A bookseller's sign in Lond. T. Heywood's Love's Mistress was "Printed by Robert Raworth for John Crouch and are to be sold by Jasper Emery at the sign of the E. & C. in Paul's Churchyard. 1636." One of the quartos of Othello was "Printed by N. O. for Thomas Walkley and are to be sold at his shop at the E. & C. in Brittain's Burse. 1622."

(Map Q6)

A st. in Lond. running E. from the junction of Cannon Stand Gracechurch St. to Gt. Tower St. The famous Boar's Head Tavern (q.v.) was at the W. end of E. C., just where the statue of K. William IV now stands. In H4 A. i. 2, 145, Poins tells the prince, "I have bespoke supper to-morrow night in E.c."; and in 176, Falstaff, as he goes, says, "Farewell; you shall find me in E.c." The scene of ii. 4 is the Boar's Head Tavern, E.c. In 14, the prince tells how he has won the hearts of the drawers that "when I am K. of England, I shall command all the good lads in E.c." In 485, Falstaff, impersonating the prince, and being asked, "Whence come you?" answers: "My noble lord, from E." In H4 B. ii. 1, 76, the Hostess, appealing to the Chief Justice against Falstaff, describes herself as "A Poor widow of E.c." In ii. 2, 161, Bardolph informs the prince that he will find Falstaff "at the old place, my lord, in E.c.": ii. 4 takes place there. Pistol marries the hostess, and in H5 ii. 3, she describes Falstaffs death, which evidently takes place in the Boar's Head. In Fam. Vict., Haz. p. 326, Prince Hal says to his companions, after the robbery on Gads Hill, "You know the old tavern in E.-ce.: There is good wine; besides, there is a pretty wench That can talk well"-doubtless Doll Tearsheet. Stow describes E.C. as "a flesh-market of butchers, there dwelling on both sides of the st.; it had sometime also cooks mixed among the butchers." He relates how in 1410, on the eve of St. John Baptist, there was a great disturbance, caused by the king's sons Thomas and John, for which the mayor and aldermen were called to account. This may have suggested to Shakespeare the choice of the Boar's Head as the scene of Prince Hal's revels. Lydgate, in Lickpenny, says, "Then I hied me into E. C.; One cries `ribs and beef ' and many a pie; Pewter pots they clattered on a heap; There was a harp, pipe, and minstrelsy." In Eastward iv. 1, Slitgut speaks of his master as "a poor butcher of E.c." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. ii. 1, Carlo says of Puntarvolo, "I'll ha' him jointed, I'll pawn him in E.c. among the butchers." In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 1, Eyre says to Firk, "Have not I ta'en you from selling tripes in E.c. and set you in my shop?" and in v. 4 be says to his men, "Beleaguer the shambles, beggar all E .c, serve me whole oxen in chargers." In T. Heywood's Prentices sc. iv., p. 82, Eustace cries." O that I had with me as many good lads, honest prentices, from E.c., Canwick St., and Lond. Stone to end this battle." In Wager's Longer B. 1, Moros says, "In S. Nicolas shambles there is enough [meat] or in E.ce. or at St. Katherins." Dekker, in Bellman, speaks of E.-ce. as a favourite haunt of foysts, or pickpockets. In Deloney's Craft ii. 8, Tom says, "I went into E: Ce . . . . Immediately the wenches . . . forsook the butchers' shops and inticed me into a tavern."

(Map H4)

The Lond. residence of the Bps. of E. It was on the site of the present E. Place, which runs N. from Charterhouse St. near Holborn Viaduct. Originally the H. had a fine gate opening into Holborn, built in 1388. The death of John of Gaunt, described in R2 ii. 1, took place at E. H., which was often let by the Bps. to noblemen. In R3 iii. 4, 32, Richd. says to the Bp. of E., "When I was last in Holborn I saw good strawberries in your garden there; I do beseech you, send for some of them." Sir Christopher Hatton got a lease of it in 1576, and erected Hatton H. on part of the estate. Hatton Gardens mark the site. The Spanish ambassador Gondomar lodged at E. H., and during his residence in 1621 the last Mystery Play ever represented in England up till recent years was acted there. Lady Hatton held the house till 1646; and in 1633 the performers in Shirley's Masque, The Triumph of Peace, assembled at E. and Hatton H., and marched thence down Chancery Lane to the Banqueting House at Whitehall, where the Masque was presented. In 1772 the property was transferred to the Crown, and 37 Dover St., Piccadilly, was made over to the see of E. in its stead. All the buildings were then taken down except the ancient chapel of St. Etheldreda, which, after being used as a National School and as a Welsh Episcopalian Ch., was purchased in 1874 by the Lazarist Fathers and opened as a Catholic Chapel by Cardinal Manning in 1879.


