BANKSIDE
(Map K8, L8, & M8)

The dist. in Southwark running along the Surrey side of the Thames from St. Saviour's Ch. and Winchester House to the point where Blackfriars Bdge. now stands. The row of houses on the river-side was a series of brothels, and was known as the Bordello, or Stews. Behind them lay the Globe, the Rose, the Hope, and the Swan theatres, the bull- and bear-baiting grounds, and the Paris Garden. Ferries plied across the river and gave employment to numbers of watermen. Both Shakespeare and Jonson are said to have lived for a time on B. The Bordello was suppressed in 1546, but the measure was as ineffectual as such ordinances usually are.

In Remed. Sedition (1536) 21, it is said that it is " As much shame for an honest man to come out of a tavern as it is here to come from the banke." Crowley, in Strype Eccl.Mem. (1548) ii. 1, 17,142, speaks of "Sisters of the Bank, the stumbling-blocks of all frail youth." These poor creatures were called "Winchester geese," from the fact that the Bordello was within the liberties of the Bp. of Winchester, whose palace was at the E. end of the B. Jonson, in Vulcan, speaks of "the Winchestrian goose Bred on the Bank in time of Popery." See under WINCHESTER HOUSE. In Greene's Friar vii., Ralph undertakes to "make a ship that shall hold all your Colleges and so carry away the Niniversity with a fair wind to the B. in Southwark." In Randolph's Muses ii, 4, Asotus says, "I will send for a whole coach or two of B. ladies, and we will be jovial." In News from Hell (1641), B. is mentioned as a haunt of "whores and thieves." The heroine of Leatherhead's Motion in Jonson's Barthol. v. 3 is "Hero, a wench of B., who, going over one morning to Old Fish st. Leander spies her land at Trig-Stairs and falls in love with her." In Underwit v. 1, the lady speaks of the porters going "afeasting with the Drums and footboys to the B." In Brome's Covent G. i, 1, Nicholas greets Damaris, "Art thou travelled cross the seas from the B. hither, old Countess of Codpiece Row?" In Cobler of Cbury (1608), we read, "When Southwarke Bankeside hath no pretty wenches, Then the Cobler of Rumney shall a cuckold be." In Davenport's New Trick I, 2, Slightall, wanting a good, lusty lass, bids Roger "search all the Allyes, Spittle or Picthatch, Turnball, the Banke side," and other unsavoury localities. In Marmion's Leaguer ii. 3, Agurtes asks for help that he may not have "to keep a rap-house o' th' B., and make a stench worse than a brewhouse 'mongst my neighbours." In Massinger's New Way iv. 2, a vintner accuses Wellborn of having ruined him "With trusting you with muskadine and eggs And five-pound suppers, with your after-drinkings, When you lodged upon the B." In T. Heywood's I. K. M. B. 302, Hobson says, "I crossed the water to see my rents and buildings of the B." When the tide was high the st. was often flooded. Jonson, in the Famous Voyage, says, "It was the day what time the powerful moon Makes the poor B. creature wet its shoon In its own hall."

In such a quarter fortune-tellers and quacks naturally flourished. In Jonson's Ev. Man O. v. 4, Macilente reports that Puntarvolo's dog is poisoned; "marry, or by whom, that's left for some cunning woman here o' the B. to resolve." In T. Heywood's Hogsdon ii. 1, that lady gives a free advertisement to "Mother Phillips of the B., for the weakness of the back"; and to "Mrs. Mary on the B., for 'recting of a figure"; i.e. making a horoscope. In Middleton's R. G. i., 1, Trapdoor, being asked to discover Moll Cutpurse, promises, "I will drink half-pots with all the watermen o' the B., but, if you will, Sir, I will find her out." Taylor speaks of the "B. Globe, that late was burned "; and Jonson, in Vulcan, laments the destruction of "the Globe, the glory of the Bank." The B. theatres came to be regarded as of a lower class than the more aristocratic Blackfriars and other houses on the Middlesex side of the river. In Doubtful, prol., Shirley says, "The Bancksides . . . are far more skilful at the ebbs and flows of water than of wit"; and he sarcastically apologizes for the absence in his play of shows and dances and "(what you most delight in) target-fighting upon the stage." In Middleton's Hubburd, p. 77, the gallant is advised, "After dinner he must venture to the B. where he must sit out the breaking up of a comedy or the first act of a tragedy." In Jonson's Epicoene iii. I, Mrs. Otter threatens her husband, who is mad on bull-and bearbaiting, "I'll send you over to the B.; I'll commit you to the Master of the Garden, if I hear but a syllable

BANQUETING HOUSE
(Map B6)
(area only, site unmarked)

Designed by Inigo Jones in 1612 and erected by him at Whitehall, q.v. Here Jonson's Neptune was produced, and the Master Cook says, "This is my room and region, too, the B. h." It was from a window of this hall that Charles I came out to his execution. It is the only part of the Whitehall Palace still remaining.

BAR

A barrier made with posts and a chain at the entrance of a city, especially at various points in the circuit of Lond. There were bs. at Smithfield, in Holborn, and at the W. end of Fleet St.: the latter was replaced by a gate, which was still called Temple B. All the gates of York are still called Bs. In Dekker's Westward ii. 1, Justiniano says, "The suburbs and those without the bs. have more privilege than those within the freedom."

BARBER–SURGEONS' HALL
(Map M3)
(area only; site unmarked)

In Monkswell St., Lond., near Cripplegate, on the W. side. It was built in the reign of Edward IV. Dead bodies, especally those of executed criminals, were brought here to be dissected, and their skeletons, or "anatomies," were sometimes preserved. There is a curious provision, dated 1587, that if any such body come to life again, "as of late hath been seen," the persons who brought the body were to be held responsible. The Hall was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt by Inigo Jones. It is now displaced by warehouses. In Dekker's Edmonton i. 2, Carter says, "You might send me to B.-Sns.'-H. . . . to hang up for an anatomy." In Webster's Malfi v. 2, Ferdinand says, "I will flay off his skin to cover one of the anatomies this rogue [the Dr.] hath set i' the cold yonder in B.-Sns.'-H." In Shirley's Fair One v. 3, Brains says, "I will desire him, that bids me go hang myself, which is the way to Sns.' H. I will beg to have my skull cut, I have a suspicion my brains are filched and my head has been late stuffed with woodcock's feathers." In Rowley's All's Lost ii. 6, 153, Lazarello asks Antonio, "Were you never at Barbar-Sns.' H. to see a dissection?" Membership in the Hall gave the qualification for practice; so in Middleton's Quarrel v. 1, the Surgeon, being asked whether the Colonel has recovered, says, "May I be excluded quite out of Sns.' H. else!"

In Chapman's Widow's Tears v. 1, the Governor says he will give "old and withered widows to Sns.' H. to be stamped to salve for the French measles." In Nash's Wilton, K3, Jack says, "I supposed it was the Beadle of Sns.' H. come for me." In Killigrew's Parson i. 3, Constant says, "I thought he had married the company of Sns.' H.; for his directions to me for several things for his wife's use, were fitter for an apothecary's shop than a lady's closet." In Nabbes' Totenham i. 5, Slip, asked how he has disposed of some deer he has killed, says, "I sent a soare to B.-Sns.' H. A little soare makes them a great feast." The pun on the double meaning of soare, viz. a buck in his 4th year, and a wound, is obvious. Cf. Shakespeare, L.L.L. iv. 2, 59.

BARBICAN
(Map L2–3)

A st. in Lond., running E. from Aldersgate St. at the Charter House corner to the junction of Golden L. and Red Cross St. So called from the postern tower which stood a little N. of it, and was supposed to date from Roman times. Stow derives the name from the old English "Burh-kenning"; but the O.E.D. inclines to an Arabic or Persian origin for it. In Massinger's Madam ii. 1, Tradeswell, preparing, on his return from his travels, to have a good time in Lond., says, "A B. broker will furnish me with outside." Taylor, Works 122, says, "In B. there's as good beer and ale as ever twanged, And in that st. kind No-body is hanged." The reference is to the sign of John Trundle's bookshop. Nobody was "Printed for John Trundle, and are to be sold at his shop in B., at the signe of No-body." This is the man referred to by Jonson in Ev. Man I. i. 2, where young Knowell says, "If he read this with patience, I'll troll ballads for Master John Trundle yonder the rest of my mortality." T. Heywood's Woman Killed was "Printed by William Jaggard, dwelling in B. 1607." Milton lived in B. from 1645 to 1647. The house was on the S. side of the st.; it was recently [ed. note: recent circa 1923] destroyed to make way for a railway line.

BARMESEY STREET
(Map T8–U8)

(= Bermondsey St.). In Southwark, running S. from Tooley St. to Long Lane, in Bermondsey. In Harman's Caveat (1567) cap. 2, the author relates how, having had a copper cawdron stolen, he "gave warning in Southwark, Kent st., and B. st. to all the tinkers there dwelling." There was an abbey at Bermondsey for monks of the Cluniac Order, built in 1082. It had a famous cross, to which many pilgrimages were made. John Paston begs Margaret Paston "to visit the rood of Northedor and St. Savyour at Bermondsey while ye abide in Lond." (1465). In a map of Southwark (1542) the cross is shown at the junction of Tooley St. and Bermondsey St., and is marked "B. Cross."

BARNARD'S INN
(Map H4)

An Inn of Chancery, on the S. side of Holborn, Lond., between Fetter Lane and Furnival St.[ed. note: between Fetter and Chancery, across from Furnival's Inn and Leather Lane] It was originally called Mackworth's I. after a Dean of Lincoln of that name. When it was converted into an I. of Chancery it was in the occupation of one Barnard, whence its name. In Elizabeth's time it had 112 students. It was rebuilt in 1892 by the Mercers' Company for their school.

The rascally lawyer Dampit lived in this neighbourhood. In Middleton's Trick to Catch iii. 4, he smells a foul smell on coming into his rooms, and says, "Foh! I think they burn horns in B. I. If ever I smelt such an abominable stink, usury forsake me I "In Peele's jests (1627), we read of a certain gentleman who "thought to return to his I.; this not of the wisest, being of S. Bernard's."

BARN ELMS
(Map A5)
(area only, site unmarked)

Part of St. James's Park, Lond., in the S.W. corner, near Rosamond's Pond, at the W. end of Birdcage Walk. It was a favourite resort of lovers and duellists. In Middleton's Chaste Maid iv. 3, young Touchwood and Moll try to elope together, and, going down to the Thames, direct the watermen to take them to B. E.

BARTHOLOMEW (SAINT) THE GREAT
(Map K3–L3)

A noble ch. in Lond., and the finest example there of the Norman style of architecture. It stands on the N. side of B. Close, W. Smithfield, S. of Long Lane. It was built by Rahere, said to have been jester to Henry I, who renounced the world and became Prior of the monastery there. His fine canopy tomb can stiff be seen in the ch. The ch. fortunately escaped the Gt. Fire. Deloney, in Reading, says that "This Reior was the most skilfullest musician that lived at that time," And that "he builded at his own cost the Priory and Hospital of St. B. in Smithfield." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV B. 132, "old Friar Anselm of St. B.'s "is quoted as the author of the prophecy that G. should kill Edward's children and succeed him; see R3 i. 1, 55.

The great Fair held in Smithfield on August 24, St. B.'s Day, was the most famous in England. Originally established as a cloth-fair, it became in course of time a popular carnival, and after flourishing for 71/2 centuries was abolished in 1855. Its frequenters were called B. Birds; its slang B. terms. There was abundant eating and drinking, especially of roast pigs. Drums, gingerbread, and ugly dolls were to be bought for children. Puppet-plays were performed, and monsters of all kinds exhibited. Ballad singers plied their trade, and pickpockets and rogues of all kinds made the Fair a happy hunting ground. Wrestling matches and the chasing of live rabbits by boys formed part of the fun. Jonson's Barthol. is a vivid picture of contemporary Lond. life, and should be read in full. In Davenant's Wits iv., Thwack makes a number of suggestions for the depletion of Lond., "which," says Pert, "will more impoverish the Town than a subversion of their fair of B." In Jonson, Barthol. Ind., the stagekeeper ridicules the idea of the play: the author, he says, "has not hit the humours, he does not know them; he has not conversed with the B. birds, as they say." In Chaunticleers xiv., Bristle says of Nancy, "She has got a face like a B. Fair baby." In T. Heywood's Challenge ii., the Clown says that Hellena is "so fair that all B. Fair could not match her again." In Nabbes' Totenham iv. 4, Bellamie says of the supposed Mrs. Stitchwell, "I have packed her up in't, like a B. baby, in a box." In Brome's New Academy iv. 1, Nehemiah says he has burnt as many ballads "as might have furnished 3 B. Fairs." In the Penn. Parl. it is predicted, "Such a drought shall come amongst cans at B. Fair in Smithfield that they shall never continue long filled." In Jonson's Barthol. iii. 1, Waspe exhorts Cokes to "keep your fine B. terms to yourself." Presents, even though not bought at the fair, were called B. fairings: in Shirley's Fair One iv. 2, Tweedle instructs Violette, "Look you, lay out my gold at the Exchange in B. fairings." In Middleton's R.G. iii. 3, a usurer is described as one that would flay his father's skin off "and sell it to cover drums for children at B. Fair."

