P. 3

Unidentified character in ?Skelton's Old Christmas, possibly Abstinence. In the conclusion of the play, P. 3 points out how gluttony runs counter to Christ's example.

PACE, DOCTOR

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. Richard Pace supposedly had enough influence upon the king that Wolsey kept the Doctor away from Henry and out of the country until Pace "ran mad" and died.

PACHECO**1605

Pacheco is the disguise name assumed by Orlando Friscobaldo in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore when he takes service with Matheo and Bellafront in an effort to investigate his daughter's reformation and to assist in the improvement of her fortunes.

PACHECO **1611

Page to Prince John in Dekker’s Match Me in London. Ties up his master’s points whilst making bawdy puns.

PACHECO**1642

A bandit in Shirley's The Sisters, follower of Frapolo.

PACHIECO

Pachieco, a cobbler, Mendoza, a patcher, Metaldi, a smith, and Lazarillo, a hungry servant, all work together to help Alguazier steal in Fletcher, Beaumont, and Massinger's, Love's Cure. The Assistant tries them. They are sentenced to a whipping and an unspecified time in the galleys.

PACORUS

Present only as a dead body in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Pacorus was the son of Orodes, who treacherously killed Marcus Crassus. That death is revenged by Ventidius when he kills Pacorus.

PACQUE

A friend of Dicque who enters the service of D'Olive in Chapman's Monsieur D'Olive.

PACUE

Page to Jasper in Jonson's The Case is Altered. Exchanges bilingual quips with Juniper and Onion. He agrees to become page to the newly-rich Juniper in order to mock him. Offstage, he accidentally admits to Phoenixella that Jasper and Chamont have switched identities.

PADDOCK

One of the Witches' familiars, an attendant evil spirit in animal form in Shakespeare's Macbeth. Paddock is generally believed to take the form of a toad.

PAEDIO

Gelasimus' Page in the anonymous Timon of Athens. In V.3 he asks for his leave after he has brought his master a fool's cap from Pseudocheus, who has left with all his money.

PAEGNIUM **1632

Pamphilus' page in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. He brings love letters from his master to Techmessa. He is confused when she accepts them with joy but swears never to read them, He discovers that Ballio has stolen his master's sword, which Paegnium carries, and realizes that the old pander is attempting to drive a wedge between the lovers. He is first to suspect that Dipsas has hired Ballio in this task and proposes to confound the old pander's plot. He returns with officers to arrest Ballio for the theft.

PAENELAENA

Listed in the dramatis personae of the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace. Characteristics and actions not given in the surviving plot.

PAETUS, THRASEA

A "ghost character," Thrasea is a stoic killed by Domitian in Massinger's The Roman Actor. He is only mentioned by other characters. Palphurius Sura and Junius Rusticus are put to death for their objections to this execution. Their own stoic stance under torture is inspired by his example.

PAGAN

In the battle of Jerusalem, the clown Sparrow temporarily captures a pagan and holds him in a halter in the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick. The pagan easily slips out of the halter and escapes.

PAGANS

Two Pagans appear in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier to discuss the impending burning of Eugenius and Bellizarius.

PAGE **1584

The Page to Alexander in Lyly's Campaspe. He pretends that Apelles shop is on fire, so provoking Apelles to declare his love for Campaspe in front of the King.

PAGE**1588

In Dumb Show Five of Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur, a Page enters with a small shield upon which is painted a pelican ripping her breast in order to feed her young, after which she dies. The inscription Qua foui, perii ("Where I fostered, I perished") signifies Arthur's overindulgence of Mordred, and ultimately the king's death at the hands of his evil son.

PAGE**1591

A page fetches Estrild and Sabren from their cave in the anonymous Locrine to take them to Locrine.

PAGE**1591

A page attends Richard III throughout the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III and frequently addresses his remarks directly to the audience. He first appears to introduce a messenger from the Duke of Buckingham to Richard. The page reliably reports all of the rumors he hears to Richard. When alone on stage, the page wonders aloud at the surprising alliance of convenience between Richard and Buckingham. The page tells the audience that since Richard has been named Lord Protector, numerous nobles have fled the country. Richard sends his page to an inn to secure a room and to fetch a skeleton key for the entire house. It so happens that one of Richard's enemies, the Queen's brother Earl Rivers, is staying at the inn that evening. Although the innkeeper protests, the page is able to get the key. After Richard has the Duke of York extracted from sanctuary with the Queen and delivered to the Tower of London, the page returns to the stage to express misgivings about his master's reckless bloodthirsty reach for power. The page is certain that the blood of Richard's victims will doom his reign. In preparation for the arrests of Hastings and Stanley, the page hires twelve ruffians to assist Richard's plan. The page recommends James Terrell to Richard as a good man to coordinate the assassination of the princes in the Tower. The page spies on Mrs. Shore after she is thrown into the streets to ensure that no one offers her assistance. The night before the battle at Bosworth Field, the page openly wishes Richard had not been made king. The page reports that Richard does not sleep well at night: a haunting just revenge for his sins. The page is left to tell Richard of the mass desertions over to Richmond's camp. It is the page that pleads with Richard to flee from the battle at Bosworth Field. The page debriefs Report on the outcome of the battle.

PAGE**1592

Attends Corcut in ?Greene's Selimus I. Disguised as mourners, Corcut and his Page flee the forces led by Hali and Cali. Bostangi Bassa's naval blockade forces them to hide in a cave for several days. Desperate for food, they encounter Bullithrumble, who agrees to share some food with them if they promise not to rob him. As they exit, the Page in an aside decides to claim the large reward Selimus is offering for information on Corcut's whereabouts. Having fled Corcut and Bullithrumble, the Page meets Hali and Cali and leads them back to Corcut. Accompanies Hali and Cali as they bring Corcut as prisoner to Selimus. When Selimus hears that the Page has betrayed his master, he orders him starved to death.

PAGE**1593

Servant of Richard III in Shakespeare's Richard III. Richard asks if the page knows anyone willing to commit murder for hire; the page recommends Sir James Tyrrell.

PAGE**1596
This non-speaking character serves Captain Jack Harabart in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley.

PAGE **1597

I.
The Page is a gift from Prince Hal in service to Sir John Falstaff in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. He has no speaking part in the play. He is a remarkably small character to contrast Falstaff's large proportions. He is probably the same character who returns as "Boy" in Henry V and as "Robin" in The Merry Wives of Windsor. However, some scholarship has suggested that the actor might have been a dwarf or midget rather than a child and that he may have also performed the part of Sir Andrew Aguecheek in Twelfth Night.
II.
He is called Robin and serves as Falstaff's page in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. He delivers letters to Margaret Page and Alice Ford. He helps the two women to cozen the fat knight, and assists Falstaff into the laundry basket. He is likely the same character known as "Page" in 2 Henry IV and "Boy" in Henry V.
III.
The Boy in Shakespeare's Henry V, formerly Falstaff's page, attends Pistol, Bardolph and Nym when they join Henry's army. When Pistol captures a French soldier at the battle of Agincourt, Pistol's questions and the soldier's pleas for mercy work at cross purposes until the Boy arrives to serve as their translator. The Boy is able to explain that the soldier's name is Monsieur Le Fer, and eventually a ransom agreement is reached. Later, Fluellen is outraged when the French contravene the rules of engagement by killing the boys guarding the English army's luggage. The Boy is among those killed.

PAGE**1599

Lady Rawford's page in Chettle's(?) Looke About You is a young man who pays a visit to Lady Faukenbridge, who at that moment is really Robin Hood in disguise.

PAGE**1599

The Page in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women comes with the fourth Lord and a waterman to Court when the Lords are examining evidence in preparation for issuing a warrant for arrest. The Page says nothing.

PAGE**1600

A "ghost character" in Thomas Heywood's The Four Prentices of London. The page is companion to Bella Franca; he is assaulted, off-stage, by the rapist bandits and is heard of no more.

PAGE**1600

Family name of George, Margaret, Anne and William in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor.

PAGE**1601

Mercury is disguised as a Page during the Second Masque at Cynthia's revels, introducing Eucosmos, Eupathes, Eutolmos, and Eucolos in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. Mercury/Page begins with a eulogy of the goddess Cynthia, then tells how the four brothers are the sons of Eutaxia and they represent the four cardinal virtues of decorum. Each of them bears a silver javelin, symbolizing that they support princes' courts. According to Mercury/Page, the four brothers have previously been employed in the palace of Queen Perfection. Mercury/Page presents the four emblems for each virtue and the respective mottoes. Thus, Eucosmos represents Elegance, Eupathes - Opulence, Eutolmos - Audacity, and Eucolos - Good Nature. After having been introduced, the masques join in a dance, while Mercury/Page retires to the side of the stage, next to Cupid/Anteros, observing the others. Cupid/Anteros wants to play one of his pranks and tries to make some of the nymphs and gallants fall in love with each other, but they only fall in love with themselves. Mercury/Page explains to Cupid/Anteros that all have drunk of the fountain of Self-love and are therefore bent to love only themselves. In the end, when the revels are ended, Cynthia discovers that Mercury is disguised as a Page.

PAGE**1604

Valerio's Page in Chapman's All Fools is identified in the character list and once by Rinaldo as "Curio." Since he has a more developed personality than most characters identified only by their titles, the full character description is listed under CURIO.

PAGE **1604

A non-speaking part in Chapman's Monsieur D'Olive. Mugeron and Roderique send the page on various small errands.

PAGE**1604

The Page is employed by Horatio in Day's Law Tricks. Overhearing Horatio's attempt to woo the Countess, the Page pities her and decides to help her, finding her a refuge at the house of his parents. After Horatio and Lurdo apparently poison the Countess, the Page comes to her tomb at night. He wards off Horatio by mimicking the Countess's voice and pretending to be her ghost. He then attends to the Countess as she wakes up, and it transpires that the 'poison' was merely a sleeping potion supplied by the Page's father, an apothecary. The Page reveals to Polymetes that the Countess is alive and arranges for her appearance as her own ghost.

PAGE**1605

Servant of Cato in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. He brings him the sword with which he commits suicide.

PAGE**1605

The Page of Sir Petronel Flash in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho! announces to Touchstone that his master is going to visit him presently.

PAGE**1605

Describes the fireworks attending Dulcimel's birthday in Marston's Parasitaster, or The Fawn.

PAGE**1606

Oriana's Page is a mute character in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. He accompanies Oriana and Waiting Woman all the time to Gondarino's house, to the brothel, and the palace.

PAGE **1606

The Page makes one appearance in Wilkins's The Miseries of Enforced Marriage as Sir Francis Ilford's messenger.

PAGE**1607

A illiterate young boy in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens who appears with letters to Alcibiades and Timon in II.ii.

PAGE**1608

A disguise adopted by Constantia Sommerfield in Barry's Ram Alley that she might follow Thomas Boutcher, with whom she is in love, because she suspects that he is unfaithful to her. She enters his service by disguising as a boy and presenting him with a letter from herself, recommending the "page" to him.

PAGE**1608

Florimel's Page is a boy and Aspero's Boy is a page in Day's Humour Out of Breath. They are here, as usually in the text, called Boy and Page respectively to differentiate them. When Florimel's Page enters in 1.3 he is first addressed by Hippolito and Francisco, leading the Mermaid editor to believe that here was a different page than that which attends on Florimel, and to distinguish between them in the dramatis personae. (See under Page to Hippolito and Francisco.) This Page seems to accompany Florimel at all times, except in 1.1. He could possibly be among the "others, attendants" in the general entrance at the beginning of that scene, but when he enters at 1.3, Francisco greets him "Now, sirra, what have you been about?" as if he had not seen him for a while. The Page then exits with Florimel, going with her to the countryside where she meets and flirts with Aspero, and back again to Venice where she continues their witty love-jousting. As the Page accompanies Florimel, he trades witticisms with her and satirically advises her on her love-life. When Hortensio imprisons Aspero, the Page helps Florimel to steal Hortensio's gown during a game of Blind-man's Buff, allowing Aspero to escape disguised as Hortensio. Finally, the Page accompanies Florimel to Mantua where he contributes humorous comments to the final scenes of confrontation and reconciliation. (The dramatis personae of the Mermaid edition of Humour Out of Breath distinguishes between a "Page to Hippolito and Francisco" and a "Page to Florimel." However these pages never appear together: in 1.3 a page enters as meeting the three siblings and speaks first with Francisco and Hippolito, but he exits with Florimel. This is clearly the same page, attached to Octavio's household, who for most of the play accompanies Florimel. For a "third" page who accompanies Aspero, see under Boy.)

PAGE**1609

The Page attends Count Frederick in Field's A Woman is a Weathercock. He mocks the behavior of his master and the servile Pendant. The Page is sent by sent by Count Frederick to see if the Ladies are up. He offers to help Mistress Wagtail to find a father for her child.

PAGE**1609

Clerimont's Page is a foxy trickster in Jonson's Epicoene. In a room in Clerimont's house in London, Page enters following his master. Clerimont asks if he has got the song for the party, and Page answers affirmatively, but entreats his master not to let anybody hear it. Page explains that, when people hear this song, his master will gain the dangerous reputation of a poet in town and, besides, the lady who is the inspirer of this song will be upset. Page says he is her favorite playing thing and reports how the ladies like to invite him in their chamber and throw him on the bed, put a peruque on his head and make him wear their gowns. Clerimont observes bitterly that his mistress's door is kept shut against him when the entrance is so easy to his page and he forbids Page to go to his mistress again. Page starts singing the song he prepared when Truewit enters. While Truewit and Clerimont discuss Morose's noise-hating idiosyncrasy, Page adds some of his own stories. He says that he managed to have some people beaten only by asking them to cry their wares under Morose's windows. Page exits to bring some water to Clerimont and re-enters to announce Sir Amorous La-Foole.

PAGE**1610

Isabella's messenger in John Marston's The Insatiate Countess. He delivers the letter with which she summons Massino to her. He also serves as a foil to illuminate her moodiness.

PAGE**1611

As Govianus kneels at the Lady's tomb in [?]Middleton's The Second Maiden's Tragedy, his Page sings a song about her virtue.

PAGE**1613

Accompanies Amiens and Longavile to the duel in Fletcher's The Honest Man's Fortune; holds the pistols which Longavile seizes.

PAGE**1614

The Page works in Clynton's house in Smith's The Hector of Germany. He is paid by Young Fitzwaters for access to the family house, and, more specifically, for access to Floramell. The Page is aware of the perilous nature of his trade. The Steward and Old Fitzwaters find where the Page has let Young Fitzwaters into the family compound. They silence the Page and lay an ambush for Young Fitzwaters and Floramell. The Page is dressed up as Floramell to serve as a decoy while Young Fitzwaters and the real Floramell escape their fathers by sea.

PAGE**1615

Lactantio's mistress in Middleton's More Dissemblers Besides Women is disguised as his Page named Antonio but she is never given a proper name. See "Lactantio's mistress" for more.

PAGE **1617

The Page is so labeled in the speech headings of Fletcher's The Mad Lover, but the text indicates that his proper name is Picus. Essentially the Foole's boy servant, the Page often bears the brunt of the Foole's jokes. He is present at the end of the play to witness the moment when Memnon regains his sanity and the princess Calis is united with her beloved Polidor.

PAGE**1617

Euphanes' page in Fletcher's Queen of Corinth. He is incensed when he hears the ridiculous Lamprias threaten to challenge his lord to a duel. Though only a boy, he stands up to the foolish heir, threatening to beat him and to "call some dozen brother Pages, / ...and...blanket / You until you piss again." Lamprias and his entourage back down hurriedly, vowing henceforward to behave respectfully toward Euphanes. The Page later helps Conon in his plot to reconcile Crates and Euphanes, scurrying off to summon Euphanes when Crates and Conon begin to duel. He also summons Euphanes when the Queen seeks him.

PAGE**1619

A mute character attending John Earnest, the Duke of Saxony, in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids.

PAGE**1619

A clownish character in Field and Massinger's The Fatal Dowry whose witty comments during Young Novall's toilette accentuate his master's vanity and that of court life in general.

PAGE**1626

Madam Marine's serving-boy in Fletcher's The Noble Gentleman.

PAGE**1627

A page in Urina's house in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. When Musophilus comes to woo Urina, the page fetches her and then comments sardonically upon their wooing. He is surprised when his mistress accepts Musophilus.

PAGE **1631

This unnamed Page serves Hippolito in Shirley's Love's Cruelty. He brings a message to Hippolito announcing the visit of an unknown gentlewoman. He also discusses with Clariana's Groom the possibility that Clariana is a "wench."

PAGE**1632

Page is a servant Lacy in Massinger's The City Madam. When a scuffle ensues between the two masters, he is on hand to held break up the disturbance.

PAGE**1632

This unnamed Page works for Caperwit in Shirley's Changes. He and his master concoct a gambit designed to make Chrysolina and Aurelia see Caperwit as sought-after and popular. The Page dresses as a woman and pretends to be Caperwit's admirer, Lady Bird.

PAGE**1633

Wilding's Page in Shirley's The Gamester. He refuses to divulge details of Wilding's female company to Mistress Wilding. He tells Wilding that Hazard and the other gamesters require his company at the tavern. To amuse Hazard and Wilding, he puts on a false beard and poses as a trigger-happy, pistol-whirling "Petarro." He confronts Young Barnacle with hostile discourse. Frightening each other with fearsome rhetoric, they decide to become friends, although the Page continues to insult Young Barnacle with jibes that are lost on Old Barnacle's naïve nephew.

PAGE**1634

In the service of Wallenstein, appears to announce the arrival of the Scots traitors from Egers and escorts the Duchess with her announcement that Isabella has stolen her jewel in Glapthorne's Albertus Wallenstein. Most notably, after Wallenstein kills his son and descends into melancholy, the Page keeps him company with music (like Lucius to Brutus in Julius Caesar IV.3). Wallenstein then mistakes him for the ghost of Albertus and stabs him. There is no clear indication that all three scenes feature the same Page, but no counter-indications either.

PAGE**1634

This unnamed Page serves Lord Fitzavarice in Shirley's The Example. He delivers Fitzavarice's jewels to Lady Peregrine; later, he brings to Lord Peregrine the mortgage that Fitzavarice has released.

PAGE**1637

Theophilus' boy in Brome's The English Moor, who sings an air in IV.ii.

PAGE **1637

The Infanta in Rutter’s The Cid sends her page to inquire what keeps Cimena so long from her presence, and he announces her arrival. He later tells both women that Roderigo and Gormas have gone out together to duel.

PAGE**1639

This character is identified in the first edition of Cokain's The Obstinate Lady as Tandorix. He summons Falorus to Polidacre's presence so that Polidacre can offer him Lucora's hand in marriage.

PAGE, AMORETTO'S**1603

Amoretto's page in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus, Jack, hears his master's report of the way he scotched Academico's request for help, and describes a way to better the jest. In asides, he scoffs at his master's vanity and ignorance, and at the vain attempt of Ingenioso and Phantasmus to attract Amoretto's patronage. He and Sir Raderick's page make sport of the fiddlers.

PAGE, ANDRUGIO'S

Andrugio's young page in Marston's Antonio and Mellida survives the naval carnage and is tossed on Venice's shore with him and Lucio. He and Andrugio sing together and then he weeps for his master's fate. After hearing Antonio and Mellida, both in disguise, share their love in Italian, he declares that Babel confusion has struck, both in language and in gender. He later reports to Andrugio and Antonio that Mellida has been captured by Piero.

PAGE, AUDITUS’S **1607

A page in Tomkis’ Lingua holds a target before Auditus displaying a sable field with a golden heart.

PAGE, BRABANT JUNIOR'S**1600

Servant to Brabant Junior in Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment. He is told to prepare a pistol and shoot Planet. After the shooting, Brabant gives him money so that he can escape to Scotland before the murder is discovered; Brabant later discovers that the Page did not kill Planet and did not escape to Scotland. .

PAGE, BRABANT SIGNIOR'S**1600

Servant to Brabant Signior in Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment. As a part of Brabant's plan, the Page brings a summons to Brabant Signoir so that Brabant can leave fo de King alone with his wife, Mistress Brabant.

PAGE, DUARTE'S**1620

Unnamed Page to Duarte in Fletcher and Massinger's Custom of the Country. He reports various items of gossip to his master, which confirm his reputation as a braggart duellist and pre-eminently stylish courtier. Most importantly, he passes on the news that Don Alonzo has slighted Duarte, which later provokes the quarrel between them where Duarte is injured, apparently killed, at the intervention of Rutillio.

PAGE, FIRST and SECOND

There are two pages that figure in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes:
  1. The First Page lives on the Isle of Strange Marshes. He appears on the day of the Battle of Champions. He only comments in an side that he wishes that he had Mustantius's favorable choice.
  2. The second page is actually a disguise that Neronis assumes in order to escape from Thrasellus, the Norwegian king. In this disguise she offers herself into service to the shepherd, Corin, who calls her Jack. Later, she becomes Clyomon's page, at which point she calls herself "Cur Daceer." In this last disguise, she travels to Denmark to inform the King and Queen that their son is alive and returning home.

PAGE, GUSTUS’S **1607

He carries a silver shield depicting an ape with an apple before Gustus in Tomkis’ Lingua. This page could be Appetitus as he is not otherwise listed as entering while the dialogue suggests he, like the page, leads in the retinue.

PAGE, HERMOGENES'S

Hermogenes' page in the anonymous Timon of Athens has to sing a song to Hymen at the wedding of Timon and Callimela, because Hermogenes thinks he is too noble now.

PAGE, LORD BONVILLE'S

He accompanies his Lord in Shirley's Hyde Park. Later, he makes an explicit sexual proposition to Julietta's waiting woman, reflecting his master's advances on Julietta. He passes on the message that Venture must get ready for the horse race. He tells the ladies that he is 15 years of age, and that he is resigned to being a source of amusement for them. He sings a song about the placing of willow garlands on failed lovers' heads, before Bonavent acts out such a ritual.

PAGE, LORD LOVELY'S

This page arrives in Act Five of Brome's A Mad Couple to inform Lord Lovely that Alicia and Saleware have come.

PAGE, MACROS’ **1604

After Macros has defeated Drupon in Verney’s Antipoe, the page is told to stand watch and kill him if he attempts escape. The page, however, disobeys and goes off to see his mates. He returns later to taunt Drupon during a musical interlude.

PAGE, MATHEO'S

The disguise taken on by Bellafront in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore so that she will be admitted to see Hippolyto.

PAGE, MERCUTIO'S

A non-speaking part in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Mercutio, mortally wounded by Tybalt, sends his page to fetch a surgeon.

PAGE, OLFACTUS’S **1607

A page in Tomkis’ Lingua holds a target before Olfactus displaying a green field with a silver hound.

PAGE, PARIS'S

This page in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet attends Paris at the Capulet tomb.

PAGE, PASQUIL'S**1600

When Katherine disappears in Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment, this Page helps Pasquil to look for her.

PAGE, PUFFE'S**1600

A funny character in Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment; this Page sings for Katherine at the direction of Puffe, and then, when she quickly closes the window, he tells his master that he has "puffed" her away.

PAGE, SIR RADERICK'S **1603

Like Amoretto's Jack, Sir Raderick's page in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus offers a series of contemptuous asides during the catechism of Immerito and the attempt of Ingenioso and associates to gain money from their learning. He and Amoretto's page promise payment to the fiddlers but renege.

PAGE, TACTUS’S **1607

He carries Tactus’s escutcheon depicting a black tortoise in Tomkis’ Lingua.

PAGE, THEOCLES'S **1638

He brings the letter from Theocles to Panaretta in Mead's Combat of Love and Friendship.

PAGEANT–MAKER, FIRST and SECOND

The Pageant-makers approach Eugenius concerning the weddings of his son and daughter and are promised "employment in the triumph" in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia.

PAGES**1599

I.
Three pages in Marston's Antonio and Mellida carry lights to illuminate Mellida's path but say nothing.
II.
There are a number of pages on stage throughout Marston's Antonio's Revenge. The first page appears with Antonio and a group of gentlemen. Later, two pages direct Antonio to Andrugio's hearse. Two pages accompany Maria as she wanders about the night before her supposed wedding to Piero. A page sings to open the final masque before Piero is killed.

PAGES**1599

In V.iii of Shakespeare's As You Like It, two pages loyal to Duke Senior sing a duet to Touchstone and Audrey.

PAGES**1604

A number of pages accompany royal persons on stage throughout Chapman's Bussy D'Ambois. The first pages seen attend Monsieur as he recruits Bussy for service. Two pages attend Bussy the evening of his murder.

PAGES**1604

Three pages attend on Duke Pietro in Marston's Malcontent.

PAGES **1604

When called, they come to serve Henry in Rowley’s When You See Me. One is scolded for tying the king’s garter too tightly. Twice Patch is referred to a Page when he speaks, but clearly this is a mistake.

PAGES**1605

An unspecified number of pages are present during the prologue of Marston's Sophonisba. They enter in pairs, carrying torches, leading the main characters.

PAGES **1608

Four mute pages in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. They carry the weapons for the contest between the Queen's champions and the King and his second.

PAGES**1641

Two pages bring urine for diagnosis from Lady Albion and Lady Temple respectively in Quarles' The Virgin Widow.

PAGES to the QUEEN

Two boys in the anonymous Lust's Dominion who accompany the Queen Mother on her amorous visit to Eleazar.

PAGES, VISUS’S **1607

Three pages are part of the grand entrance of III.vi in Tomkis’ Lingua.
  1. The first carries a silver escutcheon with an eagle displayed before Visus.
  2. The second bears a shield before Coelum.
  3. The third is clad in green carrying a terrestrial globe before Terra.

PAGET, LORD

Brings commission from Queen Mary to Gardner and Bonner ordering them to cleanse the state of heresy in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Sends Clunie to fetch Bertie for questioning. Later appears in Europe with Clunie and Brunswick, searching for the Duchess and her party.

PAINFUL PENURY

Painful Penury is Simplicity's wife, "attired like a water-bearing woman with her tankard" in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London. She reminds Simplicity that he can have no dinner because it is a fasting day. She and Simplicity are gulled into buying some worthless goods by Fraud.

PAINTER**1599

Painter answers Balurdo's obtuse questions in Marston's Antonio and Mellida by saying that he was a painter and had painted paintings. He rejects Balurdo's three bizarre emblem requests because none of them make sense.

PAINTER**1601

Katharina instructs a painter to paint a portrait of Pembroke in the anonymous Trial Of Chivalry, which he does on stage without Pembroke noticing.

PAINTER**1604

Used in stage directions to indicate Rinaldo in the anonymous Wit of a Woman.

PAINTER**1605

The Painter in Middleton's Your Five Gallants delivers to Fitsgrave the five shields commissioned for the masque of the Gallants.

PAINTER**1607

One of Timon's false friends in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens, a flatterer. In the first scene he appears with the poet, the merchant, the mercer and the jeweler. He offers Timon a painting, for which he is well paid. With his friend and rival, the poet, he visits Timon again in the woods. Hoping to get some gold, they promise him further works. But Timon drives them away with stones.

PAINTER**1611

A disguise taken on by Govianus to murder the Tyrant in [?]Middleton's The Second Maiden's Tragedy.

PAINTER **1636

The Painter in Strode's The Floating Island presents a picture commissioned by Melancholio. When Fancie requests that the picture be redone to show her with a feather crown rather than a gold crown, Painter asks if he should mend the picture.

PAINTER, POUNCEBY the

Only mentioned in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Grim the Collier says that he'll hire Pounceby (Ponsonby?) to make him a painted cloth to hang in his house that will depict their nut-gathering party and Grim's triumph over Clack the Miller. Editors have been unable to identify Pounceby or to ascertain whether he was a real person.

PALADOR

Prince of Cyprus and son of the recently deceased Agenor in Ford's The Lover's Melancholy. Once viewed as a paragon and great hope for the future of an island struggling under his father's tyrannical rule, since Agenor's death he has been sunk in deep melancholy and lethargy, allowing the commonwealth to go to ruin. His doctor, Corax, and a number of his courtiers remonstrate with him to little effect, but Rhetias has more success when he reminds the Prince of his lost betrothed, Eroclea. Palador confesses to Rhetias that his grief at the loss of Eroclea is the cause of his disorder, but swears the servant to secrecy. On being introduced to Parthenophill (aka, the disguised Eroclea), Palador is seized by a fit of melancholy and exits quickly. Corax and Rhetias then join together to present Palador with a masque representing the various forms of melancholy. Palador's violent reaction to a mention of love-melancholy confirms that his illness proceeds from his love of Eroclea. When 'Parthenophill' reveals her true identity to Palador, he is at first incredulous, but upon seeing the portrait of himself that she bears, is convinced. Cured of his illness, he welcomes his "lost peace" back to his bosom, restores her father's lands and titles, and commences a reign that seems likely to be illustrious.

PALAEMON

See also PALEMON, PALAMON, and related spellings.

PALAEMON**1605

Palaemon is in love with Silvia, but their trust in one another has been disturbed by the lies of Colax, who hoped to gain Silvia's affections for himself in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. Colax told Silvia that he saw Palaemon courting Nisa in the woods, and told Palaemon that Silvia had been unfaithful to him with Thyrsis. Palaemon and Mirtillus discuss their respective problems. Palaemon describes the vows he and Silvia made to one another, regretting that "Silvia I have, and yet I have her not". He remains in the woods until a search party is sent by Ergistus and eliboeus. Colax tells Silvia and Palaemon that he has abused them, and that his stories were untrue. Palaemon and Silvia are reconciled.

PALAEMON**1614

Thyrsis' best friend in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. Palaemon, tries to revive him from the melancholy state he has entered while mourning the loss of Silvia. Failing this, he helps Thyrsis' father, Charimus, understand why the youth is so sad and how sincerely he loved Silvia.

PALAEMON**1637

Enamoured of Castina in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. He hosts a simple celebration honouring Castina, opining that shepherd feasts outstrip Prince’s Courts as the latter’s ‘art and pomp’ violate Nature and can therefore express the ‘true’ rather than ‘shadowed’ happiness. He and Dorus engage in a contest of words over which has the more worthy and beautiful love. He collects the choicest fruits for Castina. When he then sees Alcinous and Castina embrace, he ‘realizes’ that Alcinous only ‘came to top my ewe’. When he discovers that the embrace was chaste, however, in celebration of Alcinous’ redemption, he also embraces Alcinous and welcomes him as a shepherd. He is claimed by Castina for her husband and says that he has gained higher than he could aim.

PALAMEDES

A "ghost character" in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, he was brother of Cethus. Originally chosen by the other Grecian princes to lead the army against Troy, he was falsely accused by Agamemnon, Menelaus, and Ulisses of traitorous communications with the Trojans and murdered, in order that they might take charge. The action provokes Cethus to take remarkably extensive revenge.

PALAMON

Palamon is nephew to Creon of Thebes and one of the two kinsmen for whom Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen is named. Palamon is taken captive in battle against Athens and is well tended by Duke Theseus' physicians. He falls in love with Emilia, Theseus' sister-in-law, and he is again jailed when he and Arcite fight over the young woman. Released from jail by the lovesick Jailer's Daughter, Palamon politely refuses that young woman's love and encounters Arcite, who was banished from Athens but refused to leave because he did not want to be away from Emilia. Palamon and Arcite are joined by knights and engage in a challenge. Palamon loses the fight and, as loser, is to be executed. Arcite is to have Emilia. But Arcite is trammeled to death by a horse after his victory, and Palamon wins his bride while losing a dear friend.

PALATE, PARSON

A young and epicurian clergyman in Jonson's The Magnetic Lady. He specializes in pleasing the rich. A guest of Lady Lodestone's, he agrees to advance Sir Diaphanous Silkworm's suit in return for future rewards. He and Polish inform Lady Lodestone that Practice has already proposed to Pleasance. The plot fails, though, when Placentia goes into labor, and the Parson is called upon to marry Pleasance to Compass. Palate is hesitant, having agreed to help Practice, but Compass threatens him with his brother, Captain Ironside, and the Parson agrees to perform the ceremony.

PALATINE **1604

And alternate designation of George Cassimirus, Palsgrave of the Rhine in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany.

PALATINE**1610

The Count Palatine is a "fictional character" in Jonson's The Alchemist. Face wants to create an attractive picture of the pretended lady's graces for Mammon's benefit. He presents a hypothetical situation, in which Mammon, having obtained the Philosopher's Stone and absolute power over women, will make the mysterious lady his empress, while he will be Count Palatine.

PALATINE, COUNTY **1596

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. He is one of the first group of Portia's suitors, described by Nerissa, who leaves without attempting to find the correct casket.

PALATINE, COUNTY **1624

Name used for Palsgrave at the start of Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk.

PALATINE of MENSECKE

Also called "Palatine of Minsk" in Suckling's Brennoralt. A leader of the rebels against King Sigismond. The dramatis personae of the early editions call him "Governour"; perhaps he is the governor of the rebels' fort, where much of the action takes place.

PALATINE of TROCKE

Also called "Palatine of Troc" in Suckling's Brennoralt. One of the rebel leaders against King Sigismond.

PALEMON

See also PALAEMON, PALAMON, and related spellings.

PALEMON**1599

Palemon is a shepherd who is in love with the shepherdess Serena in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder. He had previously been merry, but is now melancholic and violent. When Serena tells him never to speak to her again, he goes mad, spouting exaggerated love poetry. Palemon breaks up Pan's festival by frightening everyone. He mistakes the Clown for Serena, and dances with him. When Pheander abducts Ariadne the shepherds tell Palemon that it is Serena who has been abducted, so that he will fight alongside them. After the battle, Serena cures his wounds. Her kindness cures his madness, too, and Serena then grants him her love.

PALEMON**1614

Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Palemon is the friend of Arcite in the Knight's Tale by Chaucer. Palemon and Arcite are rival lovers in Chaucer. When Quarlous and Winwife argue over Grace's hand, she proposes a chance game by which she would choose her husband. Each suitor is supposed to write a secret code-name on a writing table, and the first person passing by should draw a name at random. The code-name Winwife chooses is Palemon, but he refers to the play Two Noble Kinsmen (1613) by John Fletcher and William Shakespeare, which draws on the plot from Chaucer's Knight's Tale. Palemon and Argalus are typical figures from romance, and it is ironic that Winwife and Quarlous should associate their names with such courtly paragons. When Trouble-all selects the winner, Palemon is the chosen name.

PALEMON**1618

The disguise in which Lisandro appears before King Atticus after the Masque of Repentance in the anonymous Swetnam. Atticus seals his marriage to his supposed beloved, the Nymph Claribell, before realizing that the latter is really Leonida.

PALEMON**1635

A "ghost character" in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. A knight with a sorrel horse and russet armor, who hopes to slay the dragon of Trebizond. The dragon, aided by its friend the lion, kills him.

PALESTRA

One of Mildew's prostitutes, although virtuous and unwilling to work for him in Heywood's The Captives. Her real name is Mirabel and it is eventually revealed that she is John Ashburne's long-lost daughter. First appears in the play after the shipwreck witnessed by John Ashburne and Godfrey. She laments the loss in the wreck of a small casket containing information concerning her true name and parentage which Mildew had kept away from her and which she now fears is lost forever; she also laments the supposed loss of her companion Scribonia, but soon discovers that she has also survived the shipwreck. They agree to seek shelter in the nearby monastery, where their questions regarding charity are cynically answered by an echo (which turns out to be Friar John). Along with Scribonia pleads for and receives charity from the Abbot, who offers them food, clothing, and shelter. Palestra and Scribonia are later taken captive in the monastery by Mildew and Sarleboys, on the grounds that the women are Mildew's property. When they arrive in the village, Palestra and Scribonia appeal for help from John Ashburne and the assembled villagers. After the argument amongst Mildew, John Ashburne, and Raphael over possession of the women, Palestra and Scribonia take shelter with John Ashburne until a trial can determine their fates as well as the fates of Mildew and Sarleboys. Later, after John Ashburne and his wife argue about the presence of Palestra and Scribonia in the Ashburne home, Godfrey takes Palestra and Scribonia back to the monastery for safety. Godfrey shortly returns to fetch Palestra and Scibonia back to John Ashburne's, where the women identify the bag the Clown and the Fisherman Gripus are arguing over as Mildew's. Palestra then requests that she be given possession of the casket within the bag containing items which reveal her true identity. As John Ashburne goes through the items in the casket with Palestra, they both discover that she is in fact his long lost daughter Mirabel. Godfrey fetches Ashburne's wife and Palestra/Mirabel is reunited with her mother. Later, Palestra/Mirabel enters with Ashburne's wife and Scribonia, and she is united with Raphael; she promises to assist Treadway in wooing Scribonia. She then agrees to go to London with Raphael and the others. The departure of the Ashburne brothers, Raphael, Mirabel, Treadway, and Winifred is delayed, however, by the resolution of Friar John's murder amongst the Sherrif, the Abbot, Friar Richard, the Duke of Averne and Dennis.

PALINURUS

Only mentioned in Marmion's A Fine Companion. Aurelio remarks that Fido is to be his message-carrier Palinurus because Fido carries Aurelio's message to Valeria.

PALLADIUS**1640

Assumed name of Misodorus at the trial for the murder of Basilius in Shirley's The Arcadia.

PALLADIUS**1641

Palladius, one of the king's twin sons in Quarles' The Virgin Widow, is locked in bitter rivalry with his brother Bellarmo. Eventually both are struck dead when they challenge the pronouncement of the Oracle that neither shall succeed.

PALLANTE**1633

Agenor's true identity in Montague's The Shepherd's Paradise; prince of Navarre and brother to Miranda (Fidamira) and Saphira (Bellesa).

PALLANTE **1636

Pallante has no skill at being a courtier in Shirley's The Duke's Mistress; as a Captain he would rather be at war. He falsely reports to Leontio that he has slain the duke, and he has a part in killing Leontio at the play's end.

PALLANTUS **1635

In Killigrew’s The Conspiracy, he has been away so long and burned so black by the sun and scarred in battle that none of his old acquaintances will recognize him now. He supported the old king. His father died defending the old regime, and now Pallantus, the famous patriot, is returning to avenge the usurpation. Two of his shipwrecked mates, Harpastes and Melampus, attempt to kill him ashore, but he kills them. He finds a letter on them revealing that they had been hired by Timeus to murder him. He meets Aratus, Phronimius, and Aratus, and they befriend him for his valiant act, not knowing his identity. They go greet Cleararchus together. Later, Melissa thinks him as black as an ink bottle, and he becomes her servant. Polyander opines that Pallantus must have studied to appear horrible. At the secret ceremony to reveal Cleander as the true king, Pallantus reveals himself as the famous patriot who has returned to avenge the usurpation. His revelation greatly heartens his kinsman Aratus and the patriotic conspirators. When Timeus orders Coracinus and Argestes to fight Pallantus, Pallantus drives them back until Timeus himself enters the fight. He escapes them, but Timeus offers a rich reward for the first man to bring back Pallantus’ head. Later, Clearchus brings news to Aratus and Pallantus that Phronimius and Eurylochus were captured along with the young king, Cleander. The camp mutinies at the news. In anger, he breaks into the usurper’s camp and kills the usurping king. When the king dies begging forgiveness and ordering his guards not to harm Pallantus, Pallantus finds it in him to pity the death even while affirming the justice of it. He escapes capture as the captain and guards grieve over their fallen king. He next leads an assault that brings him to Eudora’s chambers. While he is the ugliest creature she has ever seen, she is the loveliest he has beheld. When Pallantus offers Eudora any service, she asks him to kill her. When he cannot, she takes a blade but he prevents her. She faints. Thinking that she has died, Pallantus stabs himself. When she recovers, however, he discovers that he is not mortally wounded and leaves his soldiers for her to command. He returns to her having removed his ugly disguise. He seeks Eudora’s forgiveness by telling her that he worked only to avenge his own fallen king and murdered father. He shows her Timeus’ letter ordering Pallantus’ assassination and convinces her that his cause was just. When Pallantus and Hianthe beg Cleander for mercy in helping Eudora’s misery, the young king allows Aratus to offer clemency to Timeus if he be found worthy of mercy. Pallantus treats peace with the usurpers and convinces them of the new king’s mercy. They follow him. He takes Timeus before Eudora and earns her heart.

PALLAS**1623

Goddess of war and wisdom; the role played by Aminta in the play-within-the-play in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill.

PALLAS**1635

I.
Pallas is a freedman of Claudius in Richards' Messalina. He, together with Narcissus and Calistus, finally persuades him to act against Messalina.
II.
Pallas is the freedman of the Emperor Claudius and the lover of Agrippina, whom he abets in bringing Nero to power in May's Julia Agrippina. When Nero turns against Agrippina, he dismisses Pallas from his post.

PALLAS ATHENA

See also ATHENA.

PALLAS ATHENA**1581

I.
Pallas is an alternative name for Athena, the goddess of wisdom, weaving, and the city of Athens in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris. Favorite daughter of Jupiter, she claims the golden orb as hers and attempts to bribe Paris with the gift of wisdom and martial victories. When the award goes to Venus, Pallas joins with Juno to take revenge upon the Trojan prince.
II.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. Apollo mentions her in his song, when he is sighing for the love of Eurymine. According to Greek mythology, Pallas Athene was the Goddess of Wisdom. She was born from Zeus's head. Second to his father in the entire Pantheon, she was Zeus's favourite child. She preferred diplomacy to conflict when settling either the affairs of state or conflicts between human beings and gods.
III.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Catiline. Pallas Athena was the wisdom goddess of the ancient Greeks, Minerva in Roman mythology. When he describes the final battle between the senatorial army and Catiline's troupes, Petreius says that Catiline looked like a Fury, and his anger made him kill everybody around him. According to Petreius, it seemed that the fate of the combat would be against them, when the Romans' fortune came in the form of Pallas to encourage the soldiers and change the course of the battle. Further on, Petreius alludes to the mythological conflict between the gods and the titans, when Minerva appeared armed with Medusa's head, which turned all enemies to stone. Likewise, Petreius reports, Catiline's fearlessness froze dead when he saw the Romans' bravery, and thus he was killed.

IV.
Only mentioned in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. Pallas, also known as Athena, is the goddess of wisdom and weaving. Paris remarks that Pallas had offered him wisdom, command of literature, and mastery of the arts in exchange for the golden apple that she, Venus, and Juno coveted.
V.
A mute character in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. The Roman goddess of wisdom, Pallas appears in the first masque presented to Amurath by Lala Schahin and dances with Apollo.
VI.
Only mentioned in Day's Humour Out of Breath. When Hermia challenges her lover to single combat, she is compared to the warrior goddess Pallas Athena.
VII.
Only mentioned in Fletcher's The Captain; the Greek goddess of wisdom, also known as Athena, to whom Julio compares Lelia favorably.
VIII.
She appears in the masque in Burnell's Landgartha. She is the mythological Greek goddess of wisdom. She refuses to stop Achilles as she supports him because his friend has been killed before by Hector.
IX.
Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Pallas is mentioned by Slightall when he is instructing his friends on how to love any creature, even if it is the "loathed'st", by taking no notice of their imperfections. He illustrates his point with the following words: "if she be bleake of hew, / Pale, for the World, like Pallas." According to Greek mythology, Pallas is the name given to Athene–according to some legends, after she killed a sea-nymphe named Pallas (daughter of Triton) who was her childhood companion; according to others, after she defeated and took the life of a giant called Pallas. Pallas Athene, the Goddess of Wisdom, sprung from Zeus's head and she was his favourite child. She always opted for diplomacy as her course of action when dealing with state affairs or with conflicts between either humans or gods.

PALLAS ATHENA**1601

Cytheris is disguised as Pallas at the masquerade banquet at court in Jonson's Poetaster. Pallas Athena was the Greek goddess of wisdom. The Romans identified her as Minerva and ranked her third among the gods, after Jupiter and Juno. During the entertainment presided by Ovid/Jupiter, Cytheris/Pallas does not speak, but it is understood she enjoys the revelry. When Caesar enters and rails at the debauched party banishing Ovid, it is understood that Cytheris/Pallas shares the fate of Julia and the other ladies. They are silent and subdued.

PALLATINE the ELDER

The older brother of the younger Pallatine in Davenant's The Wits. Without being cruel, he is foolish and thoughtless. Instead of helping his younger brother with his financial needs, he determines to show him that, in London, a man may live by his wits alone. To this end, he and Sir Morglay Thwack loan out the rents of their lands for pious purposes and arrive in London richly dressed, convinced that they will be able to get ladies to pay for all of their expenses. Lady Ample, his younger brother, and Lucy show him his mistake. He is tricked into an empty room, stripped of his fine clothes, arrested, and finally locked in a trunk. Instead of being cross, he is enchanted with his brother's cleverness and Lady Ample's beauty and wit, and begs the latter to marry him. He agrees to sign a financial document for her, sight unseen, and this act of faith wins him his bride, who knows that he is easily controlled.

PALLATINE the YOUNGER

In love with Lucy and desperately strapped for cash in Davenant's The Wits. At the beginning of the play he meets his friends Meager and Pert, who are in worse shape than he is. He takes Lucy's money, but that gets her into trouble. After it is clear that he can expect no help from his brother, he sets about fooling him and Thwack into parting with their money. His schemes successful, he is able to give Lucy money, and after his brother signs Lady Ample's document (which gives him an estate), and Thwack asks him to be his heir, he is able to marry Lucy at the end of the play.

PALLATIO

The proper name of the First Thracian Lord in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder. He is the only one of the three lords of Thrace to have a name. Some editors use this name in his speech prefixes, but the original text does not. He begs Pheander to spare Ariadne's life and advises him against executing Sophos. He travels to the Delphic oracle and brings the message to Pheander. The Thracian Lords are given charge of the country by the King of Sicilia when Pheander resigns the throne. After the second battle, this First Thracian Lord organizes the parley between Sicily and Thrace. (See also under "THRACIAN LORD, FIRST, SECOND, and THIRD").

PALMEDA

Also spelled "Palmida" in the original plot of the anonymous Tamar Cam. She is a female attached to Otanes, but what her particular role encompassed has been lost.

PALMER

The Palmer is a zealot, The Foure PP, full of his faith and certain that his pilgrimages have saved his soul.

PALMER, SIR THOMAS **1595

Sir Thomas Palmer in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More visits the Privy Council with the articles of submission King Henry VIII wants the nobles to sign. When Doctor John Fisher, the Bishop of Rochester, and Thomas More refuse, Palmer orders the clergyman taken to prison and More to be kept under house arrest in Chelsea.

PALMERIN **1607

Only mentioned in Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. On his first entrance as the grocer in The Grocer's Honour portion of the play, Rafe reads from Palmerin d'Oliva (misidentified in the s.d. as Palmerin of England) in which this character is named.

PALMERIN

Only mentioned in the anonymous Ghost. Pinnario mentions Palmerin when he suggests that Engin has been called to the newlyweds' chamber on their wedding night, for him to read the History of Palmerin to them. The Palmerin romances originated in Spain under the influence of the Amadis de Gaula. The first was the Palmarin d'Oliva, published at Salamanca in 1511, still closely following its model in style and composition. This gave birth to the second Palmerin romance, El Primaléon, published at Salamanca in 1512. The Primaléon already showed more originality, and was much better written than the first. The third and the best of the Palmerin romances, is the present work, the Palmerin d'Angleterre: the description of the many adventures, especially the fights, are excellently written.

PALMERS, FIRST and SECOND

Two palmers meet Guy upon his return to England in the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick. They inform Guy that Phillis is renowned as a friend to palmers. They ask Guy to travel with them to Phillis' home. When they arrive, they pray for Phillis and her husband Guy. One of the palmers tells Phillis that he knows Guy. They are fed.

PALMIO

This character in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon is referred to directly by the name of his 'real-life' model, Don Benedetto Palmio, an Italian Jesuit who helped in William Parry's plot against Queen Elizabeth. He meets Paridel in Venice and encourages him to aid Fairyland's suffering Babylonians by "letting one vein blood": that is, by killing Titania. He introduces Paridel to Ragazzoni, who also lends his support.

PALPHURIUS SURA

Palphurius Sura is a senator in Massinger's The Roman Actor. For his opposition to Domitian, he is tortured and executed along with Junius Rusticus, though their stoic resolve under torture terrifies Domitian and makes him realize his own guilt. His ghost (and Rusticus') returns to haunt Domitian.

PALSGRAVE**1604

George Cassimirus, Palatine or Palsgrave of the Rhine in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany, is one of the seven Electors of Germany, and is also Taster to the Emperor. Alphonsus killed his father, and the Palsgrave is a supporter of Richard, leaving the court after the Electors abandon their plan to appoint him Emperor. He finds Richard in the woods after his fight with the boors, and accompanies him back to court. When Bohemia and (apparently) Alphonso are poisoned during te dinner, the Palsgrave, who drank from the cup immediately before them, becomes the prime suspect. The Englishmen flee the court, but the Palsgrave elects instead to hide in Isabella's closet, but he is discovered and is killed on the spot by Alphonsus's guards.

PALSGRAVE**1624

Also referred to as County Palatine at the start of Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk, he becomes King of Poland early in the play. Enters with Earl of Arundel to discuss his possible marriage with the Countess. Witnesses, along with Arundel, Northumberland, Erbaigh, Foxe, Cranwell, and Bertie, Duchess' surprising choice of Bertie for her new husband. Reappears at his court with the Earl of Erbaigh in the final act of the play, where he is about to hear the Burgomaster's case against Bertie when he recognizes the Duchess and Bertie and immediately dismisses the case against Bertie as well as the demand by Brunswick and the English Captain that he surrender the Duchess and her party for arrest and transport back to England. To protect them further, he creates Bertie Earl of Crozam, makes Dr. Sands his chaplain, and Cranwell his chief secretary. After Atkinson brings news of the annulling of the warrant against the Duchess with the ascent of Queen Elizabeth to the English throne, Palsgrave dismisses Clunie's claims against Foxe and offers the Duchess what assistance she needs to return to England.

PALSGRAVE, ROBERT the

Robert the Palsgrave is the primary champion of Savoy's claim to the German throne in Smith's The Hector of Germany. At the beginning of the play, the Palsgrave is sick in bed. Because of his illness, he is unable to participate in the initial battle between Savoy, Bohemia and Brandenburgh and the Bastard, Saxon and the Bishops. When The Bastard carries the day, the Palsgrave meets the rightful King of Spain. The Palsgrave, the King of Spain and Cullen rout the Bastard and Saxon in battle and capture the Bastard. When the Palsgrave exits the stage to chase down Saxon, the Bastard escapes. The Palsgrave rebukes his allies and embarks upon a trip to England in order to recruit the assistance of King Edward of England. In England, Edward warmly greets the Palsgrave. The Palsgrave is wildly successful in an English jousting tournament. He repeatedly sends word to the Bastard, now in France, that his days as German Emperor are numbered. The Palsgrave also repeatedly challenges Saxon to duel. Due to his chivalrous behavior, the Palsgrave becomes the first foreigner inducted into Edward's Order of the Garter. When Saxon sneaks into the English court disguised as a Frenchman named Poyctriers, the Palsgrave immediately sees through the deceit and unmasks his enemy. With the assistance of the French Queen, the Palsgrave and his men are able to sneak into the French castle disguised as dancers for a masque. Once inside the compound, the Palsgrave and his men ambush their enemies. The Palsgrave slays Saxon, stands by as the Bastard abdicates and watches as Savoy assumes the throne as Emperor of Germany.

PALSGRAVE'S CAPTAIN

Officer in Palsgrave's service in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Following Clunie's instructions, attempts to arrest Duchess and Bertie; when they resist, Bertie fights with the Captain and kills him. Known as Wisendrop to the Burgomaster.

PAMBO

Pambo is a clown in Davenport's The City Night Cap. In Act Two, he takes Francisco to Abstemia's chamber as it has been agreed between them two. Later, when his lord forgives Francisco, he remains silent.

PAMBO'S FATHER

A "ghost character" in Davenport's The City Night Cap. In Act Two, Pambo's ancestor is remembered by his son, who says that his father had been a costermonger.

PAMELA

I.
Only mentioned in Shirley's The Witty Fair One. In Philip Sidney's Arcadia, Pamela is daughter to the king and placed under the care of shepherd Dametas. Violetta compares herself to Pamela.
II.
Eldest daughter of Basilius and Gynecia, sister of Philoclea in Shirley's The Arcadia. She is sent to stay with the shepherd Dametas to keep her away from men, and to prevent the fulfilling of the Oracle. When she first meets the shepherd Dorus (Misodorus in disguise) she encourages him to court Mopsa. When she sees that Mopsa is rejecting Dorus, Pamela falls for him herself, and Pamela and Misodorus elope. The couple are caught by the Rebels and arrested by Philanax for conspiracy in the murder of Basilius. She is pardoned by Euarchus because she won't be responsible for her actions until she has been married for some years.

PAMPHAGUS **1641

A cook in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. He and Lorrell are called to prepare the Grobian feast. He reads out the orders of the Grobians, which include playing Bambery hot cockles at every festival. Also, apprentices are to leave their business and go into the streets to play football or if they hear bagpipes (which means the bears are coming). Under penalty of law, they must not neglect to throw snowballs, turds, and snot upon any occasion, and farting is encouraged at all times in all companies except the Irish, who are the best Grobians in the world. Oyestus is to read these items throughout the town. At play’s end, he swears the Grobians never to buy suits but in Long Lane, never to wear stockings unless ruffled like a pigeon, or gloves unless greasy, nor shoes unless dungy, never to eat beef that isn’t crawling, or meat that doesn’t stink, and always to grease their lips with butter.

PAMPHILA

Maid to Virginia in ?Munday's Fedele and Fortunio. She informs Virginia that Fedele now loves Victoria.

PAMPHILUS **1632

Supposed son of Demetrius but actually Chremylus' son in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. He is beloved of the jealous Techmessa. After Techmessa is deceived into believing that he has given up his sword rather than defend her honor, she calls in Phronesium to shame him. When it is discovered that Ballio stole the sword, he and Techmessa are reconciled. He agrees to test Evadne's faith for his brother Tyndarus not knowing that Evadne is also sent to test his faith to Techmessa. While he and Evadne test one another, escalating their romantic tryst to see how far the other will go, Techmessa watches in secret. The truth is shortly revealed, and they are again reconciled. Later, he comes looking for Techmessa in Ballio's house, finds and removes the wronged Evadne, and thus raises Tyndarus' jealousy anew. Believing that Techmessa has committed suicide, Pamphilus goes to her coffin and attempts suicide but is prevented by the disguised Techmessa. As he tries to marry Techmessa, the statue of Hymen turns its back on their nuptials. Demetrius arrives to reveal that Pamphilus is in reality Timarchus, Techmessa's brother, and so Pamphilus marries Evadne instead.

PAMPHILUS **1642

In Salusbury’s Love or Money, he offers four hundred pounds per annum as a jointure in order to marry the fair-but-poor Maria and immediately raises it to a thousand. He is quick to place a price upon her grace, beauty, modesty, commodifying her virtues. He criticizes Antius’ ‘longnosed’ mistress as having wealth only. He can scarcely believe it when Maria tells him that both Juristis and Medico send her love tokens and seek to woo her behind his back and agrees to her stratagem to wear a disguise and observe them. Disguised as a servant, he opens the door to Medico and informs him that his mistress is alone as his master is thirteen miles away on special business and agrees to be Medico’s eyes and ears in the house and help him to win Maria. He makes the same arrangement with Juristis and tells him to come at 2 o’clock disguised as a porter. He tricks Medico into hiding in a trunk of dirty linens and then tricks Juristis into believing that it is Maria hiding there to be stolen away. He later applauds Maria’s clever stratagem and withdraws to eavesdrop upon how she is now to dispatch Orlando. He steps out when Maria calls him, and tells Orlando if he were to gain a virtuous wife that he must look for one with beauty and wit and take no account of money.

PAN**1589

I.
Pan is a god in Lyly's Midas. He believes that his pipe playing is better than Apollo's lute playing. The two gods have a competition.
II.
Called the god of shepherds, Pan is one of the woodland gods who helps to greet Juno, Pallas, and Venus when they visit Ida in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris. His contribution to their welcome is to bring a lamb and to play his pipe as the Olympians arrive.
III.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. Mopso mentions Pan when he swears he has not found his mistress (referring to Eurymine). When Ioculo identifies Pan with a kitchen god, Mopso corrects him, explaining he is the shepherds' god. Actually, Mopso is right since, according to the legend, Pan was a god born with goat legs and feet, horns, and a furry human upper body. Being ridiculed by the other gods because of his appearance, he left Olympus and went to live in Arcadia. There he spent his time playing on his pipes and chasing lovely nymphs. He was the god of flocks, forests and fields.
IV.
A non-speaking character in Heywood's The Golden Age. Pan is the God of Shepherds.
V.
Only mentioned in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. Pan is the god of shepherds. Montanus says he is devoted to Pan when trying to persuade Phillis that he is a civilized man and worthy of her attention. Shepherds also revere Apollo and Cynthia, the sun and the moon.
VI.
A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess. Pan is the god of the shepherds. He never appears in the play, but he is constantly referred to and invoked by them. The Priest of Pan demands strict chastity from his followers, but Pan's servant the Satyr describes the god wooing and dining the nymph Syrinx.
VII.
Pan enters at the end of the autumn interlude begun by Bacchus in [?]Queen Henrietta's Florimène. He dances and receives homage from the four satyrs who had disrupted the dance of Bacchus' group.
VIII.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. Clinias mentions him when he praises Narcissus's beauty, comparing his throat to "the pipe of Pan." According to Greek mythology, Pan was the god of flocks, forests and fields, and also the god of shepherds and of music. He is often accompanied by revelers dancing to the tune of his seven-reed pipe.
IX.
The goatish god in Heywood's Love's Mistress agrees to help Venus take revenge on Psiche for stealing the goddess's votaries. Unable to perform for himself to settle a dispute as to the relative musical power of his own pipes and Apollo's lyre because he has caught a cold, he recruits the Clown as his representative. He goes to Vulcan with various commissions, and there joins in an unsuccessful effort to calm Venus's rage against Psiche.

PAN **1622

A Spirit in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess costumed as Pan leads the Shepherds in a dance choreographed by Delphia in honor of Diocles and Drusilla.

PAN **1637

Only mentioned in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. His powers protect the shepherd’s flock, field, and bower. He is worshipped as ‘the great god’ according to Jarbus.

PAN, PRIEST of

Orders the country swains of Trebizond to take down their maypole in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom.

PANACE

A servant to Iris in Knevet's Rhodon and Iris. Acanthus requests a "private Conference" with Panace (who is listed in the Dramatis Personae as Panasa) but is denied (thus, bringing Acanthus's encounter with love in the play to an end). She is charged by Iris to deliver "a gemme whose price doth farre transcend / All estimation" to Rhodon and is instructed to "pray him weare it for [her] sake." She is also entrusted with the delivery of Violetta's "token of [. . .] love to him"–a "precious herbe" which "frustrates quite the divellish force / Of strongest poysons or enchantments." She is informed by Acanthus that Rhodon "lies at the point of death," and is conducted by Acanthus and Anthophotus to their "sicke friend" so that the servant can present him with Violetta's antidote. She assures Rhodon that "'twas not Iris whom [he] met" the previous night in the mirtle grove, and later reappears with Flora, Iris, and Eglantine in order to witness the orders and punishments which Flora doles out at the play's end.

PANARETA**1638

Panaretta is the sister of Ethusa in Mead's Combat of Love and Friendship. She is suffering from unrequited love for Lysander. Theocles loves Ethusa, but Ethusa is determined to reject his suit unless Panaretta counsels her that she should. Panaretta will not do so until Lysander shows some love to her. Ethusa thus refuses to listen to Theocles until Lysander promises to woo Panaretta. Eventually, Panaretta, hearing that her rival Artemone has rejected Lysander, tells Ethusa that she should marry Theocles. Ethusa tells Lysander that she is beginning to yield to Theocles, but expects Lysander to woo Panaretta in recompense. Lysander agrees and runs off to tell Theocles; Panaretta is delighted. At this point, Philonax, whose love she had once rejected, returns to announce that he's marrying Artemone but that he still loves her. She tells Philonax to get Artemone to declare her love to him in front of everyone as a favour to make Artemone suffer. He does so, and decides that Artemone is for him after all. Panaretta thus marries Lysander as is content.

PANASCAEUS

A villain in the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace, engaged by Phonops to help in the murders of Ascania and Aristocles, along with Dolphus. But when the three attack Aristocles the latter kills him.

PANASCRUS

Alternate name for Panascaeus in the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace.

PANDAR

See also "PANDER."

PANDAR**1606

Pandar is a pimp in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater who procures husbands for Francissina and Julia. He is disguised as a scholar to dupe Mercer. In a street in Milan, Pandar enters with Mercer. Disguised as a scholar, Pandar takes advantage of Mercer's gullibility and promises him to procure a rich heiress as a bride and to teach him Latin. When Mercer exits, Julia enters and Pandar proposes her to become Mercer's wife. Since Julia refuses, Pandar suggests that she pass the proposal to Francissina. At Mercer's house, Pandar enters disguised as a scholar. He informs the merchant that his intended is waiting for him at his house in St. Mark's street, which is actually a brothel. Mercer offers Pandar a fish-head as a gift and Pandar exits pretending to use the interim of two hours for study. In a street before the brothel, Pandar, disguised as a scholar, is expecting Mercer. Mercer enters and Pandar tells him his bride is expecting him and they enter the brothel. Pandar re-appears with Julia, whom he instructs to entertain Lazarillo and then exits. In a street in Milan, Pandar enters with Mercer and Francissina, who is already Mercer's wife. Pandar instructs the gullible husband to provide his new wife with clothes and money. When Mercer exits, Pandar requires the promised reward for having made her a city dame. Pandar exits with Francissina.

PANDAR **1631

As guardian for the Bawd and whores in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer, the Pandar admits guests to the bawdy house.

PANDARUS

I.
He appears only once about a third of the way into Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida with Troilus when they are met by Cressida and her waiting maid with a light. He remains alone on stage when they leave and is met first by Deiphobus and after by Helen and Paris, with whom he exits.
II.
Only mentioned in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. When Viola offers Feste money, he jokingly says that he would play Pandarus to bring Cressida (another coin) to this Troilus. Viola obliges him with more money.
III.
Uncle to Cressida in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. He helps Troilus court Cressida and appears to derive voyeuristic pleasure from doing so. His name became synonymous with procurers and pimps, known as panders.
IV.
Sir Pandarus is only mentioned in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. When Fontinel asks Truepenny to testify that he has Violetta's love, Hipolito calls Truepenny "Sir Pandarus, the broking knight of Troy." Truepenny denies any involvement in the love affair between Violetta and Fontinel. In Greek legend, Pandarus was a Lycian, hero of the Trojan War, distinguished as an archer and slain by Diomedes. He acted as go-between in the ill-starred affair of Troilus and Cressida.
V.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Host rails against the current decayed ways of the nobility, he says that young gentlemen play Sir Pandarus and carry messages to Madam Cresside. Host's allusion to Chaucer's Troilus and Crisseyde comes after Lovel had raised in defense of the arts of rhetoric studied by gentlemen, which, as Chaucer said, would embellish their English. Host picks up the allusion to Chaucer, but implies that the depraved young gentlemen use their rhetorical skills to act as go-betweens in amorous affairs. In Greek legend, Pandarus was a Lycian hero of the Trojan War, distinguished as an archer. In Chaucer's Troilus and Crisseyde and in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida, Pandarus acted as an intermediary in love, hence the word "pander."

PANDENA

Along with Cosmeta in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant, one of the leaders of the women's rebellion.

PANDER

See also "PANDAR."

PANDER**1604

At the end of Marston's Dutch Courtesan, when Franceschina's plot to revenge her betrayal at the hands of Freevill is coming to a head, she calls for someone to escort her to Freevill's family and the authorities where she will disclose their relationship and claim that Malheureux murdered Freevill. In order to thwart her plans, Freevill disguises himself as her guide, going by the name of Don Dubon, a pander.

PANDER**1608

A bawd in Shakespeare's Pericles. Along with Bawd and Boult, Pander buys Marina from the pirates with the intent of forcing her to become a whore.

PANDER **1617

A “ghost character" in Goffe’s Orestes. Aegystheus refers to a pander that must be a factor between his bed and Clytemnestra’s even after the death of Agamemnon until they can wed.

PANDINO

Husband of Armenia, father of Pertillo, and brother of Fallerio in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies. First appears in his deathbed, making his will, alongside his wife, who is also on the verge of death. Pandino is especially concerned that Fallerio and Sostrato care for Pertillo after his death. He leaves his estate in the care of Fallerio until Pertillo is old enough to manage it himself, and wills that in the event of Pertillo's death the estate will pass to Fallerio and Allenso. He signs his will and leaves it with Fallerio as executor, blesses his son, and dies.

PANDION

Pandion is a scholar in Lyly's Sapho and Phao. He has never been to court before. Trachinus, a courtier, introduces Pandion to life at court, but Pandion falls into a deep melancholy.

PANDOLF

See also PANDOLPH, PANDULPHO, and related spellings.

PANDOLF

Cardinal Pandolf is sent by Pope Innocent in Shakespeare's King John. The Pope is incensed that John will not support his choice for Archbishop of Canterbury. Pandolf first tries reason, and then threatens John with excommunication, a threat which is carried out when John refuses to back down. The excommunication destroys the newly created peace between England and France as first the Dauphin and then Philip turn against John and declare war. After Arthur is taken prisoner, Pandolf advises the despondent Dauphin to be happy, since Arthur's death will open the way for his claim to the throne through his marriage to Blanche. John finally submits to the Pope, giving his crown to Pandolf and receiving it back again. Pandolf then promises that he can stop the French invasion, but when he appeals to the Dauphin to cease, the Dauphin arrogantly asserts the rights of royalty and refuses. However, Salisbury reports in the last scene that he has been able to bring the Dauphin to a peace after he suffers several losses.

PANDOLFO

Pandolfo works in a tavern in Shirley's The Imposture and convinces Hortensio and Volterino to join in a joke to be played on Bertoldi. As part of the joke, Pandolfo first dons the guise of a soldier, then later the garb and mien of an ugly old woman.

PANDOLFO **1615

A wealthy old foolish widower of fifty (according to Cricca) or nearly three score (according to himself) or seventy winters (according to Antonio) in Tomkis’ Albumazar. He believes in Necromancy and Astrology, and Albumazar intends to cozen him of his riches. He is in love with Flavia and intends to bribe her brother Lelio by offering him Sulpitia. He and Falvia’s father (Antonio, who has since disappeared into Barbary) once agreed to swap and marry one another’s daughters. At Albumazar’s urging, he convinces Trincalo to allow the astrologer to transform him magically into Antonio in order to bestow Fulvia on Pandolfo. He regrets promising the astrologer his good chain and agrees to Cricca’s plan to hide some plate, pretend he’s been robbed, and promise the chain only if Albumazar can restore the plate to him. When he finds all his goods gone indeed, he cries out in earnest until Albumazar scolds him, saying he has placed everything safely in a closet with the transforming Trincalo. He meets the real Antonio in the street and, taking him for the transformed Trincalo, demands his three thousand pounds in plate and jewels. Soon, the real Antonio comes to his house and has the young lovers called together. Pandolfo (believing he is Trincalo) and the young lovers (who are in on the trick) swear to be guided by Antonio’s judgment. When Antonio first decrees that Trincalo be married to Armellina with two hundred crowns for their portion, Pandolfo agrees, believing that this is Trincalo taking care of himself first. Pandolfo betters this by granting Trincalo a lease of twenty pounds per year. When Antonio next bestows Sulpitia upon Lelio, Pandolfo believes this is Trincalo avoiding having to marry her himself as Antonio. But when Antonio matches Fulvia with Eugenio and Pandolfo, so he’ll not be cold in bed, with Patience, Pandolfo is enraged and believes Lelio and Eugenio have tricked him by suborning Trinculo to their wills. He vows revenge and, upon finding Trincalo freshly escaped from Antonio’s cellar, beats him until Trincalo tells him what has really happened and that the plate and gold have been stolen indeed. Upon intelligence from Albumazar, Cricca took a Constable to a tippling house where they arrested Ronca, Harpax, and Furbo and recovered all of the stolen goods. Pandolfo, restored to his right senses, pardons the thieves as they were instrumental in bringing about the right ending.

PANDOLPH

The Papal Legate in Davenport's King John and Matilda. He is sent from Rome with terms for the end of the six-years' interdict against King John. Pandolph persuades the King to submit his crown and pay a huge annual tribute to the Pope; he also presides over the ceremony where John, ignoring the furious protests of his opponents, swears to the terms with Rome.

PANDOLPHO

Pandolpho is a Spanish colonel in Rawlins's The Rebellion who travels regularly with Alerzo and Fulgentio. Pandolpho praises Antonio for bravery and is accused by the Count of being a flatterer. When Antonio is accused of treason by the Governor and Machvile, Pandolpho protests Antonio's innocence. When Sebastian (disguised as Giovanno) promises to defeat Raymond, Pandolpho is skeptical and attacks Sebastian for his impudence. Even after Sebastian defeats Raymond, Pandolpho shows him disrespect. Pandolpho returns to the stage near the conclusion to witness Machvile and Raymond's demises.

PANDORA**1593

Pandora is created by Nature after the shepherds of Utopia plead for a mate in Lyly's The Woman in the Moon. Her beauty makes the planets jealous and they resolve to influence her behavior. Under Saturn, she is melancholy; under Jupiter, she she refuses to love anyone–even Jupiter; and under Mars' influence, she beats the shepherds. Sol makes her gentle and kind, and under his influence she marries one of the shepherds, Stesias. However, Venus makes her fall in love with all of the other shepherds in turn. When they discover Pandora's deceit, the shepherds denounce her to her husband. Now under Mercury's influence, Pandora sets a plot to have her revenge on the shepherds–she sends Melos a blood-stained napkin, Learchus a letter and Iphicles one of her rings. One-by-one, the shepherds are persuaded to retract their story but, instead of meeting them later, she runs off with her servant Gunophilus. When Stesias catches the pair, Pandora (under Luna's influence) appears to be mad. Finally abandoned by Stesias, Pandora chooses to be placed in Luna's orb.

PANDORA**1610

Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. In an attempt to convince the skeptical Surly of the benefits of alchemy, Mammon claims that "Pandora's tub" was an alchemical parable. In Greek mythology, Pandora's box contained all the ills and diseases of mankind, which Pandora unwittingly released.

PANDORA **1632

Sacrilege Hook’s daughter in Hausted’s Rival Friends. She loves Lucius and Neander equally, but they are such good friends they will not woo her but rather (very much against their wills) scorn her for the other’s sake. Placenta advises her to pretend to love Endymion and so make her two lovers declare themselves. When the two lovers see them, they threaten to kill Endymion until she tells them the prank. When she learns that Neander is already wed and Lucius is a eunuch, she faints. When Endymion tells her how Lucius loved and left his sister, Isabella, Pandora falls in love with Endymion in earnest. When Neander discloses that he is Cleopes and gives Lucius free passage to Pandora, Pandora responds that she doesn’t give a snap for either of the rival friends and now prefers Endymion. She is promised to him in marriage.

PANDRASSUS

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Locrine. He was a Greek monarch defeated by Brutus and his peers. Brutus took him as prisoner.

PANDULFO

See also PANDOLF, PANDOLPH, PANDULPHO, and related spellings.

PANDULFO, SIGNOR

A "ghost character" in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore. Signor Pandulfo is a merchant of Candido's acquaintance whom the Second Apprentice falsely reports wishes a conference with Candido. It is only a ruse, however, to remove Candido from the shop while the apprentices deal sharply with Fustigo, who is misbehaving.

PANDULPH, CARDINAL

I.
The Pope's legate in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John, Cardinal Pandulph excommunicates John, and urges Philip of France to break the treaty and renew hostilities with England in order to punish John for refusing to accept Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury. After John's victory in France he encourages Lewes to seek the English crown.
II.
Cardinal Pandulph, the papal legate in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John, accepts John's submission to the Pope, removes the excommunication pronounced in Part 1, and restores the crown. When Lewes and the English lords arrive at Dover Castle, Pandulph tells the French to go back home, and curses them when they decline to abandon their attack on John. He accompanies the repentant English nobles to Swinstead, blesses the dying John, and brokers a peace between Lewes and the newly crowned Henry III.

PANDULPHO

See also PANDOLF, PANDOLPHO, PANDULPHUS, and related spellings.

PANDULPHO **1620

Virolet's father in Fletcher and Massinger's The Double Marriage. Pandulpho is arrested along with Juliana, whose racking he witnesses. He is kept as a pledge while Virolet seeks the tyrant Ferrand's nephew Ascanio. Allowed to return to his son's home after Virolet returns with Ascanio, Pandulpho is forced to give a gratuity to the guards who assist Juliana, now disabled by Ferrand's torture of her. When Pandulpho discovers that his son intends to divorce Juliana, he curses Virolet. When Juliana urges Pandulpho to revoke the curses, he promises to make her virtue his heir and to have her story "written in prose and verse." Returning with this book, he finds Juliana lamenting because she has mistakenly stabbed Virolet, who was disguised as the evil courtier Ronvere. Pandulpho, Lucio, and three servants attend to Virolet's corpse, then discover that Juliana has died. Pandulpho accompanies the corpses in a funeral procession, meets Sesse, and tells the story of Virolet and Juliana's deaths. Sesse promises to avenge the deaths by killing Ferrand. After Sesse beheads the tyrant and captures Martia, Pandulpho returns with the corpses and demands that Martia repent.

PANDULPHO**1624

Pandulpho is a lord of Verona in Davenport's The City Night Cap. In Act Three, with Spinoso, he comes to Verona to announce that the Duke of Venice is sending his troops to march toward Verona.

PANDULPHO FELICHE

Pandulpho Feliche is a gentleman of the Venetian court in Marston's Antonio's Revenge. He first appears on stage with Antonio and a group of gentlemen. He is a stoic by study and disposition. When Antonio tells a group of gentlemen about a bad dream, Pandulpho instructs Antonio not to express fear under any circumstances. When Pandulpho finds his dead son hanging in Mellida's window, he stoically laughs to keep himself from showing grief. Pandulpho is disappointed when Piero moves to refuse young Feliche a decent burial. Pandulpho is surprised to hear that Andrugio is dead and that Mellida is on the verge of condemnation. When Piero asks Pandulpho to help him frame Antonio for Andrugio's death, Pandulpho angrily refuses. He defies Piero's banishment of him, insinuating that he can always retain honor by committing suicide. Pandulpho thanks Antonio for seeking vengeance for young Feliche and offers to help him. Pandulpho tells Antonio that he is lucky he lost Mellida while she was still good. He tells Alberto that he is lucky he lost his friend Feliche while he was still good. Pandulpho feels lucky that his son died pure. Yet when he sees Feliche's bare breast, Pandulpho cannot any longer affect a stoic front. He feels great sorrow and vows to assist Antonio and Alberto in the slaying of Piero. He dresses in the costume of a masque to gain access to a drunken Piero and kill him.

PANDULPHUS, CARDINAL

I.
Cardynall Pandulphus in Bale's King Johan, Part 1 is the disguise assumed by Privat Welth, one of the villains who threaten King Johan's crown.
II.
The disguise assumed by Privat Welth in Bale's King Johan, Part 2. As Cardynall Pandulphus, Privat Welth curses King Johan and releases the people from their allegiance to him. He also persuades King Johan to give him the crown and extorts money from him. He then brings to England the eldest son of King Philippe of France, Louis, to make war on King Johan.

PANELION

A lord in Cynthia's court in Lyly's Endymion. Cynthia sends him to Egypt in search of a remedy for Endymion's curse. We learn through him and Zontes that Bagoa betrayed Dipsas' curse, so now the court knows why Endymion had slept.

PANOPIA

The King's sister, Panopia, is in love with Arioldus in Wilson's The Swisser. She joins Arioldus and Andrucho in a plot to punish her brother and teach him a moral lesson. Arioldus asks the King to use his sister in the same way as he had used Eurina, which the King must decline. Andrucho wants a duel unless the King marries his daughter Eurinia, a poor Swiss girl, then Panopia comes and offers to prostitute herself to Arioldus. When everything is discovered, the King marries Eugenia, whom he has always loved, and Arioldus marries Panopia, whom he has always loved, too.

PANOURGUS **1630

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. He has accused Prodetes of treason. Justice Nimis learns that Panourgus is the richer of the two and condemns him as the traitor because Nimis must do some injustice for his credit and not do all for gain.

PANSA

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. A consul who fought against Antony. Caesar mentions him while reminiscing about Antony's fortitude during the battle.

PANTAGRUEL

Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Lovel praises the noble education he received from Lord Beaufort, he distinguishes between the teaching of frivolous courtly manners and the profound righteousness inherited from the great classical epitomes of morality. Lovel illustrates the two types of education with examples from chivalric romance and classical antiquity. Deprecating the frivolity of chivalry, Lovel says that his noble tutor taught him no such things, because his education had no Pantagruels. Pantagruel is the son of Gargantua in Rabelais' romance Gargantua and Pantagruel (1533). In a section of the novel, Gargantua teaches his son, by means of a letter, about all the good things he needs to learn in life. The didactic passage reflects the humanist education, but Pantagruel hardly follows his father's advice. The heroes of chivalric romance are considered public nothings, abortive notions of the fabulous, sent out to poison courts and infest manners. Lovel uses the name Pantagruel deprecatorily.

PANTALONI

Father to Fabritio in Brome's The Novella. He is identified as a senator and referred to throughout as "Magnifico," but Flavia refers to Fabritio as the son of a tradesman. He is a lustful old man with a reputation for whoring. He believes he has succeeded in haggling the Novella's price down, but she plays a "bed trick" on him, substituting "Jacquenetta" (the eunuch Jacomo in disguise) for herself. To get revenge, he instructs Nicolo to arrange to have the hangman Rastrofico visit her, thus making her a social outcast. He is possessed of great wealth, which he uses to entice Guadagni into arranging a marriage between their children. Returning to Guadagni's house after the marriage negotiations, he is told by Nicolo that Fabritio has run away to Rome. Nicolo also tells him that the hangman will visit the Novella dressed as a Dutchman. He accompanies Guadagni to the Novella's lodgings at the end of the play. When the man in the Dutchman's costume turns out to be Fabritio, Pantaloni is forced to acknowledge the legality of his child's marriage to Victoria.

PANTALOON

Also spelled Panteloun in the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune. Sometimes used as a proper name, sometimes as a stock designation "the pantaloon." He is a character in the ill-defined subplot. He is Asspida's husband and Peascod's master, and he enters towards the end of the play with a trunk presumably containing the titular fortune. We know little of his plot owing to the sketchy state of the surviving plot.

PANTALOON'S MAN

A character in the ill-defined subplot of the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune. Possibly this is a reference to Peascod, but the reference is obscure owing to the sketchy nature of the surviving plot.

PANTAMORA

Former queen of the Shepherd's Paradise in Montague's The Shepherd's Paradise. She is what passes for the villain of the piece. She schemes to replace Bellesa as queen, and also to attain Moramante's (Basilino's) affections.

PANTARBO

A fop and libertine as well as Busario's son in Wilson's The Inconstant Lady. Pantarbo spends most of his time memorizing lines he hopes will help him seduce women. He is as familiar as his father is with Romilia's brothel, so when he is injured by the aggrieved Millecert for kissing Millecert's inconstant wife, Pantarbo ends up in Romilia's care. When he uses his memorized speeches on her, he traps himself into marrying the madam.

PANTHEA**1585

Companion of Queen Progne (perhaps Itis' nurse?) Appears in the third playlet in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One.

PANTHEA**1588

Wife of Abradates, King of Susa, who is absent on an embassy from Assyria to Bactria, she falls captive to Cyrus, is assigned to the honorable care of Araspas, and repeatedly rejects his overtures of love in the anonymous Wars of Cyrus. She complains of her treatment to Cyrus, and is transferred to the care of Histaspis. Learning of Arastus' penance, she asks her husband to replace him in Cyrus's army. When he is killed in the assault, she stabs herself.

PANTHEA**1606

Only mentioned in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. Panthea is a character in Beaumont and Fletcher's tragi-comedy A King and No King. In his apology to the ladies in the audience, Prologue says that when the women see that a member of their sex is abused, they should not think her defect is a general trait belonging to all women. More likely, the author referred only to a particular example, because the play's criticism relies not on truth, but on life's variety. According to Prologue, the poet was carried on the wings of his imagination and the same poet who gave life to Evadne, Aspatia, Arethusa, and Panthea pleads to the ladies to bear with him.

