Ben Jonson

CATILINE HIS CONSPIRACY

1611

a synoptic, alphabetical character list

ALLOBROGES

Allobroges are the ambassadors of the northern nation of the Allobroges. According to Lentulus, the Allobroges are a neighboring warrior nation, dissatisfied with the heavy tribute imposed by Rome, and who have made many complaints about this situation. The conspirators intend to align the Allobroges to their cause and expect to meet their ambassadors at Sempronia's house. It is understood that Allobroges have addressed their patron, the senator Fabius Sanga, who reports to Cicero that the conspirators intend to use them against Rome. When Cicero hears that Allobroges are outside his office, he invites them in. Informing Allobroges that the Senate has decreed to send an army against Catiline, Cicero implies that whoever sides with the conspirators is an enemy of Rome. Concurrently, Cicero alludes to certain advantages directed towards Allobroges, should they accept his design. Allobroges respond that they have nothing to hide and, although the conspirators had contacted them, their allegiance lies with Rome and the Senate. Cicero explains them the plan. Allobroges are supposed to attend the meeting with the conspirators, pretending to accept their proposal, but they should demand letters from them, apparently needed to convince their senate. According to Cicero, Allobroges are to be intercepted by his men, so he will be able to lay his hands on material proof of the confederates' treason. Allobroges accept the plan and exeunt to put it into practice. At Sempronia's house, Allobroges require to speak with Lentulus in private. It emerges from Lentulus that they have asked for letters for their senate, which are given to them, together with a message for Catiline, whom they are supposed to see on their way. At the Milvian Bridge, the praetors intercept Allobroges, who surrender easily and are taken to Rome. Allobroges testify against the conspirators before the Roman Senate and are granted an exemption from their debt and a reward from the public treasure.

ANTONIUS

Caius Antonius is a consul of republican Rome, together with Cicero, but Catiline considers him his ally. In his address to the conspirators, Catiline lists his allies and possible enemies, saying he hoped to have Caius Antonius as a colleague. In the Senate, Antonius enters with the other senators. He has just been elected consul, together with Cicero. However, Cicero delivers his address of gratitude, while Antonius is strangely silent. When Crassus addresses him directly, telling him he looks neglected, Antonius responds he does not care. Having been privy to Catiline's plot, Antonius wants to keep a low profile, now that the things have turned out differently than he had expected. When Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy in the Senate, Caesar wants to know Antonius's position. Since Cicero had bribed him by naming him the governor of a province, Antonius responds he does not know anything and retires from the debate. In private, Antonius admits that Cicero has bought him with a province. When the Senate decides to send an army against the self-exiled Catiline, Antonius refuses to become involved in the conflict, pretending to be suffering from gout. However, since he cannot refuse Cicero, Antonius sends his lieutenant, Petreius, as a general of the senatorial army. Because he wants to keep aloof, Antonius has no further direct role in the conspirators' arrest and punishment.

ATLAS

Only mentioned. In Greek mythology, Atlas was one of the Titans who rebelled against Zeus. As punishment, he had to bear the weight of the world on his shoulders. When he discloses his plans of becoming a consul, Catiline addresses Rome as the symbol of world power and corruption. In his self-aggrandizing fantasy, Catiline sees himself as an equal to the greatness of Rome, able to sustain her name in the same way as Atlas sustains the Heavens. The parallel between Catiline and Atlas is suggestive, because, like the titan Atlas, Catiline rebelled against a greater power.

AUGURERS

The auguries or soothsayers of the temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill are "ghost characters." When Catiline discloses to Aurelia his ambitious dream of becoming a consul, he says he needs to enroll dissatisfied generals and patricians in his conspiracy. Among others, Catiline mentions Lentulus, who is descended from the Cornelius family. According to Catiline, Lentulus had hopes of magnificence because the Sibylline Books said that a third man of the Cornelius family would become king in Rome. Catiline admits to having paid the flattering Augurers to interpret that the prophecy meant Lentulus. The report alludes to the corruption in the last days of republican Rome, when even the high priests could be bought.

AURELIA

Aurelia Orestilla is Catiline's wife. Aurelia enters Catiline's study and he kisses her, admitting he had neglected her too long, but he would make amends for it. From Catiline's discourse, it emerges that he had removed a wife and a son in order to marry Aurelia, whom he wants to raise to the most elevated status in the republic. Catiline confides in his wife, telling her his plans to present his candidature for a consulship. Catiline counsels Aurelia to enlist the wives of important men to their cause, and also to play the perfect hostess and be discreet. Although Aurelia does not interact too much in this one-sided conversation, it is understood that she tacitly goes along with Catiline's plans. When the conspirators enter, Aurelia retires. Aurelia has recruited extravagant and dissatisfied patrician women, such as Sempronia, always hungry for more money and sexual gratification. At Catiline's house, Aurelia enters to inform her husband that the confederate ladies are gathered in her quarters for the separate women's assembly. Catiline instructs Aurelia to tell the ladies to use their husbands' finances and manpower for the next step in Catiline's plot, which is that of setting fire to the city. Aurelia is advised to promise the ladies richer and better sexually performing husbands, all the lovers in the world, and power over states and empires. Aurelia exits to fulfill Catiline's instructions. After their respective meetings, both men and women conspirators convene in the early hours of the morning to take their leave and make a final statement of confidence. Eventually, when the conspirators are sentenced to death, it is understood that the women, including Aurelia, are not punished.

AUTRONIUS

Publius Autronius is a member of Catiline's conspiracy and a "mute character." According to Catiline, Autronius is ambitious and is among those to whom Catiline has promised the governorship of rich Roman provinces. At Catiline's house, Autronius enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot was exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. Eventually, when the confederates are sentenced to death, it is understood that Autronius shares the conspirators' punishment.

BAWD

Lentulus's mistress is a "ghost character." After the conspirators have been exposed in the Roman Senate, being placed under private custody, the praetors' report comes that they continued the seditious actions subversively. According to Pomtinius, Lentulus's Bawd has been visiting the shops in every street, paying people to raise in arms against the consuls.

BESTIA

Lucius Bestia is a tribune and an ally to Catiline. According to Catiline, Bestia is ambitious and therefore he is among those to whom Catiline has promised a rich province, should he become consul. At Catiline's house, Bestia enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot was exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. After Cicero has exposed the incendiary plot in the Senate and Catiline has been exiled, the conspirators plan to go along with their plot. Volturtius is supposed to accompany the Allobroges with a message from the party in Rome, informing Catiline that Lucius Bestia is expected to deliver a speech in the Senate, blaming the war on Cicero's ambition. Bestia's address will be taken as a signal for the beginning of the hostilities. It is not clear what happens to Bestia when the conspirators are apprehended and punished. It is understood that he shares their fate.

BOY

The slave Boy who acts as a messenger between Catiline and the Priest is a "mute character." At his house, before his inflaming address to the conspirators, Catiline sends a boy slave with a message to the priest. Catiline's orders to the priest are to kill the slave he had marked a night before, as prearranged, collect his blood, and give it to the messenger. According to Catiline's instruction, Boy is expected to wait outside Catiline's study with the bowl of fresh blood until he is summoned in. It is inferred that the priest fulfills Catiline's instructions because, after his address to the conspirators, Catiline invites them to partake of the blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. While all the conspirators drink human blood and swear allegiance to the cause, Catiline observes that Boy does not perform the bloody ritual. Catiline admonishes him, menacing that he will strike the slave with his foot if he dares show such a face again. It is inferred that Boy was sad because he saw how the conspirators were drinking the blood of his fellow slave, probably his friend, and he feared that he might have a similar fate.

CAESAR

Caius Julius Caesar is a politician in the last days of the Roman republic. In the Roman Senate, Caesar enters with the other senators. Following the election of Cicero and Caius Antonius as consuls, Cicero delivers his speech of gratitude. It seems that Caesar resents Cicero's self-commendatory remarks, and insinuates that he would not put it past Cicero's ambition to have invented rumors of conspiracy in order to pose as a savior. Caesar keeps secret connections with Catiline, assuring him of his and Crassus's support, and prompting him to go along with the plot. In the Senate, just before Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy, Caesar wants to know the allegations. On seeing that most senators do not support Catiline, Caesar also keeps a low profile. In his turn, Cicero does not indict Caesar and Crassus together with Catiline because, he says, they are powerful and popular men and it is dangerous to stir too many serpents at once. Before the final confrontation between the Senate's army and Catiline's troupes, Caesar and Crassus discuss the situation. Seeing that Catiline's boat is sinking, Caesar and Crassus desert Catiline. After the depositions against the conspirators in the Senate, the Consul rules that Statilius should be placed in Caesar's private custody. When the Senate is summoned urgently to decide on the conspirators' punishment, Caesar makes an eloquent plea for moderation, opposing a vindictive and ruthless majority in the senate. However, the conspirators are sentenced to death, but Caesar and Crassus are not involved in the plot.

