A small vill. lying W. of Edgeware Rd., a little over 3 m. in a direct line W. of St. Paul's, Lond. The population did not exceed 200. There were a number of springs there which were used for the water supply of Lond. It was noted for its old taverns, amongst which were the Wheatsheaf, the White Lion, the Red Lion, and the Pack-horse. In W. Rowley's New Wonder v., Stephen says, "The plumbers and workmen have surveyed the ground from P.; whence I'll have laid pipes to Lond. to convey sweet water into Ludgate." Stephen Forster in 1463 had water brought from P. for the supply of the prison in Ludgate. In Jonson's Tub. ii. 1, Hitts says to Puppy, "He shall find out my captain lodged at the Red Lion in P." In B. & F. Wit S. W. iv. 1, Pompey speaks of his "solemn walks 'Twixt P. and Pancridge." In Shirley's Ball iv. 1, Barker speaks of a lady "tumbling in a coach towards P. To see the pheasants." Taylor, in Works 1, 77, says, "I have seen many looking through a hempen window at St. Thomas Waterings or the three-legged instrument near P." The Tyburn gallows stood at the corner of Oxford St. and the Edgeware Rd., some half a mile S.E. of P. In Brome's Couple ii. 1, Careless speaks of P. as one of "the City out-leaps" to which citizens went "for a spirt and back again." In his Academy ii. 1, Valentine says to Hannah, "Shall we cross o'er the water, or take coach to Kensington or P., or to some one or other o' th' City outleaps for an afternoon?"


An eating-house in Lond., in the neighbourhood of the Temple. In Stucley 204, the Page informs Stucley's father that he dines "at Palmer's ordinary."


(Pe. = Pancredge, Pie. = Pancridge). Pronounced and usually spelt Pancridge, or Pancredge, in the 16th and 17th cents. A large parish in N. Lond. covering an area of 2,672 acres, and including Somers Town, Camden Town, Kentish Town, part of Highgate, and the Gray's Inn, Tottenham Court, Euston, and Hampstead Rds. It now (in 1925) has a population of over 250,000, but in the 16th cent. was a very sparsely inhabited country dist. Norden, writing in 1593, says it was forsaken of all, "yet it is usual haunted of rogues, vagabonds, harlots, and thieves." The Fleet river flowed through it, and it was often flooded by its overflow. The old ch. stands on the E. side of P. Rd. just S. of the workhouse. There was a ch. here from very early times, and the present building dates from the middle of the 14th cent.: it consisted of a nave and chancel, with a tower at the W. end, but during the last cent. it was restored both inside and out in a ruthless fashion. Norden says of it: "P. Ch. standeth all alone, as utterly forsaken, old and weather-beaten, which, for the antiquity thereof, is thought not to yield to Paules in Lond." It seems to have been often used for hasty and irregular marriages, and the term "a Pie. Parson" was used in a jeering way for one who would lend himself to business of this kind without scruple. It is said to have been the last ch. in Lond. in which mass was performed after the Reformation, and it was perhaps for this reason that it became a favourite place of burial for Roman Catholics. It is also given as a reason for this preference that mass is regularly said in the ch. of St. P. at Rome for those who are buried here. The churchyard was taken over in 1863 by the Midland Railway Co., who carried a viaduct across it and a tunnel below it, and in 1889 they acquired the S.E. corner as well. What was left of it was turned into a public garden, opened in 1877. The new St. P. ch. in the Euston Rd. was modelled on the Erechtheion at Athens, and was consecrated in 1822. In Arthur's Show, a pageant exhibited annually in Lond. by a toxophilite society, 2 of the burlesque characters were the Earl of Pie. and the D. of Shoreditch.

Nash, in Almond for a Parrot, says, "Brother Kemp, as many all hails to thy person as there be haycocks in July at Pe." In Liberality v. 5, the Clerk says to Prodigality, "Thou art indicted that thou at Highgate in the county of Middlesex didst take from one Tenacity of the parish of Pie. £1000." In Oldcastle iii. 2, Acton mentions "Pe." as one of the villages around Lond. where the rebels are quartered. In Nash's Lenten, p. 327, he says of the lawyers that they little remember "their own privy escapes with their laundresses, or their night walks to Pie." In B. & F. Wit S. W. iv. 1, the clown Pompey speaks of his "solemn walks Twixt Paddington and Pie." The scene of Jonson's Tub is laid in various parts of the parish of Pie. One of the characters is Canon Hugh, Vicar of P. In iii. 1, Tub tells Turfe that justice Bramble means to marry his daughter Awdrey "at P.'s ch." In Glapthorne's Hollander v. 1, Urinal says that Popingale will not be married at Pencridge: "there's no drink near it but at the Pinder of Wakefield, and that's abominable." This tavern was on the W. side of Gray's Inn Rd., N. of Guildford St., q.v. In Cooke's Good Wife iii. 3, the parson of Fenchurch and the parson of Pie. are introduced. In Field's Weathercock ii. 1, Scudmore calls Nevill, who is disguised as a parson and pretends that he is going to marry Bellafront to Count Frederick: "Thou Pie. parson!" In Middleton's Quarrel v. 1, Fitzallen says, "This is my own child . . . for we were wedded by the hand of heaven Ere this work was begun"; Chough strikes in: "At Pie., I'll lay my life on't." In Barnes' Charter iii. 5, Frescobaldi calls Bagnioli "Profane arch-patriarch of Pie. steeple." In Nabbes' Totenham v. 6, when Sam says that Cicely is his wife, his Uncle cries: "Yet more plots! Sure the Parson of P. hath been here"; and the play concludes: "Why then to P., each with his loved consort, and make it holiday at Totenham Court." In his Spring, Lent says, "I couple more than the Parson of P.: I mean city woodcocks with suburb wagtails." In T. Heywood's Royal King i. 1, the Clown says, "Our organ of Powles is much bigger and better than yours of Rixam by as much as Powles Ch. is bigger and better than St. Pie."

Nash, in Pierce, says of certain Roman Catholics: "It were to be hoped St. Peter would let them dwell is the suburbs of heaven: whereas otherwise they must keep aloof at Pie." In Davenant's Playhouse i. the Housekeeper says, "I told 'em [the French fencing masters] of P. Ch., where their scholars when they have killed one another in duel have a churchyard to themselves." Nash, in Prognostication, says it will be so hot that "the worms of St. Pe. Ch. build their bowers under the shadow of Colman hedge." In Jonson's Devil ii. 1, Meercraft says, "Here's a plain fellow has his black bag of papers there in buckram, will not be sold for the earldom of Pie." In Tub i. 3, Turfe says, "Next our St. George, Who rescued the k.'s daughter, I will ride: Above Prince Arthur." Clench adds: "Or our Shoreditch D."; and Medlay: "Or Pie. Earl." In his Epigram to Inigo Jones Would-be, Jonson says, "Content thee to be Pie. Earl the while: An Earl of show." In Histrio. ii. 157, when Furcher and Vourchier enter dressed up as sportsmen, Velure greets them: "Gentlemen, well met! What! Pancrace knights?" i.e. knights in dress only, like the Earl of Pie. in the show.



(Map K5–L4)
(area only, site unmarked)

A passage running N. from 4 Paternoster Row into Newgate St., Lond. It was so called from the sign of a pannier, or basket, which occurred there on the back of a naked boy, with the inscription "When you have sought the city round, Yet still this is the highest ground." In More iii. 2, when the Sheriff reports that Paternoster Row was choked up with carts in the riot, Fawkner says, "My noble Lord, Paniar Allies throat was open." From the following passages it would seem that the buff leather of which catchpoles' coats were made was sold there. In Dekker's Westward iii. 2, Monopoly says, "If I could meet one of those varlets that wear P. A. on their backs, serjeants, I would make him scud." In Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, Quarlous taunts Winwife with courting widows: "scrubbing a piece of buff as if thou hadst the perpetuity of Pannier-a. to stink in."

(Map H–J7)

(P. = Paris, Ph. = Parish). A manor on the S. bank of the Thames, W. of the Liberty of the Clink, corresponding generally to the present Ph. of Christchurch. It was surrounded by a stream, called the P. G. Ditch, and was in the 16th cent. "so dark with trees that one man cannot see another" (Letter of Fleetwood 1578). In 1113 it was given by Robert Marmion to the Convent of Bermondsey. In 1537 it became Crown property, and was subsequently held by Q. Jane Seymour, Lord Hunsdon, and Thomas Cure. It was approached from the Thames by way of the P. G. Stairs, a few yards E. of the present Blackfriars Bdge., from which a ferry plied across to Blackfriars. Blount, in Glossographia (s.v.), says, "It was anciently so called from Robert de P., who had a house there in Richard II's time." Taylor says it was called "from brave Ilion's firebrand, from P." But the old spelling is Ph., not P., and it may be questioned whether Blount's derivation is not as mythical as Taylor's. The Manor was bought by Francis Langley in 1589, with the intention of building a playhouse there, and he ultimately erected the Swan Theatre about 1596 in what is now Holland St. In Yarrington's Two Trag ii. 6, Merry proposes to throw the body of the man he has murdered "into P. G. Ditch." In Cromwell ii. 2, Hodge says, "At Putnaie I'll go you to Ph.-G. for twopence without any wagging in my guts, in a little boat too."

