I

I is one soldier at the service of Clindor in Carlell's 2 Passionate Lovers. In Act One, he blames his Captain for having gotten used to laziness and for not being willing to fight. He calls him a coward, what offends the captain that challenges him. The soldier is stopped by Clarimant who thinks he is a fool for mistrusting his commander. In Act Two, he asks Clindor for 10 crowns, but he does not get them. In Act Four, he takes part of the troops that will follow the Prince of Aquitain. He thinks that they have not been able to go too far as the wind is not blowing.

IACHIMO

See also IACOMO, IACHOMO/JACOMO, JACHIMO, JACAMO, and related spellings.

IACHIMO

Sometimes spelled Giacomo or Jacomo in modernized texts of Shakespeare's Cymbeline. He is an Italian whom Posthumous Leonatus meets at Philario's house. After listening to Posthumous Leonatus praising Imogen, Iachimo bets that he can seduce her. Iachimo travels to Britain and fails to seduce Imogen, but he obtains access to her bedroom by hiding in a trunk with plans to rape her. Although he cannot bring himself to complete the crime, Iachimo watches Imogen sleeping and uses his observations to claim that he has won the bet. The bracelet that he has stolen from Imogen, along with his accurate description of her bedchamber and the mole beneath her breast, is sufficient to convince Posthumous Leonatus. The lie is avenged in battle, when Posthumous Leonatus, disguised as a peasant, disarms Iachimo. Later, in front of Imogen and Posthumous Leonatus, both disguised, Iachimo confesses. Posthumous forgives him because he is contrite.

IACOMO**1606

The name Antifront takes when he poses as an apothecary in Sharpham's The Fleire. Thus disguised, he pretends to sell poison to Piso and Havelittle, but sells them a sleeping potion instead.

IACOMO**1637

Iacomo serves Simphorosa in Shirley's Royal Master. He and Pietro bring food to Bombo, who hides because he does not want to be brought before the king.

IACOMO GENTILI

Iacomo Gentili is a wealthy and altruistic gentleman in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom famous for his magnanimous hospitality and charity. Iacomo welcomes four courtiers Mutio, Philippo, Tornelli and Montinello, all patronized by the Duke of Florence, to his newly built home. When the curious courtiers ask Iacomo after the costs of the home, Iacomo claims that he has paid all expenses except for the three hundred Doric pillars in his court. Instead of revealing the overall sum of the costs, he refers to a volume which comprises all the expenses of those many years' work. The key to this volume Iacomo entrusted to his Steward. Montinello commands the Steward to read out the sum from the book, but Iacomo immediately orders the book to be burnt and sends the Steward offstage. Iacomo's description of his house, with its seven gates, twelve vast rooms and 365 windows reveals not only Iacomo's wealth, but also his hospitality. With each of the building's features symbolizing the division of time into the days of the week, moons per year and the number of days per year, Iacomo Gentili associates his home with his continual readiness to help the needy. Montinello advises Iacomo to take a wife and produce an heir. Iacomo rejects this, replying that his beneficiaries will be his heirs. Mutio then presents a jewel to Iacomo as a gift from the Duke of Florence, and Phillipo tells him that the Duke intends to be his visitor. After the courtiers have taken their leave from Iacomo, he receives the foolish gentlemen Asinius Buzardo, who was sent by Ieronimo Guidanes. In a letter, Guidanes asks Iacomo to take Buzardo into his service. Iacomo Gentili employs him, but shortly sends him away. Later, Iacomo is approached by a Broker, an Apothecary, a Goldsmith and Torrenti's brother. All, except for Torrenti's brother, attempt to exploit Iacomo's generosity, but eventually fail when their ulterior motives are found out. Finally, Iacomo follows the Duke's invitation, and meets the now destitute spendthrift Signor Torrenti. In his final comment he summarizes the moral of Torrenti's tale of profligacy and ruin.

IACOMO, PIETRO

Pietro Iacomo, Duke of Genoa in Marston's Malcontent, has deposed Giovanni Altofronto (now disguised as Malevole) before the opening of the play. Duke Pietro is entertained by the railing of Malevole, who also reveals to him Aurelia's affair with Mendoza. When Mendoza convinces Pietro of his innocence, and shifts the blame to Ferneze, the two plot to kill Ferneze, and carry out their plan, though Ferneze later recovers from his wounds in secret. When Malevole reveals to Pietro Mendoza's plan to kill him, Pietro goes to court disguised as a hermit and reports his own death. Mendoza tries to arrange for the hermit and Malevole to poison each other in the citadel. Pietro ultimately expresses regret for his actions as Duke, and when he declares his support for Duke Altofronto, Malevole reveals to him his true identity. During a masque celebrating Maria's return to court, Pietro arrives with Celso, Malevole, and Ferneze disguised as Genoan dukes. Ultimately Pietro is reunited with Aurelia after Malevole reveals his identity and is restored as Duke.

IAGO**1604

Othello's ancient in Shakespeare's Othello. He claims that Othello should have appointed him lieutenant instead of Cassio. He orchestrates the violence, jealousy and murder in the play. He dupes Roderigo into following his commands by claiming to be able to secure Desdemona for him. He encourages Cassio to drink, thus prompting Cassio's drunken brawl with Montano, which loses his favor with Othello. He convinces Cassio to have Desdemona beg for his forgiveness from Othello, furthering Othello's suspicions of her idelity. He converses with Cassio about Bianca in Othello's hearing, making Othello believe they are speaking of Desdemona. Throughout the play he convinces Othello that Desdemona and Cassio are having an affair. After being implicated by Emilia, his wife, he kills her. He refuses to speak to his captors and is taken away to be tortured at play's end.

IAGO **1611

Courtier in Dekker’s Match Me in London. When the king asks whether Tormiella is mad, he says, “As a March whore."

IAGO**1618

An old nobleman of Sicilia in the anonymous Swetnam, along with Nicanor and Sforza one of Atticus' three leading councillors. Alone among the three, Iago is completely honest and selfless in his dedication to the royal family, and doggedly insists that Prince Lorenzo will return from the wars even when the rest of the family has given him up. When the disguised Lorenzo does indeed return, it is Iago who meets him and who gives him an enthusiastic encomium of Sicilian royalty without knowing to whom he is speaking. Lorenzo tests Iago's loyalty by insulting the missing younger prince, but reveals his true identity when Iago offers to duel with him in order to defend Lorenzo's honour. He agrees to help conceal Lorenzo's true identity from the rest of the court. He argues vehemently against Atticus' and Nicanor's intended condemnation of Princess Leonida, and calls upon Lorenzo, now disguised as Atlanta, to help save her. When it seems that Leonida has been executed, he bitterly condemns King Atticus' actions to his face and meets royal disfavour because of it. Once the family is reconciled, however, Iago regains his place as the royal family's most trusted Councillor.

IAGO**1635

Eulalia's servant in Brome's The Queen and Concubine. He is banished from court when his mistress is banished.

IANTHE**1596

Maid to the queen in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. In the third scene, she accompanies the Queen as pictures of Cleanthes (a disguise assumed by Irus) are posted throughout the city, and encourages her to turn to merriment now that this task is done.

IANTHE**1605

Gentlewoman attending on Eudora in Chapman's The Widow's Tears.

IARBAS

King of Gaetulia and suitor to Dido in Marlowe's Dido, Queen of Carthage. He resents her love for Aeneas, and ultimately provides the necessary materials for Aeneas to continue his journey. Kills himself when he discovers Dido's suicide.

IASPARO

See also JASPARO and related spellings.

IASPARO

Iasparo, or Iaspero, is Piero's friend in Dekker's Wonder of A Kingdom. After his and Piero's first encounter with Angelo Lotti, he changes his friend's mind about Angelo, convincing Piero to judge Angelo an honorable man. He then disappears from the action.

ICELOR

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis. According to Greek mythology, the one thousand Oneiroi (personifications of dreams) were the sons of Hypnos (Somnus), and they were black-winged demons who lived in a cavern near the border of Hades. Ikelos or Phobetor was the name of one of the three most skilful of the Oneroi, who formed the dreams of kings and chieftains. In this play, Icelor is the second son of Somnus. He is mentioned by his father, who explains to Iris that he can appear in the form of beasts and birds.

ICILIUS

Icilius is the accepted suitor of Virginia, daughter of soldier Virginius in John Webster's Appius and Virginia. He pleads with Decemvir Appius for troop supplies, explaining that Virginius has been selling his own goods to gain monies for troop maintenance. He shows Appius the love letters sent to Virginia, and Appius denies authorship. Unconvinced, Icilius grows concerned for Virginia's safety. He urges her to take secret lodgings until her father returns to Rome. His advice comes too late, however, for Virginia is arrested and brought to trial. It becomes apparent that Appius will judge against her, proving her a bondwoman instead of freeborn. When she chooses death to bondage, Icilius carries Virginia's still-bleeding body to the prison where Appius has finally been taken and convinces Virginius to offer no mercy to Appius. He watches Appius commit suicide, and by leave of Virginius orders the hanging of Marcus Clodius.