PANTHEA**1611

Panthea is an Iberian princess, Arane's daughter and thought for much of Beaumont and Fletcher's A King and No King to be Arbaces's sister. For some reason, Panthea and her brother Arbaces were kept separate from one another through most of their childhoods. At the beginning of the play Arbaces announces his intention that Panthea wed the captured Armenian king Tigranes. Bessus presents Spaconia, disguised as a servant named Thalectris, to Panthea. Panthea accepts the girl and soon wing her confidence. Spaconia confesses her true identity to Panthea and the Iberian princess promises to help her new friend however possible. Panthea presents herself to Arbaces as a loving sister and loyal subject. Her beauty arouses incestuous urges in her brother. Arbaces accuses his sister of witchcraft and places her under house arrest. He goes so far as to deny their kinship. Arbaces soon regrets his actions and kisses Panthea to make amends. The kiss further arouses him and he again arrests Panthea. When Arbaces offers Panthea her freedom in exchange for sexual favors, she refuses the offer but admits to sharing her brother's forbidden desire. The two Iberian royals kiss again and surrender to their passion. It is luckily revealed soon after that Arbaces is not really Arane's son; consequently, Arbaces and Panthea are not brother and sister. Panthea is thus free to marry Arbaces.

PANTHEA**1641

A "ghost character" in Quarles' The Virgin Widow. She sends Palladius a letter encouraging him to fight a duel with his brother.

PANTHINO

Panthino is servant in the house of Antonio in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona. He carries to his master what Antonio's brother has said regarding Proteus' idleness and suggests that Antonio send his son to the emperor's court.

PANTILIUS TUCCA

I.
The full name of Tucca in Dekker's Satiromastix.
II.
Pantilius Tucca is a braggart captain in Jonson's Poetaster. According to Luscus, Tucca is a mad captain who would press everyone he meets with demands for money. Tucca enters Ovid's house following Ovid Senior and Lupus. When Lupus blames the players, who ridicule statesmen on stage, he includes himself and Tucca among those lampooned in the plays. Tucca adds that an honest decayed commander cannot cheat or be seen in a brothel without being the object of ridicule in one of the licentious comedies. Using flattery, Tucca manages to extort some money from Ovid Senior and exits. On the Via Sacra, Tucca enters when Crispinus is on the point of being arrested for debt. Tucca threatens and intimidates Minos, persuading him to be content with a quarter of Crispinus's debt and give everybody a drink. Tucca exits discreetly when he sees Horace and Trebatius, apparently wishing o avoid the lawyer. At Albius'' house, Tucca enters with his host, being introduced by Crispinus. Tucca courts Chloë blatantly and takes Crispinus's part when the poets discover he has plagiarized Horace. Tucca disguised as Mars enters an apartment in the palace, together with the entire party of poets and their ladies, each characteristically dressed as gods and goddesses. All the masks play their assigned roles. During the entertainment presided by Ovid/Jupiter, Tucca/Mars courts Chloë/Venus. When Caesar enters and rails at the ribald party, Tucca makes himself scarce. While Caesar is holding court with the poets, Tucca enters following Lupus, who claims to disclose a plot against Caesar's life. Lupus's gross misrepresentation is exposed and Tucca lays the blame on Aesop, the player-politician. When Lupus and Aesop are chased away in disgrace, Tucca pretends he sustained Lupus against Horace because he wanted to frighten the poet and Maecenas, whom he loved. Caesar orders Tucca gagged and helmeted, in order to keep silent and calumniate no more. Lictors take Tucca away.

PANTLER

The Pantler loyally serves Elizabeth and stands with the Cook so Elizabeth may see them when crossing the river near the Tower in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me.

PANTOFLE

Pantofle is Bordello's beloved page in Mason's Mulleasses. When Bordello reveals that he intends to leave Florence without settling his bills, Pantofle attempts to convince his master to at least pay the financially struggling tailor.

PANTOLABUS

Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Pantolabus is a buffoon. Horace names Pantolabus and Nomentanus in Satire viii, Book I. He is a fictitious semi-historical character in Horace, such as Canidia, Bolanus, Persius, Scaeva. Pantolabus is a foolish clown and probably corresponds to Crispinus in the play. When Tucca wants to introduce Crispinus to Histrio, he asks the player if he knows that Pantolabus there. In his dialogue with Horace, which is part of the Author's apology quoting Horace's Satire i, Book II, Trebatius advises the poet against writing satires and in favor of composing poems in praise of Caesar. Trebatius argues that, instead of hurting Pantolabus, who is railing in his saucy jests, Horace could write poems in praise of Caesar's virtue.

PANURA**1621

Waiting-woman to Princess Quisara in Fletcher's The Island Princess. Armusia takes Panura into his confidence and she helps him try to win the Princess. She allows Armusia to enter the Princess's chambers at night and then leaves them alone. Panura is enamored of Pyniero and declares that she will willingly help him. She tells him about the secret passage through which the Moor-Priest entered the palace and together they reveal the true identity of the disguised governor.

PAOLO ANDREOZZI

A "ghost character" in Shirley's The Opportunity. Paolo Andreozzi is the major domo to the Duke of Milan and is the father of Aurelio.

PAOLO MICHAEL

The Venetian ambassador in ?Ford's The Laws of Candy. Paolo Michael arrests Gonzalo for treason and asks Candy either to punish him or to extradite him to Venice for punishment.

PAPAL LEGATE

Late in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, Winchester gives him money for the Pope in recompense for investing him with symbols of high rank.

PAPILLION

Philip Matchil disguises himself as Papillion, a French spark, when he travels to the New Academy in Brome's The New Academy. There, claiming to know little of the language, he is more reserved in this wooing of the women. When Strigood agrees to prostitute Joyce to him, he refuses to rape her and insists on marrying her. The two are contracted and he agrees to join the New Academy, teaching courtly behavior to Blithe, Nehemiah and the other visitors at the end.

PAPPENHEIM

Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Pappenheim is mentioned by Sir Conquest Shadow when, telling Doctor Clyster about his imaginary valor, he explains: "I'll tell you, Doctor, all the time of the / German War I have overthrown the Emperor I cannot tell how many times, Tilly in many a battle, Bucquoy before, Wallenstein afterward and made Pappenheim fly like atoms in the air with my great ordnance. And so methought Swede and I came to play for the empire ... won the game, and so established the Princes of the Empire ..." Count Gottfried Heinrich zu Pappenheim (1594-1632) was an Imperial Army cavalry general in the Thirty Years' War.

PAQUETTO

Servant to Sienese gentleman in Gascoigne's The Supposes.

PARACELSA

Only mentioned in the anonymous Ghost. Pinnario mentions Paracelsa when he is claiming for "a Maid, a Virgin or a Fresh Rose."

PARACELSUS

I.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Paracelsus (1493–1541), or Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, was a Swiss physician and chemist. He probably invented the name by which he is generally known. Paracelsus means "superior to Celsus," Celsus being an early Roman physician. Because of his arrogance and conceit, Paracelsus was not well liked by other physicians. His Great Surgery Book is a collection of his medical treatises. Paracelsus contributed significantly to the rise of modern medicine, particularly in the areas of diagnosis and chemical treatments. His studies helped lay the groundwork of chemical physiology. When Morose is appalled at seeing that his wife is not the silent woman that he expected her to be, Epicoene wants the others to think that her husband is mad. Overemphasizing Morose's anger, Epicoene says he is mad, he talks nonsense, his eyes sparkle, and he looks green about the temples. Epicoene entreats Daw to diagnose her husband. She pretends to appeal to him as a cognizant, who has read Pliny and Paracelsus. Daw provides pretentious definitions of Morose's supposed affliction, but no definite remedy.
II.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Paracelsus is mentioned by Doctor Clyster when he explains to Bill Bond that he has sent Master Sickly "to read a treatise, a manuscript of Paracelsus, translated into English for him," so that they can speak in private about what trick to play on Damme de Bois. Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus (1493-1541) was the pseudonym of Dr Theophrastus Bombastus Hohenheim, which meant 'beyond Celsius',–assuming he was greater physician than the still-reputed Roman physician Aulus Cornelius Celsius. Paracelsus was a Swiss physician, chemist, alchemist and natural philosopher: in fact, one of the fathers of modern medicine.

PARACELSUS, AURELIUS BOMBASTUS **1636

A fictional character in Glapthorne’s Hollander. Urinal tells Sconce that Arelius Bombastus Paracelsus was the first inventor of the ‘admirable unguent’ that Artless calls weapon salve. Sconce says he was his countryman, and that he was regarded as an arrant conjurer.

PARADO

The name taken by Benatzi when he appears as an outlaw in Ford's The Lady's Trial.

PARADOX

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Timon of Athens, based on a misunderstanding. Hermogenes hears "atropos" and "paradoch" and thinks that the Lords Paradox and Atropos were Aristotle's friends.

PARAMOUR, SPIRIT of ALEXANDER the GREAT'S

A non-speaking character in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. The Spirit of the Paramour of Alexander the Great (Roxana), is conjured up by Faustus at Charles, the German Emperor's request and, in the B-text only, receives the crown of the dead Darius from Alexander. She has a mole on her neck, which Faustus allows Charles to inspect.

PARDONER**1519

A shady individual in John Heywood's The Pardoner and the Friar, heir to Chaucer's Pardoner, who tries to extort money from a congregation by presenting dubious bulls and absurd and ridiculous relics. He quarrels with an equally knavish Friar that he has found in the church, and they fight. At the end of the play, however, the Pardoner joins forces with the Friar against the Curate and the constable Neybour Pratte, who have tried to throw the two rascals out of the church.

PARDONER **1520

The Pardoner is a hypocrite, The Foure PP, certain that his relics are worthless and just as certain to sell their powers of reclamation and spiritual fulfillment to the unwary. He is a disguised merchant only.

PARDONER**1540

The disguise of Flattery, with the assumed name of Sir Robert Rome-raker in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates. Introducing himself, he offers the audience relics of Scottish heroes. He sells a pardon to the Poor Man but is chased away when the Poor Man realizes that the pardon takes effect only after death.

PARENTHESIS

Master Parenthesis is Justiniano's disguise of a Latin pedant and "pen man," or writing instructor, in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho.

PARENTS, MONTESCELSO'S

"Ghost characters" in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. They are mentioned by their son when he dreams of the blessing of his ancestors.

PARENTS, OLD BELLAMY'S

"Ghost characters" in Brome's A Mad Couple. Old Bellamy confesses that they were nice people and that he does not understand how Bellamy's father could turn out to be a drunkard.

PARENTS, VITELLI'S**1637

"Ghost characters" in Glapthorne's Ladie's Privilege. Vitelli swears to Chrisea that his vow to Doria would not be swayed by both his parents' prayers.

PARIA

A "ghost character" in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. One of the ladies involved in the rebellion but who never appears on stage.

PARIDEL

A doctor in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon who stands for the notorious Elizabethan traitor, Dr. William Parry. When he first appears he has been condemned to death for planning a murder, but Titania spares his life on the grounds that his plan was never put in practice. Contrary to expectation, her mercy doesn't please him; he complains that it leaves him bound in "servile fear" to Titania and traps him under the oppressive thumbs of the Fairy peers. He therefore asks Titania for permission to travel, which she grants. Having confessed himself to Father Anniball, he joins the allies of the Empress of Babylon and determines to aid her suffering servants in Fairyland by assassinating Titania. Palmio, Ragazzoni, and Campeggio, who bring Paridel the Empress' blessing, support him in this enterprise. He asks the Albanois to back up their support by affirming the justice of his cause. When the Albanois declines to do so, Paridel leaves for Fairyland. He presents himself to Titania as one who can give her intelligence of Babylonian plots against her life, but when she leaves him coldly he worries that she has seen through his lies. His animus against her is increased by her refusal to give him the mastership of Santa Caterina (i.e., Saint Katherine's at Greenwich). He tries to convince his shocked cousin to second him in his determination to stab her as she walks in Saint Iago's (Saint James') Park. Left alone with Titania in her garden, he repeatedly breaks down and fails to carry through with his plan. Bolstered by the memory of the Papal Pardon granted him by Como in return for the murder, he is finally on the verge of assassinating Titania when her counselors burst in, led by Paridel's cousin, who has betrayed his plot. He throws himself on Titania's mercy, but she refuses him and he accepts the fact that his black life will end in black fame.

PARIDELL

A "ghost character" in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Paridell is the lover of Hellena, Malbecco's wife. The ghost of Malbecco calls him a thief and describes how they ran off together.

PARILLUS

Parillus in Harrison's Philomathes' Second Dream helps to recount the "solemn disputation" to which he and the rest of the company (except Philomathes) were challenged by a group of ruffian scholars in the street before the start of the play. He is the primary agent in encouraging Philomathes to recount his dream, but offers no interpretations of it. Parillus makes a number of brief contributions to the lengthy digression on problems with the student body at St. Paul's.

PARIS**1567

I.
A "ghost character" in Pickering's Horestes. Clytemnestra and Egistus refer to his courtship of Helen.
II.
Only mentioned in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1. The prince of Troy. Mycetes bids Theridamas to return "smiling home" from his encounter with Tamburlaine "as did Sir Paris with the Grecian dame." The trouble of that Trojan homecoming foreshadows the trouble Mycetes is about to have with Tamburlaine.
III.
Subject of the arraignment before the gods for showing "partiality" in awarding the golden apple to Venus, Paris is a young son of the Trojan king Priam in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris. He is approached by the goddesses Venus, Juno, and Pallas on the slopes of Mount Ida where he has been living the pastoral life of a shepherd and is required to award the golden apple to one of them. His selection of Venus enrages Juno and Pallas, and it leads both to the goddesses' hatred for all things Trojan and to his arraignment before an Olympian tribunal on charges of "partiality." His oration defending himself is masterful. He argues that as a mere human his fallibility (and poor eyesight) must be allowed as points in his favor. The various bribes offered by the contending goddesses were taxing for someone adhering to the simple life of a shepherd, and he argues that the inscription on the golden apple indicated its destination was "the fairest," not the goddess most associated with political sway or with wisdom. His argument is convincing, and because the Olympian panel is already aware that his fate is to bring about the destruction of his native city (by refusing to return Helen to her husband Menelaus), the gods are willing to free the young man from the charges. His departure ends his role in the play, but the gods are still left with the problem of awarding the golden prize to someone, a problem that will finally be solved by Apollo's suggestion that Diana should decide. Her decision is that only her follower Eliza (also known as Zabeta), the fictive equivalent of Queen Elizabeth herself, qualifies in all ways to receive the golden apple.
IV.
He appears first in Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida on the walls of Troy with Hector and Deiphobus to witness Diomede pursuing Antenor and being met by Ajax. He later enters with Helen to meet Pandarus. In the next scene he enters with Helen and the Trojans to meet Ulysses and other Greeks. Near play's end he again enters with Helen and other Trojans to meet with Antenor. At play's end he is on the walls with Helen, Priam, Polixina, and Cassandra and descends with them to the Greeks.
V.
Son to Priam in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. He is married to Helen.
VI.
A son of Priam and Hecuba in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Paris is the Trojan prince most directly responsible for the war with the Greeks. He supports Priam's plan to send forces to rescue Hesione, in part because Venus has promised him the world's most beautiful woman, and he believes he may find her in Greece. As he leaves Troy, Paris forcefully rejects Oenone, the mountain nymph to whom he has been married. Visiting Sparta with Aeneas, Antenor, and others, he meets and falls in love with Menelaus's wife Helen and arranges to carry her back to Troy. When Priam hosts a banquet for the Greeks, Paris argues with Menelaus, and at the suggestion of Achilles, the two rivals for Helen's affection are seated on either side of the woman as she is made to choose between them. When Menelaus reminds Helen of the family she has left behind in Greece, Paris counters by arguing she has simply found a better family in Troy, and Helen remarks that Paris is indeed the better kisser. In a later battle scene, Paris downs Menelaus but spares his life because he has already stolen the man's honor (by taking Helen). The deaths of both Hector and Troilus at the hands of Achilles prompts Paris to seek revenge. He accomplishes this by assassinating Achilles during the Greek warrior's marriage to Polyxena. Along with Priam, Aeneas, and other leading Trojans, he accompanies the corpse of Achilles as it is exchanged for that of Hector.
VII.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. He is mentioned by Apollo in his song, when he is sighing for the love of Eurymine. According to Greek mythology, Paris was the son of Priam and Hecuba, and brother of Hector. He began the Trojan war by kidnapping Helen.
VIII.
Only mentioned by Mall Berry in [?]Heywood's The Fair Maid of the Exchange. Mall terms Bernard her Trojan prince Paris, after Bowdler likens himself to Menelaus, Helen's husband.

PARIS**1595

A noble suitor to Juliet and kinsmen to Mercutio and the Prince in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Paris hopes to marry Juliet despite her youth, and following the death of Tybalt, is promised Juliet by Capulet. When Juliet appears to be dead, Paris mourns for her at her tomb, and discovering Romeo there challenges him to a duel. Paris is slain in the ensuing combat.

PARIS**1623

The role played by Bustofa in the play-within-the-play in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill.

PARIS**1626

Paris is the principal player of the theatrical company in Massinger's The Roman Actor. Accused with libel by Aretinus, he gives an impassioned defense of the theatre before the senate. Paris plays the part of the son in the first inset play and Iphis in the second. He is favored by Domitian but becomes the object of Domitia's affections. When she attempts to seduce him and Domitian finds them together, Domitian regretfully orchestrates Paris's death as the climax of a play in which a jealous husband, played by Domitian, kills a faithless servant, played by Paris.

PARIS**1634

A fictitious character within the story of Paris and Enone which the Chorus intends to perform before the king in Rutter's The Shepherds' Holiday.

PARISH CLERK

The parish clerk is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. He is teaching the General the rudiments of military discipline.

PARISHIONERS, FIRST, SECOND and THIRD

These are the parishioners of Lopez, the Spanish Curate in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. Lopez and Diego roundly criticize these folk for not fulfilling their duty to the church; i.e. having many children, dying quickly when they age, and marrying frequently (each of these activities would serve to enrich Lopez and Diego). The pair threaten to leave their parishioners without religious support if they fail to amend their ways. The parishioners offer bribes to entice Lopez and Diego to stay. The first, a smith, promises to offer up every tenth horse to be prayed for. The second, a cook, offers to tithe porridge. The third promises drink and his daughter.

PARISMUS

Only mentioned in the anonymous Ghost. Pinnario mentions Parismus when he suggests that Engin has been called to the newlyweds' chamber on their wedding night, for him to read them about "Valiant Parismus and his loved Laurana." He refers to the work Emanuel Forde published in 1598, entitled Parismus, the Renovmed Prince of Bohemia. His most famous, delectable, and pleasant Historie. Conteining His Noble Battailes fought against the Persians. His loue to Laurana, the Kings Daughter of Thessaly. And his straunge Aduentures in the Desolate Iland. With the miseries and miserable imprisonment, Laurana endured in the Iland of Rockes. And a description of the Chiualrie of the Phrygian Knight, Pollipus: and his constant loue to Uioletta.

PARITOR

A non-speaking character in Fletcher and Massinger's Spanish Curate. A summons server disguised as one of Bartolus' servants. He and the Algazeirs bring out serving dishes for breakfast, but instead of food, they present the guests with legal summons. A paritor was a summoning officer for the ecclesiastical court.

PARK–KEEPER

This unnamed Park-keeper in James Shirley's The Wedding finds the wounded Marwood and takes him home for care. He announces falsely that Marwood has died.

PARK KEEPER, FIRST and SECOND

Two Park Keepers figure in Shirley's Hyde Park:
  • The First accepts money from Lord Bonville, praising him.
  • The Second is also tipped by Bonville, and also praises the nobleman.

PARMENIO

I.
Parmenio is one of Alexander's warriors in Lyly's Campaspe.
II.
Parmenio is a "ghost character" in Daniel's Philotas. He is the father of Philotas and ruler of Medea. Parmenio has sent Philotas a letter in which he advises his son to stop antagonising Alexander through his pride and public display. According to Antigona, Philotas claims that Alexander is ungrateful to Parmenio, who assisted him in his conquests. When Philotas is arrested, Alexander's forces are put on alert to watch for movements from Parmenio's camp. Alexander orders Polidamus to assassinate Parmenio. Under torture, Philotas confesses that Hegelochus incensed Parmenio against Alexander after Alexander took on the title of 'son of Jove'. He claims that Parmenio decided to do nothing against Alexander while Darius was in power, but after Darius's defeat thought that their faction could take all 'the Orient and all Asia'.

PARMENIO **1617

A nickname Pride uses for Malice in the anonymous Pathomachia.

PARMENO

Calisto's moralizing young servant in ?Rastell's Calisto and Melebea. Parmeno scorns Celestina as a whore, a bawd, and a witch, recalling her efforts to seduce him while he was still a child; he resolves to resist her efforts to enlist him in the campaign against Melebea's virtue, and urges Calisto to turn his back on Sempronio and Celestina. When his master remains adamant, however, he decides to abandon the difficult task of remaining virtuous in a fallen world, and turn instead like Sempronio to flattery and obsequiousness as the way to get ahead.

PARMISAN, TOBIAS

One of Master Correction's pupils in Sharpham's Cupid's Whirligig. Tobias is identified as the son of the cheesemonger.

PARMISIN

A "ghost character" in Sharpham's Cupid's Whirligig. A cheesemonger, identified as the father of one of Master Correction's pupils.

PARNEL

One of Audrey Turfe's bridesmaids in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub.

PARNELL**1593

Parnell Sparling is a young woman impregnated by the clown Sparrow in the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick. Sparrow's father Old Philip demands that his son marry Parnell. Sparrow refuses and flees his responsibilities instead.

PARNELL**1634

The maidservant of Old Seely and his wife Joan Seely in Heywood and Brome's The Late Lancashire Witches, Parnell is also in love with her fellow servant Lawrence. The witchcraft plaguing the Seely household affects Parnell. She and Lawrence rule over the rest of the family; in particular, she holds full sway over the women of the household. Despite her singularly odd shrieking response to Lawrence's proposal of marriage, she apparently accepts him and next appears at her wedding celebration. By means of witchcraft this celebration becomes a scene of chaos:
  • the bride cake is turned to bran,
  • the wedding feast is transformed, and
  • the fiddlers are bewitched.
Parnell and Lawrence's behavior becomes erratic, one minute consumed by lust and the next angry with each other. Parnell's eagerness to be gone to the bridal chamber at the end of the wedding feast is soon dispelled, however, when she discovers Lawrence to be impotent. She becomes so shrewish a wife that the neighbors perform a Skimmington ritual outside the Seely household in protest (see Rabble). Parnell wades in amongst the rabble and, pulling the Skimmington idol (an effigy of the hen-pecked husband) from its horse, she proceeds to beat it soundly. This discord between Lawrence and Parnell seems to be what inspires Doughty to go "a-witch-hunting," and when the witches are taken into custody Parnell and Lawrence are no longer bewitched. They happily resume their servant status and, with Lawrence no longer impotent, they are in love again. In the final scene the feisty Parnell wishes to scratch the witch Mall Spencer (Scratching being an old-fashioned rustic "witch-test") but the witches' mischief is uncovered by more legally damning means.

PAROLLES

A friend to Bertram in Shakespeare's All's Well. He encourages Bertram's hasty departure to Italy. During the wars, he pretends to be incensed by the dishonorable loss of the army's drum and lies about having a plan to recover it. Parolles is abducted by the Second Lord and a group of soldiers and, thinking his life is in danger, he quickly promises to betray the Florentines to save himself. Standing blindfolded before Bertram, but still thinking himself in the hands of the enemy, Parolles reveals secrets about the Duke's army; including numbers of men and the names of the commanders; and berates the Florentine officers, including Bertram. A letter is also found on Parolles telling Diana that Bertram is a fool and should be gulled out of his money. When Parolles learns of the deception, he is ashamed but optimistic that he can still find a place in French society.

PARR, CATHERINE **1604

Called Catherine (also Katherine) Parry in Rowley’s When You See Me. Henry mentions her the first time on line 1420 and by 1486 he is marrying her. Wolsey sees her as the chief puppet of Martin Luther who will turn England into a Protestant country. Once queen, she tries to intercede for Rooksbie, but Henry will not hear of pardon. She tries to intercede for Brandon and Mary but unnecessarily as the king is angry in jest only. Queen Catherine disputes with Bonner and Gardner on the question of whether Henry and all Christian kings should read Luther’s writings and decide if they make sense. When Henry is led to order her to the Tower, she takes advice from Compton and goes to plead her case before the king before she can be arrested. She wins Henry’s trust and regains her position with him thanks to Prince Edward’s intervention to allow her to speak with her husband.

PARRY, DOCTOR

I.
A physician in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me, formerly disgraced, but forgiven by the Queen. Despite her gracious treatment of him, Parry conspires with Catholics abroad to murder her. He attempts the crime, but, not fully committed to it, he only exposes himself as a traitor. He is condemned to death by Lecester.
II.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. Dr. William Parry, a Welsh physician and M.P., was executed in 1585 for plotting against the life of Elizabeth I on behalf of Mary Queen of Scots. He is instanced by Furioso as the type of the intelligencer.

PARSON**1540

Seated among the Spirituality in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates, he rejects Chastity and welcomes Lady Sensuality. When John the Common-Weal accuses the Spirituality of oppression and corruption, he singles out the Parson as the chief offender. Under examination, he admits his corruption, and, along with the rest of the Spirituality, is exposed by Flattery and stripped of his ecclesiastical robes, revealing the motley beneath.

PARSON **1598

A "ghost character" in Haughton's Englishmen for My Money. Ned claims to have a parson ready to marry him and his friends to the three daughters.

PARSON**1609

The Parson is supposed to marry Bellafront and Count Frederick in Field's A Woman is a Weathercock, but his place is taken by Nevill. He eventually marries Bellafront and Scudamore.

PARSON**1609

Parson is the curate in Jonson's Epicoene who performed the marriage between Morose and Epicoene offstage. According to Cutbeard, he is the ideal person to be employed by the noise-hating Morose because the Parson has just recovered from a bad cold and his voice is hoarse and very low. At Morose's house, Parson enters with Cutbeard, following Morose and his new wife. When Morose introduces his wife as a commendably silent woman, Parson acknowledges her qualities in a hoarse voice. Morose cannot hear what he says, so Cutbeard explains that Parson got his cold from sitting up late and singing hymns with cloth-workers. Since Parson keeps coughing between his words of worship, Morose wants some of his money back for the inconvenience caused during the bad service. Cutbeard aggravates the situation by telling Parson to keep coughing, and this infuriates Morose so badly that he chases Parson and Cutbeard away.

PARSON**1610

The Parson performs the marriage of Dame Pliant to Lovewit (who is dressed in a Spanish suit) offstage in Jonson's The Alchemist. His is a non-speaking role. The Parson attends the scene in which all the cheated people complain before the authorities. When Lovewit chases Drugger out of the house with the insult that he is an extremist Puritan, Face as Jeremy sends the Parson after him. He instructs the Parson to tell Drugger that he shall hear of the Doctor (Subtle) at Westchester and of the Captain (Face) at Yarmouth, or some other good port town.

PARSON**1611

The Parson marries Ingen to Lady Honour in Field's Amends for Ladies, and at the close of the play is to marry Bold to Lady Bright.

PARSON**1611

He asks Touchwood Junior to show him his marriage license and begins to marry Touchwood Junior and Moll in the presence of Touchwood Senior in Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside. They get as far as ring exchange and clasping of hands, but Yellowhammer and Whorehound break up the wedding before any words are exchanged. A parson, perhaps the same one, also enters at the end of the play to preside over the double funeral of Moll and Touchwood Junior.

PARSON**1621

A madman at the madhouse in Fletcher's The Pilgrim, described by his keepers as having "a thousand pigs in's brains" when the moon is full. Along with the Englishman and the Scholar, he is one of the madmen who appear before Alphonso when the latter comes to seek Alinda.

PARSON **1625

A "ghost character" in Shirley's The School of Compliment. This unnamed Parson is hired for a double fee to perform the Rufaldo and Selina nuptials.

PARSON**1629

Having arrived at Sir Paul Squelch's dinner party disguised as a Doctor, Pate later reappears disguised as a Parson in Brome's The Northern Lass. It transpires that it was actually he who, in this disguise, 'married' Sir Philip Luckless and Mistress Fitchow; their 'marriage' is thus shown to be null and void.

PARSON**1632

A conveniently ubiquitous officiant for weddings in Brome's The Weeding of Covent Garden.

PARSON **1638

In act five of Glapthorne’s Wit in a Constable, he receives the marriage licenses for Sir Timothy and Jeremy from Busie. He assures the constable that this will not be the first time he has married high-born couples in secret ‘behind the brickhills’ and further affirms that such marriages are as firm as any.

PARSON **1639

A “ghost character" in Sharpe’s Noble Stranger. Offstage, a parson marries Pupillus to Flavia.

PARSON **1641

A “ghost character" in Wild’s The Benefice. After fourscore years he is dying. His congregants have been tired of him for thirty years and Marchurch has been vexed with him for forty. When he dies, Marchurch will be able to give away his post to a young divine and looks forward to having a crowd of them flattering and bribing him for the position.

PARSON**1641

The Parson in Killigrew's Parson's Wedding describes himself as a scholar and a soldier, but the Captain characterizes the Parson as someone who is led by his appetite. One thing for certain is that the two men are archenemies. According to the dramatic personae, both of the men are "wits," but the Parson is "over-reached" by the "leading" wit, the Captain. When the Captain persuades his girlfriend Wanton to marry the Parson as a joke on the Parson, the Parson, who is quite enamoured of Wanton, is an easy target. Wanton's first conjugal act is to get her new husband drunk, steal his plate, and play a trick on him. The drunken Parson is put to bed with the Baud. The Captain pretends to be the constable and Jolly pretends to be the summoner, and they break into the house and arrest the Parson on charges of adultery. Wild, who pretends to be the justice, suggests whipping, but then Wanton says that the Parson should be allowed to go free if he promises to look the other way when she has affairs with other men, to which the Parson readily agrees. In the second half of the play, he is relatively quiet, but he does help the Captain, Wild, and Careless further their scheme against the ladies by falsely claiming that he married the two couples the previous night.

PARSON BALL

Refers to himself as John Ball in the anonymous Jack Straw. He argues that England is weaker because of social ranks, which God does not. Further, he contends that equal division of resources will eliminate the social ills of land ownership, illness, hunger, and the like. Agrees with Nobs' skepticism that the King's pardon will protect the commoners. Tom Miller predicts that following Ball's advice will result in being hanged, and Ball is one of two rebels actually sentenced to be hanged (Tyler being the other).

PARSON on the PLAIN

A ‘ghost character’ in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. The robbers Autolius and Conto robbed him, but Autolius gave five shillings of his money back again for the sermon he delivered because, according to Conto, he could have had as good a sermon from a journeyman for sixpence.

PARSON PALATE

A young and epicurian clergyman in Jonson's The Magnetic Lady. He specializes in pleasing the rich. A guest of Lady Lodestone's, he agrees to advance Sir Diaphanous Silkworm's suit in return for future rewards. He and Polish inform Lady Lodestone that Practice has already proposed to Pleasance. The plot fails, though, when Placentia goes into labor, and the Parson is called upon to marry Pleasance to Compass. Palate is hesitant, having agreed to help Practice, but Compass threatens him with his brother, Captain Ironside, and the Parson agrees to perform the ceremony.

PARSON SHORT–HOSE

Parson Short-hose is Grim the Collier's local clergyman in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame, so Grim confesses to him his love for the country maid Joan, and his resultant state of distraction. The Parson agrees to help Grim win Joan from Clack the Miller, but admits in an aside his own longing for her. He secretly plots to run away with Joan while, at his instigation, Grim and Clack are busy fighting each other. He is foiled by the devil Akercock in the form of the invisible sprite Robin Goodfellow, who beats the Parson and chases him away. In the end Parson Short-hose is reconciled to the betrothal of Grim and Joan, and nervously shares a meal with Robin Goodfellow and the couple.

PARSONS, TWO

Two unnamed Parsons appear in May's The Heir, on both occasions when Franklin attempts to marry his daughter Luce to Shallow. The first wedding is interrupted by Francisco, who claims Luce by pre-contract and has Shallow served with a writ of adultery. Francisco threatens this Parson with legal action for attempting to perform a bigamous marriage. Before the second ceremony, the second Parson (a non-speaking character described by Franklin as needy and hence more easily corrupted) agrees to change clothes with Francisco. He marries Luce and Francisco, offstage, without Shallow's intervention, allowing them to present Franklin with a fait accompli.

PARTHENIA**1618

Daughter of Lisander, stepdaughter of Eugenia in Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law. Parthenia is angered by Eugenia's suitors, and protests against her hatred of the elderly.

PARTHENIA**1638

Beloved of Argalus, daughter of Chrysaclea and niece to the lord Kalander in Glapthorne's Argalus and Parthenia. Her romantic attachment to the chivalrous paragon Argalus is a foregone conclusion and she has no time for the rough wooing of rival suitor Demagoras. She sternly and boldly reproves the heavy-handed disrespect of Demagoras's approach to her and gives him no hope, despite her mother's preference for the general. Her rebuff outrages Demagoras, who vows revenge on her. She is torn between love and duty, and chooses respectful defiance of her mother's choice. The Queen's favor for Argalus makes her decision acceptable. She attends the subsequent pastoral entertainment given for Demagoras and witnesses his rage at being satirzed in an interlude originally planned for Argalus. Unaware that he is dangerous, she retires to play her lute and sing a plaintive song expressing her love for Argalus. Demagoras stalks her, traps her and abuses her. She is furious and eloquent in her defiance of him, showing no fear of murder but is disturbed at the threat of rape. She is dragged off to a threatened fate worse than either. Her absence at Pan's Feast is noticed by her uncle and her appearance, face ravaged by Demagoras's attack with poison, horrifies the assembled company, especially Argalus. She is ashamed and horrified by her cruel disfigurement. She names the villain and Argalus in fury vows revenge for her lost beauty. She now feels unworthy of Argalus and, wishing only for death, does not want anyone to risk his life in avenging her. She refuses Argalus's repeated proposal of marriage, insisting that she is unworthy, and departs to self-imposed exile. Her refuge is Corinth, where she is miraculously cured of her "leprosie" by the Queen there. She returns, initially in disguise (or veiled). Argalus knows her at once but is persuaded of her story: that Parthenia is dead, herself an identical twin sent as Parthenia's dying wish as her legacy to him, to be loved and married in Parthenia's place. Argalus delights her by refusing the offer, vowing his love and fidelity for the true Parthenia until they are reunited in death. She reveals herself and explains. Their reunion is blessed by her uncle, Kalander. The wedding follows soon after, graced by verses by Sapho, singing and dancing, and the news that the King has chosen Argalus as the champion to fight Amphialus. Argalus is honoured by the decision, Parthenia afraid for his safety. She has a premonition of disaster despite his confidence, but gives him her blessing. Man-to-man and attended by the noble Philarchus, the two champions agree honourably to protect each others'ladies whoever survives the combat. They fight and Parthenia interrupts, horrified at the sight of her husband's blood: Argalus is mortally wounded and dies. Amphialus departs, hating himself for the deed. Philarchus preaches patience but she is already filled with a deadly calm and plans her own martyrdom. Disguised in male armor and accompanied by Sapho, Aminta and Florida, she challenges Amphialus to combat. She denounces his cowardice for first refusing, then provokes him by reviling Philoclea's beauty. They fight. Wounded, her angel-like hair is revealed and she dies calling Argalus's name. Amphialus departs in further grief, and Sapho pronounces her elegy.

PARTHENIUS

Parthenius is a freeman of Caesar's in Massinger's The Roman Actor. He serves as messenger for Domitian to Domitia and seeks to have his father, Philargus, cured of miserliness with the first inset play. Increasingly horrified by Domitian's cruelty, he joins other characters in the final plot against Domitian.

PARTHENOPHIL

A "fairy peer," and one of Titania's privy counselors in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon. Although there is no indisputable evidence in the text about his 'real-life' model, his role as a supremely wise counselor suggests that he likely represents William Cecil, Lord Burghley. He supports Campeius when the latter first appears before Titania, but later bitterly regrets his support on realizing that Campeius is a traitor. He helps to discover many of the plots against Titania's life, and is present at her triumph at Beria.

PARTHENOPHILL

Eroclea takes on the disguise of Parthenophill, a lovelorn young man, after arriving in Athens in flight from the lust of Agenor in Ford's The Lover's Melancholy. In this male form she meets Menaphon, who becomes extremely fond of his new friend and invites 'him' back to Cyprus with him. Parthenophill's masculine charms seduce both Thamasta and her maid, Kala, but 'he' rejects Kala and then confesses 'his' true identity to Thamasta in order to turn her affections back to Menaphon. Still disguised, Parthenophill attends the Masque of Melancholy and sees Palador's reaction to the notion of love melancholy. Convinced of his love, Eroclea reveals to him the true self under Parthenophill's disguise and all ends happily.

PARTIALITY **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the twenty-five vices that are the extremes of the eleven virtues. Rigor and Partiality are the extremes of Justice.

PARUM **1630

A clerk, along with Plus, to Justices Nimis and Nihil in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass.

PARVAGRACIO

A pleasure-loving young courtier in the anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. Parvagracio is persuaded by Insatiato to cosign the bond for £100 of old rags that is all his friend can arrange by way of a loan from Pestifero; his foolish trust allows Insatiato to carry on even when the invitations to house and dine at others' expense dry up, and underwrites Insatiato's marriage with Levitia.

PAS

"A Fisher" in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. He is in love with Cosma and is one of Perindus's friends, Pas mourns Cosma's inconstancy and is made fun of by Conchylio. After overhearing Cosma's views on love and beauty, her plans to meet with Armillus, and her love for Perindus and intentions to win his love in return–Pas is maddened and vows to "act a Devill" and "make or marre the sport." Thus, at the meeting of Armillus and Cosma, the two are frightened apart by Pas, who is disguised as a Fury, and he "runs upon" Fredocaldo after the old man claims that "if furies should out-front" him he'd "out-stare them," which causes Fredocaldo to fall. Despite the fact that when Armillus meets Cosma again shortly after he claims that he would "rather dye, then leave [her] wisht embrace," he flees the "woods" when the disguised Pas returns. At this point, Pas reveals himself to Cosma and, after lecturing each other in the laws of love, the two go offstage together. He recognizes Tyrinthus and informs him that Olinda is dead–at which news Tyrinthus is so distressed that "he falls." Grief-stricken over his daughter's apparent death, Tyrinthus presses Pas for more details which he (unaware of their falseness) reveals. He identifies Glaucilla as Olinda's murderer, informs Tyrinthus that the man's friend, Dicaus, still lives, and (in an attempt to comfort the man) claims that he has left Perindus only "two houres since, sad [. . .] but safe." He follows Tyrinthus when the father flees to "the shore" in order to find Perindus. Pas later convinces Nomicus to "pardon"Cancrone and Scrocca, joins Nomicus in chiding Cosma for her deeds, and "call[s] back" Scrocca and Cancrone.

PASIPHAE

Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. In Greek mythology, Pasiphae was the wife of Minos, king of Crete. Otter wants his gallant friends to persuade Mistress Otter to let him take his favorite silver cups to the party at Morose's house. Deriding Otter's pretended knowledge of Latin and classical mythology, Clerimont says that Mistress Otter must be convinced with solid classical arguments. Since one of Otter's cups was named bull and the other bear, in memory of his bachelor days at the bear-baiting arena, Clerimont brings examples from classical mythology related to these animals. Thus, he explains that Pasiphae, who was a queen loved by a bull, would have had nothing against her husband's preference for this kind of cup. The allusion is to the wife of the King of Crete who fell in love with a bull.

PASIPHILO

A parasite feigning that he is helping Cleander to win Polynesta in Gascoigne's The Supposes. He is in fact also helping the feigned Erostrato. Once he hears that Dulippo has been imprisoned and that Polynesta is not a virgin, he fears that now neither of the gentlemen will want to marry Polynesta. He reluctantly informs the servant Dulippo that Erostrato has been imprisoned, and decides to work solely on behalf of Cleander. However, Cleander no longer trusts Pasiphilo, and turns him away.

PASITHAS

I.
Loyal to Zorannes in Suckling's Aglaura (first version), he kills the Queen at the end of the play.
II.
In the "happy ending" second version, the character engages in much the same action. Loyal to Zorannes in Suckling's Aglaura (second version), he fetches the doctor, Andrages.

PASQUIL**1607

Only mentioned in Barnes's The Devil's Charter; depicted in a statue upon which notices are posted that accuse the Borgia pope and two of his children of corruption.

PASQUIL, NED **1600

Katherine's true love in Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment. Pasquil means "Truth" and, like Fortune, Puffe and Mamon, his name reflects this character's qualities. Pasquil speaks the finest verse in the play. He loves Katherine and is her obvious match and exchanges vows with her. Unknown to either of them, Mamon is in the wings spying on them. When Pasquil discovers that Mamon has hired a man to kill him, Pasquil feigns death in order to trick Mamon in the hopes of later revenge. When Mamon comes to gloat, Pasquil arises and strikes the old man. In the meantime, however, Brabant tells the Fortunes that Pasquil has been murdered. Upon hearing this, Katherine disappears into the night. Pasquil goes in search of her with his young Page. He finds her roaming the area where she believes he was attacked. As he watches her, she prepares to stab herself. He stops her by revealing himself and, when she thinks she is seeing his ghost, he assures her that he is not dead. After an embrace, Katherine sends Pasquil to her house to get her a decent robe. It is at this point that Mamon reappears. He pours poison oil on Katharine and disappears; Pasquil returns to find Katherine dying. He chases and overtakes Mamon, takes the indenture papers from the older man, and tears them to pieces. Later, he uses a country maid's basket of eggs to demonstrate how Katharine was destroyed. Making references to tragic tales in classical literature, he tells everyone that "his heart is burst with miserie." He goes mad, but when he sees the recovered Katherine in the Banquet Hall of her father's house, he immediately regains his wits, embraces her, and is accepted into the family by a very happy Sir Edward.

PASSARELLO

Passarello is a fool to Bilioso in Marston's Malcontent. He gossips with Malevole about Pietro and Maquerelle.

PASSENGER, FIRST and SECOND

Two passengers appear on the road to Barcelona in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage.
  • The First Passenger is one of those robbed en route to Barcelona. When Diego jests that they should take off their clothes because of the heat, he responds that the robbers have taken care of that.
  • The Second Passenger is one of the travelers robbed along the road to Barcelona. When Diego asks the travelers who wants a doublet to wear, the Second Passenger asks for one.

PASSIONATE LORD

A cousin of the Duke in Fletcher and Middleton's The Nice Valour, the Passionate Lord is ruled sequentially by Love, Melancholy, Fury, and Mirth. In each case, his friends indulge the humor in an effort to free him from its control, but the Passionate Lord is not cured until he is nearly killed by Shamont. In his love fit, the Passionate Lord courts La Nove, believing him to be a woman, imitates the Souldier who is attempting to court the Duke's sister, and then takes part in a masque prepared by his pregnant lover, a lady who disguises herself as Cupid. In his melancholy fit, the Passionate Lord sings "Hence all you vaine Delights" while his lover, still disguised as Cupid, attempts to comfort him. In his angry fit, the Passionate Lord beats Lapet who pretends to die to escape the Passionate Lord's fury. In his merry fit, the Passionate Lord sings a long, laughter-filled duet with Base the jester. At the end of the song, the Souldier enters and, enraged by the Passionate Lord's earlier imitation of his lovemaking, stabs the Lord and beats Lapet and the Clowne Galoshio. The Passionate Lord is believed to be dead, and efforts are made by the Duke's sister and by Shamont to secure a pardon for the Souldier. When the Passionate Lord reappears, he asks for pardon for the trouble he has caused and announces he will marry his pregnant lover who is still wearing her Cupid disguise.

PAST SHAME

Past Shame is the name Rusticus mishears in Pickering's Horestes when the Vice announces he is called Patience.

PATCH–BREECH

The third fisherman in Pentapolis is called Patch–breech in Shakespeare's Pericles. It could likely be no more than a nickname used in jest.

PATE

Sir Philip Luckless' witty servant in Brome's The Northern Lass. Mistress Fitchow provokes a quarrel with Sir Philip after their over-hasty marriage by threatening to throw Pate out of her house. He masquerades as a Doctor in order to bring Sir Philip's messages to the mad Constance; it is later discovered that, disguised as a Parson, he also 'married' Sir Philip and Mistress Fitchow. Because he was not an actual Parson, their marriage is rendered a fortuitous nullity.

PATER

Pater is incensed in the anonymous Pater, Filius et Uxor, due to the fact that he is having a row with Uxor on unfaithful women and cuckolded husbands. He is not going to buy Filius's faggots.

PATER CAELESTIS

God or Heavenly Father, appears in Bale's God's Promises seven separate times, complaining about the sinfulness of man. His first complaint is about Adam, who ate the apple. God's second and third complaints are against the sinfulness of humanity in general, and his third, fourth and fifth are against the sinfulness and ungratefulness of the Israelites. In each case, after threatening to destroy humanity all together, a human comes forward to beg for mercy. In each case, God eventually grants that mercy, and establishes a new promise, or covenant. With Adam, God establishes hatred between man and the serpent, and the pain of woman in childbirth. With Noah, he establishes the rainbow as a sign he will never again destroy humanity. With Abraham, he establishes the covenant of circumcision. With Moses, David and Isaiah, God foretells the coming of Christ. Finally over his anger, God appears, now amiable, before John Baptist and tells him of the coming of Christ, and that he has chosen John to prepare the way for Christ and to baptize him.

PATCH **1604

Will Sommers’s cousin, Wolsey’s fool and a singer in Rowley’s When You See Me. He appears with Sommers following Wolsey. Sommers tricks him into a beating by the king to help bring Henry out of his depression after the queen’s death. He and Will Sommers carouse in Wolsey’s wine cellar while the cardinal is in France and there discover the gold he has hidden in his casks.

PATIENCE**1513

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. A true, virginal maiden. One among the "true religious" men and "holy women" whom Hick Scorner was glad to see drown in the Irish Sea at the Race of Ireland when their thirteen ships foundered and sank.

PATIENCE**1560

Patience appeals for concord in the anonymous Tom Tyler And His Wife, expressing the view that anyone is mad who tries to challenge a woman. She tells Strife to bridle her temper and gets Strife to kiss Tom Tyler and Tom Tayler and soon after gets Tom Tyler, Tom Tayler, Strife, Destiny, Tipple and Sturdy to hold hands and dance, singing about the importance for everyone to be patient.

PATIENCE **1567

A disguise name in Pickering's Horestes. The name the Vice adopts when dealing with the two rustics, Rusticus and Hodge. Rusticus mishears and believes he calls himself Past Shame.

PATIENCE**1613

Patience serves as waiting-woman for the divorced Katherine in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. She is especially attuned to the recent physical changes in her mistress.

PATIENCE **1615

A fantasy character in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Antonio declares Pandolfo must marry Patience so not to be cold in bed. As there is no such character in the play otherwise mentioned, this “character" is probably meant to be understood metaphorically and Pandolfo is to bear his disappointment with patience.

PATIENCE**1626

A part taken by one of the Roman soldier masquers performing in honour of Titus's Triumph in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. They appear as Time, Piety, Temperance, Chastity, Friendship, Constancy and Patience. Their masque underlines the royal virtues of Titus and incites him to judgement of the prisoners-of-war.

PATIENCE HYPOMONE GOGGLE **1627

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Goggle's father, a "holy tailor and a venerable parson."

PATRANIUS

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. King of the Isle of Strange Marshes and father of Neronis, he has a pregnant queen. When Thrasellus kidnaps Neronis, Rumor enters to report that Patranius has died of grief. His death creates a power struggle for his crown between his queen and his brother, Mustantius. Alexander the Great must come to decide the matter.

PATRIARCH

Patriarch, Informer, Projector, Master of the Habits and Manners, and Minion of the Suburbs all approach Theodosius with grievances in Massinger's The Emperor of the East, but Pulcheria dismisses them all for being petty and unimportant.

PATRICK, FRIAR

Friar Patrick is one of two churchmen who appear in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona. His cell is chosen as the meeting place for Silvia and Sir Eglamour in their planned search for Valentine.

PATRICK, SAINT of IRELAND

I.
St Patrick is one of the six champions of Christendom imprisoned in the cave of Calib the witch in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. George releases the champions, and they make him their seventh member. They vow to travel the world, doing battle with unbelievers. St. Patrick, St. James and St. Denis try to slay the enchanter Argalio but he escapes from them on an ascending throne. Nonetheless, they are satisfied to have rid the land of him. Later, they join with St. Andrew, St Anthony, and St. David, in an attempt to slay Brandron the giant and rescue the King of Macedon's daughters. But they are betrayed by Suckabus, who tricks them into disarming and then imprisons them. They are forced to support Brandron or die, and so, when St. George arrives, they are obliged to fight him. George defeats all six of them. When Brandron commits suicide, the champions are free to join with George again. When the King of Macedon's daughters (who had been transformed into swans) are changed back into women, Patrick, Denis and James marry them, and the champions perform a dance to celebrate.
II.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Termock, the Irish soldier, swears by St. Patrick.

PATRICK, SIR

A "ghost character" in Marston's Dutch Courtesan, Sir Patrick does not appear in the play. Mary Faugh lists him, along with the Spaniard Don Skirtoll, the Italian Master Beieroane, and the Dutchman Haunce Herkin Gluken Skellan Flapdragon, as one of the members, presumably representing the Irish contingent, of the wide-ranging international clientele that Franceschina entertained before she met Freevill.

PATRICO

Patrico is a fortune-teller and hedge-priest in Brome's A Jovial Crew. He travels with the beggar crew staying on Oldrents' estate. At the celebration following the birth of a child to one of the beggar women, Patrico tests Oldrents' character by offering him a virgin "doxy" or beggar for his pleasure. Patrico conducts the ceremony of the beggars' wedding and is apprehended by Sentwell. Appearing with the other beggars at Clack's house, Patrico reveals himself as the fortuneteller who foretold that Oldrents' daughters would be beggars. Patrico also informs Oldrents that, many years ago, Patrico's sister, a beggar woman, secretly bore Oldrents a son and died. That son is Oldrents' own steward, Springlove.

PATRICO'S SISTER

A "ghost character" in Brome's A Jovial Crew. Oldrents learns that, many years ago, Patrico's sister, a beggar woman, secretly bore Oldrents a son and died. That son is Oldrents' own steward, Springlove.

PATROCLUS

I.
He is carried into Achilles' tent "on his back" in Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida, perhaps after his death at the hands of Hector? In the tent are Achilles, Menalaus, Diomede, Ulysses, and Ajax.
II.
A Greek commander in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. Like Agememnon, Patroclus represents and argues for the integrity of hierarchy. He councils Achilles on how to "unloose [Cupid's] amorous fold" from his neck in order to regain his masculinity and re-enter battle.
III.
Patroclus is Achilles's best friend in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. He eagerly endorses Ajax's suggestion that he wear Achilles's armor to lead a counterattack against the Trojans. Having been mortally wounded by Hector, Patroclus dies urging Achilles to seek revenge upon the Trojan warrior.

PATRON **1600

Though the Patron in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus professes himself a supporter of literature, his response to Ingenioso's lavish flattery is a mere two groats.

PAUL

A "ghost character" in Bale's The Temptation of Our Lord. Bale quotes Paul as confirming that the devil is busy and works always for the damnation of all people.

PAUL **1619

A Pantler in Fletcher’s Bloody Brother. The Cook, Yeoman of the Cellar, Butler, and Pantler sing a drinking song. Although he says that he accepts Latorch’s bribe of five hundred crowns and a pardon to poison Otto at the banquet, he resolves to give the treachery away. He tells Otto that the food is poisoned. Later, to curry favor and appear most royal and noble Rollo promises the citizens to have him executed for plotting to poison Otto. He is led to his execution as boys jeer him and the kitchen staff. He will be first hanged, which pleases his fellows as they blame him for having told Otto and led them to this. He and the others sing their ballad as they are led along. In his ballad he complains that he “chipt the cursed crust of Treason with a loyal knife" and is thus to be hung unjustly.

PAUL EITHERSIDE

The Justice who employs young Plutarchus Gilthead in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass. He examines Fitzdottrel for demonic possession. A Puritan, he is easily convinced and ready to condemn Wittipol, Manly and Mistress Fitzdottrel for witchcraft, when Fitzdottrel confesses the ruse.

PAUL SQUELCH, SIR

A widowed justice, friend to Mistress Fitchow in Brome's The Northern Lass. He claims gentlemanly descent, although Master Widgine argues that he was merely a Grazier before coming up to the city. He intends to marry his niece, Constance, to Master Nonsense, but is frustrated when she goes mad from love melancholy. He considers remarrying to provide himself with a new heir, but Mistress Trainwell's offer to oblige scares him into spending his money prodigally, and he orders a huge dinner party (about which he promptly forgets). He takes a fancy for the prostitute, Constance Holdup, and he plans to carry off an affair with her by setting her up in a house where she can pass for his mad niece, to whom he will make 'charitable' visits. When Mistress Trainwell convinces him that his real niece has eloped with Master Widgine, he is incensed. Incited by her, he finally arrives at his own dinner party disguised as a Spaniard; is almost arrested by Vexhem; consents to marry Mistress Trainwell when she promises to get him out of this fix; and ends by forgiving everyone and sanctioning the marriage of Sir Philip and Constance.

PAULINA**1610

Paulina is the wife and later widow of Antigonus and the staunch and outspoken ally of Hermione in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale. Paulina never believes Leontes' accusations that Hermione has committed adultery, and for sixteen years she torments Leontes by reminding him that his rash jealousy has had disastrous consequences. When Hermione's daughter Perdita returns to Leontes' court, Paulina unveils a statue of Hermione that comes to life. In recognition of the qualities he has learned to admire in Paulina, Leontes proposes uniting her with Camillo at the end of the play.

PAULINA**1624

Paulina, sister to Vitelli in Massinger's The Renegado. She is kidnapped by Grimaldi and delivered to Asambeg, who wishes to marry her. He releases her on the promise that she consider his offer. She is present at the trial of Donusa and Vitelli. At Donusa's conversion, she steps forward and claims she will become a Turk and marry Asambeg if only he allow her twelve hours to reason with Donusa. It is a trick, and she instead helps Donusa and Vitelli escape.

PAULINA **1636

A Neapolitan lady in Killigrew’s The Princess. She appears to own the house where the bawd Olympia conducts business. She often admits to leading a life of sin, and her acts in this play she says are her first acts of honor. She likes the looks of Virgilius when she sees him in Naples and shames Bragadine away from violating Cicilia. Paulina sends Olympia to offer Virgilius sanctuary in her house. She has fallen in love with Virgilius, but masters herself and agrees to help him save Cicilia. She has ordered Bragadine to bring the girl, for safety, to her house where she intends to deliver her to Virgilius. After Bragadino, his bravos, and Olympia are killed in her garden trying to prevent Cicilia’s rescue, Paulina begs Facertes and Virgilius to save her from retribution by taking her with them to Sicily. Shipwrecked, she is captured along with Cicilia and Facertes by the same pirates that sold Cicilia into slavery. She has no lines afterward, but one may assume she is released along with the rest when the pirates discover Facertes’s identity.

PAULINA**1642

The elder of the two "sisters" in Shirley's The Sisters; sister to Angellina and niece to Antonio. Having inherited almost all her father's money, she assumes an exaggerated sense of her own social status, despite her uncle's constant efforts to humble her. When Lord Contarini arrives and makes her absurdly flattering speeches, she accepts them as her due and is eager to meet his master, Prince Farnese. When the bandit Frapolo arrives in disguise as the prince, she readily accepts him. In the end, she discovers that she is not really an heiress at all, but the daughter of her old nurse, Marulla. The real Paulina died while in Marulla's care, and she was switched in infancy to hide the fact. She is confined with her new husband, the bandit, to what was formerly her own castle, and both become dependent on the charity of others.

PAULINA, LOLLIA

A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina. Lollia Paulina was formerly the wife of the Emperor Caligula and had hoped to marry Claudius. Agrippina therefore had her banished from Italy. During the action of the play, she sends servants to bring back Lollia Paulina's head, which they do.

PAULINA, QUEEN

Originally from Florence, she is married to the King of Spain in Dekker's Noble Spanish Soldier. As Onælia gains public support, Paulina follows Count Malateste's plan of pretending that she is pregnant to further endear herself to the King and help coalesce support for herself. She pressures her husband to have Onælia and Sebastian killed, for which task she nominates Balthazar. When she learns that Onælia is to be married to Cockadillio, she instructs Malateste to poison her at the wedding feast. When the King is mistakenly poisoned, she flies into a rage and attacks Onælia but is restrained.

PAULINUS

Paulinus, a kinsman to the emperor, serves as companion to Theodosius in Massinger's The Emperor of the East. He brings Eudocia's case to the attention of Pulcheria. She has been denied monies and properties bequeathed to her. He suffers from gout and takes to bed where he is treated first by Empiric and then by a surgeon. Eudocia sends him an apple in hopes that it will help his ailment. Theodosius mistakenly believes that Paulinus and Eudocia have had an affair and orders Paulinus to be killed. At the end of the play, Paulinus returns alive having been spared by Philanax.

PAULO**1632

Brother to Victoria in Brome's The Novella. He is a priest who disguises himself as Burgio, a bawd, to secretly accompany his sister to Venice. He secretly marries Francisco to Flavia and then tells their friends to meet them at the Novella's. When Swatzenburgh arrives with 2,000 ducats to test Victoria's honesty, he watches them with a pistol, prepared to kill Victoria if she accepts the money. Before revealing his true identity, he marries Victoria to Fabritio.

PAULO**1634

Paulo, along with two surgeons, nurses the wounded Don Martino back to health in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman. He has a long, comic encounter in the slave mart, discussing the relative qualities of English, Jewish, and Moorish slaves. The English are considered superior, though quite mad. On the subject of madness, Paulo attempts to cure Don Martino of his melancholy. First, he comes in disguised as a friar, and attempts to show him his crimes of passion were not so terrible, then as a sailor, and, we are told, he has also attempted to cheer Don Martino by playing a philosopher, a poet, and an architect. He succeeds at last in curing Don Martino of his melancholy.

PAULO BAGLIONE

Paulo Baglione is the Abbot of Monaco and uncle to Biancha, Duchess of Pavia, in Ford's Love's Sacrifice. His status as a prince of the Church runs counter to derogatory remarks by other characters concerning Biancha's low birth. The Abbot's first visit to the Court of Pavia breaks his journey to Rome, where he is due to be made a Cardinal (although his new dignity is not specifically referred to on his return). His welcome is shown in a dumbshow. After dinner, he is entertained by a masque of 'antickes' which turns into a massacre, as the three court ladies made pregnant and deserted by Ferentes turn the performance into a public execution of private justice, when they collectively stab him to death. The Abbot makes no comment or intervention on this occasion. When he returns from Rome to visit his niece, Biancha has been murdered by her husband, and recently buried. The Abbot attends the Duke's ceremonial penance at her tomb, where her innocence is proclaimed before both Fernando and the Duke commit suicide. The Abbot on this occasion is moved to make brief remarks on both men's desperate ends, and nearly as briefly gives his approval and blessing to the severe justice dispensed by the new Duke, Roseilli. Very possibly the most reticent Cardinal in the entire cannon.

PAULO, FATHER

Father Paulo, a Priest in Massinger's The Maid of Honor.

PAULO FERNEZE

Count Ferneze's son, in love with Rachel in Jonson's The Case is Altered. He confides his passion to Antonio and to his friend Angelo, asking Angelo to watch over Rachel while he is away with Maximilian's battalion. He is captured by Chamont's forces and held for ransom. He is retrieved by Chamont and arrives in time to rescue Rachel from Angelo. He angrily accuses Angelo of treachery, and rebuffs Angelo's pleas for forgiveness and his promises to redeem himself. He accompanies Chamont back to his father's court and is reunited with his long-lost brother as well as his father and sisters. His father and Chamont bless his union with Rachel when it is learned she is actually Chamont's sister, Isabel.

PAULUS

A poet in Fletcher's Valentinian commissioned by Lycippus to compose a masque for Maximus' inauguration ceremony.

PAULUS, CARDINAL

A "ghost character" in Middleton's A Game at Chess. A kinsman of the Fat Bishop, Cardinal Paulus has been elevated to the papacy. He writes to the Fat Bishop hinting that, if he reconverted to the Black House, he could take his vacant position and from there take the papacy when Paulus dies. The letter is, however, a forgery. Middleton based the character on Pope Paul V (1605-21), in the mistaken belief that Bishop de Dominis, on whom the Fat Bishop is based, returned to Rome on Paul's accession; in fact, it was on the accession of Paul's successor, Gregory XV.

PAUSANES **1635

Both he and his friend Hipparchus were prisoners and are now mates on Gillippus’ pirate ship in Killigrew’s The Prisoners. He is the lost son of Theagines. He assists Gillipus in his pursuit of Lysimella. He sees women as creatures to be worshipped. He fights Hipparchus to free Lysimella but loses. When Gillippus orders that Pausanes be hanged naked from the trees, Hipparchus’ friendship forces him to Pausanes’ side and they fight the pirates until the King of Sicily and his men arrive. The king places him in Lysimella’s power, and he is reconciled to his friend Hipparchus. Lysimella sends the friends, in disguise, to fight on the king’s side against Sardinia. Pausanes declares his love for Lysimella and is crushed by her scorn. In Sardinia, he and Hipparchus fight nobly and win the king’s favor. He manages to wound Gillippus, but the pirate flees him. He fights with Procles over Eucratia and defeats the old soldier but not before Eucratia runs away. He feels he must protect her and pursues her. He is wounded in the attempt. When Eucratia is taken, she offers to tend his wounds in thanks for having saved her. During the act four storm, he proves a steady sailor and gets the king and Eucratia to the long boats safely when their ship hits the coral. Safely ashore, he dives back into the sea to save others whilst Hipparchus shouts for him to swim to the beacon light ashore. He is nearly drowned saving the disguised Lysimella. At the beacon fire he is reunited with his sister Leucanthe and father Theagines. As soon as he can recover, his uncle Memnon promises to marry him to Lysimella.

PAUSANIUS

Pausanius is one of two magistrates of Minturnum, where Marius retreats after losing to Scilla in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. Pausanius fears that Scilla will destroy his town because of Marius' presence and he suggests to Favorinus that they kill Marius in order to win favor with Scilla and thus protect their town. Despite Favorinus' objections, they go ahead with the plan and hire Pedro to do the actual killing, and Pausanius offers Pedro forty crowns as payment. When Pedro runs off and Favorinus remembers the tale of Marius being visited by seven eagles when he was an infant, Pausanius suggests that they ask Marius to leave their town, which they do.

PAVIA**1600

The Marquess of Pavia is the brother of Gwalter, the Marquess of Salucia in Chettle, Dekker and Haughton's Patient Grissil. He urges his brother to marry, but like the others who do so, he is soon astonished and outraged when his brother chooses the low-born Grissil as his bride.

PAWMER

A "ghost character" in [?]Heywood's The Fair Maid of the Exchange. The Boy in the shop tells Phillis that Ursula has gone to see Pawmer, evidently a merchant, "on th' other side" of the Exchange.

PAX

Pax is a name for Peace printed in the margin of Udall's? Respublica.

PAYNE

A "ghost character" in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. Mr. Payne is a creditor. He sends a servant to see Sly, in the hope he should pay him the money his master owes him. At first, it seems that he is not going to be paid either, although, in the end, all creditors will recover their money.

PAZZORELLO

As servant to Rosinda in Shirley's The Young Admiral, Pazzorello would be a gentleman. He begs to march with the troops and is easily duped by Didimo into believing a bewitchment has rendered him nearly invulnerable to war injuries. He even foolishly attempts to become "Signior Perdu" by lying prone in the field among whizzing bullets.

PEACE**1553

Also written as Pax in Udall's? Respublica. God sends her to maintain quiet for Respublica after Misericordia arrives. The four sisters (Verity, Justice, Peace and Mercy) deliver Respublica from woe to prosperity. At the end Pax invites the players and audience to rejoice in Queen Mary.

PEACE**1599

Peace is nurse to the arts, which include Grammar, Logick, Rhetoric, Arithmatick, Geometrie, Music, and Astonomie in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. The play begins with the reign of Peace who then yields to Plenty. At the end of the play, she resumes her throne but yields it to Astraea.

PEACOCK

A "ghost character" in Barry's Ram Alley. Peacock is one of the clients of Throat.

PEARLE

‘A doctor of the civil law’ given to spouting Latin phrases in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. He orders from Wright a ‘standing Bulle/Bolle’ with ‘toungs’ upon it (that will perform miracles) and agrees to pay twenty pounds silver plus a noble for it if it can be delivered ‘tomorrow.’ Whilst preparing to show the ‘Bolle’ to Sanders and Periman, he refers to it as a ‘Hippocrene’. He is made mad, however, when he finds that his ‘standing Bull’ has been exchanged for a hare and grows angrier still when Wright demands payment for the work. He threatens to beat Christian for her mistake. When, later, all of the cuckolds and cuckqueans are together in the Tarlton Inn, he begs the captains Durham and Lacy to hear and judge what has happened between them. He lays forth a parable of two Essex neighbors who unwittingly milked each other’s lost ewes and grew angry with one another when discovered. When all is resolved with the cuckolds and cuckqueans, Pigot returns the ‘Bolle’ to Pearle in exchange for lenience to Nim and Shift, which he gives. He also promises to pay Wright for the ‘Bolle’.

PEARLE’S MOTHER

Only mentioned in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants.

PEART, TOM

Tom Peart, a carpenter in (?)Heywood's A Warning For Fair Women, runs into his old friend, Will Crow, after having worked since 3 a.m. in constructing gallows for the execution of Ann Drewry, Ann Sanders, and Roger. Neither Tom nor Will iswas sure if the hanging would take place that day, but a crowd was gathering in Smithfield, so they bought each other beers.

PEASANT**1599

The Peasant in the anonymous Wisdom of Doctor Dodypoll is first mistaken by the mad Alberdure for Hyanthe. Later, he convinces Flores he knows of a store of treasure, unwittingly leading Flores to rescue his daughter. Still later, he encounters the cured Alberdure in the woods and is convinced to change clothes with him. The Peasant promptly sells the clothes to Haunce but is not paid for them; nevertheless, he goes off to find Flores, to sell the jewel that he had found in one of Alberdure's pockets.

PEASANT **1619

A “ghost character" in Fletcher’s Bloody Brother. Pippeau hid his ass and had him call in deBube to find it with his “mathematics" and so earn a cardecu.

PEASANT**1636

A disguise adopted by Matilda, the daughter of Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua in Massinger's The Bashful Lover. She takes the disguise of a peasant and travels with Manfroy to St. Leo, but Alonzo and Pisano capture her. They fight over which of them will rape her not knowing that she is Matilda. Alonzo kills Pisano, but she is rescued by Hortensio, who grievously wounds Alonzo.

PEASANTS

Four peasants cross Roderigo's path in Segonia just as he resolves to reform his ways in Fletcher's The Pilgrim. Having been robbed by him previously, they take the opportunity to beat him while he is sleeping, ignoring his pleas for clemency when he awakes. They are soon dispersed by Pedro, who accuses them of cowardice for ganging up on a defenceless man.

PEASCOD**1590

Possibly Pantaloon's man in the ill-defined subplot of the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune. He apparently "takes leave of father before seeking his fortune in service" according to W.W. Greg's guess from the surviving plot.

PEASCOD**1596

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. According to Bottom, Master Peascod is the father of the fairy Peaseblossom. Peascod does not appear in the play.

PEASCOD'S FATHER

A character from the ill-defined subplot of the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune. He likely appears to allow Peascod to ask his blessing before seeking his fortune. The surviving plot is unclear.

PEASEBLOSSOM

Peaseblossom is one of the fairies in service to Titania, the fairy queen, in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. According to Bottom, Peaseblossom is the offspring of Master Peascod and Mistress Squash.

PEATE **1607

A “ghost character" in Tomkis’ Lingua. A young lady whose lover has written nineteen sonnets about her buskin point.

PECK

Peck is the hostler in Jonson's The New Inn. He takes care of the horses and mules at the New Inn. Peck enters with Ferret, Stuff/Trundle, Jordan, Jug, and Pierce, finding Tipto and Fly in absorbed worship of the wine jug. The merry group of servants indulges in gossip and drinking, patronized by Tipto and Fly, who join them in libations. Peck complains of a wild horse that stomped him to the ground when he tried to feed it the bushel of oats. Fly says about Peck that he is so drunk already that he can mistake a saddle for a horse. When the whistle sounds for dinner, the drunkards disperse and all servants go to wait on their masters. Peck does not re-appear in the final scene, but it is inferred that he was involved in the arrangement of the mock marriage between Beaufort and Frank/Laetitia in the stable.

PECUNIA**1629

A "ghost character" in Randolph's(?) The Drinking Academy. The object of affection for both Knowlittle and Shirke.

PECUNIA, AURELIA CLARA

The Infanta (heiress) of the mythical "Mines," i.e., the source of all money in Jonson's The Staple of News. Her name translates to "golden bright money." More a symbol than a real person, she represents investment capital. Her attendants are named, symbolically, Mortgage, Band, Statute, and Wax, and all are depicted as little better than bawds. As a character, she is the ward of Pennyboy Senior, who has promised her to Pennyboy Junior but desires her for himself. Simultaneously dignified and flirtatious, aloof and accessible, she reluctantly goes along with Pennyboy Junior's directions to kiss and compliment the jeerers (idle hecklers) who are courting her to invest in their various schemes. Given to the protection, in turn, of Pennyboy Senior, Pennyboy Junior, and Pennyboy Canter, she is nearly claimed by Picklock before being restored to Pennyboy Senior "[t]o use her like a friend, not like a slave/Or like an idol." He in turn gives her back to Pennyboy Junior. She promises, in an epilogue, to "teach them all/The golden mean."

PECUNIUS LUCRE

As his name suggests, Lucre is a usurer in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. He resides in London, and is uncle and mortgage-holder of Theodorus Witgood, stepfather of Sam Freedom, and sworn enemy and rival of Walkadine Hoard, a fellow usurer. Lucre's greed makes him susceptible to the "trick" hatched by Witgood and the Courtesan (a.k.a. Jane Medler). When Lucre receives word (From the Host, posing as Medler's servant) of his spendthrift nephew's impending marriage to Jane Medler, a supposed widow supposedly possessed of a £400 yearly annuity, he envisions extracting this wealth from Witgood as he had his lands when he forfeit his mortgage. When Lucre hears of Hoard's emergence as a suitor for Medler, he immediately endows Witgood with his former lands and adopts him as heir, improving his nephew's estate without any personal gain in order to make the widow his niece (and so cheat her). Ultimately, however, despite losing the lands he held through Witgood's deed and being forced to accept his nephew as heir, he is able to delight in seeing his rival, Hoard, undone through Witgood's trick.

PEDANT**1584

Tutor to Fedele in ?Munday's Fedele and Fortunio. In order to help Fedele gain access to Victoria, he pretends to be in love with her servant, Attilia. Attilia agrees to meet Pedante, but when he returns with Fedele later that night, he finds Attilia, Victoria and Medusa ceremonially attempting to conjure Fortunio's love. Later, disguised as a beggar, he gains entrance into Victoria's house and leaves late in the night, after arranging to have Fedele and Fortunio witness his exit in the hopes Fortunio will become so jealous he will abandon his claim to Victoria. However, at her house he runs into Crackstone, who tells him that Victoria has asked him to kill Fedele. Pedante tells Fedele of the plot, and Fedele later fights Crackstone and captures him in a net. In the concluding moments of the play Pedante gives up his claim to Attilia and forces her to marry Crackstone.

PEDANT**1594

A schoolmaster from Mantua in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. the Pendant passes through Padua on his way to Rome and Tripoli. When Baptista refuses to seal the marriage bond between Bianca and Tranio (who is disguised as Lucentio) until he meets Lucentio's father, Vincentio, Tranio is forced to find someone to impersonate Vincentio. Tranio happens upon the Pedant. By telling the Pedant that Mantuans are to be executed in Padua, and under guise of saving the old man's life, he tricks him into the impersonation.

PEDANT**1601

The Pedant in Marston's What You Will instructs Battus, Nous, Nathaniel, and Holifernes Pippo until the latter is chosen as a page.

PEDANT**1626

One of Bianca's foolish suitors in Fletcher, Ford, Massinger and Webster's The Fair Maid of the Inn: an amorous man, run mad with the study of sonnets. Requests Forobosco's help in his scheme to make money by starting new religious sects, and by increasing the number of days in the week to nine.

PEDANT**1634

A spirit conjured by Mrs. Generous and Mall Spencer to aid Whetstone in his revenge against the gallants for calling him a bastard in Heywood and Brome's The Late Lancashire Witches. In order to cast aspersions on Master Bantam's paternity, the Pedant appears in the form of Bantam's childhood tutor, dances, and points to Bantam as if to claim him as his son; the suggestion is that Bantam too is a bastard. The play later implies, however, that this suggestion is groundless.

PEDANTO **1641

A schoolmaster in Wild’s The Benefice. He appears in the first act, which has the structure of an induction. He is writing a play (he calls it a dialogue) for Christmas and has stolen conceits from other plays. He’s had to compromise because he cannot lay hold of gorgeous costumes or beards (as if horse hair were the golden fleece). He is at his wit’s end. He shows Invention and Furor Poeticus that the girl, Comaedia is trussed in a trunk and begs them to free her. When Comaedia arises, Pedanto tells her that he must write an English play for gentlemen and clergy to watch boys play men.

PEDDLER

See also PEDLAR and related spellings.

PEDDLER**1520

The Pedlar is a common man, The Foure PP, obviously signifying the spiritual wholesomeness of the simple man. He likes his drink. He likes to sleep. He sells his wares wherever feasible, but he knows the pathway to Heaven.

PEDDLER**1561

The Pedler in the anonymous Pedler's Prophecy begins with fantastic tales of his travels. He tells of the wonders he has collected, including a stone called Tenya, which gives him the gift of prophecy. The Maid comes looking to buy needles, but they get into an argument because he will not show her his wares before she pays. First the Mother and then the Father enter, and the Pedler overawes them both by preaching about the decline of England and dragons that eat the old. Despite the Maid's disgust, they invite him to dinner. The next day, apparently, the Pedler meets with the Artificer, who heard him rebuking Catholicism the previous night, the Traveler and the Mariner. The Artificer praises the Pedler's prophetic abilities, while the Mariner and Traveler attack it, and the Pedler then rants about the number of foreigners living in England. He leaves with the Traveler and Mariner, and when he returns, he announces that the Mariner and Traveler have agreed to go to sea together in search of magic stones the Pedler told them of. However, the Pedler claims that they will be turned into seals on the voyage. He then tells the Landlord that his family has turned into pigs, his tenants all to dogs and that he himself will play the part of Acteon and be torn apart by his tenants. When the Justice and Interpreter come looking for him, he hides his identity and insults both professions, under the pretense of repeating the Pedler's words. He keeps this pretense up when the Judge arrives, and eventually convinces all three that the Pedler is not so bad, after all. After they leave, the Pedler tells the audience that he intends to leave off meddling (preaching), but that they should think deeply on his words.

PEDDLER**1591

When Lluellen orders the Peddler, the Priest, and the Piper to pay money to Friar Hugh ap David in Peele's Edward I, the Peddler complains that he has only three pence tucked away in a corner of his shoe, prompting Rice ap Meredith to wonder aloud if the Piper might have some mutton hidden in his tabor.

PEDDLER**1610

A disguise assumed by Jupiter in order to gain access to the beautiful Danae in Heywood's The Golden Age. His clown manages to keep the guardian Beldams busy with gold and precious gifts (supposedly sent by king Jupiter–"the shower of gold"), while he deflowers the young princess.

PEDDLER**1632

A character and a disguise in Brome's The Novella.
  • A woman from Mercia reputed for selling exquisite trinkets and wares. Pantaloni sends her to Flavia to choose adornments for the wedding. Victoria makes arrangements with her to bring Flavia to "the Novella's" lodging. Francisco borrows a disguise from her, and she tells him of Victoria's plan. When she arrives at Guadagni's house, she is taken into custody. She leads Guadagni to the Novella's lodging at the end of the play.
  • Francisco disguises himself as the Peddler (who tells him to bring Flavia to the Novella's) to gain access to Flavia's chamber. There, he prompts Flavia to confess her love for him and her willingness to kill herself rather than marry Fabritio before revealing himself and escaping with her in a gondola.

PEDDLERS, TWO

A disguise assumed by Orlando Friscobaldo's two serving men in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore. Orlando has them pretend to be two peddlers who are then set upon by Matheo. This establishes the grounds for the robbery charge against Matheo, which in turn leads to Matheo's appearance before the duke, at which time Orlando will reveal himself and recognize Bellafront as his heir.

PEDESTER

As his name implies, Pedester trudges from Rome to the front in the anonymous The Faithful Friends in order to carry Rufinus' deceitful message to Tullius.

PEDICULUS

The poet Pediculus is a "fictional character" in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. When the actors debate on which of them should deliver the welcoming speech to the lords, Turnop tries to show off his learning and speaks in Latin, claiming that his verses are from the poet Pediculus. The joke is that pediculus means louse in Latin.

PEDLAR

See also "PEDDLER."

PEDLAR, FRENCH

In order to effect one of his many successful attempts to trick Mulligrub, a sneaky tavern owner, Cockledemoy, a city knave, assumes the identity of a French peddler in Marston's Dutch Courtesan. Wearing this disguise, Cockledemoy is able to witness Mulligrub buying an expensive gold cup from Master Burnish, the goldsmith. After the cup has been delivered to Mistress Mulligrub, Cockledemoy, this time pretending to be Burnish's servant, persuades her that Mulligrub wants it returned to Burnish's for engraving. Mistress Mulligrub gives Cockledemoy the cup, and Mulligrub is swindled yet another time.

PEDLAR, CONCEITED

Speaker of the comic monologue in Randolph's The Conceited Pedlar. It is addressed to the Gentlemen of the University (of Cambridge, Trinity College). His wit throughout includes both bawdy and political jokes. He introduces himself as being no Lawyer, Soldier, Townsman, Alderman, nor Justice of the Peace. He is neither Alchemist, Lord, Knight, Landlord nor a Gentleman of the Inns of Court. He is a 'Socraticall Citizen of the vast universe,' a Pedlar of laughter, selling wit, trading in jests, which he proceeds to demonstrate with great exuberance.

PEDRINGANO

I.
Andrea's servant in the anonymous First Part of Jeronimo.
II.
Bel-imperia's servant, Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. He is co-opted by Lorenzo and Balthazar to help them in their plans. He murders Serberine when he is tricked into believing that Serberine means to betray him. He is again tricked on the gallows when Lorenzo assures him that his pardon is in a box that later proves to be empty. Pedringano left a full confession in his pocket, however. When the hangman discovers the confession, Hieronimo gains the proof he needs to set his vengeance into action against Lorenzo and Balthazar.

PEDRO**1588

Hieronimo's servant in the additions to the play, Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy.

PEDRO**1588

Pedro is a Frenchman in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War who is hired by the two magistrates of Minturnum—Favorinus and Pausanius—to assassinate Marius in his sleep. Pedro agrees to kill Marius for forty crowns, which, he says, will be more than enough to buy him a pretty girl. When he approaches the sleeping Marius, he has a vision of a devil with flaming eyes and the voice of a bear who asks how he dare attempt to kill Marius. He runs off in fear. Pedro speaks an odd mixture of Franglais that, despite the seriousness of the scene, is apparently intended to amuse.

PEDRO**1597

Appears in scenes 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11 of the anonymous plot of Frederick and Basilea; played by Robert Ledbetter.

PEDRO **1605

A "ghost character" in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. A Spanish Admiral.

PEDRO**1609

Friend to Ricardo, Uberto and Silvio in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Coxcomb. Pedro, like his friends, knows that Ricardo has no intention of marrying Viola.

PEDRO **1611

Pedro is servant to Petruchio in Fletcher's The Woman's Prize, but seems subservient to his master's other servant, Jaques. Pedro warns Rowland about marriage, and joins Jaques in describing to Petruchio, Petronious, and Sophocles the women's march in support of Maria. When Petruchio appears plague stricken, Pedro runs for a doctor at Jaques' command, and he later runs for Maria at Petruchio's bidding, only to return reporting her to be mad. He and Jaques banter constantly, often in criticism of Maria's behavior, most famously when they are packing for Petruchio's trip, and they joke about stuffing Maria in a barrel and throwing her overboard at sea.