Ph. G. was best known through the huge amphitheatre erected there for bull- and bear-baiting early in the reign of Henry VIII. It was a wooden building open to the sky, and accommodated at least 1000 spectators. It seems to have stood between Park St. and Bankside, just E. of Horseshoe Alley, and very near to the Globe. It was already in existence in 1526, when the D. of Northumberland is recorded to have gone there to see the bear-baiting. Crowley, the printer-poet, writing about 1550, tells us that Sunday was the day of the performances, and that the price of admission was 1/2d. John Bradford, in a sermon preached before Edward VI, tells how "certain gentlemen upon the Sabbath day going in a wherry to P. G., to the bear-baiting, were drowned." On Sunday 12th January, 1583, the seats collapsed and many were killed and hurt: an event which was "improved" in a sermon by John Field, the father of the dramatist Nat. Field. The Sunday performances were prohibited by James I. Henslowe and Alleyn leased it in the early part of the reign of James, and gave plays there as well as bear-baitings. In Dekker's Satiro. iv. 1, 151, Tucca asks: "Thou bast been at Parris G., hast not?" and Horace (Ben Jonson) replies: "Yes, Capt., I ha' played Zulziman there" (Zulziman is Soliman in Kyd's Soliman). It was closed in 1642; reopened after the Restoration; and finally shut up in 1687. Dekker, in News from Hell, makes Charon say, "If Parris g. would but fall down again, I should hope to make me a new boat." Lupton, in London Carbonadoed (1632), describes P. G. as "a foul den. Here come few that either regard their credit or loss of time; the swaggering roarer, the cunning cheater, the rotten bawd, the swearing drunkard, and the bloody butcher have their rendezvous here." In H8 v. 4, 2, the porter says to the crowd, "You'll leave your noise anon, ye rascals; do you take the Court for Ph.- g.?" In More iii. 2, Faulkner says to the Sheriff, "Tug me not, I'm no bear. 'Sblood, if all the logs in P. G. hung at my tail, I'd shake 'em off." In Downfall Huntington ii. 1, Much speaks of "a little curtal sib to the ape's only beast at P. G." In Jonson's Epicoene iii. 1, Otter says, "Tom Otter's bull, bear, and horse is known all over England, in rerum natura"; and Mrs. Otter rejoins: "Fore me, I'll nature them over to P. G." In iv. 2, Morose speaks of "Lond. Bdge., P.-G., Billingsgate, when the noises are at their height and loudest." Nash, in Wilton 159, says, "All the colliers of Romford, who hold their corporation by yarking the blind bear at P. garden, were but bunglers to him." There are other references to this cruel sport of whipping the blind bear. Greene, in Quip, p. 232, says, "The rakehell will be so eager to catch him as a dog to take the bear by the ears in Ph. G." Dekker, in Hornbook c. i. says, "How wonderfully is the world altered! So that it is no more like the old Theater du Monde than old P. G. is like the K.'s Garden at P."

Jonson, in Vulcan, says that the burning of the Globe Theatre "was a threatening to the bears And that accursed ground, the P. G." In the Famous Voyage, he says of the Fleet Ditch: "The meat-boat of bear's college, P. G., Stunk not so ill." In Augurs, Slug says that Urson has "very sufficient bears as any are in the ground, the P. G." In Middleton's Changeling ii. 1, De Flores says, "Like a common Garden-bull I do but take breath to be lugged again." In Dekker's W. of Edmonton iv. 1, Cuddy says that the witch's dog "is no P.-G. ban-dog neither that keeps a bow-wow-wowing to have butchers bring their curs thither." In Marston's Courtesan ii. 1, Cockledemoy tells a dream be has had of 24 bears "which are to be yet seen in P. Gs." In B. & F. Maid in Mill ii. 2, Bustopha, acting the part of P., says, "No roars so fierce, no throats so deep, No howls can bring such fears, As P. can, if garden from He call his dogs and bears": and references follow to bull-baiting and the whipping of the blind bear. Sir John Davies, in Epigrams, tells of the young law-student, who "leaves his books and for his recreation To P. G. doth himself withdraw To see old Harry Hunks and Sackerson." In Davenant's Plymouth i. 2, Seawit says, "You would be suitors, yes, to a she-bear, and keep your marriage in P. g." Dekker, in News from Hell, says that Cerberus "lies howling to be sent to P. G." In Dekker's Satiro. iv. 1, 168, Tucca says to Horace (Jonson), "Thou turn'dst ban-dog and ever since bitest, therefore I ask if thou'st been at Parris-g., because thou hast such a good mouth." Dekker, in Jests, mentions "Ph. G." as a favourite haunt of pickpockets. Hall, in Satires iv. 1, says that his poetry pleases him "Much better than a P.-g. bear." Davies, in Meditations of a Gull, says, "Of a journey he deliberates To P. g., cocke pit, or the play." Lyly, in Pappe with an Hatchett, p. 67, says, "I will make him [Martin] mump, mowe, and chatter, like old John of P. g." I take this to be the name of one of the monkeys which were trained to ride on the bears' backs and perform tricks. See also BEAR-GARDEN.


Lond., apparently in the neighbourhood of Covent Garden. In Brome's Covent G. it is often mentioned. Act iv. 2 takes place there: Mihil says, as he enters, "A P. ill ya ben veni. Here's no bush at this door, but good wine rides post upon't, I mean, the sign-post." When Mihil says to Gabriel, "You are welcome to P., brother Gabriel," Gabriel replies, "It is nevertheless a tavern, brother Mihil." In i. 1, Antony says, "I heard an inkling at the P. T. last night of a she-gallant that had travelled France and Italy."


The N.E. corner of Hyde P., Lond., at the junction of Oxford St. and Edgware Rd. Close by stood the Tyburn gallows, and the loneliness of the neighbourhood made it a favourite resort of highwaymen. In Webster's Wyat xiv., p. 57, Winchester says to Wyat, "At the P. C. is a gallows set, Whither make haste to tender Nature's debt." In Mayne's Match iii. 4, Plotwell says, if his uncle marries, "the sleight upon the cards, the hollow die, P. C., and Shooter's Hill are my revenue."


An eating-house in Lond. The first use of O. in this sense is in Payne's Description of Ireland (1590). A table d'hôte dinner was served at these houses at a fixed price, and after dinner the company usually turned to gambling games, facilities for which were provided. Dekker, in Hornbook v., describes how a young gallant should behave himself in an O. In Middleton's R. G. ii. 1, Goshawk asks: "Where shall's all munch?" and Jack Dapper replies: "I am for Parker's O."

(Map A–B7/A–B8)
(various sites marked)

The English Parliament until the reign of Edward I met in various royal palaces and castles throughout the country, wherever the K. might please to summon it. In his reign the place of meeting became the Westminster Palace, and in the 17th year of Edward III the Chapter House of the Abbot of Westminster was assigned to the House of Commons. In the reign of Edward VI the old Court of Requests was made the meeting-place of the House of Lords, and the Chapel of St. Stephen, which was built by K. Stephen, was given to the Commons. Between the 2 was the Painted Chamber, which was used for conferences of the 2 Houses. All these buildings were burnt down in 1834, with the exception of the crypt of St. Stephen's Chapel, which may still be seen at the S.E. corner of Westminster Hall. The present building was erected from Barry's design, and the first stone was laid in 1840. In H6 C. i. 1, 71, the K. says, "Far be the thought of this from Henry's heart To make a shambles of the P. H." Hall, in Characters, says of the Distrustful Man: "He dares not come near the P. H. because it should have been blown up," i.e. in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605.


A pool of water lying behind St. Luke's Hospital off City Rd., Lond.: the site is now covered by the buildings of Peerless St. and Baldwin St., W. of City Rd. at the point where it bends round to the W. It was a favourite bathing-place, and was first called Perilous P. because of the number of people who were drowned there. The name was changed to Peerless Pool by one Kemp, in 1743. He bought it and made it into a swimming bath and a fish-pond. Duck-hunting was carried on there in the old days, as the quotation shows. In Middleton's R. G. ii. 1, Gallipot says, "Let your boy lead his water-spaniel along, and we'll show you the bravest sport at P. P. Hey, Trug! here's the best duck in England."



(Map F4)
(area only, site unmarked)

Lond., on the S. side of Holborn near the N.W. corner of Lincoln's Inn Fields. It shared the bad reputation of the dist. lying between Lincoln's Inn Fields and Holborn as a haunt of loose women. In Massinger's Madam v. 2, Luke says of the gentlemen apprentices: "When we look To have our business done at home, they are Abroad in the tennis-court, or in P.-a., In Lambeth Marsh, or a cheating ordinary."

(Map K–L5/L4)

A narrow st. in London, running W. from the junction of Cheapside and St. Martin's-le-Grand to Warwick Lane, to the N. of Paul's Churchyard. It was probably named from the makers of paternosters, or beads, who lived there; later it was occupied by stationers and text writers, who sold copies of the Paternoster, Ave, Creed, etc. In the 16th cent. it was taken possession of by the mercers, and was the fashionable shopping st. for the ladies. After the Gt. Fire the mercers went further W., and after some time the booksellers and publishers came into the st. Tarleton, the clown, kept the Castle Ordinary here on the site now occupied by the Oxford University Press Warehouse. In More iii. 2, the Sheriff says, "There was a fray in P. R., and because they would not be parted the st. was choked up with carts." In Tarlton's Jests (1611), it is told how 2 tailors "foxed [i.e. made drunk] Tarlton at the Castle in P. R."

(Map L5)

(P.=Paul's, Pas.= Paules, Pos.=Poules, Pow.= Powles). The cathedral ch. of Lond., situated at the E. end of Ludgate Hill and the W. of Cheapside. The first ch. on the site was built in 610 by Ethelbert of Kent. Drayton, in Polyolb. xi. 201, says that he "That mighty fane to Paul in Lond. did erect." A new ch. was erected by Bp. Maurice in 1087, but it was destroyed by fire in 1136. The rebuilding went on slowly, the steeple being finished in 1221 and the whole ch. in 1283, It was a Gothic building, chiefly in the early English style. Its length was 596 and its breadth 104 ft. It had a central tower and spire and 2 angle towers at the W. end. A fire in 1561 injured the ch. and destroyed the steeple, which was never rebuilt, though money was collected for the purpose of a complete restoration of the ch.

In Nobody 754, Nobody promises "I'll build up Pas.-steple without a collection." In Mayne's Match iii. 3, Plotwell says of Seathrift: "He wore out more pavement with walking than would make a row of new stone saints, and yet refused to give to the reparation." This was the reparation scheme inaugurated by Laud and Charles I. In Shirley's Ball iii. 3, Gudgeon asks: "Is P. alive still?" and Solomon says, "Yes, yes; a little sick of the stone, but she is now in physic and may in time recover." In 1633 the repairs were commenced under the direction of Inigo Jones, but were put a stop to by the Civil War. In Shirley's Honoria ii. 1, Phantasm promises to "Rebuild the great cathedral of St. P. With porphyry." In Cartwright's Ordinary ii. 3, Caster promises, out of his imaginary gains, to send "Some 40,000 unto P." It was finally destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt by Wren. From the slow and unsatisfactory way in which the attempts at restoration were carried on in the early 17th cent. came the proverbial expression "to make P. work of any thing," i.e. to make a botch of it. In Dekker's Satiro. ii. 2, 55, Horace (Jonson) says of Crispinus (Marston) and Fannies (Dekker): "They cut an Innocent Moore i' the middle to serve him in twice; and when he had done, made Pos.-work of it." The reference appears to be to the patching up of Stucley by Dekker out of Peele's Alcazar and other plays. It was written for the boys of P. School, which gives more point to the joke. In Tom Tell Troath (1622), we read: "The perpetual walkers of P. do now despair to see their material ch. ever repaired."