IDA

James IV, King of Scotland falls in love with the virtuous Ida during his wedding in Greene's James IV. She retires from court and amuses herself with needlework and virtuous conversations with her mother. Eventually she agrees to marry Eustace.

IDEM

An alias assumed by Falselight in Middleton's Michaelmas Term. Under this alias, he acts as a messenger for Shortyard (alias Blastfield) in securing the loan which Easy cosigns and stands liable.

IDEN, ALEXANDER

A Kentish gentleman in Shakespeare's 2 Henry VI. After five days of hiding following the failure of his rebellion, Jack Cade is hungry enough to risk being caught. He ventures into a garden looking for sustenance, but is captured by the landowner Alexander Iden, who kills him, brings his head to Henry, and is knighted for the deed.

IDLE, CAPTAIN**1606

A highwayman and old friend of Skirmish in Middleton's(?) Puritan; he is arrested at the opening of the play. He convinces Nicholas to steal a gold chain from his master, Sir Godfrey, which he can use to purchase his freedom from jail. Along with Pyeboard, he tricks Godfrey into freeing him, and together they pretend to "conjure" the missing chain. He plots to marry the Widow, but when Skirmish reveals the plot to trick her, she marries Oliver Muckhill.

IDLENESS**1568

A woman who comes to ease Wit after Recreation has left in the anonymous Marriage of Wit and Science. She sings to him and lets him sleep in her lap. When he is asleep, she and her son, Ignorance, rob him of his clothes and leave him with Ignorance's coat.

IDLENESS

Enters to Evil Counsel in the anonymous Johan The Evangelist and accepts his offer to find him someone else's wife for his bed, even though he already has over 25 wives (but other men keep them for him). Asks Evil Counsel to find him a pretty artificer's wife. After discussing his brother Sensuality with Evil Counsel, they begin to argue, but decide to go to Unthrift's instead, in order to avoid listening to St. Johan's next sermon.

IDOLATRY

Idolatry in Bale's Three Laws appears in the form of a foreign woman, a raddled elderly prostitute who describes her prayers and relics as spells. Bale uses Idolatry to satirize in particular the Catholic devotion to saints. Idolatry works with Sodomy as a form of spiritual concupiscence while Sodomy represents fleshly concupiscence.

IDOMENEUS

A "ghost character" in Heywood's 1 The Iron Age. Idomeneus (called Idomean in the text) is a Greek who has come to Troy with his nephew Meriones. After the death of Margareton at the hands of Achilles, Hector reenters the battle to take revenge for the killing of his younger brother. Driving Achilles's troops before him, he claims to have killed three princes and to have cowed a great number of Greek warriors, including Idomeneus.

IDUMEUS

Idumeus is the king of Crete in Pickering's Horestes with whom Horestes has been living after the murder of his father. Before giving Horestes permission to avenge his father's murder, he speaks to Counsel (or Council) for its/their advice. He is advised that Horestes should take revenge. Idumeus gives his permission and promises soldiers. He tells Horestes to provide an example of courage and thoughtfulness to his men, to consult Counsel, to reward his men, all to gain fame because fame will last. Later, at the meeting of kings in Athens, he suggests Horestes marry Hermione.

IERNINGHAM

Family name of Frank and Sir Ralph in the anonymous The Merry Devil of Edmonton.

IERONIMO

Variant spelling of Hieronimo. See under "HIERONIMO".

IGERNA

A "ghost character" in Hughes' The Misfortunes of Arthur. Mother to the twins Arthur and Anne by Uther Pendragon, who came to her with Merlin's help in the shape of her husband, Gorlois.

IGNATIO

A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. Old Ignatio is discussed by the two Soldiers. When the First Soldier mourns the lack of men willing to fight instantly, the Second Solider comments that Ignatio is still alive. The First agrees, but argues that Ignatio is only good for attacking a man's liver, and there is no good "heartist" or "small-gut man" left in town.

IGNATIUS LOYOLA

Ignatius Loyola, The Founder of the Jesuits (1491-1556) appears in the Induction of Middleton's A Game at Chess. He is angry that the Jesuits have failed to take over England. Error invites him to watch a "dream," in the form of a game of chess between their Black side and the White House.

IGNORANCE**1517

A friend of Sensual Appetite's in Rastell's Four Elements, he advises Humanity to avoid learning, which causes melancholy. He and Humanity enjoy Sensual Appetite's musical interlude, and Ignorance sings a ballad for Humanity.

IGNORANCE**1568

Idleness's son in the anonymous Marriage of Wit and Science. He comes with his mother to ease Wit after Recreation has left. When Idleness lulls Wit to sleep, he helps his mother steal Wit's clothes and leaves him his own coat.

IGNORANCE**1592

Master Ignorance in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock is the Baily (= bailiff, law-officer under the authority of a sheriff) of Dunstable; a willing stooge, in his officiousness and stupidity, for Nimble.

IGNORANCE **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the ‘home-bred’ enemies fighting a war against the intellectual Virtues that keeps the latter from joining King Love’s war.

IGNORANCE**1618

One of the characters in the Masque of Repentance by which Nicanor seeks to drive King Atticus to despair in the anonymous Swetnam. Ignorance, also called 'Wilful Ignorance,' signifies the King's refusal to hear reason in the case of his daughter.

IGNORANCE**1631

A "ghost character" in Zouche's The Sophister. Demonstration asserts that he has "banished / Grosse ignorance, and that her cursed spawne / Vild superstitious Admiration" from the realm.

IGNORATIO ELENER

A "foole" and Ambiguity's "fellow" in Zouche's The Sophister. Ignoratio is entrusted by Fallacy to deliver the keys to his closet along with his vial to Ambiguity, and is also charged by Fallacy to instruct Ambiguity to lock the vial up where he found it. Distinction thinks that Ambiguity has sent Ignoratio to laugh at him. However, mistaking Distinction (who is wearing Ambiguity's cloak) for Ambiguity, Ignoratio gives him the keys, vial, and message instead, which greatly contributes to the unraveling of Fallacy's plans. Ignoratio forgets to tell Ambiguity "to contrive some accusations against the Ladies of Verona," and exits to follow him. This time, he locates the correct Ambiguity and successfully delivers Fallacy's message to him. Fallacy sends Ignoratio with a letter to Scientia in an attempt to "win her," but Ambiguity meddles in the affair. He tries to convince the fool that Fallacy's employment of him is "base" and encourages Ignoratio to proclaim himself "Ambassadour" and woo Scientia for himself rather than for Fallacy. Ignoratio claims that he "affect[s]" Scientia and will do so, and sets out to make himself "most richly fine." Ambiguity later convinces Ignoratio to "counterfeit" himself as a "captive" for Scientia, has him practice reading Fallacy's letters, and leaves him gagged and blindfolded for Contradiction to find. Contradiction enters disguised upon the disguised Ignoratio, thinks (initially) that Ignoratio is Judicium, and proceeds to strike him and exit after he realizes that the fool is not Judicium. At this point, Ignoratio claims that his only revenge is "to hold [his] peace and be silent," asserts that he "must be better consell'd," and exits the play.

ILFORD, SIR FRANCIS

Sir Francis Ilford, called Franke by his two dissolute companions Bartley and Wentloe is a rogue and spendthrift in Wilkins's The Miseries of Enforced Marriage. He has not yet come into his inheritance and thus looks to sponge off William Scarborrow. He is tricked by the Butler into marrying Scarborrow's sister as revenge for depleting William Scarborrow's estate. His anger is subsequently turned to joy when the sister is provided with a dowry by a repentant Lord Falconbridge.

ILIONEUS

Trojan lord who lands in Carthage with others (Cloanthus, Sergestus) and is reunited with Aeneas in II, scene one in Marlowe's Dido, Queen of Carthage.

ILL WILL**1513

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. Owner of Hick Scorner's ship, The Envy, and brother to Jack Poller of Shooter's Hill.

ILL–WILL

Ill-Will is the companion of Shrewd Wit in the anonymous An Interlude of Wealth and Health. In his disguise as Will, he gulls Health, Wealth and Liberty into accepting his pledge of service. He introduces Shrewd Wit, disguised as Wit, to the trio as his brother. Despite his constant errors in betraying his true, wicked purposes aloud in front of the trio, and his frequent oaths "by God's mother" which reveal his crypto-Catholicism, Ill-Will manages to beat and belittle Wealth, Health, and Liberty. After the intervention of Good Remedy, however, Ill-Will and Shrewd Wit are sent to prison for their crimes.