PEDRO**1612

Pedro is one of Brachiano's attendants in Webster's The White Devil. Secretly, he along with Carlo is in league with Francisco.

PEDRO**1616

Pedro is a friend to Leonardo in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. He seeks out Philippo and tells him that Mark-Antonio has become a soldier and is bound by ship for Barcelona. He then reports to Leonardo the same information. Leonardo worries that Mark-Antonio has smuggled a woman on board, but Pedro assures him that he saw no one that could be a disguised woman. When Leonardo decides that he must nevertheless seek out his son in Barcelona. Pedro promises to keep his estate while he is gone. Pedro is then confronted by both Alphonso and Sanchio, both seeking Leonardo, and mistaking him for a servant. He finally manages to convince them that Leonardo is not at home but has gone to Barcelona. The two decide to follow, but Pedro declares he is not worried because the two fathers would rather turn on each other than Mark-Antonio.

PEDRO**1619

An incidental servant of Earnest, Duke of Saxony, in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids. He is nevertheless integral to the masque performed at the play's conclusion.

PEDRO**1619

The father of Margaretta and husband of Claveele in William Rowley's All's Lost by Lust. Pedro is concerned when Margaretta decides to marry Antonio. He believes that lords make unfaithful husbands. His fears are proved right when Antonio commits bigamy. Pedro and Claveele silently accompany Margaretta when she carries the body of Lazarello to the Moor.

PEDRO**1621

Son of Ferando in Fletcher's The Pilgrim. Pedro is a very handsome young man who, according to Alphonso, once traded amorous looks with Alinda. Alphonso's hatred of Ferando and his opposition to penniless suitors led him to quash any friendly relations between the two young people. Soon afterwards, Pedro left his father's house, reportedly due to some vague form of "guilty conscience," and disappeared. He reappears at Alinda's door in the guise of a pilgrim, and declares that he is in search of his "self." She momentarily fails to recognize him, then does so after his departure and sets off to follow him. In the wilderness, Pedro is captured by his arch-enemy Roderigo, who threatens to kill him. Pedro declares his utter disdain for any man who would wantonly kill an unarmed pilgrim. He is unafraid to die, but is saved by the outlaws' refusal to murder him at Roderigo's command and by the Boy's (actually Alinda's) argument that it would ill behove Roderigo to send his enemy straight to heaven in a pilgrim's state of grace. Set free by Roderigo, Pedro travels to Segonia and visits the madhouse, where he again encounter Alinda in the guise of a mad boy. The two recognize one another and plan to meet, but are again separated. While searching for Alinda in Segonia, Pedro saves Roderigo from four vengeful peasants. Already repentant of his sins, Roderigo is so impressed by Pedro's magnanimity that he swears to take Pedro as an example and to help him to regain Alinda. Together, the two encounter Juletta and Alinda disguised as old women, and are impressed when the crones predict that Pedro will soon be united with his beloved if he will only attend the King's birthday celebrations. He does, and not only finds Alinda but is welcomed back into the King's service.

PEDRO**1621

Portuguese soldier and friend to Chistophero and Pymiero in Fletcher's The Island Princess. Primarily a soldier figure who acts as a foil to the other soldiers. He discusses the Princess's unsurpassed beauty with Christophero, and the virtues of soldiering with Soza and Emanuel and Christophero.

PEDRO**1622

A friend of Antonio in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling who smuggles him into the madhouse by pretending to be a concerned relative.

PEDRO**1623

Two Pedros figure in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill:
  • The courtier, not to be confused with Pedro the songster. A courtier who encourages Vertigo to behave as a lord in order to gull Franio.
  • A "songster." Non-speaking role. Not to be confused with Pedro the courtier. Pedro plays strings while Gerasto, disguised as Diego the blind singer, sings to Florimell.

PEDRO**1624

A "ghost character." Fellow servant of Lorenzo in Fletcher's Rule a Wife and Have a Wife.

PEDRO **1626

Pedro is the Second Servingman in Shirley's The Maid's Revenge. He introduces James the butler to Sharkino.

PEDRO**1632

A Spaniard in Brome's The Novella. He attempts to rape Victoria while she is disguised as the Novella but is prevented by the arrival of Swatzenburgh.

PEDRO**1635

One of the afflicted inhabitants of Palermo, Queen Eulalia's native land in Brome's The Queen and Concubine. She meets him as he flees the plague-ravaged country hoping to petition King Gonzago to kill the Queen whose supposed sin is said by priests to have caused the plague. She convinces him, by curing his illness, that the fault lies with the injustice, not the Queen, and he returns joyfully to Palermo to spread the news that a healer has come to save the country. Later, he is among the men who prevent Eulalia's assassination, and reveals to her that he had some time ago been banished from Gonzago's court for striking Horatio, and was only saved from execution by Eulalia's plea for his life. He vows to serve her faithfully and conceal her identity while the warrant for her death is in effect. He delivers a letter to King Gonzago begging the King not to attack Palermo, luckily arriving after the King has learned that Alinda is the only real traitor. He returns to Eulalia with her son, Prince Gonzago, and the news that the King is on his way to Palermo.

PEDRO de CORTES

Pedro de Cortes is an old don in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy. He is father to Clara, husband to Maria, and the guardian of Sancho.

PEDRO de VALDES

A "ghost character" in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon. According to Como, he is a "haughty" aristocrat who leads the fourth squadron of the Babylonian Armada sent to attack Titania. He is taken prisoner without resistance when the Armada is attacked.

PEDRO, DON**1588

Brother to the Viceroy of Portugal, Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy.

PEDRO, DON **1598

Don Pedro, Prince of Aragon in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, is in charge of the soldiers who arrive in Messina at the beginning of the play. When Claudio proclaims his love for Hero, Don Pedro agrees to break off his own proposed match with her and woo her on Claudio's behalf. Don Pedro then tries his luck with Beatrice, Hero's cousin, but she kindly rejects his suit saying that he is too good to be worn every day. Later, Don Pedro feels responsible when Hero seems to have been unfaithful to Claudio, and he joins with Claudio in shaming her during what was to have been her wedding ceremony. Don Pedro's brother, Don John, is discovered to have masterminded the plot to discredit Hero, and the play ends happily with two weddings. Benedick encourages him to find a wife and asks him to defer punishment on Don John until after the ceremonies when he will himself devise a suitable penalty.

PEDRO, DON **1604

A Portuguese Lord in the anonymous First Part of Jeronimo. Before it comes to the battle, the two parties attack each other verbally, and then they agree who is going to fight whom. Don Pedro should fight with Horatio, but in the end Lorenzo kills him.

PEDRO, DON**1624

Don Pedro is the son of the Viceroy in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman. Early on, he tries to convince his sister to marry Antonio, his best friend. However, it soon becomes clear that he harbors strongly homoerotic affections for Antonio. After Antonio seemingly kills Don Martino Cardenes in a duel, Don Pedro secretly aids in Antonio's escape. He is unaware of Antonio's return as a slave, and on one occasion, employs him to bring a letter to Leonora, who has been barred from seeing him. He also has a charged relationship with Leonora, whom he affects to love. At the play's close, when couples should normally pair off for marriage, Pedro remains unattached.

PEDRO, DON**1641

A nobleman in Shirley's The Brothers; the third and wealthiest suitor of Jacinta, the daughter of Don Carlos. Don Pedro is a boastful and faithless character who was engaged to Estafania but has now broken it off. His hope, encouraged by Luys, the brother of Jacinta, is to marry her and take her cousin Felisarda as his mistress. Failing in both ambitions, he is driven to offer again his hand to Estefania, only to find that she has meanwhile married Alberto. Don Pedro accepts the situation with good humour, and, since he cannot have Jacinta, asks Don Carlo for her brother Luys instead, as it is clear that they have much in common and could live agreeably together.

PEDRO GUSMAN, DON

A Spanish grandee of Cadiz, advisor to the king and father of Manuel and Henrico in the anonymous Dick of Devonshire. At the opening of the play he leaves on an embassage to France, postponing the marriage of Henrico and Eleanora until his return. Her letter accusing Henrico of rape devastates him, and he decides to return to Cadiz. He sends Manuel ahead with instructions to cover up the rape by an immediate marriage. He returns, disguised as a friar, just when both sons have been condemned to die, but reveals himself in time to save their lives.

PEDRO SEBASTIANO

In Act Four of Davenport's The City Night Cap, he meets Antonio at the bawd house. He is a gentleman of Milan and then he goes with the Duke of Milan seeking for Antonio.

PEDRO VALASCO, DON **1611

The Admiral of Castile and father to the queen in Dekker’s Match Me in London. Prince John calls him the Dogfish that he first must catch before he can attain the throne. The king cows him before the prince is able to rally him to the cause of overthrow. He goes to the prince to tell him that the king has taken a citizen’s wife to his bed and he means to upbraid the king for so humiliating his daughter. The prince encourages Valasco to do more and overthrow the tyrant. After eating grapes, the prince convinces him that he has been poisoned. Although Valasco mistrusts him, he is tricked into drinking poison disguised as medicine. The poison is in fact a sleeping potion the doctor has made. Prince John reveals that Valasco had uttered treason about the king’s stumpet, and the old man is confined to his chamber. When the king discovers that the prince was conspiring with Portugal, Valasco is forgiven and sent to oversee the prince’s execution. At play’s end, he is overjoyed to learn that his daughter has not been murdered.

PEEP, JOHN BO

'John Boe Peepe' is an insulting name Master Slightall uses to addresses his former servant Geffrey when the latter offers to kick him in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil.

PEERLESS, LADY

According to Gilbert in Brome's The Sparagus Garden, the third of the three "Graces of the court" who appear with three Courtiers at the Asparagus Garden and whose beauty impresses Sir Arnold Cautious. They dance and walk with their partners, but do nothing more questionable.

PEERS of FRANCE

Twelve peers of France arrive in Greene's Orlando Furioso in search of Orlando and Angelica. They vow to seek revenge upon Angelica for driving Orlando to insanity with her supposed unfaithfulness. They meet Marsilius and Mandricard, who are dressed as Palmers and who agree to take them to the now banished Angelica.

PEG

See also PEGG, PEGGIE and related spellings.

PEG**1589

Peg is the nickname the Keeper of Fressingfield, Margaret's father, uses for her in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. Margaret also addresses herself in this way in soliloquy.

PEG**1607

The witty cousin of Lady Troublesome in Sharpham's Cupid's Whirligig. Peg first mocks then falls in love with the Welsh courtier Nucome, who rejects her. Peg masks herself and is mistakenly married to Nucome, a situation they both accept.

PEG JOHNSON

A witch in Heywood and Brome's The Late Lancashire Witches, Peg is interchangeably addressed also as Meg or Mother Johnson; like most of the witches in the play, she speaks almost exclusively in rhyme. Her familiar is identified as Mamillion, although Mamillion appears to be commanded by other witches as well. She is one of the witches who conspire to wreak havoc with the gallants' hunting plans, and Mall Spencer identifies her as one of the witches responsible for bewitching the musicians at Lawrence and Parnell's wedding celebration. Peg is also one of the witches present at the Sabbat feast, and among those who harass the Soldier at the mill. In the final scene of the play Peg is one of the arrested witches brought on stage; she is distinguished from the other witches when, unlike the witches who stubbornly refuse to speak, she pathetically calls out to her familiar to aid her. The other witches turn on her, and Doughty separates her from them for her safety. He then examines her, and Peg confesses to being a witch before being turned over to the authorities with the others.

PEG LARKIN **1638

A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Wit in a Constable. A handsome woman of Cambridge to whom Hold–fast alludes. He wonders if any of London’s women are as handsome as she.

PEGASUS

I.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Timon of Athens. Gelasimus is convinced to have bought the mythical horse Pegasus from Pseudocheus. Although he has not seen the horse yet, he sends his servant Paedio to the smith to have the horse's shoes nailed before he rides him over the zodiac to the Antipodes.
II.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Pegasus is mentioned by Sir Cupid Phantsy when he is explaining, to Doctor Clyster, the effect love had on him: "I could not water my horse, but thought of Helicon and flying with Pegasus." According to Greek mythology, Pegasus is the winged horse that sprang from the blood of the Gorgon Medusa when she was decapitated by Perseus. He was also regarded as a symbol of poetic genius since Hippocrene, the fountain of the Muses on Mount Helicon, was said to have sprung from a blow of his hoof.
III.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. The famous flying horse tamed by Bellerophon. Anus says that she would choose Neanias as her lover "Though Pegasus and Bucephalus came a-wooing me."

PEGG with a LANTHORNE

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. A horse of the court that Silly wishes to praise before Urina to make her love him and believe he is a courtier.

PEGGE PUDDING

She is the daughter of Lelia's nurse, and granddaughter of Mother Midnight in the anonymous Wily Beguiled. She has been thoroughly rebellious and dislikes being watched over by grandmother and mother. Despite many suitors she privately agrees to marry Wil Cricket, with the audience as witness. She and Wil accompany Mother Midnight back to Mother Midnight's house for a bag barley pudding. Her marriage to Wil is arranged to take place along with that of Lelia and Sophos.

PEGGIE GRAHAM

Daughter of Sir John Graham and beloved of Wallace in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot. Peggie is abducted by Young Selby who plans to drag her to a Church and marry her by force. She is saved by the intervention of Wallace who kills Selby, but she is captured by the English commissioners, who sentence her to death unless Wallace gives himself up to them, which he does. She is reunited with Wallace when he escapes capture, and they are married by Friar Gertrid. But then Peggie, Old Wallace and the Friar are captured by Selby when seeking a cave for shelter. She is stabbed to death by Haslerig, but she is able to tell Wallace who killed her before she dies. Later, she appears as a ghost to Wallace, and gives him a riddling warning, "come not near Bruce, yet Bruce shall not hurt thee."

PEGGY

Peggy is the nickname for Margaret used by both Lacy and Prince Edward in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay.

PEGO

Irus's man, who assumes the disguise of the Burgomaster of Alexandria in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. In this disguise, he seizes Antisthenes, and brings him to a hearing before Ptolemy, and woos and wins Martia. In the play's final scene, he has reportedly seized the goods of Elimine (as a result of Hermes's murder of Doricles and apparent subsequent death; Hermes being a disguise assumed by Irus) and Samathis (as a result of Leon's debts to creditors following his apparent Suicide; Leon is also a disguise assumed by Irus). King Cleanthes (formerly Duke, yet a third disguise assumed by Irus) asks that he restore their goods and lands. His valor in the recent battle is also mentioned.

PELEUS**1611

I.
Peleus is a Greek lord that serves Meleager and is one of Jason's Argonauts in Heywood's Brazen Age. He is wounded by the boar. An oracle tells Peleus that Jason will be successful in securing the Golden Fleece.
II.
A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Peleus is mentioned by Ajax as the father of Achilles.

PELEGON**1611

A "ghost character" in Heywood's Brazen Age. Pelegon is a Greek lord killed by the Caledonian boar.

PELIAS

A foolish and flattering courtier of the Cyprian court, much given to paying obsequious compliments to his superiors in Ford's The Lover's Melancholy. He thinks himself the maker rather than the object of jokes, and mocks Cuculus by giving him Grilla, a young male page disguised as a woman. Corax rebukes him by remarking that "Cuculus is an ordinary ape, but thou art the ape of an ape." When others take it upon themselves to criticize Palador for his failings as a ruler, only Pelias continues relentlessly to flatter him. In the Masque of Melancholy, he appears as a sufferer from 'hydrophobia,' possessed by mad fantasies and rabidly jealous of his wife. Embarrassed to appear before Thamasta when Cuculus discovers the truth of his deception, he disappears from the play thereafter.

PELIUS **1635

Zenon’s real name in Killigrew’s The Prisoners. See ZENON.

PELIUS **1636

A “ghost character" in Killigrew’s Claricilla. Ruler of Messina. Melintus avouches that Pelius will give Claricilla all honor when she arrives there.

PELIUS, CAPTAIN

The speech headings in Fletcher's The Mad Lover refer to a Second Captain, but the text indicates that his proper name is Pelius. With the First Captain (Polybius) and Eumenes, he helps keep watch over the love-crazed Memnon. It is he who procures the services of the Whore in the effort to cure the general through sex, and with the First Captain, he coaches the Whore on how best to imitate the princess Calis.

PELLA, LUCIUS

Lucius Pella is among the troops fighting with the conspirators in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. Brutus censures Pella for taking Sardinian bribes.

PELLEGRIN

With Nashorat, a friend and supporter of Samorat in Suckling's The Goblins. Like Nashorat, Pellegrin is a good-natured, comic cavalier; in contrast to Samorat and Orsabrin, they regard death with gloom if not outright fear. Faced, as he thinks, with imminent execution along with Samorat, Pellegrin is especially concerned lest "The people will say as we goe along, thou [Nashorat] art the properer fellow"–and they both reflect that they will leave unpaid bills, althought these, "considering the occasion", might be forgiven.

PELLHAM

A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. One of the leaders of the English forces at Leith mentioned by Queen Elizabeth as worthy of reward.

PELONNUS

A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Golden Age. Pelonnus is the King of Naples. Danae and her son arrive in Naples where the princess is crowned Pelonnus's queen. Pelonnus does not appear physically on stage, but a Lord of Argos narrates the story of the marriage between Pelonnus and Danae to Jupiter.

PELOPS **1630

Only mentioned in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Tragedy uses this character as an example to convince Comedy of her superior ability to move men to reformation and improvement.

PEMBROKE**1591

King Edward commands Pembroke and Stafford in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI to raise troops to defend his beleaguered throne from an alliance that includes Margaret, Warwick, and the French king. Historically, he was William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke.

PEMBROKE**1593

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Richard III. Uncle and supporter of Richmond. The Earl of Pembroke joins Richmond's forces in Havorford West as they march to Bosworth.

PEMBROKE**1596

The Earl of Pembroke seems to exist mainly to fill out the number of lords in Shakespeare's King John. He is listed as present in the first two scenes, but is silent, and does not reappear until the English lords turn against John. After John's second coronation, Pembroke protests, along with others, that there was no need for such an action, claiming that when workmen attempt to improve a work they often mar it. He then asks for Arthur to be set free, and when Hubert arrives, reveals that he knows Hubert has a warrant to kill Arthur. He leaves with the others to seek out Arthur's body, and in the next scene mourns Arthur's death and threatens Hubert. With the others, he rebels against John, and then returns when Melun reveals the Dauphin's plans to kill the English after the battle.

PEMBROKE**1601

The Earl of Pembroke is the leader of a force of English troops who are fighting for the King of Navarre in the anonymous Trial Of Chivalry. He sets out to help Ferdinand woo Katharina, but Katharina secretly falls in love with him instead. The incensed Ferdinand challenges him to a duel, which Pembroke cannot understand. In that duel he is wounded, and then he wounds Ferdinand in return: falling unconscious, he is rescued by a Forester. He recovers, has a tomb built for Ferdinand whom he believes to be dead, and vows to live in the woods there and challenge all passing knights to acknowledge Ferdinand's superiority as a knight. At the tomb, he is found by, first Katharina, whom he convinces of the merits of Ferdinand, and then the disfigured Bellamira. Next he meets there Bowyer, Roderick, Burbon, Lewes, and Navarre, all of whom he defeats in single combat, taking their shields as trophies; after that he meets and defeats Philip; and he then meets Ferdinand with whom (once they recognize each other) he is reconciled. Pembroke and Ferdinand then go to rescue Philip from Rodorick, and take part in the battle the following day. Pembroke reveals his identity to the two Kings and is reconciled to them.

PEMBROKE**1625

Non-speaking role in William Rowley's A New Wonder: A Woman Never Vexed. A lord attending on the King during his visit to Spitalfields.

PEMBROOKE

The Earl of Pembrooke is an English lord who is to be married to Marian in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. At Chester court, Pembrooke and Moorton are received ceremoniously as the future bridegrooms to Marian and Sydanen. Pembrooke and Moorton go with Oswen and Amery to the country house where they will spend the night before the wedding. At their lodgings, a troupe of amateur actors meets the lords with a rustic welcoming pageant in which the figures crudely symbolize their names. The figure representing Pembrooke carries a pen in a dish of water signifying a brook. Pembrooke thanks the country fellows politely and gives them some money. During the night, Pembrooke and Moorton appear in their nightgowns claiming that a voice sang under their windows telling them the ladies are gone, and this is proved true. When John a Cumber offers to help the lords retrieve the ladies by outsmarting John a Kent and his party, Pembrooke leaves with the lords to go to Gosselin's castle. At the castle, Pembrooke arrives disguised as the Fourth Antique in a masque arranged by John a Cumber to gain entrance into the castle. On the lawn before Gosselin's castle, Pembrooke, Moorton, Chester, and Llwellen prepare to attend the play John a Cumber has arranged for them. When John a Kent arrives disguised as John a Cumber and asks these lords to act as themselves in the play, they agree thinking this is part of the performance. In the revelation scene, Pembrooke sees how, by his cunning, John a Kent has expunged John a Cumber's offense. At Chester Abbey, where the weddings of Sydanen to Moorton and of Marian to Pembrooke are to be celebrated, Pembrooke and Moorton are expected as the bridegrooms. They arrive at the only gate into the church only to find John a Cumber denying them access because he thinks they have already entered. When the misrepresentation is cleared, Sydanen is already married to Sir Griffin (disguised as Moorton) and Marian to Powesse (disguised as Pembrooke). Faced with a fait accompli, Pembrooke and Moorton have no choice but to agree and retire.

PENANCE **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. Another name for Mourning. One of the nine inferior Affections. An agent of Grief who attended the Parliament during Grief’s absence.

PENATES

The Penates or Senators are supporters of Brutus and fight on his behalf in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece.

PENDA

Penda is the valiant son of the Duke of Cornwall in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador. The king has tried to have Penda murdered because he desires Penda's wife, Carintha. The intended assassin, Voltimar, reveals the plot to Penda, who returns disguised as Conon, together with the king's brothers Edmond and Eldred, whose deaths the king has also tried to arrange. When the king rejects the supposed Conon on the grounds that he no longer needs soldiers, Penda disguises himself as Powis, an ambassador from Wales. The king tries to marry him to Armante, but the supposed Powis rejects her when he discovers that she has borne a bastard. Eventually his true identity is revealed and he and Carintha are reunited.

PENDANT

Pendant is a sycophantic follower of Count Frederick, on whom he relies for his living in Field's A Woman is a Weathercock. He attends the wedding of Count Frederick and Bellafront, and offers to be third for Strange in a duel against Captain Pouts. Mistress Wagtail accuses Pendant of having fathered her child; he denies it but offers to help her to "lay the child" on Sir Abraham Ninny. At the wedding banquet, Nevill teases Pendant, making him proclaim more and more outlandish abilities for Count Frederick. Pendant encounters Sir Abraham and accuses him of fathering Wagtail's child and that she is in love with him. Abraham swears that he will woo Wagtail and reject Lucida. Pendant coaches Wagtail in her wooing of Sir Abraham. He partners Katherine in the wedding masque, in the absence of Strange.

PENDRAGON, UTER

A British prince, the brother of King Aurelius in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father. A man of quick temper and impetuous behavior, he falls in love with Artesia after catching sight of her in a forest. He is consumed with jealousy when he arrives at court to find Aurelius married to her. Artesia flirts with him, and although Uter wrestles with his conscience, he is seduced nonetheless. Artesia then causes a split between Aurelius and the other Britons by accusing Uter of plotting to abduct her. Uter leads the Britons to Wales where they defeat Vortiger, and he becomes King when the Saxons poison Aurelius. Merlin then prophecies that Uter will be the father of King Arthur.

PENDRAGON, UTHER

A "ghost character" in Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur. Merlin changed Uther's shape to fool Igerna into believing he was her husband, Gorlois. In this disguise, Uther fathered the twins Arthur and Anne.

PENDRAGON, UTHER**1637

Only mentioned in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. Jarbus mentions that this king came to power in the year 517.

PENDRAGON, UTTER **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Father of King Arthur. Penia-Penniless refers to the Welsh soldier Caradoc as a man of Pendragon's noble stock. Utter Pendragon is mentioned again later in the play.

PENELOPE**1601

I.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Birthe of Hercules. Penelope is mentioned by Alcumena when she compares herself to Penelope, the lady who found a way of preserving "her self against soe manie temptations, in so longe absence of her beloved Vlisses."
II.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Penelope is a character in the Odyssey, wife of Odysseus, proverbial for patient faithfulness. When Tucca enters Albius's house as his guest, he names Albius after several noble celebrities of classical antiquity, and he gives Chloë the names of mythological goddesses and legendary women. Among others, he calls Chloë a Penelope. By linking Chloë's name to those of the great names of famous women in classical mythology and literature, Tucca wants to suggest that Chloë is a muse of poetic inspiration, like the other women who inspired the poets of Ovid's school.
III.
Only mentioned by Mariana in [?]Wilson's Fair Em, the Miller's Daughter. Penelope was the wife of Odysseus. Mariana compares herself to Penelope, because she too is constant to the man she loved and rebuffs unwanted suitors such as William.
IV.
Only mentioned in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. The patient wife of Odysseus; Captain Fitzjohn compares Dorothea Constance to Penelope.
V.
Only mentioned in the anonymous The Wasp. When Gilbert sees how Countess Claridon pines over his death and will admit no suitors for a second marriage, he likens her to "good Penelope."

PENELOPE**1602

Penelope is a virgin lady and a companion to Eugenia in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. She invites the gentlemen to Barnet for breakfast. One of them, Sir Gyles Goosecappe, will be matched with her.

PENELOPE **1628

Penelope is Worthy's daughter and beloved of John Fowler, a wild gentleman whose suit and honesty Penelope questions in Shirley's The Witty Fair One. Unconvinced by Fowler's flattery, Penelope learns that indeed his intentions are not honorable when she changes places with the chambermaid Winnifride. Fowler accepts the demand that he sleep with Winnifride before being allowed access to Penelope. Penelope then contrives with friends to persuade everyone that Fowler has died a sinful man. She accepts Fowler when he pledges death to vanity and promises honorable behavior in marriage.

PENELOPE**1633

A kinswoman of Mistress Wilding in Shirley's The Gamester. At first, she attempts to rebut Wilding's efforts to name her as his next wife, for after the death of Mistress Wilding. Eventually, she agrees–if it's acceptable to Mrs. Wilding. She is persuaded by Mrs. Wilding to allow Wilding to make advances upon her in the present. She lets him kiss her and give her a diamond ring. Penelope contrives to play in the role of a willing mistress of Wilding, agreeing to a clandestine, nocturnal meeting with him. She is shocked when Wilding tells her that he wants her to be married, so that he can cuckold her husband. Later, when Hazard is presented to her, she tells us that she thinks that he is most handsome. Diverting Hazard with agreeable chatter, she assures him of her virginity. We believe that Penelope has been subject to a sexual union with Hazard, who has taken the place of Wilding at the secret meeting. We then think that he has actually slept with Mistress Wilding. Hazard has always knows that she is chaste–he has not actually fornicated with Mrs. Wilding either. Initially, Penelope plays hard to get with Hazard, but then willingly marries him.

PENELOPE**1638

Penelope is the younger sister of Caelia in Baylie's The Wizard and she complains that she is overshadowed by her sister's beauty, and has no suitors of her own. She changes clothes with Caelia and appears veiled before the disguised Antonio, whom she believes is a conjurer. When Antonio correctly identifies the sisters, they are convinced of his magic abilities and ask who they should marry. Antonio tells her that she will marry Sebastian. Antonio then induces Penelope to spend the night with Sebastian, pretending to be Caelia. In the morning, Penelope unveils herself to Sebastian and at first he is enraged that he has been fooled, but then agrees to marry and honor Penelope.

PENELOPE PLOTWELL **1637

Old Plotwell’s daughter in Mayne’s City Match. She was a seamstress indentured to Mrs. Holland at the Exchange before taking on the disguise of Madam Aurelia and becoming the toast of London. Frank is supplying her the money to maintain the disguise from their Uncle Warehouse’s coffers. The plan is to catch her a worthy, wealthy husband. Frank plots to marry her to Timothy, promising that she will be able to smooth his rough city edges. She agrees to go along with her brother’s later plan to marry Madam Aurelia to their uncle Warehouse. She appears in the final scene, happily married now to Timothy. See also AURELIA.

[PENELOPE] TRIPPIT

Trippit, the queen's maid in Quarles' The Virgin Widow, encourages her mistress to believe the worst of the king and Kettreena and attempts to frame Kettreena for the death of Pertenax. She dies along with her mistress when the latter challenges the oracle. Presumably she is also the Penelope Trippit whose bill is read out by Quack.

PENELOPE WHOREHOUND

The second of the prostitutes brought before the duke in the Milanese version of Bridewell in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore. Penelope appears dressed as a citizen's wife. The First Master of the prison explains to the duke that Penelope is a frequent resident of the facility, and that she is given to assuming whatever costume is appropriate for her customer-of-the-moment whether he be a gentleman gallant or a citizen.

PENGUTLING, REYNOLD

A "ghost character" in Brome's The Damoiselle. Reynold had a daughter whom he offered to Sir Amphilus as his wife.

PENIA–PENNILESS **1627

Goddess of poverty in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. She introduces herself as Penia-Poverty. She has a face the color of red-ochre and puts Chremylus and Blepsidemus in mind of vengeful ghosts or "some bawd of Shoreditch, or Turnbull broker of maidenheads." She is furious with them for shunning her in favor of Plutus. Dicæus engages in a formal disputation with her wherein she fails to demonstrate that poverty is nobler than wealth. She is driven away. She raises an army including Higgen, Termock, Brun, and Caradoc. When they argue amongst themselves who should lead this "tattered fleece" army, she offers to take control, but Higgen will not be led by a smock. They settle the quarrel by electing Higgen to lead and nothing is heard of her after this moment in the play.

PENIA–POVERTY **1627

Alternate name for Penia-Penniless in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. This is the name she uses for herself.

PENITENT BROTHEL

A country gentleman in Middleton's A Mad World, My Masters. He is fond of trickery of all sorts and therefore envious of Follywit's skill in that regard. Brothel hires the courtesan of Sir Bounteous Progress, Frank Gullman, in an effort to corrupt Master Harebrain and evoke suspicion in his wife, with whom he continues to pursue an adulterous affair. Penitent also uses his friendship with the courtesan to extort money both from her frequent consort Sir Bounteous and her erstwhile suitors Inesse and Possibility. Using their sexual voraciousness against them, Penitent, acting as physician to the Courtesan while she feigns illness, receives large sums of money and valuables from the three to cover her extravagant medical bills. Brothel's various "sins" come to an abrupt end, however, when the Succubus (devil) appears to him as Mistress Harebrain. Along with many characters, he is present at the feast given by Sir Bounteous at which Owemuch's players perform The Slip and Follywit's marriage to the courtesan is revealed.

PENITENT EXPERIENCE

Penitent Experience is the name Sempronio goes by in the anonymous Knack To Know An Honest Man when he returns to Venice after his apparent death. He is a cynic, lamenting the ways of the world.

PENITENTIA**1618

A "ghost character" in Holiday's Technogamia. Cheiromantes predicts that Choler will marry a woman named Penitentia

PENIUS

Penius is a heroic Roman general, famous for his prowess in battle in Fletcher's Bonduca. He is noble too, and once allowed Caratach to rescue young Hengo during a battle. For five years, he has been the commander of the Roman forces in Britain. But after a recent battle, in which the British forces decimated the Romans, he has become pessimistic, and Suetonius has taken over his role. Penius refuses to fight in the next battle, and his soldiers angrily march into battle against his orders. He watches the battle from a distance. When the Romans win, Penius is ashamed, and Petillius persuades him to commit suicide. Caratach mourns over his body.

PENKER, FRIAR

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Richard III. A cleric of London. Richard III sends Ratcliffe to Friar Penker to order him to give a sermon supporting Richard's claim to the throne.

PENNEL

Also spelled Penuel in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. A Carter by trade, with a marked rustic idiom. He is a bantering friend of Peter, Miriam's servant. After the rebels' proclamation, he is picked from the crowd by Eleazer to participate in the humiliation of Ananias. He is dressed in the High Priest's robes and ceremoniously led away, still whistling.

PENNILESS, CAPTAIN BEN

A destitute prodigal in Jordan's Money is an Ass. He attempts to borrow money from Featherbrain. After discovering that Featherbrain, too, is penniless, the two conspire to steal Felixina and Feminia from Money and Credit. Disguised as Money and Credit's servants, the two prodigals gain access to Clutch's house. Penniless courts Feminia, who advises him to get money from Credit under the pretence of being her brother. Once he is better appareled, he passes as Precious Jewel and assures Credit that he is already married to Beauty in order to accompany Money and Credit to Clutch's house. Once there, he again exchanges pledges of love with Feminia. He is dismayed by Calumny's claim that she has already had sex with Credit, but Featherbrain convinces him that Calumny's story is untrue. He forces Credit to renounce his claim to Feminia at sword point. He is then free to marry Feminia with half of Credit's estate being offered by Clutch as a dowry. Prior to the wedding, Penniless reveals his true identity, but Clutch sanctions the match anyway.

PENNISTONE

See also PENNYSTONE and related spellings.

PENNISTONE, MISTRESS **1607

A "ghost character" in Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. The draper's wife and an acquaintance of Nell's. Her tailor is more reasonable that Godfrey, who is Nell's tailor.

PENNY

Penny is a fairy in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. She leaps upon flowers and travels from place to place by getting upon a fly. She appears singing and dancing in the forest, with Cricket and Little Pricke, before Mopso, Frisco and Ioculo. She offers them music and invites them to dance. The boys are reluctant at the beginning, but, at the end of Act II, they sing and dance with the three fairies.

PENNYBOY CANTER

The father of Pennyboy Junior in Jonson's The Staple of News. He has faked his death in order to observe his prodigal son's behavior and to protect him from his grasping uncle, Pennyboy Senior. He is disguised as a "canting beggar," an indigent who speaks the underworld "cant" or slang. He observes how Pennyboy Junior allows the jeerers (Cymbal, Fitton, Almanac, Shunfield, and Madrigal, idle hecklers all) to exploit and mock him and Pecunia, and, in frequent asides, comments on the jeerers' folly and rank materialism. When the jeerers turn on him, mocking his solemnity, he in turn demolishes each of them in satirical rants, proving that their wit is really nothing but "cant," or jargon. When Pennyboy Junior is so amused by this exchange that he proposes using Pecunia's and his money to endow a "Canter's College" and to hire all the jeerers, he reveals himself to the company and angrily disinherits his son, taking Pecunia back as well. Upon learning that Pennyboy Junior has foiled Picklock's plan to cheat him, however, he reconciles with him. Together, they restore Pecunia and the estate to Pennyboy Senior and reconcile with him.

PENNYBOY JUNIOR

A young dandy in Jonson's The Staple of News. He has just come into his inheritance at the beginning of the play. Cheerfully spendthrift, he trusts his shady lawyer, Picklock, and his miserly uncle, Pennyboy Senior, to affect a marriage between himself and Pecunia, the Infanta of the Mines. He has befriended an old singing beggar whom he calls "Founder," but who is actually his father, Pennyboy Canter, in disguise. He is thrilled to hear from his tailor that the new "Staple of News" (a gossip sheet) has just opened, and he purchases a position as reporter for his barber, Thomas Barber. While being introduced to Pecunia, he meets a crowd of jeerers (Cymbal, Fitton, Almanac, Shunfield, and Madrigal, idle hecklers all) and admires the way they insult the surly Pennyboy Senior. He hires Lickfinger the cook, to create a sumptuous dinner in a Tavern in honor of Pecunia; this is a plan hatched by Picklock to get her away from Pennyboy Senior. There he allows the jeerers to mock his "Founder" and to make suggestive comments to Pecunia. Pennyboy Canter retaliates with elaborate satires on the jeerers, which so amuse Pennyboy Junior that he proposes using Pecunia's and his money to endow a "Canter's College" and to hire all the jeerers. Incensed, his father reveals himself and disinherits Pennyboy Junior. In the final act, a repentant Pennyboy Junior happens upon his protégé, Thomas Barber, who tells him that his father and the lawyer, Picklock, are suing each other for possession of the estate, and the deed is being delivered by Lickfinger, Pennyboy Junior's cook, in a "black box." Armed with this information, Pennyboy Junior runs to intercept the box, and returning, receives Picklock's promise to help him recover his money skeptically (he has also placed Thomas Barber to overhear this conversation). He is, of course, unsurprised when Picklock betrays him and tries to convince Pennyboy Canter to turn over the estate to him instead. However, when it is discovered that Pennyboy Junior has the deed safe, and when Thomas Barber corroborates Picklock's duplicity, Picklock storms off and Pennyboy Senior reconciles with his son. They then visit Pennyboy Senior (temporarily insane over the loss of Pecunia) and restore Pecunia and his estate to him. Pennyboy Senior in turn bestows his estate and Pecunia on Pennyboy Junior, and all are reconciled.

PENNYBOY SENIOR

A miser and a misanthrope in Jonson's The Staple of News. He has concocted a scheme to marry his nephew, Pennyboy Junior, to Pecunia, Infanta of the Mines, whom he controls, in order to get his inheritance, but then decides to marry her himself. However, his house is overrun by jeerers (Cymbal, Fitton, Almanac, Shunfield, and Madrigal, idle hecklers all), and they spirit Pecunia away to a tavern for a dinner. Pennyboy Junior's lawyer, Picklock, succeeds in contracting Pecunia to Pennyboy Junior and Pennyboy Senior runs mad. In the final scene, he has made himself the judge of a mock court and is trying his two dogs, Block and Lollard, for urinating on Pecunia's dress and other doggy offenses, while the jeerers watch and heckle. He is rescued by Pennyboy Canter and Junior, who restore Pecunia (and therefore his sanity) to him. Grateful, he gives Pecunia to Pennyboy Junior, and is reconciled with his brother.

PENNYDUB, SIR JOHN**1606

A Country Knight in Middleton's(?) Puritan. He is a Suitor to Mary, who, despite Pyeboard's machinations, marries Mary.

PENNYSTONE

See also PENNISTONE and related spellings.

PENNYSTONE

Master Pennystone is Franklin's first creditor in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. When Old Franklin decides to pay all his son's debts, he comes accompanied by three creditors, whom Chamlet identifies by name. Pennystone says he is satisfied with the payment received from Old Franklin. Noting that the debt would have been erased anyway at Franklin's death, Pennystone is content that at least he recuperated half of it from Franklin's father.

PENSIONERS

Blindfolded by scarves, these follow the cortege of the dead Queen Mariana in the dumb show that begins Dekker's The Whore of Babylon. They are presumably among those who, liberated from their blindfolds by Truth and Time, pay tribute to Titania and pledge to defend Truth hereafter. Later they support Titania by pursuing the armed Gentleman who tried to kill her.

PENTHEA

Penthea, in contrast to the unexcitable Calantha, is almost wholly emotional in Ford's The Broken Heart. Although her virtue and honor forbid the expression of her true love to Orgilus, the man she was to have married, she can never love the abusive, jealous beast, Bassanes, to whom her brother has married her. She shuffles in melancholic misery throughout the play until loss of sleep and sustenance conspire to kill her. Death by privation. Her name means "complaint."

PENTHESILEA

I.
Only mentioned in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. The queen of the Amazons, a name used by Sir Toby for Maria.
II.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Penthesilea was a leader of the Amazons, who came against the Greeks during the Trojan War. Achilles fought her in single combat, and killed her, though he lamented the necessity of slaying such a beautiful woman, and treated her body gently and reverently after death, handing it over for a ceremonial burial. When Morose is confronted with his wife's termagant nature, while he thought her a silent and compliant woman, he compares Epicoene's aggressiveness to that of the famous commanding women of the classical world. Morose says that Epicoene is his regent already and is amazed that he has married a Penthesilea. The allusion is to the queen of the race of warrior women who lived in ancient Thrace.
III.
A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Penthesilia (referred to as Penthisilea and Penthiselea in the text) is the queen of the Amazons and a Trojan ally. Her arrival at Troy is announced to Priam late in the play, and in the epilogue, Thersites says she will appear in the sequel.
IV.
Queen of the Amazons in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, Penthesilea has joined the struggle on the Trojan side for Hector's sake. In the first battle, she challenges and wounds Pyrhus; after routing Synon and Thersites she meets Pyrhus again and is slain by him.

PENULO

A parasite in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune. Although he agrees to help Hermione, he secretly causes trouble for the two lovers by telling Armenio where Hermione has planned his meeting with Fidelia. Engages in banter with Lentulo, Bomelio's servant. Tells Lentulo that Armenio has been struck dumb.

PENURIO

A part-time pander and Lopez' always-hungry servant in Fletcher's Women Pleased, he assists Claudio's wooing of Isabella. Participates as a dancer in the wedding masque for Silvio and the hag.

PENURY

Penury, Fortune, and Hoist are men deeply indebted to Sir John in Massinger's The City Madam. Initially, Luke makes plea to Sir John to grant Penury and his fellow debtors mercy. Luke later arrests him for debt. The three are paraded in front of Luke, who denies them mercy. Sir John forgives his debt when he reassumes control of the household.

PENVENMOWER

A "ghost character" in William Rowley's A Shoemaker a Gentleman. One of the Shoemaker's Welsh cousins.

PEOPLE**1540

Also called the Common or Poor People in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates, a group representing the artisans and other commoners. They stand at the edge of the stage, probably in the audience. The Soutar, Tailor, Soutar's Wife, Tailor's Wife, and Jennie are among them.

PEOPLE**1553

People (the commonality in Udall's? Respublica) approaches Respublica, calling her, out of genuine ignorance, Lady Ricepudding Cake, to announce his devotion to her and to tell her that his situation continues to deteriorate–prices keep rising and goods grow ever more scarce. He is down-to-earth, speaking in a broad west-country accent, and his good sense makes him reject everything the men around Respublica say. He is highly regarded by Respublica but bullied and harassed by Avarice, Oppression, Insolence, and Adulation. After the four vices are banished, People steps forward uncertainly to tell Respublica how they beat him but that now things are improving. When Oppression, Insolence, Avarice and Adulation are captured by Mercy, Truth, Peace and Justice, Justice hands them over to People to guard for future trial.

PEOPLE**1604

During Macros’ Act V execution scene in Verney’s Antipoe, Antipoe kneels to the People and begs their judgement that he should die in place of Macros. The People (speaking in one voice as did the Army earlier) say that both Antipoe and Macros should live.

PEOPLE **1635

The people, en masse, praise Cleander as he comes amongst them after gaining the crown in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy.

PEOPLE, COMMON**1538

The Common People, represented by a single speaker, listen to the preaching of John Baptist in Bale's John Baptist's Preaching in the Wilderness. He tells Common People to repent and turn to God. Common People states that he knows the best way to heal is to expose the sore, and therefore he confesses his sins. Having done so, John baptizes him, and, when asked for godly precepts, tells him to give charity rather than animal sacrifices and to succor the poor both with food and the word of God. Common People then leaves, having been given what he came for.

PEOPLE, COMMON**1636

"Ghost characters" in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. The King and Guiderius often discuss the affections of "the common people."

PEPIN

Only mentioned in Shakespeare's Henry VIII. Pepin is a sixth century Frankish king mentioned by Lord Chamberlain.

PEPPERCORN, SIR **1632

An informal disguise, or persona, or impersonation that Asotus proposes to bestow upon Charylus while roaring at Ballio's house in Randolph's Jealous Lovers.

PEPPERTON

One of the four suitors of the rich widow, Lady Goldenfleece, in Middleton's No Wit, No Help Like a Woman's. With the emergence of the disguised Kate Low-Water as Lady Goldenfleece's favorite, the suitors realize that they have wasted their time, money, and energy pursing the widow. Disgruntled, they disrupt Goldenfleece's wedding feast by masquerading as the four elements (Pepperton portrays Earth) and presenting a pseudo-masque.

PERCE

Bacon's servant in ?Greene and Chettle's John of Bordeaux, captured with him by Turkish soldiers. He comically debates the relative merits of Aristotle and Plato, and the relative value of books and bottles, with two of Vandermast's students. Helps the hungry students cheat an innkeeper out of a meal. Freed from prison by Bacon, he vows to end his criminal ways.

PERCEVAL, WILLIAM **1600

William Perceval, a rustic in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus, asks Philomusus to dig his dead father's grave, and to write the dead man's will. Having become churchwarden, it is he who tells Philomusus that the scholar has been discharged from his offices.

PERCIVAL

Percival is a messenger in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III that delivers a letter from the Duke of Buckingham to Richard, Duke of Gloucester. When Percival greets Gloucester, he foreshadows Buckingham's support by addressing Richard as "your majesty." Richard confesses his early ambitions and anxieties to Percival as he reads Buckingham's letter. Percival reports by word of mouth to Richard that Buckingham has assembled a company of men to assist Richard's grab for the crown. Buckingham tells Richard that Lord Hastings will support Richard's claim.

PERCY**1590

Percy is an English nobleman in the anonymous King Edward III. He brings news that Queen Phillipa is coming to France because King David of Scotland has been captured by John Copland, but that Copland will not turn his prisoner over to her, insisting that he present David to Edward himself.

PERCY **1597

The family name of Henry, Earl of Northumberland, Henry "Hotspur" and Lady Kate in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV.

PERCY **1604

A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. Spelled Pearsie in the text. He disclosed the Burkes rebellion and was put to death by the Earl of Kildare.

PERCY**1623

Family name of Henry Percy (Hotspur), his wife Kate and father, the Earl of Northumberland's in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth.

PERCY **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Carion calls him one of the "puisnies" along with Catesby and lumps them both in with all knaves.

PERCY**1637

The same character appears in two guises in the anonymous The Wasp:
  • A "ghost character." Katherine's uncle, banished to France. She writes to him to come lead the conspirators against Marianus.
  • The disguise assumed by Archibald after Katherine's letter is intercepted by the loyal barons. As Percy, he receives Marianus' crown. After testing Varletti and Gerald, he stands loyally beside Marianus and returns to him his crown.

PERCY**1637

A powerful English lord, sometimes anachronistically referred to as 'Northumberland' in J.W.'s The Valiant Scot. He quarrels with the lower-ranking Grimsby. With Clifford, he is made a leader of the English army against Wallace and the rebel Scots. After Wallace maims the English ambassadors, Clifford and Percy decide to lure Wallace into a trap, but their plan is easily foiled because Wallace, in disguise, is present at their discussion. Percy fights in the climactic battle against the rebel Scots, and, unlike Clifford, has nothing but disdain for Wallace.

PERCY, HARRY **1595

Son of the Earl of Northumberland, follower of Bolingbroke in Shakespeare's Richard II. He turns up again as "Hotspur" in 1 Henry IV.

PERCY, HARRY**1625

A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. "Stout Harry Percy," an English knight, guards the English tents to the east during the battle of Leith. Clifton says he has many barbed steeds, all baying for action.

PERCY, HENRY

Earl of Northumberland. He reveals that Bolingbroke is returning to England with an army and, along with Lord Ross and Lord Willoughby, decides to fight against King Richard in Shakespeare's Richard II. He is the father of Harry Percy ["Hotspur" of 1 Henry IV].

PERCY, LADY KATE

I.
Lady Kate Percy, sister to Edmund Mortimer the Earl of March, is the doting wife of Hotspur in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. Her conversations with her husband combine adoration with pleasant sexuality, and her care for her husband's safety is evident in her remonstrations that he keep no secrets from her.
II.
Lady Percy is the wife of the slain Hotspur, son of the Earl of Northumberland in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. Inconsolable over the death of the husband, Lady Percy joins pleas with Lady Northumberland in begging the Earl to forego war with the king until the Percy colleagues have seen some strong measure of success.
III.
Hotspur's Lady is his wife Kate Percy in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. She has two important scenes. The first time Lady Percy comes on stage she asks her husband Hotspur why he has been neglecting her of late. She informs him that she hears him mutter about battle in the middle of the night. After Percy is killed, the widow Percy convinces her father-in-law Northumberland to avoid battle with Henry. She berates him for failing to appear at Shrewsbury when he could have saved his son and her husband's life.

PERCY, LORD**1588

Percy is named as one of the conspirators against John in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John.

PERCY, LORD**1590

Lord Percy carries the ceremonial sword in Greene's James IV when the King of England invades Scotland.

PERDICAS

In Aleppo, Caliphas calls Perdicas to play cards with him while his father and brothers fight the Turks in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2. They play for who will first get to kiss the Turkish concubines.

PERDICCAS

I.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Perdiccas was one of Alexander the Great's generals, who became regent of a part of the empire after Alexander's death. He was defeated by Ptolemy I of Egypt and assassinated. Dol Common disguised as the "mad" lady pretends to have fallen into a nonsensical fit of talking. Her gibberish incorporates scattered phrases from Hugh Broughton's Concent of Scriptures. Among other things, she speaks about something that happened when Perdiccas was slain, a fragment probably taken from the historical section referring to the state of the empire after Alexander's death.
II.
Perdiccas is a counsellor of Alexander in Daniel's Philotas. He thinks that Philotas was involved in the conspiracy of Dymnus and others against Alexander.

PERDITA

Perdita is the daughter of Hermione and Leontes in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale. She is born in prison where Leontes has had Hermione incarcerated because he suspects her of adultery with Polixenes. Leontes orders Antigonus to abandon the newborn babe in some deserted place and leave her to her fate, and Antigonus manages to deposit her on the Bohemian coast before being devoured by a bear. An old shepherd finds Perdita and raises her as his daughter. Florizel, the Bohemian prince, falls in love with Perdita, whom he believes to be a lowly shepherdess. After his father Polixenes discovers the romance, the lovers flee to Sicily where Perdita's true identity is discovered. She is reunited with her father, and then with her mother when Hermione comes back to life under mysterious circumstances. Leontes and Polixenes mend their friendship, and both fathers consent to a match between their children.

PERDUE

A number of perdues appear on stage throughout Davenant's The Siege. A perdue is a sentinel placed in an extremely dangerous forward position. Perdues are associated with extremely high casualty rates. When Florello decides to switch sides and fight for Pisa, he surrenders to a frightened and confused perdue. Before Florello had come onto the scene, the perdue had been writing his will in anticipation of immanent death.

PERECELL

A Walloon or French-speaking Belgian, also known as Feris de Ryviers in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Assists Bertie in Europe when the Duchess and her party arrive from England. Bertie stays with Perecell after the Duchess, Nurse, child, Cranwell, and Dr. Sands continue on to Santon. Perecell then receives the party headed for Santon after they are attacked by thieves and the Duchess goes into labor, forcing their return. After the Duchess gives birth to her son and Foxe announces the arrival of Clunie and his search party, Perecell suggests that they smuggle the Duchess and her son out of town in a coffin, with Bertie, Sands and Cranwell disguised as mourners.

PEREGRINE**1606

An English traveler in Jonson's Volpone. He is amused by the foolish Would-Be, but when Lady Would-Be mistakes him for a courtesan, Peregrine concludes that Would-Be has been playing a joke on him and creates a plot of his own in return. He disguises himself as a merchant and tells Would-Be that the man he met, Peregrine, was a spy who has denounced Would-Be as a traitor to Venice. When the frightened Would-Be hides in a tortoise shell, Peregrine and his accomplices torment him until Peregrine decides the score has been settled and departs.

PEREGRINE**1624

A non-speaking character in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Name given to the child born to the Duchess (her second) after she is brought to the home of Perecell. After escaping town, Peregrine and Susan are taken for safety by Foxe after Bertie and the Duchess kill the Palsgrave's Captain. Foxe returns Susan and Peregrine to the Duchess at Palsgrave's court just after Atkinson brings news of Queen Elizabeth assuming the throne.

PEREGRINE**1634

Family name of Lady Bellamia and Sir Walter Peregrine in Shirley's The Example.

PEREGRINE**1638

Peregrine is the son of Joyless and husband to Martha in Brome's The Antipodes. Peregrine undergoes treatment by Hughball to be cured of his obsession with travel, which has prevented him from having sexual relations with his wife Martha for three years. Their marriage remains unconsummated. He is tricked into thinking that he has been transported half way around the world to the anti-London, located in the Antipodes, where all customs and behaviors are the exact opposite of London's. Peregrine finds a crown and makes himself King of the Antipodes, whereupon Letoy's men, dressed as Antipodeans, present him with Martha as their princess. Peregrine marries her and takes her to bed, whereupon husband and wife are both almost instantly cured.

PERELOT

Perelot is a character in "The Triumph of Death," the third play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He is the former lover of Gabrielle. In collusion with Lavall, he gives out that he has been killed in Orleance in order to test Gabrielle's love for him. He returns home to find that Lavall has married Gabrielle, consequently married Hellena, and plans either to seduce or rape Perelot's sister Casta. He tries to murder Lavall but is himself killed in the attempt.

PERENOTTO

Perenotto is the Captain of the Guard in Shirley's The Bird in a Cage; he is responsible for guarding the castle/prison in which Eugenia is held. A reputedly corrupt official, he entertains Rollyardo's attempted bribe of a costly jewel in exchange for access to Eugenia, but when given the jewel, he promptly refuses to provide the access.

PERES de TAVERO, ALVARO

A "ghost character" in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. Alvaro Peres de Tavero leads the first of the Portuguese battalions, which consists of light-armed horse and garrisons from Tangier.

PERFECT, LADY

Lady Perfect is also called "Wife" in speech prefixes of Field's Amends for Ladies. Lady Perfect is the Sister of Lord Proudly and is married to the Husband. She and Lady Honour and Lady Bright dispute whether it is better to be a maid, a wife or a widow. Having listened to the conversation between Lady Honour and Ingen, Lady Perfect and Lady Bright mock Lady Honour's previous praise of her suitor. The Husband tries to use his friend Subtle to test Lady Perfect's chastity. He violently accuses her of having entertained Subtle's advances, which she denies, and he switches to apparent friendliness on the appearance of Subtle. Lady Perfect is confused by her husband's behaviour, but defends him to Subtle. Subtle tells her about the Husband's plan and tries to seduce her, but Lady Perfect vows to maintain her marriage vows. In order to try to break her resistance, the Husband mistreats Lady Perfect, assaulting her physically and giving her clothes away. Subtle tells the Husband that he has overcome Lady Perfect, describing his tactics and stratagems in detail. He goes to fetch Lady Perfect, promising to make the Husband an "ear-witness" to her infidelity. She again denies that she has been false, whereupon Subtle accuses her of having been intimate with Bold the previous night. She again rebuts him, telling him that Bold was pursuing Lady Bright. Subtle realises that he was mistaken, and promises to help to reconcile her with her husband. The Husband, having heard everything, reveals himself and begs her forgiveness. After the weddings of Lady Honour to Ingen and Lady Bright to Bold have been finalised, Lady Perfect concludes the play by claiming that she is now proved to have been right all along: "mine is now approved the happiest life, | Since each of you hath changed to be a wife."

PERFECTION, QUEEN

Queen Perfection is a "ghost character" in the First Masque presented at Cynthia's revels in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. Cupid, disguised as Anteros, presents the First Masque, introducing Storge, Aglaia, Euphantaste, and Apheleia. Cupid/Anteros tells how these four fair virgins have come from the palace of their Queen Perfection to visit Cynthia's imperial court. Cupid/Anteros reports that Queen Perfection could not find a place for these four virgins among men, before her return to heaven, and advised them to pledge themselves to Cynthia's service. Queen Perfection, through her emissaries, presents Cynthia with a crystal globe, a symbol of monarchy and of perfection, dedicated to the moon deity. The crystal globe refracts many colors, and each color symbolizes one cardinal virtue represented by the virgins.

PERFEUS

A non-speaking character in Heywood's The Golden Age. The son of Jupiter and Danae, he is mentioned briefly by Homer at the end of the play.

PERFIDIOUS OLDCRAFT

Sir Perfidious Oldcraft is an old rich knight in Middleton and Rowley's Wit at Several Weapons. He has made a fortune from his cunning, and demands that his son, Wittypate, proves his own wit before he can be given an inheritance. Sir Perfidious plans to marry his Niece to a rich fool, Sir Gregory Fop. Unfortunately, his plan to enhance Gregory's appearance, by initially pretending that his poor parasite, Cunningham, is the Niece's intended, backfires: the Niece finds Cunningham more attractive than Gregory. Wittypate and his gang gull money from Sir Perfidious by disguising themselves as beggars. Sir Perfidious's favourite relative is his nephew, Credulous Oldcraft. Wittypate and his gang gull more money by making him think that Credulous has been arrested for robbery; the knight is so protective of the family's reputation, that he is easily gulled when the 'victim' demands 100 marks in compensation. The gang gulls him again during the masqued ball, by disguising as musicians and demanding payment. At the end of the play, Sir Perfidious learns of all the tricks that have been played on him, and is so delighted by Wittypate's wit that he awards him the inheritance, and forgives everyone else.

PERFUMER**1601

Signior Fig is the perfumer serving the affected courtiers. He is summoned at their party together with the tailor, barber, milliner, jeweler, and feather-maker in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. Mercury, disguised as a Frenchified Gentleman, uses and abuses these merchants, thus showing the gallants how ridiculous they are. While Barber is cutting his hair and trimming his mustache, Amorphus asks Perfumer about the quality of his scent. Perfumer says that it is pure benjamin, which is the only spirited scent that ever awakened a Neapolitan nostril. Amorphus says he savors no sampsuchine in it, and Perfumer responds ironically that he is a Nulli-fidian if there be not three thirds of sampsuchine in this confection than ever he put in any. Perfumer offers to mention all the ingredients, giving a long list of strangely named substances. Moreover, Perfumer says that not only the substances are important, but also the sorting and mixing in the cologne. At Amorphus's request, Perfumer scents the courtier with the sophisticated pomade. When Amorphus asks Signior Fig to help him with his complexion, Perfumer says he has a mineral ointment specific for this purpose. Perfumer seems to have a particular sense of humor. When he praises the quality of his perfumed gloves, he says that you can bury them in a muck hill for seven years, and take them out and wash them, but they retain their first amber scent. When Mercury asks about the price of these praised scented gloves, Fig responds that Amorphus pays him two crowns a pair, but he could give him his love. Mercury abuses Perfumer, calling him Goodman Sassafras. When Perfumer says he has cosmetics made of crude mercury, Mercury wants him to use it on his mustache, but he gets furious and starts beating Perfumer and Barber. It is understood that Perfumer and the other dealers attend the scene in which the pretentious gallants and nymphs are being disgraced through Mercury's over-reaction in elegant courtly manners. Perfumer exits with the rest of the party.

PERFUMER**1605

Along with the barber, falconer, huntsman, and tailor, he has a functional use befitting his name in Middleton's A Trick to Catch the Old One. After Hoard's marriage to Medler, these characters become the liveried servants of Walkadine Hoard, used by him to show off his newly acquired wealth.

PERGAMUS, SIR

Sir Pergamus is a rich but foolish suitor of Flavia, Philadelpha's maid in the Anonymous The Faithful Friends. Pergamus is a hollow boaster and usually referred to by the inappropriate honorific 'sir.' He joins the war against the Sabines and returns with a series of ludicrously improbable pretensions about his performance there. Flavia scorns his character and person but encourages his suit in order to get at his money. His name is probably derived from Troy's citadel.

PERICLES

I.
The Prince of Tyre in Shakespeare's Pericles. Courting the daughter of the king Antiochus, Pericles discovers the king's crime of incest. Fearing retribution against himself and his country, Pericles flees Tyre, leaving the government in the hands of the loyal Helicanus. He journeys to Tharsus and aids that kingdom by bringing much-needed supplies of food. When he learns that Thaliard, an agent of Antiochus, has come to Tyre looking for him, he continues his travels but is shipwrecked at Pentapolis. With the help of fishermen he meets on shore, he recovers his armor and resolves to enter a tournament. He wins the tournament and subsequently the love of Thaisa–to whom he is presently married. Hearing the news that Antiochus is dead, he sets sail for Tyre with the now-pregnant Thaisa. During the voyage, Thaisa gives birth to a daughter, Marina, but seems to die in childbirth. Pericles is forced to throw the body of Thaisa overboard in a box, and he chooses to leave Marina in the care of Cleon and Dionyza of Tharsus. He returns to Tyre and becomes King. When he returns for Marina many years later, Pericles is told she is dead and, believing this lie, is overwhelmed with grief. Years later, when his ship stops at Mytilene, he is unexpectedly reunited with his daughter. Soon after, in a dream, Diana appears to him and instructs him to travel to her temple in Ephesus. There, Pericles and Marina are reunited with Thaisa, who has become a vestal of Diana there.
II.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. The prince of Tyre is invoked by Penia-Penniless as an example of what even base tailors might become if Plutus ever regained his eyesight.

PERIDOR

Second-in-command to Tamoren in Suckling's The Goblins: originally a commander under the Tamoren family in their days of greatness, now henchman to Tamoren as king of the thieves. Peridor is in love with Reginella, and much upset to see her falling in love with Orsabrin; for this reason he betrays the secret of the thieves' identity to Stramador, hoping to secure her for himself as a return from the Prince. His plot is foiled when Tamoren confesses the whole truth, including Orsabrin's identity, and Reginella and Orsabrin are united.

PERIDURE

A prince of Britain in the anonymous Nobody and Somebody; younger brother to King Archigallo, usurping prince Elydure, and elder brother to Urgenius. After Archigallo's sudden death, he plots with Urgenius and seizes the throne with the support of Malgo and Morgan. Too ambitious to be satisfied with joint rule, he and his brother soon come into conflict that leads to a pitched battle in which both are killed.

PERIGOT**1608

Perigot is a shepherd in Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess. He loves Amoret and is loved by her; they agree to meet in the wood at night to make vows to one another. Magically disguising herself as Amoret, Amarillis makes sexual advances to Perigot. Perigot is appalled that Amoret could behave in a lustful manner, and he pursues the disguised Amarillis with his sword. Amarillis escapes by reversing the enchantment, and Perigot finds the real Amoret and stabs her with his sword. Despairing, he threatens to kill himself. He is prevented by Amarillis, who confesses her trickery and promises to prove that it was she by returning in the shape of Amoret. When the real Amoret finds Perigot, he stabs her for a second time believing that she is Amarillis returned in disguise. Unable to wash Amoret's blood from his hand, he vows to repent to Clorin before taking a hermit's life. At Clorin's bower he is reunited with Amoret, and his hand is cleansed. He renews his vows to Amoret before they return to the village.

PERIGOT**1624

Perigot, a wild courtier in Massinger's The Parliament of Love. He is fooled by Chamont and Dinant into attempting a seduction of Lamira. The servants wrap him in a blanket and beat him for his behavior. He takes Chamont to court, but the King rules against him.

PERILOUS

Only mentioned in the anonymous Birthe of Hercules. Perilous is the king of the Teleboians. He is mentioned by Sosia when he is reporting the battle between the Thebans and the Teleboians to Mercurius. He explains king Pterelas was killed by their general, Amphitruo. Dromio mispronounces the name of king as Pterelas when he is repeating, to himself, the message his lord asked him to deliver to his lady.

PERILLUS

Perillus is an advisor to the king in the anonymous King Leir. He argues against the love test, and then, when Leir goes ahead with it, argues that Cordella should not be dispossessed for her answer. After Leir has divided his kingdom and is living with Gonorill and Cornwall, Perillus travels to be with him so that he can counsel and protect him. When Gonorill treats Leir shamefully, Perillus suggests going to Ragan, who, he believes, will treat Leir better. Later, when the Messenger/Murtherer threatens to kill Leir, Perillus argues that the Messenger will be damned if he lays a hand on the Lord's anointed, a threat that helps to stop the Messenger. Perillus then persuades Leir that he was wrong about Cordella hating him, and that they should go to Gaul and seek her help. After the trip, Perillus not only hands over his cloak to pay for his passage, but tries to redeem Lear's gown and cap by giving up his doublet, a trade that the First Mariner refuses to accept. When they meet Cordella and the King, who are in disguise and unrecognized, Perillus again attempts to offer his doublet as payment for the food they receive. He travels to England with the Gallian army, although he does not fight, and accuses Ragan to her face of trying to have them murdered. After the victory, Leir thanks him for his love and promises to repay him for his faithful service.

PERIM

Perim is the son of Sylvius, a citizen of Athens in Lyly's Campaspe. Diogenes refuses to teach Perim.

PERIMAN

‘Another civilian’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. He comes with Sanders to unravel Pearle’s ‘riddle’ and behold his ‘monster’ that Wright has made. When the ‘standing Bull’ is found replaced by a hare, he attempts to assuage Pearle’s anger. He and Sanders run away when Pearle threatens to beat Christian.

PERIMONT

A fictitious character in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady. Perimont invented by Philander to protect his mother's identity, once he realizes that she is alive and has been operating as his father's page, Tandorix. Philander informs Antiphila that Tandorix has been revealed to be a woman, who is posing as Tandorix in order to discover why Perimont, the invented character, does not love her.

PERIN

The courtier is one of the four sons of the Bailiff of Hexham in the anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave. he is also the brother of Walter, the farmer; John, the priest; and Cutbert Cutpurse, the Coneycatcher. He is called a knave by Honesty in the first scene, but remains the last to be caught. In most scenes he seems not to know his brothers, and they seem not to know him. He disguises as a Judge to catch his brother, the Coneycatcher, and he comes to ask the Knight, the Squire and his brother, the Farmer, whether they can lend money to the king. The Knight can give £20, the Squire £10, and the Farmer £200 with promises for a lot more if Perin can provide him with a license to export his corn overseas, because the prices in England are too cheap to make a living. For his punishment, Honesty decides that Perin must be hanged at Tyburn.

PERINDUS

"A Fisher, sonne to Tyrinthus," Olinda's brother, and a friend to Thalander, Atyches, Pas, and Armillus in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. Perindus is in love with and is loved by Glaucilla. Armillus questions Perindus's decision to abandon the "Shepheards lawes" and become a fisher at the play's beginning, and both are informed by Atyches of Olinda's proposed execution at the hands of Malorcha. Because Armillus is "delighted" with the "accidents So strange and rare" which Atyches relates to him, he asks Perindus to inform him of "what he [Atyches] is, and what his country" (prompting Perindus to "give him all this story"). Perindus is informed by Alcippus of the victory of Atyches over Malorcha and suspects Atyches of being very much like Thalander. Glaucilla repeatedly asks Perindus why he no longer loves her, but is continuously ignored by him as he refuses to answer her questions. After an unsuccessful attempt to uncover the reason why Perindus's feelings for her have changed, Glaucilla implies that she will kill herself over her griefs. At this threat, Perindus offers to "tell [her] all." He then informs her of the Oracle Proteus's prophecy, part of which states that either he or Glaucilla "shall from a rocke be cast," and also of the hopeful prophecy of "the Pythian maid." At these stories, Glaucilla reassures Perindus of her love for him and he, in turn, assures her that he still loves her. Perindus overhears Atyches reveal his true identity to the night and, thus, Thalander's disguise is blown. Perindus then informs Thalander that Olinda is in love with him and the two set out to find her only to learn that Olinda is dead. In an attempt to comfort his friend, Perindus refuses to leave Thalander alone with his grief. In an attempt to comfort the recently returned Tyrinthus, Pas informs him that he has left Perindus only "two houres since, sad [. . .] but safe." When Glaucilla is accused by Cosma of effecting the death of Olinda and is "condemne[d]" by Dicaus to fall from a "high rocke," Perindus pleads with Dicaus to allow him to exchange his own life for Glaucilla's. Although "both loath to live, and both contend to die," Dicaus decides that Perindus may "buy" Glaucilla's life with the "losse" of his own. At such news, Perindus bids goodbye to his love and jumps from the rock. He is rescued from drowning in the sea by Cancrone and Scrocca, who are arrested, "manacled," and led to the "hils [. . .] to the greedy Cyclops" to meet "the death of slaves" for interfering with the law. When Tyrinthus learns of this information from Cancrone, he flees to "the shore" in order to find Perindus. Both Glaucilla and Perindus are set free when it becomes evident that Olinda is not dead. Perindus is reunited with his father, and Pas claims that "Perindus to Glaucilla are to be married."

PERITHOUS

Honored with Hercules at Olympia in Heywood's The Silver Age, Perithous accompanies Alcides to hunt the Nemean Lion, and then invites the hero to attend his marriage to Hypodamia. The drunken lust of the centaurs turns the wedding feast into a battle; victorious, he joins Hercules in the rescue of Proserpine. But when he battles with Cerberus before Hercules arrives he is slain.

PERIWINKLE

Page to Gudgeon in Middleton's The Family of Love.

PERJURY**1533

Periury is a "ghost character" in ?Skelton's Old Christmas. He is mentioned by Good Order when describing the "vnthryfty company" that forced him to flee during Old Christmas's absence. After the king's return, Periury, Glotonye, Ryot and Hasarder are banished from England on Good Order's advice.

PERJURY**1581

A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. A guest at the wedding of Dissimulation and Love.

PERKINS, WILL

The Shoemaker's given name is used only once in Greene's George a Greene. The rest of the time he is known only as the shoemaker. He meets with Jenkin and tells him that in Wakefield men do not carry their staffs on their shoulder, but instead let them trail on the ground. He tries to fight with Jenkin, but Jenkin will not. Instead, he announces that, as under-pinner of the town, he must circle his staff above his head three times before any fight. The Shoemaker agrees, and Jenkin circles his staff twice and announces he will never circle it a third time. The Shoemaker realizes he will not fight. Next the Shoemaker meets with the disguised Edward and James and tells them the same thing. They agree, and trail their staffs, which causes George and Robin to think they are peasants pretending to be yeoman. The stage direction is confusing at this point, since it states that George fights with the Shoemakers and beats them all, when there has so far been only one Shoemaker and he was supposed to be fighting Edward and James. However, after the fight, the Shoemaker, identified as Will Perkins by George, is sent to buy ale so that all may welcome Robin Hood to town, and to drink to Edward.

PERLINDA

Caropia's maid in Glapthorne's Revenge for Honor. A loyal maid and indulgent chaperone, who happily sits by as Abilqualit woos her married mistress, chatting bawdily to his treacherous Eunuch, Mesithes. Although present again at the sequel, when Abrahen treacherously advises Caropia to claim a rape when her husband confronts her, Perlinda remains in the background, offering very little by way of comfort to her mistress, and no particular advice worth mentioning. She joins Caropia in grieving for Abilqualit's presumed death and echoes her mistress's fatalistic mood. She is not listed in stage directions as accompanying Caropia to her final showdown with Abrahen, but her silent presence would be decorous as well as typical.

PERNE, DOCTOR

Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Doctor Perne is mentioned by Bill Bond, as he explains to his friends that cozening is better than "feast the freshmen yet with Doctor Perne's old jests, which wit he entailed upon the university for them!" Andrew Perne (1519-1589) was a Cambridge professor–master of Peterhouse–reputed to be a master of the witty retort.

PERO

Pero is Tamyra's maid in Chapman's Bussy D'Ambois. She attends Tamyra in her chamber. Before Bussy and the Friar visit Tamyra, the Countess sends Pero away for the night. Pero reports to Monsieur and Guise that Bussy had visited Tamyra's chamber at night. Pero claims to have seen them reading a letter together. She is stabbed by Monsieur.

PEROMETT **1619

A satyr and banished father of Castarina in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. He unmasks at play’s end and explains everything. He disguised himself as a satyr and hoped to capture Arismena only to win her love. Had he married her, he expected to be called back from exile. Because he treated her honorably and willingly returned her to Philaritus, Cleobulus forgives him and recalls him from exile. He is probably also the Grand Satyr, though the identification is not apparent in the text.

PERPETUANA**1599

Perpetuana is the wife of Velure in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. Along with the other characters, she follows the cycle that begins with the reign of Plenty and ends with Poverty.

PERPETUANA**1601

Perpetuana is the name used by Holifernes Pippo in Marston's What You Will when he disguises himself as a merchant's wife to gull his master, Simplicius Faber.

PERRICOT

Usher to Guise in Chapman's The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois. He appears only in the scene in which Guise persuades the King to release Clermont. He has no lines.

PERSCARA

Perscara, a friend of Sforza in Massinger's The Duke of Milan.

PERSEDA **1588

The rôle taken by Bel-imperia in Hieronimo's play in Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy.

PERSEDA**1590

Beloved of Erastus in Kyd's Soliman and Perseda. In the play's second scene, she acknowledges his love and presents him with a chain; he gives her a ring. When he loses the chain during the games, Ferdinando finds it and gives it to Lucina. After the games, Perseda visits Lucina with Basilisco, sees that Lucina is wearing the chain she gave to Erastus, and believes that he has already betrayed her. She tells Basilisco that she will ask him to revenge her honor. She chastises Erastus when they meet, and breaks off their engagement. When Piston returns the recovered chain to her and tells her of Ferdinando's death and Erastus's flight, she vows to follow him to Turkey. She mourns Erastus's self-exile with Lucina, as Lucina mourns Ferdinando's death. She is captured during the Turkish assault on Rhodes and taken to Turkey. When Brusor presents her to the Emperor, he is smitten. She asks to die rather than to become his concubine, and although he vows to kill her, he is unable to do so. When she asks that he allow her to live as a Christian virgin, he agrees. Then Erastus appears and the lovers are reunited. Soliman approves their marriage and appoints Erastus Governor of Rhodes. They return there and are briefly happy, until the emperor's summons calls Erastus back. Perseda learns of Erastus's fate when Piston interrupts her conversation with Basilisco and Lucina. Convinced that Lucina was in on the plot, she asks Basilisco to kill her; when he hesitates, she kills Lucina herself. When the Turks arrive in Rhodes, she greets them (disguised as a man) from the walls, and challenges Soliman to single combat. He agrees, and she dies in the combat, but not before kissing Soliman with poisoned lips.

PERSEPHONE

Also spelled Persiphone in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. Queen of Hell. She appears to Eleazer in the nightmare which drives him into guilty madness. She is accompanied in her song and dance by the three Furies.

PERSEUS**1591

I.
Appears in the dumb show to II of the anonymous Locrine, hand in hand with Andromeda. Aethiopians attack them and take away Andromeda.
II.
Returning from his conquest of the Gorgon with his brother half-Danaus in Heywood's The Silver Age, he proposes to introduce his bride, Andromeda, to his mother Danae. En route, they meet Bellerophon, and Perseus, thinking himself rightful heir of Argos, in incensed to learn that Pretus has seized the throne. But he agrees to help Bellerophon against the Chimera first, then assail the pretender. The monster dealt with, they go to Argos, kill Pretus and Aurea, and restore Acrisius as a kind of over-king, but in a confused scuffle at the entrance to Acrisius' brazen tower Perseus kills his grandfather.
III.
Only mentioned in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. In Greek mythology, Perseus was the son of Zeus and a mortal woman. He became a hero, fought the Gorgons, and finally saved Andromeda from a sea-monster. When Boy prepares to present Lazarillo with the menu taken from the Duke's kitchen, Lazarillo says he was waiting for him with impatience. Such was his craving, Lazarillo says, that it can be compared to sweet Andromeda's waiting for her savior Perseus, when she was chained on the rock ready to fall prey to the sea-monster. The allusion is to Lazarillo's craving as a terrible monster of gluttony.
IV.
Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Perseus is mentioned by Slightall when he is instructing his friends on how to love any creature, even if it is the "loathed'st", by taking no notice of their imperfections. He illustrates his point with the following words: "Andromeda was belly, sides, and backe / To Perseus seene, he did not tearme her blacke." According to Greek mythology, Perseus was son to Zeus and the mortal Dana. He killed the Gordon Medusa. That was a complex task, since any living being looking at a Medusa would be turn into stone–however, the reflection of a Medusa would not turn a man to stone. Therefore, by using the shield of Athene as a mirror to locate the Gordon Medusa by the Medusa's mirror image, Perseus severed her head with his sword. Then, returning victorious from his fight against the Gordon Medusa, flying with Hermes winged shoes on his feet over Ethiopia–Perseus saw Andromeda in danger. Then, he rescued her and turned the sea monster (which was threatening her) to stone with the head of Gordon Medusa. Later, he married the Ethiopian princess.

PERSEUS**1628

A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as having been made captive by Rome.

PERSEVERANCE**1508

Perseverance is the self-described "brother to Conscience" in the anonymous Mundus et Infans. He represents both the warning that mankind must persevere in the face of temptation, and (more important) the perseverance of God and Christ in loving sinners. He renames Age "Repentance" and closes the play by assuring him of his place in God's kingdom.

PERSEVERANCE**1513

Friend of Contemplation, whom he sends to seek Pity in the anonymous Hick Scorner. He comes looking then for Contemplation. Later, he and Contemplation find Pity has been fettered by Hick Scorner, Imagination, and Free Will, and release Pity from his bondage. Along with Contemplation, he converts Free Will to the path of righteousness. They then all three convert Imagination. Perseverance gives Imagination a new coat. He delivers a benediction to the audience at the end of the play.

PERSEVERANCE **1515

Spelled Perseveraunce in the original. A moral abstraction in Skelton's Magnyfycence. After having ascertained Magnyfycence's moral regeneration, together with Cyrcumspeccyon and Redresse, Perseveraunce restores him to his previous condition.

PERSIAN**1604

The Persian is part of the Chorus along with the three Grecians in Daniel's Philotas.

PERSIAN**1607

Joins with Robert Sherley in his triumph over the Turkish prisoners in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers.

PERSIAN LORDS

Members of Cosroe's court in Fletcher and Massinger's The Prophetess. The two Persian Lords express their admiration for the Roman captives.

PERSIANS

"Ghost characters" in P. Fletcher's Sicelides. Tyrinthus claims that he was taken years before "by Persians on the Gracian seas" and reveals some details about where he has spent the past "thrice five summers."

PERSICUS, CORIATUS **1615

A “ghost character" in Tomkis’ Albumazar. When Pandolfo looks through Albumazar’s wonderful “Perspicill," he believes he sees a man on Dover pier with two servants straining under the weight of papers, Ronca informs him that it is Coriatus Persicus with his observations of Asia and Africa.

PERSEUS **1635

A “ghost character" in Killigrew’s The Prisoners. Theagines’ aged friend, whom he laments is lost. At the siege of Tunis, Gillippus killed him and took his two ‘sons,’ Hipparchus and Pausanes, along with two gold medallion necklaces that identified the boys. Early in the play, Pausanes makes a reference to him. At play’s end, Gillippus tells how he killed him.

PERSIUS

Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Persius or Aulus Persius Flaccus (A.D. 34–A.D. 62) was a Roman satirical poet, born in Etruria. His writings (only six short satires) were influenced in manner by Horace and Lucilius, and they preach the Stoic moral doctrine. He exposed to censure the corruption and folly of contemporary Roman life, contrasting it with the ideals of the Stoics and of earlier Rome. Persius' writing is harsh, obscure, and difficult to translate. At his house in London, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When Clerimont asks him about the classical poets, Daw refers to them in a deprecating manner, including Persius in the long list of unworthy poets. Daw calls Persius a crabbed coxcomb, not to be endured.

PERSUIVANT or "PERSUANT"

The pursuivant, whose name is Winterborne in Chettle's(?) Looke About You, is a messenger whom Gloster (disguised as Faukenbridge) meets at the Salutation Inn. (See "WINTERBORNE.")

PERT

Like Meager, a recently returned soldier in Davenant's The Wits. He is very poor, a friend of the younger Pallatine, and a full participant in his schemes.

PERTENAX

Pertenax, husband of Kettreena in Quarles' The Virgin Widow, is a foolish, jealous, old usurer, and presumably also impotent since Kettreena tells the king that she is a virgin. He insults the king and kicks Kettreena. Believing that the poison sent by the queen to Kettreena is a cordial from the king, he takes it and dies.

PERTILLO

Son of Pandino and Armenia in Yarington's Two Lamentable Tragedies. When both of his parents die, Pertillo is entrusted to the care of Fallerio and his family, who are given custody over his estate until he reaches maturity. He develops an affectionate bond with Allenso and agrees to Fallerio's suggestion that he go to university. As he prepares to depart for university with the Ruffians, Pertillo expresses his love for Allenso and has tearful partings with Sostrata and Allenso. He bids them all farewell and leaves with the Ruffians. Traveling with the Ruffians, Pertillo persuades them to allow him to rest. He sleeps, only to be awakened by the Ruffians' fighting. The second Ruffian warns him of the plot to murder him and Pertillo offers to give up any claim to his inheritance and live in exile so long as the Ruffians will let him live. The first Ruffian then stabs him to death.