References to Dame Ursula's pigs are common. In Dekker's Edmonton v. 2, we learn that Gammer Washbowl's untimely farrow "were sent up to Lond. and sold for as good Westminster dog-pigs at B. Fair as ever great bellied ale-wife longed for." In Field's Amends iii. 4, Whorebang cries, "Let's have wine, or I will cut thy head off and have it roasted and eaten in Pie-Corner next B.-tide": Pie-corner being at the Giltspur St. end of Smithfield. The discussion of the piety of eating B. pig by Rabbi Busy, in Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, is very diverting: "pig . . . may be eaten; but in the Fair, and as a B. pig, it cannot be eaten; for the very calling it a B. pig, and to eat it so, is a spice of idolatry." Nevertheless, to profess his hate and loathing of Judaism, the worthy Rabbi relaxes his principles and "will eat, yea, will eat exceedingly." In H4 B. ii. 4, 250, Doll calls Falstaff, "Thou little tidy B. boar-pig." In Davenant's Playhouse i. 1, the housekeeper says, "All the dry old fools of B. Fair are come to hire our House." In Jonson's Ev. Man O. v. 4, Carlo advises Puntarvolo to stuff his dead dog with straw, "as you see these dead monsters at B. Fair." In Nabbes' Totenham ii. 2, Stitchwell says, "I have a Cornish lad that wrestles well and hath brought home rabbits every B.-tide these 5 years." Hentzer relates that after the wrestling was over "a parcel of live rabbits are turned loose among the crowd, which are pursued by a number of boys." The flies which came up with the drovers and their cattle were a great nuisance at the time of the Fair. In H5 v. 2, 336, Burgundy says, "Maids, well summered and well kept, are like flies at B.-tide, blind, though they have their eyes." In Middleton's Mad World v. 1, Sir Bounteous complains, "Acquaintances swarm in every corner, like flies at B-tide that come up with the drovers." In Devonshire iv. 1, Buzzano says, "What a buzzing you make, as if you were a fly at B.-tide at a butcher's stall." In Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, Winwife says, "The flies cannot, this hot season, but engender us excellent creeping sport."

BARTHOLOMEW'S (SAINT) HOSPITAL
(Map K3–K4)

One of the 5 Royal Hospitals of Lond. It stands in the angle between Long Lane and Aldersgate St., E. of Smithfield, with an entrance from Little Britain. It was founded by Rahere, said to have been Jester to Henry I. It was seized as a conventual institution by Henry VIII, but, at the request of Gresham, handed over to the City in 1546. The buildings had been repaired by the executors of Richd. Whittington in 1423, but it had to be taken down and rebuilt in 1730. The entrance from Smithfield was erected in 1702. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 277, Dean Nowell relates that Sir Richd. Whittington "repaired S. Bartholomewes in Smithfield." Dekker, in Wonderful Year (1603), says that on account of the ravages of the Plague "every house looked like S. Bartholomewes hospitall."

BARTHOLOMEW (ST.) THE LESS
(Map K3)

Ch. in Land., on the E. side of Smithfield. It was built by Rahere, the Prior of St. B. the Gt., as a chapel for the hospital. It has been rather ruthlessly restored, but the old tower still remains. Edward Allde, the publisher of the Book of mery Riddles (1600), dwelt "in Little St. Bs, neere Christ-Ch." Heywood's Londini Speculum was "Imprinted at Lond. by J. Okes, dwelling in little St. Bs. 1637."

BARTHOLOMEW (SAINT) EXCHANGE

See under BARTHOLOMEW LANE.

BARTHOLOMEW LANE
(Map O4–P4)

A lane in Lond., running on the E. side of the Bank of England [ed. note: Royal Exchange] from Threadneedle St. to Lothbury. In Rowley's Match Mid. iv., Moll and Randall being surprised by night in Gracechurch St., by the watch coming along up the st., Moll advises Randall, "Go you back through Cornhill; I'll run round about the Exchange, by the ch. corner, down Cateaton st., and meet you at B. L. end." It was so called from the Ch. of St. B. Exchange, or the Less, at its S.E. corner. The ch. was taken down to make room for the Royal Exchange, but some portions of it are preserved in the Sun Fire Office, 63 Threadneedle St. Cateaton St. is the present Gresham St. In Jonson's Magnetic iv. 6, Compass says, "Stay with us at his ch., Behind the Old Exchange."

BATTLE BRIDGE
Sugden places this at (Map C2) (modern King's Cross)
Prockter and Taylor extreme opposite at (Map T8) (Bermondsey)

Now King's Cross, the site of the terminus of the London & North Eastern Railway in Lond. It was originally a bdge. over the Fleet [ed. note: P&T place it over the Mill Race running alongside Mill Lane], where the famous battle occurred between Suetonius Paulinus and Boadicea A.D. 62, by which the Roman supremacy in Britain was established. It is the scene of B. & F. Bonduca iv. 4. In the neighbourhood were the huge dust-heaps amongst which the immortal Boffin, the golden dustman, lived and listened to Silas Wegg's rendering of "The Decline and Fall of the Rooshan Empire." The name is still retained by the bdge. running just N. of King's Cross Station from York Rd. to Pancras Rd. There was another B. B. across a little stream running into the Thames on the Southwark side, a little E. of Lond. Bdge.: so called from B. Abbey, which was the town residence of the abbots of B. Abbey in Sussex, near Hastings, and stood in what is still called the Maze, a little back from the r., opposite the Custom House. In Fair Women ii. 228, John Beane, on his way to Lond., is met by old John, who says to him, "I would thou hadst my Aqua vitae bottle, to fill at the Black Bull by B. B." The Black Bull was in Gray's Inn Lane, which shows that the former B. B. is the one intended.

BAYNARD'S CASTLE
(Map K6)

An ancient castle on the N. bank of the Thames in Lond. It stood at what is now the W. end of Q. Victoria St., close to where Blackfriars Bdge. crosses the r. The r. came up to its walls, and it had a stairs at which boat could be taken. It was built by Ralph Barnard, who came over with the Conqueror. In 1111 it was forfeited to the Crown and bestowed on Robert Fitz-Walter, in whose family the office of Castellan and Standard-bearer to the City of Lond. became hereditary. The Robert Fitz-Walter of John's reign took part with the Barons against the K., and in revenge John ordered the Castle to be destroyed. Robert, however, became reconciled to the K. and was permitted to rebuild his Castle. One version of the story is told in Davenport's Matilda, according to which the K. made love to Fitz-Walter's daughter, Matilda; but the lady refusing to comply with his wishes, he destroyed B. C. and poisoned her at Dunmow. In i. 1, Fitzwater sends a message to the K.: "Tell John," quoth he, "That here at B. C. we intend A settled stay"; and the next scene takes place there. The same story is told in Chettle's Death Huntington. In ii. 1, the K. says, "If my hidden courtesy she [Matilda] grace, Old B. C., good Fitzwater's place, John will make rich." The Fitzwater who appears in R2 was the 5th Baron, and still held B. C. It was burnt down in 1428 and rebuilt by Humphrey of Gloucester. On his death it reverted to the Crown, and was granted by Henry VI to the D. of York. Here Edward IV assumed the royal title; and here he left his wife and children when he went to meet Warwick at Barnet. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV B. 134, Clarence says, "I'll keep within my house at Bainard's C. Until I hear how my dread sovereign takes it." Richd. of Gloucester was living here at the time of his usurpation. In R3 iii. 5, 98 he orders Buckingham, when he sends him to sound the Lord Mayor and citizens, "If you thrive well, bring them to B. C. Where you shall find me well accompanied With reverend fathers and well-learned Bps." Then, in 3105, he despatches Lovel to Dr. Shaw, and Catesby to Friar Penker. with the direction: "Bid them meet me here within this hour At B. C." The next scene, in which Richd., appearing between 2 clergymen, accepts the offer of the Crown from the citizens, is laid here. In True Trag., the Page relates," In the afternoon came down my Lord Mayor and the aldermen to B. C., and offered my Lord the whole estate upon him, and offered to make him k." Henry VIII converted it from a fortress into a palace, and it was here that he entertained the K. of Castile, when he was driven to England by a storm. In S. Rowley's When You D. 2, the K. (Henry VIII) orders Brandon to attend him "at B.-C." The C. next passed into the hands of the Pembrokes, and the Earl held great state in it during the reign of Edward VI; and here he proclaimed Mary Q. In Webster's Wyat, Haz., p.23, Ambrose announces," In B. C. was a council held And 'twas concluded to proclaim Q. Mary." Later, he entertained Elizabeth there with a banquet and fireworks. It was finally destroyed in the Gt. Fire of 1666. Shakespeare must have been very familiar with the old c., for the Blackfriars Theatre was just behind it in Printing House Sq., and it is on record that he possessed a house "abutting upon a st. leading down to Pudle Wharffe on the E. part, right against the Kinges Majesties Wardrobe." St. Andrew's Hill, the inn at the corner of which still retains the name of the old c., was then called Puddledock Hill; and the Wardrobe was just behind the present offices of the British and Foreign Bible Society. In Yarrington's Two Trag. iv. 1, Merry proposes to leave the head and legs of the murdered Beech "in some dark place near to Bainardes C." In Middleton's Triumph Truth, in the directions for the pageant, we read, "The first that attends to receive his Lordship off the water at B. C. is Truth's Angel on horseback."

BEAR, THE
(Map Q8)
(area only, site unmarked)

A very well-known tavern at the Southwark end of Lond. Bdge. It was pulled down in 1761. In Jonson's Epicoene ii. 3, Morose mockingly predicts that when Sir Dauphine has managed to borrow 10 shillings, "it knighthood shall go to the Cranes or to the B. at the Bridgefoot, and be drunk in fear." In the Puritan i. 4, Corporal Oath swears by "yon B. at Bridgefoot." In Field's Weathercock iii. 3, Pouts sends his man to "bespeak supper at the B. and provide oars; I'll see Gravesend to-night." In Shirley's Pleasure iv. 2, Kickshaw invites Lady Bornwell to be his guest at "the B. at the Bdge. foot"; and in v. 11 Frederick enters in a very much excited condition and explains it by saying that he has been "at the B. at the Bridgefoot." In Killigrew's Parson iii. 1, the Capt. says, "We have not met these 3 years till today, and at the B. we meant to have dined." In v. 1, he says that one of the watermen is gone "to Cook's at the B. for some bottles of his best wine." In Brome's Couple ii. 1, Alicia says, "At the B. at the Bridge-foot 6 a clock I find my lord's appointments." In his Moor iv. 2, Quicksands mentions, "Bridgfoot B., the Tunnes, the Cats, the Squirrels," as haunts of his faithless wife. In Middleton's No Wit v. 1, Weatherwise, the astrologer, speaks of "Ursa Major, that great hunks, the B. at the Bridgefoot in heaven." It is sometimes called simply the Bridgefoot. In Brome's Northern i. 5, Pate asks, "Where is the supper? At the Bridgefoot or the Cat?" Taylor, in Carrier's Cosmography, mentions a B. Tavern in Bassishaw, i.e. Basinghall St.

BEAR

The sign of a bookseller's shop in Paul's Churchyard, Lond. Fisher's Fuimus was "Printed by I. L. for Robert Allott and are to be sold at the sign of the Beare in Pauls-church-yard. 1633." England's Helicon was "Printed by I. R. for John Flaskett and are to be sold in Paules churchyard at the sign of the Beare. 1600."

BEARBINDER LANE
(Map O5–P5)

A narrow passage in Lond., running along the E. side of the old Stocks Mkt, which stood on the site of the present Mansion House, from St. Swithin's Lane into Lombard St.: now called George St. In Middleton's Quiet Life iv. 2, Knavesby says to Mrs. Water-Camlet, "I'll bring you [to Lombard St.] through B. L."; to which the lady replies, "B. L. cannot hold me; I'll the nearest way over St. Mildred's ch."

BEAR GARDEN
(Map N8)

An enclosed place on the Bankside, Southwark, where the amusement of bear-baiting was carried on. The site is on the right of Southwark Bdge. Rd. as one goes from the r., and is indicated by B. G. Alley and the inn called the White B. Shakespeare does not mention the Gardens, but has many references to the sport. "Why do your dogs bark so?" asks Slender, "be there bears i' the town?" To which Anne Page replies, "I think there are, Sir; I heard them talked of." "I love the sport well," says Slender, "but I shall as soon quarrel at it as any man in England. You are afraid if you see the bear loose, are you not?" "Ay, indeed, Sir," says Anne. "That's meat and drink to me now," says the valorous simpleton; "I have seen Sackerson loose 20 times and have taken him by the chain" (M.W.W. i. 1, 298). Malvolio, being as a Puritan opposed to the sport, brought Fabian out o' favour with his lady about a bear-baiting (Tw. N. ii. 5, 11). Falstaff is as melancholy as "a lugged bear" (H4 A. i. 2, 83). Richd. of York "bore him in the thickest troop . . . as a bear, encompassed round with dogs, Who having pinched a few and made them cry, The rest stand all aloof and bark at him (H6 C. ii. 1, 15). "We'll bait thy bears to death," says Clifford, referring to the cognizance of the Nevilles, "And manacle their bear-ward in their chains, If thou darest bring them to the baiting place"; to which Richd. replies, "Oft have I seen a hot o'er-weening cur Run back and bite, because he was withheld; Who, being suffered with the bear's fell paw, Hath clapped his tail between his legs and cried" (H6 B. v. 1, 3[49). "I cannot fly," says Macbeth, "but, bearlike, I must fight the course" (Mac. v. 7, 2). "I would I had bestowed that time in the tongues," laments Sir Andrew "that I have in fencing, dancing, and bear-baiting" (Tw. N. i. 3, 96). Stow says, "As for the baiting of bulls and bears they are to this day much frequented, namely, in B. Gs., on the Bank's Side wherein be prepared scaffolds for beholders to stand upon." Camden says, "Among these buildings [on the Bank-side] there is a place in manner of a theatre for baiting of beares and Buls with Dogges." The Puritan Mrs. Flowerdew, in Randolph's Muses, i. 1, in denouncing the theatres, prays that "the Bull [i.e. the Red Bull Theatre) might cross the Thames to the B.-G. and there be soundly baited." In Middleton's Quarrel ii. 2, Tristram [ed. note: Trimtram?], giving an account of the origin of "roaring," says, "then it was heard to the Bankside and the bears they began to roar."