Paul's Walk:
Also called Duke Humphrey's Walk (q.v.), from the tomb of Sir John Beauchamp, which stood in the middle aisle on the right-hand side approaching the altar. He was buried there in 1358, but by some strange freak his tomb became known as D. Humphrey's. The Walk was the middle aisle, or nave, of the ch., and from 1550 to 1650 it was used as a common meeting-place for all kinds of people. Here lawyers met their clients, men of fashion came to show their clothes, citizens thronged to hear and tell the news of the day, servants stood to be hired and posted up their qualifications on the Si Quis door, bawds looked out for victims, pickpockets plied their trade; and a crowd of cast captains of the Bobadil type haunted the place and were known as P. Men. Earle, in his Microcosmography xli. (1628). speaks of it as "the land's epitome, or you may call it the lesser isle of Great Britain," and describes its noise "like that of bees, a strange humming or buzz, mixed, of walking, tongues and feet." The whole chapter should be read. Chapter iv of Dekker's Hornbook is headed: "How a Gallant should behave himself in Pow. walkes," which he calls "your Mediterranean Ile." Spurs were not allowed to be worn there, and the choir boys had the right to claim spur-money from offenders. In earlier days it was called the Parvys, an abbreviation of Paradise, and already in the 14th cent. was a meeting place for men of business, especially lawyers. Chaucer's Sergeant of the Law "often hadde been at the Parvys "(C. T. Prol. 310).

In H4 B. i. 2, 58, Falstaff says of Bardolph: "I bought him in P." In Dekker's Westward ii. 2, Birdlime says, "She searched the middle aisle in P. and pressed 3 knaves to man her." Act iv., sc. 6 of Middleton's Five Gallants is laid "in the middle aisle of St. P." In Swetnam iii. 1, when a number of people enter, Vaster says, "Our walk's turned Pos., I think." Riche, in Faultes Faults (1606), fol. 7, says of the State-ape "You shall meet him in the middle walk in Pas. at ten of the clock and three of the clock"-where he proceeds to talk politics. Awdeley, in Fraternity of Vagabonds, says that the trade of the Cheatour or Fingerer is "to walk in such places where as gentlemen and other worshipful citizens resort, as at Pos. or at Christes Hospital." Fleetwood, writing to Lord Burghley, tells how he arrested in P. "22 cloked rogues that there used to keep standing." In Greene's Thieves Falling Out (1637), Stephen says the gentleman foyst (pickpocket) "must walk Pas., Westminster, the Exchange, and such common haunted places." In Jonson's Ev. Man I., Bobadil is described in the list of the characters as "a P. Man," i.e. a frequenter of the Middle Aisle. Act iii., sc. i of Ev. Man O. is laid in "the middle aisle of St. P." Shift has come "for the advancement of a si quis or two," and succeeds in setting up his bills without discovery. Clove and Orange "come to walk a turn or two i' this scene of P." Then Carlo enters to "take up a man or two [i.e. hire them]" for Sogliardo. Fastidius Brisk comes in, exclaiming: "Come, let's walk in Mediterraneo." Puntarvolo sees and reads aloud Shift's two Si Quis's: one offering his services as gentleman-usher to a lady; the other setting forth his qualifications as a teacher of fashionable smoking. Carlo finds Shift, and describes him as "the most strange piece of military profession that ever was discovered in Insula Paulina." The whole scene should be read. In Barthol. i. 1, Littlewit describes himself as "one of the pretty wits of P." In Haughton's Englishmen i. 2, Anthony says, "Make him answer, you three came from P., And in the middle walk one you espied Fit for his purpose." A teacher of French and music was what was wanted. In Feversham ii. 2, Arden says, "Now, Master Francklin, Let us go walk in Pas." In Barry's Ram iv. 1 Sir Oliver advises Smallshanks, "Get thee a grey cloak and hat and walk in P. among thy cashiered mates." In Middleton's R. G. ii. 1, Dapper sends his man Gull to get his dinner, and says, "Meet me an hour hence in P." In Mayne's Match iii. 3, Plotwell says, "Your penurious father Was wont to walk his dinner out in P." -"Indeed," says Newcut, "they say he was a monument of P."; and Timothy adds: "Yes, he was there as constant as D. Humphrey's." In Tomkis' Albumazar v. 2, Cricca, looking for Pandolfo, says he is "neither in P., at home, nor in the Exchange: He's lost." In Jonson's Staple i. 1, Thomas says that the 4 cardinal quarters of the city for news are The Court, P., Exchange, and Westminster Hall." He then mentions "Master Ambler [as] emissary P., a fine-paced gentleman, as you shall see walk the middle aisle." In Haughton's Englishmen iii. i, Frisco says of P.: "D. Humphrey dwells here and keeps open house, and a brave sort of Cammileres [i.e. Cavaliers] dine with him every day." Lupton, in London Carbonadoed (1632) iii. 12, says, "The middle ile is much frequented at noone with a company of Hungarians, not walking so much for recreation as neede." Nash, in Pierce, speaks of "the masterless men that set up their bills in Pas. for services." Dekker, in Raven's Almanac (1609), speaks of extreme poverty as "St. Paulus Plague," and adds: "How many that walk in the middle Ile of Pas. in reasonable good clothes will be struck with this plague!"

In Day's Law Tricks iv. 2, Joculo tells a cock-and-bull story of a flood in Lond. so great that "the scullers that use to work in the Thames rowed over houses and landed their fares in the middle Ile of Pas." Middleton, in Black Book, p. 9, speaks of those who "with their heavy trot and iron stalk have worn off the brass in the Middle Walk." Hall, in Satires ii. 5, 1, asks: "Saw'st thou ever Siquis patched on Pos. ch. door To seek some vacant vicarage before? Who wants a churchman that can service say . . . Come to the left-side alley of St. Pos." In iii, 7, 6, he says, "Trow'st thou where he dined to-day? In Booth I saw him sit with D. Humfray." In v. 3, 20, he speaks of the worshipper "that rounds Pos. pillars in the ear, Or bends his hams down in the naked quire." Burton, A. M. iii. 3, 4, 2, says, "He that buys a horse in Smithfield, and hires a servant in P., as the diverb is, shall likely have a jade to his horse, a knave for his man." In Penn. Part. 6, it is enacted: "What day soever St. P. ch. hath not, in the middle isle of it, either a broker, masterless man, or a pennyless companion, the usurers of Lond. shall be sworn by oath to bestow a new steeple upon it." In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Peacham mentions amongst the sights of Lond. "The Tomb of Beauchamp." W. Rowley, in Search, Intro., says to the reader, "I know the walks in Pas. are stale to you; ye could tell. how many paces there between the quire and the W. door." In B. & F. Wit S. W. i. 1, Oldcraft calls Cunningham "a D. Humphrey spark, He had rather lose his dinner than his jest."

There was a fine tomb of Lord Chancellor Christopher Hatton, of dancing fame, between the choir and the S. aisle: it was very conspicuous, and altogether dwarfed the adjacent tombs of Sir Philip Sidney and Sir Francis Walsingham. A contemporary epigram runs: "Philip and Francis have no tomb, Great Christopher takes all the room." Corbett says, "Nor need the Chancellor boast, whose pyramis Above the Host and Altar raised is." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 3, Macilente asks: "How long should I be, ere I should put off [i.e. take off my hat] to the Lord Chancellor's tomb?" Dekker, in Hornbook iv., advises the visitor to St. P., "Your next worthy work is to repair to my Lord Chancellor's tomb; and, if you can but reasonably spell, bestow some time upon the reading of Sir Philip Sydney's brief epitaph; in the compass of an hour, you may make shift to stumble it out."

There was a clock, the hours being struck by a pair of jacks. In Dekkers Hornbook iv., he says, "If Pow. Jacks be once up with their elbows and quarrelling to strike 11, as soon as ever the clock has parted them, let not the D.'s gallery contain you any longer." Later, the Gull is advised to look at the great Dial: "observe the sauciness of the jacks that are above the man in the moon there; the strangeness of the motion will quit your labour." Middleton, in Hubburd, p. 54, says, "what is mirth in me is as harmless as the quarter jacks in P. that are up with their elbows 4 times an hour" and yet never strike anybody. There were beautiful rose-windows in the transepts and Lady Chapel, and they gave their name to a sort of open leather-work used for ornamenting shoes. Chaucer, in C. T. A. 3318, tells how Absolon has "Pow. wyndow corven on his shoon." The organ was built by William Beton. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire. The present organ was built by Willis in 1874 to replace Father Smith's instrument, erected in 1697. In T. Heywood's Royal King i. 1, the Welshman says, "It was told us in Wales that you have a great pigge organ in P., and pigger by a great deal than our organ at Rixam [Wrexham]." Paul Hentzner says that P. possessed a "very fine organ which at evening prayer, accompanied with other instruments, is delightful." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iii. 3, Macilente declares that he will not take off his hat to Lord Chancellor Hatton's tomb in St. P., any more than he will "commend the chapel organ for the gilt without." Dekker, in Hornbook iii., speaks of the first lesson in St. P. being "read in a voice as big as one of the great organs." A halfpenny seems to have been charged for a seat in the church. In Nash's Summers, 342, Will says, "Hur come to Powl, as the Welshman says, and hur pay an halfpenny for hur seat, and hur hear the preacher talge."

There were numerous chapels connected with the old cathedral. At the E. end was the Lady Chapel, with chapels to St. George and St. Dunstan to the N. and S. of it respectively. In the crypt was the ch. of St. Faith; at the S.W. corner the ch. of St. Gregory. On the N. side was a charnel-house with a chapel over it called Pardon Ch. In these chapels various chantries were established-35 in all-giving employment to 54 priests. Under the choir was the Jesus Chapel; on the N. side of St. P. School there was a stone belfry with 4 large bells belonging to Jesus Chapel, and known as Jesus' Bells. Fuller, Holy State v. 14, says, "Sir Miles Partridge . . . played at dice for Jesus's bells with K. Henry VIII and won them of him."

The old ch. had a tower at the crossing surmounted by a wooden spire, covered with lead, and crowned by a weathercock in the shape of a golden eagle. The tower was 285 ft. and the spire 208 ft. high: something like 100 ft. higher than the top of the present dome. It was completed in 1221: the steeple was burnt down in 1561, and never restored. Visitors were allowed to ascend the tower on payment of a penny, and many tried to immortalize themselves by carving their names on the leads. At the coronation procession of Q. Mary a Dutchman, called Peter, stood on the weathercock and waved flags. In Rychardes' Misogonus iii. 2, Cacurgus says, "That old lizard has no more wit than the weathercock of Pas." Skelton, in Colin Clout 336, speaks of a man saying in mock that "a butterfly were the weathercock of the steeple of Pos." In Respublica iv. 3, People says, "That lie ere this is flown as far hence as Poule steeple." In Phillips Grissill 51, Politick Persuasion fell out of the clouds and says, "The weathercock of Pas. aided me in my flight." In Treasure A. 4, Inclination says, "I can remember when Noes ship was made; the same year the weathercock of Pas. caught the pip." In Day's B. Beggar ii., Stroud says, "I know no more how to please him that I know how to build up Pas. steeple." In Chaunticleers i., Bristle says, "Like the cripple, I'd run up P. steeple." In Roister ii. 4, Trupenny says, "I looked as far beyond the people As one may see out of the top of Pas. steeple."