PERTINAX

A nickname Mammon uses for Surly in Jonson's The Alchemist. Surly is a gambler and a playboy in London. Sir Epicure Mammon calls him Pertinax (Latin: obstinate) which seems to reinforce the Elizabethan sense of surly as haughty and arrogant rather than ill humored.

PESCARA, MARQUIS of

A soldier in Webster's The Duchess of Malfi. In the military camp at Milan, Pescara confides to Delio and Silvio that he does not trust the political machinations of statesmen. He is especially wary of Ferdinand. In V Delio asks him to give him the citadel of St. Bennet that belonged to Antonio before Antonio's banishment. Pescara denies it to his friend and gives it immediately thereafter to the Cardinal. He then explains to Delio that the land was taken from Antonio wrongfully, and he would not stain his friend with that wrong by giving Delio the land. He is first to reveal that Ferdinand has succumbed to a frenzy. When he goes to Ferdinand, the Doctor tells Pescara that Ferdinand suffers from lycanthropy, believing himself to be a wolf. Pescara, Grisolan, Malateste, and Roderigo are the lords whom the Cardinal orders not to enter his chambers even if he should cry out. Their observance of his orders leads to the Cardinal's death. It is Pescara, however, who decides that the Cardinal's cries for help are in earnest and decides to break down the doors to effect a rescue.

PESTIFERO

Insatiato's "brother," Pestifero is a moneylender in the anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. He talks Insatiato into buying on credit £100 of malodorous rags, which will, he says, realize £60 of ready money when sold to the paper makers. Insatiato resists, but eventually makes the deal. His name translates "carrier of the pest/pestilence."

PETARRO

A disguise of Wilding's Page in Shirley's The Gamester.

PETELLA

Waiting woman to Lillia-Bianca and Rosalura in Fletcher's Wild-Goose Chase.

PETESCA

Petesca is Olimpia's gentlewoman in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject. When Olimpia asks her opinion of Alinda, Petesca finds only faults with the "girl." According to Petesca, she is too brown and has a manly body. When she sees the Duke kissing Alinda, Petesca feels threatened and wishes the girl back home, milking her father's cows. Hearing that the Tartars are approaching the city, Petesca and the Second Woman are very scared. Alinda ironically tells Petesca she did not think Petesca could fear any man. Petesca is jealous and makes cutting remarks when she sees that the Duke has sent Alinda a ring. Olimpia and Petesca enter privately and overhear the Duke's intimate conversation with Alinda. Petesca observes in an aside that she is glad her mistress is convinced of Alinda's hypocrisy. Petesca later comments she is glad that Alinda has left and admits to having contributed to Alinda's disgrace. She is last seen introducing Alinda's "brother," young Archas, to Olimpia.

PETER**1538

A "ghost character" in Bale's The Temptation of Our Lord. Bale quotes Peter as telling Christians to resist the devil through faith.

PETER**1585

The alchemist's boy—i.e. servant in Lyly's Gallathea. He is thoroughly tired of his job when we meet him and convinces Rafe to take his place.

PETER **1590

The Clown refers to the First Ruffian as Peter in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England.

PETER**1594

One of Petruchio's servants in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Peter, along with fellow servants Curtis, Nathaniel, Joseph, Nicholas, Philip, Walter, and Sugarsop, remains in Verona while Petruchio and Grumio travel to Padua to find a wife for Petruchio.

PETER**1595

A servant to the Capulets who often acts as a messenger in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Needing assistance to read the guest list for the Capulet feast, Peter unwittingly informs Romeo and Benvolio of the event and of the fact that Romeo's beloved Rosaline will be attending. Peter sometimes comes into conflict with other servants. [n.b. Peter was played by the comedian Will Kempe. His name is interchanged with Peter's in some of the Second Quarto's stage directions.]

PETER**1612

Perhaps a "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Captain, but more likely the name of the First Tavern Boy.

PETER **1614

Peter is the hermetic disguise assumed by the King of Spain in Smith's The Hector of Germany. As Peter, he travels to England and recruits assistance for Savoy against the Bastard. Peter assists Palsgrave and Cullen in beating off Saxon and the Bishops and arresting the Bastard; however, as soon as Palsgrave leaves the stage, Saxon returns to successfully chase off Peter and Cullen, thereby rescuing the Bastard. Peter is roundly scolded by Palsgrave for letting the Bastard escape.

PETER **1615

A fantasy character in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Antonio, completely confused by meeting Trincalo swearing that he is Antonio, and terrified by Trincalo’s threat to stab him if he maintains the fantasy that they are both the same man, tells Trincalo that he must be Peter, Thomas, or William, what you please. Aside, Antonio considers it a strange negligence to have lost himself.

PETER**1625

Peter is Don Frederic's servant in Fletcher's The Chances. He and Anthony are glad that their masters have given up the search for the mysterious Constantia. Later, he mistakenly leads the group to the Bawd's house, thinking he saw Gillian there.

PETER**1626

Lady Miriam's zany manservant in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. He meets his friend Pennel when the rebels' proclamation is given out. Already tempted to desert his mistress and join the fight, the rebels' promises of freedom and wenches persuade him to join the mob. He is made Gorion's warder and shows a cruel streak; he is caught up in violence and returns to his mistress with a broken head. He is unable to keep Jehochanan from assaulting his mistress and is beaten again. Sent out to scavenge for food, he is interrogated at length by Zareck. Zareck later involves Peter in a plan to torment the mad Eleazer. Peter, bound and in black, is presented to Eleazer to enact the personification of Conscience and haunt the madman. He later unwittingly serves up the cannibal pie for Miriam's feast and is nauseated at its revelation. Brought before Titus for punishment for his abuse of Gorion, they both pardon him for Miriam's sake, and he is restored to her service.

PETER BRECKNOCKE **1599

Brecknocke’s son in Ruggle’s Club Law. He brings out some cudgels when it is time to go beat the “Athenians."

PETER BULLCALF

Peter Bullcalf, recruited by Shallow for military service with Sir John Falstaff, complains bitterly that he is a diseased man with a cough who should not go off to war in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. He buys himself out of military service with ten shillings.

PETER CAREW, SIR

A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. Sir Peter Carew is mentioned as having been a Western rebel.

PETER de LIONS

Peter de Lions is a servant of Burbon in the anonymous Trial Of Chivalry. He is attracted to Thomasin, Bellamira's maid, and is thus a rival to Dick Bowyer, with whom, early on, he has a swordfight which is interrupted by the arrival of Pembroke. He steals Thomasina's key and lets Burbon into Bellamira's tent to poison Bellamira's face. When Burbon is later killed by Philip, Peter is on hand, but is too cowardly to fight against Philip. In the battle, he abducts Thomasin, who is taken off him again by Dick Bowyer. Dick Bowyer kills Peter de Lions on the battlefield.

PETER FABELL

Peter Fabell is the "merry devil of Edmonton," a Faust-like Cambridge scholar who has made a pact with the devil in the anonymous The Merry Devil of Edmonton. His time on earth is over when the play starts, and Coreb, a minor devil, comes to take him to hell. But Peter Fabell tells him that he still has important business to do and asks the spirit to sit down and wait a moment. Coreb sits and becomes trapped in Fabell's magical chair. To be freed, he must grant Peter Fabell another seven years. For the rest of the play Fabell plays only a minor part on the stage, but he is the mastermind behind the operation that leads to the marriage of the young lovers. He knows Sir Arthur's plans and he wants to cross them and help the young lovers, because Raymond and Frank have been his favorite pupils. He organizes the plot for Milliscent's escape from the nunnery. Disguised as Father Hildersome he deceives Sir Arthur Clare and has him take Raymond in the disguise of his novice Benedic to the nunnery. In the final scene he confesses his responsibility for all the events, and he is proud that his plan has succeeded without any magic, conjuration or spells.

PETER FLASH

A clever servant in Dekker's Satiromastix, Peter Flash begins the play in the service of Sir Quintilian Shorthose. It is Flash who has organized and invited the guest list for Cælestine and Sir Walter Terill's wedding celebration, and his efficiency seems to attract the attention of the foolish knight Sir Vaughan ap Rees, who hires Peter Flash into his service. Sir Vaughan then christens him Peter Salamander and refers to him as such for the rest of the play. Peter Flash accompanies Sir Vaughan when he challenges Tucca to a duel, but Sir Vaughan and Tucca resolve their differences verbally. Why Peter Flash desires to switch service from the capable Sir Quintilian to the silly Sir Vaughan is never made explicit, but there are hints in the play that suggest Flash does this in order better to take advantage of his master. For instance, after the duel scene Sir Vaughan tells Flash to go home, and Flash confesses that he does so in order to raid Sir Vaughan's wine cellar. Peter Flash's presence in the play does not really effect the development of the plot, but he does contribute witty banter and highlight the folly of some of the other characters.

PETER, FRIAR

A monk who serves Duke Vincentio in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. Friar Peter assists the Duke late in the play by delivering his letters to Flavius, Valencius, Rowland, and Crassus. As part of the Duke's trick, Friar Peter later enters as the mouthpiece of Friar Lodowick (the Duke's alter ego). He defends Friar Lodowick against Lucio's slanders and brings Mariana before the Duke to accuse Angelo.

PETER LANDOYS

Peter Landoys is treasurer to Brittany in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. He travels from Brittany with Richmond to battle at Bosworth Field. It is Landoys that points out for the audience that the impending marriage between Richmond and Elizabeth will unite the Houses of York and Lancaster. After the battle, he celebrates with a victorious Richmond.

PETER of POMFRET

I.
Called only "Peter the prophet" in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John, he is arrested by the Bastard, and brought before John. Five moons at once having appeared in the sky, he is asked to expound the mystery. He interprets them as symbolizing John's resistance to the papacy and prophecies that before Ascension Day John will be deposed. The enraged king condemns him to die.
II.
Refusing in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John to revoke his prophecy that John will be unkinged, first made during Part 1, Peter is hanged.
III.
Peter of Pomfret is a prophet in Shakespeare's King John. He is brought before John by the Bastard because of the many followers he has. He prophecies that John will give up his crown on the next Ascension Day. On hearing this, John promptly has Hubert execute him

PETER ONION

Head Groom for Count Ferneze in Jonson's The Case is Altered. He is an illiterate who pretends to be intellectual. In love with Rachel de Prie, he solicits Valentine to write him a love ballad and Christophero to woo him for her. He is slightly injured by Martino during a bout of cudgels and insulted by the French page, Pacue. Returning to de Prie's with Juniper to court Rachel, they are chased off by Jaques de Prie's imaginary mastiff, Garlic, but Onion, climbing a tree, sees de Prie visiting his treasure. After debating whether to share the treasure with Juniper, he tells him and they dig it up together. He spends his treasure on clothes, pages, and a knighthood, and arrives at Count Ferneze's court to show off. Identified by Jaques de Prie as a thief, he is ordered into the stocks by the Count.

PETER PESTLEHEAD

A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the workers in the shipyard. His name is called out by the Clerk of the Check.

PETER PLEASE–MAN, SIR

A superficial parson in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. He asks Simony to prefer him to Lucre as her chaplain. His only desire is to speak whatever pleases his listeners, and he is not even sure what religion he represents.

PETER PLODDALL

He is son of Ploddall the farmer, and the man Gripe wishes to have his daughter marry because of his income in the anonymous Wily Beguiled. He is unsophisticated in asking Goodfellow, who is acting on Churms's behalf, how he should court Lelia. He buys a powder from Goodfellow that he believes will cause her to fall in love with him. When, at his father's instructions, he comes wooing Lelia, his conversation is pedestrian, concentrated as it is on describing his livestock. Lelia refuses to hold his hand as a sign of their betrothal, despite her father's instructions. He is last seen as he goes off to the Justice with his father to have Robin Goodfellow whipped out of the county for having swindled them.

PETER PURGE

An apothecary in Middleton's The Family of Love. Purge is initially unconcerned with his wife's supposed infidelities, but becomes jealous when he sees her with the merchant Dryfat. His jealousy increases when he observes Lipsalve and Gudgeon with his wife as well. Thinking that his wife is using her time at The Family of Love to faciliate her dalliances, he attends a meeting and, in darkness, persuades his wife to give him her wedding ring. At trial, he is grudgingly convinced that she has done no wrong but insists that she no longer attend Family of Love meetings.

PETER QUINCE

Peter Quince, a carpenter by profession, is script master and director for the group of rude mechanicals planning a theatrical performance in honor of Duke Theseus' wedding in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. Originally casting himself in the part of Thisbe's father, Peter Quince ultimately assumes the newly written Prologue part. The poorly phrased, punctuated, and delivered Prologue proves a comedic introduction to what was intended as a tragedy.

PETER SALAMANDER

After entering Sir Vaughn ap Rees' service in Dekker's Satiromastix, Peter Flash acquires the name Peter Salamander from his employer and is called by that name for the remainder of the play.

PETER SERVITUDE

Hog's servant in Tailor's The Hog Hath Lost His Pearl. Discusses with Hog the plan to marry Rebecca to Young Lord Wealthy as he ties Hog's points. Hog sends Peter to summon Rebecca. After he returns and Hog leaves, Peter tells Young Lord Wealthy that Rebecca has no other suitors. After Young Lord Wealthy begins wooing Rebecca, Peter promises him to tell everyone that Young Lord Wealthy and Rebecca are betrothed. Later, enters with Hog and Lightfoot after the mortgage arrangements have been completed; Hog orders him to fetch some beer for Lightfoot and Haddit. When he returns, Lightfoot begins to quarrel with him, and Haddit suggests that they, along with Young Lord Wealthy, descend to the cellar to restore peace over some drinks. Peter passes out and later finds his way, along with Young Lord Wealthy, into Hog's chamber where Hog awaits the return of the spirits with his treasure. Peter falls into the hole that Lightfoot, Haddit and the Player had used to make their magical entries, and then re-enters the room carrying a candle. He tells Hog that Rebecca has left and then joins Hog and Young Lord Wealthy going to Old Lord Wealthy's. At Old Lord Wealthy's he observes the resolution of Hog's robbery and the union of Rebecca and Haddit. At the end of the play he exits to Old Lord Wealthy's feast with Young Lord Wealthy.

PETER SIMPLE

Simple is the servant to Slender in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. He takes a letter to Mistress Quickly asking that she assist in Slender's wooing of Anne. Believing the disguised Falstaff is in fact the wise woman of Brainford, he accosts "Mother Prat" at the Garter with questions on Slender's behalf.

PETER SKIRMISH **1606

An old soldier in Middleton's(?) Puritan; he agrees to help Pyeboard cheat the Widow, with the agreement that Pyeboard will teach him to conjure. In the end, however, he turns on Pyeboard and reveals all the deceptions to Lady Plus and Sir Godfrey

PETER THUMP

Peter Thump, Thomas Horner's apprentice in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, is among the petitioners who approach Margaret and Suffolk in I.iii. Peter accuses his master of saying that the Duke of York is the rightful heir to the throne. When the case is brought before King Henry, Horner offers to provide a witness against Peter, and the two men are sentenced to single combat at Gloucester's recommendation. Horner is vanquished and confesses his treason before he dies.

PETER TUB

A "ghost character" in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub. Lady Tub's late husband.

PETER VAN HOLLOCK**1595

A "ghost character" in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. Peter van Hollock is one of the wealthy foreigners mentioned by the May Day rioters. He resides at the Green Gate in Cornhill.

PETER VAN ZANTEN

A "ghost character" in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. One of the underlings of Harman van Speult, listed by Sheathing-Nail.

PETER VECCHIO

Peter Vecchio is believed to be a conjurer but actually teaches grammar and music to children in Fletcher's The Chances. He prepares a "summoning," later revealed to be a simple dramatic performance, for the Duke, Petruccio, John, and Frederic, to reveal where Constantia is. His knowledge of the situation and ability to produce Constantia, Gillian, and the Baby come from the fact that he is a relative of Gillian's and she brought Constantia and the Baby to him. He prepares a second "summoning" for Antonio regarding Second Constantia.

PETER VECCHIO'S SERVANT

Serves Peter Vecchio at his house in Fletcher's The Chances.

PETER VECCHIO'S STUDENTS

Non-speaking characters in Fletcher's The Chances. Appear as spirits in the "summoning."

PETILLIUS

Petillius mocks Junius's love for the Second Daughter of Bonduca and tries unsuccessfully to get him drunk in Fletcher's Bonduca. In the battle he fights Caratach until he is exhausted. When Junius rejects love, Petillius and the other Romans celebrate. Petillius persuades the shamed Penius to commit suicide and die a Roman death. But then, during the siege of Bonduca's fort, Petillius falls in love with the First Daughter of Bonduca. He sees her commit suicide, and suffers love-melancholia. Junius mocks him, in a reversal of their previous roles. Petillius is so weakened by emotion that Suetonius takes away his command of the regiment. Petillius is then sent with Junius and Decius to hunt for Caratach in the forest. Junius suggests to Petillius that if he performs a noble deed, he will be given back command of the regiment. When they find Caratach, Petillius fights him bravely. Suetonius therefore returns to him his regiment.

PETINA, AELIA

A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina mentioned by Narcissus as the woman he had hoped Claudius would marry instead of Agrippina.

PETITIONER, FIRST

This unnamed First Petitioner presents a request for redress to Marcus Clodius, who promises to deliver the request to Appius in John Webster's Appius and Virginia.

PETITIONERS**1591

Margaret and Suffolk are approached by several petitioners, who mistake Suffolk for Gloucester, the Lord Protector in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. Among their complaints, the petitioners accuse Suffolk and Cardinal Beaufort's man John Goodman of injustices, and Peter Thump accuses his master Thomas Horner of treason.

PETITIONERS**1610

The Petitioners in the dumb show of the first act in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part One, some of them representing the commercial community in Plymouth, appear before the Duke of Essex asking that, among other things, he see to the bills accumulated by his forces. Among the Petitioners are the two Drawers from the Castle tavern, who remain on stage to praise the Earl's actions after the rest of the dumb show participants have left.

PETITIONERS**1620

These merchants in the anonymous Costly Whore bribe Hatto for licenses to trade even in ways that are contrary to Saxony's best interests.

PETO

I.
Peto is among the group composed of himself, Poins, Bardolph, and Hal who set upon Falstaff for the pilgrim robbery joke at Gadshill in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV.
II.
Peto is a long-standing friend of Prince Hal and Falstaff in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. He brings news to Hal and Falstaff at the Boar's Head Tavern that King Henry is at Westminster and that many captains are searching for Falstaff.
III.
A "ghost character." Peto is one of Hal's drinking companions in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. He takes part in the robbery at Gads Hill. He does not appear on stage.

PETOUNE

A foolish tobacconist in Sharpham's The Fleire. Petoune, the object of much ridicule, seeks the love of Fromaga, a woman attending Felecia and Florida. When he promises marriage, he wins her consent and, in the end, the two are happily united.

PETRARCHA **1635

A disguise assumed by Alphonso in Rider’s The Twins. After Carolo has fled, Alphonso realizes he cannot return to court for fear of being accused of murdering Carolo. He disguises himself as a soldier and delivers a letter saying Carolo has murdered Alphonso and fled Italy. He then acts as companion to the brokenhearted Clarinda. See ALPHONSO.

PETREA

Daughter of Admetus in Heywood's Love's Mistress, less assertive and manipulative than Astioche, she goes with the rest of the family to Delphi. Carried by Zephirus to Cupid's bower to meet Psiche, she is impressed by the beauty and wealth of the place, and proud that her sister should be its mistress. She and Astioche make a second visit, and tell Psiche that her husband is a serpent who only beguiles her with music and sweetness for now, but means to devour her soon. Petreia seconds Astioche's plan for revealing and then murdering the mysterious spouse. When the desolate Psiche tries to rejoin the family, Petrea reviles her. At Psiche's restoration, Admetus condemns the jealous sister to prison, but Psiche forgives her and the sentence is withdrawn.

PETREIUS

A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. Caesar lists Petreius as one of his defeated enemies as he contemplates his victories and what they have and have not gained him.

PETREIUS, MARCUS

Marcus Petreius is Caius Antonius's lieutenant in Jonson's Catiline. When the Roman Senate decided to send an army against the self-exiled Catiline, because it had become obvious he was the instigator of the conspiracy, the two consuls, Cicero and Antonius were responsible for leading the army. Caius Antonius wanted to avoid any confrontation with Catiline, while at the same time not being able to oppose Cicero, who had bribed him with a province. Therefore, Antonius pretended to be affected with the gout and sent his lieutenant, Marcus Petreius, to lead the senatorial army. According to Cicero, Petreius was a much better soldier than Antonius was because he had been a tribune, prefect, lieutenant, and praetor in Sylla's war, thirty years before. Cicero says that Petreius manages the army so well that he knows the soldiers by their names, and they will fight zealously next to him. Before the confrontation between the Senate's army and Catiline's troupes, Petreius addresses his soldiers. Describing the corruption of the members of Catiline's party, Petreius inflames their spirits and incites them to fight. After the battle, Petreius reports the victory to the Senate, announcing Catiline's death. Cicero thanks Petreius in the name of the Roman Senate, commending his modesty.

PETREUS**1594

A "ghost character" in Kyd's Cornelia. Petreus is a Roman soldier who fights Juba in the battle between Caesar's legions and Scipio's army. They are evenly matched and kill one another.

PETRO

In service to the Antiquary, Petro over imbibes at Petrutio's banquet and is dressed in women's clothes by the serving maids in Marmion's The Antiquary.

PETRO DEVENTURO

Petro Deventuro is in charge of the Florentine naval force sent to deal with the Moroccan fleet in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part Two. He returns to Florence with Bashaw Joffer as his prisoner.

PETROCELLA

Petrocella is a fair Spanish lady in Heywood's A Challenge for Beauty. She hopes to be chosen by Lord Bonavida as Queen Isabella's equal in beauty. Valladaura woos her, but she is not interested. Valladaura sends Ferrars to woo her for him, but she and Ferrars fall in love. The virtuous Ferrars insists that Petrocella must marry Valladaura and tricks her into promising. She angrily agrees and marries him. On the wedding night she emerges from the bedroom with a bloody poniard, and announces that she has stabbed Valladaura. But she then sees him in front of her, and learns that it was Ferrars, not Valladaura in her bed. Valladaura explains that he had been hoping that they would marry, and that the previous 'wedding' was null because the priest was Ferrars in disguise. Petrocella than reveals that she knew it was Ferrars in her bed and she was only pretending to have killed him. Valladaura is delighted and tells Petrocella and Ferrars to get married immediately, which they do.

PETRONEL FLASH

Sir Petronel Flash is an impecunious knight who wants to gain wealth by marrying Gertrude, the daughter of the rich goldsmith Touchstone in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!. Petronel intends to sell Gertrude's land to Security and to sail off to Virginia with the money. He has stowed away all his belongings secretly on a ship and hopes to sail away as soon as the transfer of property papers are drawn and sealed. At Security's house, Petronel has breakfast with his host and takes his leave of Winifred, giving her a ring. At an inn, just before Gertrude's departure to her husband's fictional eastward castle, Petronel enters with Security and the Scrivener to have the papers signed by Gertrude. Petronel lies to Gertrude that the papers are about the sale of some poor tenement houses he owns, because he needs the money to furnish his castle. When the papers are signed, Petronel exits with Quicksilver and Security, instructing the usurer to bring him the money from the sale of the land at the Blue Anchor tavern. Petronel lies, telling Security in utmost confidence that he intends to elope with Bramble's wife, while in fact he intends to take Winifred, Security's wife, away with him. At the Blue Anchor tavern, Petronel announces to his hired crew that a masked lady will join them on their voyage. When he is warned that they must not leave for the ship at once because of the coming storm, the inebriated Petronel disregards the warning and orders everybody to embark. The boat is wrecked and Sir Petronel is cast ashore on the Isle of Dogs. Here he meets Quicksilver and Seagull. Since they are still drunk, Petronel believes they are in France and speaks French to the two gentlemen who happened to pass by. Deploring his misfortune, Petronel observes that all the money he had is on the bottom of the river. The Constable brings Petronel and Quicksilver before Golding, the new deputy alderman, saying that they were about to be shipped away to the Low Countries as vagrants. Touchstone confronts Petronel with his trickery and has him taken to prison. When Bramble visits the prisoners, Petronel asks the lawyer if they can be bailed. When Touchstone comes to prison, apparently to rescue Golding, Petronel asks his "father" for forgiveness. When Gertrude enters in the company of the other women, Petronel appeals to his "dear lady-wife" to forgive him. In the final reconciliation scene, Touchstone blesses Petronel and Gertrude as husband and wife.

PETRONELLA

Petronella, a maid in Charomonte's house in Massinger's The Great Duke of Florence. She marries Calandrino.

PETRONIO

Petronio is a noble of Ferrara in Shirley's The Imposture. He announces the arrival of Leonato and his bride-to-be (Juliana assuming the name of Fioretta), and he brings news to Leonato of the death of the Duke of Ferrara.

PETRONIUS

Father to Maria and Livia and uncle to Biancha in Fletcher's The Woman's Prize, Petronious promised the former daughter to old Petruchio and Livia to even more elderly Moroso. As Maria refused to sleep with Petronious and Biancha abused Moroso, Petronious cursed them and demanded their obedience. Throughout the play he spoke more harshly about his daughters than any other character, even as Tranio urged him to be more understanding and his son-in-law, Petruchio capitulated. In the final scene he called Maria a "whore" and declared that he would see her hanged, if Petruchio perished. Only in the closing lines, after learning that Livia had eloped with Rowland and slept with him, did he soften, accepting the match, providing the dowry, and asking for grandchildren.

PETRONIUS ARBITER

I.
The Petronius of May's Julia Agrippina is Petronius Arbiter, author of The Satyricon. He is here presented as a friend of Otho, who introduces him to Nero. Petronius's praise of feasting leads Nero to order him to write a satire against it, upon which he reveals that he is already a satiric poet and recites some of his work.
II.
Pleasure-loving poet of the Satyricon, now out of favor and living away from Nero's court in the anonymous Tragedy of Nero. He upholds his Epicurean standards throughout the play and contrives a meeting with Poppaea for his lovesick friend Antonius. He deplores Nero's bad taste and denounces his bad acting, but he also defends the theatre on principal to Seneca. He laments for Rome during the fire. Not actively involved in plotting the conspiracy against Nero, he is nevertheless implicated by his enemy, Tigellinus, and forced to commit suicide. With his Physician's assistance, he plans to make his death as leisurely and civilized as possible, to defy the Emperor's malice.

PETRUCCHIO

See also "PETRUCCIO," "PETRUCHIO," "PETRUTIO," and related spellings.

PETRUCCHIO, SIGNIOR

A "ghost character" in Shirley's The School of Compliment. Signior Petrucchio is a dancing master with whom Gasparo compares Rufaldo.

PETRUCCIO

See also "PETRUCCHIO," "PETRUCHIO," "PETRUTIO," and related spellings.

PETRUCCIO**1595

A guest at the Capulet feast in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet and friend to Tybalt.

PETRUCCIO**1625

Petruccio is in pursuit of the Duke, whom he believes to have seduced and abandoned his sister, Constantia in Fletcher's The Chances. He and his followers (Antonio, and First and Second Gentlemen) attempt to ambush the Duke, but John finds the Duke beset and fights on his side, wounding Antonio. Petruccio then goes to find John, for whom he has a letter of introduction from a mutual friend. He explains the situation from his point of view and asks Don John to deliver a challenge to the Duke, an assignment which Don John accepts. They go together, and John is able to reconcile Petruccio and the Duke by revealing that the Duke was secretly married to Constantia. Petruccio is dismayed that she is not still at their lodgings. He arrests Second Constantia, her Bawd, and Francisco at the Bawd's house, then goes with the Duke to Peter Vecchio's in the hope that Peter Vecchio, as a conjurer, would be able to tell them where Constantia is. He is happy to find his sister there and offers to help reunite Antonio and Second Constantia.

PETRUCCIO**1635

Sforza's rival general in Brome's The Queen and Concubine. He is recalled to court when Sforza falls from favor. He is ordered to preside over the imprisoned Sforza's beheading, but is uncomfortable with the job because he feels sympathy towards Sforza and, convinced of his innocence, spirits Sforza out of prison. Summoned by King Gonzago to report Sforza's death to his daughter, Alinda, Petruccio presents a jewel to prove her father is dead. He later brings the King a touching tale of Prince Gonzago's death in prison from a broken heart, and insists that the Prince died blessing his father. When two soldiers threaten to kill him for the supposed murder of Sforza, Petruccio informs them that Sforza is not dead, but they arrest him for treason and bring him before the King. Sforza reveals himself and saves Petruccio's life. He accompanies the King to Palermo and shares in the general pardon.

PETRUCCIO'S GENTLEMAN, FIRST and SECOND

Petruccio's Gentlemen in Fletcher's The Chances. They try to encourage Petruccio and Antonio to be moderate in their desire for revenge against the Duke, but ultimately agree to side with Petruccio, accompany him on his ambush against the Duke and generally support him.

PETRUCCIO'S MAN

A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Chances. He is possibly one of Petruccio's three gentlemen; he brings a message to John from Petruccio.

PETRUCHI

A young lord in the Arragonian court in ?Ford's The Queen. Petruchi opens the play when he is entrusted with ushering Alphonso's pardoned followers from the Queen's hall of judgement. He rebukes Alphonso for his misogynistic railing against the "girl" who rules them, reminding him of the duty of a subject. Although he behaves respectfully toward Alphonso once the latter is made King, his hostility never altogether disappears; it remains clear that he is the Queen's ardent supporter and that he strongly objects to Alphonso's cruel treatment of his wife. He is thus surprised when Alphonso, declaring himself penitent, sends him a ring as a sign of friendship. He plans to give the ring back to Alphonso, but the Queen, recognizing it as one she gave her husband, takes it from him and gives it back herself. She thus enables Alphonso to accuse Petruchi of having given her the ring as a love-token. Abetted by Muretto, Alphonso has become convinced that the Queen and Petruchi are involved in an affair; he condemns both to death despite their protestations of innocence. When the Queen is brought to trial, Petruchi manages to suborn his guards into setting him free and appears, vizarded, to fight for her honour. Along with Muretto's revelation of his plan to bring out Alphonso's love for the Queen, Petruchi's vehement defense of her chastity convinces Alphonso that he has been wrong and helps to ensure a happy ending.

PETRUCHIO

See also "PETRUCCIO," "PETRUCCHIO," "PETRUTIO," and related spellings.

PETRUCHIO**1566

Servant to the Sienese gentleman in Gascoigne's The Supposes.

PETRUCHIO**1594

I.
Son of the deceased Antonio, a wealthy landowner of Verona in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Petruchio uses his inheritance to travel the world, ending up in Padua looking for a wife. When Petruchio's friend Hortensio tells him of Katherine, a shrewish woman of Padua whom everyone dislikes, Petruchio is intrigued, especially by Hortensio's report of her father Baptista's wealth. Petruchio meets with Katherine and tells her in no uncertain terms that he will marry her and tame her harsh, stubborn temperament. He begins by showing up late for the wedding ceremony, dressed in embarrassingly outlandish attire, and carries Katherine off to Verona immediately afterward. While in Verona, Petruchio denies Katherine food, sleep, and clothing (under the humorous guise of caring for her and furnishing her only the best) until she learns to agree with him. Finally, while travelling back to Padua to visit her father, Katherine learns that by cooperating with Petruchio she can get what she wants. During the final banquet scene, Petruchio wagers that Katherine will be the first wife to come when summoned by her husband; everyone is surprised when she does, indeed, obey.
II.
Famous for taming his late first wife, Katherina, in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew, Petruchio expects a pleasant life when he marries Petronious' quiet daughter, Maria, in Fletcher's The Woman's Prize. She immediately goes on a sex strike, however, and spends the rest of The Woman's Prize taming him. He begins by boasting of his expected first night prowess to Petronius, Moroso, Tranio, and Sophocles, but finds himself locked out of his bride's rooms, and ultimately must surrender a promise of respect. Because he still wanted obedience, she refused to let him touch her and went on a shopping spree. When she declared him with plague and quarantined him, he raged at everyone, frightening the doctor and apothecarie into flight. He threatened to go abroad, and then sets off on a journey, returning soon in a coffin, pretending to be dead. After Maria's oration against his foolish life, he sits up in his coffin, and Maria declares him tamed. He orders Jaques to arrange a celebratory feast and announces that he is "born again," now opposed to husbands who were stern or jealous.

PETRUCHIO**1627

A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. Petruchio, described as "the great" by Dorido, was Foreste's commander. Dorido tries to use his name to make Foreste believe his honesty.

PETRUCHIO**1627

Petruchio, one of the servants to Charomonte along with Caponi and Bernardo in Massinger's The Great Duke of Florence.

PETRUCHIO **1631

Petruchio is the villainous second, a latter-day Ithamore or Buckingham in Shirley's The Traitor. Like his principal Lorenzo, however, he is a pale reflection of earlier villains. He has killed "but one man." He is entrusted mainly to deliver letters and messages for Lorenzo. His participation in the Duke's assassination is token at best as he is merely following his master's lead. His admission of guilt and exculpation of Florio at play's end is an honorable act unbefitting earlier villains.

PETRUCHIO**1632

One of the Duke's counselors, father to Colona and uncle to the Duke's favorite, Fernando, in Ford's Love's Sacrifice. He is also kinsman to the unfairly disgraced Roseilli. With Nibrassa he represents the old order of moral courtiers outraged by the degeneracy of the new Duke's régime and is outspoken in his concerns about the Duke's character and behavior. He keeps the secret of Roseilli's continued presence at court, but advises him against his passion for Fiormunda, who, he says, is in reality his only enemy at court. He deplores the scandal of his daughter's pregnancy, but, less severe than Nibrassa, does not absolutely disown her for her stupidity. He agrees with Nibrassa that the girls must take revenge on their seducer to redeem their honor. He successfully pleads for his daughter's life and liberty after the murder of Ferentes. In private conversation with his kinsmen he continues to express grave concerns about the Duke's mental degeneration. Together with Nebrassa, after the murder of the Duchess, he is convinced by Fernando's declaration of the innocence of the platonic lovers. He accepts that the Duke is a jealous madman and agrees too late to rescue Biancha. He is later put in charge of the Duchess's funeral. Not subsequently mentioned by name, his attendance at the Duchess's tomb with the rest of the court may be inferred.

PETRUCHIO**1636

Petruchio is the Governor of Filford and is Sebastian and Aurelia's father in Rawlins's The Rebellion. Antonio is remanded into Petruchio's custody for execution. Specifically, Petruchio is to see to it that Antonio is crushed to death at Filford Mill. Petruchio is tricked by Aurelia into placing her in charge of the killing. After Aurelia releases Antonio, Petruchio erroneously believes that Aurelia is saying her prayers. At the end of the play, Petruchio blesses Sebastian's engagement to Evadne and sends Aurelia to a convent in recognition of her bond with the dead Antonio.

PETRUSIO

Eleazer in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy appears to identify one of his Attendants by this name, although his madness and lack of other confirmation make the identification far from certain.

PETRUTIO

See also "PETRUCCIO," "PETRUCHIO," "PETRUCCHIO," and related spellings.

PETRUTIO

Recently returned from various travels, Petrutio the son of Gasparo holds an extremely high opinion of himself in Marmion's The Antiquary. He refuses the daughter of Lorenzo as not good enough, but by the end of the play he is to wed Lionell's daughter Angelia, whom he earlier courted before also determining her unworthy to be his wife.

PETTIFOG

Pettifog is a lawyer, hired by Compass to help in his suit in Webster and Rowley's A Cure for a Cuckold. Pettifog's principal activity is to drink a lot on the fees of his clients, and the case is won by Compass's speech.

PETULA

One of the gentlewomen guests at the wedding celebration of Cælestine and Sir Walter Terill in Dekker's Satiromastix, Petula is also one of the guests of the party hosted by Sir Vaughan ap Rees, and later of the party hosted by Sir Adam Prickshaft. She is also among those who accompany Cælestine and Sir Walter Terill to the court of King William Rufus. While Petula sometimes comments on the action, she is primarily an on-stage audience and sometime dance partner whose presence otherwise has little bearing on the development of the plot. She is always in the company of Dicache and Philocalia.

PETULIUS

Petulius is in love with Protea, but he is enchanted by the Syren in Lyly's Love's Metamorphosis. However, he is saved Protea, who disguises herself as the ghost of Ulysses.

PETULUS

Petulus serves Mellacrites and is a friend of Licio in Lyly's Midas. He is one of a group of comic servants who steal and pawn Midas' golden beard. Forced to redeem it by the barber Motto, the servants have their revenge by tricking Motto into saying that the King has assess' ears, for which (by law) Motto should have his own ears cut off. However, when he pleads for mercy, the servants let him go.

PEWTERER, ROBIN

He appears at the beginning of the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V with Lawrence Costermonger and John Cobbler. The three of them are neighbors and they help Derrick apprehend Cuthbert Cutter the thief.

PHAEDRA**1602

Only mentioned in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium. As Florimel is dying, she says that she goes to view the ghosts of Dido, Myrrha and Phaedra.

PHAETON**1600

I.
A "ghost character" in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. Phaeton was Phoebus's son. Apollo (Phoebus) tells Eurymine about him when she asks him to turn her into a man. Apollo explains his son had asked him for something which had undone him, because he had lost his life craving for it, and the god lost his son when he granted him his wish. According to Greek mythology, Phaeton asked to drive Phoebus's chariot. But the moment he took the reins, the powerful horses escaped his control, dragging the chariot and the boy across the sky, causing destruction everywhere. Zeus in order to control the chaotic and dangerous situation, killed Phaeton with thunderbolt.
II.
The King compares the Marshall to Phaeton in Heywood's Royal King.
III.
A "ghost character" in Heywood's Brazen Age. Phaeton sets the world afire, causing Jove to drop Vulcan to the earth.

PHALLAX

I.
A lawyer and principal officer to Promos in Whetstone's 1 Promos and Cassandra. In opening scene, he reads aloud the king's patent making Promos his deputy in Julio. In a soliloquy, he admits that he is "neither learned, true, nor honest" and seeks bribes from wealthy lawbreakers who wish to avoid incarceration and public humiliation. When Promos reveals his passion for Cassandra, Phallax advises him to offer her Andrugio's pardon in exchange for sex. When his officers bring Lamia before him, having apprehended her on charges of prostitution, he is immediately attracted to her and arranges to visit her home.
II.
Principal officer to Promos in Whetstone's 2 Promos and Cassandra. He oversees the preparations for the entertainments to welcome the King, including the Pageant of the Nine Worthies. In a soliloquy, Phallax proudly declares that he has managed to put together an impressive entertainment even though the King gave but one day's notice of his visit. He arranges for some of the King's court to enjoy the services of Lamia's house. After the royal proclamation is read, he fears that his corruption will be revealed and the King will punish him. His guilt and fear compel him to act more mercifully toward the people of Julio and encourages Rapax and Gripax to take John Adroins' bribe and free him. He is brought before the King at public court. Ulrico accuses him of lending money to the poor under vague contracts, then taking precious objects as payment when they fail to produce money on demand. Phallax sees he is trapped and confesses. The King does not punish his person, but strips him of his post and orders Ulrico to seize all of his possessions and disperse them among those whom he wronged. Stripped of title and goods, Phallax leaves Julio to seek his ill-gotten fortunes elsewhere.

PHANTAFOR

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. According to Greek mythology, Phantasos was the name of one of the three most skilful of the Oneroi, who formed the dreams of kings and chieftains. In the play, Phantafor is the third son of Somnus. His father mentions him and explains to Iris that he can appear in the shape of lifeless things.

PHANTASM

Phantasm is a name used by the Soldier to refer to the Courtier in Shirley's Contention for Honor and Riches.

PHANTASMA

Phantasma is a nickname used by Thornay to refer to Caperwit as the latter plans the production of a masque in Shirley's Changes.

PHANTASMUS**1603

Phantasmus, who personifies the genius of elegiac and amatory poetry, brings Ingenioso's invitation to a drinking party in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus, where the plan to get money from Sir Raderick is worked out; his particular target is Amoretto, on whom he showers Latin tags and compliments, then insults, to no purpose. He participates in the final lament.

PHANTASTE

Phantaste or Light Wittiness is a nymph and a court lady in Gargaphie in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. According to Cupid, motion and ubiquity characterize her and she is everywhere. At court, Phantaste enters with Moria and Philautia. After lavishing compliments on each other, Phantaste exits with Moria and Philautia. In an apartment in the palace, Phantaste enters with the other nymphs. They are expecting the miracle water so much publicized by Amorphus. While waiting, the vain nymphs and courtiers play society games and fantasize on who they would like to be. Phantaste says she wished she were several creatures. Phantaste fantasizes over being an empress, a duchess, a great lady of state, a waiting woman, a citizen's wife, a coarse country gentlewoman, a dairy maid, a shepherd's lass, or the queen of fairies. The entrance of Hedon, Anaides, and Mercury interrupts the nymphs' fantasy. Phantaste and the entire party of nymphs and gallants drink of the miracle water and they become even more self-conceited than they already were. At Cynthia's revels, Phantaste is disguised as Euphantaste in the First Masque. Like all the nymphs and gallants, Phantaste suffers the shame and ultimate disgrace of her fellows, and she does the same penance decreed by Crites. Phantaste exits with the others singing a Palinode. The song is an invocation of the god Mercury, who is asked to defend them against the dangers of counterfeit and vanity. As part of the penance, the affected nymphs and courtiers must go to Niobe's stone and repent. After being purged, they are invited to taste of the water of the Well of Knowledge and then report of Cynthia's grace.

PHANTASTES

See also FANTASTES.

PHANTASTES **1607

Attendant to Common Sense in Tomkis’ Lingua. He is a swarthy, quick-eyed man wearing a white satin doublet of one fashion and green-veined hose of another. a fantastical hat with plumes of several colors, a taffeta short cloak, cut buskins drawn up with varicolored ribbons, varicolored scarves of all fashions, rings, jewels, a fan, and odd accessories everywhere. He assists women, fools, babes, tailors, poets, swaggerers, gulls, and ballad makers with fantastical notions but most laughs at lovers. Throughout the play he makes witty commentary about the characters and action.

PHANTASTES**1618

Phantastes is one of the "four humors" characters in Holiday's Technogamia. A fantastical and unwholesome traveling companion of Geographus, Phantastes quarrels with the other humors and associates with Magus. With Musica, the four humor characters act out a Morris entertainment in one scene of act four. Polites frees Geographus from Phantastes' influence, after which the latter agrees to become a servant to Musica and Melancholico.

PHANTASTE'S HUSBAND

The citizen that Phantaste imagines marrying is a fictional character in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In an apartment in Cynthia's palace, Phantaste, Philautia, Argurion, and Moria are expecting the miracle water from the fountain of Self-love, so much publicized by Amorphus. While waiting, the vain nymphs discuss fashion, their admirers, and fantasize on what they would like to be. While Moria and Philautia imagine they could be extremely powerful women, Phantaste fantasizes that she could impersonate many women and do various things. As a citizen's wife, Phantaste imagines that she could be troubled with a jealous husband but do whatever she pleases, disregarding his demands. Thus, she argues, others' miseries should be her pleasures.

PHANTASTICO

Phantastico is a musician of the popular sort in the anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. He is in league with Furioso and Corraso, and like them, on his beam-ends.

PHANTSY, SIR CUPID

Sir Cupid Phantsy is a lover in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. He visits Doctor Clyster in the hope that he should cure his disease–giving him clear hints that the root of his disease lies in the fact that he is in love. The doctor informs Phantsy about all the possible symptoms of his disease, and the latter realizes that he has them all. Besides he explains that, from time to time, he also suffers from poetic fits. Doctor Clyster witnesses one of those fits, and he thinks his patient's disease is a serious thing. Sir Cupid then explains the change he has experienced since he is in love: on the one hand, now he can speak long speeches in verse, and, on the other, he has become obsessed with clothes and fashion–a characteristic of lovers. The doctor tells him he will have to study his case, but, meanwhile, he advises him to "forbear all pastorals and quit the church while the psalms are singing." He wants to keep him away from songs and poetry, and advises him to read prose instead. After Phantsy hears the doctor's advice, he gives him some money for his services. Later, Sir Cupid Phantsy goes to see the doctor–suffering from new fits of poetic speech. He wants the doctor to cure him, but not before he writes a play. However, Doctor Clyster explains that writing a play can be dangerous for him and tries to dissuade him. Then his patient encourages his doctor to write some poetry, to which the latter replies he lacks the main ingredient: he is not in love. And that is precisely the source of his patient's illness: his being in love makes him speak in verse. After discussing about poetry and about Sir Cupid's beloved lady's attitude to him, the doctor decides it is time to cure him. He finds out his patient did not follow his former prescription, and now he forbids him to rhyme in his company, and to make or think in verse; and, since he seems to be getting worse, he is going to put him on a diet: "I prescribe you Littleton's Tenures to read in French, with Lambarde's Justice of Peace, Dalton, Crompton, and Fitzherbert, Pulton's Statutes, and Coke's Reports." And he threatens him that, should he put those into verse, he will prescribe him "huge volumes of civil law." But, as soon as Doctor Clyster leaves him alone for a moment, Sir Cupid Phantsy starts writing verses again. However, when the doctor comes back, he catches him at it. Then, he urges to give him or throw away any token from his lady he may have. Sir Cupid happens to have a purse, which was hers, and which is tied so hard that he is unable to get the twenty pieces of gold it contains out of it. Hearing that, the doctor insists on keeping the purse, he gets it and they part. When, later, Sir Cupid Phantsy learns he has been cheated, he goes to see Clyster again in order to ask for his money back and also for satisfaction, but Clyster threatens to tell his mistress about his folly, and Phantsy leaves. Encouraged by Damme de Bois, he and the other cozened victims siege the house of the three cheaters. Finally, Master Algebra, who was passing by, offers to act as a judge, and he actually solves the case satisfactorily for all the parties involved, cures the cozened people and he is recompensed both by the victims and by the cheaters.

PHAO

Phao is the ferryman of Syracuse in Lyly's Sapho and Phao. One of his passengers, Venus, gives him the gift of beauty–but the gift comes with a price, for Phao is now incapable of love. Nevertheless, Phao is captured by Sapho's beauty and seeks advice from an old soothsayer. Venus falls in love with Phao and eventually persuades Cupid to release Phao from his curse.

PHARAMOND

Pharamond is the foreign prince anxious to become heir to the kingdom of Calabria and husband to princess Arethusa in Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster, or Love Lies A-Bleeding. On both counts, Pharamond is thrust into the place of the rightful heir, Philaster. Arrogant and self-praising, Pharamond propositions Arethusa, Galatea, and Megra before the latter consents to a liaison; the two are caught together by the king. Hated by the citizenry, Pharamond is captured and close to torture when Philaster arrives to rescue him. More than eager at this point to be quit of this kingdom, Pharamond accepts the king's gracious offer of safe conduct back to the prince's own land. The plot suggests that the lewd Megra may well accompany him home.

PHARAOH

A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Moses reminds God of his power in visiting the ten plagues on the Pharaoh.

PHARISEE

The Pharisee, with the Sadducee, questions John Baptist because they fear he does not recognize their authority in Bale's John Baptist's Preaching in the Wilderness. The Pharisee is confident of undermining John easily, and points out to him that the Pharisees interpret the Scriptures. When John condemns the way they interpret Scripture, the Pharisee becomes angry and calls John a beggar, stating that he has no right to interpret the laws or the prophecies. He swears that he will see to it that John can no longer preach.

PHASSUR

A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by John Baptist as an example of a sinful man.

PHEANDER**1599

Pheander, King of Thrace in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder. He is infuriated when his daughter Ariadne secretly marries and has a child with Radagon, the son of his enemy, the King of Sicilia. He banishes them both, separately, from his kingdom. Many years pass, during which Thrace is blighted by plague. Pheander banishes Sophos when he tries to plead Ariadne's case, and sends to the Delphic oracle for guidance. The Oracle blames Pheander for the plague, and says he must wait until a shepherd restores his "health and crown." When the Sicilians threaten invasion, Pheander meets them, dressed as a pilgrim. He repents banishing Radagon and Ariadne and resigns the kingdom to wander Thrace, disguised as a pilgrim, in search of the shepherd mentioned by the Oracle. He has a conversation with Radagon, Ariadne and Eusanius about their banishment (none of them realising who the others are). He then abducts Ariadne, in the belief that the Oracle intends him to beget an heir on a shepherdess. When the shepherds lead an army against him, he persuades them to unite against the invading Sicilians. In the second battle, he is captured by Radagon, and agrees to settle the war with a single combat between Radagon and Eusanius. Before the fight is over, Pheander asks Radagon why he is against him, and Radagon reveals his true identity, followed by Ariadne. Pheander realises that the oracle has come true, and yields his crown to Radagon, who recommends he give it to Sophos.

PHEANDER**1612

The Juggler calls Morion by this name in The Valiant Welshman, and he is listed as 'Pheander' in the dramatis personae.

PHEBE

Also spelled "PHOEBE" and related spellings.

PHEBE**1528

A 'ghost character' in John Heywood's The Play of the Wether, mentioned in Jupiter's opening soliloquy. By quarrelling with Saturne, Phebus, and Eolus, Phebe (a goddess identified with the moon) has caused great inconvenience to humanity. The other gods and goddesses turn to Jupiter to redress the balance between the elements.

PHEBE**1599

Phebe is a shepherdess in the forest of Arden in Shakespeare's As You Like It. Although she is apparently unhandsome (she is instructed to sell where she can, she is not for all markets), the shepherd Silvius passionately loves her. When Rosalind, disguised as Ganymede, upbraids her for being cold to the worthy Silvius, Phebe falls in love with Ganymede. Rosalind treats Phebe as cruelly as Phebe treats her faithful lover Silvius, but Phebe's love is steadfast. At the end of the play, Rosalind tricks Phebe into marrying Silvius by making her promise to marry him if ever she should reject Ganymede. When Ganymede proves to be Rosalind, Phebe does reject "him" for Silvius and their nuptials make up one quarter of the quadruple wedding that closes the play.

PHEBUS

A 'ghost character' in John Heywood's The Play of the Wether, mentioned in Jupiter's opening soliloquy. By quarrelling with Saturne, Eolus, and Phebe, Phebus (god of the sun) has caused great inconvenience to humanity. The other gods and goddesses turn to Jupiter to redress the balance between the elements.

PHEGO

Phego is a gentleman usher in Mason's Mulleasses. He is accompanied by two ladies when he encounters Bordello and Madame Fulsome. Eunuchus describes Phego has a particular dresser who favors theory over practice. Phego returns to the stage at the conclusion of the play to witness Borgias and Mulleasses mutual destruction. Phego fetches Philenzo after being chased off of the stage with Madame Fulsome by the supposed ghost of Timoclea.

PHEMILLIA

Maidservant to Sabrina in Suckling's The Goblins. She admits Orsabrin to the house, in the belief that he is Sabrina's lover, Samorat.

PHEMONE

Phemone is Cornelia's sister in J.D.'s The Knave In Grain New Vamped. Julio wants to marry her for her riches, but she loves Antonio. When her father disowns Cornelia, Phemone begs to be disowned with her, and her father angrily agrees. She and Cornelia disguise as shepherds. They meet Antonio (he recognizes them but not they him), and go to his cave. She, Antonio, Cornelia and the Shepherd dramatically return to Venice at the crucial moment in the trial of Fransiscus.

PHEMONOE **1630

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Priest of Apollo who first put the laurel crown on Comedy's head. One of the first sylphs to utter oracles at Delphos and who invented heroic measure.

PHEROAS

Pheroas is brother to Herod and Salumith in Markham's Herod and Antipater; he is also Herod's cup bearer. He testifies falsely that Marriam had brought him poison to place in Herod's cup. Later he describes the saintly attitude of Marriam at her execution. He is banished by Herod, and in his anguish he later confesses his earlier falsehoods and asserts Queen Marriam was indeed innocent and chaste.

PHIDIAS

A soldier in Fletcher's Valentinian; friend of Aretus and supporter of Aëtius. Following the death of Aëtius, he helps to contrive the murder of Valentinian that is finally achieved by Aretus, and stabs himself to escape punishment.

PHILABEL

Listed in the dramatis personae of the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace. Characteristics and actions not given in the surviving plot.

PHILADELPHA

At the beginning of the anonymous The Faithful Friends, Philadelpha has just married Tullius, but the consummation of their union is delayed when he is appointed general of the army sent to suppress the Sabine revolt. During his absence she must endure repeated attempts on her virtue by the emperor, Martius. She remains chaste, however, and his final attempt, during the celebration at his palace, is foiled by Tullius and Marius, so that at the end the couple's future seems secure.

PHILADELPHOS

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. One of the kings listed by Caesar as joining Antony's side of the war. He is the king of Paphlagonia.

PHILAEBUS

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Amyntas. His misfortunes are a main root cause of the plot. The late son of Pilumnus, once betrothed to Lalage and broken-hearted when Claius took her from him. His father took revenge for his son's misery by calling down the curse of Ceres. The curse killed Lalage in childbirth but did not ease Philaebus's grief. He grew worse at her death and pined away on her grave. His bereaved father's further demands for divine retribution for his death called down the goddess's curse on all brides and grooms in Sicily until the blood of Claius might be sacrificed to her.

PHILAEMA

One of Titania's ladies-in-waiting in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon.

PHILAGRIO **1635

A shepherd in Rider’s The Twins. Silvio and Philagrio bring Corbo a picture of Dowze.

PHILAMOUR

Philamour, like Lafort, is a counselor in the court of Charles in Massinger's The Parliament of Love. He aids in his running of the Parliament of Love.

PHILAN

I.
A courtier as Orsamnes in Suckling's Aglaura (first version), loyal to the Prince and Orsamnes's friend. He fights in the same skirmish along side Orsamnes and is similarly successful. Like him, Philan is still alive at the end of the play and captures the fleeing Pasithas.
II.
In the "happy ending" second version, the character engages in much the same action. A courtier as Orsamnes in Suckling's Aglaura (second version), loyal to the Prince and Orsamnes's friend. He fights in the same skirmish along side Orsamnes and is similarly successful. Like him, Philan is still alive at the end of the play.

PHILANAX**1631

Philanax, captain of the guard, is ordered to execute Paulinus for his supposed affair with Eudocia in Massinger's The Emperor of the East. He chooses to spare Paulinus after listening to him protest his innocence.

PHILANAX**1640

A nobleman appointed as regent during the retirement of Basilius in Shirley's The Arcadia. With Calander, he tries to persuade Basilius to return to his throne. Fights off the Rebels with Basilius, Pyrocles and Calander. Philanax arrests Gynecia, Musidorus, Pyrocles, Pamela, Philoclea, and Dametas for the alleged murder of Basilius. Over the protests of the crown princess Pamela, he assumes control of the government of Arcadia, until Basilius revives and resumes the throne.

PHILANDER**1562

along with Arostus and Eubulus, a long-trusted counselor to King Gorboduc in Sackville and Norton's Gorboduc. He agrees with King Gorboduc's plan to divide his realm between the princes Ferrex and Porrex, but he advises co-regency rather than divided rule. Gorboduc assigns him to Porrex. Philander proposes a delegation to ask Ferrex the reason for his warlike preparation. He later advises Gorboduc to intercede in the coming battle.

PHILANDER**1619

The prince of Cyprus in ?Ford's The Laws of Candy. Philander is passionately in love with Erota, who scorns him. When Erota falls in love with Antinous and asks Philander to woo Antinous on her behalf, he agrees and does his best, proving his devotion. When Cassilane, Antinous, Erota, and the entire Senate have been condemned to death for ingratitude, Philander is given control of the proceedings as the only ranking male adult left unimpeached. He resolves the problem by pointing out to Cassilane that instead of saving Candy, Cassilane has condemned it by bringing the entire government to the point of death; Cassilane then repents and forgives his son, beginning the chain of retractions that saves them all. Philander joyously accepts Erota's admission of guilt and her hand when she apologizes for her past treatment of him.

PHILANDER**1628

King of Thrace in the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace, he discusses with his sister Suavina the war in which Thrace is currently involved (apparently against the Macedonians). He tells his counselor Euphrastes that he will not allow his sister Suavina to marry anyone but a "present K[ing]." When he discovers the secret love between Suavina and Aristocles he banishes the latter from Thrace. He meets Salohcin and they conclude a treaty of peace; when he learns that Aristocles has fought on the other side he persuades Salohcin that the young warrior should be banished from both countries. During the celebration following the accord, he and Salohcin's daughter Corintha are mutually smitten. She asks him to pardon Aristocles, and is successful. But she is cold to his amorous suit, and tells him that to succeed he must persuade Aristocles to plead his case. Jealous of the young hero, but bound by his promise to Corintha, Philander gets Salohcin to carry out the latter's earlier agreement to banish Aristocles.

PHILANDER**1639

Philander (also spelled Phylander), is the son of Polidacre and Rosinda, brother of Lucora and Cleanthe in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady. He is in competition with his father for the hand of Antiphila. Antiphila finds him ridiculous, and scoffs at his love poetry and his marriage suit. When he throws himself at her, she ridicules and rejects him, but he insists this rejection isn't heartfelt. He laments that his father is his rival for Antiphila's love, and casts himself into the hands of fate. Philander again woos Antiphila, and is again rejected. She scolds him for pestering her, and to be rid of him, tells him she is contracted to another, but that it is not his father. Philander threatens to kill his successful rival, and demands to know his name. Antiphila persuades him not to challenge his rival, and when he agrees, she fabricates the story that she is betrothed to Tandorix, a man far beneath her. Philander goes back on his vow and sets off to challenge Tandorix. When he does so, Tanbdorix reveals that he is actually Rosinda, Philander's mother whom all believed to be dead. She explains that she sent word of her own death and adopted the disguise of a servant in order to watch and test Polidacre, to see if he would remain faithful to her even after her death. Philander is vowed to secrecy, and has renewed hopes for the hand of Antiphila. He sends a letter to her requesting her to accept him as her husband if her marriage to his father is not possible. She sends back a letter agreeing, but assuring him that he has no reason to hope. In order to protect his mother's secret, Philander invents the story that when he challenged Tandorix, Tandorix was revealed to be a woman, who was posing as Tandorix in order to discover why Perimont, an invented character, does not love her. At the end of the play, Philander enters with the masked Rosinda. The revelation of her actual identity stops the marriage between Polidacre and Antiphila. Philander then claims his right to marry Antiphila, according to her earlier agreement.

PHILANT

In Act Five of Carlell's 1 The Passionate Lovers, Philant deplores the arrest of Prince Agenor.

PHILANTHUS

A kinsman to Aurelia in Carlell's The Fool Would Be A Favorite. He initially seems to court Miranthe, but is actually plotting with her to win Aurelia. He confesses his love for Aurelia, but she is standoffish. Agenor promises to aid Philanthus in his love, and Philanthus promises the same to Agenor. After learning that Adrastus has defamed him, Philanthus challenges Adrastus to combat but does not reveal his identity. During the combat, Aurelia faints. Philanthus stops to help her, but Adrastus ignobly attacks him. Nonetheless, Philanthus forces Adrastus to concede. Wounded from the combat, he travels to the house of an old man and woman to recover. He is discovered there by Lucinda who transports him while he sleeps to her house. When he awakens, he is told that he has been captured by a witch, but Lucinda (who does not reveal her identity) quickly dispels this story and proclaims her love for him. He reveals that he loves Aurelia and is allowed to leave. Back at court, he is briefly made jealous by Adrastus's boasts of Aurelia's love. When he meets with Aurelia, she asks him to find the knight who fought Adrastus so that she can be revenged on him and makes him swear not to tell Agenor of this quest. When Agenor is insulted by Philanthus's unwillingness to speak with him, Philanthus realizes that Aurelia intended to test whether his love was greater for her or for Agenor. He then disavows love for Aurelia and announces his plans to see the Moor to determine the name of the woman who held him prisoner so that he can vow his love to her. Agenor, curious about this woman, accompanies him, disguised as a servant. When Lucinda reveals herself, Agenor flies into a jealous rage and wounds Philanthus, who feigns death. With what appears to be his dying breath, he entreats Lucinda to love Agenor. He then appears to Lucinda pretending to be a ghost to reinforce this entreaty, promising to haunt her if she does not marry Agenor. He goes to his own tomb at the end of the play dressed in the armor in which he fought Adrastus. When Aurelius claims that she loves Philanthus, he reveals himself and the two agree to marry.

PHILARCHUS**1592

A young man in the anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave who has become proud because he has been in King Edgar's favor. His father accuses him of filial disobedience. He confesses everything and asks the King and his father for forgiveness, but his father remains firm and wants him killed. Philarchus begs to be exiled or sent to war. His father then agrees to have him banished, and Edgar sends him abroad with a noble pension

PHILARCHUS**1638

An Arcadian Lord first seen accompanying Parthenia's unwelcome suitor Demagoras in Glapthorne's Argalus and Parthenia. He fails in his tactful attempts to persuade Demagoras to proceed more chivalrously with his courtship. He joins with the lord Kalander in encouraging Argalus to woo Parthenia, praising him generously and teasing him into a better understanding of his merits. He is present at Parthenia's return from her cruel attack by Demagoras, and is the first to notice and express horror and pity for her disfigurement. He later accompanies Amphialus, discussing the attack and Argulus's noble patience at her departure. He then brings news of Amphialus's business, to Kalander and Argalus. Present at the reunion of Argalus and Parthenia, their wedding feast and the combat between the two champions, he counsels patience to Parthenia over the body of Argalus. His final conversation with Amphialus about the latter's chances of prevailing with the beleaguered King is interrupted by Parthenia's arrival in armor. He therefore witnesses the final combat and her death.

PHILARCHUS**1640

Philarchus is a rich citizen and usurer in the anonymous Ghost. When he is on his way to attend Octavian and Aurelia's wedding, he learns from the Friar that Octavian has been slain. Then he announces to Aurelia's young suitors that they have not got a chance. He explains that Aurelia's father, Senio, is his friend, and that he will be most happy to marry his daughter to him, an aged but rich man. He finally wins Senio's consent to their marriage, to be celebrated on that very day. But Philarchus fears Aurelia has only agreed to the wedding because she does not want to be forced to his bed. Actually, on their wedding night, he is abused by his wife, who makes him face his own handicaps and deformities, and the fact that he is an old and withered man, unfit to satisfy the wishes of a young wife. Then his wife pulls his breeches off him and he ends up promising her that she will be his sole commander, and dispose of his fortune as she wishes. He is even sent to another room. In view of this, Philarchus decides to take revenge on his wife and Engin by telling her father about the way he has been abused. But he is then threatened by the ghost of Octavian (Engin disguised) and he has to desist. Philarchus then is misled into believing that Engin has been lying with his wife, and he decides he is also entitled to lie with other women. Thus, when Procus and Pinnario arrive at his closet disguised as women, he takes them for such. Afterwards, when his wife finds him with them, he is extremely afraid of her reaction, to such an extent that he even prays her to forgive him. Later, Engin suggests that he should go with his wife to Octavian's funeral rites. There, he is taken revenge on: it turns out that Octavian had not died, and that he had secretly married Aurelia before Philarchus had. Therefore, his marriage was not valid. Besides, he is forced to pay a large sum of money to Dauphine, and he is even made to marry Erotia, the old bawd, at the end.

PHILARCUS

Philarcus is a lord in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. He joins with Mavortius in pursuit of the arts. Philarcus chooses Geometrie. Along with the other characters, he follows the cycle that begins with the reign of Plenty and ends with Poverty.

PHILARGURUS

Father of Lollio and Callimela in the anonymous Timon of Athens, a covetous and churlish old man. According to his servant Grunnio he counts the spiders in his house that nobody can steal one. He is pleased to have Gelasimus, a rich young heir, as his son in law. When Timon and his friends come to his house (III.1), he is afraid that they might steal his gold. But then he hears that Timon is richer than Gelasimus, and he now promises his daughter to him. When a sailor interrupts the wedding to tell Timon that all his ships are all sunk, Philargurus has the contract dissolved and takes his daughter back. He reappears at Timon's banquet in IV.5 and he comes with all the other false friends to beg Timon for money in the final scene.

PHILARGUS**1626

Philargus is an old miser and the father of Parthenius in Massinger's The Roman Actor. Parthenius seeks to cure his father of his miserliness by showing him a play in which an old miser sees the error of his ways. When the play fails to have its desired effect, Domitian orders Philargus's execution.

PHILARGUS**1639

Son to Adrastus and Themyle, brother to Placilla in Brome's Love-Sick Court. He and Philocles, who he believes to be his twin brother, are both in love with Eudyna and travel to Delphi to ask Apollo's oracle who should marry her. They follow Justinius's interpretation of the oracle's riddle and vow not to let their love for Eudyna destroy their friendship. Philargus entreats Eudyna to marry Philocles, which only deepens her love for him. When Eudyna cannot choose between the two, Stratocles sends forged challenges to each brother from the other. They travel to the place appointed in the challenge, but each brother attempts to let the other brother win. When it becomes apparent that neither will strike the other, each tries to kill himself but is prevented by his brother. Matho, who has been waiting in ambush, attempts to kill them both, but he is quickly disarmed and taken into custody. Matho reveals Stratocles's plot to capture and rape Eudyna, and the two brothers apprehend Stratocles with the help of six rustics. Each brother then insists upon leaving the kingdom so that the other brother can marry Eudyna. To end the dispute, Disanius writes "friendship" on one slip of paper and "love" on another and forces them to draw a slip. The one who draws "friendship" is to leave the kingdom; the one who draws "love" is to marry Eudyna. Philargus draws "love," but as he is drinking a farewell toast to Philocles, he is drugged by Varillus. With what might have been his dying breath, he lies and says that he poisoned himself. Fortunately, the drug was only a sleeping potion and he lives to marry Eudyna.

PHILARGYRUS

Philargyrus is father to Asotus and a "ghost character" in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. When Crites introduces Asotus to Amorphus, he says that Asotus is son to the late Philargyrus, a citizen. When Amorphus inquires if Asotus's father was of an eminent position and means, Crites says he was to have been praetor the next year. It seems that Philargyrus died before being promoted to an official position of importance.

PHILARIO

When Posthumous Leonatus is banished in Shakespeare's Cymbeline, he leaves Britain for Rome, where he will stay with his father's friend, Philario. Philario is Posthumous's host in his banishment and tries to dissuade the wager between Posthumous and Iachimo over Imogen's fidelity. He later believes Iachimo's evidence of Imogen's infidelity.

PHILARITUS **1619

Cleobulus’ son and lover of Arismena in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. He is melancholy and listens to sad songs in the forest because his love is unrequited. His father disowns and banishes him for his foolish love. He dresses as a shepherd and goes into the forest. He overhears Arismena claim that she does not love him and Castarina reveal that she does. When he overhears Bacheus dispraise him to Arismena, he transfers his affections to Castarina. When he sees Arismena and Lariscus kissing, however, Philaritus rejects Castarina. he sends Lariscus a challenge to duel at Apollo’s shrine. He comes upon the satyr attempting to ravish Arismena and saves her by stabbing the creature. He again offers his heart and Arismena again refuses him. As Philaritus and Lariscus begin to duel, Arismena and Castarina come in with bows and arrows and threaten to kill Arismena should Philaritus wound Lariscus or Castarina should Lariscus wound Philaritus. Arismena admits love for Philaritus as Lariscus and Castarina reconciled, but the satyrs take up the weapons and steal the women away. He receives a letter from his father forgiving him, and he takes Lariscus’ advice to seek aid from Cleobulus to raise an army to comb the satyr’s forest for the women. Returning home, he is relieved to discover that the kidnapping was a jest propounded by Cleobulus and Baccheus, but when the actual satyrs attack and steal the women in earnest, he goes in pursuit with the others. He is captured along with the others and taken before the Grand Satyr. There, he learns that the women died rather than be ravished, and he goes to grieve over their hearses. When the women rise up, however, and all is explained, he happily leads Arismena to their marriage.

PHILARMONUS

Philarmonus, a soothsayer in Shakespeare's Cymbeline, predicts success for the Romans based on his dream-vision. Later, he interprets the riddle that Jupiter has given to Posthumous Leonatus, and revises his interpretation of his dream to indicate a British victory.

PHILASTER

Philaster is the rightful heir to the throne of Calabria in Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster, or Love Lies A-Bleeding. Though extremely popular with the citizenry, Philaster is not to be the next king. Instead, the current king has arranged for Pharamond, a foreign prince, to become king and to marry the king's daughter Arethusa. Himself in love with the princess, Philaster sends his page, Bellario, to Arethusa to facilitate their clandestine communications. Philaster is heartbroken when Lord Dion claims that he has caught Arethusa and Bellario in illicit relations. Later discovering Arethusa in the woods, Philaster wounds her. Bellario demonstrates loyalty when the page confesses to the crime to save Philaster. By the play's conclusion, Philaster has calmed the rebellious citizenry, saved Pharamond from the commoners' wrath, wed Arethusa and been promised his rightful crown. He also discovers that Bellario is in fact Euphrasia, Dion's disguised daughter who entered Philaster's service for love. She swears herself to celibacy and enters service with the newlywed Philaster and Arethusa.

PHILATELL

Brother to Torcular and Sabrina in Suckling's The Goblins. Like Torcular, he is very keen to marry his sister to the Prince, and to separate her from Samorat, the man she loves. The two brothers challenge Samorat to a duel: when Samorat's second fails to appear, Philatell scrupulously tries to dismiss Torcular (who tries in return to dismiss him) so that Samorat will have only one opponent, but his scrupulousness ends there: he fights Samorat and is disarmed by him, then takes advantage of Samorat's chivalry to run at him as Samorat is returning his sword, and is only prevented from killing him by Orsabrin, who has arrived just in time to act as second. Acting in this capacity, Orsabrin apparently killsTorcular, so Philatell, who blames Samorat for the death, goes to his sister's house to find him; instead he finds Orsabrin, who intervenes to protect Sabrina ("Kill her!" cries Philatell), and the two fight. He advises the Prince on his courtship: the best thing will be to kill Samorat, but make it look like an administrative error. Philatell's opposition to the Samorat-Sabrina marriage crumbles finally and very rapidly after the revelations about Orsabrin's identity. (He says that Samorat's "merit" has prevailed with him; that, or Suckling's reluctance to leave a malcontent at the end.)

PHILAUTIA

Philautia or Self-Love is a nymph and a court lady in Gargaphie in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. According to Cupid, she is beautiful and she knows it, but she loves herself excessively. At court, Philautia enters with Moria and Phantaste. After lavishing compliments on each other, Philautia exits with Moria and Phantaste. In an apartment in the palace, Philautia enters with the other nymphs. They are expecting the miracle water so much publicized by Amorphus. When Phantaste and Moria refer to Hedon as Philautia's admirer, the nymph says she would hear nothing of him and she bears him at her side only because he makes her look intelligent. When Phantaste discusses the traveler Amorphus, Philautia says he is ridiculous and he looks like a Venetian trumpeter in the battle of Lepanto. While waiting for the water, the vain nymphs and courtiers play society games and fantasize on who they would like to be. Philautia confesses she wished she were a wise woman who knows everything that happens at court. Philautia would have everybody in her power. The entrance of Hedon, Anaides, and Mercury interrupts the nymphs' fantasy. Philautia and the entire party of nymphs and gallants drink of the miracle water and they become even more self-conceited than they already were. At Cynthia's revels, Philautia is disguised as Storge in the First Masque. Like all the nymphs and gallants, Philautia suffers the shame and ultimate disgrace of her fellows, and she does the same penance decreed by Crites. Philautia exits with the others singing a Palinode. The song is an invocation of the god Mercury, who is asked to defend them against the dangers of counterfeit and vanity. As part of the penance, the affected nymphs and courtiers must go to Niobe's stone and repent. After being purged, they are invited to taste of the water of the Well of Knowledge and then report of Cynthia's grace.

PHILAUTUS**1607

Philautus (also spelled Phylautus) is one of three dandies in Machin's(?) Every Woman in Her Humour. As his name indicates, he is consumed with self-love. His chief pastimes include drinking, and singing–he is a specialist in pricksong–while gazing at himself in the mirror. Acutus says that Philautus's only notable skills are that "he handles a comb well, a brush better, and will drink down a Dutchman." After Acutus starts a tavern brawl with the dandies, Servulus is ready to forgive him, saying that Acutus must have been mad. Scilicet, on the other hand, whom Acutus has called a fool, vows revenge. Philautus is mostly concerned with his hat: he says he wouldn't have minded if Acutus had broken his head in three places, but the ruining of his most fashionable hat is clearly an act of war. Philautus is no match for Acutus, who at one point encourages Philautus and Bos (Getica's manservant) to drink themselves into a sleepy stupor. Acutus then gives Philautus a potion to make him appear dead. When Philautus awakes on the bier at his own funeral, Acutus declares that Philautus is a devil. The constables are called in, and Philautus is arrested for robbery. In the end, Philautus is forced to appear before Caesar at the wedding where he benefits from the Emperor's general pardon of prisoners.

PHILAUTUS **1631

Lord Philautus is married to Triphoena and is enamored of himself, constantly bragging about his looks and insistent that there is no such thing as an honorable woman in Marmion's Holland's Leaguer. Fidelio tricks Philautus by presenting the disguised Faustina as a paragon of virtue; as a result, Philautus is to treble Faustina's dowry as she weds Fidelio. Philautus also fires his estate manager Adelio for dishonesty.

PHILEMA

Philema, "a kiss," is along with Christalla one of the maids of honor who rebuke the lusty courtiers in Ford's The Broken Heart.

PHILEMON**1599

Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Mitis asks Cordatus about the comedy they are about to see, whether its author observes the classical rules regarding the unity of time, place, and action, Cordatus embarks upon a lengthy and learned incursion into the history of comedy. Cordatus mentions Philemon next to Menander as the writers who improved the structure of comedy. According to Cordatus, they have utterly excluded the Chorus, altered the characters' properties and names, and invented several structural attributes. Philemon was a fourth-century B.C. writer of comedy in Syracuse. His admirers considered him superior to Menander. Philemon's plays, like those of Menander, contain many imitations of Euripides. Philemon was so ardent an admirer of that poet that he would have hanged himself for the prospect of meeting Euripides in the other world, if he could be convinced that departed spirits were capable of recognizing one another.

PHILEMON**1608

A servant to Cerimon who helps to rescue Thaisa from the sea in Shakespeare's Pericles.

PHILEMON **1636

Nephew to the king in Killigrew’s Claricilla. Although Melintus and Philemon are described in the dramatis personae as “both sons to the king’s brother" they refer to one another throughout as friends rather than brothers. Philemon was secretly in love with Claricilla, but he helped her win Melintus when he discovered her favor for him. He and Melintus fought alongside Rhodes against the pirates, but the Rhodians proved cowards and he was wounded and taken. Because of his wounds, Manlius could not sell him as a slave and so keeps him to row the galley. He overhears Manlius telling Tullius the cause of Manlius’s disgrace as he sought to help Claricilla. He keeps watch on the ship for the pirates and bewails his slavery. When he follows orders and refuses Tullius access to sleeping Manlius, he is forced to fight unarmed against the pirate until Manlius awakes and recognizes the “slave’s" honor. Manlius frees him and gives him a dagger, but almost immediately Melintus appears. Recognizing Melintus, Philemon refuses Manlius’s order to kill him and instead turns on the pirates. He strikes Tullius down and then stops Melintus killing Manlius. He takes pity on his former masters and the carry Tullius to the galley to have his wounds tended. He disguises as a slave along with Melintus and Ravack as Manlius appears to lead them into the city. Disguised as slaves, Melintus, Philemon, and Ravack pretend to assist Seleucus in capturing Claricilla, the king, and Appius, but they turn the tables, rescue them instead, and watch as Seleucus stabs himself to death with hatred on his lips for them.

PHILEMUS

He arrives late in V of Marlowe's Tamburlaine Part 1 to tell Zenocrate that the Egyptian and Arabian forces have arrived outside Damascus to battle Tamburlaine. He likens them to Turnus from Virgil's Aeneid and Tamburlaine to Æneus.

PHILENIUS **1599

An academic in Ruggle’s Club Law along with Musonius, whom he calls the wiser of them. Cricket calls them both “gravities." Philenius and Musonius, suspecting the townsmen mean no good to the university, propose to enact the ancient club law against them during their election. They spy upon them by gossiping with the townsmen’s wives and learning all their secrets that way. Upon learning that the townsmen plan to beat the students with their own club law, Philenius and Musonius plan to turn the tables upon them. He helps arrest Colby stealing their corn and helps break into Tavie’s house to catch Niphle with Luce. The searchers find Niphle hiding in a tub with a beggar-wench and parade them to jail in the tub. Philenius and Musonius leave the searchers to arrest Luce and then return to arrest Tavie, too. Tavie begs to be left to watch the house, and they promise to be back tomorrow with his punishments. He brings Musonius news that the Rector will hold Niphle in prison but has released Colby. He opines that Colby has been released only to make more mischief that the Rector can use to put him away indefinitely. He is part of the fight but his particular success is not mentioned. The Rector sends Philenius and Musonius to hear the townsmen treat for peace. He seconds Musonius in lecturing the townsmen and requiring from them an oath of subservience.

PHILENZO**1607

Philenzo is a gentleman from Ferrara in Mason's Mulleasses. He is in Florence attending the Duke. He reports to Ferrara on the condition of his camp. Philenzo attacks a dying Borgias after learning of Ferrara's murder.

PHILENZO**1633

Philenzo is Eugenia's lover in Shirley's The Bird in a Cage. Banished from Mantua by the Duke for his love of Eugenia, he assumes the identity of Rollyardo.

PHILICIA

I.
Arviragus's lover, the daughter of the King of Pictland, and Guimantes's sister in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. The Princess confesses to her unfaltering love for Arviragus throughout the play although she attempts to hide her affections from her father. She confirms her brother's hatred of Arviragus for the King at the play's beginning and is promised in marriage to Guiderius by her father as part of a plan to "withdraw Eugenius" from Arviragus's side in battle. Suspicious of her feelings for his enemy the King concocts a plan to test Philicia's loyalties, and when her love for Arviragus is made clear he claims that he "shall inflict torments on earth, above the paines of hell" on her. Accompanying the King to an "enterview" with Arviragus and Cleanthes near the play's end Philicia proposes that a "three daies . . . truce be sworne by either side, in which time all may be considered, [and] more maturely weighed," which is agreed to by both parties.
II.
The daughter of the former King, Guimantes's sister, and "in love with Arviragus" in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. Philicia sues to the King (along with Artemia) for the lives of Eugenius and Sinatus at the play's beginning and expresses concern for Guiderius's safety. Although the King "grant[s]" her "sute," Eugenius and Sinatus remain in prison until Artemia begs again for "justice to [her] father and Sinatus" later in the play. Arviragus confronts Guiderius concerning his relationship to Philicia and then chides himself for "suspect[ing] his lover of inconstancy, and Philicia warns Artemia of the King's "lust" which she claims "prompts him to dissemble" his love to her. The Princess is deeply saddened by the news that Arviragus will be offered by Cartandes as a sacrifice to the Gods, disguises herself as a "Pictish youth" and, accompanied by Liriana, is "resolv[ed] to be taken prisoner" until they find that the Queen has pardoned Arviragus and there is "freedome in the Campe." Suspicious of the relationship between Cartandes and Arviragus, Philicia visits her lover in disguise and convinces him to "lay [his] heart open," prompting him to inform her that the King has sent Adrastus's head "as witness of his love, and reconcilement withall" and that he is "by Sinatus [. . .] invited to leave Cartandes, and [. . .] chase hence the Danes." When Arviragus confesses that the King has also promised him Philicia, she reveals herself to him and warns her lover against the King. Although Arviragus has pretended to love Cartandes, the Queen discovers him sleeping on the floor of Philicia's "chamber" and, despite the lovers' attempt to convince the Queen that the disguised Philicia is actually the Prince of Scotland, she has them each sent to prison. Although Cartandes tests Philicia's loyalty to her lover and claims to have set up a "combat" between Arviragus and Oswald (which the former must win in order to gain his and Philicia's freedom), the Queen actually matches him with Guiderius in the intention of bringing about his "destruction." However, Cartandes puts an early end to the fight, confesses her love for Guiderius, and promises to marry Arviragus and Philicia at the play's end.