CAPTAINS

All the Captains of Sylla's troupes that have been laid off after the wars are likely to join Catiline's conspiracy. They are "ghost characters." When Catiline discusses the necessity of enrolling Roman generals to his cause, he mentions the veteran Captains of Sylla's army, who have ample reason to be dissatisfied with times of peace. Since they are oppressed by material needs after Sylla's army has been disbanded, Catiline believes they would gladly join his conspiracy.

CASTOR

Castor is Fulvia's servant. At Fulvia's house, Castor attends the conversation between Fulvia and Galla, in which the maid is telling Fulvia about her dream of Sempronia, and then he announces Sempronia. Hearing that Sempronia is outside, Galla seems amazed, reminding Castor about her dream. Castor replies that, apparently, Sempronia is coming to see Fulvia, implying that Galla's dream might have been of consequence in the development of the relationship between the two Roman matrons. However, Castor has an argument with Galla, and he even assaults her at some point, because Fulvia intervenes, saying that the fool is wild. After introducing Sempronia, Castor exits.

CATILINE

Lucius Sergius Catilina is a Roman politician and conspirator in the last days of the Roman republic. In 63 BC, Catiline set up a conspiracy to be elected consul but was defeated. In his study in Rome, Catiline ponders on his intended scheme, inspired by the evil apparition of Sylla's Ghost. Aurelia enters and Catiline tells her his ambitious dream, instructing her to enroll the dissatisfied Roman matrons to his cause. When the conspirators enter, Catiline delivers his address and they seal the pact by drinking human blood. After Cicero has been elected consul, however, Catiline pretends to congratulate his rival in the Senate, but he meets later with the conspirators to discuss plans for retaliation. At his home, Catiline discusses secretly with Caesar, who tells him that he and Crassus are on his side, and he should go along with his plot. When the conspirators enter, Catiline presents the plan of setting fire to the city and attributes specific tasks to each member. In the Senate, Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy, but Catiline denies the allegations. However, he says he will go to banishment to clear all suspicions against him. When he meets the conspirators later, Catiline tells them to go along with their plan, despite his self-banishment, while he is raising an army abroad. After the conspirators have been arrested and tried in the Senate, the exiled Catiline delivers his final address to the army, inciting them to fight to the death. Later, Pomtinius reports to the Senate that Catiline resisted the assault till he died.

CATO

Marcus Porcius Cato, or Cato the Younger, is a Roman legislator and philosopher, great-grandson of Cato the Elder. As a senator in republican Rome, he was a violent opponent of Caesar and, outdoing Cicero in vituperation of Catiline's conspiracy in 63 BC, Cato tried to implicate Caesar in the plot, although maintaining his fairness to all. In the Roman Senate, Cato enters with the other senators. Following the election of Cicero and Caius Antonius as consuls, Cicero delivers a speech of thankfulness. From Cato's remarks addressed to Caesar, it is evident that the two men are in conflict. When Catiline pretends to congratulate Cicero, Cato expresses his distrust and tells Catiline he should expect the gods' judgment for his despicable actions. At Cicero's house, Cicero tells his brother to summon a number of senators and tribunes he could trust, among whom he mentions Cato. When Cornelius and Vargunteius try to gain access into Cicero's house under the guise of friends, but with the purpose of murdering him, Cato is in the group of Cicero's honest friends and clients who witness the scene. When the conspirators flee, and the remaining senators advise Cicero to follow the assassins and bring them to justice, Cato is very vocal in counseling Cicero to go after the murderers. In the Senate, just before Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy, Cato says he will not stay beside Catiline. When the conspirators are tried in the Senate, Cato tries to implicate Caesar in Catiline's conspiracy, but with no success. However, his speech against the conspirators is influential in the Senate's pronouncing the death sentence.

CATULUS

Quintus Catulus is a senator in republican Rome. He is trustworthy but rather gullible and judges people at face value. In the Roman Senate, Catulus enters with the senators. Following the election of Cicero and Caius Antonius as consuls, Cicero delivers a speech of gratitude. While Caesar is displeased with Cato's support of Cicero, Catulus remarks that, if all reports were true, the times needed an eager spirit to watch over Rome. Catulus makes vague and generalizing comments regarding the state of the nation, such as when he says that those states that are forced to buy their rulers' fame with their own infamy are in a miserable situation. When Catiline pretends to congratulate Cicero on his election, the na´ve Catulus remarks that Catiline has been wrongly judged. At Cicero's house, Cicero tells his brother to summon a number of senators and tribunes he could trust, among whom he mentions Catulus. When Cornelius and Vargunteius try to gain access into Cicero's house under the guise of friends, but with the purpose of murdering him, Catulus is in the group of Cicero's honest friends and clients who witness the scene. When the conspirators flee, and the remaining senators advise Cicero to follow the assassins and bring them to justice, Catulus says that, if the allegations for murder are proved, the consul should let the commonwealth punish the conspirators. In the Senate, before Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy to murder, Catulus says that, like Cato, he will not stand beside Catiline. Catulus is used as a trustworthy witness, but does not get implicated in the events.

CENTAURS

Only mentioned. In Greek mythology, Centaurs were horse-like creatures, half-human half-horse. They were renowned for their sexual prowess. When Fulvia and Sempronia discuss their lovers, Fulvia suggests that they might exchange favorites. Fulvia implies she is tired of Quintus Curius, and Sempronia could have him, adding that the world is full of sexually rewarding men. In fact, Fulvia is dissatisfied because Curius is broke and he cannot pay for her extravagant tastes. In exchange, Fulvia alludes to Sempronia's former beau, Caius Caesar, saying that these lords who used to be Sempronia's lovers are so passionate that they leap a lady at first sight, like Centaurs. Since it is known that Caesar had sent Fulvia a pearl as a gift, probably in exchange for sexual favors, it is inferred that Fulvia refers to Caesar's sexual potency, which she esteems to be like the Centaurs'.

CEPARIUS

Ceparius is a member of Catiline's conspiracy. At Catiline's house, Ceparius enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot was exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. Ceparius's role is to set fire to the city at a prearranged place. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. When the conspirators are arrested and tried in the Senate, it is understood that Ceparius shares their punishment.

CETHEGUS

Caius Cethegus is a Roman general and a member of Catiline's conspiracy. At Catiline's house, Cethegus enters with the other conspirators, expressing his regret for the violent days of Sylla's dictatorship, when murder was the order of the day. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot has been exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. The incendiary materials are to be deposited at Cethegus's house. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. After Cicero accused Catiline of conspiracy in the Senate, the confederates have another secret meeting, in which they decide to go along with the plot while Catiline is gone to exile. When evidence against the conspirators has been obtained Cethegus and his confederates are brought to trial before the Senate. When Cicero accuses Cethegus that his house contained an entire armory, Cethegus denies having any connection with the plot. When he is confronted with the incriminating letters intercepted from Allobroges, Cethegus says he did not know what he wrote. The Senate's resolution places Cethegus in Cornificius's private custody. When it is reported that the conspirators continued the seditious actions, the Senate decides the death penalty and Cethegus is executed.

CHARON

Only mentioned. In Greek mythology, Charon was the boatman who rowed the dead souls to Hades over the river Styx. When he shows regret for the violent days of Sylla's dictatorship, when hatred and brotherly murder were the order of the day, Cethegus says that Charon had so much work to do in crossing the dead over to the underworld that he fainted of fatigue. In addition, Cethegus says, Charon should have asked for a navy rather than a single boat to ferry over the large quantity of dead souls.