ILLAWE

Marshall Illawe, loyal to Wallenstein in Glapthorne's Albertus Wallenstein. With Kintzki, Tertzki and Newman, he helps to break up the fight between Wallenstein's sons. Accompanies Wallenstein and other allies to Egers, where he is murdered, with them, by Lesle's Soldiers.

ILLIBEGGE, CHASE

Chase Illibegge is a Turkish captain in Goffe's The Courageous Turk. Present when Amurath beheads Eumorphe, he accompanies the army to Thrace. Following the victory at Adrianople, Chase Illibegge recommends a further attack on Bulgaria as a place where Christians are resisting Turkish rule.

ILLUSTRE

A "ghost character" in Jonson's Every Man out of His Humour. Fastidious Brisk follows Sogliardo's advice in pretending that he has relatives in high places to show off as a grand gentleman. When he is introduced to Puntavorlo, Fastidious Brisk pretends to be well acquainted with Signior Illustre at court, adding that he shares friendship with other grand personages.

IMAGINATION**1513

He has the lawyer's skill to "prove right wrong" and "hang a true man" in the anonymous Hick Scorner. In his first appearance, Imagination tells Free Will that he has come directly from the stocks. He tells of dallying with a wench until a "knave catchpoll" intervened. At Newgate he used to be shackled with Hick Scorner. When Free Will suggests that Imagination's mother has cuckolded his father with the rector Sir John, Imagination must be restrained by–and then fights with–Hick Scorner. When Pity intercedes, Imagination bears false witness that Pity cuckolded him and then stole forty pounds. He then helps to bind Pity. He goes with Hick Scorner and Free Will to commit robbery on Shooter's Hill. He later returns to find, to his horror, that Free Will has converted to righteousness. He is, in turn, converted by Free Will, Contemplation, and Perseverance. Perseverance gives him a new coat. His name is then changed to Remembrance, or Good Remembrance, and he will dwell now with Perseverance.

IMMANUEL, KING
A "ghost character" in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley, mentioned once by King Phillip of Spain and the Portugese ambassador as having interests on the Barbary coast.

IMMERITO**1603

In the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus, Immerito strives to find a clerical living with the help of his father, Stercutio, despite his complete lack of the requisite learning. They approach Amoretto, who agrees to plead to his father, Sir Raderick, on Immerito's behalf in exchange for "thanks" of eighty pounds. Immerito offers further gifts to Sir Raderick, his wife, and his page, and is promised the benefice if he will pay over some of the tithes to the usurer.

IMMODEST MIRTH

A Spirit sent by Ormandine in Kirke's The Seven Champions of Christendom to tempt St. David.

IMMODESTY **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the twenty-five vices that are the extremes of the eleven virtues. Impudence and Immodesty are the extremes of Modesty.

IMOGEN

Imogen, Cymbeline's daughter, marries Posthumous Leonatus against her father's wishes in Shakespeare's Cymbeline. Posthumous Leonatus is banished for this transgression, and Imogen is imprisoned. Posthumous Leonatus seeks refuge at Philario's house in Italy, where he praises Imogen so immoderately that Iachimo is tempted to wager that he can seduce her. Iachimo fails, but returns to Italy with sufficient evidence to convince Posthumous Leonatus that Imogen has been unfaithful. Posthumous Leonatus orders his servant Pisanio to kill Imogen, but Pisanio refuses to believe that Imogen has betrayed her husband. Posthumous Leonatus sends Imogen a letter asking her to meet him at Milford Haven, where, unbeknownst to her, Pisanio has instructions to kill her. When Imogen learns the truth from Pisanio, she asks him to kill her, but Pisanio advises her to disguise herself as a man and join the Roman army until Posthumous Leonatus learns that his accusations are mistaken. As a parting gift, Pisanio gives Imogen the box of poison that the Queen had given to him in the guise of a cordial. Imogen, now disguised as a man, wanders for two days before meeting Belarius and his sons (really her brothers Guiderius and Arviragus, although only Belarius knows that, and he does not know Imogen's true identity). They feed and shelter "him", and Arviragus vows to love "him" as a brother. When her brothers and Belarius are hunting, Imogen, feeling ill, swallows the cordial / poison and appears to be dead. Meanwhile, Guiderius and Imogen's stepbrother Cloten fight, and Guiderius decapitates Cloten, who has come to Milford Haven dressed in Posthumous Leonatus' clothes. Imogen and Cloten are laid side by side, and when Imogen awakens beside the headless corpse dressed in her husband's suit she believes that the corpse is Posthumous Leonatus. When Caius Lucius passes by leading the Roman army, he decides to hire the disguised Imogen as his page (named Fidele), and when the Romans are defeated Imogen is brought to Cymbeline's court. At this gathering, disguises are removed and the truth is revealed. Iachimo admits that he did not really seduce Imogen, Posthumous Leonatus abandons his disguise to attack Iachimo, Imogen's disguise is penetrated, Cornelius explains that Pisanio did not really mean to poison Imogen, and Belarius reveals that his boys are really Cymbeline's long-lost sons. The play ends happily, with general reunions.

IMPERIA

Imperia is a Venetian courtesan in the anonymous Blurt, Master Constable. The name might suggest a comical allusion to Bel-Imperia, the chaste heroine of Kyd's Spanish Tragedy. The name could also indicate a particular mannerism in the courtesan's behavior because she orders everybody around. Expecting a party of gallants for a banquet, Imperia orders music. She listens to Trivia and Simperina read Hipolito's sonnet. Doyt brings Fontinel's picture sent by Hipolito. Imperia admires Fontinel and orders Frisco to hang the picture in her bedroom. When Curvetto is announced, Imperia feigns to be asleep, demanding Curvetto a reward for waking her. Seeing that Curvetto has a diamond, Imperia dances with him and steals it. Later, and to quiet the talkative Spaniard, Imperia invites Lazarillo to join the ladies for a banquet in the gallery. Alone with Simperina, Imperia says that this is the night of her supposed assignation with Fontinel. Imperia instructs Simperina to lure Lazarillo into a special room and have him slip through a trapdoor into the Venice sewers. Imperia and Fontinel exchange amorous declarations. Word comes from Frisco that Camillo and Hipolito have arrived. Imperia hides Fontinel in her closet. The "visitors" turn out to be Violetta alone. She asks Imperia to allow her to spend the night in Imperia's bedroom with Fontinel. Imperia accepts, telling her servants that Violetta is a fool. In the final revelation, Violetta and Fontinel have paid Imperia to be part of their arrangement. Imperia was supposed to pretend to be in love with Fontinel's picture and agree to the bed-trick. Though she no longer speaks in the final scene, Imperia is present and it is understood that Hipolito will resume his affair with her.

IMPERIAL MAJESTY

Imperyall Majestye represents King Henry VIII in Bale's King Johan, Part 2. He pardons the three estates and offers a Scriptural explanation for the Divine Right of kings and the supremacy of the King over the Pope. He also decrees Sedicyon's death by hanging.

IMPLEMENT, JACK

Captaine Complement's Page and "Count Booke" keeper in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Implement is Complement's constant sidekick and partner in crime who feeds his Master's hunger for compliments. Near the play's beginning, Complement orders Implement to recite the titles which he received from "the great Mogull" and chides his Page for having initially left them out of "the Alphabet of [his] Titles." Novice is impressed by the Captaine and offers Implement various bribes in order to entice the Page to speak on his behalf to "the mighty man." Implement presents Novice's "suit" to Complement - that Novice may "be [his] schollar for an houre in a day"– and, after much ado, Complement agrees "to entertaine" Novice "upon probation." For bringing "a pretty fat fowle to [their] net," Complement thanks Implement. When Complement expresses "griefe & anger" over Sir Orgolio's acceptance of his dinner invitation and proceeds to make much fuss with Implement over the issue, the Page comes up with some possible solutions to the problem and the matter is forgotten about. Complement sends a "Broker" (presumably Implement) to "proffer" Lauriger with a "pension" if he can "procure a patent from Apollo" that will allow the Captaine to "hold on his apish trade" which Lauriger identifies as a "trap" and refuses. For this reason, Lauriger vows to "accuse them both anon at Apollos Judgement seat." He comments on Complement's lengthy lesson to Gingle on what to do if the boy finds "a Lady weeping and mournfull, for that her Monkey is sicke of the mumps," and makes various remarks under his breath concerning Complement's exaggerations of the truth, his own hunger, and their poverty. During this lesson he "rides upon Gingles backe" as they imitate Apes. When the Captain chides Gingle for carrying a knife Implement claims that he'll take it. He is also present during Complement's second lesson to Gingle on the art of shrugging, which is borne out of a dispute over money and the number of months in the year. When it is "high time" for Complement to "appeare" before "the Session" of Apollo, Implement accompanies him "up the hill on foot." He is present at the sentencing of disobedient characters at the play's end, and when his name is called by Preco he begs Museus to "be good to a poore Page" since he "had but a hard service under [Complement]" and "would faine goe to schoole againe." Museus gives him "Apollos doome" when he states that his "lot is for the schoole again: but there for one whole yeere [he] must smooth out the dogs eares of all [his] fellowes bookes." He also must "vow to ply [his] booke as nimbly as ever [he] didst [his] Masters Apery," which he agrees to readily.