PHILICIA'S LADIES

"Ghost characters" in Carlell's 1 Arviragus and Philicia. Philicia's "women" are referred to throughout the play as the King questions why "none of [her] maids" are "worthie to keep [her] company" in the Garden and Guiderius explains to Arviragus that Philicia "dares not have [him] in her chamber, least some of her women shud know it."

PHILINAX

Philinax and Kalander are captains in Day's Isle of Gulls. They escort Julio and Aminter to Dametas, and when they are overheard sneering at him they are dismissed, despite their protestations that they are gentlemen. Later, the Boy takes Kalander and Philinax to view Dametas as he tries to retrieve gold from under Diana's Oak; they are amused by his efforts, and by his railing when he finds only a poem, but realise that the Boy has been distracting them from Demetrius.

PHILIP

See also listings under PHILLIP.

PHILIP of SPAIN **1596

I.
Philip is summoned by the Old Tailor to stop Machvile's abuse of power in Rawlins's The Rebellion. The King pardons Antonio for killing the Governor. Philip also offers Aurelia to Antonio as a bride and promises to dispel Petruchio's opposition. The King is familiar with Antonio and Sebastian's plan to infiltrate Machvile and Raymond's forces. The King orders an appropriate burial for Antonio and tells the Old Tailor to spread the word that a king held court in a tailor's house.
II.
The notorious King of Spain in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley uses Stukeley in his duplicitous plot to have his countryman Don Antonio accede the throne of Portugal. He sends Stukeley as his emissary to the pope to ask his advice in this endeavor, for which the captain is appointed Marquis of Ireland. To enact his plan, he enters the Battle of Alcazar on the side of Sebastian and after initial success, his armies are utterly destroyed and his deputy Antonio is captured and sold into slavery.
III.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Chremylus opines that wealth made Philip too proud.

PHILIP of SPAIN**1600

The dying king of Spain in the anonymous Lust's Dominion. His wife, Eugenia, secretly visits Eleazar, a Moor who is her lover or male concubine. King Philip is dying and assembles his lords and his family, his daughter, the Princess Isabella, Cardinal Mendoza, his son Fernando, Alvero, Eleazar, Hortenzo, Roderigo around his bed, the Queen Mother Eugenia, his wife, arrives from her secret meeting with Eleazar. She complains that she has been interrupted in her prayers for her husband. King Philip appoints his son Fernando as his successor, tells him to keep an eye on Eleazar and makes Mendoza his protector. He dies before his other son, Prince Philip, arrives home from Portugal. This is a fantasy Spanish King.

PHILIP II of FRANCE

France supports the claim of Arthur against that of John in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John. He is initially persuaded to make peace in exchange for the marriage of his son Lewes with John's cousin Blanche and the recovery of five French provinces, but then accedes to the demand of the Pope to break the treaty and return to war.

PHILIP II of SPAIN

I.
King Philip is called upon by his nephew, King Sebastian, to aid Portugal on behalf of the Moor in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. Philip promises aid to Sebastian, and he promises his daughter to Sebastian in marriage. However, King Philip does not maintain his promises to Sebastian because Abdelmelec sends letters telling Philip that a Catholic king should not assist a careless Christian prince in such an unjust quarrel and offers him seven holds.
II.
Prince of Spain, Philip weds Queen Mary in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. He always urges his wife to be as lenient as possible in the treatment of Elizabeth, not willing to believe wrongdoing of the queen's sister. When he is shown Elizabeth's death warrant among other of his signatory papers, Philip dismisses Beningfield and listens behind an arras to Mary's conversation with Elizabeth. His continuing and conscientious intervention in affairs undoubtedly saves Elizabeth's life.
III.
A "ghost character" in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt. The suggestion by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V that his son Phillip II of Spain wed Queen Mary (and the support for such a union by Winchester and others) is the chief reason for Sir Thomas Wyatt's rebellion.

PHILIP**1594

One of Petruchio's servants in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. Philip, along with fellow servants Curtis, Nathaniel, Joseph, Nicholas, Peter, Walter, and Sugarsop, remains in Verona while Petruchio and Grumio travel to Padua to find a wife for Petruchio.

PHILIP**1596

There are two Philips in Shakespeare's King John:
  • The first is King of France. He supports the right of Arthur to the English throne. He appears before the gates of Angers and demands that the citizens support Arthur and that John step down. After the first, inconclusive battle, he agrees to the plan to marry the Dauphin and Blanche and thus create peace. When Pandolf arrives and excommunicates John, Philip resists turning against him for quite a while, but eventually does and agrees with his son that John must be attacked. He last appears bemoaning the turn of the battle against him, and trying to calm Constance in her mad grief for her son. In the second half of the play, the Dauphin takes over the action and becomes John's foil.
  • The second Philip is the given name of the Bastard, but this name is almost never used. For this character in another play, see also PHILIP FAUCONBRIDGE.

PHILIP**1601

Son of King Lewes of France in the anonymous Trial Of Chivalry. At the start of the play he intercedes with his father for peace with Navarre. Philip is in love with Bellamira. After Bellamira is poisoned by Burbon, Philip continues to offer to marry her. When she runs away, he leaves court to seek out Burbon and kill him. On the way, he fights with, and is defeated by, Pembroke at the tomb. On the eve of battle, Philip gains access to Burbon's tent with the connivance of Roderick, and fights and kills him there. Roderick then tries to kill Philip, but Philip is saved thanks to the timely arrival of Pembroke and Ferdinand. During the battle Philip pursues Roderick and kills him. Alongside Ferdinand and Pembroke, he then reveals his true identity to the Kings. Bellamira returns, cured, and Philip is reunited with her at the end of the play.

PHILIP**1604

Tenterhook's cashier in Dekker and Webster's Westward Ho, called "Servant" in the playtext.

PHILIP**1605

Bellamont's son in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho, one of Doll Hornet's duped lovers. In the first scene of the play he gets arrested when he sits together with Tom Chartley, Dick Leverpool and Doll in her new tavern. He has a debt of four score pounds, money that he spent for Doll and which his father now pays to release him. Bellamont wants him to leave Doll, but Philip still intends to marry her. He even helps her when she tries to attract his father. Together with Leverpool and Chartley he accompanies Maybery's party to Ware, where he finally gets convinced that Doll is a prostitute and trickster.

PHILIP**1611

Philip accompanies two citizens' wives in Act Two of Beaumont and Fletcher's A King and No King. When three men and a woman walk by and rustle one of the wives who is pregnant, Philip challenges the men to a fight. It is learned that Philip frequently fights and frequently loses.

PHILIP**1613

The son of Sir Oliver Twilight in Middleton's No Wit, No Help Like a Woman's. He is the lover of Grace, whom he has clandestinely married in Antwerp two months prior to the action represented in the play. The sudden appearance of Lady Twilight, his mother, who was believed dead, marks both a jubilant reunion and the potential for great shame when the same Dutch Merchant who reported that his mother was alive also informs mother and son (incorrectly) that Grace is, in fact, the daughter of Sir Oliver Twilight. Despite the shame that this revelation would inevitably cause, Philip's confidant, Savorwit, reassures him that these issues of mistaken identity will work themselves out. The scandal is averted when Goldenfleece reveals at her wedding feast that Grace is actually Sunset's daughter and it is Jane who is, in fact, Twilight's.

PHILIP**1621

Master Phillip is Franklin's second creditor in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. When Old Franklin decides to pay all his son's debts, he comes accompanied by three creditors, whom Chamlet identifies by name. Master Phillip notes that Old Franklin's offer to pay fifty for the hundred for his son's debts is a sensible choice, considering that, in any case, the debt would have been lost at Franklin's death. Master Phillip says he will never speak ill of Franklin, whom he thinks to be dead.

PHILIP CHABOT

Admiral of France in Chapman's The Tragedy of Chabot, Admiral of France. He is renowned for his honesty and integrity. In the first scene, he reconciles with his rival Montmorency. His father-in-law expresses his concerns about this new amity, and a Courtier arrives to present Chabot with a suit, already signed by Montmorency, that Chabot considers unjust. He refuses to sign it. When challenged by Montmorency, the Chancellor, Secretary, and Treasurer, he affirms his action and states that the Constable has broken his oath. He meets with the King and in a long discussion insists that he has maintained his integrity throughout his rise in the King's favor and will continue to do so. He is brought to trial, and learns that Allegre has been put to the rack. He believes the trial to be another test by the King, which will clearly demonstrate Chabot's worthiness to all. He is found guilty of treason when the Chancellor pressures the judges. Brought before the King, who pardons him, he asserts that he cannot be pardoned because he is not guilty even though he has been condemned. When the truth is revealed, he forgives the Lord Chancellor. Despite his acquittal before the King, the power of the action against him weakens him. The King comes to his home, and he asks the King to take Allegre into his service and to pardon the Lord Chancellor. The King does, Chabot kneels to thank him, and dies.

PHILIP, DUKE

A duke in Chapman's Monsieur D'Olive. On the advice of Mugeron and Roderique, he plans to send D'Olive as an ambassador to St. Anne in the hopes that the Earl will permit the proper Christian burial of his late wife, the niece of the King.

PHILIP FAUCONBRIDGE, the BASTARD

Apparent heir of Robert Fauconbridge in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John, Philip renounces his inheritance and accepts a new identity as bastard son of Richard I. In France he swears to avenge his father's death on Lymoges, and begins to make good his oath by forcing Lymoges to abandon the lion skin that was Richard's insignia. He challenges Lymoges to single combat, but the Austrian declines. When the fighting begins anew, however, he slays Lymoges, a major contribution to the English victory. John makes him overseer of the campaign to despoil the monastic establishments in England to pay for the French wars, a task he carries out enthusiastically. At its conclusion he arrests Peter the Prophet and brings him before the king. See also RICHARD PLANTAGENET.

PHILIP HARDING

The eldest son of the Harding family in Heywood and Rowley's Fortune by Land and Sea, Philip enrages his father by marrying the poor Susan Forrest. Old Harding decides to disinherit him, and distribute his estate between his other two sons, John and William, forcing Philip and Susan to become household servants. Philip bears his misfortune with Christian patience and behaves virtuously throughout the play. When the Clown tries to gull Goodwin and Foster into giving money to Philip, Philip's natural honesty ruins the scheme. Old Harding unexpectedly dies before drawing up his new will, and Philip therefore inherits the estate. He virtuously donates large portions to his nasty brothers, who promptly spend it on gambling and drink. Even after this, Philip offers to help them once more with extra money.

PHILIP LUCKLESS, SIR

Sir Philip is an impecunious young gentleman in Brome's The Northern Lass who plans to marry the wealthy widow, Mistress Fitchow, against his cousin Tridewell's advice. When Sir Paul Squelch's niece, Constance, sends her governess to tell him that she has fallen in love with him, he mistakes her for the prostitute Constance Holdup and marries Mistress Fitchow immediately in order to avoid further entreaties. After Constance and her friends present a masque at his wedding, he discovers his mistake and decides to obtain a divorce by failing to consummate the marriage. He then carries Constance away in a coach. By the time the couple reappears at Sir Paul Squelch's dinner party, Sir Philip's divorce has come through (cemented by the revelation that he and Fitchow were falsely 'married' by a disguised Pate), and Sir Paul's change of heart allows Sir Philip to marry Constance.

PHILIP MATCHIL

Son to Old Matchil in Brome's The New Academy. Philip has been raised in France by Old Lafoy while Gabriella has been raised in London. He and Frances travel to London to see his father. Upon arriving, he learns that Matchil has cast out Joyce and remarried. He wants to learn more of this matter before meeting Matchil, so the two decide to assume false identities and visit the attractions of London. Philip takes on the name Papillion. At the New Academy, he falls in love with Jane (not recognizing that she is his sister Joyce in disguise). Although Stigood agrees to prostitute her to him, he insists on marrying her instead. The couple gives the impression that they have in fact been married in secret, but when it is revealed that they are brother and sister, they reveal that they have not actually carried out the marriage yet. In the end, Philip agrees to marry Gabriella Lafoy.

PHILIP of MACEDON

I.
A "ghost character" in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes. Father of Alexander the Great. According to Alexander's Lord, Philip had a child enter his chamber each morning to remind him that he was but a mortal man.
II.
Only mentioned in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. Cobelitz ponders why it should be that the Christian God who controls all in the universe would allow a tyrant such as Amurath to go unchecked when he could be as easily killed as Philip of Macedon was murdered by his disgruntled wife.

PHILIP, PRINCE

Philip is the youngest son of King John of France in the anonymous King Edward III. He listens, with John, to the news that the sea battle between the French and English has been won by the English and then retreats with his father. He mockingly sends a devotional book to Edward before Poitiers. He enters before the battle of Poitiers to report that a huge flock of ravens has frightened the men, thereby fulfilling the first part of the prophecy, that feathered fowl will make the army tremble. With Charles, he tells his father that the smaller English army is winning the battle and declares that they should die from the shame. Artois captures him, and he is brought before Edward, who declares that he and his father will be prisoners in England.

PHILIP, PRINCE of SPAIN

Son to King Philip of Spain and Brother to Fernando and Isabella in the anonymous Lust's Dominion. He arrives back from Portugal just after his father's death and calls his mother, the Queen Mother, a strumpet because of her liaison with the Moor, Eleazar. The Queen Mother reacts by having the news spread that Philip is a bastard and together with Eleazar she arranges to have him killed. Philip escapes assassination with the help of the Friars Crab and Cole and returns to Portugal. Emmanuel, King of Portugal, and Mendoza join his army against Eleazar, but when they see that he is going to lose the battle they retreat. After a single combat against Eleazar Philip wins the upper hand, but his soldiers are no longer prepared to fight. Mendoza comes with Alvero, Christofero, and Soldiers, entreats peace but then arrests Philip when he lays down his arms. Towards the end of the play Philip is Eleazar's prisoner, chained and under a yoke together with his mother, Cardinal Mendoza and Hortenzo. Isabella manages to set them free by bribing their guard, Zarack. Zarack kills Baltasar and sets Philip and Hortenzo free. Philip then kills Zarack. Isabella suggests that Philip and Hortenzo paint their faces black and pass themselves off as Zarack and Baltazar. Eleazar, who believes that they are indeed his servants, has them rehearse the executions. When Eleazor is made to play the Cardinal, Hortenzo traps him in the yoke and manacles and Philip kills him. They release the other prisoners and Philip attains the crown at play's end.

PHILIP SIDNEY, SIR

Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Sir Philip Sidney (1554–1586) was an author, courtier, and soldier during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England. He became famous for his literary criticism, prose fiction, and poetry. At his house in London, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When the discussion is diverted towards the efficiency of poetry, Daw says that not every man that writes in verse is a poet. Clerimont interprets this remark as referring to poetry as a profession, and implies that a knight needs not live by his verses. In reply, Dauphine brings Sir Philip Sidney's example, saying that Sidney lived by it and his noble family is not ashamed. By comparing the pompous Sir John Daw with Sir Philip Sidney, Clerimont and Dauphine intend to flatter their foolish interlocutor and divert his attention from the true purpose of their visit. Jonson's relationship to the Sidney family, notably observed in his poem To Penshurst, may suggest the rather fawning reference in this play.

PHILIP SPARROW, OLD

Old Philip Sparrow is the clown Sparrow's father in the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick. Old Philip demands that his son honor his obligations by marrying Parnell Sparling after the young man has impregnated her. Philip's son refuses the request and flees England.

PHILIPPA **1616

Philippa is the wife of Justice Brandino in Thomas Middleton's The Widow. She admires the style of young Francisco but wishes to test his wit. She drops a letter from her window; the letter is read instead by her husband, who immediately confronts Francisco. Convinced that Francisco has handled the situation well, Philippa hopes to further her relationship with him. She is amused to see Francisco falling in love with Martia, whom Philippa believes is the male Ansaldo dressed in women's clothing. Philippa's dreams of romance end when Ansaldo turns out to be the truly feminine Martia.

PHILIPPA**1636

Philippa is a proud Amazon wife to the French general Raymond in Rawlins's The Rebellion. It is important to Philippa that she not be humiliated as a prisoner of war to the Spanish. Philippa and Raymond work in unison throughout the play. Although she is an enemy to the play's leading figures, Philippa demonstrates much more honor than her co-conspirator Auristella. Philippa is spied upon by Sebastian, disguised as Philippa's tailor. Philippa is poisoned by Auristella. Before dying, Philippa slays the Brave who murders Raymond. She also stabs Auristella to death.

PHILIPPO**1590

Governor of Rhodes in Kyd's Soliman and Perseda. He welcomes the knights who will participate in the games celebrating his daughter's marriage to the Prince of Cyprus. He is dismayed at the murder of his kinsman Ferdinando, and vows to capture Erastus. He is slain during the Turkish assault on Rhodes.

PHILIPPO**1597

Appears in scenes 3, 6, 7, 9 of the anonymous plot of Frederick and Basilea; played by Edward Dutton.

PHILIPPO**1604

A Spanish nobleman in the anonymous First Part of Jeronimo, who takes part at Andrea's funeral. He is mentioned in the stage direction, but does not speak.

PHILIPPO**1616

Philippo is the son of Alphonso and the brother of Theodosia in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. He meets with the disguised Theodosia at Diego's inn, and, when he hears that she is following Mark-Antonio to Barcelona, he agrees to help her. They travel with Diego to Barcelona, and along they way meet a group of travelers who have been robbed. They are moved by the disguised Leocadia and agree to have her travel with them. Once he realizes Leocadia is a woman, Philippo quickly falls in love with her, to the point that he viciously rejects his sister when, during the street fight, she faints, thus causing him to miss Leocadia's exit. After Mark-Antonio rejects Leocadia in favor of Theodosia, Leocadia flees again and Philippo chases after her, enlisting the aid of Diego and Incubo. Incubo discovers her trying to hire a boat, and Philippo then convinces her of his love. Just as she agrees to his love, Alphonso and Sanchio appear, and Sanchio is appalled by his daughter's masculine attire. Leocadia runs off again, giving Philippo the chance to soliloquize about his love. Eventually, everyone is reunited at the Governor's house.

PHILIPPO **1623

Two Philippi figure in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill:
  • Not to be confused with Philippo the lord. Philippo, King of Spain is a virtuous monarch who wears plain attire, scorns the showy aristocrats, and admonishes Vertigo the flamboyant tailor. When Otrante abducts Florimell, Franio submits an angry petition to the King, protesting at the bad behaviour of courtiers. Philippo tests him by pretending to be angry at the accusation and then promises to help. Philippo and his entourage visit Otrante's house and find the hidden Florimell. He orders Otrante to compensate his victim, and, when they decide to marry, offers to pay her dowry.
  • Non-speaking role in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill. Not to be confused with Phillippo the King. A friend of Julio who watches the play-within-the-play.

PHILIPPO**1624

Philippo is a gentleman of Verona, and Lorenzo's friend in Davenport's The City Night Cap. He has wooed his friend's wife twice and he has not found any sign of weakness. But, Lorenzo is not still happy with the reply and asks him to try her for the third time. In those attempts, however, Philippo has fallen in love with the chaste wife. Talking to Abstemia in Act One, he suggests her trying her husband with ballet dancers, but she rejects such an idea. In Act Two, Philippo appears at court to swear that Lorenzo has made him try Abstemia, and that failing to prove her adultery, he has brought false witnesses. However, Philippo is punished by banishment from Verona. He goes to Milan, where he visits a bawd house, from where he is kicked out by Antonio's slave. However, later, he will avenge his offence by shooting to kill the Turk.

PHILIPPO**1631

Phillippo is one of the four courtiers in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom. Together with Montinello, Mutio, and Tornelli, he is sent to Iacomo Gentili to inivite him to the marriage of the Duke's son daughter Fiammetta to the Prince of Pisa. He and Philippo also appear at Signior Torrenti's home. On behalf of the Duke, they invite themselves as guests to his hospitality.

PHILIPPO MANFREDI**1607

The brother of Astor Manfredi in Barnes's The Devil's Charter; Philippo is brought to the Vatican after his lands are seized by the Pope. He is murdered along with his brother when Alexander decides to eliminate any competition for the lands and titles of the Faventines. Philippo tells Astor that he would rather drown himself in the Tiber River than submit to the lechery of the Pope. Right before he loses consciousness, Philippo calls for music.

PHILLIDA **1564

Phillida, a servant in Brancatius' home in (?)Jeffere's The Bugbears, argues with Tomasine, another servant, over administration of medicine to Rosimunda, Brancatius' daughter.

PHILLIDA**1594

Phillida is Servio's daughter in the anonymous Knack To Know An Honest Man. Servio gives her Brishio's two sons to guard until they are executed. She resolves to set them free on condition that when Orphinio returns to Venice he marries her. She gives him her father's signet ring, which will enable them to escape the city. When they have escaped she denies to her father that she had anything to do with it but he doesn't believe her and is furious. Later when Servio is threatened with death for allowing the sons to escape, she confesses to the Duke and is sentenced to death by strangulation. Later she comes forward to plead for her father when it is clear that nobody is to be punished After Sempronio is seen to be alive she goes to Orphinio.

PHILLIDA**1637

Servant to Hermione in Berkeley's The Lost Lady. She represents worldly love, claiming that it does not matter who is by your side, as long as somebody is at your side. She does not believe in true love.

PHILLIDA**1637

A fictitious character in Carlell's The Fool Would Be A Favorite. Phillida is the character played by Young Gudgen in The Second Courtier's play. She is in love with Man and stabs herself when he courts a wench.

PHILLIP

See also listings under PHILIP.

PHILLIP**1594

Phillip is the hermit who discovers the wounded Sempronio in the anonymous Knack To Know An Honest Man. He takes him back to his cell and cares for him till he is well. He promises not to divulge Sempronio's identity when the latter returns to Venice in disguise. At the end of the play he steps forward to assert that Sempronio is alive, thus removing the reason for executing Lelio.

PHILLIP**1594

Pompey's faithful servant in Kyd's Cornelia, he flees with Pompey into Egypt and witnesses Pompey's murder. He later retrieves Pompey's body, takes it to the riverbank, burns it and brings the ashes of Pompey back to Rome, delivering them to Cornelia with a poignant speech.

PHILLIP **1600

The given name of the previous Duke of Bullen, killed in the opening dumb show to the anonymous Weakest Goeth to the Wall.

PHILLIP BARNES

Phillip Barnes is the son of Master Barnes, brother of Mall, and friend of Frank in Porter's 1 The Two Angry Women of Abingdon. He constantly tries to introduce reason into the disagreements that take place in the play. At the opening of the play, he loses to Frank Goursey at bowls while their mothers are dicing and their fathers are in the orchard. He asks about Frank's horses but during a lengthy discussion never discovers the whereabouts of the excellent horse that Frank's boy describes to Phillip. When Frank tries to keep the boisterously drunken servant Dick Coomes quiet, Phillip announces he has a similar servant, amusing and eccentrically dressed, who speaks nothing but proverbs because he always wants to speak the truth. When Master Barnes proposes marrying his daughter to Frank, his neighbour's son, he checks with Phillip to ensure his judgement of Frank's character is correct. Phillip is very enthusiastic about his friend, and tells his sister who it is her father wishes her to marry. Later he distresses his mother by pointing out that her husband loves her, despite her accusations of disloyalty, and blames her for misunderstanding her husband. He amuses his father by imitating their servant Nicholas who speaks in proverbs and agrees to give strength to the marriage proposal by following Nicholas the servant when he takes a letter describing the proposal to Frank's father. At Frank's he tries to persuade the vacillating Frank to marry Mall and accompanies Frank back to Mall's house. He calls Mall from her room and then makes the nervous Frank take over the discussion with her. He witnesses the marriage agreement between Frank and Mall and refuses to cooperate when his mother appears and tries to get Mall to withdraw. When Mistress Gourcey and her servants arrive, he tries to get the two mothers to agree to the marriage. When it is clear they will not agree, at his father's instruction Phillip tells Mall to escape in the pitch black night to a rabbit green and wait there for Frank. Later he tells Frank to run off into the night to meet Mall and when Mistress Barnes runs off into the night to find Mall and Mistress Goursey and Dick Coomes go off looking for Frank (who left looking for Mall) he informs his father of what has happened. He later looks for them himself and meets Will the woodsman who is looking for Sir Raph but who because of the dark mistakes him for Frank The scene becomes more complicated as all four get lost, call out to each other, enter and exit, to be followed by many more characters. As all the people are hallooing to each to try to find each other Master Goursey meets Master Barnes and they comment on the hallooing, regretting they cannot find any of the people they set out to meet. Sir Raph appears, mistakes them and disappears, followed by Phillip, lamenting the difficulties of walking in the dark in the fields. Phillip, Will, Barnes and Goursey all disclose themselves to each other and wonder where Frank is, whereupon he enters, but without Mall for whom he had gone off into the dark in the first place. Goursey and Phillip reprimand him for not finding Mall. When at the end both husbands are preparing to fight each other, Phillip tries to get them to see reason, which they eventually do and which prompts the women to stop quarrelling.

PHILLIPA

Phillipa is the Queen of England and wife of Edward III in the anonymous King Edward III. She is left as regent when Edward goes to France. She travels to France, heavily pregnant, after John Copland captures King David of Scotland and will not turn him over to her, insisting that he will only present his prisoner to the king himself. When Edward threatens the Six Citizens of Crécy with death, she begs for mercy and they are released. She mourns the apparent death of Prince Edward after Salisbury declares that the French have won at Poitiers, and she is afterward overjoyed to find out that he is alive and victorious.

PHILLIPPO CARAFFA

Phillippo Caraffa, the Duke of Pavia in Ford's Love's Sacrifice. Described (by his wife) as having a 'crooked leg', 'scambling foot' and 'bloodless lip' amongst other physical defects. A headstrong, volatile and gullible ruler, he has recently married Biancha, a Milanese gentlewoman, despite objections to her low birth. His sudden passion for her is indicative of his impetuosity. He is infatuated with her and equally devoted to his best friend, Fernando. Courtiers remark on the moral decline in the duchy since he came to power: he indulges the depravity of Ferentes, whom he relies on for entertainment and gossip. The Duke knows himself to be 'choleric' and has temper-tantrums on the least provocation. His Secretary, the scheming D'avolos, manipulates his orders, showing that the Duke is both credulous and complacent in delegating his power, easily enraged when he discovers the truth, but easily distracted by other topics. He is too quick to believe reports against his loyal courtier, Roseilli, slandered for her own reasons by his sister, Fiormunda. Having encouraged a close intimacy between his best friend and wife, he is initially oblivious of their growing romantic attachment, then too quick to trust his Secretary's reports of their (inferred) adultery. The Duke's absence hunting without his best friend allows Fernando, then Biancha, the opportunity to reveal their love for eachother, and to reach the decision to keep their relationship platonic out of the Duchess's respect for her marriage vows. Their indiscreet meetings in the Duke's absence, however, give scope to D'avolos's plots to disgrace them on his. He is incited to jealousy by D'avolos and declares that he has felt ill since the hunt. Like Othello, he rages at D'avolos to provide evidence of the guilt of his wife and friend; he remains able to dissimulate friendship for Fernando throughout and to provide a gracious reception for the Abbot. He denounces the murder of Ferentes during the masque as treachery by the three women, who in turn accuse him of flagrant injustice in neglecting their grievances against their seducer. He continues to act unjustly, imprisoning Maurucio for his innocent participation in the masque, condemning the women to death until the pleas of their fathers, and Fernando's for Morona, placate him. His sister provokes him to extreme revenge against the (innocent) lovers by reminding him of his family honor and the need to preserve the legitimacy of his heirs. He is moved by these ideas, and more by the fear of scandal and mockery. He retains the wit to challenge his sister to reveal any ulterior motives for her actions, but is easily fooled into believing circumstantial evidence which corroborates his worst fears. He makes a solemn vow of vengeance without ever confronting his wife or friend with his suspicions. He consents to the marriage of Maurucio and Morona, then exiles them from court without giving a reason. The Duke's passions are causing him to act 'distractedly' and 'distemperedly' and his rule is declining into impetuous tyranny. He tells Biancha he intends to seek a cure at the spa in Lucca, but instead confronts the lovers, has Fernando arrested, and murders his wife at the insistence of his sister. He challenges Fernando to a duel, but is finally persuaded of his wife's innocence, and must be prevented from committing suicide in remorse. Instead, he denounces D'avolos as a villain and removes him from office. At his wife's tomb, in the presence of the Abbot, he confesses his guilt to Biancha's ghost then stabs himself after Fernando's own suicide, demanding to be buried in the same tomb as the lovers.

PHILLIS

See also PHYLLIS and related spellings.

PHILLIS**1593

Phillis is Rohon's daughter, Guy's wife and Rainborn's mother in the anonymous Guy Earl of Warwick. By marrying Guy, Phillis secures her father's control over his property. Guy abandons Phillis soon after their marriage. He leaves her pregnant with Rainborn. Phillis raises Rainborn into a strong young knight. She also offers sustenance to all palmers who appear at her door. When palmers offer her thanks and prayers, she requests that they pray for her husband Guy. When Rainborn delivers a gold ring to Phillis from Guy, Phillis recognizes it as a sign her husband is dead. She is able to identify his body by a wart under his ear.

PHILLIS**1602

Daughter of Master and Mistress Flower in [?]Heywood's The Fair Maid of the Exchange. Phillis is the fair maid of the Exchange. Throughout the play, she is generally presented as witty and an example of middle-class propriety, but her harsh exchange with the Boy in the shop and her initially coquettish behavior with Richard Gardiner there complicate her character. Puzzling too is the ease with which her affections shift to Frank Golding at the end of the play after she has consistently pledged undying love for the virtuous Cripple.

PHILLIS**1605

A "ghost character" in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. Phillis has been treated by the doctor Alcon.

PHILLIS**1611

An attendant to the wealthy widow who ransoms Spendall out of debtor's prison and eventually marries the repentant gallant in Cooke's Greene's Tu Quoque.

PHILLIS**1614

Phillis is a beautiful nymph who falls in love with Clorindo, the disguised Silvia in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. Her love is unrequited, but provokes the jealous Montanus to stab Clorindo with a knife. When Clorindo is revived, and is revealed to be a woman, Phillis is deeply humiliated. However, she is consoled by her nurse, Lidia, and Thyrsis' former suitor, Cloris.

PHILLIS**1627

Only mentioned in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. She wooed her sweetheart by running from him to sharpen his desire for her.

PHILLIS**1637

Phillis is a poor wrench in Brome's The Damoiselle. She asks Vermine for money. Her mother had been a gentlewoman and her father had been a knight, but she does not know that he is Dryground. Vermine threatens her with being whipped. In IV.ii, she talks to Brookall, her mother's brother, although she does not know about their family relation. Her mother had suffered a lot and she had been told that her father had died. She knows that her father had abused her mother, but her mother had never told her about his identity. She shows a piece of paper to Brookall that she had taken from her mother and that he recognizes.

PHILLIS**1637

Winloss' witty daughter and lover of Nathaniel in Brome's The English Moor. She begs him to marry her, but he refuses and suggests she become a prostitute. Instead, she enters service as Lucy's chambermaid where, learning of Lucy's love for Theophilus, she encourages her to declare it and heal the breach between the families. Dismissed by Theophilus, she presents herself as maidservant to Millicent, and reveals her sad history with Nathaniel to Millicent, as well as the fact that her father, ruined in a suit against Rashly and Meanwell, has been missing for six years. Disguised as a blackamoor, she substitutes herself for Millicent in the masque at Quicksands' feast, and has a tryst with Nathaniel, who does not recognize her. She triumphantly reveals herself in Testy's court after securing Nathaniel's promise to marry her and Quicksands' jewels, and is forgiven by her father.

PHILLIS**1637

A "ghost character" in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. One of the ladies involved in the rebellion but who never appears on stage.

PHILO

Philo opens Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra talking with Demetrius about Antony's fall from a great general to Cleopatra's plaything. After Antony refuses to hear Caesar's messenger, Philo comments that sometimes Antony is not himself.

PHILOBERTO

Philoberto is the name Riviero uses in Shirley's Royal Master when he returns to the court in disguise.

PHILOCALIA**1601

One of the gentlewomen guests at the wedding celebration of Cælestine and Sir Walter Terill in Dekker's Satiromastix, Philocalia is also one of the guests of the party hosted by Sir Vaughan ap Rees, and later of the party hosted by Sir Adam Prickshaft. She is also among those who accompany Cælestine and Sir Walter Terill to the court of King William Rufus. While Philocalia sometimes comments on the action, she is primarily an on-stage audience and sometime dance partner whose presence otherwise has little bearing on the development of the plot. She is always in the company of Petula and Dicache.

PHILOCALIA**1605

Dulcimel's companion, "an honorable learned lady" in Marston's Parasitaster, or The Fawn. Her reputation for virtue and scholarship as well as her beauty attract Hercules' admiration. When Dulcimel confides her intention to win Tiberio as a husband, Philocalia disapproves but does not interfere.

PHILOCLEA**1638

Only mentioned in Glapthorne's Argalus and Parthenia. Beloved of Pyrocles. With her sister, she has been abducted and imprisoned by the ardent Amphialus in order to force her father the King to agree to their marriage. The King chooses the newly-married Argalus to fight Amphialus in single combat for the release of the princesses, which leads to the tragic death of Argalus.

PHILOCLEA**1640

Younger daughter of King Basilius and Gynecia, sister of Pamela in Shirley's The Arcadia. Falls in love with Pyrocles, after seeing through his disguise as Zellmane. Though Pyrocles arranges for both Gynecia and Basilius to wait for Zellmane/Pyrocles in the cave so that he and Philoclea can escape and elope, Philoclea does not want to betray her parents. The couple is found sleeping by Dametas who brings them to Philanax who charges them with conspiracy in the murder of Basilius. She is sentenced by Euarchus to a life of chastity.

PHILOCLEA'S SISTER

Only mentioned in Glapthorne's Argalus and Parthenia. Imprisoned with her by Amphialus in his unsuccessful plot to force King Basilius to agree to his marriage to Philoclea. This character is based on Pamela, from Sydney's Arcadia, and Glapthorne's play assumes great familiarity with this work.

PHILOCLES **1608

The dumb knight, also spelled Phylocles in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. In love with Mariana, an attendant to the Queen of Sicily, Philocles agrees to be the second to the King of Cyprus in his double combat to win the Queen's hand. Philocles defeats his opponent Alphonso then, when the King fails against his opponent, defeats the Duke of Epire as well. Encountering Mariana in court, Philocles declares his love for her but is rejected. He begs her to impose a task in exchange for a favor, and she agrees. The favor he asks is a kiss; the task she imposes is that Philocles remain silent for a year so she will no longer have to listen to his importunities. The King, after hearing from his doctors that Philocles' silence is incurable, offers a huge reward to anyone who can cure Philocles, and promises death to those whose attempted cures fail. Mariana offers to effect a cure and orders Philocles to ignore his vow to her and speak. He refuses, and the King orders her execution. Just as the executioner prepares to strike, Philocles speaks, and Mariana is saved. She declares her love for him, but he repudiates her, declaring he will not love her until she makes a sacrifice similar to his. When the King is thought to be away, Philocles obeys the Queen's request that he play cards with her. The King discovers them, having been made to suspect an affair by the lies of the Duke of Epire. Philocles is imprisoned; Mariana visits him and they exchange clothes, enabling him to escape. Philocles returns to serve as the Queen's champion and defeats the Duke of Epire, forcing him to admit his lies. The King begs for Philocles' forgiveness, which is granted, and praises Mariana's loyalty.

PHILOCLES**1620

Romantic hero of the play's main plot in May's The Heir. He and his love Leucothoë are apparently modeled on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. He is son and heir to Lord Euphues, whose bitter feud with Leucothoë's father, Polymetes, presents an impossible obstacle to their love. At first only interested in the lady's fame as a recent heiress, he is invited to see her from the house of his friend Clerimont. He falls passionately in love at first sight. Philocles impetuously throws her an ardent love-letter and is delighted to see her happy reaction. He accepts Clerimont's help to meet her in person. Before the men can act on this, Leucothoë sends a reply via her maid, Psecas, proposing a secret meeting. Rejecting suspicions of entrapment, he agrees. Polymetes learns of the tryst and does indeed plan a trap. He spies on them, and plots his death by allowing their elopement and then arresting him on a capital charge of abducting an heiress. At the tryst, he fears that their romance will enflame their fathers' feud, but Leucothoë assures him that their love will reconcile the enemies. He responds to her fears of Virro's relentless suit by agreeing, despite the risk to himself, to elope that very evening. Accompanied by Clerimont, he arrives at their arranged meeting-place but is arrested after a fight with the officers Polymetes had set to trap him. Assured he will be executed, he tries to persuade Leucothoë from suicide, wanting her to live happily for his sake and not to be the cause of her death. Philocles bravely decides to shorten the agonizing trial for his family and friends by promptly making a full confession. He also accuses Polymetes of malice and speaks fond words to his father, brother and lover. The Constable arrives unexpectedly with 'Irus' and revelations follow which liberate him by proving that Leucothoë's brother Eugenio lives. Leucothoë is not therefore the heir and that the charge is void. Polymetes begs forgiveness of Euphues and ends the family feud. Philocles' marriage to Leucothoë will proceed as a double wedding with that of her brother Eugenio and the King's niece, Leda, with the King himself as guest of honour.

PHILOCLES**1628

A cast-off soldier, actually Aristocles in disguise in the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace; he is recruited by Phonops to help murder Ascania, and after the two have seized and bound her undertakes to throw her into a seaside chasm, but actually deposits her safely in the care of the Sibyl.

PHILOCLES **1635

Philocles is a court attendant in Shirley's Coronation who mistrusts Cassander and dislikes the power wielded by the lord protector.

PHILOCLES**1639

Son to the King and Queen in Brome's Love-Sick Court. He was raised with Philargus, who he believes to be his twin brother. Both are in love with Eudyna and travel to Delphi to ask Apollo's oracle who should marry her. They follow Justinius's interpretation of the oracle's riddle and vow not to let their love for Eudyna destroy their friendship. Philocles entreats Eudyna to marry Philargus, which only deepens her love for him. When Eudyna cannot choose between the two, Stratocles sends forged challenges to each brother from the other. They travel to the place appointed in the challenge, but each brother attempts to let the other win. When it becomes apparent that neither will strike the other, each tries to kill himself but is prevented by his brother. Matho, who has been waiting in ambush, attempts to kill them both, but he is quickly disarmed and taken into custody. Matho reveals Stratocles's plot to capture and rape Eudyna, and the two brothers apprehend Stratocles with the help of six rustics. Each brother then insists upon leaving the kingdom so that the other brother can marry Eudyna. To end the dispute, Disanius writes "friendship" on one slip of paper and "love" on another and forces them to draw a slip. The one who draw "friendship" is to leave the kingdom; the one who draws "love" is to marry Eudyna. Philocles draws "friendship," but while the brothers are drinking a farewell toast, Philargus is poisoned by Varillus. After Philargus's apparent death, Philocles agrees to marry Eudyna. The marriage is prevented when it is revealed that the two are brother and sister. Philocles then agrees to marry Placilla.

PHILOCTETES

I.
Philoctetes shares Hercules' honors at Olympia in Heywood's The Silver Age, and accompanies the Theban hero to the wedding of their friend Perithous, where he participates in the battle with the centaurs and from there to Hades, where he joins Hercules in the rescue of Proserpine.
II.
Philoctetes is an Argonaut in Heywood's Brazen Age who refuses to leave Hercules, even at the height of his murderous rampage in Lydia. Right before he dies, Hercules gives Philoctetes his bow and arrows as recognition of his loyalty.

PHILOENUS

The female page to Machessa in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant; there are many jokes suggesting her diminutive qualities, including the suggestion that someday she should be queen of the Pygmies.

PHILOGANO

A Sicilian gentleman, father to Erostrato in Gascoigne's The Supposes. Philogano arrives in Ferrara in order to convince his son to return home. Upon arriving at the supposed home of Erostrato, Philogano and his companions, Litio and the innkeeper, are informed that they may not enter since the household is busy entertaining the false Philogano, the disguised gentleman from Siena. The real Philogano and the supposed Philogano meet and, after the ensuing argument over which of them is Philogano, the Sienese is pulled into the house by the cook Dalio and the real Philogano sees Dulippo, whom the innkeeper supposes to be Erostrato. Philogano is of course confused, and questions Dulippo, who denies that he has ever seen Philogano and insists that he is, in fact, Erostrato. The innkeeper informs Philogano about the competition over Polynesta between Erostrato (a.k.a. Dulippo) and the doctor Cleander. Philogano goes to see Cleander, and in the course of their discussion, learns the true identity of Dulippo. In the end, Philogano is reunited with his real son and promises to Damon that his wealth is sufficient dowry for Polynesta. Damon agrees and gives his daughter's hand to Erostrato.

PHILOGONUS

A wealthy Italian landowner in (?)Johnson's Misogonus. Philogonus is father of twin sons, the carousing Misogonus, who lives with his widower father and was spoiled by him, and Eugonus, sent away at birth without Philogonus' knowledge, his existence only revealed to him during Act III of the play. Despairing of Misogonus' drinking, whoring, and insolence, Philogonus appeals to Jesus for relief and, much to his surprise and joy, learns of Eugonus' existence from Codrus and Alison. Philogonus immediately sends Liturgus to find Eugonus. After Eugonus returns and his heritage is proven, Philogonus acknowledges Eugonus as his rightful heir, but allows Misogonus some share of his estate on the condition that he reform his ways.

PHILOGYN

Listed in the dramatis personae of the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace. Characteristics and actions not given in the surviving plot.

PHILOMATHES

I.
The central speaker in Harrison's Philomathes' Dream, Philomathes relates a dream he has dreamt the night before and which continues to trouble him. His friends then interpret the dream, which turns out to be an allegory for the current state of the student body at St. Paul's school. In the dream, a "grave man" brings Philomathes to a feast in a great hall with four tables. One table is empty, and at the other three are groups of feasters consuming milk with various degrees of inappropriateness. From the feast, Philomathes is led out into an orchard and then a pasture, where he views fruit trees and then cattle in successive stages of disappointing growth. Finally, he sees a gate at which his friend Polumathes is trying to enter the pasture. A maiden peers through a little window and tells Polumathes he will be able to enter shortly, at which point the grave guide disappears. Philomathes asks Polumathes who the man was, and Polumathes suggests that an "E.R." could provide that information.
II.
Philomathes in Harrison's Philomathes' Second Dream is the only character besides Polumathes who hasn't been involved in the verbal confrontation in the street, which the others are discussing at the start of the play. Unlike Polumathes, though, Philomathes' absence is due to a dream or trance from which he has just awakened. The dream is of a garden circled by a wall. Around the wall are various groups of people seeking to penetrate it, whether by spitting over it, peering through holes in it, or hammering at the anvil sealing the gate; all fail. Inside the garden are birds, beasts, honeybees, and flowers, all flourishing due to the efforts of an attendant gardener who is troubled by a painful ear and a weight hanging from his side. In the center of the garden is a fountain with a white hind beside it and a cloud above it; the cloud emits a pleasant dew, and contains a princely virgin who removes the gardener's ailments. Philomathes has been awakened from his trance by Ponophilus, but only after a lengthy and violent effort. After recounting his dream, Philomathes has almost no role in the play until the end, when he gives a closing speech asking the favor of the audience (which apparently contains potential patrons of St. Paul's school).

PHILOMEL

Servant to Lady Strangelove in Brome's Court Beggar. Originally from the country, she is courted by Citwit and shares a long kiss with Swainwit (who is trying to provoke Citwit), but she is most in love with Dainty until he is revealed as a pickpocket. She finally agrees to marry Citwit. She plays Venus in the masque.

PHILOMELE

Progne's sister in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appears in the third playlet. Tereus rapes her, then cuts out her tongue so she cannot reveal his crime. She finds a way to tell Progne (the common legend is that she weaves the story into a tapestry, although the plot gives no indication of how Progne learns the truth in Tarlton's play). She brings Itis' head to Tereus in a dish.

PHILOMUSE

Philomuse discusses Marston's What You Will with Atticus and Doricus in the Induction. He is identified as a friend of the author and he speaks the Prologue.

PHILOMUSUS

From the Latin roots; literally, "one who loves poetry." Philomusus, son of Consiliodorus and a student of "beardless years," and "budded youth" in the anonymous Pilgrimage To Parnassus. He sets out with Studiosus to find Helicon and Parnassus at the beginning of the play, a journey that allegorically parallels their education at university. The pilgrims first pass through Logic Land, which according to "Seton's mapp," is "muche like Wales, full of craggie mountaines and thornie vallies." There Philomusus and Studiosus meet the intoxicated Madido, but manage to resist the temptations of the taverns. When the pilgrims reach the Land of Rhetoric, Stupido the Puritan rages against poetry, philosophy, and rhetoric, but is unable to dissuade them from continuing to Parnassus. Amoretto greets them in the Land of Poetry, where Philomusus and Studiosus encounter the most difficult test of all, the lure of sex and poetry. The last stage of their journey is through the Land of Philosophy, where they face Ingenioso's extreme disillusionment. At the end of four years, the pilgrims reach Parnassus, where Philomusus declares he will "lie with Phoebus by the Muses springes."

PHILOMUSUS **1600

I.
At the start of the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus Philomusus is being forced to leave Parnassus (Cambridge) with Studioso to seek his fortune in a world inhospitable to scholarship. They meet Ingenioso, who tells them of his struggle to earn a living by writing pamphlets. The three set out for London. He gets a place as sexton and clerk in a rural parish, where he digs graves and rings the bells but finds no use for his learning except to write a posthumous will for Perceval's dead father. Before long, his failure to keep the church clean, to ring the bells conscientiously, and to chase dogs from the church gets him fired. He and Studioso take to the road again.
II.
In the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus, Philomusus enters disguised as a physician, Theodore, accompanied by his friend Studioso, also disguised as his servant and patient, Jacques. They have traveled to Rome, Paris, and Rheims but found no more fortune there than in England, and have decided that they would rather suffer at home than abroad. Since their hard-earned learning has proven useless, they propose to turn cony-catcher instead. Philomusus uses odd scraps of medical terminology to beguile the Burgess; the resulting fee, however, is skimpy, and the two continue to lament their lot. Barely escaping imprisonment for the fraud, he despairs. Interviewed by Burbage and Kempe as a potential actor and playwright, he gives satisfaction, but is loath to descend so low, and turns fiddler instead, in hopes of compensation from Sir Raderick, but is beguiled by the two pages. He tells Studioso of his intention to escape the torments of city life by becoming a shepherd, but first joins the other scholars in a final lament over the world's refusal to value their learning.

PHILOMUSUS **1639

A noble lord in Sharpe’s Noble Stranger. He has acquitted himself worthily in war and the king asks him to present a masque for the next day. He turns to Mercutio for assistance. When Pupillus tries to hire him to teach him wit, he diverts the fool to Mercutio, who is in need of an income. At the princess’ invitation, he becomes friends with Honorio and Fabianus. The king makes him Secretary of State of Naples. Learning that Honorio and Fabianus have been banished, he determines to go, disguised, into banishment with them. He returns in the final scene in disguise as an attendant to the Prince of Portugal. He unmasks with Honorio and Fabianus to confirm to the King that Honorio is in truth the Prince of Portugal.

PHILON **1635

A Sicilian lord and kinsman to the king in Killigrew’s The Prisoners. At the play’s opening, he attempts to lead Gillippus and the pirates away whilst Lysimella and Eugene hide in the woods. In act four, he tries to dissuade Lysimella from pursuing her beloved Pausanes, but she convinces him of the worth of her passion.

PHILONAX**1638

Philonax is a proud and pompous suitor of Artemone in Mead's Combat of Love and Friendship who tells "long stories of his pedigrees" instead of wooing. Artemone agrees to marry him when her true love, Lysander, offends her. However, Philonax then goes to Panareta whereupon it is revealed that he was originally in love with her but she had rebuffed him in favour of Lysander and told Philonax to woo Artemone instead. He had done so, but put on an act of pomposity so that she would not love him. He now returns to Panareta. Panareta orders him as a favour to ask Artemone to declare her love for him in public, in order to punish her. He does so, and she declares love out of a sense of duty. Everything has now worked out perfectly for Panareta, who tells Philonax she will not marry him and demands Lysander's hand instead. Philonax suddenly decides that he does love Artemone after all, and reveals to Artemone that his pomposity was merely an act. All are therefore happy.

PHILONDAS

A lord of Cyprus and the husband to Florina in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant; he returns and observes her grief.

PHILONOME

A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Silver Age, a she-centaur, beloved of Cillarus, mentioned and then toasted in the conversation prior to the battle.

PHILOPONUS**1584

After Polumathes interprets most of Philomathes' dream in Harrison's Philomathes' Dream and identifies the guide in the dream as John Collet (the founder of St. Paul's school), he suggests that Philoponus read aloud a translation of Erasmus of Rotterdam's biography of Collet. Philoponus never speaks in the play, however, because Theopompus interrupts to attempt his own oration on Collet. It's possible that the biography of Collet actually was read in performance, but if so it has been left out of the written record.

PHILOPONUS**1627

"A diligent student" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Lala "intrude[s]" on Philoponus in the play's first scene and proceeds to annoy him by misconstruing his words and meanings, and injecting comments and questions into his discourse. Once she is assured that the play will be presented in English Lala goes "into the tyreing house" to "scamble and rangle for a mans part," leaving the student alone to describe the pleasure which his "devotion" to Apollo's school brings him. Amphibius hides from Philoponus, ashamed of his own "passions" which (though previously directed towards his scholarly endeavours) are newly "inthrald another way." After receiving "from grave Museus's hand Apollos benediction" Philoponus seeks out Amphibius who "promised to overtake [him] at this morning's sacrifice." He expresses his passion for school, recalls past discourses with Amphibius, and claims that he does not envy the "spruce gallant Gingle." He is described by Captain Complement as "a sowre stoicall schollar" who has previously informed Complement that "Apollo should bee complained unto, and [Complement] accused of robbery, for stealing away his best hopes." Novice claims that Philoponus "is the best schollar among us, but he is but a tell-tale" for tattling to Museus on the other students. After searching high and low for Amphibius, Philoponus finally finds him. Philoponus is informed of Amphibius's changing affections, the two discuss Amphibius's desire to "untwist" himself from his "bond of service to Apollo," and Philoponus reads his friend's letter from Siren and Queen Hedone. He discusses the letter with Amphibius and the two depart for the "laurell Grove" to get to the bottom of what he refers to as the "fardell of false wares." Jugge Rubbish and Indulgence discuss Philoponus and scholars in general, and the maid-servant claims that she would "marry Philoponus at a venture." Amphibius claims, later in the play, that (while in the laurel grove) Philoponus "dispel'd those mists" which Siren had "cast before" his eyes. When Amphibius expresses his desire for revenge upon Siren, Philoponus advises him "no more to speake with her by word or pen." After accepting Amphibius's effusive thanks, the two depart for the "Session" at Apollo's Court which "is long since begunne." Philoponus is present at the sentencing of disobedient characters at the play's end, where he comments on the proceedings and voices his opinions. Museus sentences Novice to three years of only one hour per week of play, and orders that he must "never depart from the presence and guidance of Philoponus" during all of his "schoole time." Furthermore, Novice must "observe and imitate his [Philoponus's] painfull diligence."

PHILOSOPHER**1624

One of the disguises Paulo reportedly adopts in order to cure Don Martino of his melancholy in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman.

PHILOSOPHER**1628

A Philosopher appears among the characters in the Masque of Melancholy presented to Palador by Corax in Ford's The Lover's Melancholy. Desperately impoverished and obsessed by the purity of his own learning, he suffers, says Corax, from "delirium."

PHILOSTRATE

Philostrate holds the position of Master of Revels at Theseus' Athenian court in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. His job is to assemble, audition, and announce the selection of entertainments available following the wedding ceremonies at the play's close. He tries unsuccessfully to dissuade Theseus from selecting the play Pyramus and Thisbe that the rude mechanicals offer for the wedding entertainment.

PHILOTAS**1604

Philotas is the son of Parmenio and one of the greatest generals under Alexander in Daniel's Philotas. He is loved by Antigona and has rejected Thais. Although he is advised by Parmenio and Chalisthenes to cease public display and to dismiss some of his followers, in order to avoid antagonising Alexander. Philotas is reluctant to follow their advice. He is told of a plot against Alexander by Cebalinus, but does not inform Alexander. Philotas is told by Servus that there is not enough money to pay a captain whom Philotas wanted him to reward; Philotas tells him to sell 'apparel, plate, jewels' to raise the money. Philotas worries about the change in Alexander's attitude towards him, but is confident that he will be able to clear himself. When Cebalinus and Metron bring the conspiracy before Alexander, Philotas is summoned to explain why he did not inform Alexander. He defends himself by claiming that he thought that the conspiracy was only an 'idle tale'. Alexander forgives Philotas and appears to believe his sincerity, but Craterus claims that Philotas is still dangerous and Perdiccas states that Philotas must have been involved in the conspiracy or he would have brought it to light. Alexander feasts with Philotas, but, as Attaras and Sostratus describe, after Philotas's departure, Craterus falls to his knees and begs Alexander to take action against Philotas in order to protect his person and the state. As he reports to Sostratus, Attaras is sent with three hundred armed men are sent to arrest Philotas. They find him asleep; waking, Philotas is chained and taken to prison. At the trial, Alexander accuses Philotas and Parmenio of involvement with the conspiracy, taking as his proof a letter from Parmenio to Philotas. Alexander removes himself while Philotas makes his defence; Philotas fears that this means that he is already condemned. He denies that the body of Dymnus is a proper accuser, and states that he will submit if any of his followers who were implicated will prove that he was party to the conspiracy. He admits to criticising Alexander's assumption of the title 'son of Jove', but maintains that this was done publicly. Philotas asks that the oracle of Ammon (another title of Jupiter or Jove) be consulted, but this request is rejected by Belon. Philotas's defence is ignored by the assembled lords and soldiers, and Alexander finally dismisses the court. According to the Nuntius, Philotas is tortured at the hands of Craterus. Under torture, he confesses that Hegelochus incensed Parmenio against Alexander after Alexander took on the title of 'son of Jove'. He claims that Parmenio decided to do nothing against Alexander while Darius was in power, but after Darius's defeat thought that their faction could take all 'the Orient and all Asia'. Philotas eventually also confesses involvement in Dymnus's plot and accuses Demetrius and Calin. When Philotas will say no more, he and Demetrius are stoned to death.

PHILOTAS**1636

Like Archippus in Cartwright's The Royal Slave, an Ephesian captive.

PHILOTEN

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Pericles. The daughter of Cleon and Dionyza. It is for her sake that Dionyza attempts to kill Marina.

PHILOTIMIA **1630

Luparius' wife in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Roscius characterizes her as "an over-curious lady, too neat in her attire." Her opposite is Luparius. When Anaiskyntia enters, she believes it is to announce that Acolastus and Asotus have sent for her.

PHILOTIS

Philotis, the orphaned niece of Richardetto, is a rather silly ingenue in Ford's 'Tis Pity She's a Whore. She allows herself to be betrothed to the foolish Bergetto. When he is mistakenly murdered, she goes to a nunnery and from the play.

PHILOTUS

A usurer's servant in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens, like most of the servants he carries his master's name. He is one of the besiegers of Timon's house in II.ii and III.iv.

PHILOXENUS**1618

In the second masque created by Lala Schahin in Goffe's The Courageous Turk, the captain Philoxenus appears before Alexander the Great to offer him the Wife of Darius and a troop of "Ganimedes." Alexander's rejection of these fleshly rewards and his renewed dedication to seeking glory on the battlefield are intended to rouse Amurath from his dotage on the Greek captive Eumorphe.

PHILOXENUS**1631

Philoxenus, the tutor and minister of Prusias in Massinger's Believe As You List, aids Flaminius.

PHILPOT, GEORGE **1595

A "ghost character" in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. In one of the deleted scenes, the apprentice Harry claims to frequent George Philpot's fencing school in Dowgate.

PHILPOT, JOHN

A "ghost character" in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me. A former mayor whose portrait admired by Lady Ramsey.

PHILPOT, RICHARD

Richard Philpot is a fifteen-year-old boy in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden, who works for Mr Hemlock as a drawer. Tripes claims to be his godfather.

PHINEAS

A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by David as an example of an upright, virtuous man.

PHINEUS

Appears in the dumb show in II.i of the anonymous Locrine. He is clad in black armour and followed by Aethiopians. Ate compares him to Humber.

PHIZANTIUS, KING

King Phizantius banishes Hermione after Hermione wounds Armenio in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune. Requests that Bomelio, disguised as a physician, cure his son Armenio, who has been struck dumb. Along with Armenio, searches for and discovers the lovers Fidelia and Hermione. When Fidelia offers her life to save that of her lover, Phizantius intervenes, orders Armenio not to harm them, but that they be permanently separated. Venus and Fortune intervene and override Phizantius' orders, and command that the lovers be united in marriage. He forgives both the lovers and restores Bomelio to his former place in the realm.

PHLEGMATICO**1618

One of the "four humor" characters in Holiday's Technogamia, he serves Logicus. With Musica, the four humor characters act out a Morris entertainment in one scene of act four.

PHOCIAN

An Ephesian in disguise in Cartwright's The Royal Slave. With Hippias, he tries to persuade Cratander to take advantage of his temporary royal status for the good of their native city.

PHOEBE

See also "PHEBE" and related spellings.

PHOEBE**1581

Phoebe is the alternative name for Diana, the goddess of chastity and the hunt, who is asked to make a final determination about the golden apple and who opts to nominate Eliza, also called Zabeta (fictive representations of Queen Elizabeth), as the only fit recipient for the golden prize in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris.

PHOEBE**1601

Only mentioned in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. In her love-song to Fontinel, Imperia praises the Frenchman's youth and beauty. The lyrics say that, should Phoebe, the moon goddess, lie one night with her lover, she would change her face and look much younger. The metaphor of Fontinel's youthful beauty is an extension of his association with Ganymede.

PHOEBE**1619

The young Phoebe is taken to the court by her mother, a country woman, to be a maid of the bawd Leucippe in exchange for payment in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant.

PHOEBE**1639

Phoebe is Carelesse's whore in Brome's A Mad Couple. Carelesse had gotten engaged with her. But later, she was abandoned by her groom although he took her under his protection. She has a child of his. In Act Three, she wrongly gets a letter from Carelesse, where he asks her to marry him, when that letter had been directed to Mistress Crostill. She finally marries Wat.

PHOEBUS APOLLO

More listings under APOLLO.

PHOEBUS APOLLO

I.
An alternative name for Apollo in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis.
II.
A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Golden Age. Phoebus, or the Delphic god, is the deity of oracles.
III.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. Cephisus mentions Phebus, also spelled Phibbus, when he first addresses to his son, Narcissus, as they are waiting for the prophet, and explains him that the sun has gone and "Phebus with queene Thetis is a doinge." Later, Lyriope mentions Phibbus when she claims that "One Phibbus walls is written: knowe thyselfe." According to Roman mythology, Phoebus was son to Jupiter and Latona, and brother to Diana. He was the god of the sun. He was also the god of archery, music and prophecy. His Greek version, Apollo, is famous for his oracle at Delphi, where people traveled to in order to divine the future. The inscription "Know thyself" could be read on the pediment of the temple.
IV.
He appears in the masque in Burnell's Landgartha. He is the mythological Greek god of the arts. He tells Pallas that they have to stop Achilles and help Pryam and Hector. Later, with the death of Hector, he tells Pryam about the foundations of Britain and the city of Rome.
V.
The sun god joins with his celestial fellows in Heywood's The Silver Age to adjudicate the dispute over Proserpine.
VI.
The sun god in Heywood's Brazen Age. He specializes in exposing crimes and sins at dawn. He exposes Mars and Venus's elicit affair and reports the adultery to Vulcan.
VII.
Only mentioned in Goffe's Raging Turk. Phoebus is several times invoked as an emblem of passion and ambition.
VIII.
Also called Sol in Hausted’s Rival Friends. Sings the bass part in the Introduction. He agrees to rise at Venus’s entreaties and bring in Valentine. He reacts to a light more bright than his own but the text does not detail what this light is. Later, it becomes apparent that it must be Anteros’s nose, made so rosy bright with drink that it attracts women to him.

PHOENIX**1604

Phoenix is the Duke of Ferrara's son in Middleton's The Phoenix. He chooses Fidelio, son of Castiza, as traveling companion when the Duke decides that a view of the world will help make Phoenix a better ruler when he assumes the Dukedom. Traveling in disguise, Phoenix and Fidelio go not to foreign realms but instead circulate among the local people, discovering and recording instances of vulgarity and outrage along the way. Phoenix discovers much in his disguise:
  • the double-dealings of the crafty lawyer Tangle;
  • he hatches a plot to save Castiza from being sold by her husband the Captain;
  • he uncovers adultery between the Knight and the Jeweler's Wife.
  • A victim of robbery, Phoenix learns that the Justice of the Peace who should redress such thievery is instead aiding and abetting the thieves, who are in Falso's employ.
  • Phoenix also puts an end to Falso's atrocious behavior toward the Niece who has been placed under his care.
Phoenix proves himself worthy and becomes Duke at the end of the play.

PHOENIX**1629

Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Lovel tells Host that he is in love with Lady Frampul, but would not confess his feelings to her, Host replies that Lovel does not seem very experienced in matters of love. Host compares Lovel's secret love suffering with the burning of the Phoenix, except that, Host says, he expects no miracle from Lovel's ashes. The Phoenix is a sacred bird of ancient Egyptians, said to come out of Arabia every 500 years to Heliopolis, where it burned itself on altar and rose again from its ashes, young and beautiful. The Phoenix is a symbol of immortality. Host's comparison of Lovel's love to the Phoenix reviving from its ashes is ironic. Host implies that Lovel's feeling is self-consuming, and hardly immortal, as he pretends it to be.

PHOENIXELLA

Count Ferneze's daughter and Paulo's sister in Jonson's The Case is Altered. Sober and serious, she offers Francisco Colonna little encouragement when he courts her. Upon meeting Chamont and Jasper (posing as one another), she is struck by "Chamont"'s (actually Jasper's) resemblance to her mother, but Aurelia facetiously accuses her of being in love with him. When it is revealed that Jasper and Chamont have switched identities, Phoenixella notes her even stronger emotional response to Jasper, which is justified when it is revealed that he is her long-lost brother, Camillo.

PHONILLA

Phonilla, the queen's maid in Quarles' The Virgin Widow, advises her mistress not to be too quick to believe the slanderous tales about Kettreena and the king. She also sings.

PHONOPS

"A begging cavalier" in the anonymous Philander, King of Thrace. He discovers Suavina and Aristocles together, and reveals their love to Philander. He is engaged by Salohcin to murder both the King's wife Ascania and his Thracian rival Aristocles. He recruits Dolphus and Pandarus to help him. When the three attack Aristocles, however, the two underlings are killed, and Phonops, pleading for mercy, is persuaded to reveal Salohcin as the architect of the plot, and to tell the king that Aristocles has been killed. Still responsible for killing Ascania, he recruits an unemployed soldier, Philocles (Aristocles in disguise) to help. They seize the queen, and Philocles undertakes to throw her alive into a "hollow" by the sea shore, there to drown and disappear.

PHORBA

One of two old panderesses in Fletcher's Valentinian trying to arrange an affair between Lucina and the Emperor Valentinian. She is killed during the military rebellion that enables Maximus' ascent to the throne.

PHORMIO

A libertine, companion to Ergasto in Berkeley's The Lost Lady. With Cleon, another libertine, tries to win Hermione's favors for Ergasto, discusses his master's taste for women and plots to stop Lysicles in the race to win Hermione's love. He fancies Acanthe the Moor.

PHORMUS

Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Mitis asks Cordatus about the comedy they are about to see, whether its author observes the classical rules regarding the unity of time, place, and action, Cordatus embarks upon a lengthy and learned incursion into the history of comedy. According to Cordatus, Phormus and Chionides invented a fourth character in the structure of comedy, with a prologue and a chorus. Phormus was a sixth-century B.C. Greek soldier and dramatist based in Sicily. He wrote eight comedies, which were burlesques of familiar epic and tragic themes. He was the first who arrayed a comic actor in a robe reaching to his feet, and employed a background adorned with skins dyed in red.

PHOTINUS

I.
Photinius is Ptolemy's chief advisor and a eunuch in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. He first enters with Septimus, and promises to show him favor, despite his awareness that Septimus has deserted Pompey. After hearing that Pompey has lost his battle with Caesar and is coming to Egypt, Photinus advises Ptolemy to have him killed in order to make peace with Caesar. Achoreus is appalled at this counsel, but Photinus argues that since kingdoms are maintained by force, a ruler who is guided only by personal morality is actually a bad king. After Ptolemy presents Caesar with Pompey's head and is threatened with death, Photinus maintains that Caesar is actually relieved to be rid of his enemy, and only pretends to mourn. Privately, however, Photinus expresses anger at Caesar's lack of gratitude, and gives Septimus money in exchange for future service. He then tries to persuade Ptolemy to continue the path of assassination with Caesar, and when Ptolemy angrily rejects him and sends Archoreus to make peace, Photinus and Achillas agree to turn against the king. Photinus speaks against Ptolemy's plan to show off the wealth of Egypt and when Ptolemy does so, and Caesar is clearly dazzled by what he sees, Photinus and Achillas persuade Ptolemy that he must attack Caesar at once. Although it is unclear if Ptolemy actually starts the revolt (since he next appears with Caesar, declaiming responsibility), what is clear is that Photinus and Achillas have turned against Ptolemy. Achillas agrees to kill Ptolemy and Photinus delegates Caesar's murder to Septimus, whom he has swayed away from repentance. Photinus then has a parley with Caesar and Ptolmey, telling them that he considers himself equal to both. Photinus then finds Cleopatra and tells her that all his plans have been to achieve her. Cleopatra rejects him utterly, and he then tells her he will give both her and Arisone to his soldiers. But Achillas enters and reveals that although Ptolemy is dead, Caesar is triumphant. Photinus declares that his fate has caught up with him. This turns out to be very true, as Caesar appears immediately, and kills Photinus.
II.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Enobarbas reports that it is reported in Rome that Photinus, a eunuch and Cleopatra's maids run the war. It is not clear if Photinus is the name of the eunuch, or another character.

PHOTIS**1594

A Roman soldier in Kyd's Cornelia who is involved in the murder of Pompey. Caesar orders him beheaded for his crimes against the state.

PHRONESIS

Phronesis is a true and virtuous friend recommended by Arete to Crites and a mute character in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. When Crites complains to Arete about the multitude of his seeming friends, the virtuous nymph tells him that detraction is short-lived, inviting him to spend a few hours with honored friends, Phronesis and Time. According to Arete, in their company Crites will be able to think and compose verses worthy of Cynthia's eyes. Phronesis and Time are part of Cynthia's train and they enter with her at the revels. Phronesis and Time retire with Cynthia's retinue after the ceremony.

PHRONESIUS

One of Sardinapalus' concubines in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appears in the second playlet.

PHRONESIUM **1632

A "merry chambermaid" in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. At Techmessa's call, she comes to abuse Pamphilus for giving up his sword rather than using it to defend Techmessa's honor. At the wedding, she claims Asotus for her own for no apparent reason and agrees to take Simo instead. As a condition to marrying Simo, she demands to have all the gallants, freedom, and riches she desires, and her elderly intended agrees.

PHRONIMIUS **1635

Also spelled Phronimus in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. He attends the king but does not speak in the first scene. He secretly plots with Aratus and Eurylochus to raise a rebellion and unseat the usurper. Aratus, Phronimius, and Aratus, meet Pallantus, who has killed his assailants, and without learning his name they befriend him for his valiant act. They go greet Cleararchus together. Later, as the secret ceremony, Phronimius reveals that he has a great army ready to rise on the side of the patriots against the usurper and along with Eurylochus they take their young king, Cleander, to protect him as they go to meet their armies. Clearchus brings news to Aratus and Pallantus that Phronimius and Eurylochus were captured along with the young king, Cleander. The camp mutinies at the news. Demophilus delivers good news to Aratus in act four that Phronimius and Eurylochus have not been captured along with the young king, Cleander. They are well and advancing to their positions. Two others were captured and slain by the enemy. His arrival helps ensure the rebel victory.

PHRONIMUS

Phronimus is a worthy gentleman at Cynthia's court and a "ghost character" in Jonson's Cynthia's Revels. In a soliloquy about detraction, Crites says that he disregards Anaides and Hedon's slanders, because the perpetrators are not worthy of his attention. Had the opprobrious words emanated from good Chrestus, Euthus, or Phronimus, Crites argues that he would have been moved and tried to question and improve his actions.

PHRONTELL

Servant to Philatell in Suckling's The Goblins; helps him to enter the house of his sister, Sabrina

PHRYGIUS

Phrygius is one of Alexander's warriors in Lyly's Campaspe.

PHRYNE **1632

A courtesan and Asotus' mistress in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. She carouses with Asotus, impersonating Venus to his Mars, while Hyperbolus and Thrasymachus vow to defend her honor and Bomolochus and Charylus praise her beauty. When Simo lusts after her, she entices him for his money until Asotus returns to shame the old man away. Simo gives her one half of his estate in jointure for her marriage to Asotus. At play's end she marries Asotus.

PHRYNIA

Phrynia and Timandra are the two mistresses who follow Alcibiades on his march towards Athens in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens. Timon calls them prostitutes and gives them gold to continue their profession and carry their diseases to the Athenians.

PHULAS

Phulas, "the watchful," is a servant to the jealous Bassanes in Ford's The Broken Heart. He is threatened with instant death if his master catches him carrying letters to his mistress.

PHYGINOIS

Son of the scheming Nurse who stole the infant Cleanthe in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady. Phyginois is an Englishman of low status and means who assists Cleanthe in her return to her family. He also appears as Draculemion, a traveling orator and dancer who performs in exchange for donations. Cleanthe helps him as well, by dressing him as a gentleman. In this clothing, he is introduced to Lorece, Vandona, Falorus, and Vandona's sister Nentis. Later, Phyginois woos and wins the heart of Nentis, who believes him to be a gentleman. He accompanies the undisguised Cleanthe in her encounter with Carionil, and Phyginois' actual status and identity are revealed. They are revealed again in the closing scene, as he explains his mother's plot to marry Cleanthe to his older brother. His own virtue prodded him to assist her escape, and he also produces the ring, presented by Falorus's father to the infant Cleanthe at her baptism. This material evidence confirms her identity. Grateful for his assistance to his daughter, Polidacre awards Phyginois with the means of a gentleman, which he is free to bequeath to his posterity. With his new status established, Nentis agrees to marry him. Phyginois' final act is to request pardon for his mother, which is granted.

PHYLANDER

Phylander is one of the Duke's servants in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. He has been commanded by the Duke, together with Orestes, to kill Eurymine, and, the same as his friend, he is really worried about the task he has to accomplish. When Eurymine urges him to tell her the reason for his gloom, he is reluctant to do it. However, when she invites both men to tell her a story, he talks to her about the son of a Duke, whose father wanted him to marry a noble lady, but who was in love with another, of obscure origin. The Duke then asked two of his servants to kill the young lady. Phylander then asks who she thinks was most cruel, the Duke, who was the instigator, or his servants, who obeyed orders. He then reveals that his tale was an allegory of what they have to do to her, hence the reason for their distress. After hearing the farewell song Eurymine dedicates to her beloved Ascanio when she learns she is about to die, Phylander is moved, and stops Orestes when he is about to give her the mortal stroke. He explains to his friend that he will always defend an innocent woman. Then he urges her to leave the country, so that the Duke does not find out she is still alive. But still they must pretend to have killed her, thus, he asks her for her veil to take it, together with a goat's heart, to Telemachus (the Duke), as evidence of Eurymine's death. At the end of the play, Phylander goes to the forest to look for Ascanio, Eurymine and Ioculo, following the orders of the Duke, who has grown more fatherly and mild. Finally, he takes them all back to court.

PHYLEMA

Phylema is the second daughter of Alfonso and beloved of Aurelius, Prince of Sestos in the anonymous The Taming of a Shrew. She believes him to be a merchant's son when she falls in love with and marries him. When the Duke of Sestos arrives and threatens both Aurelius and her for their marriage, she offers to die if he will spare Aurelius. At the wedding celebration, she refuses to come when her husband commands, and when Kate drags her in she says that women look like fools if they obey their husbands.

PHYLENIO

A statesman in Davenant's The Fair Favorite. He advises the King and tries to reason with him about his behavior and his marriage.

PHYLLIDA

Daughter of Melebeus in Lyly's Gallathea. Like Gallathea, her father has convinced her to disguise herself as a boy in order to avoid being sacrificed to Neptune. In her disguise she calls herself "Melebeus." She falls in love with Gallathea (disguised as "Tityrus"), thinking at first that Gallathea is a boy. At the end of the play she is willing to chance being transformed into a boy in order to marry Gallathea, but this transformation does not take place before the play concludes.

PHYLOMONT

A young duke in Davenant's The Platonic Lovers. He is brother to Eurithea, friend to Theander, and lover of Theander's sister, Ariola. Phylomont and Ariola are only fainthearted "platonic lovers." They quickly decide on marriage as a way out of their frustrating situation. Phylomont proposes this to Theander quite frankly. Theander, however, takes the platonic creed seriously and is shocked by the proposal. He does his best to block it until he himself falls from spiritual grace as a result of a drug that Buonateste provides. After Theander relents, Phylomont faces some further resistance from Ariola herself, who has been converted to platonic refinement by her brother's disapproval. He manages to dissipate this by handing her over to Buonateste for a lecture on married love. This has the desired effect, and Ariola accepts him.

PHYLUS

Page of Jacomo in Marston's What You Will.

PHYSICA**1618

The mother of the natural arts in Holiday's Technogamia. Physica scolds Astronomia for her light behavior

PHYSICIAN**1599

A "ghost character" in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Puntavorlo informs his friends he intends to embark on a journey to Constantinople, accompanied by his wife and his Dog, Carlo Buffone mocks Puntavorlo's self-centeredness, pretending to be concerned with the knight's Dog. Carlo Buffone advises Puntavorlo to discuss with a physician about the preventive cure to be applied on Dog upon such a perilous journey. The physician is supposed to give Dog some antidotes against poison, because someone might be tempted to poison Dog, seeing that such a large sum of money has been placed upon his safe return. Ironically, Macilente does poison Dog, yet not in order to prevent him from taking the journey, but out of spite. Taking Carlo Buffone's ironic advice seriously, Puntavorlo stipulates in the insurance document that the physician will prescribe medicine and foods for Dog and Cat.

PHYSICIAN**1601

A fictional character in Jonson's Poetaster. The physician supposedly treating Horace's fabricated sick friend. When Horace wants to disentangle himself from Crispinus's irritating company, he pretends he is visiting a friend who lives on the far side of the Tiber, by Caesar's Gardens, and who is sick of the plague. In order to dissuade Crispinus from following him, Horace says he must speak first to his friend's physician, then go to his apothecary to get some medicines.

PHYSICIAN **1604

Used in stage directions to indicate Niofell in the anonymous Wit of a Woman.

PHYSICIAN**1605

A non-speaking character in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho, one of the physicians at the hospital of Bedlam. (Although the word "Phisitian" in the stage direction could also be a misspelling of "Musician".)

PHYSICIAN**1608

Mute character in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. He passes over the stage to establish the location as the court.

PHYSICIAN**1611

A "ghost character" in Jonson's Catiline. Fulvia's physician. At Fulvia's house, Galla, her maid, is arranging Fulvia's hair. Since Galla is very voluble, Fulvia reprimands her. Galla replies she is only acting according to her physician's orders. He said that Fulvia's blood should be stirred with vivid conversation.

PHYSICIAN**1617

The Physician in Middleton and Rowley's A Fair Quarrel is hired by Russell to investigate the health of Jane before her wedding. Jane confides in him (via his sister, Anne) that she is pregnant, and the Physician delivers the child. But then he tries to blackmail Jane into sleeping with him in return for his silence. He orders Anne to convince Jane that she must submit to him, but Anne encourages Jane to speak the truth about herself rather than submit. So Jane refuses him, and the Physician tells Jane's intended husband, Chough, that she has had a child. This turns out well in the end because Jane hates Chough, and the Physician's actions result in Jane marrying her true love (and secret husband) Fitzallen. The Physician ends the play a shamed man.

PHYSICIAN**1624

Physician to Petronius in the anonymous Tragedy of Nero. He instructs Petronius how best to commit suicide.

PHYSICIAN**1624

Along with Lawyer, Cutpurse, and Captain in Fletcher's A Wife for a Month, one of four named suitors who comes to the court of Naples on the day of Valerio's execution in order to woo Valerio's soon-to-be widow, Evanthe. Tony, the fool, interrogates them and finds them corrupt, and Evanthe rejects them, finding them old and diseased. Frederick offers Evanthe in marriage for a month, but the sad joke is that these suitors are too old to last that long.

PHYSICIAN**1626

Tends on Caesario after he is wounded in the fight with Mentivole in Fletcher, Ford, Massinger and Webster's The Fair Maid of the Inn.

PHYSICIAN **1626

This unnamed Physician is brought by Isaac to tend Belfare in James Shirley's The Wedding. Belfare behaves unstably after his daughter's disgrace and subsequent disappearance, and the Physician is called to attempt relief for Belfare.

PHYSICIAN**1627

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. Mistress Urina's father. It is to be assumed that he named his child after his own profession of casting water.

PHYSICIAN**1631

A physician in Brome's The Queen's Exchange attempts to cure Osriick's melancholy.

PHYSICIAN**1641

The Physician in Denham's The Sophy inspects Mirza's condition in prison and tells Abbas, now repentant, that his son is dying.

PHYSICIAN**1641

The physician attends Don Ramyres when he is supposedly dying in Shirley's The Brothers, and brings his son Fernando discouraging news about his father's progress.

PHYSICIAN, FIRST

He is first seen in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2 tending the dying Zenocrate. He tells Tamburlaine that if she can survive her present fit that she will recover. Later, when Tamburlaine falls ill he says that if Tamburlaine can survive the day he will recover. In neither case do they recover.

PHYSICIAN, FIRST and SECOND

The First and Second Physicians are summoned to tend the feverish Haraldus in Shirley's The Politician. The First Physician speaks of Haraldus' tender constitution. He offers that Haraldus' fever is more malignant because of its confluence with Haraldus' hidden grief. The Second Physician explains to Marpisa that Haraldus first became ill following a drinking bout with Helga and Sueno.

PHYSICIANS

The Phisitians [sic] assist Leontius in tricking the Lieutenant into believing that his ailment has returned, allowing the Lieutenant to regain his courage in Fletcher's The Humorous Lieutenant.

PHYSICIANS, THREE

Valentine employs three Physicians in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas to attend Francis when the latter becomes gravely ill. Their disagreements about the nature of his illness and the appropriate treatments (all nasty) threaten to make him worse. Thomas arrives on the scene, and his cure-all, wine, eventually routs them.

PHYSICIANS, TWO

Two Physicians try to cure King Henrick's scorpion bite with an expensive cordial in Henry Shirley's The Martyred Soldier, but it does no good. His urine informs them of his imminent death. They are comic characters who talk in outrageous jargon, and Henrick eventually dismisses them as mountebanks.

PHYSICIANS, REYNER'S

"Ghost characters" in Burnell's Landgartha. A group of doctors who try to find the illness of the king of Denmark. They do not find any other natural sickness than unrequited love.

PHYSIOGNOMUS**1618

A gypsy fortuneteller in Holiday's Technogamia. Along with Cheiromantes, he tells Poeta's future, declaring the one he marries will be as beautiful as the stars, which Poeta takes to mean he is destined for Astronomia. Magus provides magic rings to Astrologia, Physiognomus and Cheiroantes which will allow them to become invisible. However, Geometres reveals the rings to Polites and they are captured.

PIAMENTELLI

A Spanish lord loyal to Roderick in William Rowley's All's Lost by Lust. He brings Julianus the news of his banishment from the court and supports Roderick when the rebels march on his castle. He follows Roderick in exile to Biscany.

PIATO

A panderer in [?]Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy. Vindice takes this name as his disguise when he first comes to court. As Piato, he mistakenly lures his master Lussurioso into an apparent assassination of the Duke. In turn, Lussurioso orders Piato's death and ironically hires Vindice to murder him. Vindice dresses the murdered Duke as Piato and, as Lussurioso watches, falls upon the corpse and stabs it. Lussurioso concludes that Piato murdered the Duke and escaped wearing the Duke's clothes.