CHORUS

Chorus comments on the decayed political situation in the last days of republican Rome. After Catiline's address to the conspirators, Chorus describes the increased power of Rome and the corruption at all levels of government and society. Chorus concludes that Rome's conquest of Asia has turned against the Romans, since all the vices of the East have overwhelmed the ancient Roman virtue. In another intervention, Chorus invokes Rome's great fathers, Jove and Mars, to see the city's corrupted state. According to Chorus, the consuls deserted virtue and modesty, replacing it with lechery, lust for power, and bribes. Chorus enumerates the great Roman families that gave their lives for the honor of Rome, maintaining that the men descended from these families were true magistrates, who worked for Rome's good, and were not corruptible. After the conspirators' failed attempt at murdering Cicero, Chorus has another intervention. Chorus deplores the corrupted state of republican Rome, concluding that guilty states must suffer the misfortunes they deserve. Chorus forebodes imminent punishment for Rome's faults and crimes. Before the final confrontation between the Senate's army and Catiline's troupes, Chorus deplores the ambivalence of ethical principles and the decayed state of morality in the republic. Chorus draws the attention on the duplicity of the political game and the relativity of opinion. Describing the opposite views belonging to Cicero's or Catiline's parties, Chorus wonders when the Senate was right: when they thought that Cicero had accused Catiline unjustly of conspiracy, or when they decided to send an army against Catiline. Finally, Chorus deplores the ethical situation in an age when the values are distorted, when diligence is called deceit, and virtue vice. Chorus wishes they could pluck the evil spirit from Rome's body and calls for the times when every noble deed is called by the name it merits.

CICERO

Marcus Tullius Cicero is a consul in republican Rome. He is a forceful speaker whose eloquence has raised him to the highest office in the Roman republic, the consulship. Cicero enters the Roman Senate with the other senators, delivering his address of gratitude for having been elected consul, despite his humble origin. It is inferred that word had transpired about Catiline's plot to become consul, and the citizens elected Marcus Antonius and Cicero instead of Catiline. At Fulvia's house, Cicero persuades Fulvia and Curius to spy for him in Catiline's party. Concurrently, Cicero sends his brother for Caius Antonius, whom he wants to bribe with a rich province in order to prevent him from siding with Catiline. At his house, Cicero enters with Fulvia and his brother. Fulvia has warned him about Catiline's plot of assassination, and Cicero sends for his trusted friends and clients to act as witnesses for him. Cicero confronts the conspirators sent to murder him with their guilt in front of witnesses, inviting them to repent, but the attempting murderers steal away. In the Senate, Cicero addresses his discourse against Catiline, indicting him for the conspiracy. Since Catiline denies the allegations and goes to exile, Cicero sets out to obtain material proof against the conspirators. Having been informed that Catiline's allies intended to enroll Allobroges in their party, Cicero instructs the ambassadors to request letters explaining their designs. The praetors intercept the incriminating letters and thus Cicero is able to bring proof of the conspiracy before the Senate. Since the conspirators deny all evidence, they are placed in private custody. When reports come that the conspirators continued their seditious actions, Cicero summons the Senate urgently and the death sentence is pronounced. Cicero is awarded the Civic Garland for services rendered to the nation. Cicero has the final oration in the Senate, thanking the gods for having given him the opportunity to save Rome.

CINNA

Only mentioned. Lucius Cornelius Cinna was a Roman patrician and consul of the republic between 87-84 BC. He was a principal supporter of Marius against Sylla. When Sylla was at war in Africa, Cinna and Marius declared themselves consuls, and a great slaughter of Sylla's followers took place. After Marius's death, Sylla remained consul. When Sylla set out for Rome, Cinna raised an army to oppose him, but before the civil war began, Cinna was murdered in a mutiny. His daughter, Cornelia, was the first wife of Julius Caesar. When Catiline discloses to Aurelia his plan of becoming consul, he admits the necessity of enrolling dissatisfied Roman generals and patricians to his cause. Among others, Catiline mentions Lentulus, who descended from the Cornelius family. According to the prophecy in the Sibylline Books, a third man from his family shall be king in Rome. Catiline admits to having paid the Augurers to interpret this prophecy as meaning Lentulus, since the other two Cornelii, Cinna and Sylla are dead. The relativity of such an interpretation is obvious.

CORNELIUS

Caius Cornelius is a Roman knight of the equestrian order and a member of Catiline's conspiracy, who offered his services to Catiline in the hope of material gain. At Catiline's house, Cornelius enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot was exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. Before Cicero's house, Cornelius and Vargunteius require to be admitted, apparently as the consul's friends, but actually intending to assassinate Cicero. When they are denied entrance in front of witnesses, the conspirators pretend to be angry, but they steal away furtively when Cicero addresses them from above, inviting them to repent. Cornelius and Vargunteius intend to deny everything if accused. When they are indicted in the Senate, the conspirators deny the allegations. It is understood that Cornelius is brought to trial with the other conspirators and shares their punishment.

CORNIFICIUS

Quintus Cornificius is a Roman senator and a "ghost character." According to Sempronia, Catiline's initial plan of becoming consul included the arrangement of having some of the eligible senators withdraw from the competition, thus leaving Catiline and Caius Antonius the only candidates. It seems that Cornificius, like other senators, was privy to Catiline's plans, but did not get involved in the conspiracy. When Catiline's plot is disclosed in the Roman Senate, the consul rules that the conspirators should be placed in private custody. Cornificius is charged with supervising Cethegus.

CRASSUS

Marcus Licinius Crassus is a Roman general and politician. Some people believed that Crassus was acquainted with Catiline's conspiracy because he hated Pompey and was for anyone who should rise against Pompey's increasing influence. Crassus enters the Roman Senate with the others senators and hears Cicero's address of gratitude for having been elected consul. Crassus doubts Cicero's honesty and alludes to Caesar that he would secretly support Catiline's plot. At Cicero's house, Cicero tells his brother to summon a number of senators and tribunes he could trust, among whom he mentions Crassus. When Cornelius and Vargunteius try to gain access into Cicero's house under the guise of friends, but with the purpose of murdering him, Crassus is in the group of Cicero's friends and clients who witness the scene. When the conspirators flee and the remaining senators advise Cicero to follow the assassins and bring them to justice, Crassus is silent and prefers to observe the events. After Cicero has accused Catiline of conspiracy in the Senate, he mentions to his friends that he will not implicate Caesar and Crassus because they are powerful men and it is dangerous to stir too many serpents at once. Before the final confrontation between the Senate's army and Catiline's troupes, Crassus and Caesar discuss the situation. Seeing that Catiline's boat is sinking, Crassus and Caesar desert Catiline. After the depositions against the conspirators in the Senate, the Consul rules that Gabinius should be placed in Crassus's private custody. Though a report comes that a witness implicates Crassus in the conspiracy, Cicero pretends not to believe it, and Crassus is called noble, just, and loyal.

CURIUS

Quintus Curius is a former senator in republican Rome, a member of Catiline's conspiracy, who later betrays him to Fulvia and acts as a spy for Cicero. At Catiline's house, Autronius enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. At Fulvia's house, Curius is trying to regain his mistress's favors, despite the fact that he is broke and can no longer entertain her extravagant tastes. While at first Fulvia spurns him, she later accepts his attentions in order to find out about Catiline's conspiracy. It is inferred that Curius discloses the plot to Fulvia in bed, and Fulvia transmits it to Cicero. At Fulvia's house, Curius enters after Fulvia has had a discussion with Cicero. Both Cicero and Fulvia try to win Curius for their party, and they succeed. Curius accepts to play the spy in Catiline's party. After the plot has been exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, the separate meetings of the women and men conspirators convene, but Fulvia pretends she is tired and wants to retire. Curius whispers to her to convey the message to Cicero that he should be on his guard, because Cornelius and Vargunteius are charged specifically to kill him. After Cicero has accused Catiline of conspiracy in the Senate, based on the information obtained from Curius via Fulvia, Curius attends the conspirators' meeting, in which the decision is taken to go along with the plan while Catiline is in exile. Curius learns of a secret conference with Allobroges at Sempronia's house and informs Cicero. Eventually, Curius is rewarded discreetly for his services in divulging the conspiracy.

CYCLOPS

Only mentioned. In Greek mythology, Cyclops is a monstrous giant with a single eye in the middle of its forehead. Cyclopes are also credited with building ancient walled cities such as Tirnys in Greece. When Catiline discloses to Aurelia his plan of becoming consul, he admits to the necessity of enrolling dissatisfied Roman generals and patricians to his cause. Among others, Catiline mentions bold Cethegus, whose valor he has turned into poison. According to Catiline, he manipulated Cethegus into performing extremely daring actions, so that Cethegus would be prepared to go up to the gods, kiss Jupiter's' lightning, and wrest the engine from the Cyclops. Since the Cyclops was a powerful creature laboring in underground Tartarus, confronting him was considered an act of extreme bravery.