In Shirley's Riches iii., Gettings, the Lond. merchant, swears "By our thrice-burnt famous steeple That doth overlook the people." The steeple was burnt down in 1136, 1444, and finally in 1561. In Lodge's Wounds of Civil War v. 1, Curtail exclaims: "O base mind that being is the P. steeple of honour hast cast thyself into the sink of simplicity." Peacham, in Worth of a Penny (1641), says, "For a penny you may be advanced to that height that you shall be above the best in the city: that is, to the top of Pas." Dekker, in Hornbook iv., advises the Gull to pay tribute "to the top of Pow. steeple with a single penny," but he bids him be careful how he looks down, "for the rails are as rotten as your great-grandfather." Before he comes down he must talk about the horse that went up, and carve his name on the leads: "indeed, the top of Pow. contains more names than Stowes Chronicle." In Dekker's Satiro. iv. 3, 198, Sir Vaughan says, "Your Muse leans upon nothing but filthy rotten rails, such as stand on Pos. head." In Jonson's Execration on Vulcan Underwoods lxi., he says, "Pox on your flameship! if it be To all as fatal as . . . to P. steeple . . . which remains yet unrepaired." In Dekker's Satiro. iv. 3, 186, Tucca says that his sword is "as blunt as the top of Pos.," i.e. after the steeple had been burnt and only the tower was left. In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Iniquity says, "I will fetch thee a leap from the top of P. steeple to the Standard in Cheap." In Epicoene ii. 1, Truewit marvels that Morose does not commit suicide "with such a delicate steeple in the town as Bow to vault from; or a braver height, as P." In Dekker's Shoemaker's iv. 5, Fink says, "Am I sure that P. steeple is a handful higher than Lond. Stone?" In the Book of Riddels (157), we have: "What is that, round as a ball, longer than P. steeple, weathercock and all?" The answer is: "It is a round bottom of thread when it is unwound." The riddle must be earlier than 1561. In T. Heywood's Hogsdon v. 1, Chartley says, "This 7 years I have not seen P. steeple or Cheap Cross." In Middleton's Chaste Maid i. 1, Moll is said to be "heir to some 19 mtns., all as high as P." In Abingdon iv. 3, Nicholas says, "I'll take no wrong, if he looked as high as P. steeple" In Tomkis' Albumazar iii. 5, Trincalo boasts "I could descend from the top of P. to the bottom And on each step strew parting compliments." In iii. 9, Trincalo, when exhorted to drop from a window, protests: "'Tis as high as St. P." In B. & F. Wit Money ii. 4, Lance suggests as an attractive news item "Whirlwinds that shall take off the top of Grantham steeple, and clap it on P." In Dekker's Dead Term (1608), P. Steeple says, "The mariner called me his seamark, for to him I stood as a watchtower to guide him safely to our English shore." In Brome's Sparagas ii. 2, Rebecca longs "to be on the top of P. Steeple when it is new built, but that must not be yet; nor am I so unreasonable that I can stay the time." The date is 1635, when projects for restoration had been for a couple of years in the air, but had come to nothing.

Banks' dancing horse Morocco is said to have climbed to the top of the tower in 1601. In Owles Almanack (1618), we find "Since the Dancing Horse stood on the top of Pow. whilst a number of asses stood braying below, 17 years." The horse and his trainer were ultimately burned alive in Rome for witchcraft. In Dekker's Northward iv. 1, the Capt. asks: "Could the little horse that ambled on the top of P. carry all the people?" In Middleton's Black Book, the Devil asks: "May not the devil walk in P. as well as the horse go a-top of P.?" In Dekker's Satiro. i. 2, 157, Horace says, "I have heard of the horses walking a' the top of Pas." W. Rowley, in Search, Intro., calls this "the transforming of the top of Pas. into a stable." Dekker, in Wonderful Year (1603), says, "He that dares to be a man in print must make account that he shall stand like the old weather-cock over Pow. steeple to be beaten with all storms." In his Seven Sins, he says that Sloth is young: "he was not in the shell when Pas.-steeple and the weathercock were on fire." In his Dead Term (1608), in the complaint of Pas. Steeple, he gives the whole history of it from its first building to the fire which destroyed it in 1561. In his Westward ii. 1, Honeysuckle asks: "What news flutters abroad? do Jackdaws dung the top of P. steeple still?" To which Justiniano replies: "The more is the pity, if any dawn do come into the temple, as I fear they do." In W. Rowley's Match. Mid. i. 2, Randall, attacked by highwaymen at Coombe Park, cries: "If they take Randalls, then Randalls shall see Pauls steeples no more." In Cuckqueans i. 2, Shift says, "P. steeple stands in the place it did before." The supposed date is 1588. In Deloney's Reading vi., the clothiers' wives, visiting Lond., "came to St. P. Ch., whose steeple was so high that it seemed to pierce the clouds, on the top whereof was a great and mighty weathercock, of clean silver . . . which was afterwards stolen away by a cunning cripple." With the proceeds of this theft "he builded . . . Criplegate." The supposed date is the reign of Henry I. Sir John Davies, in In Gerontem 13, represents an old man dating events from the "burning of P. steeple." Dekker, in Hornbook iii., says that the ears "have crooked windings like those that lead to the top of Pow. steeple."

St. Paul's Cross:
A pulpit cross of wood, on a stone foundation and roofed with lead, from which sermons were delivered. It stood on the N. side of the ch., near the E. end. The exact site was discovered in digging up the churchyard some years ago, and marked by a pavement. A cross has now been erected near the old site. In Piers C. xii. 56 and xvi. 70 are references to preaching "at Seint Paules": doubtless from the Cross. In Skelton's Colin Clout 1175, the Prelates complaint: "At P Cross or elsewhere they set not by us a whittle." In John Evangel. 352, Eugenio says to John, "Methink I have heard you preach or this at Pas. Cross." In Wapulls Tarrieth F.1, Greediness says, "Towards Pow. Crosse from hence I do go." Courage asks him: "To Pow. Crosse, what there will you do? Do you the preacher's words so well like?" But Greediness explains that he is going there to find his debtors. In Yarrington's Two Trag. iv. 5, Merry says, "I met Williams coming home from Pow. Crosse where he had been to hear a sermon." In Massinger's Madam iii. 1, Shave'em threatens to have Ramble arrested "for the purse you cut In P. at a sermon." In True Trag., p. 84, the Page says, "Dr. Shaw hath pleased my lord that preached at Pas. Crosse yesterday, that proved the 2 princes to be bastards." Ascham, in Scolemaster (1570), says, "10 sermons at P. Cross do not so much good as one of those books do harm." In Mayne's Match i. 3, Warehouse tells his nephew that he means him to be a city father "to sit at sermon in his chain and scarlet . . . and be remembered at the Cross." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV B. 143, Shaw says to Lovell, "Be but at P. Cross on Sunday next; I hope I have it here shall soundly prove K. Edward's children not legitimate." In his I. K. M. B. v., the Q., after the victory over the Armada, says, "Give commandment to the Dean of P. He not forget in his neat learned sermon To celebrate this conquest at P. Cross." Earle, in Microcosmography xliii., says of the bold, forward man. "He never defers St. Mary's [i.e. his sermon in the University ch.] beyond his regency; and his next sermon is at P. Cross, and that printed." In Middleton's Black Book, p. 41, the Devil says of the Cutpurse: "You shall not stick to give a shave of your office at Pauls-Cross in the sermon-time." Burton, A. M. Intro., says, "Had I been as forward as some others, I might have haply printed a sermon at P. Cross." St. Faith's Ch. was in the crypt at the E. end, just S. of the Cross. In Dekker's Shoemaker's iv. 5, Firk swears "by my Faith's Ch. under P. Cross." An official was employed to visit the church and drive out the dogs. Nosh, in Pierce (1592), says, "It were eerie good the dog-whipper in Pas. would have a care of this in his unsaverie visitation everie Saterday."

There were a few lamps round the ch., which were lighted at nightfall: they were the only attempt at street-lighting in Lond. at this time. Hall, in Satires iv. 2, advises Lolio's son: "Gin not thy gait . . . until the lamps of Pauls been light."

As is obvious from Vischer's View of Lond. (1616), St. P., even after the destruction of its lofty spire, was the most conspicuous object in the city, and its bulk made it a common symbol of size and immobility. In H4 A. ii. 4, 575. the Prince says of Falstaff: "This oily rascal is known as well as P." In H8 v. 4, 17, the Porter's man says of the crowd: "We may as well push against Powle's as stir 'em." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. i. 1, Sordido, the regrater of grain, says that until he has no place to hide it in, "each corn I send [to market] shall be as big as P.," i.e. he will send none at all. In Tomkis' Albumazar i. 3, Ronca shows a perspective with which he can read a page of a minute edition of the Iliad "12 long m. off as plainly as you see P. from Highgate." In B. & F. Wit S. W. iv. 1, Pompey says, "I ha' got a stomach 6 times and lost it again, as often as a traveller from Chelsea shall lose the sight of P. and get it again." In Houghton's Englishmen iii. 1, Frisco says, "My master would say, Would I had P full of gold; my young mistress would wish she had P. full of needles. I once asked my master half a yard of frieze to make me a coat, and he cried it was big enough to make P. a nightgown."