IMPUDENCE **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the twenty-five vices that are the extremes of the eleven virtues. Impudence and Immodesty are the extremes of Modesty.

IN–AND–IN MEDLAY

A cooper/joiner turned puppet-master, and a Constable along with Clench, Scriben, and To-Pan in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub. Though the son of a weaver, he claims to be a true "architect." One of the "Council of Finsbury" that serves as a kind of Chorus to the fortunes of High Constable Tobie Turfe, he is commissioned to design Squire Tripoly Tub's masque for Audrey's wedding, and provides a fifth-act "motion" or puppet-show depicting the events of the play, which he narrates. An apparent satire on Inigo Jones, he replaces the character of Vitruvius Hoop in the original version of the play.

IN–AND–IN SHITTLE

A "ghost character" in Jonson's A Tale of A Tub. In-and-In Medlay's father, and a weaver.

INA

Ina is a waiting-maid of Venus in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. With Ru, she looks after Ruina, the bastard child of Venus and Contempt.

INAMERATOS, MASTER **1607

A “ghost character" in Tomkis’ Lingua. Phantastes has promised to help him craft a love letter.

INCLE

Incle is an out of work peddler in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. During the reign of Plenty, he becomes an actor in Sir Oliver Owlet's Company.

INCLINATION**1595

One of the Lord Cardinal's players takes the role of Inclination the Vice in The Marriage of Wit and Wisdom in Chettle, Dekker and Munday's Sir Thomas More. Before the interlude, he asks More to delay the performance until a false beard the players have sent for arrives. When More insists that the interlude begin, Inclination launches into the traditional Vice role, ranting loudly and attempting to deceive Wit into taking Lady Vanity for Wisdom.

INCONSTANTINA FFORTUNES, LADY **1629

A "ghost character" in Randolph's(?) The Drinking Academy. Pecunia is her eldest daughter.

INCONTINENCE **1630

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. One of Justice Nimis' "subsidy-women" along with "jumping Jude," "heroic Doll," "bouncing Nan," and Cis, all of whom he sets free because of his relationship with them.

INCUBO

Incubo is the bailiff of Castil-blanco, and a friend of Diego's in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. He is commiserating with Diego about the lack of custom at Diego's inn when the disguised Theodosia arrives. When Philippo arrives and desires to see the beautiful young man, Incubo pretends to be a minister of the King's in order to convince Theodosia to allow Philippo into her room. When Diego, Theodosia and Philippo travel to Barcelona, they meet Incubo on the way. He claims that he, along with other travelers, have been robbed, although there is a suggestion that he was, in fact, the robber. He then travels with them to Barcelona. When they arrive at the Second Host's inn, Incubo is extraordinarily hungry and asks the Second Hostess for a very lengthy and detailed dinner. He appears again, with Diego, to help Philippo search for Leocadia. Incubo is the one who finds her, attempting to hire a boat, and alerts Philippo.

INCUBO'S WOMAN

A "ghost character" in Fletcher's Love's Pilgrimage. She is asked after by the Second Hostess and described as a good woman. Incubo ignores the Hostess when she asks about her.

INCUBUS**1625

Only mentioned in Davenport's New Trick to Cheat the Devil. Incubus is mentioned by Slightall when he is in the haunted chamber at the Changeables, trying to guess who the fair she-spirit in front of him–who is no one but Anne herself–is: "be'st thou a Lamia, / Or Incubus, thou canst not scape me so." The author may have made a mistake here, since, according to some legends rooted in the Middle Ages, the Incubus and his female counterpart, the Succubus, were fallen angels. An Incubus is a lascivious male demon who is said to possess mortal women as they sleep, being, therefore, responsible for the birth of demons, witches and deformed children. Thus, since the spirit Slightall is addressing is a woman, he should have referred to her as a "Succubus", rather than as an "Incubus".

INCUBUS**1634

A familiar spirit in Heywood and Brome's The Late Lancashire Witches, he is called upon by Witch 1 (see under Witches) to carry her away from the interrupted witches' Sabbat celebration in IV.i.

INDIANS

The Indians appear in "The Triumph of Time," the final play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. They dance around Plutus.

INDIANS, THREE

Sir John Frugal, Lacy, and Plenty disguise themselves as Indians and are entertained by Luke in Massinger's The City Madam. They promise him the secret to great wealth if he will partake in devil worship and human sacrifice. Luke agrees.

INDULGENCE **1617

One of the twenty-five vices that are the extremes of the eleven virtues in the anonymous Pathomachia. She is to be placed before Pride in Pride’s army charge because he runs like a Dutchman unless she is backed. She disguises herself as Pity, but Justice sees through the disguise at once.

INDULGENCE GINGLE

John Gingle's mother in Hawkins's Apollo Shroving. Indulgence insults and orders her "maid-servant" (Jugge Rubbish) about. She helps ready her son for a lesson with Complement and expresses her love for her son, her admiration of the Captaine, and her hatred for scholars. Mistress Indulgence Gingle compliments the Captaine repeatedly, sends him extra money for his "favour," and has instructed her son to "obey him, and follow his instructions." She is Complement's "suiter to Apollo [. . .] that he may continue his schoole of fine feats," and readies herself for her appearance in the Court. Indulgence and her son ride in their Coach to "the Session" while Complement and Implement "march up the hill on foot." Thuriger asks Ludio about how Indulgence "behave[d] herself" in the Court, and Ludio informs him that "she never ceased crying out to Apollo" on Complement's behalf and that "Apollo himself was faine to command her silence." At the sentencing of disobedient characters at the play's end Preco calls her, first, by the name "Mistresse Indigence Gingle" before being corrected by Philoponus. He then names her as "Mistress Indulgence Gingle. Spinster." Drudo informs the crowd that, after her appearance before Apollo, Indulgence "scowred away in her Coach with her sonne, and said she would dwell no longer in Thessaly, if her sones best instructor be not suffered here." However, "as she fled, her Coach overturned." At this information Museus proclaims,"Let her foure wheeles carry Apollos curse with her, that none of her kindred shall ever get above the petty forme of Apollos schoole," and instructs Preco to "passe on."

INDUSTRY

Industry is a character in "The Triumph of Time," the final play within the play of Fletcher's Four Plays in One. Plutus commands him to serve Anthropos.

INESSE

Along with Possibility in Middleton's A Mad World, My Masters, he is an elder brother who is in actual possession of inherited land. Because of this land, he is a prime potential suitor for the courtesan Gullman. When the courtesan apparently falls ill, Gullman and Penitent Brothel use the opportunity to extort money for her medical bills from the two elder brothers, both promising to spare no expense to see her well. Of course, neither brother prospers in his suit when the Courtesan eventually (and hastily) marries Follywit.

INFAELICTO

Insatiato's page in the anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. He delivers a long disquisition on the virtues of tobacco for controlling flatulence and micturation.

INFANS

Infans, the child, represents all of mankind in the anonymous Mundus et Infans. He enters and declares at once his devotion to Christ and his need of material comfort. He hails Mundus as king, and Mundus eagerly takes in his new convert, re-christening the young human Wanton. He is an unruly child, selfish and spoiled, ready to disgrace his parents and torment his peers. After seven years service to Mundus, he is transformed into the adolescent character "Lust And Liking." As Lust And Liking, he is adolescence in all its hormonal glory. After a brief speech in which he describes living for "game and glee...mirth and melody...(and) revel and riot," he returns to his master Mundus for further instruction, at which time he is transformed into "Manhood." It is as Manhood that the representative mankind figure spends the bulk of the play. Here he first encounters godly instruction in the guise of Conscience. He is impressed (and intimidated) by the lessons of this mentor, but he lapses when he later encounters Folly. Folly re-christens him "Shame." Age is his final incarnation, a bent and baffled old man who suddenly finds himself bereft of all the worldly companions he knew in youth. Near despair over his misspent life, he finds comfort and forgiveness in the character of Perseverance, who re-christens him "Repentance."

INFANT, PIRATE CAPTAIN'S

A fictitious character in Daniel's Hymen's Triumph. In Clarindo's story (a thinly veiled version of Silvia's own history), the pirate captain's infant begins to weep when it sees the unfortunate Sulia.