PICCININO

Piccinino, servant to Camillus, Amedeus' next door neighbor, complains constantly about being inconvenienced by Camillus' orders in (?)Jeffere's The Bugbears. But he helps create the special effects that convince Amedeus that his residence is full of devilish spirits.

PICCOLOMINI**1607

The head castle guard officer, or castellan in Barnes's The Devil's Charter; he stands with Alexander to fight the approaching army of Charles. He prepares the men for battle.

PICENTIO**1639

A Florentine courtier in Dekker's(?) Telltale. Suspected by the Duke of being Victoria's lover. Enters with the court party and the Venetian princes for the Valentine game and chooses Victoria. The Duke announces that he must quickly leave the court and appoints Picentio to rule in his absence. Later, Picentio meets privately with Victoria, who reveals that the gem he chose in the Valentine game was not hers but belonged to Isabella instead. Victoria also tells him that Isabella loves him while she does not. Picentio then whispers a message for Isabella to Victoria and also gives her a ring (this exchange is secretly observed by Aspero, Gismond, and Cosmo). When Aspero, Gismond, and Cosmo confront Picentio and Victoria with the Duke's warrant, Picentio proclaims his innocence and his loyalty. He also explains to Aspero that his conference with Victoria and the ring he gave her were for Isabella rather than Victoria herself. Picentio agrees to Aspero's suggestion of a public trial and, along with Victoria, is taken into custody by Julio, disguised as the slave Corbino. After escaping with Julio's assistance, Picentio disguises himself as a French Doctor. In disguise, Picentio examines Isabella's urine as she is visited by Aspero. Picentio asks to speak privately with Isabella and, after Aspero and the lords exit, he tells her that she is not sick but instead is in love with Picentio. As the French Doctor he tells her that Picentio is dead but that he can make his ghost appear. Picentio exits and returns as his ghost. He confirms his love for Isabella and tells her that he died in prison, strangled by Aspero's order. He exits and returns again as the French Doctor. He tells Isabella to return to her chamber and continue her feigned illness while he prepares a potion that will make Aspero hate her. The start of Picentio's next scene is missing. When Aspero visits Isabella in her chamber, Picentio appears as his ghost, frightening Aspero while Isabella claims not to see him. He exits and returns as the French Doctor, telling Aspero that Isabella is sick with love for him and that Aspero should begin to prepare for their wedding. After Aspero exits and Cosmo, Gismond, and Fernese enter, Picentio hears that the Duke and Duchess are both alive and are gathering a force at Castle Angelo. Picentio removes his French Doctor disguise briefly to identify himself to them. Bentivoli enters and is informed of the news and then tells a fable, to show their need to rely on themselves alone against Aspero. Disguised as the French Doctor, Picentio enters with Aspero, Isabella and the court for Aspero's coronation and marriage to Isabella. After Aspero promises to prove his innocence in relation to the charges of tyranny, Picentio causes the spirits of the Duke, Duchess, Julio, Captain, Lieutenant and Ancient to appear, and orders them to indicate their approval or disapproval of Aspero. When Bentivoli asks him why the ghost of Picentio did not appear, he replies that Picentio must not be dead. Picentio tells Aspero that the ghosts wish to perform a dance before they depart. When Aspero asks what the seizure of the crown and scepter mean, Picentio, dropping the French Doctor disguise, indicates that Aspero's treachery has been exposed. Picentio listens to Bentivoli's fable and witnesses the arrival of the purged Garullo. He exits with the court to celebrate his wedding to Isabella along with Elinor's marriage to Hortensio.

PICK, CAPTAIN **1636

A diminutive captain of the Twibill knights in Glapthorne’s Hollander. He is a hothead and becomes enraged when he learns the knights met last evening without him.

PICKADILLE

Lady Goldenfleece's fool in Middleton's No Wit, No Help Like a Woman's. The clown's satirical comedy consists primarily of poking fun at the many suitors courting his wealthy mistress.

PICKARIE

A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. A guest at the wedding of Dissimulation and Love.

PICKBONE

Never appearing on stage in the play, Francis Pickbone is mentioned as an old crony of Shallow's during the latter's law education in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.

PICKLOCK

Pennyboy Junior's lawyer and self-serving con artist in Jonson's The Staple of News. He is the "Emissary Westminster" or court-of-law reporter for the Staple of News. He pretends to be working for Pennyboy Junior, but actually plans to secure Pecunia's hand for himself. He also tricks Pennyboy Senior into thinking he will secure Pecunia for him, while encouraging Pennyboy Junior in the plan to invite Pecunia to a tavern and out of Pennyboy Senior's influence. At the same time, he informs the jeerers of the dinner and invites them to attend and try to lure Pecunia away from Penny boy Junior. After Pennyboy Senior has gone mad, Picklock gleefully joins the jeerers in their wit-contest with Pennyboy Canter. After Pennyboy Canter reveals himself, Picklock attempts to sue him, claiming that the estate had been deeded to him for safekeeping. However, the box containing the deed is intercepted by Pennyboy Junior, who restores the estate to his father, and Picklock exits to Pennyboy Canter's promise to have him jailed.

PICOTE

A Frenchman in the Spanish service at Brussels in Chapman's The Conspiracy of Charles, Duke of Byron. He ingratiates himself with Byron when the latter appears as ambassador to the Archduke.

PICTISH YOUTH

Disguise used by Philicia in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia when she is "resolv[ed] to be taken prisoner" until she finds that the Queen has pardoned Arviragus and there is "freedome in the Campe."

PICUS

Picus is the proper name of the Page attendant upon the Foole in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. Essentially he is the Foole's boy servant, the Page often bears the brunt of the Foole's jokes. He is present at the end of the play to witness the moment when Memnon regains his sanity and the princess Calis is united with her beloved Polidor.

PICUS MIRANDULA

Only mentioned in Marmion's A Fine Companion. Picus Mirandula was supposedly born incredibly wise and therefore never needed to study. Aurelio, disguised as a doctor, claims to have effected a mad astronomer's cure by uttering phrases from Mirandula.

PIE, HUGH

A "ghost character" in Udall's Ralph Roister Doister. Sir Hugh Pie is one of the individuals Merrygreek admits to having sponged from before taking up with Ralph Roister Doister.

PIEDMANTLE

One of the jeerers (idle hecklers) in Jonson's The Staple of News. Shunfield, Piedmantle, Madrigal, Fitton, Cymbal, and Almanac hound Pennyboy Senior, mocking him, and also a suitor to Pecunia, Infanta of the Mines. A herald in training, he is exposed as a mere "canter" or jargonist by Pennyboy Canter.

PIEMENTELLI

A "ghost character" in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon. One of the leaders of the Babylonian Armada, he and his ships are sunk by the Fairy fleet.

PIERCE

Pierce is the servant in charge of the wine cellars at the New Inn in Jonson's The New Inn. Pierce enters with Ferret, Stuff/Trundle, Peck, Jug, and Jordan, finding Tipto and Fly in absorbed worship of the wine jug. The merry group of servants indulges in gossip and drinking, patronized by Tipto and Fly, who join them in libations. Pierce tells Tipto he will draw him red wine or, as his metaphoric language puts it, Juno's milk that dyed the lilies, cream of grape that dropped from Juno's breasts, or the blood of Venus, mother of the rose. When the whistle sounds for dinner, the drunkards disperse and all servants go to wait on their masters. Pierce re-enters in the final scene, when Beaufort announces his marriage to Frank/Laetitia. When Host and all present mockingly congratulate Beaufort on his marriage to a boy, Pierce joins in the merriment. It is understood that Pierce attends the final revelation scene.

PIERO**1606

A gentleman with whom Vindice and Hippolito plot to assassinate the ruling family in [?]Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy. He takes part in the final masque of revengers.

PIERO**1621

Piero, a follower of Gonzaga in Massinger's The Maid of Honor.

PIERO**1631

Piero is the son of the Duke of Florence in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom. He first appears in the play's initial major conflict, contending with the banished Angelo Lotti. Assuming that Angelo tried to break up the arranged marriage between his sister Fiammetta and the Prince of Pisa, he challenges Angelo to a swordfight. Lord Vanni stops this, and reminds Angelo that he has been banished from Florence. After Angelo's departure, Iasparo, Piero's friend, defends Angelo to the suspicious Piero, citing Angelo's gentlemanly virtues. Ultimately persuaded, Piero pities Angelo and promises neither to harm Angelo nor to stand in his way again. In his later appearances, Piero's business is mostly expository. In the final act, Piero defies his father to defend Angelo and support his marriage to Fiammeta.

PIERO **1638

A dependant of Adurni in Ford's The Lady's Trial. He is the friend of Futelli, with whom he plots the joke-courtship of Amoretta by Guzman and Fulgoso.

PIERO SFORZA

I.
Duke of Venice in Marston's Antonio and Mellida. He first appears in the play's Induction wherein the actors comment upon their parts (though the speech headings identify them only by their character names). He is Mellida's father, Rossaline's uncle, and vengeful victor over Andrugio, Duke of Genoa, and his family. He boasts in Latin that he is "most exalted of the gods," offers money for the heads of Andrugio and his son, Antonio, and declares he will not allow Mellida to marry Antonio. Indeed, he announces that he will drink from Antonio's skull and become legendary for slaying him. When Mellida flees to find Antonio, Piero tracks her down and forces her to marry Galeatzo. Right up to the middle of the final scene, Piero epitomizes the name Sforza, made shorthand for "tyrant" in the 16th century by the Sforza dukes of Milan. In the closing moments of the comedy, however, Andrugio marches in to claim Piero's love as reward for his head, and Piero's hate turns to love and honor for Andrugio. As the final stanzas approach, Piero also welcomes Antonio and gives his permission for Mellida to wed Antonio.
II.
Piero Sforza is the Duke of Venice in Marston's Antonio's Revenge. He is the first character on stage following the Prologue. He orders Strotzo to tie the dead body of Feliche's son to Piero's sleeping daughter Mellida. Piero states that he has just killed his rival Andrugio. Feliche was killed to cover Piero's tracks. Piero explains that he lost Maria to Andrugio long ago and has always planned on reaping vengeance for the dishonorable defeat. Apparently, Piero allowed Andrugio's son Antonio to be betrothed to Mellida for the sole purpose of making Andrugio's fall into death more precipitous. Piero hatches a plan to woo Maria anew. He hopes to "poison the father, butcher the son and marry the mother–ha!" After Antonio discovers Feliche's corpse in Mellida's chamber window, Piero has Mellida arrested as a whore. Piero informs Pandulpho that he has killed young Feliche for deflowering Mellida. Piero then affects surprise at the news that Andrugio has died. While watching Andrugio's funeral, Piero expresses a resilient hatred for Antonio. Piero reveals to the audience in a soliloquy that he plans to kill Antonio, woo Maria and marry off Mellida to a Florentine gentleman. By doing so, Piero plans to use his control over Venice, Genoa and Florence for an attack on Rome. After recruiting Balurdo, Piero theorizes that ambitious men are most successful when they employ with loyal, stupid followers. Piero angers Pandulpho by denying young Feliche a proper burial. He cements Pandulpho's distrust when he further reveals that: 1) Andrugio is dead; 2) Mellida will be condemned; and 3) Piero wants Pandulpho to assist in the framing of Antonio. When Pandulpho refuses to help, Piero banishes him from Venice. Piero spies on Antonio's meeting with Mellida in prison so that he can laugh at the lovers' anguish. Piero then resolves anew to woo Maria. In order to save Mellida from execution, Piero convinces Strotzo to confess to falsely testifying against Antonio's bride. Strotzo is instructed to tell the court Antonio paid him to slander Mellida. In this way, Mellida will live, but Antonio will die. What Strotzo is not told is that Piero plans for Strotzo to die immediately thereafter, taking the conspiracy with him to his grave. At Mellida's trial, Piero calls for Strotzo and Antonio to appear. When Strotzo confesses to false testimony, Piero and Castillo strangle him. When Piero learns that Mellida has died in grief over the false rumor that Antonio is dead, Piero's first thought is to commence with his wedding to Maria. He expresses no real sorrow. In a dumb show, Piero is condemned as a criminal by Galeatzo before an assembly of Venetian senators. He tries to revive his spirits by getting drunk and watching a masque. Unfortunately for Piero, Antonio, Alberto and Pandulpho are three of the courtiers disguised for the masque. They yank out his tongue and then slowly stab him to death as he is tied to a chair. As he lay dying, Antonio presents Piero with a cooked dish made with Julio's corpse.

PIERPINTE

Pierpinte is brother to Maud, brother-in-law to Chremes, and uncle to July, Nane and Dick in the anonymous July and Julian. He is a wealthy man who lives in the country, and has just come to pay a visit to his relatives.

PIERRE, LORD S.

In Thomas Heywood's 2 Edward IVSt. Pierre is a French nobleman who derides the Duke of Burgundy to the French king.

PIERS

A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. Piers and Plain are the poor tenants of the Country Gentleman; Sateros says the Country Gentleman steals their bread and cheese.

PIERS GAVESTON

Edward II's love for Piers Gaveston is presented as the ultimate cause of the war, executions, and abdication chronicled in Marlowe's Edward II. For the love of Gaveston the king spurns Queen Isabella and accepts the armed rebellion of his nobility. Edward II bestows many titles on this non-noble Frenchman, including Lord High Chamberlain, Chief Secretary to the state, and Earl of Cornwall, enraging Lancaster, Mortimer, Warwick, and other barons, and earning the enmity of the church. Gaveston attacks the barons verbally for glorying in their lineage, and urges Edward to bring Spencer, another man of non-noble birth, into his court. Jealous of Gaveston's influence over the king, the rebellious nobles capture Gaveston, and Warwick beheads him (in 1312).

PIERS PLOWMAN

He comes with Honesty to the King in the anonymous A Knacke To Knowe A Knave in order to present a petition against Walter, the farmer. Piers is a simple peasant with wife and family. Walter deals sharply with the simple people. He buys up all the land, puts prices down and generally oppresses them.

PIETRO**1629

This companion of Lodwick in Shirley's Grateful Servant agrees to try to seduce Lodwick's wife Astella, forcing her into infidelity and then divorce. Though at first Pietro claims to have accomplished what Lodwick asked, he eventually admits that Astella rebuffed him and remains chaste.

PIETRO**1634

Pietro is a courtier in the duchess' court in Urbino in Shirley's The Opportunity. He is the second person to mistake the visiting Aurelio for Borgia, and he remarks that "Borgia" may repent having returned.

PIETRO**1637

Pietro is Simphorosa's servant in Shirley's Royal Master. With Iacomo, he brings meat and drink to Bombo, Domitilla's illiterate secretary who hides to avoid being brought before the king.

[PIETRO] ARETINO

A "ghost character" in Marston's What You Will mentioned by Quadratus as a satirist whose opinion he would respect and to whom he compares his friend Canaidus.

PIETRO IACOMO

Pietro Iacomo, Duke of Genoa in Marston's Malcontent, has deposed Giovanni Altofronto (now disguised as Malevole) before the opening of the play. Duke Pietro is entertained by the railing of Malevole, who also reveals to him Aurelia's affair with Mendoza. When Mendoza convinces Pietro of his innocence, and shifts the blame to Ferneze, the two plot to kill Ferneze, and carry out their plan, though Ferneze later recovers from his wounds in secret. When Malevole reveals to Pietro Mendoza's plan to kill him, Pietro goes to court disguised as a hermit and reports his own death. Mendoza tries to arrange for the hermit and Malevole to poison each other in the citadel. Pietro ultimately expresses regret for his actions as Duke, and when he declares his support for Duke Altofronto, Malevole reveals to him his true identity. During a masque celebrating Maria's return to court, Pietro arrives with Celso, Malevole, and Ferneze disguised as Genoan dukes. Ultimately Pietro is reunited with Aurelia after Malevole reveals his identity and is restored as Duke.

PIETY

A part taken by one of the Roman soldier masquers performing in honour of Titus's Triumph in Hemminge's The Jews' Tragedy. They appear as Time, Piety, Temperance, Chastity, Friendship, Constancy and Patience. Their masque underlines the royal virtues of Titus and incites him to judgement of the prisoners-of-war.

PIG**1567

A "ghost character" in Pickering's Horestes. Hodge refuses to apologize to Rusticus when the latter learns that his dog has worried one of his pigs to death. They ultimately make up and go for a brown ale at Rusticus's house.

PIG**1632

Servant to Dorcas in Brome's The Weeding of Covent Garden.

PIGG

In the sequence with Cressida and the Beggars in Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida, this name appears discretely, perhaps an actor's name (possibly a boy playing a beggar or maid?).

PIGG, PYTHAGORAS **1636

One of the knights of the order of the Twibill in Glapthorne’s Hollander. He was once Fortress’ assistant but has been knighted. He is on hand at Sconce’s initiation into the order.

PIGOT

‘Master of an Inn The Tarlton’ in Percy’s Cuckqueans and Cuckolds Errants. He opens the second act complaining to Nim and Shift for eating his meat and drink without having money to pay for it and intends to keep Shift’s coat in payment. He agrees to wait until Nim can steal the ‘Bolle’ and praises him when he does, joking that Nim trading a hare for the ‘Bolle’ is truly ‘coney-catching’. He sings a song of thanksgiving for it. He stands silently by and enjoys watching as Pearle discovers that his prize has been taken. He keeps the ‘Bolle’ in surety against Nim and Shift’s reckoning and promises to return it if they pay within a month and a day. Encouraging the sport, he goes to raise up the street against Pearle when Pearle threatens to beat Christian. He then helps Nim and Shift, pretended to be sergeants, extort forty shillings (two Angels apiece) and wine from Pearle to avoid arrest. He also keeps the coins from Nim and Shift against the bill they have not paid. When all is finally resolved between the cuckolds and cuckqueans, Pigot returns the ‘Bolle’ to Pearle in exchange for Pearle’s promise of lenience to Nim and Shift, but he keeps the money for himself in payment of their reckoning.

PIGOT, MORGAN

Early in Peele's Edward I, Morgan Pigot, a Welsh harper and alleged seer, delivers a rhymed prophesy predicting that Lluellen will ultimately defeat Edward.

PIGWIGGIN **1632

An informal disguise, or persona, or impersonation that Asotus proposes to bestow upon Bomolochus while roaring at Ballio's house in Randolph's Jealous Lovers.

PIKE, DICK

The hero of the play in the anonymous Dick of Devonshire. He is a squire of Tavistock in Devon and captain of the ship Convertine. He shines in the first attack, refuses treatment for a wound in his side, and tries to carry the initial naval advantage onto shore. There he defeats Don John in single combat, but as the Spaniard is surrendering, twelve Spanish musketeers arrive to capture the Englishman. Don John treacherously wounds him in the face after he has been disarmed, and while Pike is being led off to prison a Fleming wounds him again. When Don John's wife, Catelina, comes to thank him for his chivalric behavior, he first suspects but then thanks her. During his trial, he is examined on the strength of the English army, and speaks boldly if not accurately. He insists that it was Don John, not he, who attacked first; he only defended himself. Asked by Girona if he will fight, he says that he will, even in chains. Unchained but unarmed, he defeats Tiago; then, armed only with a quarterstaff, he defeats three Spanish soldiers armed with sword and dagger, killing one and disarming the other two. All of his judges honor him. Invited by the king to join the royal service, he declines, and is sent home to Devon laden with praise and with gold.

PILCH

The second fisherman in Pentapolis is called Pilch in Shakespeare's Pericles. A Pilch is a course leather or skin coat. It could likely be no more than a nickname used in jest.

PILCHER

Pilcher is Lazarillo's page in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. The name suggests a small fish, usually dried. Pilcher and Lazarillo are in the street before Blurt's house. While his master confesses his undying love for Imperia, the practical Pilcher reminds Lazarillo that she is a courtesan, alluding to his more immediate need for food. Pilcher informs Lazarillo that Blurt distributes the housing for foreigners in Venice. Seeing Doyt and Dandiprat approach, Pilcher asks them about the constable's house. When Lazarillo exits with Blurt and Slubber, Doyt and Dandiprat re-enter and the two pages make fun of Pilcher's stature and his being so thin and undernourished. Doyt, Dandiprat, and Pilcher sing a comic song about the Spaniard's being a cheapskate because he keeps his page fed on dry fish, playing on the pun of Pilcher's name.

PILGRIM**1602

A disguise assumed by Bellamira in the anonymous 2 Fortune's Tennis. This is perhaps also a reference to another pilgrim character. Because of the disintegrated state of the plot, this is impossible to determine with certainty.

PILGRIM**1621

A Pilgrim accompanies Pedro to Alphonso's house in Fletcher's The Pilgrim. He is said to be young and handsome, like his companion. He speaks to Alinda and Juletta when Pedro is tongue-tied, but then disappears and never returns into the play's narrative.

PILGRIM**1633

Disguise adopted by Agenor in Montague's The Shepherd's Paradise when he leaves the Shepherd's Paradise.

PILGRIM**1638

A disguise that the Duke of Verona uses to follow his son in (?)Brome's The Cunning Lovers. He meets the Necromancer who recognizes him under the disguise. He has come with his army to confirm the marriage of his son in case that the Duke of Mantua refuses to accept the union of the two heirs.

PILGRIMS

The Pilgrims in Dekker's If It Be Not Good arrive at the Neapolitan priory and ask if they can rest there. Shacklesoule convinces the Prior to turn them away, arguing that they are merely idle vagabonds.

PILGRIMS, TWO

They are at the Shrine of Our Lady of Loreto in Webster's The Duchess of Malfi. They act as chorus to the dumb show and witness the investiture of the Cardinal as soldier and the banishment of Antonio and the Duchess in III.iv.

PILIA–BORZA

Pilia-Borza is a thief in league with Bellamira in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. He first visits her during the Turkish siege, when she is complaining about the loss of business. He brings her a bag of money stolen from Barabas. He helps Bellamira seduce Ithamore and convince him to demand money from Barabas. He then serves as messenger, bringing Ithamore's demands for money to Barabas. Pilia-Borza pretends that the first demand of three hundred crowns is refused, but it is later revealed that he has pocketed the money. He returns with a demand for five hundred crowns, which Barabas gives with great reluctance. When Bellamira and Pilia-Borza hear about the deaths of Mathias and Lodowick from Ithamore, they decide to go to Ferneze. Before they do so, Barabas, disguised as a French Musician, poisons them all with a tainted flower, but the poison does not kill them until after they have told all they know to Ferneze.

PILLADES

Pillades or Pilades or Pylades is Orestes' friend, and lover of Electra in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age; he is visiting in Mycene when the victorious Greeks return from Troy. He and Orestes, disguised as Menelaus' men, deliver Cethus' forged letter to Clitemnestra and Egistus and are admitted to their citadel on the strength of it. Though horrified by Orestes' matricide, he stays with his crazed friend, but is killed by Cethus during the bloody wedding of Pyrhus and Hermione.

PILUMNUS

The High Priest of Ceres, father to Damon, Urania and the deceased Philaebus in Randolph's Amyntas. Claius's theft of his late son's intended bride, Lalage, long ago provoked Pilumnus to invoke revenge from the goddess Ceres. This led to the curse on marriage in the island. His daughter defies him in her constant love for Amyntas. Despite his fury, he repents his harshness, which prompted the oracle, and he is moved to grief for the plight of the island. His under priest, Corymbus, has searched for Claius to kill him, but he has failed and returned. With Corymbus, he discovers the stricken body of Amaryllis, wounded by Damon, and is appalled at the shedding of her blood on sacred soil. He must sentence his own son, Damon, to death for the sacrilegious assault. He arranges the execution to coincide with the sacrifice of Claius, who has been found. Pilumnus suffers greatly at the cruel fate facing him–to save his son or defy his goddess. He prays, and chooses piety over a father's private feelings. Ironically, he sees his son's life saved by the son of his old enemy. He proclaims Amyntas a hero for this and also for lifting the curse on the island. He is finally reconciled to Claius and rejoices that their children are free to marry each other. He pronounces the epilogue invoking happiness for all true lovers.

PIMOS

A young gentleman in Whetstone's 2 Promos and Cassandra. He is involved in a dispute over compensation with Lyros. Ulrico mediates their dispute.

PIMP of NAPLES **1636

He negotiates with the soldiers in Killigrew’s The Princess for their prisoner-slaves but thinks two thousand sestertia is too high a price for Cecelia.

PIMPONIO

This servant of Aurelio in Shirley's The Opportunity is left behind at Grutti's inn while his master and Pisauro explore the city. Certain that his unreturned master is dead, Pimponio uses his master's gold and sets himself up as a Spanish prince, disguised and intent upon courting the duchess. When Grutti and Ascanio trick Pimponio into appearing at court, the masquerading servant next claims to be the Duke of Ferrara. Pimponio's farce ends when he leaves Urbino, again in service to Aurelio.

PIMPWELL, ALEXANDER.

Described in the dramatis personae as a "creature" of the gallants in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden, Alexander Pimpwell acts as an assistant to them in the early acts of the play. In Act Four he wanders past the prison and happens to discover the escape attempt of Sir Reverence Lamard when Lamard pisses on his head.

PINAC

Friend of Mirabel in Fletcher's Wild-Goose Chase. He is in love with Lillia-Bianca. Like Mirabel and Belleur, loves women and freedom, but finds himself quickly in love with Lillia-Bianca, who he mistakes for an angry and lustful young maid. He soon discovers that instead she is a merry and happy young woman; this discovery only makes him love her more deeply. He temporarily loses her when he shows an interest in Mariana, but later realizes who Mariana is and returns his affections to Lillia-Bianca, whom he marries at play's end.

PINCH, DOCTOR

Doctor Pinch is an Ephesian schoolmaster in Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors. Adriana and the Courtezan enlist Doctor Pinch to perform a sort of exorcism upon Antipholus Sereptus. In Pinch's opinion, both Antipholus and Dromio are spirit-possessed.

PINCHBACK TRUEPENNY **1627

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Father of Plutus, god of wealth. He is the "rich usurer of Islington" and a friend of Scrape-all's.

PINCHBUTTOCK

A fictional character in Middleton's Anything for a Quiet Life. Upon Franklin's alleged death, Old Franklin decides to pay all his son's debts and asks George to identify Franklin's creditors for him. George reads a list, which contains the name of Pinchbuttock, a hosier in Birchen Lane. The street was known for dealers in old clothes, but George tells Old Franklin that his son owed the money for fourscore pairs of breeches. When the father asks why his son needed so many pairs of breeches, George explains Franklin supplied a Captain, a friend of his, who went over to war.

PINDARUS **1599

Pindarus is a servant of Cassius in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. He warns his master on the battlefield to fly farther off because Antony is too close, and he holds his sword for Cassius to run upon and avoid being taken prisoner.

PINDARUS**1601

Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Pindarus (7th century BC) was a poet from Thebes who studied under Corinna and wrote odes and lyrics to the victories of the Olympian Games. On of the most recited ones is the one about Diagaorus who was an old athlete, and whose three sons won at the Olympic Games, causing Diagaorus to die of joy. After Virgil has Crispinus take an emetic to throw up his bad words, he then prescribes Crispinus to observe a strict and wholesome diet. Virgil suggests ironically that Crispinus should read, with a tutor, the best Greek authors, among whom Virgil mentions Pindarus.

PINDARUS**1609

Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Pindarus (7th century BC) was a poet from Thebes who studied under Corinna and wrote odes and lyrics to the victories of the Olympian Games. At his house, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When Clerimont asks him about the classical poets, Daw refers to them in a deprecating manner, including Pindarus in the long list of unworthy poets.

PINDARUS**1637

A lord, father to Hermione in Berkeley's The Lost Lady. Obsessed with money, he favors Ergasto's claims to the love of his daughter against those of Eugenio and Lysicles. He is tricked by Hermione into thinking that she really loves Ergasto, only to do away with the more powerful claim of Lysicles, and gain time for Eugenio to return from exile. Eventually he accepts Eugenio as son-in-law, once the latter has become the governor of Thessaly.

PINEDA

Pineda and Centella are Spanish sycophants who fawn over Queen Isabella in Heywood's A Challenge for Beauty. They act as go-betweens when Valladaura purchases Ferrars and Manhurst at the slave-market. Queen Isabella sends them to England to get the ring from Hellena that Bonavida gave her to test her virtue. They do so by seducing Hellena's maid, Rosara, and persuading her to steal the ring. They then return to Spain, triumphantly announcing that Hellena is a whore. They are present at the 'marriage' of Valladaura and Petrocella and its aftermath. Just before Bonavida's execution, Hellena arrives and reveals their duplicity.

PINNACIA

Pinnacia is Stuff's wife in Jonson's The New Inn. At the New Inn, Pinnacia enters dressed as a lady, accompanied by Stuff as Trundle, whom she forbids to call her wife. The haughty Pinnacia says that, in such gown, she cannot call her husband anything but her bodyguard. Pinnacia demands to know why she has been brought at the inn, and Stuff explains that she may see fashions and wear them. Pierce tells Pinnacia that a group of ladies in the room above desire to have her company. Host enters and welcomes the "lady" Pinnacia to the inn, and she admires Host's gentlemanly behavior. When Lady Frampul enters with her party, she notices that Pinnacia is wearing the dress her tailor had designed for her. It is then revealed that Stuff disguised himself as Trundle, the coachman, and he dressed his wife up in Lady Frampul's gown, which he had reported unfinished. Pinnacia discloses her husband's sexual fantasy. She relates how Stuff likes to dress her up in the gowns designed for the ladies, call her a countess, act as her footman and take her at an inn, where he has fiery sex with her in one of the rooms. Lady Frampul orders that Pinnacia should be stripped of her elegant clothes and sent home in a cart, wearing only her flannel. Stuff, the pretended footman, must walk before her and beat the drum. This practice was meant to ridicule the aggressive wife and the henpecked husband and, in this situation, it draws the public opprobrium on the sexually deviating couple.

PINNARIO

Pinnario is a gentleman of France and a suitor to Aurelia in the anonymous Ghost. On his way to the wedding between Octavian and Aurelia, he meets Procus and Valerio, and they decide to go together. Ignoring that Octavian is already dead, he agrees with his friends to take revenge on him, since he has won the heart of their beloved Aurelia. Soon he learns from the Friar that Octavian has been slain by Babilas. Once he has found out about his opponent's death, he thinks he still has a chance with Aurelia, but his hope soon vanishes when he hears that Senio has agreed to marry his daughter to Philarchus. Incensed, he goes as far as to break into the newlyweds' chamber with Valerio and Procus, at night, and beg Aurelia to kick her husband out of her bed. But he and his friends are soon dismissed by Engin, her servant. Later, he goes to Erotia's with his friends, where he is welcome and indentified as Erotia's benefactor. There, they meet Engin, and they decide to take revenge on him. But the latter misleads Pinnario and Procus into believing that Aurelia is eager to lie with them, however, he advises them to dress like women in order not to arouse Philarchus's suspicions. Nevertheless, what Engin really does is to send them to the closet where the old man is sleeping. When they find out they have been tricked, they decide to go on playing the game to tease Philarchus. Then, Aurelia finds Pinnario and Procus in her husband's closet and she pretends to be angry, though she soon reveals to them that they should not worry, because it was all a trick she had devised to play on her husband. Afterwards, Pinnario and his friend go to the cave, in the belief that Aurelia is awaiting them there. Instead, they meet the ghost of Octavian (Engin disguised), who asks them to confess their sins. He and his friend do, and they are all reconciled at the end. But Pinnario is forced to marry Cunicula, which he accepts.

PINNARIUS SCARPUS

General of Antonius in May's Cleopatra. He defects to Caesar after the Battle of Actium. Historically, this was Lucius Pinnarius Scarpus.

PINNER, WAKEFIELD

A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington. Wakefield Pinner is mentioned by Scarlet as an outlaw who loved Scathlock and himself well. When Prince John enters the forest in disguise, he sings a song by Wakefield Pinner (here spelled Pinder). (See "GEORGE A-GREEN").

PINNER of WAKEFIELD

See "GEORGE A GREENE."

PIONEERS

The Pioners [sic] raise an earthen siege tower around Balsera at Theridamas's command in Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great, Part 2.

PIORATO

Piorato, a swordsman, teaches Lucio how to fight in Fletcher, Beaumont, and Massinger's, Love's Cure. He is in love with Malroda, who seems to be playing him false with Vitelli. He brings Clara to a secret vantage to watch Vitelli seduce Malroda in the hopes that Clara can pry Vitelli's attentions away from Malroda. In the end, Malroda prefers Piorato, but the Assistant suggests that Piorato will need all the luck he can get for having married a whore. Unperturbed, Piorato counters that "'tis better than to marry an honest woman / That may prove a whore."

PIORATTO

Pioratto is a gallant in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore, one of the Duke's men. He is part of the counterfeit funeral procession the Duke stages to convince Hippolyto that Infelice is dead. Later, he agrees to try to make Candido angry, wagering one hundred ducats with Castruchio that the latter can not move Candido; it is a bet he wins. He visits Bellafront with the others and returns to find out why she did not appear for dinner, but he says little on either occasion except to comment bitterly on women's deceit. Castruchio, Pioratto and Fluello enter briefly with the Duke when he meets with the Doctor, but they are immediately dismissed. When Viola and George seek the Duke for a warrant freeing Candido from the madhouse, they meet Pioratto who tells them that the Duke is coming. Pioratto travels with the Duke to Bethlem Monastery to stop the marriage of Hippolyto and Infelice. While there, the First Madman mistakes him for his eldest son, the scoundrel. He joins with the others at play's end to ask the Duke to accept the marriage of Hippolyto and Infelice and is pleased when the Duke does so.

PIPE, GREGORY

A "ghost character" in Sharpham's Cupid's Whirligig. Young Lord Nonsuch disguises himself as Captain Woodly and encounters the courtier Nucome, who asks if Gregorie Pipe is Woodly's commanding officer. Woodly replies he is under the command of Captain Tobacco Pipe.

PIPENETTA

Pipenetta is a servant in Lyly's Midas. She brings news to the others of Midas' new ability to turn things into gold. She is one of a group of comic servants who steal and pawn Midas' golden beard. Forced to redeem it by the barber Motto, the servants have their revenge by tricking Motto into saying that the King has assess' ears, for which (by law) Motto should have his own ears cut off. However, when he pleads for mercy, the servants let him go.

PIPER**1591

A non-speaking character in Peele's Edward I. The Piper, along with the Priest and the Peddler, is ordered by Lluellen to give money to Friar Hugh ap David.

PIPER**1603

Only mentioned in the anonymous Narcissus. He is a juggler. Narcissus mentions him when he explains to Florida and Clois that if he loves anyone, that is "Tickler and Piper."

PIPER**1634

A musician conjured by Mall Spencer to play at Lawrence and Parnell's wedding celebration when the bewitched Fiddlers cannot in Heywood and Brome's The Late Lancashire Witches. The piper has no lines but plays a dance for the wedding guests, at the end of which he and Mall mysteriously vanish.

PIPEROLLO

A comic, rustic character in Shirley's The Sisters; the son of Fabio and Morulla, whom he betrays to Frapolo and the other bandits in return for his own safety. He tries to become one of the bandits, but the band hates him for betraying his parents and contemptuously throws him back to them. Rejected by them, too, Piperollo finds employment in the household of Paulina and is delighted when she is visited by a band of fortune-tellers who predict that he will become a knight. The fortune-tellers are in fact the bandits again in disguise, and, when Piperollo tells them all about his imminent departure to collect money for Paulina, they predict that he will be robbed and beaten on the way. He is anxious only that they should be right, as his knighthood depends on their accuracy, and when, sure enough, he is robbed on his journey, he insists on being beaten as well. At the end, he is surprised to discover that his employer, Paulina, is in fact his sister, who had been switched at birth.

PIPKIN

Servant to Young Master Arthur and Mistress Arthur in (?)Heywood's How A Man May Choose A Good Wife From A Bad. Sent by Mistress Arthur to the Exchange to bring Young Master Arthur home. He meets Young Master Arthur and accompanies him home. Later, arrives late for his Latin grammar lesson with Aminadab and the two Boys. After creatively misconstruing his lesson, Pipkin leaves early in order to run an errand for Mistress Arthur. Mistress Arthur questions Pipkin about the whereabouts of Young Master Arthur, and he covers his lack of knowledge with nonsense. Mistress Arthur orders Pipkin to search again for Young Master Arthur and then return to school. Pipkin expresses his reluctance to return to school, since, at age 24, he is the oldest student in the grammar school. He meets Young Master Arthur and asks him to come home; Young Master Arthur refuses and instead tells Pipkin that he will be out all night. He also tells Pipkin to give a purse of money to Mistress Arthur to buy supplies for the feast with, and to invite Justice Reason, Old Master Arthur, and Old Master Lusam to dinner tomorrow. Pipkin next appears with Mistress Arthur and the Maid preparing the house for Young Master Arthur's feast. When Justice Reason and Hugh arrive, Pipkin arranges with Hugh to steal some food once the feast is under way. When the feast starts, Pipkin waits at the table, and is comically questioned about his learning by Aminadab. At the end of the feast, Pipkin exits with Young Master Arthur and Mistress Arthur, and then quickly returns to announce Mistress Arthur's supposed death to Master Anselm, Master Fuller and Young Master Lusam, Hugh, Justice Reason, Old Master Arthur and Old Master Lusam. Pipkin next appears after Young Master Arthur and Mistress Mary are married. Mistress Mary dismisses Pipkin from the household as a way of tormenting Arthur.

PIPPEAU **1619

Spelled Pipeau in the dramatis personae to Fletcher’s Bloody Brother. One of the five cheating rogues (called mathematicians, they are fraud astrologers) along with Norbrett, LaFiske, Russe, and DeBube. He is their boy. When LaFiske claims Pippeau is slothful, Pippeau retorts with a litany of the people he’s helped them cheat by hiding their property where his masters (for a fee) could find it. He assists his masters, who take Latorch’s money and tell him whatever horoscope he wishes to hear. Aubrey orders the “mathematicians" whipped for their knavery and also orders them to witness Latorch’s hanging.

PIPPO, HOLIFERNES

One of the pupils of the Pedant in Marston's What You Will. He is chosen by Simplicius Faber as a page. He subsequently dresses up as a merchant's wife named Perpetuana in order to fool his master.

PIRACCO

Piracco is a captain under General Castracagnio in the Duke of Tuscany's army in Davenant's The Siege. At the beginning of the play, he is an aggressive soldier who loves combat. He is also something of a bully who extorts money from his own men, Ariotto and Lizaro. He refers to the men as his "exchequer" or cash-box. Piracco limps due to a putrid abscess in his leg, the after effect of a battle wound. Piracco shows his bloodthirsty disposition when he fumes at Castracagnio's postponement of the battery on Pisa. When Piracco challenges Mervole's extortion of Ariotto and Lizaro, the captain and his ensign fight. Mervole irritates Piracco's abscess and Piracco is left surrendering his money, cuffs and sword to Mervole. After that incident, Piracco completely loses his courage and begins to fear battle. After Mervole is injured in a duel and mistakes Ariotto and Lizaro for valiant fighters, Piracco is ganged up upon by the three new partners in crime. Piracco is forced to surrender the shirt off his back to Mervole. At the end of the play, Piracco is accused of abuse of power before General Castracagnio. He accepts the justness of the charge and seems remorseful.

PIRACQUO, ALONZO de

Alonzo de Piracquo, a nobleman, has arranged with Vermandero to marry his daughter, Beatrice-Joanna in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling. Alonzo is a trusting innocent, and cannot accept his brother Tomazo's opinion that Beatrice shows "small welcome in her eye". Alonzo is murdered by DeFlores at Beatrice's request. DeFlores cuts off one his fingers. Later, Alonzo's ghost haunts DeFlores, showing his hand with the missing finger.

PIRACQUO, TOMAZO de

A noble lord, brother of Alonzo in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling. Tomazo fails to convince his brother that Beatrice-Joanna does not love him. When Alonzo goes missing, Tomazo roams the castle, hoping to discover the murderer and be revenged. Although he is suspicious of both Alsemero and DeFlores, and tries to pick fights with both, Tomazo agrees with Vermandero that Antonio and Franciscus are the likeliest culprits. In the final scene, DeFlores and Beatrice are revealed as the true culprits. Since DeFlores kills Beatrice and himself, Tomazo feels that his thirst for revenge has been satisfied.

PIRAMONT

He is like Ardelan in Suckling's The Goblins. He is a former servant to the father of Orsabrin, involved in his secret departure from Francelia.

PIRATE CAPTAIN

A fictitious character in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. In Clorindo's story (a thinly veiled version of Silvia's own history), Sulia is captured by pirates, who plan to see her in Egypt, but is released when the captain takes pity on her.

PIRATE CAPTAIN'S INFANT

A fictitious character in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. In Clarindo's story (a thinly veiled version of Silvia's own history), the pirate captain's infant begins to weep when it sees the unfortunate Sulia.

PIRATE CAPTAIN'S WIFE

A fictitious character in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. In Clarindo's story (a thinly veiled version of Silvia's own history), the pirate captain's wife feels a natural sympathy for Sulia and pleads with her husband to release the young woman on Greek soil.

PIRATES**1601

"Ghost characters" in Shakespeare's Hamlet. After Hamlet is placed aboard ship for England, and after he has altered his death warrant to condemn Rosencrantz and Guildenstern instead, the ship is attacked by pirates. Hamlet is able to board the pirate vessel before it disengages. He bribes the pirates to return him to Denmark, where he arrives in time to witness Ophelia's funeral.

PIRATES**1608

Three pirates abduct Marina in Shakespeare's Pericles. In doing so, they inadvertently save her from poisoning by Leonine.

PIRATES**1634

These pirates attempt, with the English Slave, to kidnap Almira and Leonora for the purpose of selling them into sexual slavery to the Turks in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman. Antonio drives them away.

PIRITHIOUS

Pirithious is an Athenian general called cousin by Duke Theseus in Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen. He boasts a long history of campaigns and battles at Theseus' side; as a trusted compatriot he is asked to find service for the disguised Theban Arcite, and he places Arcite in service to Emilia. With Emilia and Hippolyta, Pirithious begs the Duke to be merciful to Palamon and Arcite.

PIRRA

Only mentioned in ?Clavell's The Soddered Citizen. Pirra is mentioned by Brainsicke when he is trying to make Undermine drunk. Pirra was "a prettie wench," called "the pure."

PISANDER**1623
Pisander, a gentleman of Thebes in Massinger's The Bondman. He disguises himself as a slave named Marullo and leads a slave's revolt against Timoleon. He wants to kill Leosthenes, because the latter has abandoned Pisander's sister, Statilia (who appears in the play disguised as Timandra). Pisander refrains from killing Leosthenes because Cleora asks him to. The slave revolt he leads is for a time successful. He is defeated by Timoleon, who is returning from war with Carthage, and jailed. Cleora, who has fallen in live with him, and runs to the jail to see him. Timagoras, Cleora's brother tries to execute him. But he is saved by Archidamus. At the play's close, Timoleon allows Pisander to marry Cleora.

PISANDER**1632

Pisander left court when Leon, senior, was banished by the duke in Tatham's Love Crowns the End. He left seeking the love of Leon's daughter, Gloriana. When he left court, he assumed the name of Lysander.

PISANIO

Pisanio is Posthumous Leonatus' faithful servant in Shakespeare's Cymbeline. He acts as a messenger between Imogen and his master when Posthumous Leonatus is banished. After Iachimo convinces Posthumous Leonatus that Imogen has been unfaithful, Posthumous Leonatus orders Pisanio to kill Imogen. Pisanio refuses to believe that Imogen has betrayed her husband. Through Pisanio, Posthumous Leonatus sends Imogen a letter asking her to meet him at Milford Haven, where, unbeknownst to her, Pisanio has instructions to kill her. Instead, Pisanio advises her to disguise herself as a man and join the Roman army until Posthumous Leonatus learns that his accusations are mistaken. As a parting gift, Pisanio gives Imogen the box of poison the Queen had given to him, which he believes is a cordial. When he returns to court, Pisanio sends Cloten on a wild goose chase to find Imogen. Cymbeline threatens to torture Pisanio for information about Imogen's disappearance. When Imogen returns to Cymbeline's court disguised as Caius Lucius' Page, Fidele, Pisanio chooses a strategic moment to reveal her true identity and set the reconciliations of the final act in motion.

PISANO **1631

Pisano is Cosmo's sworn brother in Shirley's The Traitor. When he determines to love Oriana instead of Amidea, Cosmo instantly relinquishes his interest in the woman for his friend. When he rejects Amidea, her brother, Sciarrha, murders him at the church.

PISANO**1636

Pisano is an officer serving under Lorenzo in Massinger's The Bashful Lover. He and Alonzo fight over the right to take the Duke of Mantua captive. They nearly kill each other in the exchange before Lorenzo orders them to act sensibly. Yet soon after, they capture Matilda and fight over which should rape her first. Alonzo kills Pisano in the fight.

PISARO

Pisaro is a Portuguese merchant and moneylender now living in England in Haughton's Englishmen for My Money. Three young Englishmen, Ned (Walgrave), Harvey, and Ferdinand (Heighton) are wooing his three daughters, Mathea, Marina, and Laurentia. These young men's fathers have pawned their lands to Pisaro. Pisaro scorns the Englishmen and mistrusts his daughters. He realizes that although the Englishmen love the daughters, that marrying them will regain the family lands from Pisaro. He dismisses Anthony, the ladies' tutor, when he is discovered to be the lovers' go-between. He then sends the clown, Frisco, to procure a replacement–a Frenchman who must speak Dutch, Italian, and be a good musician. Frightened that his daughters will marry the young men secretly, Pisaro decides to find three wealthy merchants to woo them, one Italian (Alvaro), one French (Delio) and the other Dutch (Vandalle). At the Exchange, Pisaro pretends to be friends with Harvey, Ferdinand and Ned and invites them back to his house between two and three. A letter arrives from his agent abroad: he must repay a loan of £200 to Towerson and Pisaro's ships were captured by Spanish galleys. Pisaro laments, demonstrating a very particular knowledge of the navigation of the Mediterranean. When Towerson asks for his £200 Pisaro grows angry. Pisaro tells Balsaro that he has had to hide because so many people are out to persecute him. When Ned coldly criticizes Pisaro for keeping them all there needlessly, Pisaro tells him that his daughters will be theirs, but asks them to defer their business till dinner time. Alvaro (the Italian) arrives with the good news that Pisaro's ship was not captured but was in fact blown to Candy. Pisaro is delighted that his future son-in-law is the one to bring the good news. The Exchange bell rings and the merchants must settle the day's business. Pisaro, now happy, agrees to pay Towerson's bill. It is one o'clock and Pisaro invites the foreigners back to his home for dinner. At home, he brings in his three daughters telling them they will marry the merchants. The girls ignore the foreigners. Harvey, Ferdinand and Ned arrive deliberately early but Pisaro lets them stay. Pisaro learns that his daughters plan to meet the English suitors that night. Pisaro tells the merchants to adopt the names of the young men and to arrive instead of them. Moore arrives to ask if his daughter Susan can sleep at Pisaro's house because his wife is giving birth. Pisaro says that she can sleep with Mathea. That night Pisaro pretends to sleep outside in the street so he may witness his plan's success. But instead of the merchants, Harvey, Ned and Ferdinand arrive, having learned of Pisaro's plan. The daughters and their suitors plan to elope, but Pisaro emerges and threatens to imprison the young men for their vicious crimes. Ned replies that Pisaro has their land and charges ten percent more than the law allows and that they will have Pisaro imprisoned for extortion. Pisaro then has Mouche (Anthony) charge his musket and lock the door to protect him from robbery. Later Pisaro overhears Mouche/Anthony speaking loudly to Harvey, defending Pisaro. Pisaro believes in Mouche/Anthony's loyalty. It is part of Anthony's trick, though. Harvey, as part of the subterfuge, announces that he is dying and wishes Marina, the daughter he wished to marry, happiness. Pisaro excitedly prepares the wedding feast. He allows Mistress Moore (Ned disguised) to enter. He lusts after her/him before sending her/him up to Mathea's room. He says that he will speak to her about marriage the next day. Pisaro next believes that he sends Anthony to find Balsaro, but it is actually his daughter Laurentia in disguise that he allows to leave the house. Despite the locked house, Mathea and Ned have met in Mathea's room and Laurentia has escaped. Browne informs Pisaro that Harvey is at the point of death, and if Harvey dies, Pisaro will have to surrender his mortgaged lands. Browne reveals that Harvey has made a will in which Marina is to receive all his lands on his death, and that Moore advises that Harvey should come to Pisaro's house to make sure it is enforced. When Harvey enters in a chair, Moore advises Pisaro to have Harvey marry Marina to invest her in the land while Harvey is alive. Otherwise Harvey's younger brother will inherit. Pisaro insists that Harvey marry Marina, immediately thereafter Harvey recovers his health. Balsaro arrives, dismayed that Pisaro was not present at the wedding ceremony. He has obeyed Pisaro's instructions (sent via "Mouche/Anthony") and married Laurentia to Ferdinand/Heighton. Laurentia confesses to imitating Anthony. Moore advises patience, but Pisaro calls down Mathea and Susan Moore. Moore reveals that his daughter cannot be upstairs because she stayed with her mother the whole night. Mathea and Susan Moore (Ned dressed as a woman) arrive. Ned calls Pisaro "father," explaining that he and Mathea are married and that he has blessed him with a son. Pisaro is horrified, but Moore points out that he has been outstripped and should turn his hatred to love. Pisaro relents and invites them all to a feast.

PISARO'S FACTOR

A "ghost character" in Haughton's Englishmen for My Money. Pisaro is suspicious that the Post has brought news to Towerson but not to him, and wonders if his factor's signature has been counterfeited. The factor sends a letter to Pisaro that makes it clear that he must repay a loan of £200 to Towerson. The letter also announces that Pisaro's ships were set upon by Spanish galleys and are lost.

PISAURO

Pisauro is Aurelio's friend and companion in Shirley's The Opportunity. He plays along when Aurelio accepts the role of Borgia, just as he does not immediately betray Pimponio's masquerade as a Spanish prince, though he connives with Grutti and Ascanio to reveal Pimponio's foolishness before the duchess. At the play's end, Pisauro leaves Urbino with Aurelio; both men go in search of wars.

PISCINUS

A non-speaking character in Wilde's Love's Hospital. "A dumbe Gentelman" and suitor to Facetia, Piscinus is mocked by Lepidus at the play's beginning but is permitted access to her by the "old Lord." After being in Facetia's presence for the first time he is ordered by her to return with an interpreter so that she will be able to understand what he is trying to say, and although she refuses his gift of pearl necklace, he expresses signs of hope when Nigella promises to deliver the gift to her on his behalf. When Lysander pits Piscinus and Aegidius against each other and promises the former that he will promote his suit to Facetia Piscinus gives him a bag of money which, at the play's end, is returned by Lepidus and is immediately given over to Columella for his services. Because Piscinus cannot speak he is unable to complete the task which Facetia outlines for her suitors and, thus, is eliminated from the competition for her hand in marriage.

PISISTRATUS**1638

Pisistratus is a miles gloriosus in love with Ethusa in Mead's Combat of Love and Friendship. He quarrels with his rival, the poet Lamprias. His attempts at wooing her with bombast fail, and Ethusa then has some fun by ordering him to woo her with poetry instead. In the final scene he tries to do so, with poetry supplied to him by Lamprias, but Lamprias has to prompt him constantly. In recompense he allows Lamprias to beat him up so that Lamprias can prove his valour, but it degenerates into a quarrel and everyone laughs at them.

PISO**1601

A "ghost character" in Marston's What You Will; another suitor of Celia.

PISO**1606

The son of the usurping Duke of Florence in Sharpham's The Fleire, Piso lives among his friends in England. He falls in love with Florida, but is tortured by the fact that she is a whore. Overcoming this objection, he protests his love for her and is persuaded to, along with Havelittle, to poison Sparke and Ruffel. Knowing that an Italian apothecary does business nearby, he goes to buy poison but is given a sleeping potion by the disguised Antifront instead. When Ruffel and Sparke seem to have been murdered, he and Havelittle are jailed. Although Florida testifies against him in court, he forgives her and promises to marry her before he is executed, when she herself is implicated and repents. When word arrives that his father has died, he renounces his claim to the Dukedom and publicly announces that Antifront is the rightful Duke of Florence. When Sparke and Ruffel are shown to be alive, he is happily united with Florida.

PISO**1612

Along with Lodowicke, Piso asks Lelia's father if he is Lelia's pander and is beaten by Lelia's father for the insult in Fletcher's The Captain. Piso and Lodowicke warn Frederick that Franck is in love with Jacamo and mock Jacamo. Despite Frederick's defending Jacamo's name by pulling a sword and threatening them, forcing them to admit that they are rascals in order to avoid a beating, Piso and Lodowicke plot to make Jacamo drunk and lead him to Franck, where they expect him to disgrace himself. Piso arranges with the Host to provide plenty of drink for Jacamo. Piso, Lodowicke, and the Host fail to out-drink Jacamo, who reveals that he knew their plot and beats Piso and Lodowicke. After Lelia's father tells Lodowicke that a rich, beautiful, young, and virtuous widow has fallen in love with him, and sends him to procure all the necessary accoutrements for a wedding, Lelia's father reveals that the intended groom is really Piso. Delighted with his luck, Piso marries Lelia, but is somewhat concerned when he discovers that not only is the purportedly virtuous widow the same woman whose reputation he had earlier insulted but also his father-in-law is the same man who had earlier beaten him. He resolves to make the best of the situation, however, especially as Lelia's father reveals that Piso and Lelia will have ample money to live on.

PISO**1624

The conspirators invite him to head their plot to dethrone Nero and succeed him as head of state in the anonymous Tragedy of Nero. Piso embraces the values of earlier republican Rome. When the conspiracy is discovered, he commits suicide in the noble tradition. In history his name is Gaius Calpurnius Piso.

PISO**1632

Friend to Fabritio in Brome's The Novella. He encourages Fabritio to defy his father's marriage plans. The two are escaping to Rome at the beginning of the play when they encounter Francisco and Horatio. The next day, he haggles with the Novella. She tells him that if in one month she has not found either a husband or someone who will pay the 2,000 ducats, she will sell herself to him at any price he names. He returns to the Novella's at the end of the play.

PISO, CNEUS

A "ghost character" in Jonson's Catiline. Cneus Piso is a Roman general, commander of the army in Spain. He is Catiline's ally. When Catiline incites the conspirators to rebellion against the Roman Senate, he lists their main allies and enemies. While Pompey in Asia is considered an enemy, Cneus Piso is listed as an ally.

PISO, LUCIUS

Lucius Piso, praetor of Syria in the anonymous Tragedy of Tiberius. He tells the Emperor of an uprising in Armenia led by Vonones. He is suborned by Tiberius and Sejanus to accompany Germanicus back to Armenia and there poison him. After the war with Armenia, Piso at first claims the wreath of victory for himself, but when Germanicus claims it Piso sprinkles it with poison before putting it on Germanicus' head. He returns to Rome only to be taken by an angry mob and torn to pieces for the murder of Germanicus. Historically this was Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, not Lucius.

PISSBREECH

Pissbreech is part of the watch and a mute character in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. The name is suggestive for this guard's cowardice. During their midnight watch, Blurt sees Curvetto climbing a rope ladder to Imperia's window. When Frisco calls for help against the pretended "thief," the constable orders Pissbreech and the others to take Curvetto away to prison. On the second round of the watch, Blurt orders his men to take the half-naked urine stinking Lazarillo to prison. In the street before Imperia's house, Blurt and his guards enter with the Duke to enforce the law when the incensed Venetian gentlemen want to kill Fontinel. When Camillo calls Blurt a peasant, the members of the watch jump with their swords to retaliate. Blurt restrains Kilderkin and Pissbreech from attacking the Venetian gentlemen.

PISTOCLERUS **1638

He is listed as “a news spreader" in the dramatis personae of Mayne’s Amorous War; he is the first citizen woman’s “servant" and warns the citizens to fly. He says the Thracians have taken the Bithynian ladies captive and are even now pillaging the city.

PISTOL

I.
Captain Pistol is an old confederate of Falstaff who is now his second lieutenant and a loyalist to King Henry IV in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.
II.
Pistol is a follower of Falstaff who, with Nym and Bardolph, succeed in making Slender drunk and picking his purse in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. He is fired because he will not deliver a love letter to Alice Ford. To avenge his discharge, Pistol tells Francis Ford about Falstaff's plans, which Ford does not believe. This leads Ford to disguise himself as a man named Brook to discover the truth from Falstaff.
III.
Along with Nym and Bardolph in Shakespeare's Henry V, Ancient Pistol is one of the Boar's Head characters, the companions of Henry's youth. Pistol has married Mistress Quickly, even though she had promised to marry Nym. When Bardolph is caught stealing and faces execution, Pistol endeavors to save his life, but his appeals do not spare Bardolph from being hanged. When Pistol captures a French soldier at the battle of Agincourt, Pistol's questions and the soldier's pleas for mercy work at cross purposes until the Boy arrives to serve as their translator. The Boy is able to explain that the soldier's name is Monsieur Le Fer, and eventually a ransom agreement is reached. Later, Henry orders his soldiers to kill their prisoners, so Pistol loses the ransom and Monsieur Le Fer loses his life. After the victory at Agincourt, Pistol bemoans the death of his friends (including Mistress Quickly of the malady of France and perhaps also Doll Tearsheet). He offends Fluellen, who makes him eat a leek. He determines to sneak back to England and make his living through thievery.

PISTON

Servant to Erastus in Kyd's Soliman and Perseda. Piston provides an element of comic relief early in the play. He is urged by Philippo to betray his master after Ferdinando's murder. He takes the recovered chain to Perseda and tells her what has happened, and that he will follow his master to Turkey. He delays Basilisco's attempt to find Erastus by giving him misinformation and challenging him to a fight. He arrives in Rhodes shortly after Erastus and gives him news. He is a witness to Erastus's trial and execution, and carries the news to Perseda in Rhodes. He stands with her when the Turks attack, and is killed by Soliman after Perseda's death.

PISTON**1635

Counselor to Syphax, king of Numidia in Nabbes' Hannibal and Scipio. At the outset of act two, he and Crates are trying to convince Syphax to ally with Carthage, as Numidia has traditionally done, but Syphax decides instead to ally with Rome and Scipio. A little later, after Hannibal has arrived, Piston conspires with Hannibal to change Syphax's mind by promising him the hand of Sophonisba. Played by Anthony Turner in the original production.

PISTOPHOENAX

Pistophoenax is "a disguiser of Religion" in Daniel's The Queen's Arcadia. He comes before Ergistus and Meliboeus, together with Techne, Colax, Lincus and Alcon, when Meliboeus says that he discovered him debating the "rites and mysteries" of Pan with Tyterus. Techne maintains that Pistophoenax is a very holy man. Ergistus removes Pistophoenax's mask to reveal the ugly face hidden below. When the outsiders are banished, Pistophoenax merely decides to find fresh victims elsewhere. He tells Lincus that they should have let him enter into Arcadia first, as his influence could have completely destabilized their society, leaving the Arcadians open to greater exploitation at the hands of the other outsiders.

PISTOR

A "ghost character" in Middleton's The Phoenix. Pistor does not appear in the play, but it is mentioned that he once sold his wife, and Tangle tells the tale.

PITFALL

Lady Tailbush's waiting-woman in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass.

PITHIAS

Pithias is a gentleman of Greece and Damon's friend in Edwards's Damon and Pithias. Accompanied by their servant Stephano, they arrive at Syracuse to see the Roman monuments. Stephano reports that Pithias is a noble young man, Damon's friend in school, who embraces the Pythagorean teachings and leads a virtuous life. On hearing of the cruel practices of the tyrant King Dionisius, Pithias wishes they had never come to such a place. Emphasizing the privilege of their true friendship, Pithias notes that, at times, they are in such total accord that they apparently lose their identity. When Damon is arrested on suspicion of espionage, Pithias is devastated. Overwhelmed with grief and melancholy, Pithias sings a sad song, but soon he recovers and decides to help his friend. When Damon is granted a two months' deferral of the sentence, Pithias offers himself as a hostage. On the day that Damon is supposed to return, Pithias marches to the scaffold to fulfill his promise to die for his friend. Pithias considers it an honor to die for his friend's sake, and his name will remain for eternity as a symbol of true friendship. Damon returns before the hour, and Pithias regrets not being given the occasion to die for his friend, insisting that the term set for Damon's arrival has passed. When King Dionisius, impressed with their devotion to each other, offers Damon his kingdom in exchange for his friendship, Pithias and Damon accept the king's sincere offer of amity.

PITHON

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. Mentioned by the Second Charite, when she is reminding Apollo of his good times as a hunter. She described Pithon as a dragon of scaly wings, wounded by Apollo. According to Greek mythology, Zeus was sometimes unfaithful to Hera, his wife. He fell in love with beautiful Leto, and from her he had twins: Apollo and Artemis. Bur jealous Hera took revenge by sending them the monstruous snake Pithon, thus provoking a lot of suffering. However, when Apollo grew up, he struck Pithon with an arrow from his bow.

PITTS

Pitts is a sergeant in Field's Amends for Ladies. He and Donner arrest Lord Proudly at the request of Seldom to whom Lord Proudly is indebted.

PITY**1513

He opens the anonymous Hick Scorner by announcing that he sprung from the Holy Ghost to give fallen mankind succor. Contemplation refers to him as "our master" when speaking to Perseverance. He is concerned that Poverty is in the land. On his later reentry, Pity attempts to break up a fight between Imagination, Hick Scorner, and Free Will, but they turn their mischief upon him. Imagination accuses him falsely of lechery and theft, and his is bound in fetters and rope. While bound, he delivers a lengthy soliloquy on the sinful state of the world. Contemplation and Perseverance arrive and release him. Pity sends them in search of Free Will, Imagination, and Hick Scorner in order to redeem them.

PITY **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the fifteen affections and the subject of the play. Love gives his queen Disdain and Clemency as her guard while taking Reverence, Zeal, Desire, Pity, Justice, Charity, and Affability for himself.

PLACEBO

One of King Humanity's courtiers in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates. His name means "I will please." Along with Solace and Wantonness, he recommends that the King begin an affair with Lady Sensuality. He and the other courtiers encourage the King to indulge in ceaseless sexual activity and drinking, but are admonished when Divine Correction arrives, and promise to engage only in lawful pleasures henceforth.

PLACENTA **1632

Stipes’s wife, Merda’s mother, and a midwife in Hausted’s Rival Friends. She assists in Constantina’s escape from her house by dressing up a boy (actually Isabella) in Constantina’s clothes. She later advises Pandora to pretend to love another man and so make her two lovers declare themselves and seizes upon Endymion to be the ‘other man.’ She sets the two under a tree and goes to bring Neander and Lucius to see them courting. When Neander and Lucius offer to kill Endymion, she is obliged to reveal the trick. Later, she informs Loveall that Anteros and Ursely cannot marry because they are actually brother and sister. She performed the switch herself seventeen years before when Dorothea wished to have a child but could not. Loveall and Anteros tell her that her husband and daughter have been tied to a tree by William Wiseacres, Noddle Empty, Mr. Mongrel, and Hammershin. She cudgels the fools away and unties her family with disgust.

PLACENTIA STEELE

Lady Lodestone's supposed niece in Jonson's The Magnetic Lady. She is an orphan who stands to inherit 16,000 pounds when she marries. Lady Lodestone has invited a number of suitors for Placentia's hand, but Placentia is unwell. The suitors, including Dr. Rut, speculate that she's suffering from flatulence related to greensickness (i.e., virginity). In reality, she is pregnant and in labor (her name is pun on her condition as well as Latin for Pleasance); her foster-mother, Polish, calls in the midwife, Mother Chair, to attend her and to dispose of the infant. Assisted by Mother Chair's caudle, she appears at dinner immediately after giving birth and attempts to brazen it out. Sir Moth Interest marries her to Bias, hoping to secure the fortune, since Pleasance has gone missing. Her mother, Polish, finally admits that Placentia is actually her own daughter, not Lady Lodestone's niece. Bias rejects her upon learning of her pregnancy, but Captain Ironside gallantly offers to provide a dowry so that she and Needle can marry.

PLACENTIO

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet who, along with his nieces, is invited to the Capulet feast.

PLACILLA

Daughter to Adrastus and Themyle, sister to Philargus in Brome's Love-Sick Court. She brings news that Philargus and Philocles have returned safely from Delphi. She secretly loves Philocles, who she believes to be her brother, and is conflicted when he asks her to help him court Eudyna. She sings for Eudyna. During the song, Eudyna falls asleep and dreams that Philargus and Philocles are dueling. After the discovery of Philocles's true identity, the two agree to marry.

PLACKET

A name taken by Gerardine in Middleton's The Family of Love when disguised as a paritor.

PLAIN

A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. Piers and Plain are the poor tenants of the Country Gentleman; Sateros says the Country Gentleman steals their bread and cheese.

PLAIN–DEALING**1581

A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. Simplicity's father, who was undone by Usury.

PLAIN DEALING**1606

Well described by his name in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon, this consistent truth-speaker seems to represent the decent English Common Man. He is sent by Como to Fairyland to spy on the Fairy Queen, Titania. True to form, however, he goes over to her side and abandons Rome; from his speech he seems in any case to have been born a fairy (that is, an Englishman). He introduces comic relief into the highly serious court of Titania by describing to her "your ship of fools, your hospital of incurable madmen" an ordinary tavern. His satirical remarks touch on many aspects of contemporary fairy life; they include what sound like glancing references to the theatres of the day, and indeed he functions in the play rather like the voice of a satirical playwright who vows to "give the copy of the city's countenance" with all its wrinkles intact. Pleased by his plainness, Titania sends him to live with Truth, to learn from her and support her. Time and Truth show him the plottings of Falsehood and her confederates, whereupon he admits that he once took Falsehood for Truth, but declares that she who once seemed so beautiful to him now strikes him as hideously ugly. He thus joins Truth in leading the soldiers against the Babylonian army, tells Titania about the birth of the boy Beria, and finally enjoys the triumph of the Fairy army.

PLAIN FELLOW

When La Nove goes in search of new attendants for the Duke in Fletcher and Middleton's The Nice Valour, he tests the Plain Fellow by jostling him. The Plain Fellow responds valiantly in contrast to the cowardly behavior of the Gallant under similar circumstances.

PLAIN, PARSON on the

A ‘ghost character’ in (?)Speed’s The Converted Robber. The robbers Autolius and Conto robbed him, but Autolius gave five shillings of his money back again for the sermon he delivered because, according to Conto, he could have had as good a sermon from a journeyman for sixpence.

PLAINSEY**1600

Family name of Sir Walter and Young Plainsey (Old and Young Plainsey) in Chettle and Day's Blind Beggar of Bednal Green.

PLANCUS, MUNATIUS

Follower of Antonius in May's Cleopatra, but, like Titius, disaffected from the very start through disapproval of Antonius's infatuation with Cleopatra. He defects to Caesar even before Antonius's defeat at Actium. Historically, this was Lucius Munatius Plancus.

PLANET**1600

A handsome, self-assured man in Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment; a student of philosophy and a true friend of Brabant Junior, he warns Brabant that Camelia is not all she appears to be. When Brabant is humiliated by Camelia and Ellis, Planet intervenes and tells the group that Pasquil is dead, murdered by "Rogues." Katherine runs out tearing at her hair. He tells Camelia that she is really not worth Brabant's love. When she fails to react to him and leaves, he offers Winifrede "a hundred pounds a year" to help him with his (pretend) courting of Camelia. When Winifrede agrees, he is delighted. He witnesses the humiliation of fo de King and Drum and then is party to Brabant's plan to further humiliate the Frenchman. Winifrede is wildly successful in convincing Camelia, not only to discard Ellis for Planet, but she tells her that Camelia herself must do the courting. Camelia then debases herself by openly begging Planet to love her. He shows her nothing but disdain and openly humiliates her. At Winifred's urging, he agrees to meet Camelia; unknown to Planet, Brabant thinks that his friend is now a rival and that night he follows Planet in order to kill him. But thanks to the quick thinking of Brabant's Page, he fires the pistol into the air, and although Brabant thinks that Planet is dead, the murder is yet another ruse. Planet reveals himself alive to Brabant, Sir Edward, Brabant Signior, and Ellis and he joins all of the company and Sir Edward for a celebratory feast.

PLANTAGENET

Family name of the ruling line of England until Henry IV, the first Lancaster.

PLANTAGENET, EDWARD

Edward and Richard are the sons of Richard, Duke of York in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. Both eventually become king, Edward in Henry VI Richard in Richard III.

PLANTAGENET, JEFFREY

A "ghost character" in the anonymous 1 Troublesome Reign of John. Younger brother of Richard I and older brother of John, Jeffrey's death before that of Richard and before the beginning of the play leaves his son, Arthur, as a legitimate aspirant to the English crown.

PLANTAGENET, NED

Alternative name for the Boy, Clarence's son in Shakespeare's Richard III. His proper name is Edward, and the royal family is descended from the Plantagenet line.

PLANTAGENET, RICHARD**1588

I.
Philip the bastard in the anonymous 2 Troublesome Reign of John, born Fauconbridge, but revealed in Part 1 as the bastard son of Richard Coeur de Lion and knighted as Richard Plantagenet, brings John the news of the barons' revolt and the immanent invasion of Lewes at the head of the French army. He attends the lords' meeting at Bury, and argues that it offends God's law for sworn subjects to rise up against an anointed king. When Pandulph's curse fails to end the attack on John he leads a sally against the gathered foe. Not knowing of Meloun's revelations to the English peers, and heavily outnumbered by the combined armies of the French and the alienated nobles, he leads the English soldiers north, but a sudden storm catches them as they are crossing the Wash and decimates the force. He and John take refuge in Swinstead Abbey. As they are dining in the abbey orchard, the king and the murderous Monk having drunk from a poisoned cup both die. Perceiving that the Abbot is an accessory, the Bastard kills him. When Pandulph, Henry, and the barons arrive, the prince asks him to destroy the abbey, and he it is who organizes the funeral procession and coronation and speaks the last speech of the play.
II.
Philip the Bastard's title in Shakespeare's King John. After Philip the Bastard is acknowledged as the son of Richard I and agrees to serve John and Eleanor, John dubs him Sir Richard Plantagenet. However, this name is never used in speech headings, and only rarely by other characters.

PLANTAGENET, RICHARD**1591

I.
Edward and Richard are the sons of Richard, Duke of York in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. Both eventually become king, Edward in 3 Henry VI, Richard in Richard III. At play's end Richard describes Salisbury's valor and of how he himself assisted Salisbury in the field. Salisbury attests that Richard saved his life in battle on three separate occasions.
II.
Richard, afterwards Duke of Gloucester, is the son of Richard, Duke of York in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI. After King Henry and York have agreed that York will inherit the throne on the condition that Henry may remain king during his lifetime, Richard of Gloucester persuades his father to claim the throne straight away. After York's death the Yorkist forces succeed in placing Richard of Gloucester's brother Edward on the throne, and when Edward proposes marriage to Lady Grey Richard's ambition is revealed. As will become clear in Richard III, Richard will stop at nothing to become king. His soliloquy in III.ii of 3 Henry VI prefigures his more famous speeches in Richard III, emphasizing that his sense of his own physical deformity shapes his decision to become a villain. He assists his brothers in the brutal death of Edward, Prince of Wales. Later, when Edward's forces vanquish the Lancastrians, Richard visits the imprisoned King Henry IV and murders him. See "RICHARD III."

PLANTAGENET, RICHARD **1592

I.
Richard Plantagenet is eventually dubbed Duke of York in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, giving the name Yorkist to the faction that supports him as the rightful heir to the English throne. Shakespeare imagines a fictitious debate at the Inns of Court in which the Yorkist and Lancastrian factions choose the symbols of their quarrel, the white and the red roses. Suffolk sides with Somerset and the Lancastrians, plucking a red rose from a nearby bush, while Warwick and Vernon choose a white rose to show their support for Richard Plantagenet's Yorkist side. King Henry warns Somerset and Richard Plantagenet that their quarrel risks dividing the English when they should be united against the French. Even though Richard does not approve of Henry's decision to sign a peace treaty with the French, seeing this as a betrayal of those who have sacrificed their lives in battle, he helps Winchester to broker a peace treaty between King Charles and Henry.
II.
Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, is ambitious to claim England's crown. When he traces the lineage by which he is the rightful heir to the throne, Warwick and Salisbury agree to support his claim. When news of an Irish rebellion reaches England, the Suffolk faction urges King Henry to place York in charge of the military response. York realizes the faction is simply trying to get him out of the way by sending him to Ireland, but he predicts that their plotting will be their own downfall. He plans to destabilize Henry's power with some assistance from the rebel Jack Cade, who leads a domestic rebellion orchestrated by York.
III.
In the previous Henry VI plays, Richard, Duke of York emerges as a serious rival to King Henry's claim to the English throne. In Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI, York negotiates an agreement by which Henry will reign during his lifetime, while York will inherit the crown at his death. York's sons soon persuade him to seek the crown at once, but before he can pursue this course of action he is captured and slain by his opponents, led by Queen Margaret. After York is dead, Margaret orders his severed head placed on the gates of York. See also "YORK."

PLASTER**1638

A humorous surgeon brought by Horten in act five of Nabbes' The Bride to treat Raven's wounds. He speaks mostly in Latin, and is gently mocked by Goodlove and Horten before Goodlove pacifies him by paying him a handsome sum for his services.

PLATO

I.
Plato is one of the Theban philosophers in Lyly's Campaspe whom Alexander consults after his conquest.
II.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Timon of Athens. Stilpo and Steusippus constantly refer to Aristotle and Plato in their pseudo-philosophical disputes. According to Speusippos the man in the moon is Plato's idea abstracted from the human species.
III.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Clove wants to impress the group of gentlemen at St. Paul's and he tells Orange to pretend they are two learned scholars. In order to be more persuasive, Clove launches into a sophisticated but incongruous exposition about various philosophers and their writings, in order to seem that they are having a learned conversation. In fact, it is a one-sided monologue produced by Clove, since Orange only approves intermittently. Clove discusses aberrantly about the soul's synderesis, the embrions in nature, and the intervalum of the Zodiac saying that one may read about such metaphysics in Plato's Histriomastix. Actually, Clove attributes to Plato the title of a treatise written in the Jacobean period. Histriomastix is a Puritan attack upon the stage, probably written by Prynne.
IV.
Only mentioned in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. One of the most important Classical philosophers. Pupil to Socrates, Plato (427 BC–347 BC) carried on much of his former teacher's work and eventually founded his own school, the Academy, in 385. The most famous of Plato's dialogues is an immense dialogue called The Republic, where he deals with the central problem of how to live a good life. In the play, he is the reason why Horatio sings as he said that the music was the representation of the soul.
V.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. In his discourse on love, delivered during the first session of the love court, Lovel expresses his Neoplatonic views on the subject. When Lady Frampul asks him to define love, Lovel says that his definition is derived from a fable from Plato's Banquet, exposed by Aristophanes. In the Prologue of Plato's Symposium, Aristophanes reveals the nature of love to Eryximachus. The fable of Aristophanes Lovel alludes to relates that, originally, there were three sexes, man, woman, and Androgynus, a combination of the two. Zeus divided the aboriginal androgynous being, and ever since the parts are seeking for each other. The fable suggests that human nature was originally complete, and the desire and pursuit of the whole is called love. Lovel does not relate Plato's story, considering it well known, but he defines love as the spiritual union of the souls.
VI.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. The influence of Plato (428?–348? BC) on European philosophical tradition has been persistent and unbroken. After his death, his ideas were taken up by countless other thinkers. All Plato's 36 works, except for the letters, are called dialogues because they are presented mostly in conversational style as discussions between two or more individuals. They deal with the whole range of human knowledge, the purpose and content of education, and the nature of science. Plato's writings were very influential in the Renaissance. At his house, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. Daw calls Plato a mere discourser, alluding to the conversational nature of Plato's Dialogues. Daw adds that he utters wise aphorisms every hour and, if only they were collected, he would become equally famous.
VII.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. Plato is mentioned by Master Algebra when, discussing with Bill Bond, about Aristotle's theories regarding the planets with Master Algebra, he replies: "Aristotle was a worthy man, and so was his master, Plato, and yet they differed ..." Plato (428-347 B. C.)–whose real name was Aristocles–was a brilliant Greek philosopher. He was the founder of the Academy in Athens, an institution for the practice of philosophical activity, as well as moderate eating and talk, and all the appropriate sacrifices and religious observances.
VIII.
Only mentioned in Zouche's The Sophister. Definition, Division, Opposition, and Description mention Plato while attempting to "draw out" for Discourse "the pedigree, which is a true lineall discent of all the chiefest inhabitants within these provinces." Homo "begat Socrates, Plato, and the rest."
IX.
Only mentioned in Ruggle’s Club Law. In the epilogue, Cricket alludes to the writer as one who mentioned Club Law with approval in his de legibus.

PLATONY **1607

A “ghost character" in Tomkis’ Lingua. Platony was the son of Lagus, King of Egypt, who brought in a spectacle that was half white and half black according to Memorie.

PLAUTIA

Plautia is a lady in Rome, Tibullus's mistress in Jonson's Poetaster. The poet dedicated verses to her under the name of Delia. At Albius's house, Plautia enters with the other poets and their ladies. Plautia accompanies Julia to Albius's house because she wants to meet her lover Tibullus. However, Plautia is silent during the conversation. Only when Ovid shows sympathy at Propertius's grief for the recent death of his mistress, Plautia joins Julia and Cytheris is praising the immortality of true love. After light conversation and music, the guests depart for the banquet hall. Plautia disguised as Ceres enters an apartment in the palace, together with the entire party of poets and their ladies, each characteristically dressed as gods and goddesses. All the masks play their assigned roles. During the entertainment presided by Ovid/Jupiter, Plautia/Ceres does not speak, but it is understood she enjoys the revelry. When Caesar enters and rails at the debauched party and banishes Ovid, it is understood that Plautia shares the fate of Julia and the other ladies. They are silent and subdued.

PLAUTUS

I.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. When Mitis asks Cordatus about the comedy they are about to see, whether its author observes the classical rules regarding the unity of time, place, and action, Cordatus embarks upon a lengthy and learned incursion into the history of comedy. Cordatus mentions all the important names of classical comedy, including Plautus, who added the structure of comedy and the characters. Likewise, Cordatus mentions Plautus when he speaks of the device of inserting elements of violence in the comedy. After the episode of Sordido's suicide attempt, Cordatus gives the example of Plautus' comedy Cistellaria, in which such a violent incident happens. The character, Alcesimarchus, tries to commit suicide. Cordatus considers Plautus' authority as sufficient justification for the insertion of this potentially violent scene in the comedy Every Man Out Of His Humour. Titus Maccius Plautus was a third-century B.C. Roman comic poet and dramatist. Plautus followed Menander's pattern in comedy. Twenty of his farcical plays have been preserved more or less intact through the centuries, making him one of the world's chief dramatic influences. His plots, which he borrowed from the Greek comic poets, have furnished inspiration for later playwrights. Many of the stock-characters of the present-day comic stage are adaptations of the types Plautus took from the Greek comedy.
II.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. Titus Maccius Plautus was a third-century BC Roman comic poet and dramatist. Plautus followed Menander's pattern in comedy. Twenty of his farcical plays have been preserved more or less intact through the centuries, making him one of the world's chief dramatic influences. His plots, which he borrowed from the Greek comic poets, have furnished inspiration for later playwrights. Many of the stock-characters of the present-day comic stage are adaptations of the types Plautus took from the Greek comedy. After Virgil has Crispinus take an emetic to throw up his bad words he then prescribes Crispinus to observe a strict and wholesome diet, taking each morning a dose of Old Cato's principles and Terence's phrases. However, Virgil suggests ironically that Crispinus should avoid Plautus because he is meat too harsh for a weak stomach.
III.
Only mentioned in Day's Humour Out of Breath. The last line of the play quotes "Plautus' phrase: si placet, plaudite."
IV.
Only mentioned in Hausted’s Rival Friends. The boy at the play’s beginning suggests that the play will be something like a translation of Plautus’s Captives “or some such thing."
V.
Only mentioned in Wild’s The Benefice. Invention reads some praise for him (‘Father of our poetry’) but Furor Poeticus finds fault in his works (‘he came off his last act like a costive man from the stool without wiping’) and calls for an imaginary Jailor to take him away.

PLAYER

See also ACTOR and related concepts.