The sport was as popular as football is now. In Jonson's Epicoene we have a picture of a bear-baiting enthusiast in Tom Otter, "a great man at the b.-g. in his time," who named all his cups and flagons after bulls and bears (ii. 4), and proposes to have the story of Pasiphae "painted in the B.-G. ex Ovidii Metamorphosi." People even reckoned dates by the bear-baitings, as they do now by the winners of the Derby. In Lyly's Bombie iv. 2, Silena, being asked her age, answers, "I shall be 18 next bear-baiting." The names of the bears were well known. In the Puritan iii. 6, we hear of "George Stone, the bear"; in Jonson's Epicoene iii. 1, of "Ned Whiting and George Stone"; Sackerson we have already met in M.W.W. Sir John Davy reproaches the law students for leaving their work to see "old Harry Hunks and Sackerson." In Goosecap iii. 1, Sir Gyles tells of a mastiff he had which "fought with great Sekerson 4 hours to i." In Val. Welsh. i. 2, Morgan says, "I will fight for you with all the George Stones or the Ursa Majors under the sun." Peacham, in Verses prefixed to Coryat's Crudities (1611), speaks of "Hunks of the B.-g." In 1591 the Privy Council issued an order forbidding plays to be acted on Thursdays, because they interfered with the bear-baiting; and the Lord Mayor followed it up with an injunction, in which he blames the players for "reciting their plays to the great hurt and destruction of the game of bear-baiting." Elizabeth took great delight in it: Laneham describes a bearbaiting given at Kenilworth for her delectation. "It was a sport very pleasant of these beasts," he says, "to see the bear . . . when he was loose, to shake his ears twice or thrice with the blood and the slaver about his fiznamy, was a matter of a goodly relief." Metaphors from this source passed into the popular language. In Dekker's Hon. Wh. B. v. 2, Orlando says, "You're a couple of wild bears; I'll have ye both baited at one stake." In B. & F. Mad Lover iv. 1, the Fool proposes a game of bear-baiting: "Let's have a bear-baiting; you shall see me play the rarest for a single dog. At head all!" Anyone who has visited a menagerie will understand the figure in B. & F. Scornful iv. 1, "She stinks worse than a bear-baiting." In Brome's Antipodes iv. i the Old Woman says, "I can tell which dog does best without my spectacles; and though I could not, yet I love the noise; the noise revives me and the B.-g. scent refresheth much my smelling." In Cowley's Riddle i., Alupis says, "If you can patiently endure a stink Or have frequented e'r the City-B.g.," then kiss this old woman. Such phrases as "a bear with a sore head," "to go with as good will as a bear to the stake," "to do a thing as handsomely as a bear picks muscles," "to bait a person," "a regular b.-g." are all derived from this ancient sport. In Glapthorne's Hollander i. 1, Urinal says, "He may be led by the nose as quietly as the tamest bear in the garden." There was no love lost between the actors and the B. G., which interfered with their audiences. In the Actors' Remonstrance (1643), they complain that whilst the theatres were closed "that nurse of barbarism and beastliness, the B.-g.," is permitted still to stand in statu quo prius. Jonson, in Masque of Gipsies, scoffs at "the diet and the knowledge Of the students in Bear-college"; and in the Famous Voyage he says, "The meat-boat of Bears-College, Paris Garden, Stunk not so ill." In the Epilogue to the Poetaster, he says of his rivals, "I can afford them leave to err so still; And like the barking students of Bears College, To swallow up the garbage of the time With greedy gullets." In Braithwaite's Barnaby's Journal the 7 sights of New-Troy (Lond.) are enumerated: "1. Tombes. 2. Guildhall Giants. 3. Stage Plays. 4. Bedlam-poor. 5. Ostrich. 6. B.-G. 7. Lyons in the Tower." Dekker, in Amourers, gives a vivid description of the scene. "No sooner was I entered but the very noise of the place put me in mind of Hell; the bear dragged to the stake showed like a black rugged soul that was damned; the dogs like so many devils inflicting torments upon t. At length a blind Bear was tied to the stake, and instead of baiting him with dogs a company of creatures that had the shapes of men and faces of Christians (being either Colliers, Carters or Watermen) took the office of beadles upon them and whipped monsieur Hunkes till the blood ran down his old shoulders." Sunday was a great day for bearbaiting. In Middleton's Hubburd, p. 98, the begging soldier Laments that "all the fares went by water a-Sundays to the bear-baiting."

BEARS COLLEGE

See BEAR GARDEN.

BEARS, THREE

See THREE BEARS.

BEDLAM
(Map Q3)

(Bm. = Bethlem, Bem. = Bethlehem). A corruption of Bm., or Bem.; applied to the Priory of St. Mary of Bem., founded in 1247 by Simon Fitz-Mary, Sheriff of Lond. It was situated outside Bishopsgate, near St. Botolph's Ch., and had the duty of entertaining the Bp. and Canons of Bem. as often as they should come to Lond. It was soon used as a hospital, and in 1402 was specially appropriated to lunatics. In 1546 it was taken over by the City, and on the dissolution of the monasteries in 1547 was exempted, and granted by the K. to the citizens of Lond. The unhappy patients were sent out begging with a metal badge on their arms, and were known as Bs. The word was then applied to any demented person. The building was replaced by one near Lond. Wall in 1676; and in 18l2 the foundation-stone of a new hospital to take its place was laid in St. George's Fields, Lambeth. When York claims to be K., Clifford cries, "To B. with him! is the man grown mad!" To which K. Henry replies, "Ay, Clifford, a b. and ambitious humour makes him oppose himself against his K." (H6 B. v. 1, 131). In H6 B. iii. 1, 51, the Duchess of Gloucester is described as "the b. brainsick Duchess." "Ha! art thou b.?" says Pistol to Fluellen (H5 v. 1, 20). "B., have done," says John to Constance (K.J. ii. 1, 183). In Lear i. 2, 148, Edmund, disregarding the anachronism, says, "My cue is villainous melancholy, with a sigh like Tom o' B." In ii. 3, 14, Edgar, meditating on his iii, says, "The country gives me proof and precedent Of B. beggars, who, with roaring voices, Strike is their numbed and mortified bare arms Pins, wooden pricks, nails, sprigs of rosemary; And with this horrible object, from low farms . . . Sometime with lunatic bans, sometime with prayers, Enforce their charity"; and in iii. 6, 103, the servant of Gloucester says, "Let's follow the old Earl and get the B. to lead him where he would."

B. was a favourite resort of people of fashion, who amused themselves by watching the antics of the unfortunate patients. "Go with us," says Lady Haughty, "to B., to the China Houses, and to the Exchange" (Jonson, Epicoene iv. 2). Contributions for its support were welcomed: Face suggests that Mammon may be forgiven his "vice and lust," and secure the philosopher's stone "for some good penance: a 100 to the box at Bethlam for the restoring such as have their wits!" (Jonson, Alchemist iv. 3). Dekker transports it to Milan: "Bm. monastery! it is the school where those that lose their wits practise to find them" (Hon. Wh. A. iv. 4); and in v. 2, a vivid description is given of a visit to B., where the various types of madmen are exhibited for the benefit of the company. Legal warrant was necessary both to confine and to release the patients. "Take a mittimus," says Greedy, "and carry him [Overreach] to B." (Massinger, New Way v. i.) "They had warrant from your Grace," says Viola, "to carry him [Candido] to Bm. monastery, whence they will not free him without your Grace's hand that sent him in" (Dekker, Hon. Wh. A. v. 1). "Diccon, the Bi." is one of the characters in Gurton. In Jack Drum ii., 3, Flawne says of Mamon, "I'll even lay him up in B.; commit him to the mercy of the whip, the entertainment of bread and water"; and in v. 205, Drum says, "M. Mamon is in a city of Jurie called Bm., alias plain B. The price of whips is mightily risen, since his brain was pitifully overtumbled; they are so fast spent upon his shoulders." In Shirley's Fair One iii. 4, Aimwell exhorts Fowler, "Do not fool thyself beyond the cure of B." In Harman's Caveat ix., we read, "These Abraham men be those that feign themselves to have been mad, and have been kept either in Bem. or is some other prison a good time." In Dekker's Westward i. 1, Justiniano speaks of pent houses that make "the shop of a mercer or a linen draper as dark as a room in B." The dark room was used to cure madmen. Cf. Malvolio's treatment in Tw. N. iv. 2.

Female lunatics had the generic name of "Bess of B.," corresponding to the male "Tom of B." There is an old chapbook entitled, "Bess of B.'s Garland." They were also called "Joans of B." In Dekker's Satiro. iii. 1, 299, Tucca addresses Miniver as "Joane-a-B." In Braithwaite's Barnaby's journal, "B. poor "is mentioned as one of the 7 sights of Lond. In Brome's Cf. Beggar iii. 1, Strangelove, complaining of a disturbance, says, "The noise of B. is soft music to it." In Shirley's Bird ii., Rolliardo says, "All the world is but a B, a house of correction to whip us into our senses." In Dekker's Northward iv. 3, we have the following dialogue. Bellamont: "Yonder's the Dolphin without Bp.'s Gate. Come, cross over; and what place is this?" Mayberry: "B., is't not?" Bellamont: "Where the madmen are? I was never amongst them; as you love me, gentlemen, let's see what Greeks are within." In Brome's New Academy i. 1, Strigood speaks of "your locks and lady-ware that dangle in them like straws in the bush natural of a B." In Ford's Warbeck iii. 1, Huntley scornfully says that the revellers at the Court of James are "Like to so many quiristers of B. Trolling a catch." In W. Rowley's Shoemaker v. 1, 105, Maximinus says to the Nurse, "Speak, doting B., where's my daughter?" In Wit Woman 1463, Filenio calls Katharine in Shrew, "a B. quean who would never let her husband be at quiet." Dekker's Strange Horse Race was "Printed for Joseph Hunt and are to be sold at his shop in Bedlem near Moore-field Gate. 1613." See also BETHLEHEM.

BED–LANE

In Rowley's Match Mid. ii., Jarvis says, "This dinner would have showed better in B.-L." I can find no B.-L. in Lond., and suspect we should read "Bedlam," q.v.

BEDNALL–GREEN

See BETHNALL GREEN.

BEECH LANE
(Map M2)

The continuation of Barbican, between Redcross St. and Whitecross St, in Lond. At the corner of Redcross St. was a watch house for street brawlers: hence the lane became associated with them. In The Spiritual Courts Epitomised (1641), Scrape-all, the Proctor, says, "All Bloomsbury, Covent Garden, Long-acre, and B. L. were as fearful of me as of a constable." These were all places of bad repute.

BEGGAR'S BUSH

A tavern in St. Giles', Lond., up a narrow lane nearly opposite to the ch. It was a notorious haunt of bad characters of all kinds. The name was changed to "The Have and Hounds "in the reign of Charles II, owing to a hare having been. caught there. It was destroyed in 1844, and its site is now in the middle of New Oxford St. It is mentioned in the list of taverns given by Valerius in T. Heywood's Lucrece ii. 5, "the beggar to the Bush." Greene, in Quip, p. 218, speaks of "walking home by B. B. for a penance." It is stated by Brewer that there was a tree on the left hand of the Lond. Rd. from Huntingdon to Caxton called B. B., because it was a noted rendezvous for beggars. One of B. & F. plays is entitled The Beggar's Bush.

BEGGAR'S MANOR

A cant name for the gallows. In Fulwell's Like, Dods. iii. 324, Newfangle says, "A piece of ground it is, that of B. M. doth hold, Called St. Thomas-a-Waterings or else Tyburn Hill": both places of execution.

BELL

A very common tavern sign: there were at least a dozen B. Taverns in Lond. The B. on the W. side of Gracechurch St., between Lombard St. and Cornhill, at the point now marked by B.-yard, was one of the inns in which plays were performed. In Tarlton's Jests, (1611), we are told that when Banks was exhibiting his horse Marocco at the Cross Keys in Gracious St., Tarlton, "playing at the Bel by," came in to see the show. Tarlton got a licence in Nov. 1583 to play "at the Sign of the B. in Gracious St." In Underwit iii. 3, Underwit asks, "What think you of the dromedary that was to be seen at the back side, of the B.?" There was another B. Inn in Aldersgate St, 2 doors from Barbican. Taylor started on his Penniless Pilgrimage from Lond. to Scotland "at the B. that's extra Aldersgate." In Long Meg xvii, there is a story of a dinner "at the B. in Aldersgate St." Taylor, in Carriers Cosmog. (1637), says that it was the house of call for the carriers from St. Albans and from Hatfield. Another stood on the N. side of Holborn, next to Furnival's Inn. In Fleetwood's Report to Lord Burghley (1584) on. the disturbances in the neighbourhood of the Theatre and Curtain, mention is made of a certain Browne who started a row at the door of the theatre, and was subsequently arrested "at the B. in Holborn." According to Taylor it was the house of call for the carriers from Aylesbury. Dekker, in Rod for Runaways, tells of a man who in the plague-time "dropped down dead by All-gate [i.e. Aldgate] at the B.-tavern door." Richd. Quiney addressed a letter to Shakespeare "from the B. in Carter-Lane "in 1598. It was on the S. side of the lane. There was a B. on the N. side of the Strand, near the end of Little Drury Lane. Deloney, in Newberie xi., tells of a gentlewoman "who lodged at the B. in the Strand." Another was on the W. side of Friday St., about half way down the st. According to Taylor the carriers from Burford lodged there. It is mentioned in Cal. State Papers (1603–10) 455, as a place to which letters might be sent for Sir Thomas Estcourt.

There were other B. Taverns: on the E. side of Coleman St., in Fleet St. near Temple Bar, on the E. side of Warwick St., on the E. side of St. John's St., near Hicks's Hall, on the E. side of W. Smithfield, on the W. side of Old Fish St, on the W. side of Wood St., and on the W. side of Walbrook, near the Stocks Market. In Middleton's Chaste Maid i. 1, the porter, one of Hobson's men, says, "I have come from the B. sweating." Here B. is a misprint or mistake for BULL, q.v.