INFANTS

Children of the King of Lydia in T.D.'s The Bloody Banquet. In Act One, hidden in a forest, they are protected by their wronged Mother, the Queen of Lydia. By the end of Act Two, one of the two has died. The other survives, being presented in Act Five, named as Manophes, as the rightful heir to the throne of Lydia.

INFELICE

I.
Infelice is the beloved of Hippolyto and the daughter of the Duke in Dekker and Middleton's 1 Honest Whore. Her father is adamantly opposed to her marriage to Hippolyto. Her father and the Doctor drug her and then pretend that she has died. When she awakes, they tell her that she fainted and became ill almost to death when a messenger brought news of Hippolyto's death. Although she has no memory of the news, she believes her father and agrees to travel to Bergamo. After the Doctor undeceives both she and Hippolyto he helps arrange their elopement. She meets Hippolyto at Bethlem Monastery where Anselmo can secretly marry them. Along with Hippolyto and Matheo, she attempts to sneak past the Duke dressed as a friar, but Bellafront discovers them. Interestingly, she does not speak at all in the last scene, neither responding to Bellafront's veiled taunts nor pleading for mercy from her father. Her father does, however, relent, and all ends happily for her.
II.
Daughter to Gasparo Trebazzi, the Duke Milan, and wife of Hippolito in Dekker's 2 Honest Whore. Infelice learns of her husband's waywardness from Pacheco and receives from him the gifts and letters Hippolito had sent to Bellafront. In order to confront him, Infelice first pretends that she has been unfaithful, and when he self-righteously condemns her, she shows him the evidence of his own disloyalty. The confrontation fails to reform Hippolito, however, and matters are restored only in the final scene when, in Milan's version of Bridewell, Hippolito admits he has been unsuccessful in his attempt upon the virtuous Bellafront, and he comments briefly to Matheo that they both should be embarrassed by their actions.

INFESTO

Infesto is a minor nobleman in the court of the Duke of Ferrara in Middleton's The Phoenix.

INFIDELITY

The first of the Vice figures to enter Bale's Three Laws; Infidelity attempts to lure Mankind away from the law of Nature by its own efforts and also by sending in its cohorts, Sodomy and Idolatry, to assist in bringing about mankind's downfall.

INFORMER

Informer, Patriarch, Projector, Master of the Habits and Manners, and Minion of the Suburbs all approach Theodosius with grievances in Massinger's The Emperor of the East, but Pulcheria dismisses them all for being petty and unimportant.

INFORTUNA

Infortuna is the name Floramell assumes after her shipwreck upon France's shore in Smith's The Hector of Germany. She takes the name Infortuna to suggest her unfortunate fate: she believes her true love Young Fitzwaters had been killed in the shipwreck.

INFORTUNIO

Infortunio is an incredible romantic in Shirley's The School of Compliment who is thoroughly captivated by Selina. By his own admission he is not much to look at, yet he claims his insides are as full of love as are anyone else's. His state of misery over Selina's supposed marriage to Rufaldo is considerably helped by discovering Selina at the shepherd's festival, and he is finally accepted by his lady love at the play's end.

INGEN

Ingen has been in love with Lady Honour since they were both children, but she delights in appearing to be distant towards him and swears that she will never marry in Field's Amends for Ladies. When Ingen suggests that they might instead "couple unlawfully," Lady Honour, outraged, vows that she will never see him again; he departs sorrowfully. He is next seen at his house, reading a letter that the Servant has brought him. He orders the servant to send in the Irish footboy who delivered the letter, who is really Lady Honour in disguise. Ingen pretends that he has married, showing his "wife"–really his brother Frank in disguise–to the disguised Lady Honour. Lady Honour asks to stay in his service, saying that she cannot bear to deliver the news of his marriage to her mistress. Perturbed by Lady Honour's disappearance, Lord Proudly goes to Ingen's house demanding to see his sister. Ingen denies that she is there, and Lady Honour (still disguised as a footboy) offers to go in search of her. Ingen despairs for Lady Honour, and reveals that his "wife" is really Frank in disguise. Lord Proudly continues to berate Ingen, and they agree to duel. On the way to the duel the next day, Ingen bequeaths his money and land to Frank, and asks him to take care of the footboy. They meet Lady Honour (still in disguise), who tells them that Lord Proudly has been arrested. At that moment, however, Lord Proudly enters, having shaken off his guard, and stabs Lady Honour. Ingen stabs Lord Proudly in the left arm, and they duel while Frank attends to Lady Honour off-stage. She enters and throws herself between them, revealing her true identity. Lord Proudly demands that Lady Honour go with him to marry the Count. She refuses; Ingen and Lord Proudly fight again. In order to stop them fighting, Lady Honour agrees to marry whoever Lord Proudly wishes. At the wedding, Frank delivers a message from Ingen, who vows that he will never again trust a woman, and a letter to Lady Honour. Lady Honour reads the letter and swoons, then leaves, demanding to be taken to her bed: "My body dies for my soul's perjured sin." Ingen enters, posing as her doctor and asks everyone to leave except the Parson. The other guests look in the windows and see the Parson marrying Ingen and Lady Honour; Frank draws his sword and prevents anyone from interrupting. Having consummated their marriage, Ingen and Lady Honour present a fait accompli to the Count and Lord Proudly, who are forced to accept the state of affairs.

INGENIOLO

Ingeniolo is a justice's clerk in Shirley's The School of Compliment who comes to the Compliment School. A yeoman's son, Ingeniolo is in love with a farmer's daughter and presents a sophisticated and flowery piece of rhetoric at the School.

INGENIOSO

From the Latin; one who is "ingenious" or "naturally talented." Philomusus and Studiosus meet Ingenioso, an "ould schoolefelowe," in the Land of Philosophy in the anonymous Pilgrimage To Parnassus. Ingenioso admits he is guilty of "mispending some time in Philosophie," which according to him, is full of barbarians, and as a result, he has begun to forsake the land. The pilgrims invite Ingenioso to join them, but he has "burnte [his] bookes, splitted [his] pen, rent [his] papers, and curste the cooseninge artes, that brought [him] up to noe better fortune." Overcome by disillusionment, Ingenioso advises Philomusus and Studiosus to return home, but they continue on their way.

INGENIOSO **1600

As they start their pilgrimage in the anonymous 1 Return From Parnassus, Studioso and Philomusus meet Ingenioso. He tells them that he has published many pamphlets, but earned little. He is hoping that a diseased simpleton will sponsor his newest work. Egregious flattery gains only two groats, however, and in his anger he proposes to gain revenge through satire. He sets out like Studioso, Philomusus, and Luxurio to go to London. There he encounters the boastful Gullio, and offers to make him famous, but is rewarded only with a cast-off suit of clothes. He agrees to write an encomium to Gullio's new mistress, imitating Chaucer, Gower, Spenser, and Shakespeare; when Gullio finds the work wanting and takes it off to improve it, Ingenioso is angry, but hides it until he gets his fee. When the woman scorns the work and the fool who has sent it, however, Gullio cuts off his patronage in a storm of mutual insults. Ingenioso travels for a time with Philomusus and Studioso, hoping that by publishing he can thrive.

INGENIOSO**1603

Ingenioso enters reading Juvenal and proposing to satirize the open wickedness of his own day in the anonymous 2 Return From Parnassus. He surveys the state of contemporary letters with Iudicio, writer by writer. He conspires with Furor Poeticus and Phantasma to extort money from Sir Raderick by flattering him, then threatening to satirize him—or his son Amoretto—unless he pays. Ingenioso himself approaches the userer's aide, the Recorder; spurned, his recourse to insults relieves only his spirits, not his empty purse. His satirical plays having brought the law on his head, he escapes to the Isle of Dogs, but not before joining his fellow-scholars, Furor Poeticus, and Phantasmus in a last, bitter lament.

INGENUITY

Ingenuity is a scholar in Shirley's Contention for Honor and Riches. His beloved Lady Honour requests an audience with Lady Riches, Because Honour has recently had a fall, Ingenuity offers his services to Riches, who roundly refuses him and scorns all scholars. Ingenuity, therefore, renews his vows to Lady Honour and eventually weds her.

INGRATITUDE

A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy. An allegorical figure named as "godfather and grandfather" of Ruina.

INGUAR

Inguar is a Danish nobleman who supports Reyner in Burnell's Landgartha. Later, with Valdemar, he plans to substitute one of the courtiers for the melancholic king. When the Amazons visit the court, he asks Fatima to be his wife but he is rejected. In Act Four, he is called by Reyner, who has asked him to prepare a fleet for his departure to Denmark. Finally, he brings the letter from Landgartha to Reyner.