PLAYER**1601

Before the play within the play of Shakespeare's Hamlet, when Hamlet gives advice on how to act, an unspecified player (who may or may not be the First Player) responds to his instructions.

PLAYER**1602

The Player rehearsing a play tells the Prologue that the play's title is Spectrum in the anonymous Wily Beguiled. The Prologue chases the Player away with curses upon the play and those who would stoop so low as to perform in it. Perhaps the Player represents later the image of the play entitled Spectrum, which the Juggler conjures away replacing it with the play entitled Wily Beguiled.

PLAYER**1613

Comes to Haddit in Tailor's The Hog Hath Lost His Pearl to see if Haddit has completed a jig he promised to the Player and his company. The Player looks over the beginning of the jig and believes Haddit's claim that the finished product will be very popular. He pays Haddit a down payment of two angels, which he increases to four when Haddit suggests that the Player has memorized the plot and will bribe another writer with ale to complete the jig. The Player begs Haddit to give his company the first chance to buy any of his works and leaves to allow Haddit to continue with his composition. Later, the Player appears in Hog's chamber disguised as the spirit Ascarion. Following the orders of the spirit of King Croesus, who is Lightfoot in disguise, Ascarion takes all of Hog's silver away to transform it into gold.

PLAYER, CHILD**1600

After the Tyre-man's apology in Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment, a child player appears on stage to protest. He claims that the author really wants to present his entertainment, but he wants it to be done right. He does not want to bore the audience but present them with a "pleasing scenes."

PLAYER, FIRST

The First Player in Shakespeare's Hamlet is the leader of the traveling troupe of players. They were known to Hamlet in Wittenberg and are welcomed by him to Denmark. Rosencrantz tells Hamlet that the troupe travels because child actors have taken over all the play trade in the city. At Hamlet's insistence, the First Player recites a speech from a past play, concerning the murder of Priam by Pyrrhus, and the grief of Hecuba at her husband's murder. The First Player's emotional performance moves Hamlet, who compares the passion raised by a fictional loss to his own passivity in the face of his real losses. He asks the First Player if the troupe can perform The Murder of Gonzago and insert an additional speech; the First Player agrees.

PLAYER KING

In the play within the play of Shakespeare's Hamlet, the Player King describes the love he and his wife have, but warns that he is getting old and will soon die. He assures her that when he is dead, she will take a new husband, despite her protestations to the contrary. He lies down for a nap and Lucianus, with "help" from Hamlet, pours poison in his ear. At this point, the play is broken up by Claudius' rising. In Q1, the speech headings are "Duke" instead of "Player King" marking a more direct link The Mousetrap or The Murder of Gonzago, but a less direct link to the audience of Claudius and Gertrude.

PLAYER QUEEN

In the play within the play of Shakespeare's Hamlet, the Player Queen describes and celebrates her love for her husband, and vehemently assures him that she will never marry again, to which Gertrude famously replies that "The lady doth protest too much, methinks." The Player Queen then leaves him when he wishes to rest. In Q1, the speech headings are "Duchess" instead of "Player Queen" marking a more direct link to The Mousetrap or The Murder of Gonzago, but a less direct link to the audience of Claudius and Gertrude.

PLAYERS**1594

In the induction to Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew, the players are a travelling troupe of actors whom the Lord recruits for his practical joke on Christopher Sly. To help make Sly think that he is the lord, the players perform for him as a play within a play, The Taming of the Shrew.

PLAYERS**1610

The players at the theaters in London are "ghost characters" in Jonson's The Alchemist. When Mammon boasts to Surly that he can create a magical potion that would make an old man young and get rid of the plague in three months, Surly remarks that the players will sing praises to him. The London actors had to close their playhouses whenever the plague became dangerously virulent. They would therefore be especially grateful to anyone capable of "frightening the plague out of the kingdom" and thus guaranteeing their livelihood.

PLAYERS**1614

The rumor-spreading players of London are "ghost characters" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Speaking ironically of the university with hanging about at the London taverns, Littlewit says they are not witty at all, compared to him. Drawing on his tavern experience during his student-days, Littlewit says he used to give the law to all the poets in town, for the price of a mug of beer. Apparently, the poets needed his legal services because they were the players' gossip. Admiring his wife's fashionable dress, Littlewit says proudly that other men can have wives as fine as those of the players, and as well dressed.

PLAYERS**1629

"Ghost characters" in Jonson's The New Inn. Players who use Lady Frampul's discarded gowns. In Lady Frampul's suite at the New Inn, Prudence unpacks Lady Frampul's wardrobe. The women discuss fashion and blame the tailor for not having delivered the new gowns in time. Lady Frampul says that the old dresses, which she intended to give to her chambermaid, are not good enough for her, but they will fit the Players. Prudence is displeased at the thought of Players coming even near to the place where Lady Frampul lives, but her mistress defends the actors. Lady Frampul says that all Players serve the scene, and she gives Prudence a scarf to pacify her.

PLAYFAIR

Playfair is a gallant and nephew to Sir Clement in Shirley's Constant Maid. A friend of Hartwell's, Playfair sympathizes with Hartwell's dilemma about Bellamy; he offers Hartwell advice on how to handle the situation if Hartwell is ever to have a chance to win Frances. Playfair is also involved with Hornet's Cousin in tricking Hornet, bestowing a false knighthood upon Hornet and assisting in releasing Hornet's niece from the home. Playfair weds Hornet's niece near the end of the play.

PLEASANCE

Presented at the beginning of Jonson's The Magnetic Lady as Polish's daughter. Her name in Latin is also "Placentia," like her foster-sister's, Lady Lodestone's supposed niece. Her modesty attracts the lawyer Practice as well as Compass, who marries her in place of the lawyer. When she innocently brings the news of Placentia's delivery to Compass, he proposes and she accepts. They are married by Parson Palate using the license that the lawyer, Practice, obtained for himself but neglected to write his name on. After the wedding, Polish shuts Pleasance into a closet, fearing her knowledge of her and Placentia's true identities. When she is released, however, she testifies that she heard the infant cry, supporting Compass's threat to charge Polish, Sir Moth Interest, and Mother Chair with infanticide if they do not produce the child. Her inheritance is restored to her by the combined efforts of Compass and Captain Ironside.

PLEASANT, MISTRESS

She claims in Killigrew's Parson's Wedding to be reluctant to marry ("I fear no body so much as a husband; and when I can conquer that doubt, I'll marry at a minutes warning"). However, Mistress Pleasant is, from the opening of the play, constantly considering the attributes of her various suitors, in her search for a husband with "wit and honor." Both she and her constant companion, Lady Wild, are interested in having what they call "subject lovers," what can only be described as sort of human lap dogs or love slaves. When they are tricked into marrying Wild and Careless, their reluctance stems only from disliking not having the upper hand rather than disliking the men. Indeed, Mistress Pleasant is thrilled to be rid of Mr. Jack Constant, who proved too tedious a lover for her.

PLEASE–MAN, SIR PETER

A superficial parson in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. He asks Simony to prefer him to Lucre as her chaplain. His only desire is to speak whatever pleases his listeners, and he is not even sure what religion he represents.

PLEASURE**1577

Pleasure is the son of Money in Lupton's All For Money. He gives birth to Sin, who gives birth to Damnation.

PLEASURE**1588

Pleasure, along with Pomp and Policy, is one of the eponymous lords of London in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London. His page is Will. His shield bears the image of a falcon, and he wears bright colors. The three lords have come to London to marry the three ladies, Love, Conscience and Lucre, although there is a problem: all three prefer Lucre. They petition Nemo for the release of the ladies, and he accedes. They meet the ladies and admire their beauty. But all three lords still prefer Lucre. So Nemo tricks them, by bringing Conscience before them, but telling them she is Lucre. The lords are dazzled by her beauty, and Nemo asks her to choose her lord. Conscience chooses Pleasure, and he accepts her even when he learns that he has been tricked. When the Spanish invade, Pleasure challenges Tyranny for the sake of Conscience. The three lords attack, and the Spaniards run away. The lords of London hang up their shields and hide to see what the Spaniards do. The Spaniards return and 'flourish their rapiers' but do not dare to touch the shields. They then hang up their own. The lords of London take their own shields and batter those of the Spaniards. The Spaniards 'slip away.' The lords return to the three ladies, showing off their captured shields. In the final scene, Pleasure marries Conscience. During the wedding, Simplicity asks Pleasure and Conscience to help him in his feud with Fraud, so Pleasure organizes the punishment of Fraud. At the end of the play, Pleasure prays for the people of England, especially Londoners.

PLEASURE**1604

Pleasure is a nickname used by the Jeweler's Wife to refer to her gigolo, the Knight in Middleton's The Phoenix. The name obviously refers to the gain realized by the woman from this relationship.

PLEASURE**1612

Pleasure is a character in "The Triumph of Time," the final play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He fails to serve Anthropos and is unmasked at the end.

PLEASURE**1619

Allegorical mute character in a masque performed for John Earnest, Duke of Saxony at the play's conclusion in ?Cumber's Two Merry Milkmaids.

PLEASURE **1631

Pleasure is a masque character in III.ii of Shirley's The Traitor. Sciarrha presents the masque to the Duke to dissuade him from his lust.

PLEASURE **1635

A character in Shirley's Coronation appearing in a masque that Polidora arranges to have performed for Arcadius.

PLECUSA

A "ghost character" in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. One of the ladies involved in the rebellion but who never appears on stage.

PLEDGES**1595

The sons of Turkillus and Leofricke are Canute's pledges for their fathers' loyalty in the anonymous Edmond Ironside. In II, when Canute hears that their fathers have joined Ironside, their hands and noses are cut off.

PLEDGES**1596

Two hostages in the anonymous Tamar Cam. They are to be exchanged between Tamor Cham and the Persian Shah.

PLENTEOUS CRAMBAGGE, SIR

Sir Plenteous is an old usurer in Chamberlain's Swaggering Damsel. When he arrives in Act One, he discovers that his son wants to marry Mistress Sabina. Plenteous confesses that he was in love with his wife when he married her, as his son truly loves Sir Timothy's daughter now. However, he is not very pleased with that choice because he thinks that the lady has a really bad character and her father is bankrupted. He would only accept the wedding if she had a good dowry. Nevertheless, when Fairefaith tells him that she has rejected his son, Sir Plenteous decides to go to talk to her father to arrange the wedding. On his arrival, he is attacked by a furious Hilts. In Act Four, he blames Sabine for having bewitched his son, whom finally marries the lady.

PLENTY**1599

Attended by Bacchus, Ceres, and Plutus in Marston's Histrio-Mastix, Plenty reigns after Peace and before Pride.

PLENTY**1605

A non-speaking role in Marston's Parasitaster, or The Fawn: one of the allegorical attendants in the Masque of Cupid's Council.

PLENTY**1632

A rich country gentleman in Massinger's The City Madam. Plenty is a suitor to Mary. He scuffles with Plenty during which weapons are drawn. Latter, he appears disguised as one of three Indians (he is accompanied by Sir John and Lacy), and participates in an elaborate scheme to test Luke's goodness. He is engaged to marry Mary at the play's close.

PLESGETH

A spirit in black attire who leads in an apparition of Achilles summoned by Proximus in William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin: or, The Child Hath Found His Father. He is sent back to Hell by the Hermit's heavenly power.

PLESHE

A servant of Navarre in Marlowe's Massacre at Paris.

PLEXIPPUS**1611

Brother to Queen Althea in Heywood's Brazen Age. He accompanies Meleager in the hunt for the Caledonian Boar. Plexippus is killed by Meleager in an argument over whether Atlanta should be given credit for the boar's slaying.

PLIANT, DAME

Dame Pliant is a wealthy widow and Kastril's sister in Jonson's The Alchemist. Drugger, who seems to affect the lady, describes her as a young widow of nineteen, whose brother would not let her marry below a knight. Captain Face manipulates Drugger into luring Dame Pliant's brother to the house. When Kastril is introduced, Captain Face persuades him to bring Dame Pliant to the Doctor. When Dame Pliant arrives with her brother, Subtle pretends to read her palm. He tells her about her future husband, who will be no knight, as her brother wants, but a soldier–and Dam Pliant will one day become a Spanish countess. Face grows enamoured of Dame Pliant. Subtle becomes Face's rival and menaces Face with Dol Common, who will know about his amorous trespasses. Face and Subtle agree finally to present the Spanish nobleman (Surly in disguise) as Dame Pliant's foretold future husband. Dame Pliant says that she cannot abide the Spanish since 1588, which was three years before she was born, but she agrees to meet the Spaniard. When Surly enters disguised as the Spanish nobleman, Dame Pliant does not understand his Spanish, and they go into the garden. There, Dame Pliant learns from Surly that he impersonated a Spaniard to reveal the deception happening in the house, but he wants to marry her now. Dame Pliant promises to think about the proposal. When Lovewit, also disguised as a Spaniard, marries her, Dame Pliant thinks she is marrying Surly in disguise. The marriage occurs offstage. When, in the final scene, Kastril is furious with his sister because she married without his consent, Dame Pliant is silent. When the truth is revealed, Kastril accepts Lovewit as a brother-in-law and leaves with Dame Pliant to smoke the pipe of peace.

PLINY

I.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man in His Humour. Pliny the Elder, or Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23-79), was a Roman author and official. He published a 37-volume Natural History, which was a massive compilation of 2,000 earlier works. When Edward Knowell sees Wellbred at the Windmill Tavern, he reports the incident of his father's having intercepted the letter from his friend, in which Wellbred invited Edward Knowell to the tavern to meet some gallants. Referring ironically to the style of Wellbred's letter, Edward Knowell compares it to Pliny's epistles. According to Edward Knowell, Wellbred's style is inimitable, but the carrier of the letter was a stupid servant who let it fall into the wrong hands.
II.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Pliny the Elder, or Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23–79), was a Roman author and official. He published a 37–volume Natural History, which was a massive compilation of two thousand earlier works. When Morose is appalled at seeing that his wife is not the silent woman that he expected her to be, Epicoene wants the others to think that her husband is mad. Overemphasizing Morose's anger, Epicoene says he is mad, he talks nonsense, his eyes sparkle, and he looks green about the temples. Epicoene entreats Daw to diagnose her husband. She pretends to appeal to him as a cognizant, who has read Pliny and Paracelsus. Pliny's Natural History describes the symptoms of melancholy and madness, offering some unorthodox therapeutic procedures. Daw provides pretentious definitions of Morose's supposed affliction, but no definite remedy.
III.
Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Lingua. Mendacio claims he is three thousand years old and helped many writers and philosophers pen their lies.

PLOD, WILL (or JACK) **1639

A student of law at the Inns of Chancery in Sharpe’s Noble Stranger. He and Fledwit join with Mercutio in gulling Pupillus. Early in the play, Mercutio refers to him as Will Plod but later calls to him by the name Jack. After all his work getting Pupillus to fancy and then marry Flavia, he and his friends find they have been gulled when Flavia refuses to split Pupillus’ wealth with them. Plod goes off to study mischief while Mercutio resolves to live better and go sober to bed.

PLODDALL

Family name of Old Ploddall and Peter in the anonymous Wily Beguiled.

PLODDALL, OLD

He is a farmer and father of Peter Ploddall in the anonymous Wily Beguiled. His tenant ("old man") owes him rent. He is pleased with Gripe's plan for the marriage of Lelia and Peter but thinks Lelia will find his son too simple. When Peter explains how he has given Goodfellow forty groats for a powder to win Lelia to him, Ploddall scoffs; nevertheless he sends forty shillings and a hard cheese for Goodfellow, if he succeeds in pairing Peter with Lelia. When Wil Cricket, son of his tenant, tells Ploddall he is to be married, Ploddall in jest or simpleminded ignorance discharges him his debts. He expresses interest in the fact that Robin Goodfellow will be at Wil's wedding since he has also promised to help Peter Ploddall. He last appears setting off to see the local Justice to have Goodfellow whipped out of the county for his dishonesty.

PLOT

Family name of Sir Solitary and Lady Plot in Shirley's The Example.

PLOT, LADY

Lady Plot seldom appears in Shirley's The Example but is the wife of Sir Solitary Plot. She appears to spend a great deal of time out gaming, and once upon returning home she takes Confident Rapture up to her chamber. This open marital relationship is apparently pleasing to both Lady Plot and her husband.

PLOTWELL **1637

Family name of old Plotwell, his children, Penelope and Frank, and his brother, Warehouse, in Mayne’s City Match.

PLOTWELL, OLD **1637

Penelope and Frank’s father in Mayne’s City Match. After being ruined financially, he escaped the counter, went into Ireland with his daughter, leaving the Exchange, and has not been heard from since. He has returned, however, disguised as Baneswright. He unmasks at the very end of the play.

PLOWDEN, EDMUND

Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Edmund Plowden (1517–1584) was a famous Elizabethan lawyer of Catholic religion, who lectured at Middle Temple. When Fungoso wants to extract some money from his father in order to buy a new suit, he asks Sogliardo to tell Sordido that he wants to buy some books at bargain price. Fungoso says that the books by Plowden, Dyar, and Brooke can be bought at half-price.

PLOYDEN **1641

A “ghost character" in (?)Shipman’s Grobiana’s Nuptials. A Grobian who, upon being invited to the feast (and knowing his new cloak would never be welcomed there), wallowed in a hog sty with pigs for half an hour to make his new suit and cloak acceptable.

PLUS **1630

A clerk, along with Parum, to Justices Nimis and Nihil in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass.

PLUS, SIR GODFREY**1606

Brother-in-law to the Widow Plus in Middleton's(?) Puritan; he attempts to comfort his mourning sister-in-law. He urges her to remarry, the sooner the better. Later, after his chain is stolen by Nicholas, he bemoans its loss and agrees to help free Idle, whom he is convinced can help he retrieve it. After the show of conjuring by Pyeboard and Idle, he is directed to find his chain in his garden.

PLUS, LADY **1606

A citizen's widow in Middleton's(?) Puritan. She opens the play mourning the death of her husband, and refuses to consider remarriage, as her brother-in-law urges. She is annoyed by her son's new found freedom, which includes playing tennis, and she continues to resist her brother-in-law's overtures to remarry, and insists her daughters likewise never marry. She is convinced by Pyeboard that her husband suffers in purgatory (the existence of which she initially does not acknowledge) and will be freed only if she and Frances agree to marry and to stand naked before their suitors, and if Mary agree to remain chaste. She is initially tricked into agreeing to marry Idle, but after Pyeboard's tricks are revealed, she marries Sir Oliver Muckhill.

PLUSH, TIMOTHY

Mr. Plush is a humorous gallant in ?Brewer's The Country Girl. He has also come to see Lady Mosely. He meets Barbara as the lady in the middle end of Lymestreet.

PLUTARCH

Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Plutarch (46?–120?) was an ancient Greek essayist and biographer. His Parallel Lives of Illustrious Greeks and Romans has been called "the food of great souls" for its wealth of wisdom. Plutarch was not a critical historian. He was interested primarily in character, and so he blended fact and legend into a tangle that only modern scholarship has been able to separate. Despite this defect, his biographies remain one of the foremost sources of information about classical antiquity. Plutarch's writings were very influential in the Renaissance. At his house, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw pronounces one of his sententious maxims, saying that, when he praises sweet modesty, he praises sweet beauty's eyes. Promptly, Clerimont pretends to identify the dictum as originating from Plutarch. Daw denies it, saying that these are his own creations, and he shows his contempt for Plutarch and Seneca, calling them grave asses and mere essayists. Daw adds that he utters wise aphorisms every hour and, if only they were collected, he would become equally famous. When Truewit criticizes Clerimont's frivolity, the gallant says that his Truewit must have read Plutarch's moral fables, or some such tedious fellow. Rejecting the teachings of moral philosophy, Clerimont says he prefers his trivial life. Superficial young men tend to consider reading from Plutarch as a dull activity. When La-Foole recommends reading from Raynard the Fox as a possible cure for Morose's madness, Daw retorts that Morose must have Plutarch read to him. According to Daw, the ancient moral philosophers and their sober teachings are appropriate reading for melancholic persons.

PLUTARCHUS

Gilthead's son, studying law with the justice, Paul Eitherside in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass. He draws up the papers signing Fitzdottrel's estate over to Manly.

PLUTO

I.
Youngest brother of Jupiter and ruler of the Underworld in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris, Pluto is a member of the divine panel hearing the charges against the Trojan prince Paris.
II.
Only mentioned in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. Pluto is the Roman god of the dead and ruler of the underworld. Abdelmelec tells Rubin that the rites to Abdelmunen's ghost have pierced to Pluto's grave below and that the bells of Pluto ring revenge.
III.
Pluto is the ruler of hell in Dekker's If It Be Not Good. Catching the devils Ruffman, Shacklesoule, and Luchall asleep and drunk on the job, he orders them to take the shapes of a courtier, friar, and merchant respectively, and sends them to Naples to corrupt the court, priory, and city. When they return to hell, he triumphantly surveys the tortured souls they have won, and rewards them for their efforts.
IV.
He is the youngest of Saturn's sons in Heywood's The Golden Age. Upon his birth, he is secretly sent to Tartary, where he builds "a strange city called Hell." His subjects are famous for the "spoils and thefts" and they are known abroad as devils. He is reunited with his brothers, Jupiter and Neptune, when the fates assign to him the kingdom of Hell.
V.
King of the underworld in Heywood's The Silver Age, he is overwhelmed by the beauty and charm of Proserpine, seizes her, and carries her below ground to be his queen. Hercules defeats him and his minions and is preparing to carry the girl back to Ceres, but Rhadamanth intervenes; the celestial gods in counsel judge that Pluto and Ceres will take turns enjoying the company of the moon-goddess, and Pluto accepts their decision.
VI.
The ruler of the underworld in Heywood's Love's Mistress. He receives Psiche in Hades and is disappointed when she cannot be tempted into eating and can thus return to the upper world, and resentfully allows Proserpine to join in her mother's celebration.
VII.
Only mentioned in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. Pluto is the Latin name of Hades, the god of the underworld in Greek mythology. He abducted Proserpina to make her his wife. In eager expectation of his dish of fish-head, Lazarillo chants his decision to do whatever it takes to retrieve it. Before the brothel, where he knows the fish-head has landed, Lazarillo says he is decided to grab his desired meal even if it were in hell, next to the raped Proserpina. He would then become a rival to black Pluto's love and claim his beloved dish.
VIII.
Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Pluto is mentioned by Slightall when, in the haunted Chamber, he faces Anne and tries to identify her "as if she were the Queene grim Pluto stole, / And great Alcides once redeem'd from Hell?" According to mythology, Pluto is the roman version of Hades, the god of the Underworld. He had expressed–to Zeus, Persephone's father–his wish to marry her. But, aware of the fact that Demeter, her mother, would not consent to the marriage, Zeus abducted her. He then offered her to Pluto as his bride and, thus, the bridegroom took her to the underworld.
IX.
In classical mythology Pluto is the god of the underworld. In Haughton's The Devil and his Dame he is a devil, the lord or king of Hell. With his judges, Aeacus, Minos and Rhadamantus he sits in judgement on the ghost of Malbecco. He sends the devil Belphagor in human form to earth to determine whether women are as iniquitous as Malbecco and other reports would have them. In the final scene he declares Malbecco vindicated and decrees a holiday in Hell to celebrate Belphagor's return.
X.
Only mentioned in Goffe's Raging Turk. Selymus asks the mythic king of the underworld to inspire him to devise uniquely wicked plots.
XI.
Only mentioned in Goffe’s Orestes. Clytemnestra calls upon Pluto to stand beside her as she kills Agamemnon.

PLUTO**1629

The disguise assumed by Bidstand to cheat Worldly, Knowlittle and Whiffe in Randolph's(?) The Drinking Academy. Pluto, as the god of riches, is called Pecunia's father, and he appears to punish Worldly for killing Pecunia by locking her in a trunk (symbolizing his miserly attitude towards money).

PLUTUS**1599

Plutus accompanies Plenty in Marston's Histrio-Mastix.

PLUTUS**1612

I.
Plutus, the god of wealth, is a character in "The Triumph of Time," the final play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. Jupiter sends Plutus to bestow his wealth on Anthropos.
II.
God of wealth in Randolph's Plutophthalmia, a "dusty old dotard" and a "bunchback." He appears, blind and stumbling, followed by Chremylus and Carion. He was born in Golden Lane and christened at the Mint in the Tower. Jupiter blinded him for remaining only with honest me. Now he cannot distinguish honesty from knavery and the knaves all cozen him to stay with them. He is heartened when Chremylus and Carion tell him of his true power, greater than Jupiter himself. He meets Scrape-all and Dull-pate and goes as guest to Scrape-all's house. Later, Chremylus, Carion, and Blepsidemus take him to the Temple of Esculapius where he is healed. He rejoices in his renewed eyesight. Chremyla gives him sweetmeats and invites him to her house. He enters at play's end and realizes that England "is a covetous place." At least forty women have written offering him marriage. He has fallen in love, however, with Honesty Cleon and as the play ends he takes her and marries Riches to Honesty.

PLUTUS, MASTER

Master Plutus is the name Miles uses for the Devil Friar Bacon sends to carry him off to hell in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. The name may be a comic mistake for Pluto, the Roman god of the dead.

POACHER

Poacher is a beadle, one of the three members of the watch in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Poacher, together with the officers, arrest Busy for disturbing trade at the Fair and they bring him before Haggis to be put in the stocks. Poacher tells Master Busy that they are able to rule his legs, though they cannot stop his tongue. When Haggis has the idea of taking both prisoners (Overdo/Madman and Busy) before Justice Overdo, Poacher leaves with Haggis, Bristle, and the two prisoners. Poacher enters with Bristle to put the alleged brawler Wasp in the stocks, beside the other two prisoners (Overdo/Madman and Busy). Wasp manages to escape by a trick and Busy and Haggis run after him. In the confusion created by Trouble-all, Poacher and the other officers leave the stocks open and Overdo and Busy escape as well. Seeing that the prisoners have disappeared, all the members of the watch are frightened, blaming the mysterious disappearances on witchcraft.

POCAHONTAS

A "ghost character" in Jonson's The Staple of News. The historical Indian princess is invoked by Pennyboy Junior as a precedent for a high-born lady to hold court in a tavern. Later, Gossip Tattle insists that Pecunia is a satire on the real-life Pocahontas. In his memoirs, Ben Jonson claimed to have met her in London.

POCK

Pock is a surgeon fetched to treat Dariotto after Cornelio wounds him in Chapman's All Fools. Rinaldo and Valerio make several jokes concerning Pock's name. Pock states that the wound is not serious and how quickly he would have it cured. When Dariotto asks, surprised, if he can control how long it takes to heal a wound, Pock responds that medicine works like law, and can be lengthened or shortened at will. He then invites Dariotto to dinner and they go off to Pock's house.

POCKHOLE, SIR **1607

The name of the Second Captive Knight in The Grocer's Honour portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle.

POD, CAPTAIN

Only mentioned in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. In Bartholomew Fair, Master Pod is a master of motions who trained Leatherhead as a puppeteer. When Sogliardo and Shift compare their friendship with the classical symbols of friendship, Orestes and Pylades, Macilente suggests different relations of elective affinity. He says that Sogliardo is Captain Shift's Pod, and Shift is his puppet motion, because Sogliardo does nothing but show him off.

POD

Master Pod was a master puppeteer and a "ghost character" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. He initiated Lantern/Leatherhead in this art. His former apprentice says that Master Pod had given light to the art in his time, and then Lantern/Leatherhead has taken over since his master's death. The Folio edition of Bartholomew Fair has a marginal note by Jonson: "Pod was the Master of motions before him." Lantern/Leatherhead claims to have been an apprentice to an actual puppeteer. Some scholars have interpreted Lantern/Leatherhead and his puppetry as a satirical attack on Inigo Jones and his spectacular stage effects and décors.

PODRAMO or PODRANO

The dramatis personae of Fletcher's A Wife for a Month describes Podramo (also Podrano) as "a necessary creature to Sorano." Podramo's most significant act is persuading Evanthe's waiting woman, Cassandra, to procure Evanthe's secret letters, including love verses from Valerio, and bringing them to the attention of Sorano and the wicked King Frederick.

POESTANUS

A lord of Cyprus and the husband to Malthora in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant; he returns and observes her grief.

POET**1554

Another name for the Prologue in ?Udall's Jacob and Esau.

POET**1591

Orlando dresses as a poet in Greene's Orlando Furioso and composes love poems to his "faithless" Angelica. After cajoling a traveling fiddler to play for him, he mistakes the fiddle for a sword and beats the fiddler.

POET**1599

A "ghost character" in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Carlo Buffone refers to the "poet," the author of the play entitled Every Man Out Of His Humour, giving a direct description of the author Ben Jonson in everyday circumstances. According to Carlo Buffone, the poet drinks canary wine with the players and has plentiful meals with them, though at home he keeps a "good philosophical diet." Carlo says he hopes the present comedy will get him out of the bad disposition the Poet has induced upon him, or else he will not trust any of the poet's "tribe." The reference is to the group of poets around Ben Jonson, known as "the tribe of Ben."

POET **1599

A poet in the conspirators' camp in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. At the Sardis encampment, the Poet chides Brutus and Cassius for their loud squabbling, for he says it decreases their honor in the eyes of their subservient troops.

POET**1602

The Poet is the author of the play entitled Spectrum and a "ghost character" in the anonymous Wily Beguiled. When the Prologue learns that the actors are rehearsing a play entitled Spectrum, he criticizes it but says he has no choice but to provide the prologue to it. Seeing the Juggler, the Prologue sends him backstage to tell the "fiery Poet," who is the author of this play, that he will be forced to do penance on a stage in a calf's skin. When the Juggler magically replaces the play entitled Spectrum with a comedy entitled Wily Beguiled, the Prologue sends the Juggler to the Poet to tell him that he has lost the title of his play. The Poet's name is probably Wily and the Prologue makes a pun on this name. He says that, since the play has been banished from the stage, being replaced with Wily Beguiled, everybody can see that Wily has been beguiled.

POET**1607

One of Timon's false friends in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens, a flatterer. In the first scene he dedicates one of his works, a poem about the fickleness of Fortune, to Timon. With his friend and rival, the painter, he revisits Timon in the woods. Hoping to get some gold, they promise him further works. But Timon drives them away with stones.

POET**1609

A "ghost character" in Jonson's Epicoene. Poet is the author of the play. Addressing the audience, Prologue speaks for the Poet and says that his art is meant to please the guests at the feast, not the cook. Extending the metaphor, Prologue says that, if the cooks (critics) do come, they are welcome at his popular spectacle. Speaking for the Poet, Prologue entreats the audience to sit and watch the play, which is designed to please everybody. According to Prologue, this variegated feast will last as long as the audience keeps their seats. However, Prologue argues, many other people are going to eat for a week of the leftovers of their feast. Prologue alludes to the pirated versions and the critical commentaries of the play. Prologue ends by invoking the Poet's muse and commending her to the audience.

POET**1613

The Poet, the Captain, the Traveller, and the Tobacco Man are hangers-on to Young Loveless in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady. They urge him to spend his money on drink and women, and are retained by him even after his marriage to the Widow. The Poet and the Captain are extremely loquacious, but the Traveller says little and the Tobacco-Man nothing at all.

POET**1626

A poet visits Onælia in Dekker's Noble Spanish Soldier and offers her a poem celebrating the marriage of the King and Queen. She has the poem burned and asks him to write a libel against the King, which he refuses to do. There follows a brief discussion of poetry, during which he claims that the best poet in the kingdom is "Emulation," next best is "Necessity" and worst is "Self-love."

POET**1626

A "ghost character." Ben Jonson, author of The Staple of News, referred to by the Prologue as pacing anxiously backstage, sweating profusely with anxiety over the reception of his play.

POET **1632

The boy at the start of Hausted’s Rival Friends says the poet cannot endure a woman and it is his job to lead him about with a black scarf hoodwinking him so he should not see one. It is possible that Hausted, the play’s poet, performed the part of Anteros, who cannot endure a woman and who also delivers the play’s Epilogue.

POET**1634

One of the disguises Paulo reportedly adopts in order to cure Don Martino of his melancholy in Fletcher and Massinger's A Very Woman.

POET **1635

A "ghost character" in Shirley's Coronation. The Poet is mentioned in the Prologue in reference to the play's author.

POET **1635

Melissa brings him along to entertain Hianthe and her train in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. He gives them his play, which they intend to act in order to pass the time.

POET**1638

The poet is an Antipodean, a character in the inset play of Brome's The Antipodes. He is suing an alderman, who commissioned him to write various poems, for nonpayment. In contrast to the lawyer who represents him, the poet is wealthy and richly dressed.

POET**1638

A drunken, comic character, captured by Tamoren and his thieves in Suckling's The Goblins. L.A. Beaurline believes that he is a comic portrait of Ben Jonson: "My inclination is to interpret the poet as Suckling's answer to Jonsonus Virbius, published in 1638"

POET, DEAD

A "ghost character" in [?]Heywood's The Fair Maid of the Exchange. The Cripple tells Frank that he can provide letters of rejection for Ferdinand and Anthony that seem to be from Phillis. When Frank wonders how such things can be supplied so quickly, the Cripple reveals that he has inherited a stock of stinging poems, form letters, and other documents from a dead poet in the city. Verbal echoes throughout the play may indicate that Heywood has Thomas Nashe in mind.

POET, ITALIAN

Disguise assumed by Roderigo in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy. Claiming to be an Italian gypsy poet, he joins the band of supposed gypsies led by Alvarez.

POET, PLAY–HOUSE **1632

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Jealous Lovers. Only in passing, Asotus tells his poets, Bomolochus and Charylus, that they will work no "journey-work under some play-house poet, that deals in wit by retail."

POETA**1618

Poeta represents the idle, self-important and out-of-control academic poet in Holiday's Technogamia. He believes herself in love with Astronomia. Two gypsies, Cheiromantes and Physiognomus, tell Poeta he will marry one as beautiful as the stars and then pick his pocket while he is enraptured with the news. At Ethicus' dinner party, Geographus, Geometres and Poeta become drunk trying to outdo each others' toasts to Astronomia. Reformed by Polites, Poeta agrees to marry the faithful Historia.

POETICUS, FUROR **1641

A humorous poet and companion of Invention in Wild’s The Benefice. He appears in the first act, which has the structure of an induction. He grows angry speaking to Pedanto that no one will allow a poet his living. He has harsh words for a number of playwrights including Plautus, Jonson, Shakespeare, Beaumont, Fletcher, and Randolph before helping Pedanto write his play. He calls Comaedia slut and threatens to make her dance without her smock unless she rises up. She calls him her companion. He comments, spectator-like, upon the action of the play as it proceeds. In act four, he buys almanacs from Book–worm for two pence each. He refers to his place in the barn/playhouse as his ‘kennel.’

POETRY

Poetry appears on stage with Truth at the beginning of the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. Poetry asks Truth a series of questions. These questions spur Truth to give a proper exposition of the War of the Roses.

POETS**1610

The hypothetical poets who will write verses for Mammon are "fictional characters" in Jonson's The Alchemist. Mammon imagines having a huge amount of money, which he gained because of the alchemical transmutation, and fantasizes that the poets will write only about him, for large sums of money.

POETS**1614

The poets of London are "ghost characters" in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. Speaking ironically of the university with hanging about at the London taverns, Littlewit says they are not witty at all, compared to him. Drawing on his tavern experience during his student-days, Littlewit says he used to have six-shilling beer and give the law to all the poets in town. In his view, therefore, he was better than the professional wits. It appears that Littlewit used to offer his legal advice to the poets in town, for the price of a pint of beer.

POETS LAUREATE

Five bards, accompanied by a harper, sing two songs at the end of every act in Fisher's Fuimus Troes. At the end of the first act, they sing songs of spring and love. At the end of act II, they sing of the ancestors, of ancient Brute who tamed the giants and founded a second Troy, of his son Locrine and Elstrid, of Leill, Rex Pacificus and Elud, Badud and Mulmutius, and in the second song they praise the living kings, Cassibelane and Nennius. At the end of act III, they rejoice over the victory, in act IV they complain Alecto's raising (the Roman army) and Landora's death, and in act V, before Mercury and the two ghosts finish the play, they sing songs of peace.

POETS of LONDON

The poets of London are "ghost characters" in Jonson's The Alchemist. When Mammon boasts to Surly that he can create a magical potion that would make an old man young and get rid of the plague in three months, Surly remarks that the players in London will be grateful for it, though not the poets. By the closing of the theaters because of the plague, the actors remained out of job, but the poets prospered because their audience increased. Most playwrights turned to writing poetry during these periods.

POGGIO**1602

Nephew of Strozza in Chapman's The Gentleman Usher. He plays the Broom-Man in the post-dinner masque at Lasso's, and argues with Fungus over the costumes. He leaves the hunt the following day when his uncle is shot and goes to alert his aunt. He next goes to Lasso's house to tell Vincentio what has occurred. He alerts Strozza to Vincentio's plight a week later. In the final scene, he taunts Medice, who draws upon him; Alphonso steps in to stop the fight.

POGGIO **1632

Poggio is a servant in Ford's 'Tis Pity She's a Whore. His master is the foolish Bergetto. Although he expresses grief when his master is mistakenly murdered, he does little more than merely accompany his master.

POGGIO**1635

One of the plague-ravaged refugees from Palermo that Eulalia meets in Brome's The Queen and Concubine. He is among the men who prevent Eulalia's assassination, and who help her arrange her new life in Palermo. They attempt to lynch Fabio and Strozzo, Eulalia's attempted assassins, but are prevented by her and are impressed when she wins their confession and allegiance. Upon learning that their beloved Holy Woman is in fact their Queen, they swear allegiance to her in spite of the King's proclamation (and against her wishes). He and Lollio resolve to be her bodyguards without her consent, and conduct a ludicrous trial of Flavello (disguised as "Alphonso"), but are prevented from lynching him by Eulalia.

POH

Poh is a lieutenant in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore, who (along with Crambo) Fustigo hires to take revenge for the beating George administered to Fustigo. Unfortunately, because Candido has dressed in the clothes of an apprentice and George is wearing Candido's clothes, they beat the wrong man. Poh is the more cautious of the two, arguing they should not attack while the master is in the shop, and he does not actually hit Candido. They are both disarmed by George and the Second Apprentice, but then forgiven and dismissed by Candido.

POINARD**1638

One of the blades employed by Squirrel in his bawdy-house in Nabbes' The Bride; he gives their names as "Rashbe, Spilman, Poinard, and others", but they are not named elsewhere. After hearing them carousing, Raven asks Squirrel to have them attack Theophilus and the Bride, whereupon they carry the Bride away and threaten to rape her. Theophilus successfully fights them and forces them to release the Bride and give up their weapons. They go and get Justice Ferret to complain about Theophilus's abuse of them, but disappear before pressing charges. Later they return and encounter Kickshaw, whom they rob and leave tied up.

POINS, NED

I.
Edward Poins, also called Ned, is a companion of Falstaff's who presents a plan for the robbing of the Canterbury pilgrims in Shakespeare's 1 Henry IV. He is Hal's compatriot in turning the robbery into a huge joke on Falstaff.
II.
Ned Poins is a longstanding acquaintance of Falstaff and Prince Hal in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV. He and Hal don the garb of tapsters in order to eavesdrop on Falstaff.
III.
Ned Poins is one of Hal's drinking companions in ?Dering's The History of Henry the Fourth. He is Hal's confidant. They play and carry out the robbery together at Gads Hill at the expense of Falstaff. Poins and Falstaff do not appear to get along; both men fancy themselves Hal's best friend. Hal reveals to Poins the extent to which the Prince of Wales cynically fosters the companionship of commoners at the tavern. Poins and Hal torment a young drawer named Francis at the tavern. When Hal is called up to military service, Poins is the only companion from the tavern that personally accompanies the prince to battle.

POITIERS

A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. One of the noble French soldiers taken prisoner at the Battle of Leith.

POLCUT, ANDREW

An aging knight in Middleton's A Mad World, My Masters who, along with Sir Aquitaine Colewort, is a companion to Sir Bounteous Progress. Neither knight plays a significant role in the play's action.

POLDAVIS

Non-speaking role in Rowley, Dekker and Ford's The Witch of Edmonton. The village barber's boy, hired by Cuddy to play a witch in the Morris dance.

POLDAVY

Poldavy is a tailor in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho! who comes to Touchstone's house to respond to Gertrude's extravagant tastes in clothing. Poldavy brings her a gown, a Scotch farthingale, and a French fan. At Gertrude's impatient demand to know whether the gown fits her, Poldavy responds that it does, and, if not, his "steel instrument" will fix it. Though it has only one eye, the tailor argues it can rectify any imperfection in the waist. Poldavy refers to his needle, but the sexual innuendo is patent. Poldavy advises Gertrude to have the behavior and poise of the ladies of fashion, who do all things light. Even when they fall, they do it lightly, according to the decorum at court.

POLE, WILLIAM de LA

I.
The Earl of Suffolk in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, is a Lancastrian supporter. Shakespeare imagines a fictitious debate in which the Yorkist and Lancastrian factions choose the symbols of their quarrel, the white and the red roses. Suffolk sides with Somerset and the Lancastrians, plucking a red rose from a nearby bush, while Warwick and Vernon choose a white rose to show their support for Richard Plantagenet's Yorkist side. Suffolk captures Margaret of Anjou and offers her to Henry as a bride, a marriage that will have disastrous consequences in 2Henry VI. In the final lines of the play, Suffolk envisions a future in which he will control Margaret, who in turn will rule Henry. In the subsequent Henry VI plays, Suffolk and Margaret's romance will blossom, with disastrous consequences for England.
II.
Now Duke of Suffolk in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. At the end of 1 Henry VI, the Duke of Suffolk had concocted a plan to have Margaret marry King Henry, believing that he would be able to control the king through her. 2 Henry VI opens with Margaret's transfer from Suffolk to Henry, and as the play continues we see Suffolk's plan coming to fruition. He is Margaret's lover and Henry's enemy. With Margaret's collusion, and some assistance from Cardinal Beaufort, Buckingham and York, Suffolk has Gloucester imprisoned for treason and arranges for him to be killed. Here, Suffolk has overreached himself, and when the commoners demand retribution for Gloucester's murder Henry banishes Suffolk. When pirates off the coast of Kent capture him, Suffolk identifies himself in the hope that they will spare his life, but Walter Whitmore and his lieutenant agree that Suffolk's misdeeds, compounded by his rude behavior to the pirates, merit death. In a long speech, the lieutenant enumerates Suffolk's crimes against England, from orchestrating Henry's match with an unworthy mate to the murder of Gloucester. Whitmore and the lieutenant kill Suffolk.

POLECAT, MARTIN

Original name of Pol-Marten, Lady Tub's gentleman-usher in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub–changed by Lady Tub to a name less explicitly verminous.

POLEMON

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. One of the kings listed by Caesar as joining Antony's side of the war. He is the king of Mede.

POLIANUS

Polianus is the captain of the Epire castle in Shirley's Coronation. He is brought into the plot to claim that Seleucus is yet another lost son of Theodosius. He helps take the throne from Arcadius.

POLIBUS

A "ghost character" in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta. Jocasta tells Servus how Polibus, king of Corinth, adopted and raised the young Oedipus as his own son.

POLICIE

A nickname in the anonymous Clyomon and Clamydes, which Bryan Sans Foy bestows upon Subtle Shift.

POLICY**1553

This is the alias Avarice chooses to assume and one Adulation asks for but is denied in Udall's? Respublica.

POLICY**1588

Policy, along with Pleasure and Pomp, is one of the eponymous lords of London in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London. His page is Wit. His shield bears the image of a tortoise, and he wears black. The three lords have come to London to marry the three ladies, Love, Conscience and Lucre, although there is a problem: all three prefer Lucre. They petition Nemo for the release of the ladies, and he accedes. They meet the ladies and admire their beauty. But all three lords still prefer Lucre. So Nemo tricks them, by bringing Conscience before them, but telling them she is Lucre. The lords are dazzled by her beauty, and Nemo asks her to choose her lord. She chooses Pleasure. When the Spanish invade, Policy challenges Ambition for the sake of Love. The three lords attack, and the Spaniards run away. The lords of London hang up their shields and hide to see what the Spaniards do. The Spaniards return and 'flourish their rapiers' but do not dare to touch the shields. They then hang up their own. The lords of London take their own shields and batter those of the Spaniards. The Spaniards 'slip away.' The lords return to the three ladies, showing off their captured shields. When Fraud, Dissimulation and Usury try to become servants of the lords, Policy attempts to brand them. In the final scene, Policy marries Love. At the end of the play, he prays for the Queen's counselors, and the noblemen of England.

POLIDACRE

Polidacre is the father of Philander, Lucora, and Cleanthe, husband of the apparently deceased Rosinda, and suitor to Antiphila in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady. Intending to overcome Lucora's commitment to chastity, he attempts to arrange a marriage between Falorus and Lucora, choosing the virtuous Falorus despite his lack of status and means. He is opposed to the hopeful Carionil as a son-in-law because Carionil's grandfather killed Lucora's grandfather in a duel. Believing his wife to be dead, Polidacre woos Antiphila. She begins to respond positively, and he enlists her aid in persuading Lucora to wed. Lucora resists. He accuses his daughter of loving someone beneath her, and attempts to persuade her to accept Falorus. She denies being in love, and resists accepting Falorus. At a private banquet, Philander continues to woo Antiphila, and she accepts his love. The characters all assemble at the house of Polidacre, and he forgives Carionil's family for the transgression against his own. He blesses the union of Cleanthe and Carionil, rejoicing in the return of his long-lost daughter. He introduces Antiphila as his wife-to-be. Rosinda enters and reveals herself, and he is pleased to have her back, asking her forgiveness for his frailty. He rewards Phyginois for his aid to Cleanthe, making possible the happy union of Nentis and Phyginois. When Lucora requests to be freed from her contract to Falorus, he chastises her, then thanks her for agreeing to adhere to her commitment. He invites the whole company to dine with him, to celebrate and to plan the weddings of the various couples.

POLIDAMAS

A supporter of Parmenio in Daniel's Philotas. Polidamus debates with Sostratus the state of the court and the state as a result of the trial of Philotas. Polidamus was seized the previous night and brought into the presence of Alexander. He has been ordered to assassinate Parmenio, and has no choice but to obey Alexander.

POLIDOR**1589

Polidor is an Athenian scholar and friend to Aurelius in the anonymous The Taming of a Shrew. He loves Emelia, the youngest daughter of Alfonso. Because Alfonso has declared that Emelia and Phylema cannot marry until Kate is married, Polidor decides to match Ferando to Kate so that he and Aurelius will be also able to marry. However, Ferando has already himself decided to court Kate, so Polidor's plan is not needed. After the marriage of Kate and Ferando, Polidor visits them. When Ferando threatens to take meat away from Kate, Polidor asks that she be allowed to have it. After his marriage to Emelia and Aurelius' marriage to Phylema, when the Duke of Sestos threatens Aurelius, he joins the others in pleading for clemency. He bets one hundred pounds that his wife will come at his command, and when she does not he calls her a shrew.

POLIDOR**1617

Polidor is Memnon's brother, and like him, a soldier in Fletcher's The Mad Lover. Attempting to convince the princess Calis of his brother's devotion, he stages a mock funeral of Memnon at which he praises his brother. The effect, however, is that Calis falls in love with him and he with her. Because he does not want to betray his brother, he begs Astorax, the king, to banish him, but failing in that, he feigns illness and spreads a rumor of his death. Staging a second funeral, this time his own, he has a letter from himself read that urges Calis to seek him by taking Memnon's love, but he is forced to rise from the coffin when Memnon, struck by the magnanimity of this gesture, attempts to commit suicide. Polidor formally accepts Calis as his own, but immediately bestows her upon Memnon, an act that provokes Memnon's final return to full sanity. Recognizing that Polidor and Calis love one another, Memnon gives her back to Polidor and asks to be returned to his old command, a request that Astorax grants.

POLIDORA

Daughter of Nestorius and beloved of Arcadius in Shirley's Coronation, Polidora is mortified when Sophia chooses Arcadius as mate. In her mourning she arranges to have a masque performed for Arcadius and thus expresses her views about Arcadius' rise to royalty and apparent preference for the accompanying royal trappings. She goes to the palace and offers hope to Arcadius near the plays end when Seleucus is proved to be the real heir to the crown.

POLINA

I.
A young gentlewoman betrothed to Andrugio in Whetstone's 1 Promos and Cassandra. The court condemns her for fornicating with Andrugio and forces her to wear a blue gown–a badge of adultery. In a soliloquy, she laments her fate and Andrugio's death and vows to mourn him for the rest of her life.
II.
A young gentlewoman in Whetstone's 2 Promos and Cassandra. She and her betrothed, Andrugio, were found guilty of adultery for having sex before marriage. Polina's punishment is wearing a blue dress, a mark of her crime. She believes Andrugio was executed and visits his tomb daily to mourn. In the opening scene of the play, we see her at his tomb wishing for her own death. Next we see her meeting Promos as he goes to execution. He asks her forgiveness for Andrugio's death and she grants it. As she attempts to comfort Cassandra, Ganio appears and informs the two women that Andrugio lives. The King forgives Andrugio's offense on condition that he marry Polina and she willingly agrees.

POLIPHRON

Poliphron, friend to Pisander in Massinger's The Bondman, aids in the slave revolt and acts as a messenger for Pisander.

POLISH

Lady Lodestone's friend to whom she gives the fostering of her niece, Placentia in Jonson's The Magnetic Lady. Also the mother of Pleasance. She is an ambitious social climber and given to the malaprop. She consults Doctor Rut about Placentia's "dropsy" or swelling and seems anxious to marry her to Sir Diaphanous Silkworm. She and Parson Palate inform Lady Lodestone that Practice has already proposed to Pleasance. When Placentia goes into labor, she tries to keep it a secret but fails, and berates Nurse Keep not only for failing to protect Placentia from pregnancy, but for letting the news out. Nurse Keep threatens to reveal to lady Lodestone that Placentia is actually Polish's daughter, substituted at birth for Pleasance, the real niece/heiress (and is overheard by Compass). Mother Chair reconciles them, but Polish, fearing Pleasance's power now that she is married to Compass, and her knowledge of her and Placentia's true identities, shuts her in a closet while Placentia appears to the dinner guests miraculously recovered. Assisted by the confusion caused by Tim Item's and Needle's mad ramblings, she tries to deflect Doctor Rut's accusations that she's covered up Placentia's delivery. Compass threatens to charge her, Sir Moth Interest, and Mother Chair with infanticide if they do not produce the child. At this point she confesses defiantly, and names Needle as the father of the child.

POLITES

Priam's son in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, killed by Pyrhus before the altar of his ancestors.

POLITES**1618

Polites represents civil law and order and is the representative for the retired Metaphysicus in Holiday's Technogamia. Although he expresses repugnance at the task of correcting the disordered society, Polites is the one who persuades all the couples to marry their appropriate partners; he punishes Medicus and Causidicus and reconciles the rivals. His decisions of appropriate marriages are based in Renaissance pedagogy as well as contemporary satire.

POLITIAN

Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. Angelo Ambrogini Poliziano (1454–94), also known as Politian, was an Italian scholar and poet. He placed himself under patronage of Lorenzo de Medici and was professor at University of Florence. Politian was one of most brilliant scholars of the Italian Renaissance. At his house in London, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When Clerimont asks him about the classical poets, Daw refers to them in a deprecating manner, including Politian in the long list of unworthy poets. The presence of Politian's name among the classical poets shows the superficiality of Daw's knowledge and critical evaluations.

POLITIC WOULD–BE, SIR

A credulous English Knight in Jonson's Volpone. He has come to Venice with his wife. When Peregrine convinces him that the authorities are planning to arrest and torture him for treason, Would-Be hides in a tortoise shell that he has kept on hand just for such an emergency. He is discovered and laughed at, after which he vows to return quietly to England.

POLITICO

Politico is a foolish politician who wants to be King of Fairyland in the anonymous Oberon the Second. He has been in debt for twelve years to various lenders, but is rich. He is convinced by Craft to fight with Losarello to defend his title as "King" and rightful successor to Oberon in Fairyland. Losarello beats him and takes him prisoner. He then pays "King Oberon" (Craft in disguise) all of his money to spare his life.

POLIXENES

Polixenes is the King of Bohemia in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale. Polixenes' visit to his childhood friend Leontes, now the king of Sicilia, is cut short when Camillo warns Polixenes that Leontes suspects him of adultery with Leontes' wife Hermione. Sixteen years later, this rift between the two kings is repaired when Polixenes' son Florizel falls in love with a shepherdess who is really Leontes' long-lost daughter Perdita. Polixenes pursues the couple to Sicily, where the truth is revealed and, among the other reconciliations that close the play, Polixenes forgives his old friend for his rash jealousy.

POLIXINA

I.
Polixina enters in Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida with Cassandra, Helena, Paris, Hector, and Priam to meet Antenor towards play's end. She is also on the walls with the Trojans in the final scene and descends with them to the Greeks.
II.
Polixena is Priam's daughter in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, killed by Synon in cold blood during the massacre of the Trojan royal family. See also POLYXENA and related spellings.

POLLIDOR

Serving man to Martia in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. His duty is to keep her from wanton talk and dalliance.

POLLIO

When Silvia is brought back to life in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph, and reunited with Thyrsis, Palaemon bids the young shepherd Pollio to take the news to all the other shepherds.

POLLIO, ASINIUS

Asinius Pollio is a Senator and an agent of Pallas in May's Julia Agrippina. He later becomes Consul.

POLLUX**1618

A "ghost character." Although he does not appear in the play, he is the father of Agatha, according to the Parish register in Massinger, Middleton and Rowley's The Old Law.

POLLUX**1629

I.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Host rails against the current decayed ways of the nobility, Lovel defends the good education received by the noble youths. Lovel says they learn, among other arts, Pollux's mystery, which is fencing. In Greek mythology, Pollux was the twin brother of Castor. The two brothers, also called "Dioscuri," sons of Zeus, were the twin sons of Zeus and Leda. They were famed swordsmen and participated in the Argonauts' expedition. After death, they were taken to heaven to form the constellation Gemini.
II.
Pollux and his brother Castor arrive in Sparta to visit their sister Helen at just the time Menelaus has left for Crete in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. Helen uses the arrival of her brothers to cover her going to the port and her flight with Paris. When Castor and Pollux are informed by the unnamed Spartan Lord of their sister's departure, they set out in pursuit of Helen and her Trojan lover.
III.
Pollux serves Meleager and is one of Jason's Argonauts in Heywood's Brazen Age. He is Castor and Helen's brother, Tyndarus's son. Pollux travels to Lydia to rescue Hercules from Omphale.

POL–MARTEN

Lady Tub's gentleman-usher in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub, originally named Martin Polecat, but changed by Lady Tub to one less explicitly verminous. Given Audrey to escort to Canon Hugh's, he takes the opportunity to propose to Audrey, promising her clothes, but is intercepted by Squire Tripoly Tub, who orders him to bring her, disguised, to the Canon's. He manages to get the Canon to marry them after all, and, with Lady Tub's endorsement of his status as a gentleman, his marriage is honored with Squire Tripoly Tub's masque.

POLONIUS

Polonius is the counselor to the King and father to Laertes and Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet. Old and overly talkative, he is constantly trying to take control of events. He gives his famous advice to Laertes ("neither a borrower nor a lender be") before the latter leaves for France, and then orders Ophelia to have nothing to do with Hamlet. He sets Reynaldo to spy on his son. When he hears that Hamlet has burst in on Ophelia in a wild state, he leaps to the conclusion that Hamlet's erratic behavior is caused by disappointed love, and immediately tells Claudius and Gertrude so. When Hamlet enters, Polonius has them withdraw and tries to test Hamlet himself, but ends up insulted and bewildered. He returns to announce the arrival of the players, and to listen to the First Player's speech, but finds it tedious and tries to interrupt, much to Hamlet's disgust. After the play is broken up, he hides behind an arras in Gertrude's closet in order to overhear their conversation. When, thinking the Queen in peril, he cries for help, Hamlet stabs him through the arras and kills him. Hamlet then drags his body away and hides it in the stairway. In Q1 his name is Corambis.

POLTROT

One of the "new Court Officers" hired to replace the overly-nice gentlemen dismissed by the Duke in Fletcher and Middleton's The Nice Valour, Poltrot is presented with a copy of Lapet's book on beatings.

POLUMATHES

I.
Polumathes in Harrison's Philomathes' Dream interprets most of Philomathes' allegorical dream, modestly leaving out the part in which he himself appears and tries to enter a pasture through a gate. The places in the dream all stand for St. Paul's school, and the empty or barren locations within those larger spaces stand for a "vestibule" which the school no longer uses (and which Harrison apparently wanted to revive). The feasters, the orchard trees, and the cattle represent the eight grades, or "formes," of students at the school. The various states of these people, plants, and animals represent the good and bad aspects of current teaching and learning at St. Paul's. The grave guide is John Collet, the founder of St. Paul's; "E.R." is Erasmus of Rotterdam, who wrote a biography of Collet. Polumathes ends his reading of the dream with a suggestion that Philoponus read a translation of the biography aloud, but Philoponus is cut off by Theopompus. The dream episode involving Polumathes at the gate is interpreted later by Eubulus to signify the desire of St. Paul's students to fulfill their potential at St. Paul's and advance to the University.
II.
Polumathes in Harrison's Philomathes' Second Dream is the only character besides Philomathes not to have been involved in the verbal street confrontation under discussion at the start of the play, and he voices his disapproval of all such "trifling in the street." Polumathes takes the lead in interpreting Philomathes' dream: he identifies the paradisical setting as "the flourishing city of London"; the walled garden as St. Paul's school; the various assailants at the wall as various critics of the school and its Master; the weight around the gardener's girdle as the Master's burden in supporting his family on meager income; and the transformation of the weight into a golden bell on the neck of the white hind as the benefits of patronage for the school. He joins Philomathes at the end of the play in entreating the audience to become patrons.

POLYANDER **1635

Also spelled Poliander in Killigrew’s The Conspiracy. A lord who believes pleasure flows from greatness. He later comments that Pallantus must have studied to appear horrible. He brings the king word that two messengers from Aratus have been captured. They wished to see the king but, in confinement, confessed to wishing to overthrow him. He next appears in his tent as a captain. Polyander, Menetius, and Comastes are together in their tent where they drink wine and jest about killing the enemy. When news arrives that the usurper and the prince are dead, Polyander and Menetius agree to commit suicide. The timely arrival of the prince, Timeus, restores their courage. When the fight is lost, he advises Timeus to escape to a foreign country and raise a new army when it is safe to slip away. Timeus, Menetius, Poliander, Comastes, and a captain take refuge in a fort. Pallantus treats peace with the usurpers and convinces them of the new king’s mercy. They follow him.

POLYBIUS, CAPTAIN

Identified in the speech headings only as First Captain in Fletcher's The Mad Lover, the text makes plain that his proper name is Polybius. He is mentioned by Memnon as having done good service at the Battle of Pelusium. Frequently in the company of Eumenes and the Second Captain, the First Captain joins them in the attempt to cure Memnon's love madness by paying the Whore to disguise herself as Calis and to sleep with the general.

POLYDAMAS **1638

A Bithynian lord, father to Meleager in Mayne’s Amorous War. He along with Lyncestes has prepared an island on which to keep the princesses safe during the war. He is amazed at the Thracian navy’s ability to pick out the one ship that carried the ladies and take only it. Lyncestes and Polydamas report to Archidamus that the ladies have been captured by Eurymedon. Lyncestes and Polydamas enter at plays end to declare that both armies, learning of the nuptials of their kings and princesses, have fallen into a mutual friendship that has made a virtual nuptial between the armies.

POLYDORE

Polydore is really Guiderius, Cymbeline's son in Shakespeare's Cymbeline. As an infant, Guiderius and his brother Arviragus were kidnapped by their nurse, Euriphile, who with her husband, the banished lord Belarius reared them. Belarius changed his own name to Morgan, and renamed the boys Polydore and Cadwal. See "GUIDERIUS."

POLYMETES**1604

Polymetes is the son of Ferneze, duke of Genoa, the brother of Emilia and the nephew of the Countess in Day's Law Tricks. He returns from Pisa bringing news of Emilia's abduction by Turks, and is censured by Ferneze for his bookish behavior. When Ferneze departs in search of Emilia, leaving his son in charge of the dukedom, Polymetes turns prodigal. He falls in love with Emilia, not knowing that she is his sister and thinking that her name is 'Tristella'. Polymetes arranges for Emilia to lodge with Lurdo, in order to prevent gossip about their relationship. When Ferneze returns in disguise, Polymetes reacts joyfully to the news of his father's 'death' and starts to outline extravagant plans for the future. Ferneze, however, returns shortly afterwards. Polymetes has to improvise a way to conceal his behavior; he sends Joculo to delay Ferneze, and is finally discovered in his study, pretending to summon spirits in order to locate Emilia, whom the court still believes to be in captivity. Polymetes tells Ferneze that he was only playing the prodigal to test Lurdo. He 'conjures' Emilia—really Joculo in disguise, accompanied by Julio in the clothes of a merchant—to appear before the duke, and Ferneze embraces him as his daughter until the real Emilia uncovers the deception. Polymetes then claims that he knew Emilia to be his sister all along, and that he only entertained her 'for affinity's sake.' Assisting the Page in his plot to redeem the Countess, Polymetes 'conjures' her ghost to accuse Horatio before the court.

POLYMETES**1620

An old Sicilian Lord in May's The Heir. He is father to Eugenio and Leucothoë and long-standing enemy of the Lord Euphues and his kin. (Modeled in several aspects on Shakespeare's Capulet). His son's absence in Athens allows him to plan a fraud to obtain a rich husband for his daughter. He circulates the news that his son is dead and that his daughter is now his sole heiress. He confides his plans to his trusty servant Roscio, initially claiming that his motives are to enjoy the lavish expenditure of opportunist wooers and to afford his daughter the 'adventures' of opulent courtship. He is delighted that the first suitor is his prime target, the Count Virro. He trusts to Roscio to ensure his daughter's compliance, and encourages Virro not to be deterred by any shows of reluctance. He is impressed further by Roscio's suspicions of Leucothoë, and agrees that bribing her maid is shrewd. Polymetes is so amazed by the arrival of a stranger from Athens with the good news that his son still lives, that he fails to recognize that the messenger, Irus, is his son Eugenio. He offers 'Irus' hospitality, while entrusting to Roscio the task of keeping watch over the stranger to prevent the news becoming public. He next orders Psecas to betray her mistress's secret love for the son of his enemy. He plans with Roscio to feign ignorance until the couple elope, and then seek Philocles' death for abducting an heiress. The eloping couple is trapped successfully, and Polymetes leaves his daughter in the custody of 'Irus.' He attends the trial of Philocles, who accuses him of malice. 'Irus' interrupts the trial to accuse Virro of arranging the murder of Eugenio and produces proof that Eugenio is dead. The distraught Polymetes, now believing himself truly bereaved, denounces Virro and begs forgiveness of Euphues and Philocles. He tells 'Irus' that if he were not about to die, Philocles could now marry his daughter. The family feud ends with Polymetes's repentance. Eugenio then reveals his true identity as Polymetes's heir. Philocles is freed from danger and the marriages of both his son and daughter are arranged, with the King to be the guest of honour.

POLYNESTA

A young woman in Gascoigne's The Supposes. In the end, she is married to the actual Erostrato.

POLYNICE

At the beginning of Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta, Polynice, younger son of Oedipus and Jocasta, has come to Thebes with the army of his father-in-law, Adrastus, to punish his brother Eteocles for violating their agreement to occupy the throne of Thebes in turn, a year on and a year off. He agrees to his mother's request that he meet Eteocles, but the parlay fails. In the ensuing battle the early success of the Greeks is broken by the death of Capaney; driven back to the trenches, Polynice challenges Eteocles to settle the quarrel one-on-one, and they kill each other. When Creon orders that his body should be left unburied, Antigone declines to marry Haemon and sets out to accompany Oedipus into exile in Athens.

POLYPHAGUS

A "ghost character" in Jonson's Poetaster. Polyphagus is a voracious player in Histrio's troupe. His name signifies "eat all" and is not a desired guest at a banquet. When Tucca invites himself for supper at Histrio's expense, he tells the player not to bring the lean Polyphagus with him, because the glutton will eat a leg of mutton while Tucca is at his porridge. Tucca says Polyphagus's belly is like Barathrum, a mythological name for mother earth or hell, and he looks like a midwife in a man's apparel.

POLYPHEMUS **1627

I.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Carion leads Clodpole, Lackland, and Stiff in a merry Cyclopes song, Threttanelo, sung to the tune of Fortune my foe and he mentions Polyphemus along the way.
II.
Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Lingua. At the banquet, Visus drinks Lingua’s wine, becomes blind drunk, believes himself Polyphemous, and rails against Outis for blinding him.

POLYPOSUS

Polyposus and Nastus are engaged in an apologetic dialogue with the Author, placed outside the play and addressed to the reader of Jonson's Poetaster. The reader is asked to judge directly the conflicting situation created as a result of unfair detraction against Author. At Author's lodgings, Polyposus says that Author must be affected with the libels perpetrated against him. According to Polyposus, these detractions are such bitter things that Author cannot choose but be sour, whether he is guilty or not. Polyposus and Nastus enter Author's study and listen to his monologue about how he is not affected by his enemies' envious attacks. Polyposus and Nastus discover themselves, and Polyposus argues that most people think that Author is hurt by these attacks. When Author says that his play's only fault was that it belonged to him, Polyposus brings in the critics' arguments. He says that critics interpreted the play as exposing public figures to ridicule each by their particular names. Thus, the play shows lawyers, captains, and players on stage. Author responds he ridiculed individual cases, not the professions presented, and he concludes he will not answer the libels and give satisfaction to his detractors. Polyposus infers that, by not answering the calumny, Author is undone before the world, but Author calls public opinion a bawd. Polyposus interprets Author's non-interfering position as either stupidity or tameness. When Author asks Nastus and Polyposus to leave him because he has a sudden jolt of inspiration and wants to turn to writing a tragedy, Polyposus exits with Nastus.

POLYXENA

I.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. Although she does not appear on stage, she is the daughter to Priam with whom Achilles is in love. She is mentioned as the source of Achilles' distraction from the war.
II.
A mute character in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Polyxena (called Polixina or Polixena in the text) is a daughter of Priam and Hecuba. At the banquet hosted by Priam for the Greek and Trojan leaders, the old king notices that Achilles has fallen for the beautiful princess, and he later arranges for Achilles to marry Polyxena, with the proviso that the Greek will withdraw from the fighting. Achilles agrees, but the burning of his tent by Hector will bring him back into the battle. Later, Paris (prompted by Hecuba to avenge the deaths of Hector and Troilus at the hands of the Greek warrior) will use the occasion of Polyxena's wedding to Achilles to assassinate him. See also POLIXINA and related spellings.

POLYXENE**1602

Only mentioned in the prologue of Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium.

POMIL

A "ghost character" in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. Pomil is the King of Morocco. According to the Chorus, Pomil reneged on his promise to let George marry his daughter, Sabrina, and threw him in prison instead.

POMONA

Pomona is the goddess of fruits in Peele's The Arraignment of Paris. She assists Flora, the goddess of flowers, in preparing an appropriate welcome for Venus, Pallas, and Juno when those powerful Olympians visit Ida.

POMP

Pomp, along with Pleasure and Policy, is one of the eponymous lords of London in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London. His page is Wealth. His shield bears the image of a lily, and he wears "rich robes." The three lords have come to London to marry the three ladies, Love, Conscience and Lucre, although there is a problem: all three prefer Lucre. They petition Nemo for the release of the ladies, and he accedes. They meet the ladies and admire their beauty. But all three lords still prefer Lucre. So Nemo tricks them, by bringing Conscience before them, but telling them she is Lucre. The lords are dazzled by her beauty, and Nemo asks her to choose her lord. She chooses Pleasure. When the Spanish invade, Pomp challenges Pride for the sake of Lucre. The three lords attack, and the Spaniards run away. The lords of London hang up their shields and hide to see what the Spaniards do. The Spaniards return and 'flourish their rapiers' but do not dare to touch the shields. They then hang up their own. The lords of London take their own shields and batter those of the Spaniards. The Spaniards 'slip away.' The lords return to the three ladies, showing off their captured shields. In the final scene, Pomp marries Lucre. At the end of the play, he prays for the Queen.

POMPEIA

One of Sardinapalus' concubines in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appears in the second playlet.

POMPEIUS, SEXTUS

See also POMPEY, SEXTUS.

POMPEIUS, SEXTUS

A "ghost character" in May's Cleopatra. Son of Pompey the Great; a threat to the triumvirate of Antonius, Caesar, and Lepidus. Like Lepidus, he is mentioned in II i. as "ruined" by the time the play's action starts.

POMPEY**1588

Pompey is a consul and a strong supporter of Scilla in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. In the initial debate, he is the first one to speak for Scilla, and he follows Scilla out of the Senate. When Scilla is successful, Pompey celebrates, claiming that Rome must stoop to Scilla and all must advance his cause. When Scilla retakes Rome, Pompey asks Scilla to pardon the repentant citizens, and Scilla promises to do so because he loves Pompey. When Carbo is brought in, Pompey is appalled that he will not kneel to Scilla. Pompey is the one who addresses the citizens and asks them if Scilla should be Dictator. He also announces that the Senate agrees that Scilla should be Dictator. He tries to convince Scilla not to give up his title, claiming it is a sacred duty to protect Rome. When Scilla dies, Pompey insists that simply burying him with other noble lords is not enough, since he was so much greater than other Romans.

POMPEY**1604

A clown character in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. Pompey works for Mistress Overdone as a tapster and pimp in her brothel. Elbow brings Pompey before Angelo and Escalus, accusing him of prostituting Mistress Elbow to Froth. Pompey defends himself by claiming that she prostituted herself. Escalus releases Pompey with a warning never to be brought before him again, though Pompey clearly does not heed it as he is again arrested by Elbow and sentenced to probation as assistant to the executioner Abhorson. Pompey observes that the prison is very like the brothel because Mistress Overdone's former clients are now there.

POMPEY**1628

A "ghost character" in May's Julia Agrippina, mentioned as a great Roman of the past.

POMPEY DOODLE

The clown figure in Middleton and Rowley's Wit at Several Weapons is Sir Gregory's servant. The Niece flirts with him in order to antagonize Cunningham, but the Clown believes her affection is real. Believing himself to be a made man, he resigns from Sir Gregory's service, and takes to wearing 'gallant' attire. The Niece gets Pompey out of the way by ordering him not to come to her until she calls him. Pompey waits anxiously for a long time, whiling away the time on long walks in the countryside. He is angered when Cunningham pretends that Sir Gregory has intercepted all of the Niece's messages to him. Pompey is therefore amused to watch Sir Gregory being gulled into marrying Mirabell, but is heartbroken to learn that the Niece has married Cunningham, and the Niece increases his misery by pretending that she has done so because Pompey never replied to her messages. The bewildered clown exits sadly, but the Niece takes pity on him and orders that he be returned to Sir Gregory's service.

POMPEY, GNAEUS

I.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. The son of Pompey the Great, and older brother of Sextus Pompey. One of Cleopatra's previous lovers.
II.
A "ghost character" in Jonson's Catiline. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, or Pompey the Great, is a Roman general, commander of the army in Asia. Between 66 and 61 BC, the period of Catiline's conspiracy in Rome, Pompey was in the Asian provinces, waging war against Mithridates of Pontus. When Catiline incites the conspirators to rebellion against the Senate, he lists their main allies and enemies. Pompey in Asia is considered an enemy, who might annoy the conspirators.

POMPEY, SEXTUS

I.
Escaping after his defeat at the battle of Pharsalia in the anonymous Caesar and Pompey, Pompey flees to Egypt, where Ptolemy has him murdered.
II.
Young son of Pompey in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. He is sent for safety to Lesbos with his mother, Cornelia, and his sister, Cyris. He sees his father wounded by the murderers.
III.
Pompey, or Pompeius, is at war with Rome in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. He believes that if Caesar and Antony are fighting he has a chance to win against Rome at sea. He is disturbed to hear that Antony and Caesar have reconciled, and agrees to meet with them before fighting. When he is offered Sicily and Sardinia, he agrees to peace, and feasts Caesar, Antony and Lepidus on his ship. While all are on board, Menas suggests that they sail out to sea and kill the three. Pompey responds that he would have been pleased if Menas had done the deed, but he himself cannot knowingly agree to it. Eros later reports that there is a war between Caesar and Pompey, and that one of Antony's officers has killed Pompey, an act which angers Antony since Pompey might have been an ally against Caesar (although historically Antony ordered the death).
IV.
Only mentioned in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. When Amurath says he will have his rebellious son-in-law strangled by a slave in order to disgrace him, Aladin asserts that he intends to die with dignity, even as the Roman general Pompey the Great did in Egypt.

POMPEY'S GHOST

Main character, though mute, of one of the five dumb shows Jupiter orders which features those slain by the machinations of Venus and Fortune in the anonymous Rare Triumphs Of Love And Fortune.

POMPEY'S SONS

"Ghost characters" in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. They are described by Labienus as landing with Pompey and their mother at Lesbos and then Egypt. Caesar later describes them as maters of the sea and allied against him. After Caesar falls in love with Cleopatra, Scaeva wishes that Cato, Juba and the sons of Pompey would attack and rouse Caesar from his romantic lethargy.

POMPEY the GREAT

I.
A "ghost character" in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. Although Pompey never appears on stage he is as important, for the first act, as any other character. Pompey arrives at Egypt after a failed battle with Caesar. Ptolemy wishes to give him aid, since it was Pompey who put him on the throne, and he is supported in his wish by Achoreus. However, Photinus persuades him that safety lies in assassinating Pompey, and this plan is eventually followed. Pompey is killed by Septimius and his head is presented to Caesar who, unsurprisingly, is not at all pleased.
II.
Pompey is a great, seasoned general in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey; he takes up arms against Caesar, his junior, in order to save the Republic. At first very successful, he declines the advice of Cato and refuses to make peace with the struggling Caesar. Later, panic hits his army, and he loses the crucial battle of Pharsalus. With his friend Demetrius, he flees in disguise to Lesbos, where he has an emotional reunion with his wife Cornelia; shortly afterwards, he is murdered by Achillas, Septimius, and Salvius, and his head is taken to Caesar. Chapman elides a number of places together here. Cornelia was sent originally to Lesbos for safety, but went later to Mitylene, where her husband joined her; they fled together to Egypt, and Pompey was killed on the point of landing there.
III.
Costard's role in the Pageant of the Nine Worthies in Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost.
IV.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. The father of Sextus Pompey, the current Pompey. He fought against Julius Caesar and is referred to by several characters as an exemplum of bravery.
V.
A Roman General and would-be leader of Rome in Kyd's Cornelia, Pompey raises an army against Julius Caesar, thus beginning the civil war. Pompey is Cornelia's second husband and the father of Sextus. Pompey's armies are defeated by Caesar's on the plains of Pharsalus; after his defeat, he returns to Cornelia intending to take her to Egypt where he will raise a new army. They are overtaken by the enemy and Pompey is brutally beaten and assassinated in front of Cornelia and his young son, Sextus by the Roman soldiers, Achillus and Septimius.

POMPIE

Pompie, also referred to as "Clowne," is a servant of Collatine in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece. He offers comic commentary on the doings of the court and country. He further suggests that the only reason he serves Collatine is his lust for Lucrece. Lucrece says that Pompie is in love with Mistress Mirable, but he denies it; fearful that their lust might taint Lucrece's reputation, she fires them both. However, she later employs Pompie to seek out Collatine. The night Sextus visits her, Pompie wonders why he and the Servingman have not been ordered to attend to Sextus. In the morning, Pompie readies Sextus' horse. Soon after, Lucrece has Pompie deliver a letter enjoining that Brutus, Collatine, Horatius Cocles, Mutius Scevola, Valarius and Lucretius come to her as soon as possible.

POMPIONA **1607

She is daughter of the King of Moldavia in The Grocer's Honour portion of Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle. She is referred to as "Lady" in the dramatis personae. She appears on stage when Nell calls for Rafe t meet and speak with the daughter of the kind of Cracovia. She offers Rafe her favor to wear, but he refuses her because she "trusts in Antichrist and false traditions" but also because Rafe remains true to Susan, the cobbler's daughter of Milk Street. Rafe gives her money for her father's castle, including 3d for her to buy pins at "Bumbo Fair," and leaves her with a broken heart.

POMPONATIUS

Only mentioned in Jonson's Epicoene. The Italian philosopher Pietro Pomponazzi, also known as Petrus Pomponatius (1462–1524), taught as a professor of philosophy in Padua, Ferrara and Bologna. He is considered one of the most important Aristotelian philosophers of the Renaissance. At his house in London, the self-conceited Daw boasts his learning and poetic talent, while Clerimont and Dauphine deride his pompousness covertly. Daw shows his contempt for many great minds of classical antiquity. When the discussion is diverted towards the Renaissance biblical scholars and philosophers, Daw refers to them in a deprecating manner, including Pomponatius in his list of unworthy scholars.

POMPONIUS

Pomponius, a senator of Sejanus' faction in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall.

POMTINIUS, CAIUS

Caius Pomtinius is a praetor in Rome, responsible for the law and order together with Flaccus in Jonson's Catiline. At Cicero's house, Cicero tells his brother to summon a number of senators and loyal officials, among whom he mentions Pomtinius and Flaccus. The praetors witness the scene in which Cornelius and Vargunteius are not admitted to Cicero's house, because he has been warned that they intend to murder him. However, Cicero does not charge the praetors to arrest the would-be murderers because he lacks evidence. At Cicero's house, the consul instructs the praetors on the strategy of war, following the Senate's decision to send an army against Catiline. Pomtinius and Flaccus renew their allegiance to Rome, telling Cicero they will fight under the command of Petreius. Actually, only Pomtinius speaks, while Flaccus acts accordingly. Sanga enters announcing that the conspirators have taken the bait and the Allobroges must be intercepted at the Milvian Bridge. Pomtinius and Flaccus exeunt to execute the orders. The praetors intercept Allobroges, telling them to surrender, which they do easily, despite Volturtius's protests. The praetors arrest the entire party taking them to Rome. After the conspirators are brought to trial before the Senate, the consul rules that the praetors should be given public thanks for their handling of the conspirators' arrest.

POND **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Pond, Booker, Allestree, Jeffry, Neve Gent, and Merlinus Anglicus were good astronomers, according to Carion, who nevertheless cannot predict so well as Chremyla's corns.

PONERIA

"A Beldam much renown'd for sacred skill / In magicke mysteries" in Knevet's Rhodon and Iris. Poneria and her "slave divine" (Agnostus) decide, at the play's beginning, to unite their forces in order to disrupt the "mirth" of the Society of Florists who, according to Poneria, "have determined to keepe their annual festival" and "make this Feast surpasse all feasts besides." She dresses herself in a "robe of vertue" to "hide [her] blacke intents" and provides Agnostus with the disguise of "a grave and learned Sire" which includes a beard, cap, and gown. Poneria stays Eglantine's suicide and the shepherdess accepts the witch's offer to make Rhodon "renew the love" which he previously bore to her. The witch introduces Agnostus to the frightened Eglantine, at which point he regurgitates an apparently rehearsed speech concerning his vast knowledge and the power of his art. Poneria encourages Eglantine to undertake a rigorous beautification process, and sends a message to Rhodon in Iris's name requesting a meeting in the mirtle grove during which time Eglantine pretends to be Iris and offers Rhodon "a precious Philter of rare efficacy" which, she thinks, will make him forget Iris and fall in love with her again. However, at Martagon's request, Poneria provides the unknowing maid with poison rather than a love potion, which results in Rhodon's near death. Agnostus repeatedly compliments Poneria on her "art and wisedome" (despite the fact that she often insults him), and claims that her "wit" is unparalleled when she informs him of her plot "to crop the proudest flower that growes / In Hybla or Hymettus." She prophesies the death of Rhodon and his army's disbandment and claims that she would not "leave any villainy undone, / To be [Martagon's] slave." Despite Agnostus's protestations, Poneria promises to bring a suit to "Generall Martagon" to "procure" him "some military office" and, after her representation of "the chiefe properties" of "moderne Captaines," Agnostus agrees to her wishes. Poneria is identified by Acanthus (along with Agnostus and Martagon) as a likely culprit in the attempted murder of Rhodon and, due in large part to Poneria's lies about her sidekick's war experience, Agnostus is made a Colonel by Martagon. After Martagon discovers that Rhodon is not actually dead, he identifies Agnostus as an "Impostor" and banishes Poneria and her slave from his "Dominion." Agnostus accompanies Poneria to Rhodon's side, where the witch begs for pardon for her "many mischiefes." After Rhodon recognizes them, he charges Acanthus to "see them to safe custody" and "make them sure for starting." Along with Agnostus, Poneria is brought forward at the play's end to be punished by Flora, who banishes them both from Thessaly forever.