BELL SAVAGE INN
(Map K5)

A famous Lond. tavern on the N. side of Ludgate Hill: pulled down in 1873 and replaced by Cassell, Petter, and Galpin's printing works. It was first called the B.-on-the-Hoop, but in the middle of the 15th cent. it was named after its owner Savages' Inn; and the 2 names were subsequently combined. It was one of the inns used for the performance of plays before the theatres were built. Lambarde, writing in 1596, speaks of "such as go to Paris Garden, the B. S., or Theatre, to behold bear-baiting, interludes or fenceplay." Gosson, in School of Abuse (1579), p. 40, commends "the 2 prose books played at the Belsavage, where you shall find never a word without wit." When Wyatt marched on Lond. in 1554 "he marched to Temple Bar and so through Fleet St. till he came to B. S., an Inn nigh unto Ludgate." Here Banks used to exhibit his famous horse Marocco; and Maroccus Exstaticus, or Banks' Bay Horse in a Trance, was dedicated to "mine host of the Belsavage." It is to Banks's horse that Moth refers in L.L.L. i. 2, 57: "The dancing horse will tell you." In Gascoigne's Government, prol., he says, "Who seeks to feed his eye with vain delight B. S. fair were fittest for his purse," i.e. the shows at the B. S. I. In Downfall Huntington i. 3, Little John says, "Your horses at the B. shall ready be; I mean Belsavage." Taylor, in Carriers Cosmog. says, "The carriers of Doncaster in Yorkshire and many other parts in that country do lodge at the B., or Belle Sauvage, without Ludgate."

BEN JONSON'S HEAD

The sign of a bookseller's shop in Lond. Lust's Domin., attributed to Marlowe, was "Printed for F. K. and are to be sold by Robert Pollard at the sign of B. J. H. on the Backside of the Old Exchange. 1657." Day's B. Beggar was "Printed for R. Pollard and Tho. Dring and are to be sold at the B.J. H. behind the Exchange. 1659." T. Heywood's Fortune was published at the same place in 1655

BENNET, CHURCH OF ST.

There were 4 churches in Lond. dedicated to St. B., or Benedict, viz.
  • St. B. Finke in Threadneedle St.; (Map P4)
  • St. B. Graschurch in Gracechurch St. (so called from the Grass Market held there); (Map Q5)
  • St. B. Shorne, Shrog, or Shorehog, in St. Sithe's Lane, (Map N5) and
  • St. B. Hythe, or Paul's Wharf, on the N. side of Thames St., on the corner of St. B.'s Hill. (Map L6)
This last was near to the Blackfriars Theatre and Shakespeare's house, and is probably the one intended in Tw. N. v. 1, 42: "The bells of St. B., Sir, may put you in mind: one, two, three." It was destroyed in the Gt. ]Fire and rebuilt in 1683. Here Inigo Jones was buried 1652; and Henry Fielding, the novelist, married in 1747. It is now devoted to Welsh services.

BERMONDSEY

See BARMSEY.

BETHNALL GREEN
(Map T2–U2)
(area only, site unmarked)

(or BEDNALL GREEN). A dist. in the E. end of Lond., bounded roughly by Shoreditch, Hackney Rd., Victoria Park, and Whitechapel Rd. It was a poor dist. inhabited chiefly by silk-weavers. The G. itself was on the E. of Cambridge Rd., where the Museum now stands. The house of the Blind Beggar, famed in ballad, was called Kirby's Castle, and was actually built in the reign of Elizabeth by John Kirby, a rich Londoner. It ultimately became a lunatic asylum. Bp. Bonner had his house about 1/4 m. E. of the G. In Webster's Cuckold ii. 3, Compass's wife tells him that his boy "is nursed at Bednall G." In Chaunticleers iii., Ditty, the Ballad-man, says, "I have the Beggar of Bethnal G." Day's B. Beggar is a dramatic version of the story of the Ballad with considerable difference. In the ballad, which may be found in Percy's Reliques ii. 2, the beggar is Henry, son of Sir Simon de Montfort, who is rescued after the battle of Evesham by a maiden, whom he married; and he takes the disguise of a blind beggar to escape the k.'s vengeance. In the play the beggar is Momford, who is falsely charged with the surrender of Guynes in the French Wars of Henry VIs reign, and so assumes the disguise.

BIBLE

The sign of Robert Bird's bookshop in Cheapside, where the 1631 edn. of the Booke of Merrie Riddles was published. There was also a B. in Giltspur St. Alimony was "Printed by Tho. Vere and William Gilbertson and are to be sold at the B. in Giltspur-st. 1659." There was yet another in Chancery Lane. T. Heywood's Hogsdon was "Printed by M. P. for Henry Shephard and are to be sold at his shop in Chancerie-lane at the sign of the B. 1638."

BILLINGSGATE
(Map R7)

The principal of the old water-gates of Lond., on the N. side of the Thames, E. of Lond. Bdge., between it and the Custom House. Geoffrey of Monmouth derives the name from Belin, an ancient British k.; but Stow more probably connects it with one Biling, who formerly owned the wharf. Stow describes it as "a large watergate, port, or harborough for ships and boats, commonly arriving there with fish, both fresh and salt, shell-fishes, salt, oranges, onions, and other fruits and roots, wheat, rye, and grain of divers sorts, for service of the city and the parts of this realm adjoining." It gave its name to the B. Ward. George Sanders and his wife, the principal characters in Fair Women, lived here: "in all B. Ward not a kinder couple" (i. 1). It was a usual landing-place for travellers from abroad or from the lower reaches of the Thames. Sanders, in the same play, coming back from Greenwich, is expected to land at B. (ii. 2). In Feversham iii. 3, Arden, going back from Lond. to Feversham, directs his servant, "Sirra, get you back to Billensgate and learn what time the tide will serve our turn." In Davenant's Wits i. 1, Meager, just come from Holland, has to "unship his trunks at B."

In H4 B. ii. 1, 182, Qq. read, "Where lay the K. last night?"–"At B., my Lord." The Ff. have "Basingstoke," which is undoubtedly the right reading. In Fam. Vict., A3, Lawrence, the costermonger, says, "We will watch here at B. Ward," sc., for someone to rob. In Contention, Pt. I, Haz. p. 503, when Robin reports that Lond. Bdge. is on fire, Cade bids him run "to B. and fetch pitch and flax and squench it." In S. Rowley's When You B. 1, Summers says that certain news from Rome "was at B. by Saturday morning and it came up on a spring tide." In B. & F. Hon. Man v. 3, Montague, railing at Capt. la Poop, tells him, "I shall see you serve in a lousy lime-boat for mouldy cheese and butter B. would not endure." Dekker, in News from Hell, makes the devil's post ride down "to B., for he meant, when the tide served, to angle for souls": where there is a pun with "soles." Like all waterside places, it was well provided with taverns. In Penn. Parl. it is provided "that the salmon shall be better sold in Fish-St. than the beer shall be at B." In Jack Drum iv. 229, Old Brabant goes out with his boy to get some wine, and says, "Boy, go with me to B." Amongst the inns were the Salutation, mentioned in News Barthol. Fair, and the Blue Anchor, to which Sir Petronel Flash (Westward iii. 1) invites his friends; "Meet me at the Blue Anchor tavern by B. this evening." Sc. III is accordingly at this tavern and Seagul exhorts the drawer, "Let's have cheer not fit for your B. tavern but for our Virginian Colonel." This last is represented still by the Blue Anchor tavern 26 St. Marys-at-Hill. In Jonson's Devil i. 1, Iniquity promises Pug to bring him "to the bawds and the roysters at B. feasting with claret wine and oysters."

A barge plied daily between B. and Gravesend: the fare was twopence. In pref. to Cobler of Canterbury (1590), it is said to contain tales "told in the barge between B. and Gravesend." Deloney, in Craft (1597) ii. 14, tells how John's wife, "being newly come from the Barge at B., and at that time going toward St. Katherines," found her husband at the Abbey of Grace, E. of Tower Hill. In Dekker's Westward i. 1, Justiniano speaks of women "as stale as wenches that travel every second tide between Gravesend and B." B. was, and is, the great fishmarket for Lond., though other things were also sold there. Nash, in Prognostication, says, "There shall be much stinking fish this year at B." In Deloney's Craft ii. 9, a servant is sent to fetch "a bushel of oysters from B." In Three Lords (Dods. vi. 501), Simplicity says of Fraud, "the very oystermen [will miss him] to mingle their oysters at B." In Glapthorne's Wit v. 1, Mendwell tells a fishing yam: "an oyster-wife, a good old woman, heard it at B. and told my wife on't." In Penn. Parl., it is enacted that "St. Thomas's onions shall be sold by the rope at B." The noise of the market and the shrill scolding of the fishwives were proverbial. In Jonson's Epicoene iv. 2, Morose, in order to get rid of his wife, will do penance "at Lond. Bdge., Paris Garden, B., when the noises are at their height and loudest." In Davenant's Rutland, p. 217, the Parisian says sarcastically, "1 am loth to disturb the civil silence of B., which is so great as if the mariners were always landing to storm the harbour." In Alimony i. 1, Trillo says, "Divorces are now as common as scolding at B." In Leir, Haz. p. 503, the Messenger says, "I have as bad a tongue, if it be set on it, as any oysterwife at B. hath." In Brome's New Academy iv. 2, when Gabriella abuses her son, Lady Nestecock cries: "She come over my heir apparent with such B. compliment!" In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian.] iv. 6, Puny says, "She rails at me like a flounder-mouthed fish-woman with a face like B." The Boss of B. is the title of a play, based on an old ballad. The Boss, or drinking-fountain, was in BOSS ALLEY, q.v.

BIRCHIN LANE
(Map P5)

St. in Lond., running N. from Lombard St. to Cornhill. According to Stow, it was originally Birchover L., so-called from its first builder and owner, but this is an error. It was occupied chiefly by drapers and second-hand clothes dealers. In Nobody 440, the Clown says, "Come into B. L., they'll give Nobody a suit." In Prodigal i. 1, young Flowerdale tells his disguised father, "Go into B.-L., put thyself into clothes." Dekker, in Hornbook 1, says, "Did man come wrangling into the world about no better matters than all his lifetime to make privy searches in B. L. for whalebone doublets?" In Overbury's Characters 17, he says that a fine gentleman buys his behaviour at Court, "as countrymen their clothes in B. L." In T. Heywood's Royal King i. Cock and Corporal enter ragged; and Cock says, "It had not been amiss if we had gone first to Burchen L. to have suited us." In Middleton's Quiet Life v. 1, young Franklin confesses that he owes for "fourscore pair of provant breeches to Punchbuttock, a hosier in B. L." In Middleton's Black Book, p. 29, we read, "Passing through B. L. amidst a camproyal of hose and doublets, away they ran like Irish lackeys." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 11, Chub says, "B. L. shall suit us, the costermongers fruit us." In his Royal King iii., the Clown says, "Though we have the law on our sides, we may walk through Burchin-l. and be non-suited." Dekker, in Wonderful Year, says that through fear of the Plague, "if one new suit of sackcloth had been but known to have come out of Burchin-l. (being the common wardrobe for all their clownships) it had been enough to make a market-town give up the ghost." In Deloney's Newberie ix., Jack relieves a poor man and "provided him out of Burchin-l. a fair suit of apparel." To send a boy to B. L. meant, according to Ascham, Schoolmaster 69, to order him to be whipped.

BISHOPSGATE
(Map Q3)

One of the old gates in N.E. Lond., between Aldgate and Aldersgate. It was, rebuilt in 1479. The Bp. of Lond. had one stick from every cartload of wood brought in through this gate: hence its name. B. St. Within runs N. from the junction of Cornhill and Leadenhall St. to the point where the old gate stood; beyond that it becomes B. St. Without. It partially escaped the Gt. Fire., and several old buildings survived, notably Crosby Hall and St. Helen's Ch. The scene of Rowley's Match Mid. is in this neighbourhood; Mary Bloodhound lived in Houndsditch, near Aldgate and B. (iv. 1); and a little later on Moll and Randall, meeting in the dark at the point where Cornhill, Leadenhall St., and B. meet, are disturbed by the watch coming up Gracechurch St., and dodge away down Cornhill and round the Exchange. Then the ancient who "escaped the watch at B. with ease "meets Moll turning down the Ch. corner towards the Exchange. In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 2, Frisco says of Vandal, "He looks like the sign of the Mouth without B., gaping; and a great face and a great head, and no body." In Dekker's Satiro. iii. 1, 245, Tucca says, "I'll dam thee up, my wide mouth at B." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 270, John says, "Once in a year a man might find you quartered betwixt the Mouth at B. and the preachingplace in the Spittle" (see MOUTH).

In Dekker's Northward iv. 3, Bellamont says, "Stay, yonder's the Dolphin without Bishop's Gate, where our horses are at rack and manger." The Dolphin was just outside B., near the end of Houndsditch. In Day's B. Beggar iii., Canoy says, "There's an odd fellow snuffles i' the nose, that shows a motion [i.e. a puppetshow] about B., we'll get to his lodging." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 14, the Messenger reports that the rebels are coming from Essexward: "therefore 'tis his mind You guard both Aldgate well and B." On p. 57 the Lord Mayor says, "In memory of me, John Crosbie, in B. St. a poor house I built and as my name have called it Crosbie House" (see CROSBY HOUSE). Gresham lived in B. in a mansion built by him in 1563. It stood on the W. side of the st., and the gardens extended to Broad St. In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 297, a Lord says, "It is our way to B. to Master Gresham's house." Dekker, in Seven. Sins, makes Sloth enter the city with "a most sleepy and stiff triumph at B." In Deloney's Craft ii. 5, the Dr. says, "He rode with me out of B. forth right as far as Ware."

BISHOP'S HALL

Apparently Bp. Bonner's house, abt. 1 m. E. of Bethnall Green, is intended. In Webster's Cuckold iv. 1, Compass says to his wife, "Then will we meet again in the pease-field by B. H."

BISHOP'S PALACE (LOND.)

Stood at the N.W. corner of the precinct of St. Paul's. In True Tragedy the messenger informs the Q. that her son "remains at Lond. in the B. P." Milton, in Areopagitica (1644), p. 12 (Hales), pours scorn on "a lordly Imprimatur . . . from the W. end of Pauls."

BLACK BEAR

A Lond. booksellers' sign. Bacon's Essays were "Printed for Hunfry Hooper and are to be sold at the blacke Beare in Chauncery Lane. 1597." Marlowe's Hero and Leander was "Printed by Felix Kingston for Paule Linley and are to be sold in Paules Churchyard at the sign of the Blacke-beare. 1598."

BLACK BOY

The sign of Henry Kirkham's bookshop at the little N. door of Paul's Ch. (Title page Bacchus Bountie, 1593). There was a B. B. tavern in Southwark, which left its name in B. B. Alley, off Blackman St.