DANAE

Only mentioned. In Greek mythology, Danae was seduced by Jupiter, who came to her in the form of a golden shower. When Fulvia and Sempronia discuss their lovers, Fulvia suggests that they might exchange favorites. Fulvia implies she is tired of Quintus Curius, and Sempronia could have him, adding that the world is full of sexually rewarding men. In fact, Fulvia is dissatisfied because Curius is broke and he cannot pay for her extravagant tastes. Since it is known that Caesar had sent Fulvia a pearl as a gift, probably in exchange for sexual favors, it is inferred that Fulvia refers to Caesar, Sempronia's former lover, who now has turned to Fulvia, lavishing her with rich gifts. Showing her preference for a rich lover, Fulvia adds that she is not impressed with mere sexual prowess, and she would not be taken with a swan or a bull, like the foolish Leda or Europa. Only for the price of bright gold, like Danae, would she endure a rough and harsh Jupiter. Fulvia implies that she prefers material wealth beside sexual potency.

DECIUS BRUTUS

Decius Brutus is a Roman patrician and Sempronia's husband. He is a "ghost character." While he is away from Rome, his wife sides with Catiline's conspiracy and uses his house as a clandestine meeting place between the conspirators and Allobroges. At Decius Brutus's house, Allobroges meet with the conspirators Lentulus and Gabinius and they receive the incriminating letters, supposedly to be conveyed to their chieftains. When the conspirators are discovered and punished, Cicero takes no measures against Decius Brutus, probably because he was thought innocent and unaware of his wife's political machinations.

EUROPA

Only mentioned. In Greek mythology, Europa was the daughter of a Phoenician king. She was carried off to Crete by Zeus (Jupiter) in the guise of a bull. When Fulvia and Sempronia discuss their lovers, Fulvia suggests that they might exchange favorites. Fulvia implies she is tired of Quintus Curius, and Sempronia could have him, adding that the world is full of sexually rewarding men. In fact, Fulvia is dissatisfied because Curius is broke and he cannot pay for her extravagant tastes. Since it is known that Caesar has sent Fulvia a pearl as a gift, probably in exchange for sexual favors, it is inferred that Fulvia refers to Caesar, Sempronia's former lover, who now has turned to Fulvia, lavishing her with rich gifts. Showing her preference for a rich lover, Fulvia adds that she is not impressed with mere sexual prowess, and she would not be taken with a bull, like the foolish Europa. Only for the price of bright gold, like Danae, would she endure a rough and harsh Jupiter. Fulvia implies that she prefers material wealth beside sexual potency.

FAUNES

Only mentioned. In Roman mythology, Fauns are goat-like half-human creatures, corresponding to the Greek satyr. Fauns were disciples of the god Faunus and were renowned for their sexual prowess. When Fulvia and Sempronia discuss their lovers, Fulvia suggests that they might exchange favorites. Fulvia implies she is tired of Quintus Curius, and Sempronia could have him, adding that the world is full of sexually rewarding men. In fact, Fulvia is dissatisfied because Curius is broke and he cannot pay for her extravagant tastes. In exchange, Fulvia alludes to Sempronia's former beau, Caius Caesar, saying that these lords who used to be Sempronia's Faunes are so passionate that they leap a lady at first sight. Since it is known that Caesar has sent Fulvia a pearl as a gift, probably in exchange for sexual favors, it is inferred that Fulvia refers to Caesar's sexual potency, which she esteems to be like a Faun's.

FLACCUS

Lucius Valerius Flaccus is a praetor in Rome. He is responsible with the law and order, together with Pomtinius. At Cicero's house, Cicero tells his brother to summon a number of senators and loyal officials, among whom he mentions Flaccus and Pomtinius. The praetors witness the scene in which Cornelius and Vargunteius are not admitted into Cicero's house, because he has been warned that they intend to murder him. However, Cicero does not charge the praetors to arrest the would-be murderers because he lacks evidence. At Cicero's house, the consul instructs the praetors on the strategy of war, following the Senate's decision to send an army against Catiline. Flaccus and Pomtinius renew their allegiance to Rome, telling Cicero they will fight under the command of Petreius. Actually, only Pomtinius speaks, while Flaccus acts accordingly. Sanga enters announcing that the conspirators have taken the bait and the Allobroges must be intercepted at the Milvian Bridge. Flaccus and Pomtinius exeunt to execute the orders. The praetors intercept Allobroges, telling them to surrender, which they do easily, despite Volturtius's protests. The praetors arrest the entire party taking them to Rome. After the conspirators are brought to trial before the Senate, the consul rules that the praetors should be given public thanks for their handling of the conspirators' arrest.

FULVIA

Fulvia is a Roman patrician matron, of high birth but with extravagant tastes. At her house, Fulvia enters with her woman, Galla. After admiring the precious pearl she has received from Caius Caesar, Fulvia instructs Galla to tell her former lover, Curius, that she is not in the mood to receive him. It seems that Curius has fallen into disfavor because he is broke and no longer able to lavish rich gifts on his mistress. Sempronia enters informing Fulvia about her role in the conspiracy of having Catiline elected as consul, asking for Fulvia's commitment to the cause. Fulvia is rather vague about her intentions, but when Curius is announced once more, she receives him, while Sempronia exits. When Curius enters, Fulvia seems to reject him at first, but then she accepts his attentions in order to find out about Catiline's plot. Fulvia exits with Curius to the bedroom. After Cicero's election as consul, Fulvia discusses with Cicero at his house. It is understood that Fulvia has reported her information about the conspiracy to Cicero. While Cicero implies that Fulvia has done a patriotic act by reporting on the plot, Fulvia reveals her real reason, feminine envy. Fulvia says she could not let Sempronia have supremacy in the situation. Fulvia and Cicero persuade Curius to act as a spy for the consul in Catiline's party. At Catiline's house, Fulvia participates in a secret nightly meeting of the women attached to Catiline's cause. When the meeting is over, Fulvia pretends she is not well and retires early, not before having received important information regarding the men's plot of murdering Cicero from Curius. Fulvia reports to Cicero and thus she is instrumental in the conspirators' arrest. It is understood that Fulvia and Curius are rewarded discreetly for their intelligence services.

FULVIUS

Marcus Fulvius Nobilior is a knight of the equestrian order and a member of Catiline's conspiracy. At Catiline's house, Fulvius enters with the other conspirators. Fulvius remarks that the darkness falling over the city before the storm is dreadfully foreboding. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. Fulvius takes an oath like all the others. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot has been exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. Eventually, when the confederates are sentenced to death, it is understood that Fulvius shares the conspirators' punishment.

FURIES

Only mentioned. The Furies or Eumenides, in Greek and Roman mythology, were the goddesses who punished crime. Hovering over Catiline's head, Sylla's Ghost invokes the evil powers to help him inoculate the germs of destruction in Catiline's soul. Sylla's Ghost prophesies a series of murders and calamities befalling Rome, and then wills Catiline's conscience to die, leaving room only for lust, hatred, slaughter, and ambition. All these negative emotions will lead to Rome's ruin. In addition, the names of Catiline and his confederates will be remembered in Hell, where the Furies will torment them forever. When he describes the final battle between the Senate's army and Catiline's troupes, Petreius says that it looked as if the Furies were standing on hills, circling the battlefield and trembling to see men do more murders than they did.

GABINIUS

Publius Gabinius Capito is a knight of the equestrian order and a member of Catiline's conspiracy. At Catiline's house, Gabinius enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot has been exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, Gabinius is placed under Crassus's private custody. After reports of the conspirators' further seditious actions, the Senate condemns them to death and Cicero orders that Gabinius should be executed with the others.

GALBA

Publius Galba is a Roman senator and a "ghost character." Sempronia reports to Fulvia the political machination supposed to lead to Catiline's election as a consul. According to Sempronia, there are six competitors beside Catiline for the consulship. These are Caius Antonius, Galba, Longinus, Cornificius, Licinius, and Cicero. Catiline's arrangement is for Licinius, Longinus, Galba, and Cornificius to retire from the competition, while Cicero cannot be elected because he is not a patrician. Thus, Catiline and Antonius are left as the only candidates. In fact, the situation is changed and, following rumors of Catiline's plot, Cicero and Caius Antonius are elected. It seems that Galba, like other senators, was privy to Catiline's plans, but did not get involved in the conspiracy.

GALLA

Galla is Fulvia's maid. At Fulvia's house, Galla enters following her mistress. While arranging her hair and the new pearl into her ear, Galla is very loquacious. Fulvia reprimands her, but Galla says she is acting according to her physician's instructions. He said that the lady's blood should be stirred with vivid conversation. Galla says she dreamt of Sempronia and enumerates the lady's many accomplishments, such as dancing, singing, playing, and composing verses, to say nothing of her political acumen. As for Sempronia's elegance, Galla says she is the best-dressed lady in Rome, except Fulvia, of course. When the gossip extends to Aurelia Orestilla, Galla says that she cannot wear a garment properly. When Sempronia is announced, Galla becomes very excited, telling Fulvia her dream had been true. Galla attends Fulvia's conversation with Sempronia. Galla greatly admires Sempronia because she delights in almost every word she says. When Sempronia leaves, Galla exits to see her out.