INIQUITY **1550

The lover of Dalilah, and friend of Ismael in the anonymous Nice Wanton. He encourages both of them in a variety of immoral activities. After a fight with Dalilah, he turns up in the guise of Bailey Errand, an official in the service of the judge Daniel. He is quickly dismissed after trying to bribe the judge, though he remains to see the trial of Ismael. When Ismael denounces him as an agent of corruption, he angrily denies the charge, but is arrested and sentenced to death.

INIQUITY**1599

A fictitious character in Marston's Histrio-Mastix. Iniquity is a character in a play staged by Sir Oliver Owlet's Men.

INIQUITY**1616

An allegorical Vice figure called up by Pug to accompany him to Earth in Jonson's The Devil is an Ass. He has a long soliloquy about the various places in London where Iniquity is to be found; however, Satan refuses to send him with Pug, because there is so much Vice already in London that Iniquity's presence would be ineffective. He reappears in Act V to accompany Satan to Newgate prison, where Pug is held for thievery, to take Pug back to Hell in disgrace.

INJURY

A "ghost character" in Wilson's The Three Ladies of London. A guest at the wedding of Dissimulation and Love.

INLAND, FURIOUS

A quarrelsome gentleman in Davenant's News From Plymouth. He has been sent by his family into military service under Captain Seawit in hopes that "the discipline of the war might tame him." He claims to fight for the King so ferociously because he has been cured of the King's evil. Seawit convinces him to court Lady Loveright. On his way to do so, he quarrels with Bumble for drinking a toast to the King of England and with Warwell for giving English currency to the Dutch. Upon finding Loveright with Topsail, he agrees to be Topsail's second in a duel against Cable. He then agrees to be Cable's second in the same duel. When the dual does not take place, he is enraged and threatens to fight both Topsail and Cable. His rage is soon redirected by a challenge from Bumble to a combat at sea. However, he is unable to answer the challenge because he has no ship. He arrives after the duel between Seawit and Warwell has been broken up and offers to fight all of the men present for being cowards. After a brief confrontation, the men offer to make him their "admiral" and following him into battle against the King's enemies. The opportunity to do so is then provided by news that the wind has finally changed directions. Inland delivers the epilogue in which he warns the audience not to disparage the play or, "Good faith, I'll mow you off with my short sword!"

INNKEEPER

An old innkeeper in the anonymous True Tragedy of Richard III is surprised and horrified by Richard's demand, via his servant the page, for a skeleton key to the inn. The innkeeper knows that Richard will ambush his enemy Earl Rivers, but gives the page the key anyway due to his fear of the Lord Protector. He is referred to by the page and in the text as Oste.

INNOCENCE

Greenshield's chamberlain in Dekker and Webster's Northward Ho, a "honest knave, informer and bawd".

INNOCENT NINNY, SIR

Sir Innocent Ninny is the husband of Lady Ninny and the father of Sir Abraham Ninny in Field's A Woman is a Weathercock; he is an old friend of Sir John Worldly and attends the wedding of Bellafront and Count Frederick. Sir Innocent attends to Lady Ninny before the masque. Lady Ninny and Sir Innocent agree to bless the marriage of Sir Abraham and Mistress Wagtail.

INNOCENT, POPE

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's King John. Pope Innocent, incensed that John will not support his choice for Archbishop of Canterbury, sends Cardinal Pandolf to threaten him with excommunication, a threat which is carried out when John refuses to back down.

INNOCENTIO

Innocentio is a gull in Chapman's May Day. He is used by Quintiliano to provide funds in exchange for a position as his lieutenant. He quarrels with Giovanello (Quintiliano's ancient) at the Emperor's Head, but the quarrel is resolved. At the May night festivities, he is encouraged to flirt with a woman reputed to be a rich heiress (Lionello disguised as a woman). In the final moments of the play, he is matched with Temperance.

INNOGEN

'Innogen' is arguably the correct spelling of the name familiar to most as Imogen in Shakespeare's Cymbeline. This spelling is again found in Much Ado About Nothing where, in a stage direction in the first Folio (and also in II.i), she is Leonato's wife, presumably Hero's mother, and a mute character.

INO

A queen who had slain her own children, driven before the furies Alecto, Megera, and Ctesiphonein the fourth act dumb show in Sackville and Norton's Gorboduc.

INSATIATO

Insatiato, whose charm and energy lift him a little above the general dismissal extended to most of the characters in the anonymous Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools. He is a young, spendthrift courtier, who lives through most of the play from one breakfast or dinner or ball to another. He borrows money from Pestifero and successfully woos Levitia.

INSKEITH

A "ghost character" in Sampson's The Vow-Breaker. One of a group of English and Scots soldiers praised by Arguile for their bravery at the siege of Leith.

INSOLENCE

Insolence is one of a set of colleagues in Udall's? Respublica, who (with Oppression and Adulation) attach themselves to Avarice in order to make Insolence ruler in the land. At Avarice's insistence he changes his name to Authority. After convincing Respublica that he will be good for her, he and his colleagues privately compare how much profit they have made out of exploiting their powers. They bully People and steal from the church. In the end Nemesis does not forgive him and hands him over to People for safe keeping, to be tried according to the laws at the appropriate time.

INSTRUCTION**1568

A gentleman retainer in the house of Reason and Experience in the anonymous Marriage of Wit and Science. He dwells with Wit to be his tutor and advises him to rid himself of Will. He does not approve of Wit's rash desire to face the giant, Tediousness, before he has been fully instructed. Later, when Wit has reformed, he assists him in defeating the giant.

INSULTADO

A Spanish lord at the court in Dekker's Old Fortunatus. He dances at the request of Agripyne.

INTELLECT

The son of Anima–the "great Empresse of the Isle of Man" who is also referred to in Zouche's The Sophister as "Amina." Discourse claims that Intellect "was hither sent" by his mother. Discourse sends Demonstration for "young Intellect / To be instructed" at the play's beginning. Discourse is mad and walking in "the Garden of the Muses" when Demonstration returns with the recently awoken Intellect, and Intellect inquires of Ambiguity about the expected time of Discourse's return since he "desire[s] to learne somewhat this morning." Ambiguity promises to lead Intellect to a library but, in the hopes of making his Master "doate" on him, he conveys Intellect to a closet instead where the young man is locked along with Lady Truth and her two daughters. Thus, Intellect is absent for the majority of the play's action. Invention and Judicium are Intellect's "faithfull followers" and, since Fallacy claims that they are "the Dragons that so duely keepe / The golden fruit which [he] so long[s] to crop," he (falsely) informs them that Intellect "is departed from the Court, and fled" and then advises them to search for their Lord in Rhemes and Verona and not to return until they find him. After they exit, Fallacy informs the audience that Judicium and Invention may neither meet nor return again since his own "hope / Stands resolute of quickly taking" Intellect. Invention later appears, still "hot in pursuite of lost lord Intellect." Distinction becomes "the author of [Intellect's] freedome" when he uses Fallacy's keys to open the closet in which he "found the young Lord Intellect in one roome, the Lady Truth and her daughters in others." Intellect is present for the play's final scene, as he enters ahead of Discourse who is brought forward at the play's end "leaning upon Invention and Judicium." At Discourse's apology to and expression of love towards Intellect, the young man claims that he is not unhappy that he was "shut up where [he] was" sine he has "seen more then ever [he] did before" there. He is present when Discourse thanks his friends, punishes the play's offenders, pronounces the forthcoming weddings of his two sons, and invites his friends to "associate" him "in feasting and delight." He exits the play with Discourse, Proposition, and Description.

INTELLECTUS AGENS**1636

Intellectus Agens is Prudentius' main advisor in Strode's The Floating Island. He instructs Livebyhope to spy on the Passions as they agree to overthrow Prudentius. Intellectus then tells Prudentius to leave his crown behind, because the Passions will fail miserably to live outside his rule. Intellectus returns after Irato and Audax wound Livebyhope to takes Livebyhope away to safety. He also rescues Morphe from being poisoned by Desperato. When all the Passions have agreed to kill themselves, Intellectus stops them by appearing with Livebyhope and Morphe, telling everyone they are sent for by Prudentius. Intellectus stands with Prudentius when he judges the Passions.

INTELLIGENCE **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the intellectual Virtues whom King Love wishes would join him in his war. Unhappily those Virtues are at war with some of their ‘home-bred’ enemies.

INTELLIGENCER

Intelligencer is a spy in Valore's service in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater, who informs the privy counselor on the strangers in the land and the potential enemies to the state. He goes to taverns and spies on the drunkards' conversation reporting everything to the count. Besides, he is a manipulator and a secret agent. At Valore's house, Intelligencer has secret conference with the count. Apparently, Valore entrusts him with a secret mission. Valore instructs Intelligencer to relay his information to Lucio, who is experienced in this business. After receiving his instructions, Intelligencer is led secretly out at the back door. It can be inferred that Intelligencer had a role in Lucio's subsequent exposure as a fool and his disgrace.