BLACK BULL

A well-known old tavern in Gray's Inn Lane, Lond., with an old galleried yard. (see BATTLE BRIDGE). Taylor, in Carriers Cosmog., mentions another B. B. in Smithfield; and another in Bishopsgate St.

BLACKEM–HALL

See BLACKWELL HALL.

BLACKFRIARS
(Map K5–K6)

The Order of the Dominicans was founded by St. Dominic in 1215, and confirmed by Honorius III in the following year. They wore a white robe with a black cloak and hood: hence their name "Black Friars." They carne to England in 1221, and had their first home in Holborn, outside the City wall; but in 1276 they were granted "2 lanes or ways next the st. of Baynard's Castle, and the tower of Montfitchet to be destroyed" (Stow). They duly destroyed the tower, and with the stones of it they built a magnificent new monastery and ch. The site was the plot of land lying N. of the present Q. Victoria St. and E. of Water Lane. The ch. lay on the N. side near to Carter Lane: S. of it were the Gt. Cloister and the Inner Cloister; to the W. of the cloisters were the Buttery and the Frater: the latter occupying the site of the present Times printing office. The monastery was seized at the time of the dissolution of the monasteries in 1538, and the ch. was pulled down. The rest of the buildings were sold by Edward VI to Sir Francis Cawarden, and converted into residential tenements which were occupied by people of the highest rank. The right of sanctuary still remained to the precinct; and it was free from the jurisdiction of the City authorities.


Richard Farrant, Master of the Windsor Chapel, wanting a place for his children to perform plays, leased the old Buttery in 1576 and converted the upper rooms into a playhouse, with an entrance from Water Lane. Here the Children of the Chapel performed from 1577 to 1584: during the latter part of the period under Lyly's direction, his Campaspe and Sapho being played by them with great applause. In 1584, however, the lease was tern-iinated and the place converted into tenements. In 1596 James Burbage purchased what had been the Frater from the then owner, Sir William More, and converted it into a private theatre, 46 ft. wide and 66 ft. long. It was entirely roofed in, had 2 galleries, and was artificially lighted. Burbage died in 1597, and left the theatre to his son Richd., the great tragedian of Shakespeare's company. By him it was let to Henry Evans to be used by the Children of the Chapel for plays; and abt. 1600 their performances began. They were very successful, as Shakespeare, Ham. ii. 2, 352, testifies. Middleton, in Hubburd, p. 77, advises the Lond. gallant to "call in at the B. where he should see a nest of boys able to ravish a man." The D. of Stettin-Pomerania in 1602 waxes quite enthusiastic about their music. Evans got into trouble for kidnapping a boy, and the company was reorganized by Edward Kirkham and secured a Royal patent in 1604. But the management was most unfortunate in its choice of plays: Daniel's Philotus in 1604, Jonson, Chapman, and Marston's Eastward is 1605, Day's Gulls in 1606, and Chapman's Byron plays in 1608 got them into serious trouble with the Court, and in 1608 the theatre was leased to Richd. Burbage and a syndicate which included Shakespeare. Burbage now ran it as a winter house, retaining the Globe for the summer performances of his company. It became so popular that the crowd of coaches and horses was a great nuisance to the neighbourhood, but the efforts to get it closed were futile, and it continued to flourish until the closing of the theatres in 1642. It was ultimately pulled down on Aug. 6, 1655, and tenements built in its room. Shakespeare bought a house some 200 yards from the theatre on the W. side of St. Andrew's Hill in 16l3, which he leased to one John Robinson. It was near what is now known as Ireland Yard.

In the preface to the 1st Folio of Shakespeare the author says, "Though you be a magistrate of wit and sit on the stage at Black-friers or the Cockpit, to arraign plays daily, know, these plays have had their trial already." In Dekker's Satiro. iv. 3, 248, Tucca says, "Thou hast arraigned two poets against all law and conscience and, not content with that, hast turned them amongst a company of horrible black fryers." The reference is to Jonson's Poetaster, with its attack on Marston and Dekker, which was played at the B. in 160.2. In Shirley's address prefixed to the Folio of B. & F.'s Plays in 1647, he says that this volume contains "the authentic wit that made B. an academy where the 3 hours' spectacle, while Beaumont and Fletcher were presented, was usually of more advantage to the hopeful young heir than a costly dangerous foreign travel." In verses by R. C., prefixed to The Queen 16, we have a reference to B., "which in this age Fell when it was a ch., not when a stage, Or that the Puritans that once dwelt there Prayed and thrived though the playhouse were so near." In Killigrew's Parson iv. 1, Jolly says, "I have got the B. music. I was fain to stay till the last act." In Cockayne's Obstinate iii. 2, Lorece says, "I at any time will carry you to a play, either to the Black Friar's or Cockpit." In the Actors' Remonstrance (1643), they say, "It is not unknown to all the audience that have frequented the private houses of Black-friars, the Cock-pit, and Salisbury Court without austerity we have purged our stages from all obscene and scurrilous jests." In Doubtful (prol.), which was produced on the Bankside, Shirley begs his audience to behave "as you were now in the Blackfryars pit." Sir Aston Cockayne, in poem prefixed to Brome's Plays (1653), prays for the time when "Black, and White Friars too, shall flourish again" (see also PORTER'S HALL). In the hall of the monastery was held the trial of the divorce case between Henry VIII and Katherine of Arragon. In H8 ii. 2, 139, the K. says, "The most convenient place that I can think of For such receipt of learning is Black-friars," and there accordingly is fixed the trial scene (ii. 4).

As has been already stated, the tenements into which the old monastery had been converted were occupied by fashionable folk. In Middleton's Michaelmas iv. 3, Thomasine says, "Inquire for one Master Easy at his old lodging 1, the B." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i., Ancient Young says, "There was a handsome widow whose husband died at sea; let me see, I am near B., I'll have one start at her." In Jonson's Alchemist i. 1, Subtle mocks Face as an "Honest, plain, livery-three-pound-thrum, that kept Your master's worship's house here in the Friers: and it is in this house, in the absence of his master Lovewit, that Subtle carries on his business as a professed alchemist. Vandyke lived here for 10 years, and the miniature painter, Isaac Oliver, was an other resident. In Jonson's Devil i. 3, FitzDottrel proposes to go "into Hyde Park and thence into B., visit the painters." In the poorer parts of the neighbourhood many Puritans lived, possibly because of the privilege of sanctuary still enjoyed by the precinct; and many of them were engaged in the business of feather-making. We read, in Jonson's Alchemist i. 1, of a Capt. "whom not a Puritan in B. will trust so much as for a feather." In Field's Amends iii. 3, the Widow inquires, "Precise and learned Princox, dost thou not go to B.?" "Most frequently, Madam," answers the disguised Bold, "unworthy vessel that I am to partake or retain any of the delicious dew that is there distilled." In Dekker's Westward v. 1, Moll says, "Let's be as fantastic and light-hearted to the eye as feather-makers, but as pure about the heart as if we dwelt amongst 'em in B." In Randolph's Muses' i. 1, Bird, the feather-man, and Mrs. Flowerdew, the wife of a haberdasher, come to the Playhouse, probably Salisbury Court, to sell their wares: they are described as "two of the sanctified fraternity of B." Bird says, "We live by B. College, and I wonder how that prophane nest of pernicious birds [sc. the actors] dare roost themselves there in the midst of us"; and Mrs. Flowerdew is surprised that the B. Theatre "'scaped demolishing i' the time of reformation." In the dispute between the Rabbi Busy and the proprietor of the puppet-show in Jonson's Barthol. v. 3, the latter argues, "What say you to your feather-makers in the Friers that are of your faction of faith? Is a bugle-maker a lawful calling? or the confect-makers, such as you have there? or your French fashioner?" In Jonson's Love Rest., Robin Goodfellow tries to get in under the disguise of "a feather-maker of B.; but they wondered how I could be a Puritan, being of so vain a vocation." In Marston's Malcontent, Ind., Sly hides his feathers in his pocket because feathers had been so satirized on the stage of the theatre that "B. hath almost spoiled B. for feathers." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i. 1, we learn that the Widow Wagge "dwells in Blackfryars, next to the sign of the fool laughing at a feather," mentioned again in iv. as "the sign of the Feathers and the Fool." There seems to be a reference to this sign in H8 i. 3, 24, where Lovell says, "They must . . . leave those remnants Of fool and feather that they got in France." In B. & F. Thomas ii. 3, Hylas thinks "not all the feathers in the Fryars "will satisfy a fashionable wife. In their Wit Money iii. 4, Valentine boasts that his breeches "are Christian breeches, founded in B." In Jonson's Epicoene iv. 1, Otter says that all his wife's teeth "were made in the B." In B. & F. Prize iv. 5, Petruchio mentions "a beggar-wench about B., Runs on her breech": doubtless some poor cripple who was a familiar figure there. There was a glass manufactory on the site in Temple St. where the Whitefriars Glass Works now stand. Dekker, in Knight's Conjuring, says of hell, "Like the glasshouse furnace in B., the bone-fires that are kept there never go out." In Killigrew's Parson iii. 1, Mrs. Pleasant says, "I'll go to a play with my servant, and so shall you; and we'll go to the glass-house afterwards." The Greyhound Inn was at the Fleet St. corner, near B. In Dekker's Westward ii. 3, Justiniano suggests, as a rendezvous for the party that is going to Brentford, "the Greyhound in B." See GREYHOUND.

BLACKFRIARS STAIRS
(Map K6)
(site unmarked, just west of Puddle Wharf)

A landing-stage on the N. bank of the Thames, where B. Bdge. now stands. In Marmion's Leaguer v. 3, Ardelio, being turned out of service, says, "I may go set up bills now for my living, or fish at B. S." In Middleton's R.G. v. 2, Sir Alexander, hearing that his son and Moll have gone across to Lambeth, says, "Delay no time, sweet gentlemen! to B.! We'll take a pair of oars and after them." In Middleton's Chaste Maid iv. 3, Touchwood tells how a gentleman escaped from a gang of bullies in B. by the help of an honest pair of oars.

BLACKHEATH

An extensive open common between Eltham and Greenwich, 5 m. from the centre of Lond. It is intersected by the Dover Rd, and the traffic from Kent to Lond. naturally comes across it. It was on B. that the Kentish men assembled in Wat Tyler's rebellion. In Jack Straw i., Jack says to his men, "Upon B., beside Greenwich, there we'll lie." Here Richd. II and his bride were met by the citizens; and here Henry V was greeted by the lord mayor and aldermen on his return from Agincourt. (H5 v., prol. 16) "So swift a pace hath thought that even now You may imagine him upon B." Jack Cade and his followers camped here (H6 B. iv. 2 and 3); and here Henry VI met York and Warwick before the 1st battle of St. Albans (H6 B. v. 1). It was on B. in 1497 that Henry VII defeated the 15,000 Cornish rebels who had marched on Lond. under Audley. In Ford's Warbeck iii. 1, this battle is described. "B.," says the K., "must be reserved the fatal tomb to swallow Such stiff-necked abjects." Latimer, in Sermon 1 before Edward VI (1549), says that he re members buckling on his father's harness "when he went unto B. field." The Heath was a well-known haunt of footpads and highwaymen. In Oldcastle iv. 1, Sir John mentions B. as one of the places that pay him tithe; and later, in the same scene, Harpool complains that a thief "met me last day at Blacke heath near the park," and robbed him of 100. In Fair Women ii. 458, Browne, lying in wait to murder Saunders, bids his accomplice, "See if Black Heath be clear Lest by some passenger we be descried." In Brome's Moor v. 1, Meanwell says, "We did pretend a deadly quarrel at a great bowling-match upon B." B. is mentioned often in Look about as the abode of a hermit. John says, "I'll to B. and there with friends conspire" (xxiii.).

BLACK LION

The sign of a bookseller's shop on Lond. Bdge. Com. Cond. was "Imprinted by William Howe for John Hunter on Lond. Bdge. at the Blacke L." The date is about 1576.

BLACK SWAN

The sign of Sir Simon Eyre's shop in Lond. Deloney, in Craft i. 13, says, "he set up the sign of the b. S. swimming upon the sea, in remembrance of that ship the first that did bring him wealth, and before that time the sign of the b. s. was never seen, or known, in any place in or about the city of Lond."

BLACKWALL

Suburb of Lond, in the parish of Poplar, on N. side of the r. at its junction with the Lea, 4 m. E. Of St. Paul's. It is one of the busiest spts. in the world. In Eastward iii. 3, the ship in which Sir Petronel is going to Virginia lies at B. In Mayne's s Match v. 9, Warehouse is informed that his 2 ships have come in and "lie at B." In Fair Women ii. 177, Beane says that "between B. and Woolwich is the worst" part of the journey by river from Greenwich to Lond. In Oldcastle iii. 2, Acton says that his army of rebels are "some nearer Thames, Ratcliffe, B., and Bow." In Middleton's Five Gallants i. 1, Frippery, the draper, says he has "ventured some small stock by water to B. among fishwives." In Launching, written in praise of the E. India Company 1632, the author says of the Company, "B. proclaims their bounty; Limehouse speaks of their liberality." In Dekker's Westward ii. 3, when an excursion is proposed, Sir Gosling says, "What say you to B. or Limehouse?" To which Judith replies: "Every room there smells too much of tar." In Webster's Cuckold i. 3, Compass, returning home after a voyage, cries, "B., sweet B., do I see thy white cheeks again? O beautiful B.!" Some of the scenes of the play are laid there. In Deloney's Craft ii. 9, there is a story of "an Egyptian [i.e. gipsy] woman at B."

BLACKWELL HALL
(Map N4)

(or, as it should more properly be called, BAKEWELL HALL) was on the W. side and almost at the S. end of Basinghall St., Lond. It was a very ancient building, and was for a long time the mansion of the Basing family, one of whom, Solomon, was Lord Mayor in the 4th year of Henry III. It passed into the Bakewell family in the reign of Edward III, and in the next reign was sold to the City for 50 and made into a cloth exchange. It was rebuilt in 1558, destroyed in the Gt. Fire, and re-erected in 1672. In 1820 the Bankruptcy Court was built upon its site. It was the Cloth Exchange of Lond., and no foreigner could sell cloth elsewhere. In Prodigal ii. 1, Oliver, the Devonshire clothier, boasts, "Cha have 3 score pack of karsey at Blackem-H., and chief credit beside." In Deloney's Newberie vi., the clothiers meet "at B. H. in Lond.," to present their petition to the K. In his Reading vi., he says, "Then came they to B. H. where the country clothiers did use to meet." The time is the reign of Henry I; so that the statement is 2 or 3 cents. previous.