GRACCHI

Only mentioned. In Roman history, the Gracchi brothers were grandsons of the great Scipio Africanus, who defeated Hannibal at Zama. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (163-133 BC) was a Roman tribune who proposed agrarian laws and other reforms for the relief of the poor. Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (153-121 BC) was a tribune of the people between 123-121 BC and carried out his brother's judicial and social reforms. Both Gracchi came forward as champions of the people. They proposed laws to redistribute the public lands and to limit the powers of the corrupt and selfish Senate. Both fell victims to their enemies, Tiberius in 133 BC and Gaius twelve years later. Hovering over Catiline's head, Sylla's Ghost invokes the evil powers to help him inoculate the germs of destruction in Catiline's mind. Sylla's Ghost makes an incursion in earlier Roman history, implying that the Gracchi were motivated by the same evil ambition that he wanted to instill into Catiline's spirit.

HANNIBAL

Only mentioned. Hannibal (247? -183? BC) was the son of the great Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca. In 218 BC, he crossed the Pyrenees Mountains and crushed the Roman army. He defeated the Romans in the Second Punic War, but ultimately his city, Carthage, was reduced to a position of a vassal state after the battle of Zama (202 BC). Hovering over Catiline's head, Sylla's Ghost invokes the evil powers to help him inoculate the germs of destruction in Catiline's mind. Sylla's Ghost makes an incursion in earlier Roman history, implying that Hannibal, Rome's former arch-enemy, would have been pleased to see the seeds of the city's destruction sown into the minds of its politicians.

HERCULES

Only mentioned. Hercules was the strongest and most celebrated hero of classical mythology. When he wants to regain the favors of his discontented mistress, Fulvia, Curius invokes Hercules to his aid. Seeing that Fulvia pretends to be angry with him, Curius tells her she would hate herself, should she look into the mirror and see her own angry face. By invoking Hercules, Curius implies he is a strong lover, like the famous hero.

HYDRA

Only mentioned. The nine-headed Hydra was the most hideous creature of Greek mythology. For each head that was cut off, the monster grew two new ones. Hercules killed Hydra as one of his twelve labors. In the Roman Senate, after Cicero and Caius Antonius have been elected consuls, Caesar expresses his distrust of Cicero. Since Cicero's hasty election has been prompted by rumors of Catiline's conspiracy, Caesar says he would not put it past Cicero to have invented these comments and disseminated them among the people, with the purpose of posing as a hero rescuing the nation. Caesar implies that Cicero seems to be a consummate actor, and if the senators are prepared to accept such a Herculean actor in the scene, why not accept his Hydra as well. In Caesar's view, Hydra stands for deceit and a venomous attitude, all attributed to the allegedly hypocritical Cicero.

JULIUS

Julius is a soldier enlisted in Catiline's conspiracy. During the secret nightly meeting in which the conspirators devise their strategy of retaliation, Catiline informs his fellows of his plans. He says he has already sent Julius to the province of Apulia to raise an army to help the conspirators on the fated day, when they intend to set Rome on fire and kill Catiline's enemies at once.

JUPITER

Only mentioned. Jupiter or Jove was the greatest of the gods in Roman mythology. He was the father of gods and men, protector of kings, and supporter of law and order. He was sexually libertine and he came to mortal women in various forms. To Leda, he came as a swan, to Europa as a white bull and to Danae as a golden shower. When Fulvia and Sempronia discuss their lovers, Fulvia suggests that they might exchange favorites. Fulvia implies she is tired of Quintus Curius, and Sempronia could have him, adding that the world is full of sexually rewarding men. In fact, Fulvia is dissatisfied because Curius is broke and he cannot pay for her extravagant tastes. Since it is known that Caesar has sent Fulvia a pearl as a gift, probably in exchange for sexual favors, it is inferred that Fulvia refers to Caesar, Sempronia's former lover, who now has turned to Fulvia, lavishing her with rich gifts. Showing her preference for a rich lover, Fulvia adds that she is not impressed with mere sexual prowess, and she would not be taken with a swan or a bull, like the foolish Leda or Europa. Only for the price of bright gold, like Danae, would she endure a rough and harsh Jupiter. Fulvia implies that she prefers material wealth beside sexual potency. Jupiter was also considered the protector of Rome, next to Mars. Commenting on the depraved state of Rome, Chorus invokes the city's great fathers, Mars and Jove, to see Rome's corruption in the last days of the republic.

KNIGHTS

The Roman Knights who are likely to join Catiline's conspiracy are "ghost characters." When Catiline discusses the necessity of enrolling Roman generals and patricians to his cause, he mentions the impoverished Roman Knights, who have wasted their patrimonies. Since they are oppressed by material need and threatened with their debts, Catiline argues, they are likely to look favorably to a promised change of regime, and so join Catiline's conspiracy.

LAIS

Only mentioned. Lais was the name of various ancient Greek courtesans and it has become symbolic for this profession. When he wants to regain the favors of his discontented mistress, Fulvia, Curius compares her to Venus. Inviting her to yield to his love, Curius appeals to Fulvia's qualities as a Venus. Curius says that Fulvia has too much of Venus's need for sexual gratification not to accept his passionate advances, though he is unable to lavish her with rich gifts. In addition, Curius says Fulvia is a Lais and she has all the attributes of a courtesan, so she cannot pretend to have turned Lucrece, a virtuous woman, all of a sudden.

LECCA

Marcus Porcius Lecca is a member of Catiline's conspiracy. According to Catiline, he is ambitious and he is among those to whom Catiline has promised a rich Roman province as a reward for his fidelity. At Catiline's house, Lecca enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot has been exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. When the plot is exposed in the Senate, Cicero says that huge quantities of arms and supplies have been amassed at Lecca's house, one of the headquarters of the conspiracy. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, it is understood that Lecca shares their punishment.

LEDA

Only mentioned. In Greek and Roman mythology, Leda was a fair mortal wooed by Zeus (Jupiter) in the guise of a swan. When Fulvia and Sempronia discuss their lovers, Fulvia suggests that they might exchange favorites. Fulvia implies she is tired of Quintus Curius, and Sempronia could have him, adding that the world is full of sexually rewarding men. In fact, Fulvia is dissatisfied because Curius is broke and he cannot pay for her extravagant tastes. Since it is known that Caesar has sent Fulvia a pearl as a gift, probably in exchange for sexual favors, it is inferred that Fulvia refers to Caesar, Sempronia's former lover, who now has turned to Fulvia, lavishing her with rich gifts. Showing her preference for a rich lover, Fulvia adds that she is not impressed with mere sexual prowess, and she would not be taken with a swan, like the foolish Leda. Only for the price of bright gold, like Danae, would she endure a rough and harsh Jupiter. Fulvia implies that she prefers material wealth beside sexual potency.

LENTULUS

Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura comes from an ancient Roman patrician family of the Cornelius gens and is a member of Catiline's conspiracy. He was notorious for his private life and was ejected from the Senate because of it. According to Catiline, who was using Lentulus's dreams of magnificence, the Sibyl's prophecy said that a member of the Cornelii would be king in Rome, and Catiline persuaded Lentulus he might be the one. At Catiline's house, Lentulus enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. Lentulus and Longinus accompany Catiline to the Senate. Since Catiline's plan has failed, and Cicero has been elected consul, Lentulus and Longinus express their dissatisfaction privately. After the plot has been exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. Lentulus has the specific charge of going to Pompey's house and seizing his sons alive, so that the conspirators might use them as bargaining objects in the dispute with Pompey. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. Lentulus organizes the connection with the Allobroges and thus compromises the plot. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, Lentulus denies the allegations, but is placed in private custody, in the charge of his relative Publius Lentulus Sphinter. After reports of the conspirators' further seditious actions, the Senate condemns them to death and Cicero orders that Lentulus should be strangled.

LICINIUS

Caius Licinius is a Roman senator and a "ghost character." Sempronia reports to Fulvia the political machination supposed to lead to Catiline's election as a consul. According to Sempronia, there are six competitors beside Catiline for the consulship. These are Caius Antonius, Galba, Longinus, Cornificius, Licinius, and Cicero. Catiline's arrangement is for Licinius, Longinus, Galba, and Cornificius to retire from the competition, while Cicero cannot be elected because he is not a patrician. Thus, Catiline and Antonius are left as the only candidates. In fact, the situation is changed and, following rumors of Catiline's plot, Cicero and Caius Antonius are elected. It seems that Licinius, like other senators, was privy to Catiline's plans, but did not get involved in the conspiracy.