General Allusions:
In J. Heywood's John, Tyb and Sir John 71, John says, "Thou wast praying in the church of Pos." In Mankind 98, Bodily Lust, who has been knocking at Margery's door, says, "A man might have heard the noise from Pos. to the farthest end of Cheap." In Three Ladies F.2, Diligence testifies that "Simony was seen this day walking in P. having conference with some of the clergy." in Nobody 1137, Nobody says, "Coming through Pos., there Nobody kneeled down To say his prayers." After the banquet on Lord Mayor's Day it was customary for the Corporation to attend a sermon at St. P. In Shirley's Riches i. Clod says, "You march [on Lord Mayor's Day] to the Guildhall, where you look upon the Saracen giants, and feed like Saracens, till you have no stomach to P. in the afternoon." Proclamations were often read at St. P., either in the cathedral or at the Cross. In R3 iii. 6, 3, the Scrivener has engrossed the indictment of Hastings "that it may this day be read o'er in P." In Jonson's The Alchemist i. 1, Face says to Subtle, "I will write thee up bawd in P." Apparently there was some festival at St. P.'s on St. George's Day; at which the knights, dressed in blue coats, kept order in the crowd. In Barry's Ram iv. p. 314, Face says, "I will be knight, Wear a blue coat on great St. George's day, And with my fellows drive you all from P.'s For this attempt." The children of P., i.e. the choir-boys, used to act plays behind the Convocation House; amongst others were Histriomastix (1599), to which allusion is made in Jack Drum v. 192, where Sir Edward says, "I saw the children of Pow. last night, And troth they pleased me pretty, pretty well." Lyly's Campaspe, Sapho, and Love's Meta. were written for them and the children of the Chapel Royal. In R3 i. 2, 30, Anne says to the bearers of the body of Henry VI, "Come, now, towards Chertsey with your holy load Taken from P., to be interred there." Henry's body lay in state in St. P. An unsavoury exploit of a certain Spaniard in the cathedral is often alluded to. In Webster's Wyat, p. 45, Brett says, "There came but one Dondego into England, and he made all P. stink again." In T. Heywood's Maid of West iv. 4, Clem addresses the Spaniards: "Now, you Don Diegos, you that made P. to stink." In Middleton's Blurt iv. 2, Blurt says, "If you be kin to Don Diego that was smelt out in P., you pack." In Ford's Warbeck i. 3, "Worseley, the Dean of P.," is mentioned as one of the supporters of Perkin Warbeck.

(Map L5–6)

A lane running S. from the S. side of St. P. Churchyard, Lond., to Carter Lane. A chain used to be stretched across the carriage way at this point during divine service to prevent the disturbance from passing vehicles. In Middleton's Triumphs of Truth, the Angel and Zeal conduct the Lord Mayor "to P. C." Cocker, the arithmetician, lived "on the S. side of St. P. Ch., over against P. C." Middleton, in Black Book, p. 39, tells of the gaolers taking the prisoners a walk "between P. Ch. and Ludgate." In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Vadianus says that on Coryat's return "P. C, for joy did stretch and yawn."

(Map K5–L5)

The area surrounding St. P. Ch., Lond., the side towards the S. being called the Bow and the N. side the String. It was enclosed by a precinct wall, and had 6 gates, viz.: It was, and is, surrounded by shops, which in Elizabethan times were mostly in the occupation of booksellers, though trunk-makers were also found there. The Bishop's Palace stood at the N.W. corner and the Chapter-house on the S. side. After the Gt. Fire the booksellers mostly migrated to the neighbouring Paternoster Row. On the N. side of the ch. yard was the Mitre Inn, a noted coaching inn, afterwards known as the Swan and Lyre, and then, by a curious perversion, as The Gore and Gridiron. It is probably to this inn that Dekker refers in Northward iv. 1, where Mayberry says, " Wife, on with your riding suit and cry Northward Hoe ! as the boy at P. says." In J. Heywood's Four PP., p. 20, the Pedler says, " If each man's tale In Paule's c. were set on sale," they would have to be sold by weight. In Ret. Pernass. i. 2, Judicio speaks of " the paper ware in Paules C." In iii. 3, the Page says, " This great linguist, my master, will march through Paule's c. ; come to a bookbinder's shop, and ask for these books in Spanish and Italian." In B. & F. Wit Money iii. q, Valentine says, "Who looked on you but Prentices in P. c. that scented your want of Breton's books e " In the same play (ii. 3), Isabella asks, " Where lies this learning, Sir ! "and Shorthose answers : " In P. C., for Booth," i.e. in the booksellers' shops. In Brome's Covent G. ii. 1, Crosswill says, " Take up these books, sirrah, and carry them presently into P. c., d'ye see, and change them all for Histories." In T. Heywood's F.M. Exch. 47, the Cripple says of a certain poet : " His library was just nothing But rolls and scrolls and bundles of cast wit Such as durst never visit P. C." Nash, in Pierce I. 2, says, " Who can abide a scurvy peddling poet to pluck a man by the sleeve at every 3rd step in Paules C., and when he comes in to survey his wares, there's nothing but purgations and vomits wrapped up in waste paper f " Dekker, in preface to Satiro., says, " Neither should this ghost of Tucca have walked up and down Poules C., but that be was raised up (in print) by new exorcisms." In Strange Horse Race (1613) preface, he says, " He is tied to a stake, like a bear to be baited, that comes into Paules C. to be read." In Jonson's Staple i. 5, Cymbal describes a decayed Stationer as " True P. bred I' the C." The author of Zepheria (1594,) xxxvi. 14,, says to his lady, " This penance I award Clad in white sheet, thou stand in P. c.," i.e. as the subject of his poems. In Pilg. Pernass. ii. 1, Madido says, " Ere long not a post in P. C. but shall be acquainted with our writings." In Dekker's Hornbook iv., he says, " John in Powles c. shall fit his head for an excellent block." Presumably John was a fashionable hatter. Middleton, in Hubbard, p. 53, swears " by John of Pains c." The C. was used for executions : 4 of the Gunpowder Plot conspirators suffered there. From T. Heywood's I. K. M. B. 269, we learn that Dean Nowel lived " is Powles C." Taylor, is Works i. 61, speaks of " trunk-makers in Pauls C."


(Map L5)

A private playhouse in the choir singing-school of St. P.'s, Lond., established by Sebastian Westcott, the master of the boys, about 1575 it was suppressed for some years after 1590, but was not finally closed until 1608. [ed. note: recent scholarship has placed the playhouse in either the chancel house or almoner's house of the church, which is where it appears on the map. The singing school is also marked but not as the playhouse]. The price of admission was 4d., twice the regular fee. In Cuckqueans i. 2, Shift says that "P. steeple stands in the place it did before, and you may see a play for 2d." The supposed date is 1588. But in a marginal note to Lyly's Pappe with an Hatchet (1589), it is stated that if a tragedy "be showed at P., it will cost you 4d., at the Theatre 2d." In Ind. to What You Will , acted at P. in 1600, the speaker says, "Let's place ourselves within the curtains, for, good faith, the stage is so very little, we shall wrong the general eye else very much." Nash, in Saffron Walden, says that he desires to have "the plays at P. up again." This was during their temporary suppression after 1590: there is proof that the boys were acting again in 1600, for in Marston's Jack Drum , Sir Edward says, in v. 102, "I saw the children of Powles last night And troth they pleased me pretty, pretty well: The apes in time will do it handsomely." Planet praises the quality of the audience, but Brabant criticizes the plays they are producing as "musty fopperies of antiquity."

(Map L5)

A school founded by John Colet in 1512, on the E. side of the Churchyard of St. P., Lond. It was intended for the education of 153 poor children, and its first master was Lilly, the grammarian. The building was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt immediately; a more modern building was erected in 1823, and in 1880 the school was removed to W. Kensington and the buildings pulled down to make room for warehouses. The boys were nicknamed P. Pigeons. In Underwit ii. 2, Thomas says, "That I took upon the Stationer's word, who had been a pretty scholar at P." Laneham, in his Letter (1575), says, "I went to school forsooth both at Pollen and also at St. Antoniez." In Middleton's Chaste Maid iii. 2, Maudlin says to Tim, " I'll make your tutor whip you; You know how I served you once at the free-school In P. churchyard." The boys performed plays from time to time : amongst others, the Menaechmi of Plautus in 1527 and Pharmio is 1528. A performance of a Latin tragedy on Dido, written by the headmaster, John Rightwise, is recorded for 1532.


A ch. on the W. side of Covent Garden, Lond., built from the designs of Inigo Jones. It was begun in 1631 and consecrated in 1638. The portico is seen in Hogarth's Morning. It was burnt down in 1795 and rebuilt on the original plans. In Brome's Covent G. i. 1, Crosswill says to his Puritanical son Gabriel, "Come, Sir, what do you gape and shake the head at there? I'll lay my life he has spied the little cross upon the new Ch. yond, and is at defiance with it." Later on in the scene, Nicholas expresses the hope that the builder Rookesbill "will be the first to lay his bones in the new ch."

(Map L6)

A landing place on the Thames, at the end of P. W. Hill, where St. P. Pier is now. In the True Account of the Treasons of Frances Throckmorton (1584), it is said that he was arrested "at his house by Poules Wharf." In Middleton's Chaste Maid iv. 3, Touchwood says, " I'll Take water at P. W. and overtake you."


(from the Dutch Penn). A covered walk, or arcade, in which articles were exposed for sale: applied specifically to a part of the Royal Exchange in Lond.(q.v.) Drayton, in Heroic Epp. xvii. 95, says, "Walk into the Pawne To buy thee cambric, calico, or lawn." In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says to Judith, "You must to the Pawn to buy lawn." In 'Tis Merry when Gossips Meet (1609), the Wife says, "In truth, kind coz, my coming's from the Pawn, But I protest I lost my labour there. A gentleman promised to give me lawn And did not meet me, which he well shall hear." In verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), Glareanus Vadianus says, "Gald-breech Fame rode post bare-ridge To spread the news on Antwerpe Pawne."


A tavern in Lond. on the W. side of Aldersgate St., near the end of Long Lane (q.v.) In Shirley's Wedding ii. 1, Cardona says to Isaac, "When thou art at the Peacock, remember to call for the sprig."


The sign of a tavern in Cheapside, Lond. (q.v.) In Ret. Pernass. i. 2, Ingenioso says, "Meet me an hour hence at the sign of the P. in Cheapside." Randolph, in Jealous Lover , speaks of "a pottle of elixir at the P." Shakespeare, in Shrew iv. 4, 5, makes the Pedant speak of having lodged "in Genoa at the P."


A sign in Lombard St., Lond.(q.v.) The Pelican Life Insurance Co. may be found still at No. 70, next to Change Alley. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 64, the K. says, "Here's Lombard St. and here's the P." There was a P. Tavern at Oxford. In Cuckqueans iv. 8, Claribel reminds Floradin of "our last breakfast we made in Oxford at the Pellican."

(Map O5)

Lond., possibly Pencritch St. is intended. It was the E. part of the present Pancras Lane,(q.v.) which runs from Queen St. to Bucklersbury, parallel to Cheapside. It was named from the old ch. of St. Pancras, which stood on its N. side and was not rebuilt after the Gt. Fire. In Jonson's Christmas, Christmas sings: "Then Offering, he, With his dish and his tree, That in every great house keepeth, Is by my son, Young Little-worth done, And in P. st. he sleepeth."