BLOOMSBURY
(Map C3–G3)
(general area–clicking link takes you to western side, C3)

Dist. in Lond., between Holborn, Gray's Inn Rd., Euston Rd., and Tottenham Court Rd. It was almost open country in the 16th and 17th cents., and was a well-known resort of bad characters. The fields behind the site of the British Museum, known as Southampton Fields, were "the resort of depraved wretches whose amusements consisted chiefly in fighting pitched battles and other disorderly sports" (Dr. Rimbault). In The Spiritual Courts Epitomized (1641), Scrape-all, the Proctor, says, "All B., Covent-Garden, Long-Acre, and Beech Lane were as fearful of me as of a constable." In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, Fortress, the president of a society of thieves called the Twiball Knights, is described as "D. of Turnbull, B., and Rotten Row." In Middleton's Chess ii. 1, the Black Knight, showing various letters from women of bad character, says, "These from 2 tender sisters of compassion in the bowels of B." In Brome's Covent G. iii. 1, Clotpoll informs the company that his lodging is "At B.": at which Justice Cockbrain pricks up his ears, and says, "B.? I note it." In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] ii. 3, Puny says, "I'll beat him as a B. whore beats hemp"; sc. in the prison for such women at Bridewell. B. was a favourite haunt of Jesuits. Gee, in Foot out of Snare (1624), p. 50, says, "A Jesuit of the prouder sort of priests may usually be met about B. or Holborn." In Foley's Records i. 605, it is stated that there were more Romanists than Protestants in B. (in 1634).

BLUE ANCHOR

Tavern in Lond. which may still be found at the corner of St. Mary-at-hill and Lower Thames St., close by Billingsgate. In Eastward iii. 1, Sir Petronel invites Capt. Seagul to meet him "at the B. A. tavern by Billingsgate this evening "to drink to his happy voyage. In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] i. 4, Cutter reports that the Capt. met the Irish envoy "last night at the B.-A."

BLUE BIBLE

One of the printers of The Book of Riddels (edn. 1629) was "Michael Sparke dwelling in Greene Arbor at the signe of the b. B."

BLUE BOAR INN

An inn in Spitalfields; also a tavern outside Aldgate. In Haughton's Englishmen iv. 1, Frisco says to his bewildered companions, "We are now at the farthest end of Shoreditch. . . . You brought me this way, because you would find a charm [for your spirit] at the B. B. in the Spital." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 38, Spicing bids Chub "Redeem my paund Hose; they lie at the B. B. for 11d." Taylor, in Carriers Cosmog., mentions "the B. B. without Aldgate "as the lodging of the Essex carriers. The rebels, of whom Spicing was one, came from Essex, so that the Aldgate B. B. is doubtless the one at which he had pawned his breeches.

BOAR'S HEAD TAVERN
(Map Q6)

This famous hostelry, the scene of the frolics of Prince Hal and Falstaff (H4 A. ii. 4; iii. 2; H4 B. ii. 4) and of the death of the fat knight (H5 ii. 1, and 3), was on the N. side of Gt. Eastcheap (not to be confused with Cheapside or W. Cheap), which ran W. from Fish St. Hill. The tavern abutted at the back on St. Michael's, in Crooked Lane, and was just where the statue of William IV now stands. Stow says, speaking of the year 1410, "There was then no taverne in Eastcheap"; but he says that there were cook shops "wher men called for meat what them liked"; and, it may be presumed, for what liquor they required to wash it down. In any case, there was a tenement in E. Cheap called the B. H. in the time of Richd. II; for it was given by William Warder to a college of priests for the benefit of the adjoining Ch. of St. Michael, and it is possible that it may have been the scene of Glutton's famous debauch, described in Piers B. v. 306 ss. Lydgate, writing in the reign of Henry V, says, "Then I hyed me into Estchepe; one cryes rybbs of befe and many a pye; Pewter pots they clattered on a heape, there was harpe, pype, and mynstrelsye." Drinking therefore went on, as well as eating, in the cookshops. Shakespeare was not an archaeologist, however; and it is enough that there was a B. H. T. in E. Cheap in his time, for it is so specifically named in 1537. It was burned down in the Gt. Fire and rebuilt on the same site, and its sign carved in stone with the initials I. T. and the date 1668 is preserved in the Guildhall. A B. H. in boxwood is said to have been discovered amongst some rubbish after the Gt. Fire with the inscription on the back: "William Brooke, Landlord of the Bore's Heade, Estchepe, 1566," and was bought by Mr. Halliwell at Christie's in 1855. The tavern and the Ch. of St. Michael were both demolished in 1831. There was also a B. H. T. in Knightrider St., near the Blackfriars Theatre, but there is no need to go to it for the original of Shakespeare's inn. In Dekker's Shoemaker's iii. 1, Eyre despatches a boy to "bid the tapster of the B. H. fill me a dozen cans of beer for my journeymen." This was no doubt the E. Cheap Tavern. In News Barthol. Fair, in the list of Lond. Taverns, we find "The Bores H., near Lond. Stone"; which is the E. Cheap one; and also "The Bores H. in Old Fish St." The B. H., 157 Cannon St., preserves the name of the historic hostelry.

It is a curious coincidence that there was a B. H. in the High St. of Southwark which once belonged to Sir John Fastolfe: he gave it to the Bp. of Winchester, who bestowed it on Magdalen College, Oxford. There was another B. H. T. in Whitefriars, the site of which is indicated by B. H. Alley in Fleet St.; now a private passage.


There was a B. H. on the N. side of Whitechapel, E. of Aldgate, between Middlesex St. and Goulston St, where B. H. Yard still marks its site. It was one of the 5 inns mentioned by Howes in which plays were performed before the building of the theatres. There is record of "a lewd play called A Sackful of News "being played there on Sept. 5, 1557. In March 1602 the players of the Earls of Oxford and Worcester had the B. H. assigned to them by the Privy Council.

BOLT–IN–TUN INN

An ancient tavern in Whitefriars, with an opening into Fleet St, opposite to Bolt Court, which preserves the name. It is now a railway receiving office, some small part only of the I.-yard being left. The sign was a rebus on the name of Prior Bolton, Abbot of St. Bartholomew the Gt. The property belonged to the Carmelite Friars. Jonson, in New Inn i. 1, justifies the name of the Light Heart I. by saying, "Old Abbot Islip could not invent better, or Prior Bolton with his bolt and ton."

BOSOM'S INN
(Map N4)
(area only; site unmarked)

(a corruption of BLOSSOMS INN). A tavern on the W. side of Laurence Lane, off Cheapside, Lond., the sign of which was St. Laurence surrounded by a border of flowers or blossoms: the site is now occupied by the L. & N.E.R. Goods Office.

In Jonson's Christmas, "Now comes in Tom of B. I. and he presenteth misrule." 20 beds and stabling for 60 horses were provided at "the sign of St. Lawrence, otherwise called B. I.," for the train of the Emperor Charles V in t522. The tract called Maroccus Extaticus, about Banks and his horse Marocco, was stated on the title to be "written by John Dando, the wire-drawer of Hadley, and Harrie Runt, head ostler of Bosomes I." In Dekker's Northward ii. 2, Greenshield says of his fair companion, "I left her at B. L" In Deloney's Reading ii., the clothiers stay at B. I., which is said to be named after the host, "Old Bosome." This is not correct. The inn was destroyed in the Gt. Fire and not rebuilt. Blossom I. Yard, No. 23 Lawrence Lane, marks the site.

BOSS ALLEY
(Map R6)
(area only; site unmarked)

A lane on the S. side of Thames St., Lond, running down to the river, near Billingsgate: so called from a boss or projecting pipe of spring water, said to have been placed there by the executors of Sir Richd. Whittington. In Rowland's Good News and Bad News (1622), "The waterworks, huge Paul's, old Charing Cross, strong Lond. Bdge., at Billingsgate the Bosse," are enumerated amongst the glories of Lond. There is a play entitled The B. of Billingsgate.

BOW

(more fully STRATFORD–AT–B., q.v.). A suburb of Lond., on the Lea, 41/2 m. N.E. of St. Paul's. It was called B. from the arched bdge. over the Lea. In Oldcastle iii. 2, Acton says that his army is dispersed in sundry villages, amongst which are "some nearer Thames, Ratcliff, Blackwall, and B." In B. & F. Thomas iii. 3, the Fiddler offers to sing a number of ballads, including "The landing of the Spaniards at B. with the bloody battle of Mile-End." In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 16, the Mayor says to the rebels, "the poorest citizen Shall walk to B., a small wand in his hand, Although thou lie encamped at Mile-End-Green, And not the proudest rebel of you all Shall dare to touch him." An annual goose-fair was held there; in Middleton's Chaste Maid i. 1, the Porter says to Yellowhammer, "If I see your Worship at Goose-fair, I have a dish of birds for you."–" Why," says Yellowhammer, "dost dwell at B.?"–" All my lifetime, sir," answers the Porter, "I could ever say bo to a goose." Taylor, Works, says, "At B. the Thursday after Pentecost There is a fair of green geese, ready roast; And as herbs, flowers, and weeds together grow, So people are that day at Stratford B." (p. 110). In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Valentine says, "You can have your meetings at Islington and Green Goose Fair and sip a zealous glass of wine." In Jonson's Poetaster iii. 1, Tucca says, "Get a base violin at your back and march in a tawny coat with one sleeve to Goose-fair." In Beguiled 1426, the Nurse complains, "He made me believe he would go to Green-goose Fair." It was a convenient distance for an afternoon's outing for the Londoners. Jonson, in his Epigram 129 To Mime, says, "There's no journey set or thought upon To Brentford, Hackney, B., but thou mak'st one."

The Ch. of St. Mary in the middle of Mile End Rd. was the chapel of the Benedictine Nunnery founded by William the Conqueror. It was here that the Prioress of C. T. prol. 126 learned her French: "Frenssh she spak ful faire and fetisly After the schole of Stratford-atte-Bowe, For Frenssh of Parys was to hire unknowe." Jonson parodies the passage in New Inn ii. 2, where the Host says of Fly, "he speaks a little tainted, flyblown Latin After the school "–to which Beaufort adds: "of Stratford o' the B.; For Lillie's Latin is to him unknow." There were many bakers in B. who helped to furnish Lond. with bread. They brought it in carts and sold it in Cheapside, Cornhill, and Gracechurch St.; and the loaves being 2 oz. heavier than those made in Lond. they doubtless had a good market. Piers B. xiii. 267, tells how, as the result of the drought of 1370, "no carte come to toune with bake bred fro Stretforth." According to Stow this service of bread ceased about 1570.

BOW CHURCH
(Map M4–M5)

The Ch. of St. Mary-le-B., or St. Mary de Arcubus, in Lond.: so called from the vaulted arches on which it was built, or from the arches in the lantern on the top of the tower. It is on the S. side of Cheapside, E. of Bread St., at the corner of B. Lane, and was built in the reign of William I. The steeple was repaired in 1512 and the lantern and stone arches, which may still be seen on the seal of the ch., were added. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire of 1666, and the present ch. was erected by Sir Christopher Wren. To be born within the sound of B. Bell is the mark of the genuine Cockney. In Jonson's Epicoene ii. 1, Truewit wonders that Morose does not commit suicide when there is "such a delicate steeple in the town as B. to vault from." In T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. 275, Tim admits; "Sometimes, as soon as I have come from B. Ch., I have gone to a bawdy house." In Eastward i. 3, Girtred begs, "Take me out of this miserable city! tarry me out of the scent of Newcastle coal and the hearing of B.-bell." In v. 3, she confesses, "I would make a mouth at the city as I rid through it; and stop mine ears at B.-bell." In Randolph's Muses, iii. 1, Banausus proposes "To get a high-crowned hat with 5 low-bells To make a peal shall serve as well as B." In Penn. Parl. 23, it is provided that "B.-bell in Cheapside, if it break not, Shall be warranted by letters patent to ring well In the nursery rhyme used in the game of Oranges and Lemons one distich runs, "I'm sure I don't know, Says the Gt. Bell of B." In Shirley's Riches iii., Gettings swears, "By Cheapside-Cross and loud B.-bell." In Treasure, Haz. iii, 267, Inclination says, "The same year the weather-cock of Paul's caught the pip so that B.-bell was like much woe to sustain." In Middleton's Quiet Life i. 1, Water-Camlet says of his talkative wife, "B. Bell is a still organ to her." In W. Rowley's Shoemaker iv. 1, 205, the shoemaker says to his chattering wife, "Sfoot, will B: bell never leave ringing?" Greene, in Perimedes Blacksmith (1588), satirizes Marlowe's big words as "filling the mouth like the fa-burden of Bo-bell." The fa-burden, or Faux.bourdon, means the bass, or lowest bell, of a chime. In T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 19, Smoke bids his fellow-rebels, "Pluck out the clapper of B. Bell and hang up all the sextons in the city.

The curfew was rung on B. Bell every night at 9 this was the signal for the cessation of work. Hence the old rhyme in which the prentices complain, "Clarke of the B.-bell with the yellow locks, For thy late ringing thy head shall have knocks." To which the Clerk replies: "Children of Chepe, hold you all still; For you shall have B.-bell rung at your will." In Haughton's Englishmen iii. 3, Pisaro exclaims, "God's me! 'tis 9 o'clock; hark! B.-bell rings." B. Bell is used in the sense of a Cockney. In Eastward i. 2, Girtred contemptuously calls her sister "B-bell." In Prodigal ii. 1, Oliver says sarcastically to Sir Arthur, "Ay, and well said, cocknell and Bowbell too." The Ecclesiastical Court of Arches was so called because it sat in this ch. In Middleton's R.G. iv. 2, Greenwit, in the disguise of a Sumner, cites Gallipot "to appear in B. Ch. in answer to a libel of pre-contract."