LONGINUS

Lucius Cassius Longinus is a patrician of senatorial rank and a member of Catiline's conspiracy. At Catiline's house, Longinus enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. Longinus and Lentulus accompany Catiline to the Senate. Since Catiline's plan has failed, and Cicero has been elected consul, Longinus and Lentulus express their dissatisfaction privately. After the plot was exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. Longinus and Statilus have the specific charge of starting the fire, prompted by a trumpet sounded in twelve places at once. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, Allobroges testify that they have letters signed by all the members of the conspiracy, except for Longinus, who said he would not write because he was to come in person to see Catiline. It seems that, by not having provided material proof against him, Longinus might have saved himself. However, in his address to the Senate, Cicero includes Longinus's name among the conspirators and it is understood that he shares their punishment.

LUCRECE

Only mentioned. Lucrece was a Roman matron who committed suicide because she had been raped by Sextus, son of King Tarquin the Proud. When he wants to regain the favors of his discontented mistress, Fulvia, Curius compares her to Venus. Inviting her to yield to his love, Curius appeals to Fulvia's qualities as a Venus. Curius says that Fulvia has too much of Venus's need for sexual gratification not to accept his passionate advances, though he is unable to lavish her with rich gifts. In addition, Curius says Fulvia is a Lais and she has all the attributes of a courtesan, so she cannot pretend to have turned Lucrece, a virtuous woman, all of a sudden. In reply, Fulvia tells Curius to keep off his ravisher's hands, because she he would not kill herself, as Lucretia did, for this Tarquin.

MANLIUS

Caius Manlius is a lictor, a minor official who carried the fasces and cleared the way for the chief magistrates. He had formerly fought in the Cimbrian war and enlisted in Catiline's conspiracy. During the secret nightly meeting in which the conspirators devise their strategy of retaliation, Catiline informs his fellows of his plans. He says he has already sent Manlius to the province of Fesulae to raise an army to help the conspirators on the fated day, when they intend to set Rome on fire and kill Catiline's enemies at once. In his address against Catiline in the Roman Senate, Cicero accuses him of having sent his lictor, Caius Manlius, to raise an army and attack Rome on the calends of November, with the precise purpose of slaughtering all the Senate members.

MARIUS

Only mentioned. Caius Marius (155-86 BC) was a Roman general and political leader, who acted as a praetor or consul. He led victorious campaigns against Cimbri and Teutoni, but his rivalry with Sylla led to civil war. Sylla was an adherent of the senatorial party and marched with troupes on Rome. However, as soon as Sylla and his regions were safely out of the way to the war in Asia, Marius seized Rome with his army and massacred many of the senatorial leaders. Hovering over Catiline's head, Sylla's Ghost invokes the evil powers to help him to inoculate the germs of destruction in Catiline's mind. Sylla's Ghost makes an incursion in earlier Roman history, implying that Marius, his former political rival, was motivated by the same type of destructive ambition that he wanted to instill in Catiline's spirit.

MARS

Only mentioned. Second in importance only to Jupiter among the Roman gods, Mars was the god of war. Believed to be the father of Romulus, the legendary founder of Rome, Mars was worshipped with great honor. When he discloses his plans of becoming a consul, Catiline addresses Rome as the symbol of world power and corruption. Considering himself as a stepson to the great city, Catiline intends to dig himself a seat in her stony entrails and be re-born out of her great womb, an offspring greater than all the monsters she had engendered ever since her coupling with Mars. By contrast, Chorus invokes Rome's great fathers, Mars and Jove, to see the city's deplorable state of corruption.

MEDUSA

Only mentioned. In Greek mythology, Medusa was a she-monster whose eyes turned everyone looking at her into stone. When he describes the final battle between the senatorial army and Catiline's troupes, Petreius alludes to the mythological conflict between the gods and the titans, when Minerva appeared armed with Medusa's head, which turned all enemies to stone. Likewise, Petreius reports, Catiline's fearlessness froze dead when he saw the Romans' bravery, and thus he was killed.

METELLUS CELLER

Metellus Celler is a praetor, a member of the senatorial army and a "ghost character." When the Senate of Rome decides to send an army against the self-exiled Catiline, whom they suspect to have been the instigator of the conspiracy, Petreius is named the general of this army. At the same time, Cicero says that Metellus Celler will cut the retreat of Catiline's army for Gallia. Metellus Celler is expected to lead three legions to the north, stop Catiline's retreat, and arrest the army's leaders.

NUCERINUS

Publius Sittius Nucerinus is a Roman general, commander of the army in Mauritania. He is Catiline's ally and a "ghost character." When Catiline incites the conspirators to rebellion against the Senate, he lists their main allies and enemies. While Pompey in Asia is considered an enemy, Nucerinus is listed as an ally.

PALLAS

Only mentioned. Pallas Athena was the wisdom goddess of the ancient Greeks, Minerva in Roman mythology. When he describes the final battle between the senatorial army and Catiline's troupes, Petreius says that Catiline looked like a Fury, and his anger made him kill everybody around him. According to Petreius, it seemed that the fate of the combat would be against them, when the Romans' fortune came in the form of Pallas to encourage the soldiers and change the course of the battle. Further on, Petreius alludes to the mythological conflict between the gods and the titans, when Minerva appeared armed with Medusa's head, which turned all enemies to stone. Likewise, Petreius reports, Catiline's fearlessness froze dead when he saw the Romans' bravery, and thus he was killed.

PETREIUS

Marcus Petreius is Caius Antonius's lieutenant. When the Roman Senate decided to send an army against the self-exiled Catiline, because it had become obvious he was the instigator of the conspiracy, the two consuls, Cicero and Antonius were responsible for leading the army. Caius Antonius wanted to avoid any confrontation with Catiline, while at the same time not being able to oppose Cicero, who had bribed him with a province. Therefore, Antonius pretended to be affected with the gout and sent his lieutenant, Marcus Petreius, to lead the senatorial army. According to Cicero, Petreius was a much better soldier than Antonius was because he had been a tribune, prefect, lieutenant, and praetor in Sylla's war, thirty years before. Cicero says that Petreius manages the army so well that he knows the soldiers by their names, and they will fight zealously next to him. Before the confrontation between the Senate's army and Catiline's troupes, Petreius addresses his soldiers. Describing the corruption of the members of Catiline's party, Petreius inflames their spirits and incites them to fight. After the battle, Petreius reports the victory to the Senate, announcing Catiline's death. Cicero thanks Petreius in the name of the Roman Senate, commending his modesty.

PHYSICIAN

Fulvia's physician is a "ghost character." At Fulvia's house, Galla, her maid, is arranging Fulvia's hair. Since Galla is very voluble, Fulvia reprimands her. Galla replies she is only acting according to her physician's orders. He said that Fulvia's blood should be stirred with vivid conversation.

PISO

Cneus Piso is a Roman general, commander of the army in Spain. He is Catiline's ally and a "ghost character." When Catiline incites the conspirators to rebellion against the Roman Senate, he lists their main allies and enemies. While Pompey in Asia is considered an enemy, Cneus Piso is listed as an ally.

POMPEY

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, or Pompey the Great, is a Roman general, commander of the army in Asia and a "ghost character." Between 66 and 61 BC, the period of Catiline's conspiracy in Rome, Pompey was in the Asian provinces, waging war against Mithridates of Pontus. When Catiline incites the conspirators to rebellion against the Senate, he lists their main allies and enemies. Pompey in Asia is considered an enemy, who might annoy the conspirators.

POMTINIUS

Caius Pomtinius is a praetor in Rome, responsible for the law and order together with Flaccus. At Cicero's house, Cicero tells his brother to summon a number of senators and loyal officials, among whom he mentions Pomtinius and Flaccus. The praetors witness the scene in which Cornelius and Vargunteius are not admitted to Cicero's house, because he has been warned that they intend to murder him. However, Cicero does not charge the praetors to arrest the would-be murderers because he lacks evidence. At Cicero's house, the consul instructs the praetors on the strategy of war, following the Senate's decision to send an army against Catiline. Pomtinius and Flaccus renew their allegiance to Rome, telling Cicero they will fight under the command of Petreius. Actually, only Pomtinius speaks, while Flaccus acts accordingly. Sanga enters announcing that the conspirators have taken the bait and the Allobroges must be intercepted at the Milvian Bridge. Pomtinius and Flaccus exeunt to execute the orders. The praetors intercept Allobroges, telling them to surrender, which they do easily, despite Volturtius's protests. The praetors arrest the entire party taking them to Rome. After the conspirators are brought to trial before the Senate, the consul rules that the praetors should be given public thanks for their handling of the conspirators' arrest.