(Map Q8)
(area only; site unmarked)

A passage leading from the Borough, Southwark, to P. A. Stairs, a landing-place just W. of Old Lond. Bdge. (q.v.): the site is covered by the present Bdge. In T. Heywood's Hogsdon ii. 1, the Wise Woman, in a list of fortune-tellers and astrologers, mentions "one Hatfield in P. A., he doth pretty well for a thing that is lost." The imprint on the title page of Nash's Return of Pasquil (1589) runs: "If my breath be so hot that I burn my mouth, suppose I was printed by P. A."

(Map P4)

A ch. in Lond. on the W. side of Old Broad St., a little N. of Throgmorton St. The old ch. was next to Paulet House, and escaped the Gt. Fire, but it projected into the street, and so was taken down in 1788 and the present building erected further back. In Curates' Conference (1641), Master Poorest says, "I was offered a place in the city of Lond., but the name of it frightened me: it was at St. Peter's-poor."

(Map T6)

A ch. in the Tower of Lond. at the N. end of Tower Green. Here are buried Queens Anne Boleyn and Katherine Howard, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Lady Jane Grey and her husband, the Earl of Essex, Sir Walter Raleigh, and many other distinguished victims of the headsman's axe.


Westminster, running E. from Horseferry Rd. to Marsham St. It is now called Great P. St. An inscription was until recently to be seen on one of the houses: "This is Saint P. St., 1624." There was another P. St., near Clare Market, between Vere St, and Stanhope St., now called Denzell St.; yet another, running W. from Wardour St., Soho; and a 4th, within the Mint in Southwark. It is not easy to say which is intended in the quotation, but I incline to the last-named. In Davenport's New Trick i. 2, Slightall tells Roger to find him a prostitute, and to search, amongst other places, "White Fryers, Saint Peters st., and Mutton Lane."

(Map T3–4)

A st. in Lond., now called Middlesex St., running N. from High St., Whitechapel, a little E. of Houndsditch, to Wentworth St. Stow says that its original name was Hog L., (q.v.) and that within 40 years it was a pleasant country lane with elm-tree hedges, but that in his time it was made a continual building throughout of garden houses and small cottages. Strype says that Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador in the court of James I, lived on the W. side of it and his own father on the E. During the reign of James a number of French refugees, mostly silk-weavers, settled there, and later their place was taken by Jewish second-hand clothes dealers, who still occupy it. As the quotations show, the garden-houses to which Stow refers were used by women of bad character, and the L. was regarded as one of their usual haunts. In Beguiled, Dods., ix. 304, Cricket says, "He looks like a tankard-bearer that dwells in P. L. at the sign of the Mermaid." Nash, in Prognostication, says, "If the Beadels of Bridewell be careful this summer it may be hoped that Peticote L. may be less pestered with ill airs than it was wont; and the houses there so clear cleansed that honest women may dwell there without any dread of the whip and the cart." In Penn. Pad. 35, it is enacted: "Many men shall be so venturously given as they shall go into Petty-coat L. and yet come out again as honestly as they first went in." In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Iniquity says, "We will survey the suburbs and make forth our sallies Down P. L. and up the Smock-alleys, To Shoreditch, Whitechapel, and so to St. Kathern's."

(Map Q3)
(map depicts area so denoted by Prockter and Taylor
and is not in line with the following description)

A st. in Westminster running W. from the junction of Tothill St. and Broadway to St. James's St., parallel to the S. side of St. James's Park. It was so called from the French merchants who lived there when they came over to trade at the Woolstaple. The name was changed in the 18th cent, to York St., in honour of Frederick D. of York, the son of George II. Here John Milton lived from 1652 to 1660 at what was afterwards No. 19 York St. The house was preserved until quite recently, and a sketch of it, with a mural inscription "Sacred to Milton," may be seen in Old and New London iv. 18.


(Map E3)

(another name for the COCK-PIT THEATRE on the E. side of Drury Lane, Lond.). The site was long preserved by the name of Cockpit Alley, afterwards Pitt Court, running from Drury Lane to Wild St. It was pulled down by the mob in 1617, but was rebuilt and continued to be used till about 1663, when the Drury Lane Theatre superseded it. In Randolph's Muses' i. 1, Mrs. Flowerdew says, "It was a zealous prayer I heard a brother make concerning playhouses: that the Globe had been consumed, the P. burnt to ashes." T. Heywood's Mistress was "acted by the Queen's Comedians at the P. in Drury Lane "in 1636. In Leaguer prol., Marmion says, "The P. takes new life from the fire bright Poesy creates."


The sign of a Lond. tavern; also the sign of a shop in Lombard St. (q.v.) It is transferred to Ephesus by Shakespeare in Err. The P. Fire Office may still be found in Lombard St. at No. 19, next to Abchurch Lane. In Jonson's Staple prol., he says, "Alas! what is it to his scene to know If Dunstan or the P. best wine has?" In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 64, the K. says, "Here's Lombard St. and here's the Pelican, And there's the P. in the pelican's nest." In Err. i. 2, 75, Dromio says to Antipholus, "My charge was but to fetch you from the mart Home to your house, the P., Sir, to dinner." It must be remembered that not only taverns, but houses and shops of all kinds were distinguished by signs at this time.

(Map D3)
(area only; site unmarked)

A lane in Lond. out of Long Acre, (q.v.) next to Bow St. on the W.: now Hanover Court. Taylor's journey into Wales (1652) is described as performed "by John Taylor, dwelling at the sign of the Poet's Head in Phenix Alley, near the middle of Long Aker, or Covent Garden." Taylor died here in 1653, and was buried at St. Martin's-in-the-fields.


The arcade or covered way built on the N. and E. sides of Covent Garden, Lond., (q.v.) by Inigo Jones in 1633-4. His intention was to carry the P. all round the square, but only these 2 sides were built, that on the N. being called the Great and that on the E. the Little P. The idea seems to have been taken from the colonnades in the P. di San Marco at Venice, but the name was wrongly applied, not to the whole square or Place, but to the colonnades themselves. Blount, in Glossographia (1656), s.v., says, "P., a market-place or chief street, such as that in Covent Garden, which the vulgar corruptly call the P. The close walks are not so properly the P. as the ground inclosed within the rail." He also notes that the word is to be pronounced Piatsa. In Shirley's Ball v. 1, Freshwater says, "The Venetians are the valiantest gentlemen under the sun. 2 or 3 English spies had lain lieger for 3 months to steal away the P. and ship it to Covent Garden." In Killigrew's Parson v. 1, the Capt. says, "Who should I meet at the corner of the P. but Joseph Taylor: he tells me there's a new play at the Fryers to-day." Taylor was an actor, who died in 1654. In v. 4, the Parson says, "I'd pass my time in the P. with the mountebank, and let him practise upon my teeth and draw 'em too, ere he persuades the words of matrimony out of my mouth again." Killigrew himself lived in the P., in the N.W. angle from 1637 to 1643 and in the N.E. from 1660 to 1662. In Brome's Covent G. i. 1, Cockbrain, speaking of Covent Garden, says, "Yond magnificent piece, the P., will excel that at Venice." In Nabbes' C. Garden ii. 1, Warrant says he has challenged Spruce: "the weapon single rapier; the place the P."

(Map A3)

A st. in modern Lond. running W. from the top of the Haymarket to Hyde Park Corner. The same is first recorded in 1623, when Robte. Baeker of Pickadilley Hall is mentioned in the accounts of the Overseers of the Poor of St. Martin's. This Hall was at the N.E. corner of the Haymarket. Blount, in Glossographia, mentions a famous Ordinary near St. James's called Pickadilly; and thinks it was so called from Pickadil, a sort of collar, because it was "the utmost or skirt house of the suburbs"; or because Higgins, who built it, was a tailor, and got his profit from the sale of Pickadils. I find no mention of it in our dramatists.

(Map L2)
(area only; site unmarked)

An infamous resort of thieves and prostitutes in Elizabethan Lond. It lay at the back of Middle Row (formerly called Rotten Row) on the E. side of Goswell Rd., just S. of Old St. opposite the wall of the Charterhouse. The name was preserved for a long time in Pickax Yard, Middle Row. It properly means a half-door, surmounted by a row of spikes, such as was often used in brothels. It was stated by some authorities to have been in Turnmill St., but a survey of 1649 fixes the site as above described. In M.W.W. ii. 2, 19, Falstaff says to Pistol, "Go! A short knife and a throng! To your manor of P.! Go!" The short knife was for cutting purses in a crowd: the implication being that Pistol was a cut-purse. In Field's Weathercock i. 2, Pendant says, if he were a woman, he would "scratch faces like a wild-cat of Picked-hatch." In his Amends ii. 2, Subtle says, "Your whore doth live in P., Turnbull St." In Jonson's Alchemist ii. 1, when Mammon boasts of the recuperative powers of the Elixir Vitae, Surly says, "The decayed Vestals of Pict-Hatch would thank you, That keep the fire alive there." In Ev. Man I. i. 1, old Knowell, reading Wellbred's letter to his son, dated from the Windmill, says, "From the Bordello it might come as well, The Spittle, or Pict-Hatch." In the dramatic personae of Ev. Man O., Shift is described as "A thread-bare shark. His profession is skeldring and idling, his bank Paul's, and his warehouse Picthatch." In Epigram xii. on Lieutenant Shift, Jonson speaks of him as "Not meanest among squires That haunt Pict-hatch, Marsh Lambeth, and Whitefriars." In Randolph's Muses' iv. 3, justice Nimis boasts of the revenues gained by him from "my P. grange and Shoreditch farm and other premises adjoining." In Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, Cole calls Leatherhead "goodman Hogrubber of P.": meaning that he keeps a brothel. In Davenant's Plymouth i. 2, Seawit says, "Do you take this mansion for Pick'd-hatch?" Marston, in Scourge of Villanie i. 3, says, "His old cynic Dad Hath forced him clean forsake his Pickhatch drab." Randolph, in Hey Hon., speaks of "the whores of P., Turnbull, or the unmerciful bawds of Bloomsbury." In Davenport's New Trick i. 3, P. is mentioned in a list of disreputable localities. The scene of Middleton's Black Book is laid at P.; and on p. 11 the Devil begins his peregrinations there because it "is the very skirts of all brothel-houses." Nash is said to have died at P.