INTELLIGENCER, FIRST and SECOND

Intelligencers are spies in the Duke's secret service in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Woman Hater. First and Second Intelligencer are ambitious but foolish, eager to discover plots of treason everywhere in order to secure promotion. First and Second Intelligencer enter discussing the importance of their secret service.
  • First Intelligencer says the Duke should be grateful to know he has more ears in court than two. First and Second Intelligencer stand apart to spy on the conversation between Valore and Lazarillo. When Lazarillo says he should corrupt Mercer's apprentice to retrieve the head of fish, First Intelligencer interprets his words as a point in the plot, namely to corrupt with money and betray. At Lazarillo's remark that he will not outlive the loss and die bravely, First Intelligencer interprets that the conspirator wants to kill himself. In a street before the brothel, the two Intelligencers enter followed by Guard to arrest Lazarillo. They take Lazarillo before Lucio. First Intelligencer tells Lucio they have discovered the bloodiest traitor existing in the world and gives him their written report.
  • Second Intelligencer expresses his hope for advancement in the job, since in a year or two they expect to be called as examiners, and thus be nearer the laced gowns and have a chance to look important in their office. First and Second Intelligencer stand apart to spy on Valore and Lazarillo. When Lazarillo says that he feels greater than the Duke for being able to eat from the fish-head Second Intelligencer notes the remark as high treason. When Lazarillo expresses his intention to retrieve the dish at any cost, through sword, fire, or poison, Second Intelligencer interprets his words as part of a plot to burn the palace, kill the duke, and poison his council. In a street before the brothel, the two Intelligencers enter followed by Guard to arrest Lazarillo. They take Lazarillo before Lucio. Lucio believes Lazarillo is among those who discovered the treason plot and wants to shake his hand, but Second Intelligencer informs him that Lazarillo is the traitor.
At Lucio's order, they take Lazarillo before the Duke to be judged. At the palace, Intelligencers present Lazarillo as a great traitor, but Valore describes Intelligencers as people who live by treachery. Valore sets Lazarillo free and fires Intelligencers, saying that their healthy state policy does not need such people.

INTEMPERANCE **1617

A “ghost character" in the anonymous Pathomachia. One of the twenty-five vices that are the extremes of the eleven virtues. Intemperance and Stupidity are the extremes of Temperance.

INTEMPERANCE **1630

A "ghost character" in Randolph's Muses' Looking Glass. A bawd who is a tenant of Justice Nimis and therefore protected from judgement.

INTEREST, MOTH

An old miser in Jonson's The Magnetic Lady. He has delayed Placentia's marriage because he wishes to continue controlling the 16,000-pound fortune that she will inherit. He presents a suitor, the courtier Bias, to Lady Lodestone; Interest has an agreement for a kickback from Bias after the marriage. After the quarrel with Captain Ironside, Interest has an apoplectic fit and is sadistically pummeled into consciousness by Doctor Rut. He recovers his spirits when he learns that Placentia has delivered a child and is no longer marriageable; he makes up with Bias by agreeing to forgive his debts. He (falsely) informs Lady Lodestone that Compass is the father of Placentia's child, but is confounded when Compass reveals the truth about the switched girls (Pleasance and Placentia) and his marriage to Pleasance. Convinced by Bias that they can entail the inheritance on Placentia if Bias marries her, he agrees. Apparently delusional, he falls down a well hunting for hidden money, but suffers only a wetting. Gloating, he produces Placentia and Bias, now married, and claims her inheritance. Compass arrests him, though, and threatens to charge him, Polish, and Mother Chair with infanticide if they do not produce the child.

INTERPRETER**1561

The Interpreter in the anonymous Pedler's Prophecy enters and announces himself as one who is able to expound on the meaning of the spirit. He wants to speak to the Pedler, having heard that he is a meddler. He and the Justice immediately start an argument, each claiming that the other is corrupt and sinful. The Pedler interrupts their debate and, pretending to be someone else, insults both professions, all the while claiming to be repeating the Pedler's words. He, like the Justice and the Judge, is eventually convinced that the Pedler is actually speaking truth and that they and all men should be more honest.

INTERPRETER**1538

The Interpretour's speech concludes Bale's King Johan, Part 1 offering a parallel between King Johan and Moses. He also makes explicit for the audience the meaning of what they have seen in King Johan Part 1 and anticipates what they will see in King Johan Part 2.

INTERPRETER**1605

The interpreter translates for the Russian ambassador in Heywood's 2 If You Know Not Me.

INVENTION **1607

Anamnestes’ nickname for Heuresis in Tomkis’ Lingua.

INVENTION

One of the "faithfull followers of young Intellect" in Zouche's The Sophister. Invention inquires about the marriages of Topicus and Demonstration at the play's beginning. Informed by Judicium that the two are to be married "e're night," Invention presents an Epigram that he has written "to celebrate this day." Fallacy desires to "inchant" Judicium and Invention, since he claims that they are "the Dragons that so duely keepe / The golden fruit which [he] so long[s] to crop." Thus, he (falsely) informs them that Intellect "is departed from the Court, and fled" and then advises them to search for their Lord in Rhemes and Verona and not to return until they find him. After they exit, Fallacy informs the audience that Judicium and Invention may neither meet nor return again since his own "hope / Stands resolute of quickly taking" Intellect. Invention later appears, still "hot in pursuite of lost lord Intellect" and "divided with convulsions" over his "deare affection" to the "desperate hurt" Topicus, and his "bounded duty to [his] absent Lord." He is informed by Description that "there is good hope" of Topicus's recovery and claims that he has heard of the misery caused by "great Discourses strange Distraction." He describes his meeting with Lady Method to Description, his failed efforts to comfort her, and claims that "Old Definition with Division [. . .] are minded closely to return with her" to Hermenia. His love to Topicus, he claims, has caused him to "use more hast" and, thus, arrive before them. He is entreated by Analysis to "provide some show / And Musick" for the moment that Discourse recovers from his madness following his blood letting, which he does readily. He helps to convey the remedied King to his "pallet" in order to rest, and Discourse appears at the play's end "leaning upon Invention and Judicium." Invention is present as Discourse thanks his friends, punishes the play's offenders, pronounces the forthcoming weddings of his two sons, and invites his friends to "associate" him "in feasting and delight." Judicium asks Invention to read the "verses" which he had, at the play's beginning, "profer'd to [Judicium's] view." At this, Invention delivers the Epilogue.

INVENTION **1641

Invention appears in the first act, which has the structure of an induction in Wild’s The Benefice. He and Furor Poeticus begin the play discussing a number of current-event items that need inventing such as a new maidenhead for a chambermaid, wealth for the Scots, arms for a Welshman, and how Papists may escape the purgatory of Parliament. He and Furor Poeticus comes upon Pedanto writing a play. Invention approves of a number of playwrights including Plautus, Jonson, Shakespeare, Beaumont, Fletcher, and Randolph before helping Pedanto write his play. He uses a white wand to raise Comaedia from her confinement. She calls him her servant.

IO**1611

A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Silver Age, one of Jupiter's mortal mistresses, mentioned by Juno in her diatribe against Semele.

IO**1640

Sir Francis' footman in Cavendish & Shirley's Country Captain. He tells Courtwell that Sir Francis wants speak to him.

IOCALO

One of the 'Elves' in Randolph's Amyntas, who accompany Dorylas to Iocastus's orchard, gull Iocastus and pinch Bromius for his skepticism.

IOCASTUS

A "fantastique" shepherd and "fairy Knight," brother of the foolish augur, Mopsus in Randolph's Amyntas. Iocastus is obsessed by ideas of fairyland. His folly prompts general teasing and more consequential plots by Dorylas. He is opposed at first to his brother's courtship of the nymph Thestylis and warns him off romance. He himself is preoccupied by the preparation of a masque of fleas intended to entertain the king of the fairies. Gratified by (offstage and presumably illusory) intimations of the court of faerie, he later tries to woo Thestylis for his brother, offering only a fantastical jointure of estates in fairyland. This is, not surprisingly, unsuccessful. His orchard is raided by Dorylas disguised as Oberon and accompanied by a 'Bevy of Fairies' whose singing and dancing enchant him. He is gratified to be made a fairy knight by 'Oberon' and to wear a sheep's bell as a sign of fairy favor. When Amyntas saves the lives of Claius and Damon, he decides to organize the local children to celebrate, in the guise of 'mortal fairies.' He leads them in a Morris dance, dressing himself as Maid Marrion, and is gulled into believing his feminine side has attracted the love of 'Oberon.' In return for a fairy potion, which will change his sex and allow them to marry, he promises to give his entire estate away, half to his new husband, half to his poor brother, now betrothed to Thestylis. His folly is revealed and his servant, Bromius, thereupon gives him his clown's attire to wear. He is allowed back a portion of his wealth and promises to amend his folly in future.