A palace on the site of the Outer Temple, Lond., on the S. side of the Strand, at its East end, where E. St. and Devereux St. are now. Originally the town h. of the Bps. of Exeter, it passed successively through the hands of Lord Paget, the Earl of Leicester, and the Earl of E. It is the "stately place wherein doth lodge a noble peer, great England's glory and the world's wide wonder," of Spenser's Prothalamion. The last bit of the old h. disappeared in 1777. Swetnam was "Printed for Richard Meighen and are to be sold at his shops at St. Clements Ch. over-against E. H., and at Westminster Hall. 1620."


A tavern in Hyde Park, Lond., more properly named the Maurice H., from the famous Prince Maurice of Orange, who died in 1625. In Shirley's Hyde Park iv. 3, Mrs. Carol asks, "Is the wine good?" and the milk-maid answers: "It comes from H. E. H."

(Map L5)
(area only; site unmarked)

(C. = Change). The first E. in Lond. was in the st. running S.-from the W. end of Cheapside, which still retains the name of Old Change. It was established for the receipt of bullion, the changing of foreign coin, and the distribution of new coinage. Later a 2nd E. was established in Lombard St. In 1566 Sir Thomas Gresham laid the 1st stone of a new E. in Cornhill, which was completed in the following year. It was a four-storied building with a bell-tower; the piazzas round it were supported by marble pillars, and were allocated to small shops, 100 in number. They were chiefly taken up by milliners, but all sorts of goods likely to attract fashionable ladies were sold there. In 1570 Elizabeth paid a state visit to the building and caused it to be proclaimed "The Royal E." Samuel Rolle says of it: "Was it not the great storehouse whence the nobility and gentry of England were furnished with most of those costly things wherewith they did adorn either their closets or themselves? Here, if anywhere, might a man have seen the glory of the world in a moment." Sidney, in Remedy for Love, calls it "Cornhill's Square E." It was destroyed by fire in 1838. It was rebuilt and opened by Q. Victoria in 1844. Another E. was built on the site of Durham House on the S. side of the Strand, where Coutts' Bank now stands, and opened by James I in 1609. He gave it the title of "Britain's Burse," but it is commonly spoken of as the New E. The upper story was occupied by milliners' shops, and it gradually came to rival The Royal or Old E. as a fashionable resort for ladies. The Exeter C. on the site of the old Exeter House on the N. side of the Strand was not built till the reign of William and Mary.