A tavern sign in Lond., probably short for Magpie. There was a Magpie Tavern in Magpie Yard, between Fetter Lane (q.v.) and Castle Yard. In Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, Valerius, in his song of Taverns, says, "The fiddler [goes] to the Pie." There was a Pie Tavern at Aldgate. In Book of New Epigrams (1659), we have "One asked a friend where Captain Shark did lie; Why, Sir, quoth he, at Algate at the Pie."

(Map K4)

The corner of Giltspur St. and Cock Lane in W. Smithfield, Lond. It was so called from the cooks' shops which stood there, at which pigs were dressed during Bartholomew Fair. In a Tract on Bartholomew Fair (1641), it is called "the Pig Market, alias Pasty Nook or P. C.; where pigs, are all hours of the day on the stalls piping hot, and would say (if they could speak) come, eat me." In Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, Littlewit says, "Win, long to eat of a pig, sweet Win, in the Fair do you see, in the heart of the Fair, not at P.-C." In Massinger's Madam i. 1, Anne says contemptuously of the cooks hired by Holdfast: "Fie on them! They smell of Fleet-Lane and P.-C." In Jonson's Alchemist i. 1, Face reminds Subtle that he first met him "at P.-C., Taking your meal of steam in from cooks' stalls." In Field's Amends iii. 4, Whorebang cries, "Let's have wine, or I will cut thy head off and have it roasted and eaten in P. C. next Bartholomew-tide." Dekker, in Raven's Almanac, mocks at those who "walk snuffing up and down in winter evenings through P.-c., yet have no silver to stop colon."

In Peele's Jests, we are told: "George was making merry with 3 or 4 of his friends in P.-C., where the tapster was much given to poetry." In Day's B. Beggar iv., Canby says, "You shall see the amorous conceits and love-songs betwixt Capt. Pod of Py-C. and Mrs. Rump of Ram Alley." This is the Capt. Pod who was a famous exhibitor of motions, or puppet-plays. In Jonson's Barthol. v. 1, Leatherhead says, "O the motions that I have given light to since my master Pod died"; and in Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Macilente says, "Let him be Capt. Pod and this his motion."

There were many saddlers' shops in the neighbourhood of P.-C. In H4 B. ii. 1, 28, Quickly says of Falstaff: "A' comes continuantly to P.-C. to buy a saddle." In Vox Borealis (1641), we read: "These men landed at P. C., where, after they had sold their saddles, they eat out their swords."

There were also printing shops in the neighbourhood, where broadsides and other second-rate stuff were published. Randolph, in his Answer to Ben Jonson's Ode, says, "Thou canst not find them stuff That will be bad enough To please their palates; let 'em them refuse For some P.C. Muse." The Merry-conceited Fortune Teller was "Printed for John Andrews at the White-Lion, near Py-C. 1662." The name lent itself to puns: Middleton, in Hubburd, speaks of a man "winding his pipe like a horn at the P. C. of his mouth, which must needs make him look like a sow-gelder." The Gt. Fire began at Pudding Lane and ended at P. C. The curious circumstance was commemorated by the figure of a naked boy set up at the corner of Cock Lane, with the inscription: "This boy is in memory put up for the late Fire of Lond. occasioned by the sin of gluttony, 1666." The boy, shorn of the wings he once possessed, may still (in 1925) be seen on the public-house called "The Fortune of War."[ed note: While "The Fortune of War" pub is gone now, in 2001, the golden boy is still to be seen. See Corrigan's Vade Micum on the attached map.] There is another memorial in Pudding Lane (q.v.)


A bookseller's sign in St. Paul's Churchyard, Lond. (q.v.) The 2nd quarto of King Lear was "Printed for Nathanael Butter and are to be sold at his shop in Pauls Churchyard at the sign of the Pide Bull near St. Austins Gate. 1608."



(Map L8)

Certain gardens, with 4 fish-ponds in them, on the Bankside in Southwark, between the Thames and Sumner St., E. of Love Lane. They were purchased at one time by Philip Henslowe. In Killigrew's Parson iii. 2, the Capt. says, "Let's go and cross the fields to P.'s; her kitchen in cool winter and summer." I doubt, however, whether the reference is to P. G., from the fact that it was necessary to cross the fields to get there, and that P. is called "she." I should suppose that P.'s was a tavern kept by that lady somewhere is the N. suburbs of Lond.


A place of entertainment in Hogsdon much resorted to by the Londoners of the 17th cent. for the sake of the fresh air and the cakes and ale for which it was famous. The site is approximately marked by P. Walk, which runs E. from the corner of St. John's Rd. and New North Rd. to Hoxton St. Probably it got its name from its proprietor. Nares (s.v.) quotes from News from Hogsdon (1598): "Have at thee then, my merry boys, and hey for old Ben P.'s nut-brown." The name was transferred sometime during the 17th cent. to the dist. E. of Chelsea between the Thames and St. James's Park, possibly because there was a similar place of entertainment there. In all the passages quoted below it is the Hoxton P. that is intended.

A tract was published in 1609 entitled Pimlyco: or Runne Red Cap., 'Tis a mad world at Hogsdon. In Jonson's Alchemist v. 1, Lovewit says, "Gallants, men and women, And of all sorts of tag-rag [have] been seen to flock here In threaves . . . as to a second Hogsden In days of P. and Eyebright." In Barthol. i. 1, Littlewit, praising his wife's dress, says, "I challenge all Cheapside to show such another; Moor-fields, P: path, or the Exchange." In his Devil iv. 1, Wittipol says to Lady Tailbush, "Coach it to P.; dance the saraband." In iii. 1, Meercraft says, "I'll have thee, Capt. Gilthead, and march up and take in P. and kill the bush at every tavern." In Underwoods lxii., Jonson describes the Lond. citizens' wives telling of their husbands' exploits in the train-bands: "What a strong fort old P. had been; How it held out; how, last, 'twas taken in." In Lady Mother iii. 2, Clariana says to Crackby, "Match with Nan your schoolfellow With whom you used to walk to Pimblicoe To eat plumcakes and cream." In Middleton's R. G. v. 1, Dapper says, "My Lord Noland, will you go to P. with us? We are making a voyage to that happy land of spice-cakes." In Mayne's Match ii. 6, Plotwell says, "We have brought you a gentleman of valour who has been in Moorfields often; marry, it has been to squire his sisters and demolish custards at P." In Cooke's Greene's Tu Quoque , p. 556, Sir Lionel says, "I have sent my daughter this morning as far as P. to fetch a draught of Derby ale." In Massinger's Madam iv. 4, Mary speaks contemptuously of "Exchange wenches Coming from eating pudding-pies on a Sunday At P. or Islington." In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Clare speaks of "a grocer's daughter With whom he has been used to go to P. And spend 10 groats in cakes and Christian ale." Dekker, in Armourers, says, "There is no good doings in these days but amongst lawyers, amongst vintners, in bawdy houses, and at P." In Middleton's R. G. iv. 2, Mrs. Gallipot says of an archer at Bunhill: "When his arrows have flien toward Islington his eyes have shot clean contrary towards P."


A tavern on the W. side of Gray's Inn Rd., Lond. (q.v.) between Harrison St. and Cromer St. The name is now transferred to No. 328, on the E. side of the road. It was a little over 1/2 mile from St. Pancras Ch. It was named after the famous George-a-Greene, the Pinner of Wakefield , whose exploits were the subject of the old play so entitled. In Glapthorne's Hollander v. 1, Urinal says that Popingaie will not be married at Pancridge-" There's no drink near it but at the Pinder of Wakefield, and that's abominable."

(Map M5)

Two passages in Old Lond. enjoyed this appellation: one running from Friday St. to Bread St., the other from the Strand into Holywell St. Probably the former is the one intended in the quotation. In Middleton's Family v. 3, Dryfat says, "The wise woman in Pissing Alley nor she in Do-little Lane are more famous for good deeds than he."




A tavern sign in Lond. There was a P. Inn on the S. side of Cary St., or Little Lincoln's Inn Fields; there was also a P. Inn beyond Kensal Green Cemetery which dated back to the 16th cent., and another, which still remains, at the top of Clapham Rise. But the one meant in the quotations was probably somewhere in the City. In T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, Valerius, in his song of the Taverns, says, "To the P. [goes] the clown." In Wagers The Longer B. 1, Moros says, "There be good puddings at the sign of the P., you never did eat better sauserlings."

(Map R7)

The part of the Thames between Lond. Bdge. and Limehouse Point. In Massinger's Madam i. 1, Goldwire says, "The ship is safe in the Pool then." In Prodigal i. 1, Flowerdale asks, of his ship the Catharine and Hugh, "What, is't in the P. can you tell?"


Possibly Powis House is meant at the N.W. corner of Lincoln's` Inn Fields (q.v.) in Gt. Queen St., Lond. In Middleton's Trick to Catch iii. 4, Dampit says, "In anno '89 when the great thundering and lightning was, I prayed heartily then to overthrow Poovies' new buildings."

(Map P5)
(area only; alley unmarked)

A lane in Lond. running S. from 18 Cornhill to Lombard St. At its corner in Cornhill was the P. H. Tavern, which is mentioned as early as 1464, and may have been part of K. John's Palace; at all events it had on its walls the arms of England quartered with those of France. In 1615 the tavern was left by Sir William Craven to the Merchant Taylors, and they still (in 1925) draw the rents of the houses built on the site. The tavern itself existed until 1756. The A. was occupied early in the 17th cent. by booksellers' shops, and a large number of pamphlets was issued from it. In Jonson's Christmas, Christmas says "I am old Gregory Christmas still, and though I come out of P. H. A., as good a Protestant as any in the parish." In Vulcan, Jonson dedicates to him "Capt. Pamphlet's horse and foot that sally Upon the Exchange still, out of P. H. A." In T. Heywood's I.K.M., B . 268, Gresham says "Let's step in to the P. H.: we shall be dropping dry if we stay here." In the same play, B 272, Quicke says "We'll arrest him to the P. H. call for the best cheer in the house, first feed upon him, and then, if he will not come off, carry him to the Compter."

Larum was "Printed for William Ferbrand and are to be sold at his shop in Popes-h. A. over against the Tavern door, near the Royal Exchange. 1602." Machin's Dumb Knight was "Printed by Nicholas Okes for John Bache and are to be sold at his shop in P.-h. Palace, near to the Royal Exchange. 1608." Ev. Woman I. was "Printed for E. A. by Thomas Archer and are to be sold at his shop in the P.-h.-palace near the Royal Exchange. 1609." Middleton's R. G. has also Thomas Archer's imprint at P.-h.- palace. 1611. Webster's Wyat (1607) and White Devil (1612) were published at the same place.