PORTER

Porter is the doorkeeper at Cicero's house. Following the intelligence from Fulvia regarding the plot for his assassination at his house, which is to be executed by conspirators who pretended to be his friends, Cicero instructs his brother to order the Porter to let nobody in that night. Concurrently, Cicero summons some of his trusted friends and clients to witness the assassins' attempted entry. Before Cicero's house, Vargunteius and Cornelius demand entrance, while Porter would not let them in. Porter says the orders are not to admit anyone that night. Cicero attends the scene from above, and when Vargunteius and Cornelius raise their voices, Cicero tells them to repent. The other senators in front of Cicero's house witness this scene. When the conspirators steal away, the senators advise Cicero to send the praetors to arrest them, but the consul refrains from doing it, because he has no evidence against the alleged murderers.

PRIEST

The priest charged with a slave's sacrificial killing for Catiline's benefit is a "ghost character." At his house, before his inflaming address to the conspirators, Catiline sends a boy slave with a message to the priest. Catiline's orders to the priest are to kill the slave he had marked a night before, as prearranged, collect his blood, and give it to the messenger. According to Catiline's instructions, Boy is expected to wait outside Catiline's study with the bowl of fresh blood until he is summoned in. It is inferred that the Priest fulfills Catiline's instructions, because after his address to the conspirators, Catiline invites them to partake of human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact.

QUINTUS CICERO

Quintus Cicero is Cicero's brother and a tribune of the people in republican Rome. When Cicero learns of Catiline's conspiracy, he is preparing to take measures. Thus, he sends for his trusted brother Quintus Cicero and the tribunes, as well as for his colleague Caius Antonius, the other consul. At his house, Cicero welcomes his brother, telling him to order the Porter to let no one into the house that night. When Quintus Cicero asks if his brother would not admit his clients or his colleagues, Cicero says that his murderers are coming under the guise of friends. According to intelligence obtained from Curius via Fulvia, Catiline's plan was to have Vargunteius and Cornelius introduce themselves into Cicero's house as friends and then murder him. Cicero asks Quintus Cicero to send for Cato and Catulus to act as reliable witnesses, and for the praetors. Quintus Cicero is surprised at his brother's excessive caution, warning Cicero that, by behaving like that, he might make his friends angry with him, while his enemies would laugh at his stupidity. Later, Quintus Cicero reports the arrival of Cato, Catulus, and Crassus, as well as some of his clients and friends, among whom are Vargunteius and Cornelius. Quintus Cicero attends the scene in which the conspirators are not admitted in, and then steal away cowardly, while the other witnesses enjoin Cicero to send the praetors after the alleged assassins.

ROME

The City of Rome is a "fictional character." Catiline addresses Rome as the symbol of world power and corruption. Being inspired by the evil spirit of Sylla's Ghost, Catiline ponders over his plan of becoming a consul. Driven by his overwhelming ambition, Catiline defies Rome, telling her that nothing can resist his impending will, nor Fate, or the forces of nature. Catiline affirms that the ills he had done cannot be safe but by attempting greater evils. Catiline feels that he is a man meant to raise to the height of powerful Rome herself, deserving all her honors and glory. In his self-aggrandizing frenzy, Catiline says that Rome had singled him out for power when he was elected as a commander in the Pontic War, so he can consider Rome as a stepmother to him. Catiline intends to dig himself a seat in her stony entrails and be re-born out of her great womb, an offspring greater than all the monsters she had engendered ever since her coupling with Mars.

SANGA

Quintus Fabius Sanga is a senator in the Roman republic. The nation of the Allobroges was under his patronage. Therefore, when they hear of Catiline's conspiracy, Allobroges inform Sanga first. In his turn, Sanga informs Cicero. At the Senate, Sanga enters announcing the Allobroges. He informs Cicero of the conspirators' plot to attract Allobroges to their side. Sanga attends the discussion between Cicero and Allobroges, making side comments on the personality of Sempronia, wife of Decius Brutus, at whose house the conspirators planned to meet the ambassadors secretly. After the Allobroges have obtained the incriminating letters from the conspirators, Sanga enters Cicero's house while the consul was holding a council of war. Sanga informs Cicero that the conspirators have taken the bait and Cicero must send his troupes at once to the Milvian Bridge to intercept Allobroges. In addition, Sanga asks Cicero what he would do with Sempronia, and the consul says that his anger is not vented on fools and women, so she will be spared. After the conspirators have been tried in the Senate, the consul rules that Sanga should be given public thanks for his good services to the nation.

SEMPRONIA

Sempronia is a patrician Roman matron, wife of Decius Brutus. While her husband is away, she gets involved in Catiline's plot and uses her house as a secret meeting place for the conspirators. According to Galla, Sempronia is skilled in Greek and Roman literature, can sing, play, dance, and compose verses. Catiline hopes to attract her to his cause because she is in debt and leads an extravagant life. At Fulvia's house, Sempronia informs Fulvia about her involvement in the political maneuver intended to have Catiline elected as consul. According to Sempronia, Catiline and Antonius will be elected because the other senators will give way. Discussing Fulvia's favorite, Curius, Sempronia implies that Fulvia can have her lover, Caius Caesar, if she wishes. In addition, Sempronia alludes to Fulvia's joining the conspiracy and attending a women's meeting at Catiline's house, presided by Aurelia. When Curius is announced, Sempronia exits. At Catiline's house, Sempronia enters with Aurelia and Fulvia, after having completed their feminine conspiratorial conference, to meet the men, who finished theirs. After a final statement of confidence, the conspirators of both sexes depart. At her husband's house, Sempronia receives the conspirators, expecting the Allobroges. Much as she wants to, Sempronia does not get involved in direct negotiation with the ambassadors. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, it is understood that Sempronia and the other women involved in the plot are not punished.

SENATOR

Senator is a member of the Roman senate in the last days of the republic. He directs the proceeding of the meeting in which the conspirators are indicted, and evidence is brought against them. Senator asks the elderly members of the Senate to open the letters captured from the Allobroges. At the same time, he asks the praetor if he has brought the weapons from Cethegus's house. Senator attends the rest of the meeting that ends in the conspirators' being placed in private custody. When the Senate is summoned urgently to take a final decision regarding the punishment of the conspirators, Senator wonders why they have been called so urgently. The praetor gives his report on further seditious actions of the conspirators. When Syllanus expresses the extreme position that the conspirators should be sentenced to death, Senator agrees. However, when Caesar gives a more lenient opinion, Senator says that Caesar has spoken honorably. Finally, the Senate rules on the death sentence for the members of Catiline's conspiracy.

SEPTIMIUS

Septimius is a soldier enlisted in Catiline's conspiracy. During the secret nightly meeting in which the conspirators devise their strategy of retaliation, Catiline informs his fellows of his plans. He says he has already sent Septimius into the Picene territory to raise an army to help the conspirators on the fated day, when they intend to set Rome on fire and kill Catiline's enemies at once.

SERVANTS

Cethegus's Servants are "ghost characters." After the conspirators have been exposed in the Roman Senate, being placed under private custody, the praetors' report comes that they continued the seditious actions subversively. According to Pomtinius, Cethegus's Servants have been conspiring to arm themselves and come to their master's rescue. Pomtinius estimates that Cethegus's Servants are many and very well trained in the arts of war.

SIBYL

Only mentioned. Sibyl is one of several archaic prophetesses. According to an ancient Roman legend, a collection of prophecies predicting the destiny of the Roman state, the Sibylline Books, was offered for sale to Tarquinus Superbus, the last king of Rome before the republic, by the Sibyl of the Greek colony of Cumae in Italy. He refused to pay the price, so the sibyl burned six of the books before finally selling the remaining three at the price she had originally asked for the nine. The books were thereafter kept in the temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill to be consulted only in emergencies. When Catiline discloses to Aurelia his ambitious dream of becoming a consul, he says he needs to enroll dissatisfied generals and patricians in his conspiracy. Among others, Catiline mentions Lentulus, who is descended from the Cornelius family. According to Catiline, Lentulus has hopes of magnificence because the Sibylline Books said that a third man of the Cornelius family would become king in Rome. Catiline admits to having paid the flattering Augurers to interpret that the prophecy meant Lentulus, saying that he intended to use Lentulus's weakness to further his own plan.