  1. The Exchange as a place of business.
    In the Three Ladies (Haz., vi. 364), Diligence testifies that "Usury was seen at the E. very lately." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. ii. 1, Kitely sends word to Lucar: "He shall ha' the grograns, at the rate I told him, And I will meet him on the E. anon." In iii. 2, he speaks of himself as "Lost i' my fame for ever, talk for th' E." In B. & F. Pestle, Ind., the Citizen speaks of a play entitled "The Life and Death of Sir Thomas Gresham, with the building of the Royal E." In Haughton's Englishmen i. 2, Laurentia bids Harvey "Go to th' E.; crave gold as you intend." In Mayne's s Match i. 3, Warehouse asks his nephew, who is choosing his profession, "Which place prefer you? the Temple or E.?" i.e. Law or Commerce. In Field's Weathercock i. 2, Pouts says to Abraham, "Sirrah, I'll beat you with a pudding on the C." In Dekker's Hornbook vi., he says, "The Theater is your poet's Royal E., upon which their Muses (that are now turned to Merchants) meeting, barter away that light commodity of words for a lighter ware than words, Plaudites." Scene I of Good Wife takes place "upon the E." In Cooke's Greene's Quoque, p. 565, Staines says, "I dined this day in the E. amongst the merchants." In Tomkis' Albumazar iv. 2, Cricca says to Antonio'." The E. hath given you lost, And all your friends worn mourning 3 months past." S. R., in Letting of Humours Blood (1611) Sat i., says, "Sometimes into the Reall E. he'll drop. . . And there his tongue runs byass on affairs, No talk but of commodities and wares." In Davenant's Plymouth iv. 1, Trifle says, "I have writ to a merchant and I know it will be published on the E." In his Favourite iv., Thorello says, "After ev'ry raging storm Merchants and mariners flock to th' E. To hear what mischief's done at sea." The building of the E. by Gresham is the subject of the later part of T. Heywood's I. K. M., B."It is," says a Lord, "the goodliest thing that I have seen; England affords none:such." The Q. says, "Proclaim this place to be no longer called the Burse, but be it for ever called the Royal E." In Middleton's Five Gallants iv. 7, Mrs. Newcut says, "Upon 12 of the clock, and not the cloth laid yet? Must we needs keep E. time still?" Mrs. Newcut wants to be a fine lady now that her husband has made money. The meaning of the passage is explained by what Harrison says in his Description of England (1587): "The nobility, gentry, and students do ordinarily go to dinner at ii before noon. The Merchants dine seldom before 12 at noon." E. time being from ix to 12, the merchants could not dine before 12. In Middleton's Black Book (1604), p. 28, the devil says, "Being upon E. time, I crowded myself among merchants." In Marmion's Leaguer i. 5, Agurtes says, "Some design is now on foot and this is my E. time." In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 2, Kitely asks, "What's o'clock?" and Cash replies: "E. time, Sir." In Dekker's Northward v. 1, Featherstone defines Exchange time as "12 at noon." In Webster's Law Case i. 1, Leonora complains, "The E. bell makes us dine so late."
  2. The Exchange as a place for shopping and a fashionable resort.
    In Cooke's Greene's Quoque i. 1, Longfield says of Spendall the Mercer" who is badgering him to buy: "This fellow has an excellent tongue; sure he was brought up in the H." In Mayne's s Match iii. 2, Plotwell speaks of "One Mrs. Holland, the great seamstress on the E." Jonson, in Underwoods lx., says, "Oh, what strange Variety of silks were on the E." In Penn. Parl. 36, it is predicted that "Sempsters in the E. shall become so conscionable that a man without offence may buy a falling band for 12 pence." In Shirley's Fair One iv. 2, Violetta says, "I want some trifles, the E. will furnish me." In Shirley's Hyde Park i. 2, Mrs. Carol begs Fairfield to heap insults on her: "The more the merrier, I'll take 't as kindly As if thou hadst given me the E."; and in iii. 2, she says to him, "Would I had art enough to draw your picture; It would show rarely at the E." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon i. 1, Chartley says, "I'll unto the E. to buy her some pretty novelty"; and in iii. 2, he says, "There are brave things to be bought in the City; Cheapside and the E. afford variety and rarity." In Jonson's Epicoene i. 1, Clerimont says of La-Foole: "He has a lodging in the Strand. . . to watch when ladies are gone to the china-houses or the E., that he may meet them there by chance, and give them presents, some 200 or 300 pounds worth of toys." In iv. 2, Lady Haughty tells Epicoene that when she is married she shall "go with us to Bedlam, to the chinahouses, and to the E." In the Alchemist iv. 2, Subtle promises Dame Pliant that she shall have "6 mares To hurry her through Lond., to the E., Bethlem, the chinahouses." In Barthol. i. 1, Littlewit, praising his wife's habit, says, "I challenge all Cheapside to show such another; Moorfields, Pimlico Path, or the E." In Marmion's Leaguer ii. 1, Trimalchio announces, "I am to meet the Countess at th' E. within the hour." In Gamester iv., Mrs. Wilding says to Leonora, "You are sad stir, Leonora; Remove these thoughts; come, I'll wait on you now To the E.: some toys may there strike ,off Their sad remembrance." In Shirley's Riches iii., Gettings swears "By our Royal C. which yields gentle ware." In Chaunticleers viii., when the tinker and the ballad-seller have persuaded Gum to hold their wares for them, he says, "Now do I look like one of the pillars of the E." on which goods were hung for display. In Killigrew's Parson iv. 7, Jolly says, "When the ribands and points come from the E, pray see the fiddlers have some." In Brome's Couple ii. 1, Lady says, "Will you go with me, Nephew, to the E.? I am to buy there some toys for the country." The subject of one of Heywood's plays is The Fair Maid of the E. In Nabbes' Totenham ii. 6, Franke promises Cicely, "The E. shall be thy wardrobe to supply Thy will with choice of dressings." In Cockayne's Obstinate iii. 2, Lorece promises Vandona, "You shall go to the E. when you will, and have as much money as you please, to lay out." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. iv. 2, Brisk talks of "an Italian cut-work band I wore, cost me 3 pounds in the E." There was a portico called the Dutch Walk. In W. Rowley's Match Mid. iii. 1, the Widow makes an appointment to meet Randall "on the C. in the Dutch Walk." Scoloker, in preface to Daiphantus (1604), says, "His lineaments may be as Royal as the E. with ascending steps, promising new but costly devices and fashions." The women in charge of the shops seem to have been of doubtful reputation. In B. & F. Wit S. W. i. 1, Oldcraft boasts that in his youth he could give "a true certificate Of all the maidenheads extant: how many lay 'Mongst chambermaids, how many 'mongst E. wenches, Though never many there, I must confess, They have a trick to utter ware so fast." In Massinger's Madam iv. 4, Mary speaks contemptuously of "E. wenches, Coming from eating pudding-pies on Sunday At Pimlico or Islington." In Greene's Quip (Harl. Misc., vol. II, p. 246), Clothbreeches defends them in comparison with the Frenchwomen: "Our English women of the E. are both better workwomen and will afford a better pennyworth." In Glapthorne's Hollander ii. 1, Mrs. Artless says of her daughter: "'Ere I would make her a lady, she should be a New E. wench." In Dekker's Westward i. 2, Mrs. Honeysuckle talks of a girl being "as stale as an E. sempster or a court laundress."
  3. The Exchange as a haunt of thieves and bad characters.
    In Awdeley's Fraternity of Vagabonds, it is said of the Cheater or Fingerer: "Their trade is to walk in such places where as gentlemen and other worshipfull Citizens do resort, as at Paul's or at Christ's Hospital, and sometime at the Royal E." In Greene's Thieves Falling Out, Stephen says, "The gentleman Foist must, as the cat, watch for the mouse, and walk Paul's, Westminster, the E., and such common haunted places."
  4. The Old and New Exchanges distinguished.
    In Massinger's Madam i. 1, Luke complains of being sent to buy things for the ladies "from the Old E." In iii. 1, Shavem says, "I know not what a coach is To hurry me to the Burse or old E.": the Burse being the new E. In B. & F. Wit S. W. v. 1, Gregory says of his promised wife: "I'll not change her for both the Es., New or the Old." In Davenant's Wits iv., Thwack promises, "You shall, if my projections thrive, Stable your horses in the New E. And graze them in the Old." In Barclay's Lost Lady iii. 1, Phillida, forgetting that she is a Thessalian of ancient times, says, "If they be divulged, we shall be defamed on the Es." In Webster's Law Case i. 1, Contarino says that the women "have a kind of E. among them too. Marry, unless it be to hear of news, I take it theirs is, like the New Burse, thinly furnished with tires and new fashions." I suspect "thinly "is wrong: it should be "mainly "or "finely "or something of the kind. Lust's Dominion was "to be sold by Robert Pollard at the sign of the Ben Jonson's Head on the back-side of the Old-E." Killigrew's Parson was "Printed by J. M. for Henry Herringman and are to be sold at his shop at the sign of the Blew Anchor in the Lower Walk of the New E. 1663." In Brome's Antipodes i. 6, the Dr. says that foreign travel is not near so difficult as for some man in debt and unprotected to walk "from Charing Cross to th' Old E." Donne, Elegy xv. (1609), asks, "Whether the Britain Burse did fill apace And likely were to give the E. disgrace." In Brome's New Academy, the subtitle of which is The New Exchange, a school for courtly manners, dancing, and other elegant accomplishments is conducted at the New E. In ii. 1, a letter is brought in, addressed to "Mrs. Hannah Camelion at her shop or house in or near the New B." In Jonson's Magnetic iv. 6, Compass says, .. Stay you with us at his ch. Behind the Old E.,– i.e. St. Bartholomew's, E., q.v.
  5. Local References.
    In W. Rowley's Match Mid. iv. 2, Moll, being surprised with Randall by the watch at the corner of Gracechurch St. and Cornhill, says to him "Go you back through Cornhill; I'll run round about the C., by the ch. corner, down Cateaton St., and meet you at Bartholomew Lane End." In News Barthol. Fair, in the list of taverns we find "the Ship at the E." The Spanish Tragedy (1602) was printed by "T. Pavier at the sign of the Cat and Parrots near the E." Romeo and Juliet was "Printed by Thomas Creede for Cuthbert Busby and are to be sold at his shop near the E. 1599." See also BURSE, BRITAIN'S BURSE.


The department of State concerned with the collection and administration of the royal revenues in England. It was controlled from the time of Henry III by the Chancellor of the E., as permanent deputy of the Chancellor, and had its local habitation at Westminster. In Webster's Wyat viii., the Sheriff:says to Homes, "Here is a hundred marks; Come to the E., you shall have the rest."


On the left bank of the Thames, just below Wapping New Stairs. Here pirates were hanged. In Cooke's Gram's Quoque i. 2, Bubble says to Staines, "O Master, have the grace of Wapping before your eyes, remember a high tide; give not your friends cause to wear their handkerchiefs." Taylor, in his Descriptions of Tyburn, says, "There's a kind of waterish Tree at Wapping Whereas sea-thiefes or Pirates are catched napping." See also WAPPING.