In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Satan informs Pug: "This morning there is a handsome cutpurse hanged at T." In v. 4, Iniquity speaks of "Damn me! Renounce me! and all the fine phrases That bring unto T. the plentiful gazes." In his New Inn i. 1, the Host predicts that if Frank apples himself to Lovel's course of life "he may perhaps take a degree at T."
In Shirley's Wedding iv. 3, Rawbone describes the whole course of a thief's trial and execution: "i. do imagine myself apprehended already; now the constable is carrying me to Newgate; now I'm at the Sessions House in the dock; now I'm called'Not guilty, my Lord., The jury has found the indictment billa vera. Now, now comes my sentence. Now I'm in acart riding up Holborn in a two-wheeled chariot with a guard of halberdiers. ` There goes a proper fellow,' says one; 'Good people, pray for me!' Now I'm at the three wooden stilts. Hey! Now I feel my toes hang in the cart; now 'tis drawn away-now, now, now, I am gone!" More briefly, in B. & F. Wit S. W. iv. 1, Wittypate says, "Sessions a Thursday, jury culled out a Friday, judgment a Saturday, dungeon a Sunday, T. a Monday." Taylor, in Praise of a jail (1623), says, "But if a man note T., 'twill appear That that's a tree that bears 12 times a year." In Killigrew's Parson i. 1, the Capt. asks, "His fortune? the advowson of T. deanery I "In Oldcastle ii. 2, Murley mutters, "Newgate, up Holborne, S. Giles in the field, and to To.; an old saw." In Selimus 2082, Bullithrumble says, "Marry, that had been the way to preferment; down Holburne, up Tiburne." In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, Fortress prescribes the keeping of the rules of the Twiball knights "under penalty of being carried up Holborn in a cart, and at Tiburne executed." In Dekker's Edmonton v. 1, Cuddy says to his dog, "If thou goest to Lond. I'll make thee go about by T., stealing in by Thieving Lane."
In L.L.L. iv. 3, 54, Biron says, "Thou makest the triumviry, the corner-cap of society, The shape of Love's T. that hangs up simplicity." Lyly, in Pappe p. 58, says, "There's one with a lame wit, which will not wear a four-cornered cap. Then let him put on T. that hath but 3 corners." In one of Tarlton's Jests, we read: "It was made like the shape of To., three-square." Gilpin, in Skialethia (1598), speaks of "the three-square To. of impieties." Dekker, in Bellman, says, "He rides his circuit with the devil and Derrick must be his host and Tiburne the land at which he will light." In Puritan iv. 1, Pennydub says, "Pox o' the fortuneteller! Would Derecke had been his fortune 7 year ago!" In Wise Men v. 4, Proberio says, "Sir, this Tiburnist or hangman is the devil." In Ret. Pernass. i. 2, Judicio says, "Here is a book, why, to condemn it to clear the usual Tiburne of all misliving papers were too fair a death for so foul an offender." In Dekker's Satiro. iii. 1, 150, Tucca says of Mrs. Miniver: "She looks like the sign of Capricorne, or like To. when it is covered with snow." Latimer, in one of his Sermons, says, "The Bp. of Rome sent him a Cardinal's hat. He should have had a Tiburne tippet, a half-penny halter." In Jonson's Devil v. ii, Ambler says, "I got the gentlewoman to carry her bedding to a conduit-head, hard by the place toward T., which they call my Lord Mayor's Banqueting House," q.v.
- The earliest hangman whose name has been preserved was one Bull, who was succeeded by Derrick.
- Derrick held office in the early part of the 17th cent., and his memory is perpetuated in the name given to the gallows-like structure used for hoisting up goods.
- Gregory Brandon followed him, and left his office to his son Richd.
- Richd. Brandon is supposed to have executed Charles I.
- Next came Dun,
- and then Jack Ketch, whose name has become a generic term for all of his profession.
The sign of a bookseller's shop in Lond. Dekker's Fortunatus was "Printed by S. S. for William Apsley dwelling in Paules church-yard at the sign of the T. H. 1600." Dekker's Match me was "Printed by B. Alsop and T. Fawcet for H. Seile at the T.-h. in St. Pauls Churchyard. 1631." Massinger's New Way was "Printed by E. P. for Henry Seyle dwelling in S. Pauls Churchyard at the sign of the T. h. M.DC.XXXIII."