BOW LANE
(Map N4–N5)

St. in Lond., running S. along the E. side of B. Ch. in Cheapside to the corner of Cannon St. and Q. Victoria St. It was formerly called Cordwayners St., from the shoemakers who had their shops there. Amongst the guests invited to the banquet in Middleton's Quiet Life iv. 2, are "Master Body et Uxor of B. L." In Brome's City Wit i. 1, Josina sends to "Mrs. Piccadell in B.-L. to provide me an honest, hansome, secret young man." In his Moor iii. 1, Quicksands asks, "How knew'st thou I wanted a servant!" And Phillis replies: "At an old wives house in B. L. that places servants": doubtless the aforesaid Mrs. Piccadell's Armin, in Ninnies, tells of "a poor blind woman in B.-l. called blind Alice who had this fool of a child (one John) to lead her."

BOWLING ALLEY
(Map e.g. A6)

Bowling was a favourite game in Elizabethan England. Shakespeare has many references to it. Cor. v. 3, 20 : "Sometimes, Like to a bowl upon a subtle ground I have tumbled past the throw." Cym. ii. 1, 8, Cloten tells of his bad luck: "When I kissed the jack, upon an up-cast to be hit away"; and being taken up for swearing he broke his reprover's head with his bowl-not altogether inexcusably. In Shrew iv. 5, 24, "Thus," says Petruchio, "the bowl should run, And not unluckily against the bias." In R2 iii. 4, 3, her attendant suggests to the Q. a game at bowls, but the Q. refuses; "'Twill make me think the world is full of rubs, And that my fortune runs against the bias." In L.L.L. v. 2, 587, Custard bears witness that Sir Nathaniel, the village person, "is a marvellous good neighbour, faith, and a very good bowler." And in iv. 1, 140, he suggests to Boyet to challenge Margaret to bowl ; where, by the way, the word rhymes to "owl." By Act II, H7, ii. 5, apprentices are forbidden-to play at "tenys, closshe [a kind of skittles], dice, cardes, and bowies "; and the moralists coupled together dice, tables, cards, and bowls, as evil diversions. Earle, for example, Micro. 101, says, "A Bowl-A. is the place where there are three things thrown away beside Bowls, to wit, time, money, and curses, and the last ten for one."

Gosson, in School of Abuse, p. 45 (Arber), says, "Common B. Allyes are privy moths that eat up the credit of many idle citizens." James I, however, authorized licenses to issue for 24 b. alleys in Lond. and Westminster, four in Southwark, one in St. Katharine's, one in Shoreditch, and two is Lambeth. B. Green Lane, in Clerkenwell, still preserves the memory of one of them. In Jonson's Staple iii. 2, Gossip Mirth says, "My gossip Tattle knew what matches were made in the B. A., and what bets were won and lost." In B. & F. Wit S. W. iv. 1, Gregory says to Cunningham, "I have been seeking for you i' the b. green."

BOWL YARD
(Map C3)
(area only, site unmarked)

An alley in St. Giles's, Lond., on the S. side of High St. over against Dyott St., marking the site of the "B." Tavern, where the prisoners on their way to execution at Tyburn had a drink offered to them. The Angel (q.v.) was the rival of the B. in this melancholy office. The whole of the rookery, has now been swept away. Chamberlain, writing to Carleton an account of the execution of Raleigh, says, "There was a cup of excellent sack brought him, and being asked how he liked it, "As the fellow," said he, "that, drinking of St. Giles's B. as he went to Tyburn, said, "That were good drink if a man might tarry by it.'"

BREAD ST.
(Map M4–M5)

In Lond., running S. from Cheapside to Q. Victoria St. On the E. side was the Ch. of All-hallows at the corner of Watling St., where Milton was baptized; and St. Mildred's at the corner of Cannon St. On the W. side was a Counter, which was, however, transferred in 1555 to Wood St. Milton's father was a scrivener in B. St. at the sign of the Spread Eagle, the name of which was preserved in Black Spread Eagle Court, the 1st turning on the right from Cheapside. Here the poet was born in 1608. The street got its name from the selling of bread there. The Mermaid Tavern was at the corner of Bread St. and Cheapside, with side entrances from Bread St. and Friday St. Jonson, in Famous Voyage, speaks of having dined "at B.-st.'s Mermaid." There was also a Mitre Tavern there. In Wilkins' Enforced Marriage ii., Ilford says, "I, Frank Ilford, was inforced from the Mitre in B. st. to the Compter in the Poultry." In W. Rowley's Match Mid. ii, Capt. Carvegut says, "Come. e. to the Mitre in B. St.; we'll make a mad night on't."

The site of the Star Tavern is marked by Star Court on the E. side, between Watling St. and Cheapside. In More ii. 1, Robin says to his fellow-apprentice, "When wast at Garrets school, Harry?"To which Harry replies: "Not this great while, never since I brake his usher's head, when he plaid his scholar's prize at the Starre in B.-st." In Deloney's Craft ii. 6, Harry "smeared Tom-Drum's face with his blood that he made him look like the image of Bred-ste. corner; or rather like the Sarazines Head without Newgate." Some tavern sign is intended: there was a Saracen's Head in Friday St., near Cheapside, which may be the one Deloney means. The note in Mann's edition of Deloney is quite misleading, as a reference to the passage in Stow will at once show. In Glapthorne's Wit ii. 1, Clare talks scornfully of "Nan, a grocer's daughter, born in B.-S." Dekker, in jests, speaks of "Milk st., B. St., Lime St., and S. Mary Axe "as places where city merchants had their residences. Gascoigne, in Steel Glas, p. 71 (Arber), refers to the Counters in "Wood-st, Bredstreat, and in Pultery."

BRICKHILL
(Map S2)
(area only, site unmarked–see Spitalfields)

A name given to some old brickfields in Spitalfields, near the ch. In 1576 some Roman remains were discovered there, as Stow relates. Possibly the name is a corruption of brick-kilns. They afforded a warm sleeping-place for beggars. In Armin's Moreclacke D. 1, Tutch says, "The winter nights be short And b. beds does hide our heads As Spittell fields report." Dekker, in Bellman, says, "These wild rogues (like wild geese) keep in flocks, and all the day loiter in the fields, if the weather be warm, and at Bricke-kils." In Nabbes' Totenham i. 4, Cicely, meeting Bellamie early in the morning, says, "She looks not like one that hath kept herself warm all night at the Brick-kils."

In Oldcastle v. 3, the scene of which is at St. Albans, the carrier asks the ostler after Dick Dun; and is informed, "Old Dun has been moyr'd in a slough in Brick-hill-lane": apparently a lane in, or near, St. Albans. If not that, it may mean a lane near B., which was a vill. on the North-West Road, close to Fenny Stratford, and abt. 25 m. N.W. of St. Albans.

BRIDE'S (SAINT) CHURCH
(Map J5)

(more properly ST. BRIDGET'S). Ch. on S. side of Fleet St, Lond, next door to the publishing office of Punch. In the old ch. were buried Wynkyn de Worde the printer, Lord Sackville and Lovelace, the poets, and the notorious Moll Cutpurse, the heroine of Middleton's R.G. Destroyed in the Gt. Fire and replaced by Wren. The present St. B. Avenue was opened up in 1824, the ch. having been previously shut in on all sides by houses. In Middleton's Five Gallants iv. 3, Goldstone says, "Do you ask what's o'clock?Why, the chimes are spent at St. B." In i. 1, we learn that Frippery, the broker, has customers "in the parishes of St. Clement's, St. B., St. Dunstan's, and St. Mary Maudlin's." Nash, Prognostication, speaks of "the, worshipful College of Physicians in the parish of St. B." John Milton lodged for a time in 1639 "in St. B. churchyard, Fleet St., at the house of one Russel a tailor." B. Lane and B. Court take their name from the ch.

BRIDE'S (SAINT) NUNNERY

(used humorously for BRIDEWELL, q.v..). In Brome's City Wit iii. 1, Crack says of Jeff, the Bluecoat boy, "He never sung to the wheel in St. B.'s N. yonder." Bridewell was used as a hospital for decayed tradesmen, who were allowed to take apprentices to the number of i 40. These boys wore a blue dress and white hat; but naturally the Christ's Hospital boys, the real Bluecoats, looked down upon them.

BRIDEWELL
(Map J6)

(originally ST. BRIDGET'S WELL). A palace in Lond., on W. side of the Fleet Ditch abutting on the Thames, at the point now occupied by the City of Lond. School, the Sion College Library, and the School of Music. It was built on the site of the ancient Tower of Montfitchet, but was allowed to fall into disrepair, until Wolsey occupied it in 15312 and spent some 20,000 on the building and furnishing of it. Henry VIII refitted and enlarged it in 1522 for the reception of the Emperor Charles V; and subsequently he often held his Court there. It was to B. that he summoned the members of his Council and other dignitaries to declare to them his scruples as to his marriage with Katharine of Aragon; and he and the Q. were lodged there during the trial of the case in the adjacent Hall of Blackfriars. Edward VI gave the palace to the City of Lond." to be a workhouse for the poor and idle persons of the City," and endowed it with the revenues of the Savoy. It gradually degenerated into a prison for women of bad character, and it was also used as a place of detention for men who were pressed for the army and navy. It was destroyed in the Gt. Fire of 1666, and rebuilt in the form of 2 quadrangles. It was used as a prison until 1863, when the greater part of it was pulled down. Many of the scenes in H5 are vaguely described in modern editions as "an antechamber in the palace" (i. 1); "The Council Chamber" (i. 2); "an antechamber in the Q.'s apartments" (ii. 3), etc. Some of these at least took place in the B. Palace.

Dekker gives a vivid picture of B. in Hon. Wh. B. v. 2, though he transfers it to Milan. In v. 1, Lodovico asks, "Do you know the brick-house of castigation by the river-side that runs by Milan–the school where they pronounce no letter well but O?" and in the next scene the D. inquires, "Your B.? That the name? For beauty, strength, Capacity and form of ancient building, Besides the river's neighbourhood, few houses Wherein we keep our court can better it." One of the masters informs him, "Hither from foreign courts have princes come And with our D. did acts of state commence. Here that great Cardinal had first audience, The grave Campayne; that D. dead, his son, That famous prince, gave free possession Of this his palace to the citizens To be the poor man's warehouse; and endowed it With lands to the value Of 700 marks With all the bedding and the furniture, once proper, As the lands then were, to an hospital Belonging to a D. of Savoy. Thus Fortune can toss the world: a prince's court Is thus a prison now." The rest of the scene describes the "rogues, bawds, and whores "who are confined there; the beating of hemp, which was the work of the unhappy women; the blue gowns worn by them, their floggings, and so on; and they are called by their usual name, B.-birds. In Jonson's Ev. Man I. iii. 3, Cob says, "I am a vagabond and fitter for B. than your Worship's company." In his Barthol. iv. 3, Ursula reminds Alice, "You know where you were tawed lately; both lashed and slashed you were in B." Amongst the offenders brought before the Justices in Randolph's Muses, iv. 3, is "one that has suffered B. often. In W. Rowley's Match Mid. i., Bloodhound threatens Tim with "the College of extravagants, eclipt B." In Locrine iii. 3, Strumbo thinks Margerie was "brought up in the University of B." In Middleton's Five Gallants iii. 5, Bungler says, "As for B., that will but make him worse; he will learn more knavery there in one week than will provide him and his heirs for 100 years." In Marston's Courtesan i. 2, Cocledemoy says of bawds, "They must needs both live well and die well, since most commonly they live in Clerkenwell and die in B." In Brome's City Wit ii. 1, Crack says of Mrs. Tryman, "She was born in Clearkenwell; and was never half a day's journey from B. in her life." In his Northern iii. 3, Luckless says, "If she be not mistress of her Art, let there be no bankrupt out of Ludgate nor whore out of B." In his Antipodes iii. 2, the poet produces in that land of topsey-turveydom "3 religious madrigals to be sung by the holy Vestals in B. for the conversion of our City wives and daughters." In T. Heywood's Royal King ii. 2, one of the gentlemen says of the Capt., "Send him to B. ordinary; whipping cheer is best for him." In Tarlton's News, he tells us that when you come to Purgatory "you have 40 lashes with a whip, as ill as ever were given in B." In Sharpham's Fleire iii. 321, Sparke says, "You ladies live like the beadles of B. . . . by the sins of the people." In Wilson's Inconstant iii. 4, Pantarbo says, "'Tis strange One that looks like the Master of B. Should love the game [i.e. profligacy] so." In Chaunticleers xii., Curds says, "I'll beat thee worse than the B. crew does hemp." In Killigrew's Parson iv. 1, Wanton says, "The fear of telling keeps more women honest than B. hemp." In Eastward iv. 4, when the constable brings in "2 masterless men I pressed for the Low Countries" Golding asks, "Why don't you carry them to B., according to your order, that they may be shipped away?" In Glapthorne's Hollander iii. 1, Fortress says, "Our orders are such as the most envious justice, nor their goose-quill clerks that smell at new B. and Finsbury shall not exclaim on." B. was enlarged in 1608, and again in 1620. In Deloney's Craft ii. 9, his mistress says to Will, "It were a good deed to make you a bird of B. for your sauciness."

The prison had many nicknames. In Penn. Parl. 28, we have, "Those that depend on destiny and not on God may chance look through a narrow lattice at Footmen's Inn." In Dekker's Northward iv. 1, the Capt. says to Doll, "I will sell my coach for a cart to have you to Punks Hall, Pridewell." The children of prostitutes were called B. orphans. In Killigrew's Parson i. 3, Jolly speaks of "found children, sons of bachelors, B. orphans."

BRIDEWELL DOCK
(Map J6)

A stairs on the Thames, close by the mouth of the Fleet Ditch, just at what is now the N. end of Blackfriars Bdge. Jonson's Voyage describes the voyage of Shelton and Heyden from the dock "that called is Avernus; of some, B.," up the Fleet Ditch to Holborn. In Dekker's Westward ii. 3, Justiniano proposes a meeting at the Greyhound in Blackfriars, "and then you may whip forth . . . and take boat at B.-d. most privately."