PONOPHILUS

Ponophilus in Harrison's Philomathes' Second Dream seems to enter with Philomathes, after the other characters have discussed the verbal confrontation that has just taken place in the street. Ponophilus tells the others that Philomathes has been in a trance, from which Ponophilus was barely able to wake him. Later, Ponophilus takes a significant role in the digressive discussion of endemic problems with the students at St. Paul's. He seems particularly concerned that the school accepts students who aren't yet prepared and releases students who aren't finished with their studies. In the last part of the play, Ponophilus testifies, with Ludio, to the extreme diligence of the Master of the school.

PONTALIER

A fundamentally virtuous character in Field and Massinger's The Fatal Dowry, Pontalier complies with the ideals of chivalry represented by Charalois and Romont. He is a friend of Young Novall's and a beneficiary of his generosity. Young Novall rebuffs Pontalier when he attempts to dissuade him from pursuing Beaumelle and asks him to prove his honor by challenging Romont. Although disappointed by Young Novall, Pontalier remains loyal to him. He kills Charalois upon Charalois' acquittal of Young Novell's murder but is in turn killed by the equally loyal Romont.

PONTIUS

A valiant albeit discontented soldier in Fletcher's Valentinian falsely accused of treason by Aëtius. Hired by the increasingly suspicious Emperor Valentinian to assassinate Aëtius, Pontius first kills Valentinian's freedmen Balbus and Chilax and then stabs himself before Aëtius' eyes in order to defy the Aëtius' past misjudgment of him. Awed by this heroic self-sacrifice, Aëtius responds by committing suicide in turn.

PONTUS, SPIRIT of

A character in the anonymous Tamar Cam whose name comports with geography more than history. The part this character plays is unclear from the plot that survived only to 1803.

POOLE, CARDINAL

Poole appears in a dumb show and receives sceptre and purse from Queen Mary in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me. He falls ill and dies shortly after he succeeds Cardinal Winchester.

POOR

They begin II.v of Verney’s Antipoe by crying out to Dramurgon, causing him to ask what they want.

POOR MAN**1540

In an interlude prior to Part Two of Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates, Poor Man interrupts Diligence and demands the chance to plead his case. He complains of the poverty he suffers and blames it on the church, which has seized his cattle upon the deaths of his father, mother, and wife. He intends to use his last coin to hire a lawyer, but Diligence warns him that no law can order the church. He purchases a pardon from the Pardoner, but is incensed to learn that the pardon takes effect only after death, and drives away the Pardoner. Invited to address the Parliament of the Three Estates, he supports John the Common-weal's request that they control common thieves, beggars, and vagabonds, and especially corrupt monks and friars.

POOR MAN**1599

A "ghost character" in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Fallace comes to prison to warn Fastidious Brisk about her husband's imminent intention to reclaim his debts. Fallace seems to be acquainted with the legal procedures on arrears because she tells Fastidious Brisk he is in for at least six years for his debt due and unpaid. Fallace reports that Deliro is very hard on his insolvent customers, remembering that he kept a poor man in Ludgate prison for twelve years only for the debt of sixteen shillings. Fallace's allusion to Ludgate prison may imply that she wanted Fastidious Brisk to recall a romantic story connected with a lady who saved a gentleman from prison. Sir Stephen Forster was lord mayor in 1454. He had been a prisoner at Ludgate, and begged at the gate, where a rich widow saw him, bought his liberty, took him into her service, and afterwards married him. To commemorate this strange eventful history, Sir Stephen enlarged the prison accommodation and added a chapel.

POOR MAN **1605

Identifying himself only as a "poor man," Edgar in Shakespeare's King Lear assumes this second disguise after Gloucester's presumed "fall" from the heights of the Dover cliffs. In this guise Edgar slays Oswald and leads Gloucester to safer grounds.

POOR MAN, FIRST and SECOND

These Poor Men hope to give gifts to Elizabeth in Heywood's 1 If You Know Not Me.
  1. The First Poor Man hopes to present tokens of veneration to Elizabeth as she passes by.
  2. The Second Poor Man waits to present a nosegay to Elizabeth, remarking that the princess is virtuous enough to accept a cup of cold water.

POOR MAN of CORIOLES

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Coriolanus. Although he never appears on stage, the Poor Man of Corioles provides possible insight into the character of Coriolanus. After the battle for Corioles, the hero is embarrassed by the praise the general Cominius and others heap upon him and publicly refuses Cominius's offer of one-tenth of the treasure taken from the city. Moments later, the wounded Coriolanus remembers that, in the military action, he heard a call for help from a poor man in the city who had given him shelter there years before. He asks Cominius to grant freedom to the man, but exhausted from the battle and fatigued by his wounds, Coriolanus cannot remember the man's name. This lapse is sometimes argued to suggest Coriolanus's psychological and emotional inability to connect in the most basic ways to other human beings.

POOR MAN'S WIFE

Edricus' mother in the anonymous Edmond Ironside. Together with Stitch and her husband, Edricke, she goes to visit her son. She tells us that Edricus is not Edricke's son, but the son of an unknown soldier. Edricus has Stitch beat her and her husband out of town when he takes on Stitch as his new servant.

POOR PEOPLE

Also referred to as the Common People in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates, they sit at the front edge of stage, probably as part of the audience.

POPE

For named Popes, search under the proper name, e.g. INNOCENT, POPE. See also HIS HOLINESS.

POPE**1596
The Roman Pontiff in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley. He is sought after by Stukely as the representative of King Phillip of Spain concerning a possible alliance with Portugal. For his services, Stukeley is appointed the Marquis of Ireland.

POPE**1600

A "ghost character" in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. St. Dunstan in his opening speech refers to his eventual canonization by the Pope.

POPE**1607

Approves Anthony Sherley's plan for a league between Christendom and Persia in Day, Rowley and Wilkins's The Travels of the Three English Brothers. He forgives him for denying Halibeck the right to ascend to the Pope's throne.

POPE**1614

Only mentioned in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair. The Catholic Pope is part of a hypothetical elect audience at a Fair in real life. The stage-keeper in the Induction complains that the Author of the play does not observe the characteristics of real life in his theatrical Fair. Among other things, the stage-keeper says the poet does not have a Juggler with an educated ape to come over the chain for the King, the Prince, and back again for the Pope and the personalities attending the Fair.

POPE **1627

Called Jupiter's vicar in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. He comes looking for Chremylus' house and Plutus. He is starving and has pawned away everything from the church of Rome for food. Now that everyone is rich, indulgences have become cheap, and he cannot thrive. He offers to canonize Dull-pate for a crust of bread. He agrees to help Anus by making Neanias sleep with her in penance for his sins. He forgives Dull-pate all of his sins forever and raises him above the Pope in exchange for some mutton. With a Quire to chant benedictus, he blesses Plutus.

POPE**1635

Only mentioned in the anonymous Wit's Triumvirate. The Pope is mentioned by Narrowit when, confessing his scruples to Master Silence, he explains that he was "much offended with the sign of the Pope's Head just over against my lodging ..." The Pope's Head was the sign of a tavern on the corner of Pope's Head Alley and Cornhill. Later, he mentions the Pope again: "I doubted whether the Pope was Antichrist, yea or no." At the time the play was written, the Pope was Urban VIII. His real name was Maffeo Barberini (1568-1644). He succeeded Gregory XV and was Pope from 1623 to 1644.

POPE ADRIAN

The Pope in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. He returns victorious to Rome with a train of churchmen and the German rival pope in chains. In the B-text only, he sends two Cardinals to retrieve statutes proving his right, and forces Bruno to serve as his footstool. His feast is disrupted so often by an invisible Faustus, who snatches food and drink from his lips, that he retreats from the banquet hall and commands that a dirge be sung. He is Pope Adrian VI (1522-1523).

POPE GREGORY XIII

A "ghost character" in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. The Pope sent the Bishop and others to Ireland to conquer the land and restore it to the Roman faith.

POPE INNOCENT III

I.
Pope Innocent the Third in Bale's King Johan, Part 1. He is really Usurpid Power in disguise and devises a plan to depose King Johan. As the Pope, Usurpid Power excommunicates the English King.
II.
A "ghost character" in Bale's King Johan, Part 2. Pope Innocent the Third is seen as the Antichrist and he is at the head of the plot to destroy King Johan.
III.
A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's King John. Pope Innocent, incensed that John will not support his choice for Archbishop of Canterbury, sends Cardinal Pandolf to threaten him with excommunication, a threat which is carried out when John refuses to back down.

POPE INNOCENT VIII**1607

Only mentioned in Barnes's The Devil's Charter. Pope who preceded Pope Alexander VI.

POPE JULIUS

A "ghost character" in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. In the B-text only, Bruno insists that Pope Julius established the Holy Roman Emperor as the ruler over the papacy. Pope Adrian rejects this decree on the ground that Julius abused church rites.

POPE JULIUS **1604

A “ghost character" in Rowley’s When You See Me. Martin Luther has written tracts condemning Henry for siding with Pope Julius. He named Henry and his posterity “defenders of the faith." This would be Julius II, who was pope from 1503 to 1513.

POPE'S LEGATE

A "ghost character" in Davenant's The Cruel Brother. Lucio is sent to Lucca, ostensibly to greet the Pope's Legate, but really so that the Duke can attempt to seduce Corsa.

POPINGAY **1636

Sir Martin Yellow’s nephew in Glapthorne’s Hollander. He tests Lady Yellow’s reasons for going to Artless’ house and, while there, becomes enamored of Dalinea. He sees his uncle wound Sconce and learns that Lady Yellow is guiltless. He promises to intercede for Lady Yellow with his uncle if he can. The encounter brings him together again with Dalinea. He professes his love, but she turns from him in maidenly coyness. He goes to her disguised as his own elder brother and wins the girl’s sympathy, but once he unmasks she tells him that she is resolved to hate her husband and therefore will not marry him. He goes to the church in disguise and marries Dalinea when everyone believes she is marrying Sconce.

POPINGAY, HARRY **1636

A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Hollander. Popingay’s father and Sir Martin Yellow’s brother-in-law.

POPINGAY, LADY **1636

A “ghost character" in Glapthorne’s Hollander. Sir Martin Yellow’s sister and Popingay’s mother.

POPPAEA

I.
Poppaea is married to Rufus Crispinus but is having an affair with Otho, whom she is allowed to marry when Nero becomes Emperor in May's Julia Agrippina. When Nero sees her, however, he falls in love with her himself, and Seleucus prophesies that she will ultimately become Empress.
II.
Nero's Empress in the anonymous Tragedy of Nero. She was formerly his mistress during her marriage to Otho, and most recently unfaithful to him with the upstart Nimphidius. Her marriage is unhappy, and she frequently provokes Nero with criticism. Poppaea has no illusions about her husband's previous crimes, including incest, or current excesses, but she does not realize that her lover is merely manipulating her in pursuit of power. She has attracted the love of Antonius, but she rejects his advances in favor of her current lover Nimphidius. She is struck by the chance resemblance of a condemned Young Man to her true love, Otho, and in attempting to intercede for him, is killed by Nero in a sudden rage that he immediately regrets.
III.
Only mentioned in Jonson's The Alchemist. Poppaea was a Roman empress, wife to Nero. Nero kicked her to death while she was with child. Mammon wishes to emphasize to the mysterious lady (Dol Common in disguise) the importance of their love story. He tells her that he will lavish such riches on her that, when her name is mentioned, the queens may turn pale with envy and the love story of Nero and Poppaea will seem insignificant by comparison. Ironically, the marriage of Nero and Poppaea, based on sexual desire and lust for power, had ended unfortunately for the empress.

POPPEY

Poppey is a burgher and a clown figure in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War, who enters with his neighbor Curtall to ask for justice for Curtall's daughter Doritie, who has been ruined and possibly impregnated by one of Scilla's soldiers. He cannot believe Scilla means to give up his titles, arguing that it is better to be a king than a clown, just as it is better and more natural to love good ale over small beer.

POPPIN

The name taken by Dryfat in Middleton's The Family of Love when disguised as a proctor.

POPULUS, FIRST and SECOND

Two members of a group in Lyly's Gallathea have individual lines in a crowd scene.

PORCIUS CATO, MARCUS

Marcus Porcius Cato, or Cato the Younger, is a Roman legislator and philosopher, great-grandson of Cato the Elder in Jonson's Catiline. As a senator in republican Rome, he was a violent opponent of Caesar and, outdoing Cicero in vituperation of Catiline's conspiracy in 63 BC, Cato tried to implicate Caesar in the plot, although maintaining his fairness to all. In the Roman Senate, Cato enters with the other senators. Following the election of Cicero and Caius Antonius as consuls, Cicero delivers a speech of thankfulness. From Cato's remarks addressed to Caesar, it is evident that the two men are in conflict. When Catiline pretends to congratulate Cicero, Cato expresses his distrust and tells Catiline he should expect the gods' judgment for his despicable actions. At Cicero's house, Cicero tells his brother to summon a number of senators and tribunes he could trust, among whom he mentions Cato. When Cornelius and Vargunteius try to gain access into Cicero's house under the guise of friends, but with the purpose of murdering him, Cato is in the group of Cicero's honest friends and clients who witness the scene. When the conspirators flee, and the remaining senators advise Cicero to follow the assassins and bring them to justice, Cato is very vocal in counseling Cicero to go after the murderers. In the Senate, just before Cicero accuses Catiline of conspiracy, Cato says he will not stay beside Catiline. When the conspirators are tried in the Senate, Cato tries to implicate Caesar in Catiline's conspiracy, but with no success. However, his speech against the conspirators is influential in the Senate's pronouncing the death sentence.

PORCIUS LECCA, MARCUS

Marcus Porcius Lecca is a member of Catiline's conspiracy in Jonson's Catiline. According to Catiline, he is ambitious and he is among those to whom Catiline has promised a rich Roman province as a reward for his fidelity. At Catiline's house, Lecca enters with the other conspirators. After hearing Catiline's incendiary address, the confederates are invited to partake of fresh human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact. After the ritual ceremony, the conspirators exeunt. After the plot has been exposed in the Senate, the conspirators gather at Catiline's house to elaborate their strategy. The plan is to set Rome on fire on the night of the Saturnalia, and remove all the enemies at once. After each conspirator has been allotted his task, all depart secretly. When the plot is exposed in the Senate, Cicero says that huge quantities of arms and supplies have been amassed at Lecca's house, one of the headquarters of the conspiracy. When the conspirators are arrested and tried before the Senate, it is understood that Lecca shares their punishment.

PORPHICIO

One of the Senators in ?Ford's The Laws of Candy. He and the others declare Antinous as champion over Cassilane in the opening act and condemn Cassilane, Antinous, and Erota as ungrateful and then, in justice, acknowledge their own guilt when Annophil accuses them of ingratitude to Cassilane, who is in debt on their behalf, even though they were not aware of this fact. The Senators are saved when Philander brings about Cassilane's forgiveness of Antinous, leading, ultimately, to Annophil's forgiveness of the Senators.

PORREX

I.
The younger son in Sackville and Norton's Gorboduc. He fears that his elder brother, Ferrex, means to attack him after he is given half of his father's kingdom. He determines not to be caught unprepared. He kills his brother in battle. Although he expresses grief to Gorboduc at having to do the deed, he excuses himself that Ferrex threatened him and he merely defended himself with a preemptive strike. Gorboduc, angered, banishes Porrex, but his mother, Videna, kills him before he can go.
II.
Gorboduc's son in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appears in first playlet. When Gorboduc divides his kingdom between his two sons, they feud. Their dispute turns into civil war. Ultimately, Porrex kills Ferrex in a swordfight.

PORSENNA

Porsenna is King of the Tuscans in Heywood's The Rape of Lucrece. His forces are in charge of protecting Rome from Brutus' rebel army. During the civil war, Mutius Scevola enters Porsenna's camp in disguise, hoping to kill the King of Tuscany but kills his secretary. He is discovered by Porsenna, who pardons him. After Tarquin, his wife, and children are killed, Porsenna offers Collatine the same warlike pact he had with Tarquin.

PORTACARECO, DON TOMAZO

Sancho, also known as Don Tomazo Portacareco, is a foolish gentleman in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy. He gives his clothes to the band of supposed gypsies and later joins them. He is a ward of Don Pedro, who has matched him to Clara. Sancho plays Lollio in the prodigal son play staged by the gypsies.

PORTER**1586

This character in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V, in the service of Henry V, has a functional use befitting his name.

PORTER**1592

Servant to the Countess of Auvergne in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI. At his mistress's orders, he locks the doors behind Talbot in a vain attempt to imprison him.

PORTER **1597

This Porter is the doorkeep at Warkworth Castle who answers Lord Bardolph's knock when visiting Northumberland in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV.

PORTER**1594

The Porter guards a gate of Venice in the anonymous Knack To Know An Honest Man. When Phillida allows Orphinio and Zepherius to escape from prison, they give him the signet ring that she gave them, to demonstrate that they were officially allowed to leave Venice. The porter takes the ring to Servio and Servio is furious.

PORTER **1599

The Porter or Keeper works in the Fleet prison (sometimes referred to in the play as The Tower) in Chettle's(?) Looke About You. He is the father of Redcap, the stammering errand boy who is initially sent on the mission to Lady Faukenbridge to seek Prince Richard's help. The keeper is to be hung for letting Gloster escape, which sends Redcap on a frantic search for Gloster in order to save his father. Meanwhile Gloster and Lady Faukenbridge manage to obtain a pardon for the porter signed by the old King; and he is kept safe and conveyed to Court for the final scene.

PORTER**1602

A "ghost character" in Chapman's Sir Giles Goosecap. He is believed to restrict the entrance to Eugenia's house.

PORTER**1604

When the Lord Treasurer in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt attempts to leave the council because he disapproves of its initial support for Lady Jane Grey, he browbeats the Porter into letting him pass. When the Earl of Arundel learns of the Treasurer's departure, he orders the Porter to find the nobleman and then to fetch the Lord Mayor of London and some aldermen.

PORTER **1604

He watches the disguised king at the counter in Rowley’s When You See Me. Henry bribes him to allow the other prisoners to come and eat and drink with him while he awaits bail.

PORTER**1604

The Porter in Dekker and Middleton's 1 The Honest Whore brings Viola to Fustigo and is paid for it. When Fustigo assures the Porter that he has not been a bawd in arranging the meeting, because Viola is his sister, the Porter responds that he does not care because better men than porters are go-betweens.

PORTER**1605

The Porter is a "ghost character" in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho! He is hired by Quicksilver to carry Winifred's clothes to the Blue Anchor tavern. When Winifred is cast ashore, the Drawer remembers that the Porter brought the clothes to the tavern and offers to fetch them. Thus, Winifred is able to change at the Drawer's friend's house and look as if nothing had happened.

PORTER**1606

A servant of Macbeth's in Shakespeare's Macbeth. The Porter is the keeper of the castle door at Inverness. The morning after Duncan's murder, the Porter responds to Macduff's and Lennox's insistent knocking and opens the door for them. Before opening the door, however, he makes timely, comic references to participants of the English Gunpowder Plot and observations on the effects of drinking.

PORTER**1608

A servant attending on Moll Cutpurse in Middleton and Dekker's Moll Cutpurse, The Roaring Girl. He carries Moll's viol to her chamber.

PORTER**1611

Porter is the doorkeeper at Cicero's house in Jonson's Catiline. Following the intelligence from Fulvia regarding the plot for his assassination at his house, which is to be executed by conspirators who pretended to be his friends, Cicero instructs his brother to order the Porter to let nobody in that night. Concurrently, Cicero summons some of his trusted friends and clients to witness the assassins' attempted entry. Before Cicero's house, Vargunteius and Cornelius demand entrance, while Porter would not let them in. Porter says the orders are not to admit anyone that night. Cicero attends the scene from above, and when Vargunteius and Cornelius raise their voices, Cicero tells them to repent. The other senators in front of Cicero's house witness this scene. When the conspirators steal away, the senators advise Cicero to send the praetors to arrest them, but the consul refrains from doing it, because he has no evidence against the alleged murderers.

PORTER**1613

The Porter demands calm and quiet from the noisy revelers who throng about at the time of Elizabeth's christening in Shakespeare's Henry VIII.

PORTER**1614

There are two Porters in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair:
  • The porter from whom Justice Overdo borrows his second disguise is a "ghost character." When Overdo/Porter enters the Fair in the puppet theatre area, he says he is disguised as a Porter because it is not yet the time to reveal his identity. He adds that he has borrowed the disguise from a porter
  • After having escaped from the stocks, Overdo gives up his disguise as a madman and takes up the disguise as a porter. Overdo/Porter enters the puppet-theatre area at the Fair and says he wants to help Trouble-all, his poor former employee, who is out of his wits because of the judge's intransigence. Overdo sees Quarlous disguised as Trouble-all and thinks he is the madman. Since Quarlous plays Trouble-all's idiosyncrasy, he inevitably requests a warrant from Justice Overdo. Overdo/Porter goes to the scrivener's and draws a blank document with his seal. Overdo hands the document to Quarlous, telling the person whom he thinks to be the madman that he has carte blanche to write anything he wants above Overdo's signature. When Quarlous/Trouble-all exits with Dame Purecraft, Overdo/Porter declares that his conscience is much eased for having offered satisfaction to a poor madman. Overdo/Porter says in an aside that his next benevolent action is to rescue the person he thinks to be an honest young man, actually Edgworth the cutpurse, from the perils of bad company. Seeing Edgworth enter the puppet-theatre area accompanied by a masked lady (Mistress Littlewit), Overdo thinks his protégé is in good association. However, Overdo/Porter understands from Whit that the ladies are for sale, thus forming another inaccurate representation of the circumstances. Overdo/Porter attends the puppet play. When Busy interrupts the show with his ranting against the theatre idols, and later admits defeat and is ready to attend the play, Overdo discovers himself and forbids the play to re-start.

PORTER**1615

A "ghost character" in Middleton's More Dissemblers Besides Women. Aurelia says that during her escape from prison in disguise as a gypsy, the Porter stopped her, but only so that he could have his fortune told.

PORTER**1621

The porter in Alphonso's household in Fletcher's The Pilgrim, he is charged with receiving the pilgrims and beggars who are the objects of Alinda's charity, but treats them contemptuously until Alinda appears to rebuke him. He then reports Alinda's flight from the house to Alphonso and aids in the search for her, but can offer no idea as to her whereabouts.

PORTER**1626

A part taken by Latinus in the second inset play of Massinger's The Roman Actor. In the first inset play he portrays the miserly father.

PORTER**1634

A porter in Nabbes' Tottenham Court who is engaged by Cicely to help carry away the trunk that George believes contains Cicely, but which actually contains James.

PORTER**1635

Carrack's porter in Davenant's News From Plymouth. He is instructed to deny entrance to any seamen unless they are well-dressed captains or their officers. Later, he leads Carrack to Cable so that she can court him. After Cable rejects Carrack, he helps her disguise herself as a London strumpet. He disguises himself as a local priest and brings Cable to meet the fictitious strumpet. Then, as part of Topsail's plan, he disguises himself as a pursuivant and pretends to arrest Trifle for spreading false news.

PORTER**1639

Brings Fernese to observe Garullo and Lesbia, whom he holds prisoner in Dekker's(?) Telltale.

PORTER **1641

A porter brings the letter informing Flylove that Mercurio has been arrested in Jordan's Walks of Islington and Hogsden. He has, in fact, been sent by Trimwell as part of the plot to lure Flylove and Rivers to the Little Harrow Tavern.

PORTER **1642

In Salusbury’s Love or Money, a disguise adopted by Juristis when attempting to woo Maria.

PORTER, GENTLEMAN **1595

When More is led into the Tower of London in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More, the Gentleman Porter, a jailer, asks for More's "upper garment" or his cloak (as was his right), but More instead gives him his cap. When the Gentleman Porter then specifies the "upmost on your back," More jokes that his cap does satisfy that description.

PORTER, GILES **1595

Giles serves as More's porter in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More, and along with the rest of the loyal staff, receives twenty nobles for his service. Erasmus remarks to the Earl of Surrey that More oversees a remarkable household and reminds him that, upon their arrival, the porter had entertained them "in Latin good phrase." This may be meant to suggest that, after ordering Randall to impersonate him, More has disguised himself as the porter to see if Erasmus can recognize "merit over ceremony."

PORTER of MARS

Now that his master resides at the court of Venus in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy, the Porter of Mars has rusty armor and a broken bill.

PORTERS**1565

The Porters are "ghost characters" in Edwards's Damon and Pithias. Grimme expects they are drunk when they fail to open the gates. When Iacke and Wyll intend to cheat and rob Grimme the collier of his gold, they pretend to be the porters at the court gate.

PORTERS**1605

These two characters, who are not differentiated in the anonymous Nobody and Somebody, welcome Nobody at court and lead him to a hall for an audience with the lords.

PORTERS **1611

Porters lug chests, trunks, and hampers at Jaques' command for Petruchio's sea voyage to Paris in Fletcher's The Woman's Prize.

PORTERS or COLLIERS, THREE **1599

A group of colliers help Colby steal the students’ corn in Ruggle’s Club Law. The first is named John, the second Dick, and the third remains unnamed. They gloat as they put coal in the top of their sacks already full of corn. Philenius and Musonius arrest them on the warrant from Rector.

PORTGRAVE

Mayor of the town in Europe where Perecell lives and where Bertie, the Duchess, and their party are hiding in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. He assures Clunie, Paget, and Brunswick that the passing funeral is for Vandermast rather than a trick of the Duchess'.

PORTIA**1596

Portia is a rich young woman bound by her father's will to marry only the man who correctly solves the riddle of the three caskets in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. She complains to her maid, Nerissa, about her first set of suitors, none of whom decide to attempt the task, and hints that she is already in love with Bassanio, whom she has met. She accompanies her next two suitors, the Prince of Morocco and the Prince of Aragon, to the caskets and then rejoices when they chose wrongly. When Bassanio arrives, she pleads with him not to rush to choose, but gives in when he insists it is torture to wait. She cleverly hints that the lead casket is correct by singing the famous "Where is fancy bred?" song in which the main rhyme suggests lead. He then chooses correctly, and she gives him a ring that he swears never to take off. When Antonio's letter arrives, she tells Bassanio to go to his aid immediately and to offer three times the amount of the debt. Portia then gives care of her household over to Lorenzo and Jessica, and follows Bassanio in disguise as a young lawyer, Balthasar. In the courtroom, she gives the "quality of mercy" speech, but cannot move Shylock. However, she saves Antonio when she points out that the bond does not allow for blood, only flesh to be taken. For payment, she asks Bassanio for his ring. Back at Belmont, Portia asks Bassanio for the ring and tells him that she has slept with the clerk who had it, but then reveals that she, in fact, was the clerk all along.

PORTIA **1599

I.
Portia is Brutus' wife in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. She is a devoted spouse and is concerned with what weighs so heavily upon her husband's mind and spirit. The daughter of Cato, Portia is reported to have committed suicide by swallowing fire when she heard of the troop strength amassed against Brutus.
II.
One of the chorus of men and women in Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium who enter at the beginning of the play and place the instrument of their deaths upon Cupid’s altar. She carries burning coals. See CHORUS for more details.
III.
Only mentioned in Marmion's A Fine Companion. The wife of Brutus, Portia swallowed fire when she learned of the numerous forces arrayed against her husband. Valeria mentions Portia in describing her feelings at being separated from Aurelio.

PORTIA'S FATHER

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice. Portia's father has left a will that establishes very specific marriage terms for her. She can only marry the man who picks the right casket, and she cannot refuse the man who does pick the correct one. The will also establishes that before attempting to pick, suitors must swear that if they are wrong they will never tell which casket they picked, and they will never marry.

PORTION, LADY

Only mentioned in Jordan's Money is an Ass. To gain access to Clutch's house, Featherbrain disguises himself as Gold, a kinsman to Money, and assures Money that he is married to Money's other relative, Lady Portion.

PORTIUS

Son of Cato in Chapman's Caesar and Pompey. His nomen is usually spelled "Porcius". He tries, vainly, to dissuade his father from committing suicide after the victory of Caesar.

PORTUGALS

The two unspecified Portuguese men in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar bring Sebastian's body to Muly Mahamet Seth and one of his lords.

POSEIDON

Only mentioned in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. Poseidon is another name for Neptune, the sea god.

POSSENNE

One of the Senators in ?Ford's The Laws of Candy. He and the others declare Antinous as champion over Cassilane in the opening act and condemn Cassilane, Antinous, and Erota as ungrateful and then, in justice, acknowledge their own guilt when Annophil accuses them of ingratitude to Cassilane, who is in debt on their behalf, even though they were not aware of this fact. The Senators are saved when Philander brings about Cassilane's forgiveness of Antinous, leading, ultimately, to Annophil's forgiveness of the Senators.

POSSIBILITY

Along with Inesse in Middleton's A Mad World, My Masters, an elder brother who hopes soon to possess the land he will inherit. Because of this land, he is a prime potential suitor for the Courtesan Gullman. When the courtesan apparently falls ill, Gullman and Penitent Brothel use the opportunity to extort money for her medical bills from the two elder brothers, both promising to spare no expense to see her well. Of course, neither brother prospers in his suit when the Courtesan eventually (and hastily) marries Follywit.

POST**1591

In the midst of the Suffolk faction's treasonous plotting to murder Gloucester in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI, a post arrives to announce an Irish rebellion.

POST**1591

A post in Shakespeare's 3 Henry VI sent from France rebukes Edward for marrying Lady Grey while Warwick was negotiating a match for him with the French queen's sister Lady Bona. The French king and queen, Lady Bona, and Warwick each sends an individual rebuke, conveyed reluctantly by the post.

POST**1592

A Post in Marlowe's Edward II. He brings letters to Spencer from Levune in France, reporting that Mortimer, Kent, and others were raising a force to battle Edward II in England.

POST **1600

Cromwell sends the Post to Frankfurt in the anonymous Thomas Lord Cromwell to prepare for English travelers on their way to Florence.

POST **1604

He enters in Verney’s Antipoe to tell Cleantha, Clapa, Marba, Reba, and Nama that Antipoe and the four worthy knights of Tartar, their husbands, are all dead.

POST**1617

A Post (or messenger) in Brewer's The Lovesick King warns Canutus that the English army is at hand. Canutus kills him for bringing bad news.

POST**1617

He brings King Thierry news of the imminent arrival from Spain of his young bride Ordella in Fletcher and Massinger's Thierry and Theodoret.

POST**1624

A messenger in Drue's The Duchess of Suffolk. Brings news to Bonner and Gardner that the Duchess has been discovered in disguise at a port in Essex.

POST BOY

The Post Boy in Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay delivers a letter from Lacy to Margaret along with a hundred pounds for her dowry. It is he who indicates that the earl is being forced by the king to marry the chief lady-in-waiting to Elinor of Castile. Margaret gives him the hundred pounds simply because he has the good fortune to be Lacy's servant.

POST, FIRST and SECOND**1605

Two messengers in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me bring news of the English battle with the Spanish fleet.

POST, FIRST and SECOND**1631

Two fictional characters in Knevet's Rhodon and Iris. Poneria informs Martagon and Cynosbatus that she thinks she sees "the merry Post at hand, / That brings us joyfull newes of Rhodon's death." This acts as the first part of the witch's prophetic message. Shortly thereafter, Poneria informs Martagon and Cynosbatus that she thinks she sees "another Post, who comes with better newes, / That Rhodons army is discourag'd and discarded, / Yea quite disbanded and disperst." This acts as the second part of the witch's prophetic message.

POST–HAST

Post-Hast is a poet in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. He forms the playing company Sir Oliver Owlet's Men, comprised of out-of-work tradesmen and laborers. Poor performers, they overcharge for private productions during the reign of Pride, and when they can no longer draw an audience during the reign of Envy, they become soldiers. During the reign of Poverty, they consider returning to their former professions but are banished by the constable.

POSTHUMOUS LEONATUS

Posthumous Leonatus in Shakespeare's Cymbeline is so named because his father, Sicilius Leonatus died before his son was born, and his mother died in childbed. The play opens with news that Posthumous Leonatus has married King Cymbeline's daughter, Imogen, without Cymbeline's sanction. Cymbeline banishes Posthumous Leonatus, who travels to Rome seeking refuge at the home of his father's friend Philario. At Philario's house, Posthumous Leonatus praises Imogen so highly that Philario's friend Iachimo wagers ten thousand ducats that he can seduce her. When Iachimo returns from Britain with Imogen's bracelet and detailed descriptions of her bedchamber and body, Posthumous Leonatus is convinced that his wife has been unfaithful. He turns misogynist and delivers a blistering soliloquy against women. After he has learned to repent his rashness, Posthumous Leonatus returns to Britain disguised as a peasant, fights bravely against Rome, and is reunited with Imogen. He forgives Iachimo and makes peace with Cymbeline.

POSTILION

Postilion is Prodigalitie's servant in the anonymous The Contention Between Liberalitie and Prodigalitie. He advises his master to continue their journey, rather than to stop at the inn, because he thinks the inn is going to be terribly expensive.

POSTMAN

A messenger between Valerio, King of Sicily and Ferdinand, King of Thessaly in Daborne's Poor Man's Comfort. He brings word of Adelizia's shipwreck and presumed death.

POSTMAN, FIRST and SECOND

Two postmen figure in Burnell's Landgartha.
  • The First Postman tells Frollo that Landgartha is coming with her Norwegian troop of Amazons to Sweland killing the Swedish people and fighting against Frollo.
  • The Second Postman tells Frollo that the king of Denmark is also coming against him and that he is to join Landgartha in their quest.

POSTS**1598

Two Posts figure in Haughton's Englishmen for My Money.
  • Pisaro is suspicious and critical that the first Post has brought news to Towerson but not to him. When the Post does arrive with a letter Pisaro almost tears him to pieces to get at it.
  • The second Post agrees with Pisaro who wishes that sailing could take place without impediment because then he'd be richer without having to work so hard. When Pisaro continues vehemently to curse the Spanish galleys that he believes have captured his ships, this Post is too frightened to claim money from Pisaro, announcing that in future he can pick up his own letters. The Post tells Browne that the ships will arrive from Plymouth next week. Ferdinand notes that the Post looks like rusty bacon because he has recently been in Spain. Browne reprimands him for not allowing the gentlemen to jest at his expense.

POSTS**1618

There are two posts in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject.
  • The First Post brings a message to the Duke. While Putskie, the Ancient, and the Soldier show their disapproval of the Duke's treatment of Archas and curse him, the First Post enters and asks about the Duke. When Putskie directs him to the Duke, the First Post thanks him and exits.
  • The Second Post is a messenger who brings news from the borders to the Duke. He announces that the Tartars have attacked the country, burning the villages and killing everybody on their way. The Second Post asks about the Duke and tells the Soldiers, Putskie, and the Ancient to run while they can. When the Duke asks about Boroskie, since the new general is needed in the emergency, the Second Post informs him that Boroskie is in bed, claiming to be sick.

POT

Only mentioned in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. Ioculo mentions him when he is discussing with Frisco and Mopso, and he explains Pot is the god of good fellowship.

POTENTATE of GERMANY

A "ghost character" in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. Faustus imagines subduing him with magic.

POTIER

A judge in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron. He is one of the four judges in Byron's trial. He and the other judges deliver their sentence to Byron in his cell and also appear at the time of his execution to read the sentence again.

POTKIN

Potkin is a tankard bearer at an inn in London in Jonson, Marston, and Chapman's Eastward Ho!. When Gertrude and Mistress Touchstone prepare for the journey to Sir Petronel's fictional eastward castle, they make a lot of fuss and are very impatient. While Hamlet calls for the ladies' coach, Potkin calls Hamlet back to attend to the old mistress. Sindefy tells Potkin to put off his tankard, put on a blue coat, and become Mistress Touchstone's valet.

POT-LUCKE, JOANE

A vintner's widow in Cartwright's The Ordinary. Well advanced in years, she is the target of the "complices" individual attentions in exchange for free food and wine and claims each of them as a fiancé. Each of them manages a way to get out the relationship and finally palm her off on the antiquary Robert Moth.

POTPAN

A servingman in the Capulet household in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet.

POTTER

Mortimer disguises himself as a potter in order to spy upon Lluellen in Peele's Edward I.

POTTER'S WIFE

Accompanied by her manservant John in Peele's Edward I, the Potter's Wife is on her way to visit friends on a stormy night when she encounters Queen Elinor rising from the earth at Potter's Hive (afterwards called Queenhith) and aids her in finding watermen to return the queen to the court.

PORTUGUESE AMBASSADOR

Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy.

PORUS

King of Ethiopia in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. Porus joins with Kings Bebritius, Bion, and Rhesus to attack Egypt. They are defeated in battle. In the aftermath of the war, Porus seeks the love of the widow Elimine, who accepts his suit.

POSTHUMIUS' SON

Name used by Humber for Brutus or Locrine in the anonymous Locrine.

POSTHUMUS

Posthumus (Julius), a senator of Sejanus' faction in Jonson's Sejanus His Fall.

POTHECARY

See also APOTHECARY, APOTHECARIE and related spellings.

POTTER at BARNSLEY

A "ghost character" in (?Chettle and) Munday's Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington He is a strong man who protected Scarlet and Scathlock when they became outlaws.

POUNCEBY the PAINTER

Only mentioned in Haughton's The Devil and his Dame. Grim the Collier says that he'll hire Pounceby (Ponsonby?) to make him a painted cloth to hang in his house that will depict their nut-gathering party and Grim's triumph over Clack the Miller. Editors have been unable to identify Pounceby or to ascertain whether he was a real person.

POUTS, CAPTAIN

Captain Pouts is in love with Katherine in Field's A Woman is a Weathercock. When she marries Strange, Pouts revenges himself by publicly claiming to have had sexual intercourse with her. Strange calls at his house in order to challenge him, but Pouts refuses to open the door. He is about to leave London when Strange, disguised as a soldier, tells Pouts that he (the soldier) has murdered Strange at Katherine's instigation. When Pouts doubts that he is telling the truth, Strange shows him a bloody ruff and Katherine's ring, and promises to bring Katherine to him. Pouts regrets his behavior, admits that he has lied, and vows to ask Katherine's forgiveness. Strange strikes him and they fight, during which Pouts is wounded. Strange carries him on his back to the house of Sir John Worldly, where Pouts confesses that he has wronged Katherine and admits that he has signed a recantation, which Strange presents to her. Pouts then tells Sir John that Strange has been murdered by the soldier at Katherine's demand, but is surprised when Strange reveals himself. He leaves in search of a surgeon, vowing to have nothing more to do with love or women.

POVEIA

One of Dulcimel's female attendants in Marston's Parasitaster, or The Fawn. Her name means "butterfly." She is one of the women Nymphadoro professes to love, and complains against him in the Masque of Cupid's Council.

POVERTY**1515

Spelled Poverte in the original. Poverty is sent to Magnyfycence in Skelton's Magnyfycence to punish him for his foolishness.

POVERTY**1599

Poverty's reign in Act Six follows that of Warre in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. She is attended by Famine, Sickness, Bondage, and Sluttishness.

POVERTY**1612

Poverty is a character in "The Triumph of Time," the final play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. He accompanies Anthropos until he is dismissed by Time.

POWDER

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Work For Cutlers. Gunpowder. Powder does not appear onstage, and like Gun, Bow-String, and Bill, functions as a vehicle for the speaking characters' puns. Though Rapier calls Powder a "vile bragger" who does nothing but "crack," Dagger argues that Powder is an "excellent politician." Sword believes Powder is all "flash" and no substance, but the three agree that he was formerly a "Parliament-Man," ostensibly establishing Powder's responsibility for the Gunpowder Plot, in which he attempted to "undermine" Parliament.

POWESSE, JEFFREY LORD

Jeffrey Lord Powesse is a lord betrothed to Marian in Munday's John a Kent and John a Cumber. Near Chester, Powesse and Sir Griffin debate the crisis created by the imminent marriages of their ladies. Marian, Powesse's sweetheart, has been promised to Pembrooke and Sydanen, Sir Griffin's lady, has been promised to Moorton. Powesse suggests a subversive attack on Chester castle by plotting against the Earl of Chester and inciting the inhabitants to mutiny. Powesse and Sir Griffin engage the help of Gosselin and Evan, who have a small army of men ready for them in the woods. John a Kent promises Powesse and Sir Griffin he will help them by luring the ladies outside Chester castle. In the woods beyond the castle, Powesse and Sir Griffin meet Marian and Sydanen and confess their marital intentions to them. When the ladies consent to follow their lovers, the party retires to Gosselin's castle. At dawn in Gosselin's castle, Powesse and Sir Griffin are up very early, eager for their impending weddings to Marian and Sydanen. The lords know that John a Kent is preparing an entertainment for the ladies, so they are not suspicious when John a Cumber (disguised as John a Kent) introduces a pageant of Antiques. Only when they see that the rival party is already in the castle do Powesse and Sir Griffin realize they have been tricked and leave with Gosselin and Evan. Because the ladies have been sent to Chester, Powesse and Sir Griffin must lure them away from their guardians as they make their way through the woods, while their guardians are put to sleep with hypnotic chimes. During the performance on the lawn before Gosselin's castle, Powesse acts as himself and tells Chester how he resents having been rejected in his suit for Marian. Thus, Powesse makes Chester see his side of the story. At Chester Abbey, Powesse and Sir Griffin enter disguised as Pembrooke and Moorton, the expected bridegrooms. John a Cumber is deceived and lets them inside the church, where they are married to Marian and Sydanen.

POWIS

Name adopted by Penda in his disguise as a Welsh ambassador in Dekker, Ford and Rowley's The Welsh Embassador.

POWIS, LADY**1599

She fears for the safety of her husband in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle.

POWIS, LORD**1599

He and his servants fight and argue with Herbert and his servants in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle. After Herbert is injured Powis runs away and goes to Oldcastle's home, disguised as a beggar. He is eventually arrested and pardoned by the King at Oldcastle's request. While traveling to Wales, he is reunited with Oldcastle when he stumbles across Oldcastle's trial and acquittal in St. Albans.

POYCTRIERS

Poyctriers is the French name Saxon assumes to infiltrate the English court in disguise.

POYET

Lord Chancellor in Chapman's The Tragedy of Chabot, Admiral of France. Witnesses the reconciliation of Chabot and Montmorency in the opening scene. After Chabot and the King leave, however, he (along with the Secretary and Treasurer) urges Montmorency to do whatever he can to displace Chabot in the King's favor. When the King challenges Chabot's integrity, and Chabot asserts it, the King asks the Chancellor to do what he can to discover any corruption in the Admiral's rise to power. He attends the trial, and reports the verdict to the King, urging that Chabot be executed as soon as possible. The truth of his manipulations emerges as the Judges and Proctor-General appear before the King. Poyet is tried in V and found guilty; though he is not condemned to death.

PRACTICE

A lawyer in Jonson's The Magnetic Lady. He is Lady Lodestone's preferred suitor for her niece, Placentia, until she hears from Polish and Parson Palate that Practice has an understanding with Polish's daughter Pleasance. Practice agrees to negotiate a contract with Placentia for Bias, with kickbacks for Sir Moth Interest. At the news of Placentia's labor and delivery, Practice is relieved that he'll no longer be expected to court her, and asks Compass to help him woo Pleasance. Compass promises to deliver the girl if Practice will obtain the license and Parson. Practice foolishly gives Compass the license sealed, but without his own name specified as groom; Compass promises to fill it in while Practice goes in secret to the church, where he is left cooling his heels while Compass marries Pleasance. He is placated when Compass signs over his position as Surveyor of the Projects General, and promises to help Compass get Pleasance's inheritance away from Sir Moth Interest.

PRACULEMEN

A mistaken name in Cokain's The Obstinate Lady. Jaques's misnomer for Phyginois/Draculemion.

PRAENESTIAN CITIZEN, FIRST and SECOND

There are two Praenestian citizens who speak in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War:
  1. The First Praenestian Citizen claims that a glorious death fighting with Young Marius against Lucretius is the fate the Praenestians most desire. When Young Marius kills himself in hopes that Lucretius will spare the women and children of the town, the First Praenestian Citizen also stabs himself, while asking for mercy for the children and wives of the fighters.
  2. The Second Praenestian Citizen swears that the Praenestian citizens are resolved to follow Young Marius even into death. When Young Marius kills himself in hopes that Lucretius will spare the women and children of the town, the Second Praenestian Citizen also stabs himself, while asking for mercy for his son.

PRAENESTIAN SOLDIER

During the battle between Young Marius and Scilla's followers, Young Marius retreats from the fight with some soldiers in Lodge's The Wounds of Civil War. One questions why he has left the breach and receives the answer that Young Marius is studying how to die with honor.

PRALIN

The Captain of the guard in Chapman's The Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron; supporter of the King. Following the arrest of Byron, he arrests D'Auvergne.

PRAT, MOTHER

A disguise assumed by Falstaff when he is trapped in Mistress Ford's home in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. Mother Prat, according to Mistress Ford is her "maid's aunt of Brainford." The disguise hardly saves Falstaff, however, because Ford has already forbidden the fortune–telling witch from entering his home. He beats the "old woman" while bellowing "you witch, you rag, you baggage, you polecat, you runnion!" When he arrives back at the Garter, he is pestered by Peter Simple, who believes him to be the wise woman of Brainford, and made to answer questions regarding Slender.

PRATE

An orator and jealous husband in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. Prate is hounded by his wife Lollia and numerous clients. He arranges for Lollia to get good seats at the double combat for the Queen of Sicily's hand. When he is invited to draw up the articles of marriage between the Queen of Sicily and King of Cyprus, Prate dismisses his clients Drape, Veloups, and Meshant, to their dismay. Meshant vows revenge and is a witness when Prate returns home unexpectedly and nearly catches Lollia and Alphonso in bed together. Discovering Alphonso's extravagant clothes on his wife's bed, Prate allows Lollia to convince him the suit belongs to a neighbor who is trying to sell it. He wears it for his appearance before the Senate. After praising Prate for his plain clothes, the King ungowns him, exposing Alphonso's elaborate outfit. When the outfit's real owner is identified, Prate concludes he has been cuckolded, but the King offers assurances that Prate's wife has been faithful.

PRATTLE

An informer used by Trifle in Davenant's News From Plymouth to disseminate fallacious news.

PRATTLE, MOTHER

The midwife in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker who attends Ann at the birth of her child. She upbraids Ursula for being absent when the child was born and tells her she should have been there to learn about "the maxims and principles of child-bearing." Ursula calls her "Mother Midnight." She is much given to quoting Artimedorus. Despite Ann's pleas, she gets drunk and falls asleep, allowing Young Bateman's ghost to enter the room. She then joins in the search for Ann after Ann disappears from her childbed. She leads the gossips when they return with Ann's corpse, and tells how they found her drowned beside the river.

PRAXASPES **1561

A counselor in Preston's Cambises, he is present at the execution and flaying of Sisamnes. Warns Cambyses that despite his good judgement in ridding the realm of Sisamnes, Cambyses' own vices, namely drunkenness, are a hindrance to his rule.

PRAXASPES**1636

A Persian lord like Hydarnes in Cartwright's The Royal Slave.

PRAYER

Prayer's speech concludes ?Skelton's Old Christmas. Being "Old Christmas, or Good Order" a lent play, Prayer insists on the meaning and the value of praying.

PRAYER **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. And attendant of Religion in the attack against the Vices.

PREACHER**1578

Offers comfort to the prisoners as they go off to execution in Whetstone's 1 Promos and Cassandra.

PREACHER**1604

The unnamed Preacher in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt follows the Doctor to report to the Dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk that young King Edward VI has indeed died.

PREACHER**1609

A "ghost character" in Jonson's Epicoene. The Preacher in the parish where Trusty's parents lived. Trusty is called in as a witness in the debate over the best methods of curing Morose's supposed madness. Lady Haughty avers that Trusty's parents used to be mad and they got cured. According to Trusty, both her parents were cured through hypnotherapy. Besides reading themselves to sleep with boring books, Trusty reports that an old woman, their physician, prescribed them to go to church twice a week. Since the Preacher in that parish delivered exceedingly boring sermons, it was expected of people to go to sleep during service. Thus, one infallible cure for madness consisted in weekly visits to the boring preacher who would preach folk asleep.

PREACHER**1610

Sentenced to death for proselytizing in Muslim Morocco in Thomas Heywood's The Fair Maid of the West, Part One, the Preacher is spared when Bess intercedes for him, and he is asked later by Spencer to preside at their marriage.

PREAMBLE, JUSTICE RICHARD

The Justice of the Peace in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub. He complains to Hugh that the locals pronounce his name "Bramble." He orders his clerk, Miles Metaphor, to pose as Pursuivant and arrest Squire Tripoly Tub so that Preamble can take possession of Audrey Turfe and marry her. His plot is foiled by Tobie Turfe, who stops the marriage before the slow-speaking Canon Hugh can complete it. Preamble bribes the Canon to come up with another plan to win Audrey. Turfe is accused of conspiracy to protect John Clay by Canon Hugh, disguised as the pseudonymous "Captain Thumb," the robbery victim earlier invented by Basket Hilts, and brought before Preamble to answer the charges. "Captain Thumb" requests that restitution be delivered to Canon Hugh. The money and the bride, however, are intercepted by Squire Tripoly Tub and Basket Hilts. Preamble takes the loss of both philosophically. (Listed in d.p. as "Just: Preamble")

PRECIOUS JEWEL

A disguise in Jordan's Money is an Ass. To gain access to Clutch's house, Penniless disguises himself as Precious Jewel, brother to Gold, and assures Credit that he is married to Beauty, sister to Lady Portion.

PRECO

"The Cryer" in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Preco (along with the help of Lauriger and Drudo) accomplishes the Proclamation of Apollo's "yeerly visitation." He talks with the others about Apollo's approaching visit and is told by Lauriger to "looke into the Grove" for people. When no one can be found, Preco climbs a tree to proclaim Apollo's coming, and the three "returne" to Museus to "acquaint" the Priest with what they've done. Lauriger later claims that, after he, Preco, and Drudo informed Apollo of their "publishing of his Mandates," Apollo "charged [them] that this inquiry should be more strickt then heretofore." For this reason, Preco and Drudo are sent to notify those who must appear before the Court at Apollo's command. Preco "cite[s]" and "indict[s]" Novice and Siren to appear in Court and, after notifying Siren, the "goddesse" tries to tempt them from their work. Drudo puts a stop to this by charging Preco to take her to Apollo while he goes to "cite Slug." Preco sends Ludio to inform Thuriger to prepare the Temple for "Apollo and his Actors." He helps to bring about order at the sentencing, introduces Museus, and proceeds to "read the Record and cite the names" of all disobedient character who are, then, sentenced by Museus at Apollo's command. At the play's end Museus claims that "Apollos garden" has been "weeded quite," and instructs Preco to "dissolve the Session." At this, Preco "dischargeth all suiters, parties, and homagers from their attendance in this place; and licenseth all his subjects and servants, to depart to their severall habitations."

PRELATES

Also referred to as the Spiritual Estate or the Spirituality in Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates. They are a group representing the First Estate of Scotland, the clergy. They process onto the stage at the beginning of the play and remain there as auditors throughout, exiting during the interlude between the parts. The Bishop, Prioress, Abbot and Parson sit among them. When they re-enter for the Second Part, they are led by Covetice and Lady Sensuality and walk backwards. Examined by the Parliament and ultimately accused by Flattery, they are all stripped of their ecclesiastical robes, revealing the motley beneath, and exposed as fools.

PRELIOR

Allgerius favors him as suitor to his daughter, Statyra, in the anonymous Dead Man's Fortune. He and Carynus are the wicked suitors of the play. They plot with the women's fathers to drug and marry the women. Urganda punishes him and Carynus by driving them mad with a magic mirror. Both men are probably restored to their senses by play's end, but the sketchy nature of the surviving plot does not make this entirely clear.

PRENTICE

See also APPRENTICE.

PRENTICE**1605

One of Maybery's servants in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho. Maybery believes that he is his wife's bawd.

PRENTICE**1606

Mercer's apprentice in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater informs his master that Gondarino has sent him a rare fish-head. Mercer instructs Prentice to take the fish-head to Pandar's house, which is actually a brothel, as a gift for what Mercer thinks is his scholarly teaching. Prentice exits to execute orders.

PRENTICE**1621

A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Pilgrim. A madman in the madhouse, apparently crazed by love of a lost mistress.

PRENTICE **1637

A mute character in Mayne’s City Match. He accompanies Mrs. Seathrift and Mrs. Holland to Roseclap’s Ordinary when they go to see the wonderful fish. The fish turns out to be Timothy, drunken and asleep, dressed up.

PRENTICE**1639

A silent character in Brome's A Mad Couple. Prentice is a lady who works in Alicia's shop. She is to take the dress to Lady Thrivewell's.

PRENTICE, APOTHECARY'S**1513

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. Free Will tells of how Imagination tricked an apothecary's apprentice into going into the cellar for some quick brimstone and used the opportunity to steal a sack containing one hundred pounds.

PRENTICE, FIRST

During Candido's wedding party in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore, the First Prentice (perhaps the apprentice Luke who speaks a bit later in the scene) is slapped by Candido's Bride for having served her sack instead of claret, thereby signaling the possibility that Candido's second wife may prove to be as shrewish as his first wife (Viola) was in Part One.

PRENTICE, FIRST and SECOND

Two young apprentices in the service of Hobson figure in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me:
  • The first prentice is also called Nimblechaps.
  • The second prentice is also called Goodman and Crack.

PRENTICE, PEWTER'S

A "ghost character" in Jonson's Epicoene. The pewter's apprentice cries his master's wares in the street before Morose's house. When Truewit discusses Morose's noise-hating idiosyncrasy with Clerimont, he mentions that Morose would have hanged the pewter's apprentice once on a Shrove-Tuesday riot for having cried too loud.

PRENTICE, THRIFT’S **1619

A “ghost character" in (?)Goffe’s Careless Shepherdess. Thrift mentions that he is back at his shop.

PRENTICES**1591

Friends of Peter Thump in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. Before Peter Thump faces his master Thomas Horner in the single combat that will determine whether Thump's accusation of treason against his master is well founded, several apprentices drink with Thump and wish him success.

PRENTICES**1607

The Host of the Hobby inn's apprentices in Machin's(?) Every Woman in Her Humour settle brawls; pour and sugar the wine; and relay messages between the Host and Hostess.

PREPARATION

Announces the banquet and fights with Ambidexter, who knocks over a dish of nuts in Preston's Cambises.

PREPASSO

Prepasso is a gentleman usher in the service of Duke Pietro in Marston's Malcontent.

PRESCO

A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. A parishioner of Sir Peter Please-Man, who condemned Simony in a debate with Presco.

PRESENTER**1589

The Presenter is a Portuguese man who acts as a chorus figure in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. He acquaints the audience with the causes of strife amongst the Moors and foreshadows the catastrophe to come. The Presenter also presents the dumb shows that precede each act and interprets the significance of these shows for the audience.

PRESENTER**1600

A narrator in Thomas Heywood's The Four Prentices of London who explicates to the audience the meaning of the four dumb shows in which, after a shipwreck, the landfalls of the four brothers are represented.

PRESENTER**1602

He comes to present the plot of Percy’s A Country Tragedy in Vacunium in ‘the manner of an Invocation, muffled in a cloak of black velvet copious bays about his hat, and red buskins on his legs’. He enters again at the end and assists in the chorus that concludes the play. He conducts a final ceremony, carrying the statue of Venus aloft from the altar of Cupid.

PRESENTER, or PROLOGUE**1605

An unnamed Presenter of Middleton's Your Five Gallants Induction, who briefly introduces the five Gallants in dumbshow. Unclear from the surviving text whether a set speech for the Prologue is lost, or whether the lines are purely intended as a stage-direction.

PRESENTERS

The two masquers who deliver the speeches in Fletcher's Women Pleased.

PRESIDENT

Prate the orator's clerk and a master of the obscene pun in Markham and Machin's The Dumb Knight. President secures seats for Lollia and his master at the double combat for the Queen of Sicily's hand, and ignores Prate's clients in favor of a copy of Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis, from which he reads aloud.

PRESIDENT of TARTARE

He refuses in Verney’s Antipoe to execute Antipoe without charges or trial and chastises Dramurgon for his tyranny. He later attempts to convince Cleantha to wed Antipoe and forsake Dramurgon. When he discovers that Cleantha has committed suicide over the death of Antipoe, he falls down and dies. He is later [supposedly] seen as a ghost, clad in white, ascending to the throne with the others at the behest of Brutus.

PREST FOR PLEASURE

Prest For Pleasure admits that he would do anything for profit in Lupton's All For Money. He assists Sin in giving birth to Damnation.

PRESTER JOHN

A "ghost character" in ?Greene's Selimus I. Mentioned by Selimus as an enemy he has defeated in Bajazet's service.

PRESTER, JOHN **1600

A "ghost character" in Chettle, Dekker and Haughton's Patient Grissil. Referred to by Babulo as an authority for wonders in the world.

PRESTER–JOHN **1627

Only mentioned in Randolph's Plutophthalmia. Chremylus tells Clodpole, Lackland, and Stiff that they will have wealth enough to confront Prester-John and the Grand Signior.

PRETIOSA

Pretiosa is the assumed gypsy identity of Constanza in ?Middleton and ?Rowley's Spanish Gypsy.

PRETTY

Hilarius's maid in the anonymous Wisest Have Their Fools. Usually spelled Pritty in the manuscript. Musophilus trifles with her, and she scolds him in return.

PRETUS

King of Argos in Heywood's The Silver Age, he begins the play having triumphed over his brother, Acrisius, with the help of Bellerophon, but when his wife Aurea falsely charges his champion with attempted rape, he banishes Bellerophon and commands him to fight the Chimera. Fearful of his ability to retain his unlawful throne, he has just condemned Acrisius to die when Bellerophon returns with Perseus; the heroes kill him and his treacherous wife.

PRIAM

I.
Played apparently by Mr. Jones in Chettle and Dekker's Troilus and Cressida. First appears at the beginning of the play in a badly damaged section of the fragment. Appears again nearly halfway through the play with Hector, Deiphobus, Paris, Helen, and Cassandra to meet Ulysses and other Greeks. Toward play's end he again appears with the Trojans to meet Antenor. At play's end he is on the walls with Paris, Helen, Polixina, and Cassandra and descends with them to Ulysses, Ajax, Menalaus, and the Herald.
II.
Only mentioned in Shakespeare's 2 Henry IV, the king of ancient Troy. The Earl of Northumberland compares himself to Priam in the ability to discern news of death from a messenger's changing facial color and expression.
III.
Only mentioned in Shakespeare's Hamlet. Priam was the King of Troy when it was conquered by the Greeks. The First Player, at Hamlet's request, describes the fall of Troy and the death of Priam at the hands of Pyrrhus.
IV.
Priam (sometimes referred to as Priamus in the speech headings) is the king of Troy and father to Hector, Troilus, Paris, Deiphobus, Margareton, Cassandra, Polyxena, and others in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. It is Priam who calls for an expedition to Greece to rescue his sister Hesione from Telamon, the Greek warrior to whom she was given by Hercules. It is on this errand that Paris will meet Helen, bring her to Troy, and thus initiate the Trojan War. Priam and Hecuba, his wife, accept Helen warmly and accept her as a member of the royal family, and Priam rebuffs the attempt by Diomedes and Ulysses to get Helen returned through negotiation. Honorable throughout, Priam is outraged to learn that Paris has used the occasion of Polyxena's marriage to Achilles to assassinate the Greek warrior. At the end of the play, Priam arranges a truce so that the Greeks and the Trojans may return the corpses of Achilles and Hector to their respective sides.
V.
King of Troy in Heywood's 2 The Iron Age, he is beguiled by Synon to order that the great horse left behind by the departing Greeks be brought into the city. He watches helplessly as Pyrhus kills Polites, and then is killed with all the remnants of his once-great family.
VI.
Only mentioned in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. As Aladin begs Amurath for mercy, he likens the tears he sheds to those of the old Trojan king Priam as he watched the body of his son Hector being dragged around the walls of Troy.
VII.
A non-speaking character in Burnell's Landgartha. Also spelled Pryam. In the masque, Pryam is a mythological character belonging to the war of Troy. He is Hector's father. Having the favor of Apollo, after Hector's death, the god tells him how Romulus and Remus founded the city of Rome and how Brutus founded Britain.
VIII.
A “ghost character" in Goffe’s Orestes. Agamemnon says the happiest Trojans were those that died with Priam. Cassandra calls upon him to glory in the Greeks enacting Troy’s revenge.
IX.
Priam is a Trojan prince in Heywood's Brazen Age. He is son of Laomedon and brother to Hesione. Priam flees during Hercules's attack on the city.
X.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Tragedy uses this character as an example to convince Comedy of her superior ability to move men to reformation and improvement.

PRIAM'S HERALD

After the duel between Hector and Ajax in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age, Priam's Herald arrives to arrange a truce so that the Greek and Trojan dead may be buried. He also invites twenty of the chief Greek leaders to a banquet hosted by Priam.

PRIAPUS

I.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. On the Via sacra in Rome, Tucca manages to save Crispinus from being arrested for debt. Moreover, he manages to make the gullible Minos pay for a fictional play-writing enterprise, commissioning Crispinus to write a play against Horace. Satisfied with himself, Tucca invites everyone to make peace, take their hands, and honor the gods sometimes. The gods Tucca proposes to be honored are Bacchus, Comus, Priapus, who patronize alcoholism, debauchery, and sexual excess. In Greek and Roman mythology, Priapus was the god of fertility and reproduction. Horace's Satire viii is entitled Priapus.
II.
Only mentioned in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. Frisco mentions him when he is discussing with Ioculo and Mopso. According to him, Priapus is a plain god, with a good peg to hang a shepherdess's bottle upon. According to Greek mythology, Priapus is a god of fertility. He is characterized by his enormous penis. He is the protector of horticulture and viticulture.
III.
Only mentioned in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. Part of the lineage of Comedy, according to Tragedy.

PRICE, SIR

A "ghost character" in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III. Sir Price is reportedly a Welsh gentleman who fights with Richmond at Bosworth Field against Richard III.

PRICHALL **1604

A merry cobbler of Limehouse in Rowley’s When You See Me. He carries the lantern as part of the watch set out to investigate the recent murder of two merchants in the stews. He helps to arrest Black Will and the disguised Henry when he finds them fighting in the street. Henry gives him an angel and sends him to fetch Brandon to the counter.

PRICK, LITTLE

Little Pricke (also called just Little) is a little fairy in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. She, when she sees a girl sleeping, peeps underneath her frock to play there, and then she bites her like a flea, and skips about. She appears singing and dancing in the forest, with Penny and Cricket, before Mopso, Frisco and Ioculo. She also offers them music and invites them to dance. The boys are also reluctant at the beginning, but they end up singing and dancing with the three fairies.

PRICKSHAFT, SIR ADAM

Sir Adam is a wedding guest at the marriage celebrations of Cælestine and Sir Walter Terill and one of the suitors pursuing the widow Mistris Miniver in Dekker's Satiromastix. Sir Adam's defining physical characteristic is his baldness, which occasions the poetic debate over the merits and shortcomings of baldness that occupies much of the middle of the play. Sir Vaughan ap Rees, one of Sir Adam's rival suitors, hosts a party at his home under the pretense of further celebrating Cælestine and Sir Walter's wedding, but he hires the poet Horace to deliver an argument against baldness in order persuade Mistris Miniver to prefer him to Sir Adam. Sir Adam responds in kind by holding another party at which he hires a rival poet, Crispinus, to defend baldness. The baldness debate is largely an occasion to showcase the conflict between the rival poets Horace and Crispinus, however, and is largely forgotten when the plot begins to focus on the public humiliation of the poet Horace. When Tucca reveals in the final moments of the play that he is to be married to Mistris Miniver, Sir Adam seems to take the disappointing news graciously.

PRIDE**1508

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Mundus et Infans. Mundus tells Infans/Manhood that he must swear fealty to seven kings. The kings are the seven deadly sins.

PRIDE**1520

Brother to Lechery in the anonymous Youth. Brought in by Riot. Agrees to serve Youth and bring him to high degree; advises Youth to act and dress like a gentleman and to scorn the poor. When Pride suggests Youth take a wife, Riot suggests instead that Pride's sister Lechery serve as his mistress. Pride brings in Lechery for Youth and goes along to the tavern. When Charity intercepts them, Pride joins Youth and Riot and puts Charity in the stocks; they exit. Returns with Youth and Riot and begins to threaten Charity and Humility while they attempt to persuade Youth to forsake vice. Pride promises Youth that he will become mighty if he follows the counsel of Riot and Pride. When Youth suddenly embraces the counsel of Charity and Humility, he rejects Pride, who exits.

PRIDE**1527

Pryde laments in the anonymous Godly Queen Hester that Aman, with his love for luxury, has reduced Pryde himself to poverty.

PRIDE**1577

In Lupton's All For Money Pride is one of the two devils (Gluttony is the other) who are called in by Satan, their father, to convince Sin not to forsake him.

PRIDE**1585

A mute character in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. One of the seven deadly sins. Appears in the first scene with the other six sins.

PRIDE**1588

Pride, along with Ambition and Tyranny, is one of the invading Spanish lords in Wilson's The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London. He calls himself 'Majesty.' His shield bears the image of a peacock. He hopes to claim Lucre for his prize. When the lords of London attack, the Spaniards 'suddenly depart.' The lords of London hang up their shields and hide to see what the Spaniards do. The Spaniards return and 'flourish their rapiers' but do not dare to touch the shields. They then hang up their own. The lords of London take their own shields and batter those of the Spaniards. The Spaniards 'do suddenly slip away and come no more.'

PRIDE **1592

The first of the Seven Deadly Sins in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, Pride, tells Faustus that she disdains to have parents and that she creeps "into every corner of a wench."

PRIDE**1599

Pride's reign in Act Three follows Plenty's in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. She is accompanied by Vainglory, Hypocrisy, and Contempt.

PRIDE**1605

A non-speaking role in Marston's Parasitaster, or The Fawn: one of the allegorical attendants in the Masque of Cupid's Council.

PRIDE **1617

One of the twenty-five vices that are the extremes of the eleven virtues in the anonymous Pathomachia. Sordidity, Pride, Envy, and Curiosity are the extremes of Humility. Pride and Malice are the ‘interlocutors’ of the play’s opening. Malice calls him his Alexander. He decides to take advantage of the turmoil amongst the Affections and place himself as sovereign over all. He says that the Vices will aid him in the oncoming war. He names Malice his chief counselor. He disguises himself as Monsieur Magnanimity but Justice sees through the disguise at once and is sent to prison.

PRIDE**1622

While Democritus sleeps in Brewer's Knot Of Fools, Pride finishes the work with a rime royal retelling of the story of Sesostris, the legendary Egyptian monarch whose fortunes in war allowed him to make a triumphal entry in a golden chariot drawn not by horses but by defeated kings. One of them, however, uses the chariot wheel to remind the conqueror of the wheel of Fortune. Sesostris accepts the rebuke, restores the kings to their proper equality and friendship with him, and so anticipates the Christian teaching in which "Heaven hates the haughty, doth the humble raise."

PRIDE **1636

A "ghost character" in Strode's The Floating Island. Pride is the eldest daughter of Concupiscence. She is described as currently residing at the Spanish Court.

PRIEST**1590

The Priest in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy prays to the gods to ease their wrath against Boetia. He is apparently successful, since Sateros wins the war.

PRIEST**1591

A non-speaking character in Peele's Edward I. In the scene where Friar Hugh ap David bilks the Farmer of his hundred marks, Lluellen arrives with the Priest, the Peddler, and the Piper, and orders them to give money to the friar.

PRIEST**1594

The Priest is the clergyman who marries Katherine and Petruchio in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. During the ceremony, the Priest is startled by Petruchio's cursing and drops his book. When he stoops to pick it up, Petruchio strikes him and knocks him down.

PRIEST**1599

Sings a song as the trees of Virtue and Vice are planted in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. He exclaims that Virtue is exiled in every city, but Vice is victorious everywhere.

PRIEST**1599

The Priest introduces the Thracian Lords to the Pythia, voice of the Oracle in [?]W. Rowley's The Thracian Wonder.

PRIEST**1600

The Priest in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night marries Sebastian and Olivia (offstage) and then confirms that he did so two hours later, unaware that it is Viola (dressed as Cesario) rather than Sebastian who is standing before him.

PRIEST**1601

The Priest in Shakespeare's Hamlet, referred to as Doctor in the speech headings, oversees the burial of the drowned Ophelia, and refuses to allow her the full funeral rites because her death was doubtful, possibly a suicide.

PRIEST**1604

Used in stage directions to indicate Sir Lawrence in the anonymous Wit of a Woman.

PRIEST**1611

A "ghost character" in Jonson's Catiline. The priest charged with a slave's sacrificial killing for Catiline's benefit. At his house, before his inflaming address to the conspirators, Catiline sends a boy slave with a message to the priest. Catiline's orders to the priest are to kill the slave he had marked a night before, as prearranged, collect his blood, and give it to the messenger. According to Catiline's instructions, Boy is expected to wait outside Catiline's study with the bowl of fresh blood until he is summoned in. It is inferred that the Priest fulfills Catiline's instructions, because after his address to the conspirators, Catiline invites them to partake of human blood as a symbolic seal of their pact.

PRIEST**1613

Marries Haddit and Rebecca in Tailor's The Hog Hath Lost His Pearl, and receives payment from Haddit.

PRIEST**1614

One of the Madmen who torments the Duchess in Webster's The Duchess of Malfi.

PRIEST**1621

A "ghost character" in Fletcher's The Pilgrim. As the play ends, the characters are about to visit him to seal the marriage between Alinda and Pedro.

PRIEST**1621

Mute character in Fletcher's Wild-Goose Chase.

PRIEST**1625

Arrives in Fletcher's The Elder Brother to perform the marriage between Eustace and Angellina, which does not take place, and complains of his hunger.

PRIEST**1625

Appears in the masque devised by the Passionate Lord's lover, the pregnant lady disguised as Cupid in Fletcher and Middleton's The Nice Valour. The masque is presented when the Passionate Lord is in his love fit, and the priest is brought along in the hope that the masque will prompt the Passionate Lord to marry his lover.

PRIEST**1625

A fictional character within Massinger's A New Way to Pay Old Debts invented by Margaret, who feigns anger when she informs Overreach that Lord Lovell has appointed a priest to marry them in a private ceremony. This is, of course, part of the plan concocted by Margaret, Alworth and Lovell to trick Sir Giles into assisting his daughter's marriage to Alworth by unknowingly sending them to Parson Will-do with instructions that they be married.

PRIEST**1629

A priest is in the process of marrying Lysander to Clarinda in Carlell's The Deserving Favorite when it is revealed that they are brother and sister.

PRIEST**1629

A "ghost character" in Jonson's The New Inn. Priest performs the mock marriage between Beaufort and Laetitia, which took place in a stable. Fly reports to Host that he went to look for a priest, whom he found in readiness at a nearby inn. Fly says he had his velvet sleeves, his vestment, and a long gown, and could be found at the inn, probably drinking there.

PRIEST**1632

Minor character in Act IV of ?Brewer's The Country Girl that seems to come for a wedding but there is no marriage in the play.

PRIEST **1632

He comes to conduct the various marriages in the final act of Randolph's Jealous Lovers. He is surprised when the statue of Hymen first turns its back on the wedding of Tyndarus and Evadne and immediately after on that of Pamphilus and Techmessa. He discovers that Hymen approves the union instead of Pamphilus and Evadne. When the final discoveries are made and everyone's true identities revealed, the Priest unites Evadne with Pamphilus (Timarchus) and Techmessa with Clinias (Tyndarus). He next joins Simo and Phronesium and finally Asotus and Phryne.

PRIEST**1635

A "ghost character" in Brome's The New Academy. Rafe Camelions secures a priest (only mentioned in the text) willing to marry Erasmus and Blithe in secret.

PRIEST**1636

A fictional character in Carlell's 2 Arviragus and Philicia. The Priest is named various times throughout the play in relation to the Queen's sacrifice to Mars and the marriage of Arviragus and Philicia.

PRIEST**1636

A disguise adopted by Octavio in Massinger's The Bashful Lover. He disguises himself as a Priest to hear Alonzo's penitent confession before allowing him to marry his daughter Maria.

PRIEST**1636

A "ghost character" in Wilde's Love's Hospital. Facetia recalls how, in her youth, she was informed by a holy Priest of the magnificent portraits kept in an underground vault which she longed to see, despite the fact that females were forbidden access to the cave.

PRIEST **1636

A mute character in Killigrew’s Claricilla. In the last scene, Seleucus provides a priest to marry him to Claricilla at once.

PRIEST**1637

Silent character in Glapthorne's Ladie's Privilege. The Priest appears at Doria's trial to represent Doria's choice between marriage and death and then marries him to Sabelli.

PRIEST**1638

The Priest in Baylie's The Wizard is brought by Clerimont to marry Antonio and Caelia. In an earlier scene, a silent character called the Parson enters with Antonio; this may reasonably be presumed to be the same character as the Priest.

PRIEST**1638

A "ghost character" in Carlell's 2 Passionate Lovers. In Act Four, Selina wants to be married with Cleon in front of a priest to be sure that he is to keep his promises.

PRIEST**1640

A non-speaking character in Brome's Court Beggar. He is brought into the Mendicant house under the pretense of marrying Ferdinand to Charissa but, actually, to marry Frederick to her.

PRIEST of CUPID

The Priest of Cupid serves the god Cupid and performs the ceremony in his honour in Beaumont & Fletcher's Cupid's Revenge. The ceremony is interrupted by Nilo, who has been ordered to desecrate the temples of Cupid by the Duke Leontius.

PRIEST of FAERY

A disguise adopted by Subtle in Jonson's The Alchemist. He disguises as a Priest of Faery to make the blindfolded Dapper believe he can see the Queen of Faery. Subtle tells Dapper that the Queen of Faery has sent a magic robe to her "nephew." The robe is supposed to be the petticoat of Fortune and Dapper must be blindfolded with it, according to the Queen's instructions. While blindfolding Dapper with the rag, Subtle tells him he must trust the Queen to make his fortune. After telling him to throw away all his money and valuables, he tells Dapper that the Queen wants him to be pure of all his earthly belongings. Unless he obeys her entirely, the false priest says, her Highness will send her fairies to pinch him. While Dol plays music with a cither, Subtle and Face pinch Dapper, pretending to be the elves sent by the Queen of Faery. After making him throw away his purse, pinching him, and stuffing gingerbread into his mouth to keep him silent, Face and Subtle lock Dapper in the privy. When Lovewit returns unexpectedly and Face is engaged in clearing it up with his master, Subtle deals with what is left of the situation. Still in his persona as the Priest of Faery, he leads Dapper to believe he is meeting the Queen of Faery (Dol Common in disguise). When the false Queen gives Dapper a fly in a purse telling him to wear it about his neck, the false priest instructs Dapper to feed the fly once a week with his blood and keep his fast. The false priest's final instruction to Dapper is to play games only with gallants, since the fly will help him win. Subtle tells Dapper he must sell his revenue of forty marks a year to pay for the privilege of having seen the Queen of Faery.

PRIEST of PAN**1608

The Priest of Pan leads the worship of Pan among the shepherds and shepherdesses in Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess. He performs the goodnight ritual and reminds them of their duty to remain chaste. Unable to find the shepherds when he goes to perform his morning ritual, the Priest of Pan accompanies the Old Shepherd to the woods in search of them. The Priest of Pan passes the chastity test imposed by Clorin, and she advises him on how to regulate the behavior of the shepherds and how to punish the guilty. The Priest of Pan banishes the Sullen Shepherd, but he forgives Amarillis when she repents. He performs the ceremony of blessing before the shepherds return to the village.

PRIEST of PAN**1635

Orders the country swains of Trebizond to take down their maypole in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom.

PRIEST of the SUN

Late in Greene and Lodge's A Looking Glass For London And England, the Priest of the Sun informs Rasni of recent extraordinary phenomena (ghosts walking abroad, statues of the gods falling apart, blood befouling sacred altars) that may indicate bad times ahead, but the Magus assures the king that these signs of disaster are meant only for the enemies of Nineveh.

PRIEST of VENUS

The Priest of Venus in Fletcher's The Mad Lover is in fact a priestess supervising the temple of the love goddess. She is a longtime friend and lover of the soldier Chilax, and upon his return to Paphos, she sends for him. The Priest accepts a bribe from Cleanthe to deliver a false message to the princess Calis, one that is intended to convince the princess to marry Cleanthe's brother Siphax. The plan is thwarted by the appearance of the real goddess Venus who arranges for Calis to marry her beloved Polidor.

PRIEST of VESTA **1639

A mute character in Sharpe’s Noble Stranger. In the last scene, Marania calls for a vestal priest to come and witness her vow to become a vestal virgin.

PRIESTESS, EGYPTIAN **1615

Only mentioned in Tomkis’ Albumazar. Albumazar then says that Homer got his material from an Egyptian priestess.

PRIESTHOOD

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Everyman to whom Everyman goes to receive the sacraments. It is an interesting coup de théâtre that Everyman must leave the stage to visit Priesthood because a) the sacraments are private; b) all seven actors are on stage at that time, so no one is left to play the part; and c) the actor playing Everyman is given his only rest at this sequence in the play's action.

PRIESTS**1606

These priests in Dekker's The Whore of Babylon, referred to in the dramatis personae by their Latin title of "sacerdotes" and clearly representative of the English Jesuits, are sent to Fairyland by Como and bid to rescue Truth and her sons from the domination of Titania. They eagerly accept the assignment.

PRIESTS**1618

The Priests are "mute characters" in Fletcher's The Loyal Subject. They sanctify Archas's armaments in a religious ceremony. Archas hands his arms to the holy men and vows to them he will never wear his arms and trophies more. Seeing that the Priests look sad, Archas tells them he is not dead yet.

PRIESTS**1637

Three priests of Apollo in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant; they arrive at the end of the play to deliver his message from Delphi.

PRIESTS**1639

Followers of Patrick in Shirley's St. Patrick For Ireland. They sing a religious song (in Latin), and attend Patrick when he visits the court, and survives the attempt to kill him with poisoned wine.

PRIESTS of APOLLO

"Ghost characters" in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom. The Emperor of Trebizond orders them to pray for Niger, Palemon and Antigonus.

PRIESTS of MAHOMET, TWO

Receive Mahomet's announcement in Greene's Alphonsus, King of Arragon that he will prophecy no more for the aid of Amurack.

PRIESTS of MITHRAS

At the end of Cartwright's The Royal Slave, they interpret the sudden eclipse of the sun to mean that Arsamnes ought to spare Cratander's life.

PRIESTS, PYTHIAN

Three Pythian priests attend on the Oracle in Quarles' The Virgin Widow.

PRIESTS, TWO **1638

They sing the nuptial song at the end of Mayne’s Amorous War to sanctify the unions between Archidamus and Roxane and Eurymedon and Barsene.

PRIG

Prig is a member of the beggars' troop led by Clause (Gerrard in disguise) in Fletcher's Beggars' Bush. During the action in the tavern outside Bruges, Prig pretends to be a juggler and keeps the Boors focused on him while his companions pick pockets.

PRIMALION

Only mentioned in Jonson's The New Inn. When Lovel praises the noble education he received from Lord Beaufort, he distinguishes between the teaching of frivolous courtly manners and the profound righteousness inherited from the great classical epitomes of morality. Lovel illustrates the two types of education with examples from chivalric romance and classical antiquity. Deprecating the frivolity of chivalry, Lovel says his noble tutor taught him no such things, because his education had no Primalions. Primalion is the hero of the chivalric romance by Amadís de Paula, entitled Primalion de García, published in Sevilla (1512). The heroes of chivalric romance are considered public nothings, abortive notions of the fabulous, sent out to poison courts and infest manners. Lovel uses the name Primalion deprecatorily.

PRIMERO**1605

The bawd-Gallant (brothel-keeper) in Middleton's