SPHINTER

Publius Lentulus Sphinter is a Roman aedile, an official in charge of buildings, roads, sanitation, and public games. He is a "ghost character." When Catiline's plot is disclosed in the Roman Senate, the consul rules that the conspirators should be placed in private custody. Sphinter is charged with supervising his relative, Lentulus.

STATILIUS

Lucius Statilius is a member of Catiline's conspiracy. At Catiline's house, Statilius enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot has been exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. Statilius is charged with setting fire to the city in one of the twelve places assigned. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, Allobroges testify that the incriminating letters have been signed by Statilius among others, and he confesses to having signed them. The Senate decides to place Statilius under Caesar's private custody. After reports of the conspirators' further seditious actions, the Senate sentences them to death and Cicero orders that Statilius should be executed with the others.

SYLLA

Servius Sylla is a member of Catiline's conspiracy and a "ghost character." When the conspirators are exposed in the Roman Senate, Allobroges testify against them, disclosing the names of Autronius, Servius Sylla, and Vargunteius as members of Catiline's conspiracy.

SYLLA

Only mentioned. Lucius Cornelius Sulla (or Sylla) was a Roman general. He served under Marius in Africa and became consul in 88 BC. In 83 BC, Sylla was at the origin of a civil war in Rome and in 82 BC he had himself named dictator and began a systematic butchery of his enemies. Sylla's dictatorship was notorious for its cruelty and lack of legality. When Catiline discloses to Aurelia his plan of becoming consul, he admits the necessity of enrolling dissatisfied Roman generals and patricians to his cause. Among others, Catiline mentions Lentulus, who descended from the Cornelius family. According to the prophecy in the Sibylline Books, a third man from his family shall be king in Rome. Catiline admits to having paid the Augurers to interpret this prophecy as meaning Lentulus, since the other two Cornelii, Cinna and Sylla are dead. The relativity of such an interpretation is obvious.

SYLLANUS

Syllanus is a senator in republican Rome and the next candidate for consulship. When the Senate is summoned urgently to take a final decision regarding the conspirators' punishment, Cicero requires Syllanus to express his position, because he is designed to be the next consul. In his address to the Senate, Syllanus says that the conspirators should be sentenced to death because they are a shame to Rome's prestige. However, Caesar expresses a more lenient view, considering that the conspirators should be banished to different places and their property confiscated. According to Caesar, Syllanus is a great man and a loyal person, who would not speak against the conspirators out of hatred, but because he is a noble patriot. However, when Cato speaks against Caesar's proposal and reinforces Syllanus's death sentence, the Senate rules that the conspirators should be executed.

SYLLA'S GHOST

The historical personage Lucius Cornelius Sylla (or Sulla) was a Roman general and a dictator in the days of the republic (81-79 BC). As a dictator, he was noted for his bloody proscriptions, slaughtering more than 5,000 people from among his opponents and their families. Almost twenty years after Sylla's death, when Catiline's conspiracy takes place (63 BC), Sylla's Ghost enters Catiline's study. Addressing Rome, Sylla's Ghost bids her to wake and beware because he has come from the dead to disseminate terror. Seeing Catiline in his study, Sylla's Ghost invokes the spirit of evil to be transferred into Catiline's mind, instigating him to murderous action. Prophesying a series of brotherly murders, plagues, famines, incest, and fire, Sylla's Ghost actually summarizes the past and future events in Rome. Invoking the Furies as the patron goddesses, Sylla's Ghost hovers over Catiline and then exits.

TARQUIN

Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, or Tarquinius Superbus, was the legendary fifth king of Rome. His son, Sextus, raped the Roman matron Lucrece, who committed suicide for this reason. When he wants to regain the favors of his discontented mistress, Fulvia, Curius compares her to Venus. Inviting her to yield to his love, Curius appeals to Fulvia's qualities as a Venus. Curius says that Fulvia has too much of Venus's need for sexual gratification not to accept his passionate advances, though he is unable to lavish her with rich gifts. In addition, Curius says Fulvia is a Lais and she has all the attributes of a courtesan, so she cannot pretend to have turned Lucrece, a virtuous woman, all of a sudden. In reply, Fulvia tells Curius to keep off his ravisher's hands, because she he would not kill herself, as Lucretia did, for this Tarquin. By comparing Curius with Tarquin, whose name remained connected with that of a rapist, Fulvia alludes to Curius's brutal sexual behavior.

TARQUINIUS

Tarquinius is a lesser member of Catiline's conspiracy and a "ghost character." After the conspirators have been tried and condemned in the Senate, word comes that one Tarquinius has been arrested. According to Flaccus, Tarquinius confessed he was going to Catiline as a messenger, sent by Crassus, whom he named as being implicated in Catiline's conspiracy. While Crassus, on hearing the allegations, wants the accuser to be brought in the Senate to testify, Cicero rules against it, saying that he is not worth the trouble, because he is certain of Crassus's innocence. Cicero instructs the praetor to keep Tarquinius in prison and hungry till he confesses by whose orders he acted in accusing Crassus. In an aside, Crassus says he fears that Tarquinius acted by Cicero's instructions, in order to have Crassus under control. Syllanus adds that some lesser members of the conspiracy, in order to give credit to their action, might name even Cicero as an accomplice. Cicero responds that he knows himself, and that he knows Crassus to be a just and noble patriot.

UMBRENUS

Umbrenus is a member of Catiline's conspiracy and a "ghost character." Lentulus used him as an agent of connection between the conspirators and the Allobroges. Since he had traded in Gaul, Umbrenus was personally acquainted to all the chiefs and he knew the ways of this warlike alpine nation. Umbrenus conveyed the conspirators' message of becoming their allies in the war against the Roman Senate. When Catiline's conspiracy is discovered, it is not clear what happens to Umbrenus.

VARGUNTEIUS

Lucius Vargunteius is a patrician of senatorial rank and a member of Catiline's conspiracy. According to Catiline, he is ambitious and is among those to whom Catiline had promised a rich province. At Catiline's house, Vargunteius enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot was exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. Vargunteius is charged with murdering Cicero in his house, while pretending to be his friend. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. Before Cicero's house, Vargunteius and Cornelius require to be admitted, apparently as the consul's friends, but actually intending to assassinate Cicero. When they are denied entrance in front of witnesses, the conspirators pretend to be angry, but they steal away furtively when Cicero addresses them from above, inviting them to repent. Vargunteius and Cornelius intend to deny everything if accused. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, Allobroges testify that the agent recruiting them for Catiline's conspiracy has named Vargunteius among the confederates. When the conspirators are sentenced to death, it is understood that Vargunteius is executed with the others.

VECTIUS

Lucius Vectius is a lesser member of Catiline's conspiracy and a "ghost character." After the conspirators have been tried and condemned in the Senate, word comes that one Lucius Vectius has been arrested. According to Flaccus, Lucius Vectius confessed that Caesar was implicated in Catiline's plot. Cicero instructs the praetor to throw him out of the court, because he knows that Caesar is noble and would not be involved in such an affair. Caesar implies that such a false witness might have been paid to accuse him, expressing the veiled suspicion that Cicero could have done that, in order to have Caesar under control. Eventually, however, Caesar promises to be silent and the situation is concluded with a tacit understanding between Caesar and Cicero.

VENUS

Only mentioned. In Roman mythology, Venus is the goddess of love. When he wants to regain the favors of his discontented mistress, Fulvia, Curius compares her to Venus. Inviting her to yield to his love, Curius appeals to Fulvia's qualities as a Venus. Curius says that Fulvia has too much of Venus's need for sexual gratification not to accept his passionate advances, though he is unable to lavish her with rich gifts.

VOLTURTIUS

Titus Volturtius, a native of Crotona, is a member of Catiline's conspiracy and a mediator between the conspirators and the Allobroges. At Sempronia's house, Volturtius enters with the other conspirators, expecting Allobroges. When Cethegus announces their arrival, Volturtius exits, and then he informs Lentulus that Allobroges desire to speak with him in private. After the discussion, Lentulus reports that Allobroges required letters describing the conspirators' plans, which they were going to provide, together with sealed letters to Catiline, whom Allobroges were expected to see on their way to their country. Volturtius is to accompany Allobroges to Catiline. Volturtius exits with Allobroges. At the Milvian Bridge, the praetors intercept the party, and Allobroges surrender easily, despite Volturtius's protestations. Seeing that all is lost, Volturtius tries to strike a bargain, promising to give all the names of the conspirators if his life is spared. When the conspirators are tried in the Senate, Volturtius incriminates each of them by name. After his testimonial, Volturtius is granted his life and some money. Cato adds that money would help Volturtius, because want had made him join Catiline's conspiracy.