BRIDGEFOOT

The Bear at the B., a famous Lond. tavern. See under LOND. BDGE. and BEAR. In Brome's Northern i. 5, Pate says, "Where's the supper? At the B. or the Cat?"

BRIDGE HOUSE
(Map S8)

In Tooley St., just E. of the foot of Lond. Bdge.: originally used as a storehouse for stone and timber required for repairing the Bdge.; afterwards as a depository for wheat and other grains. A brew-house was added to it by Sir John Munday. In B. & F. Nightwalker v. 2, Heartlove having disappeared, Maria's mother suspects that he may be imprisoned for treason, perhaps executed: to which the Nurse replies, "Nay, they did look among the quarters too, And mustered all the B.-h. for his nightcap." I suppose this means if he had been executed for treason his quarters would be exposed on the Bdge, and his nightcap would be put in the stores at the B.-h.

BRITAIN'S BURSE
(Map P4)
(marked as "Royal Exchange")

The name given by James I to the New Exchange built on the S. side of the Strand by Earl Salisbury in 1609. For details, see under EXCHANGE and BURSE. In Glapthorne's Wit i. 1, Formal says that Clare "has been at B. b. a buying pins and needles." In iii. 1, Alderman Covet avers, "I never liked a song unless the Ballad of the famous Lond. Prentice, or the Building of B. B." Donne, in Elegy xv. (1609), discusses, "Whether the B. B. did fill apace And likely were to give the Exchange disgrace." Webster's White Devil was published by "Hugh Perry at his shop at the sign of the Harrow in B. B. 1631." Marston's Tragedies was "Printed by A. M. for William Sheares at the Harrow in B.B. 1633."

BROAD ST.
(Map P4)

Lond., now Old B. St., running from Threadneedle St. to Liverpool [ed. note: Throckmorton] St. It was one of the most fashionable sts. in the City. In it was a famous glass-house, e, run by Venetian workmen. In Mayne's s Match ii. 4, we are introduced to an ancient widow who "hath no eyes but such as she first bought in B.-st.": to wit, her spectacles. In Killigrew's Parson ii. 5, Jolly tells of an old lady "dwelling at the sign of the Buck in B.-st."

BROKEN WHARF
(Map M6)

Lond., on S. side of Upper Thames St, opposite to Old Fish St. Hill. So called because of its ruinous condition. Close by was the town-house of the Ds. of Norfolk. Here, too, was a water-house, constructed by Bulmer in 1594 to pump up water from the Thames for the supply of the City.

BROOKE'S WHARF
(Map M6)
(area only, site unmarked)

On the Thames on the S. side of Thames St., about halfway between Southwark Bdge. and St. Paul's Pier. In Westward for Smelts we have, "At this time of the year the pudding-house at B. W. is watched by the Hollanders' eel-ships, lest the inhabitants, contrary to the law, should spill the blood of innocents."

BROOMFIELDS
(Map T3)
(area only, site unmarked)

A common S.E. of Bethnall Green, where the brooms grew which were used for sweeping purposes in Lond. B. Rd., which runs just S. of the Limehouse Canal, between North St. and Chrisp St., retains the name; and Bromley is evidently Broom-Lea. In Day's B. Beggar iv., Strowd says, "I'll but cross o'er the Summer lay by the Broom field, and be with you presently." Tarlton, in News from Purgatory, tells of the broom-men who were there "for robbing of the broom closes between Barking and Lond."

BUCKLERSBURY
(Map O5)

A narrow st. in Lond., running S. from the corner of Cheapside and the Poultry to Walbrook. It was called after one Buckle, who had a manor and tenements there. Stow says, "It is possessed of grocers and apothecaries towards the W. end thereof." They sold not only herbs and drugs, but also tobacco and sweetmeats of various kinds. In M.W.W. iii. 3,79, Falstaff says to Mrs. Ford, "I cannot cog and say thou art this and that, like a many of these lisping hawthornbuds, that come like women in men's apparel, and smell like B. in simple time." Mouffet says that the smell of the spices in B. saved the inhabitants from the Plague. In Westward i. 2, Alm. Tenterhook says, "Go into B. and fetch me a ounces of preserved melons; look there be no tobacco taken [i.e. smoked] in the shop when he weighs it." Dekker, in Seven Sins, says that candlelight is more deadly to rats "than all the ratsbane in B." In his Wonderful Year (1603), he says that on account of the Plague "every st. looked like B. for poor Methridatum and Dragon Water were bought in every corner." In his Westward iii. 3, 140, Wafer bids her boy "Run into B. for a ounces of Dragon Water, some spermaceti, and treacle ": her child having been taken ill. Jonson, in Barthol. i. 1, speaks of "the black boy in B. that takes the scurvy, roguy tobacco there." In Middleton's Chaste Maid iii. 2, Allwit, complaining of the extravagant love of women for sweetmeats, says that all his estate "is buried in B." Jonson, in Epigrams iii., advises his publisher, if his book will not sell without puffing, to "send it to B., there 'twill well," i.e. it will serve to wrap tobacco and sweetmeats in. In Alexander Gill's Lines upon Ben Jonson's Magnetic Lady, he says of the play, "From B. let it not be barred, But think not of Duck Lane or Paul's Churchyard," i.e. it is good enough to wrap drugs in, but not worthy of a respectable publisher. In Haughton's Englishmen iii. 2, Vandal the Dutchman has his lodging in B. In Cowley's Cutter [ed. note The Guardian] ii. 8, Widow Barebottle relates that her late husband sought for incomes" in B., and 3 days after a friend of his, that he owed 500 to, was hanged for a malignant." Sir Thomas More lived for a time in this street.

BUDGE ROW
(Map O5)

A st. in Lond., running N. from Cannon [ed. note: Candlewick] St. to Watling St. It was so called from the furriers who occupied it: b. meaning lambskin dressed with the fur outwards, as in some university hoods. An Act of 1365 directs that all pelterers (i.e. furriers) "shall dwell in Walebrooke, Cornehulle, and Bogerow." In Jonson's Barthol. i. 1, Littlewit compliments his wife on her cap, which is not, as the good Puritan lady would have had it but for her husband, "a rough country beaver with a copper band, like the coney-skin woman of B.-i."

BULL [1]

See RED BULL.

BULL [2]

The sign of a tavern in Lond., on the W. side of Bishopsgate St. Within, a little N. of Threadneedle St. It was one of 5 inns in which plays were performed before the building of theatres; and both Burbage and Tarlton were players there. In Tarlton's jests (1611), it is said: "At the B. in Bishops-gate-st., where the Queen's players oftentimes played, Tarlton coming on the stage, one from the gallery threw a pippin at him." Tarlton got a licence in Nov. 1583 to play "at the sign of the B. in Bishopsgate St." Gosson, in School of Abuse (1579), p. 40, speaks of "The Jew and Ptolome shown at the B."; the former of which he describes as "representing the greediness of worldly chusers and bloody minds of usurers." It was probably an earlier treatment of the subject of Merch. The inn has another literary interest from its connection with Hobson, the Cambridge carrier, whose epitaph Milton wrote, and whose name lives in the phrase "Hobson's choice," and in Hobson St. and Hobson's Conduit in Cambridge. The B. was his Lond. house. of call; as Milton says in the Epitaph, "He had any time this 10 years full Dodged with him [i.e. Death] betwixt Cambridge and the B." According to the Spectator, No. 509, "This memorable man stands drawn in fresco at an inn which he used in Bishopsgate St., with an hundred pound bag under his arm, with this inscription upon the said bag: The fruitful mother of a hundred more." In Middleton's Chaste Maid i. 1, a message is brought from Cambridge by "one of Hobson's porters," who says, as he enters, "I have took a great deal of pains and come from the B. sweating." The Mermaid Edn. reads "Bell "–an obvious misprint or mistake. In Yarrington's Two Trag. i. 3, Beech, the chandler of Thames St., says to his boy, as he goes out, "If any ask, come for me to the B." Taylor, in Carriers Cosmographie (1637), mentions "the B. in Bishopsgate St." as the lodging of the carrier of Hadham, in Herts.

BULL AND MOUTH

See MOUTH.

BULL HEAD
(Map M5)
(area only; site unmarked)

An inn in Cheapside, Lond., now the Bull's Head, 3 Bread St., off Cheapside. General Monk stayed here when he came to Load. in 1660; and it was the first meeting-place of the Royal Society. In the list of Lond. Taverns in News Barthol. Fair, we have "The Miter in Cheape, and then the B. H, And many like places that make noses red." There was another B. H. in Smithfield, near the Bars; which is mentioned in Long Meg xvii.

BULL'S HEAD

The sign of John Haviland's bookshop in Paul's churchyard (1625).

BUNHILL
(Map N1)

(or BUNHILL ROW). A st. in Lond, on the W. side of the Artillery Ground, near Moorfields. It had houses on the W. side only, the E. being occupied by B. Fields, now a cemetery, and the Artillery Ground. The name, originally Bone-hill, was derived from the depositing there of more than 1000 cartloads of bones brought from the charnel house of St. Paul's in 1549. The fields were used for archery practice, and were a common resort of the young Londoners. The neighbourhood had a somewhat unsavoury reputation. In Middleton's R.G. iv. 2, Mrs. Openwork asks, "Didst never see an archer as thou'st walked by B. look asquint when he drew his bow?" In More ii. 1, Harry says to his fellow-prentice, "Hoh, Robin, you met us well at B., to have you with us a Maying this morning." In Underwit iv. 3, Courtwell, scornfully speaking of a lady's breasts, says, "B. is worth a hundred on 'em, and but Higate, compared with 'em, is Paradice." Dekker, in preface to Satiro., says, "All Mt. Helicon to B., it would be found on the Poetaster's side, Se defendendo." In B. & F. Friends i. 2, Blacksnout says he got a wound in his groin "at the siege of Bunnil, passing the straights between Mayor's Lane and Terra del Fuego, the fiery isle." He doubtless refers to some adventure in one of the houses of ill-fame in, or near, B. See also under MAYOR'S LANE.

BURCHIN LANE

See BIRCHIN LANE.

BURLEIGH HOUSE
(Map L6)

A mansion in Lond., on the N. side of the Strand, between Wellington St. and Southampton St, built by Lord B. in the reign of Elizabeth. His son, the Earl of Exeter, changed the name to Exeter House. After the Gt. Fire it was occupied by various courts; and then it was turned into shops, the upper part being used as a menagerie. Later still Exeter Hall was built on the site. One of Tarlton's,Jests was this: "Tarlton called Burley-H. Gate in the Strand towards the Savoy the Lord-Treasurer's Almes-Gate, because it was seldom or never opened."

BURSE
(Map P4)
(marked as "Royal Exchange")

The original name given to the Royal Exchange, Lond., built by Sir T. Gresham in 1567. The name was borrowed from the continental Burses, the one at Antwerp being Sir Thomas's model. When Q. Elizabeth visited it in 1570 she caused a Herald to proclaim it "The Royal Exchange," so to be called from henceforth and not otherwise. The old name continued, however, in popular use. In Fair Women i. 519, Sanders says, "I'll be upon the B."; and in ii. 280, Roger deposes that Sanders went first to Cornhill, and "Thence he went directly to the B." In Haughton's Englishmen ii. 1, Pisaro invites the merchants home with him, "our business done here at the B." In Middleton's R.G. iv. 2, Moll sings, "She says she went to the B. for patterns." In his Microcynicon iii., the maid "flies to the B. for a match or two," i.e. for a pattern to match another. In his Black Book (1604), p. 28, the Devil says, "Being upon Exchange time, I crowded myself among merchants, poisoned all the B. in a minute." In Brome's Northern iv. 1, Squelch says to Humphrey, "Now wait your lady to the B.; she has some trifles to buy there." Dekker, in jests, says that the citizens' wives are accustomed "to eat their breakfasts in their beds, and not to be ready till half an hour after noon, about which time their husbands are to return from the B." Hall, in Satires vi. 1, 53, speaks of "the new-come traveller . . . Trampling the bourse's marble twice a day "in order to tell his traveller's tales. After the building of the New Exchange in the Strand by the Earl of Salisbury in 1609 the Old Exchange was distinguished as "Gresham's B.," the New being called by the K.'s order, "Britain's B." In Middleton's Chaste Maid i. 2, Allwit complains that his wife lies in "as if she lay in with all the gaudy-shops in Gresham's B. about her." In Glapthorne's Wit i. we read, "She has been in Britain's b. a buying pins and needles." The story of the building of Gresham's B. is told in T. Heywood's I.K.M. B. See also EXCHANGE.

BUSH

A generic name for a tavern, because of the b. which was hung out over the door. I cannot find any particular tavern in Lond. called the B.; but there was a B.-Lane close by the Stillyard, which may be the place intended. In B. & F. Prize iii. 4, Jaques says of the parson, "20 to 1 you find him at the B."

BUSH–LANE
(Map P6)

Lond., running from Upper Thames St. to Cannon [ed. note: Candlewick] St., near the Stillyard. Lenton in Characterismi (1631) 9, says, "Now they may go look this B-l. needle in a bottle of hay."

BUTTOLPH'S (SAINT)

St. Botolf's or Botolph's. He was the 7th cent. saint of Boston, and its parish ch. is dedicated to him. 4 churches in Lond. bore his name, namely,
  • St. B.'s Aldgate, on N. side of Aldgate High St.; (Map T4) ;
  • St. B.'s Without, in Aldersgate St., at the corner of Little Britain (it escaped the Gt. Fire and was rebuilt in 1790) (Map L3) ;
  • St. B.'s Billingsgate, in B. Lane, off Lower Thames St. (Map Q6) ;
  • and St. B.'s Without, at the corner of Bishopsgate St. Without and Alderman's Walk, on the banks of the City Ditch (Map Q3) . Here are buried Sir Peter Pindar and Stephen Gosson; and here Edward Alleyn, the actor, was baptized. This is the ch. referred to in T. Heywood's Ed. IV A. 19, where Spicing bids Smoke, "Get thee up on the top of S. B.'s steeple, and make a proclamation." The rebels were encamped close by Bishopsgate.