(Map K5)
(building marked is only the general location
actual playhouse constructed after time of map)

A building in the precinct of Blackfriars, near Puddle-wharf, also called LADY SAUNDERS HOUSE. Rosseter got a license to turn it into a playhouse in 1615. After much difficulty he managed to get it opened in 1617, when the players from the Hope came over and performed Field's Amends. But an order from the Privy Council almost immediately directed that it should be dismantled, and this was the end of the venture.


The name at first given to the S. side of Lincoln's Inn Fields (q.v.), built in 1657. A theatre was opened here in 1662 on a part of the present site of the College of Surgeons. It was occupied by the Duke's Company under Sir William Davenant, who lodged in the Row. In Playhouse, Epil. Davenant says, "Therefore be pleased to think that you are all Behind the R. which men call P." In i. the Housekeeper says of one of the applicants: "He would hire the throne of our Solyman the Magnificent and reign over all the dominions in P. R."

(Map M6)
(listed as "Queenhithe")

(corruption of P. HYTHE; another name for QUEEN HYTHE, q.v.). In Peele's Ed. I part of the contents of the play is described on the title page as "The sinking of Q. Elinor who sunk at Charing Cross and rose again at Potters hith, now named Queen hith." The scene was enacted on the stage, and a Potter and his wife are introduced, no doubt to account for the name which is not otherwise attested. When the Q. rises up the Potter's wife says, "It is the Q. that chafes thus, who sunk this day on Charing Green and now is risen up on P. H."





(Map O4–5)

A st. in Lond. connecting Cheapside and Cornhill. It was so called from the poulterers who had their stalls there. The Rye Tavern, afterwards The King's Head, stood at the corner of the Stocks Market, near the present site of the Mansion House. St. Mildred's Ch. was on the N. side on the site now (in 1925) occupied by the Gresham Life Assurance Society. One of the two City Compters was in the P., the other being in Wood St. It stood 4 houses W. of St. Mildred's, a little E. of Grocers' Hall Court, and was approached from Chapel Place. It was partially concealed by houses in front of it, as the quotation from The Puritan shows. The site was afterwards occupied by the P. Chapel--the precursor of the City Temple. Middleton's Blurt was "Printed for Henry Rocytt and are to be sold at the long shop under St. Mildred's ch. in the P. 1602." Like was "Imprinted at the long shop adjoining unto St. Mildred's Ch. in the Pultrie by John Allde. 1568."

In Shirley's Love Maze iii. 3, Lady Bird says, "Go to Master Kite that lives i' the P." Probably a play on the words is intended. In The Puritan iii. 4, Puttock says, "These maps are pretty. painted things; they say all the world's in one of them, but I could ne'er find the Counter in the Poultrie." "I think so," says Raven, "how could you find it? for you know it stands behind the houses." Gascoigne, in Steel Glass, says, "These merchants read arithmetic once every day In Wood St., Bread-St., and in Poultery, Where such schoolmasters . . . keep their birds full close in caitiff's cage." Nash, in Prognostication, says, "The stones in Cheapside should be so hot that divers persons should fear to go from Poules to the Counter in the P." In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage iii. 1, Ilford says, "I, Frank Ilford, was inforced from the Mitre in Bread St. to the Compter in the P." In Middleton's R. G. v. i. Dapper says, "Was it your Meg of Westminster's courage that rescued me from the P. puttocks?" i.e. the sergeants. In W. Rowley's Match Mid. ii., Tim, being told that Capt. Carvet was a serjeant, asks, "Of the P. or of Wood-st.?" In Middleton's Phoenix iv. 3, the Officer says, "In Lond. stand 2 most famous Universities, P. and Wood St., where some have taken all their degrees from the Master's side down to the Mistress' side, the Hole." In W. Rowley's New Wonder iv., the Clown says, "Do you not smell P. ware, Sir Godfrey?": i.e. officers from the P. In Middleton's Michaelmas ii. 3, Shortyard speaks of "the two city hazards, P. and Wood St." Taylor, in Works i. 91, says, "The ocean that Surety-ship sails in is the spacious Marshalsea: sometimes she anchors at Wood st. harbour, and sometimes at the P. harbour." Dekker, in Lanthorn, says of thieves: "P.-ware are more churlishly handled by them than poor prisoners are by keepers in the Counter i' the P." Middleton, in Hubbard, p. 52, says to the poetaster, "They have plotted to set one of the sergeants of Poetry, or rather, the P., to claw you by the back." Dekker, in Hornbook vi., says that if the Gull sits amongst the crowd in the theatre "the proportion of your body is in more danger to be devoured than if it were served up in the Counter amongst the P." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. i., a Prentice says, "I'll but drink a cup of wine with a customer at the Rose and Crown in the P. and come again presently." In Nabbes' Spring, Shrovetide says, "Thou art a prodigal Christmas, and Shrovetide hath seen thee many times in the P.": where the pun is obvious.


A bookseller's sign in Lond. There was a P. A. in Chancery Lane (q.v.), which was probably transferred from the P. A. over Inner Temple Gate at No. 17 Fleet St. in 1610, when the Gate was raced. At all events the old P. A. was the sign at which Thomas Marsh published Stows Chronicles, whilst Middleton's Quiet Life was "Printed by Tho. Johnson for Francis Kirkman and Henry Marsh and are to be sold at the P. A. in Chancery Lane. 1662." Merlin has the same imprint. There was another P. A. in St. Paul's Churchyard. Shirley's Poems were "Printed for Humphrey Moseley and are to be sold at his shop at the sign of the Princes Armes in St. Pauls Church-yard. 1646." Middleton's No Wit has the same imprint in 1657. Webster, in Monuments, speaks of the P. A. as "the Three Feathers," i.e. the 3 ostrich feathers which are still the cognizance of the Prince of Wales.


A bookseller's sign in Fleet Lane, Lond. (q.v.) Tourneur's [ed. note: anonymous, probably Middleton's] Revenger was "Printed by G. Eld and are to be sold at his house in Fleete-lane at the sign of the Printers-presse. 1607."


A bookseller's sign in St. Paul's Churchyard, Lond. (q.v.) May's Old Couple was "Printed by J. Cottrel for Samuel Speed at the sign of the P. P. in St. Paul's Churchyard. 1658."

(Map Q6)

Lond., running S. from the W. end of Eastcheap to Lower Thames St. It was formerly called Rother Lane, but got its later appellation from the "puddings" and other offal of the beasts slaughtered by the butchers in Eastcheap, which ran down the st. to the Thames. The Gt. Fire began in the house of Farryner, the K. 's baker, on the E. side of the L., on 22nd Sept. 1666, and the fact was long commemorated by a wall-tablet on the front of No. 25, which was built on its site. It is now preserved in the Guildhall Museum. It was noted as a curious fact that the fire began in P. L. and ended at Pie Corner in Smithfield.

In Fam. Vict. i. 2, Lawrence says, "I think it best that my neighbour, Robin Pewterer, went to P. L. end, and we will watch here at Billingsgate Ward." In Jonson's Christmas, Venus says, "I am Cupid's mother: I dwell in P. L.; ay, forsooth, he is prentice in Love-1," which is close by. In Dekker's Northward i. 2, Philip, when arrested, says, "Come, sergeant, I'll step to mine uncle, not far off, hereby in P. L., and he shall bail me." In B.&F. Thomas iv. 2, the servant asks Thomas, "Did you not take 2 wenches from the watch, too, and put 'em into P. L.?"

(Map K6)

A landing-place on the N. bank of the Thames at the foot of St. Andrew's Hill, abt. 100 yards W. of Baynard's Castle. Stow gives us a choice of derivations: either from one P. who kept a wharf there, or from the p. that was made by the watering of horses at this spot: probably the latter guess is correct. Shakespeare had a house "abutting upon a st. leading down to P. W. on the E. part, right against the King's Majesty's Wardrobe." In Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, Littlewit says that in his motion of Hero and Leander he makes Leander "a dyer's son about P.-w." Leatherhead says, "He yet serves his father, a dyer at P.-w." In B.&F. Pestle ii. 6, the Citizen's Wife reminds her husband how their child "was strayed almost alone to P. W., and there it had drowned itself but for a sculler." In Middleton's Chaste Maid iv. 2, Tim says, when his sister has eloped, "My mother's gone to lay the common stairs At P.-w., and at the dock below Stands my poor silly father." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. iv., Jarvis tells of a plot to carry Mrs. Coote "down to the water side, pop her in at P.-dock, and carry her to Gravesend in a pair of oars." In Davenant's Rutland, p. 217, the Parisian says, "I will put to shore again, though I should be constrained, even without my galoshoes, to land at P.-dock." Sidney, in Remedy for Love, mocks at Mopsa "with her p.-dock, Her compound or electuary Made of old ling and young Canary" and other unsavoury meats and drinks.

[ed. note: by analogy to "Three Cranes Lane" and "Old Swan Lane", each running down to its namesake wharf, it is possible that the street more commonly listed as "St. Andrew's Hill" was also alternatively called "Puddle Wharf." The map makes this assumption. If this conjecture is so, then the playhouse (variously identified as "Porter's Hall"; "Rossetter's Blackfriars"; and "Puddle Wharf") could easily be located both "on Puddle Wharf", meaning the street rather than the wharf, and also "near to the King's Wardrobe," which is about 150 yards north of the river; See Corrigan'sVade Micum on the attached map for distances.]

(Map J–K4)

(a popular shortened form of ST. SEPULCHRE'S, q.v.). A ch. in Lond. at the W. end of Newgate St. In Jonson's Devil v. 5, Shackles tells how Pug has blown down part of the prison at Newgate and "left such an infernal stink and steam behind you cannot see St. P. steeple yet." In Epicoene iv. 2, Truewit tells Daw that Sir Amorous was so well armed "you would think he meant to murder all St. P. Parish."



(Map L4)
(area only; site unmarked)

(probably PURS COURT on the E. side of Old Change, near Cheapside, (qq.v.) Lond.). In Jonson's Christmas, Christmas sings: "Now Post and Pair, Old Christmas's heir, Doth make a jingling sally; And wot you who, 'tis one Of my two Sons, cardmakers in Pur-alley. "

(Map G3)
(site unmarked, but same as "Gray's Inn")

or PORTPOOL. The name of the piece of land in Lond. on which Gray's Inn stands (see under GRAY'S INN). The Lord of Misrule at the Gray's Inn revels was styled "The most high and mighty Prince of P." In Marston's Mountebank; presented at Gray's Inn in 1618, the Mountebank says, "I have heard of a mad fellow . . . who hath stolen himself, this festival time of Christmas, into favour at the Court of P."