IOLANTE

Iolante, the wife of Severino and mother of Calista in Massinger's The Guardian. She warns Calista of the consequences of her actions.

IPHICLES

Iphicles is one of the shepherds who ask Nature to create a woman so that they can procreate in Lyly's The Woman in the Moon. He courts Pandora and quarrels with the other shepherds. After Stesias marries Pandora, Iphicles continues to press his love. Under the influence of Venus, Pandora tells Iphicles that she now loves him; when the shepherds discover that Pandora has professed love to each of them in turn, they denounce her to Stesias. Now under the influence of Mercury, Pandora gets her revenge–she sends her ring to Iphicles and asks to meet with him. Pandora then persuades Iphicles to retract his story; in return, Pandora agrees to meet the shepherd at midnight, but Stesias arrives instead and beats Iphicles. Eventually, Iphicles and the other shepherds tell Stesias the whole story of Pandora's manipulations.

IPHIGENE

Palatine of Plocence in Suckling's Brennoralt. Iphigene is in fact a woman, the daughter of Miesla; she reveals at the end that her father had made a vow to be estranged from her mother if the baby turned out to be a girl, so she (in the manner of Ovid's Iphis, after whom perhaps she is named) was brought up as a boy, instead–a secret known only to Melidor, another councillor. Her early years were apparently spent in cross-dressing games with Almerin, with whom she fell secretly in love. At her own desire, and with Melidor's contrivance, Iphigene is caught by the rebels and taken to their camp. There, in order to stop the love affair between Almerin and Francelia, Iphigene pretends to court the girl–with great success. Finally Almerin finds her and Francelia together, and wounds them both; Iphigene manages to tell him the truth, and he rushes off to find a doctor, consoling Iphigene with the news that he would have loved her had he known the truth. Left alone with her unmasked lover, Francelia declares that she bears no grudge: the world can enjoy Iphigene, even if she cannot. Much moved by this, Iphigene considers that she might have been happier with Francelia after all; but at that moment Francelia dies, and Brennoralt enters, finds Iphigene with Francelia's body, and kills her (supposed him).

IPHIGENIA

Iphigenia is betrothed against her will by her father, Cantalupo, to Formosus, Amedeus' son in (?)Jeffere's The Bugbears. She loves Manutius so fervently that she contemplates suicide until Cantalupo breaks off the engagement and betroths her instead to Manutius.

IPHIGINA

Amurack and Fausta's daughter in Greene's Alphonsus, King of Arragon. Banished, along with her mother, Fausta, from the kingdom for her refusal to marry Alphonsus. However, after being convinced by Medea that Alphonsus is destined to be king, she acknowledges that she will eventually have to marry him, but not before going into battle against him. She meets Alphonsus on the battlefield and fights with him, eventually being defeated and taken prisoner. With the help of Carinus, she is finally won over and agrees to marry Alphonsus.

IPHIS

Iphis is a character played by Paris in the second inset play of Massinger's The Roman Actor. In the play, he is in love with Anaxarete (performed by Domitilla), but she scorns him.

IRAS

Iras is one of Cleopatra's maids in Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Although she is onstage as often as Charmian, she does not speak nearly so often, and is more often just an onlooker. She does urge Cleopatra to go to Antony after the first battle, and speak to him. After Caesar meets with Cleopatra, she tells Iras that they will both be paraded through Rome and parodied on stage. Iras responds that she will not see it, because she will scratch out her own eyes first. Iras and Charmian help Cleopatra to dress in her royal robes, and then Cleopatra kisses them both. At this point, Iras dies, causing Cleopatra to wonder if she has the asp in her lips.

IRATO **1636

Irato plots with the other Passions to overthrow Prudentius in Strode's The Floating Island because Prudentius will not let him fight duels. He is one of the three passions who actually enters Prudentius' bedroom to kill him and find the crown that has been left behind. Audax and Irato almost come to blows over who should be General, but Malevolo turns them against Livebyhope instead. They chase and wound Livebyhope. Audax and Irato again argue over who should be General, but Fancie, upset at Livebyhope's apparent death, refuses to allow either to take the position. At Desperato's dinner, Audax and Irato decide to hang themselves together. When Prudentius resumes the crown, Audax and Irato again ask to fight a duel to see who should be General, but Prudentius rejects both their claims.

IRE

One of the characters in Evanthe's and Valerio's wedding masque in Fletcher's A Wife for a Month. Only Cupid speaks, but Cupid's attendants include hopeful characters of Fancy, Desire, Delight, Hope, and also the dire characters Fear, Distrust, Jealousy, Care, Ire, and Despair, suggesting that in the lovers' marriage, misery will outweigh happiness. Valerio finds this to be the case when shortly after the wedding the king forbids him from consummating his marriage.

IRELAND, DUCHESS of

Widow of Robert de Vere in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock, former favorite of Richard II. She blames Richard for alienating her husband's affections from her.

IRELAND, DUKE of

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Thomas of Woodstock. The Duke of Ireland. Late favorite of Richard II. His wife, the Duchess of Ireland, is a friend of the Queen, Anne o'Beame. De Vere does not appear in the play. [Historically, de Vere was the favorite defeated by the King's uncles; see general historical note for the playwright's contraction of historical sequence.]

IRENE**1618

"The Argument" section of Goffe's The Courageous Turk describes Amurath's having conquered Greece, his having fallen in love with the captive Greek woman named Irene, and his having later beheaded her. Throughout the play proper, Eumorphe is the name used for this character.

IRENE**1637

Cousin to Hermione and niece to Pindarus in Berkeley's The Lost Lady. She is secretly in love with Ergasto, who suits Hermione, and thus tries to stop their betrothal. When Hermione finally chooses Eugenio as husband, Irene is shocked by Ergasto's proposal that she should marry him, but later accepts him as her husband.

IRINGUS

Another cowardly and foppish lord of Cyprus, like Ganyctor and Lerinus in Cartwright's The Lady-Errant. He temporarily becomes the tool of the women's rebellion but who changes sides at the last minute.

IRIS**1600

I.
In the anonymous Maid's Metamorphosis Iris is a mythological deity who always obeys Juno's wishes. Her task is to cross Venus and her son until they go mad. She also finds where Morpheus is sleeping, wake him up and tell him to appear in a vision before Ascanio and reveal him how to find his beloved Eurymine. According to Roman mythology, Iris was the winged goddess of the rainbow. Depicted as a young woman with golden wings, a herald's rod or a pitcher in her hand, she was the messenger of the Olympian gods.

II.
A non-speaking character in Heywood's The Golden Age. Her only appearance occurs in the play's final dumb show in which Iris descends and presents Jupiter with his eagle, crown, scepter, and thunderbolt.

III.
At Juno's behest in Heywood's The Silver Age, Iris transports two serpents from Africa to Thebes to kill the infant Hercules. From her cloud she recounts to Juno the chase of the Nemean lion, and later tells her about Jupiter's seduction of Semele; she looks on with Juno to see the girl destroyed.
IV.
Goddess of the rainbow and servant to Juno, who sends her off to spy on the straying Jupiter in Heywood's The Escapes of Jupiter. Iris reports that he is courting Semele; Juno confides her plan of disguising herself as Semele's nurse, Beroe, and giving Semele some very bad advice. Later, Iris brings Juno a black cloud: another disguise with which to torment Alcmena. (This plan is left unfulfilled when the play ends.)

V.
Only mentioned in Jonson's Poetaster. In Greek mythology, Iris was the rainbow goddess, who carried messages for the gods, especially for Zeus and Hera, king and queen of the gods. When Tucca enters Albius's house as his guest, he names Albius after several noble celebrities of classical antiquity, and he gives Chloë the names of mythological goddesses. Among others, he calls Chloë an Iris. By alluding to Chloë as Iris, Tucca probably implies that she is a go-between connecting the court and the poets' world. At the same time, however, Chloë is an unwitting messenger between the lovers Ovid/Jupiter and Julia/Juno, because they are using her house as a meeting place.
VI.
Roman goddess of the rainbow and messenger to the gods in Shakespeare's The Tempest. A part taken by one of Prospero's spirits in the Masque or "revel" performed for Ferdinand and Miranda. The performance also includes spirits disguised as Juno, Ceres, nymphs, and reapers.

IRIS**1631

A "proud Damsell of Hymettus," a Shepherdess, Anthophotus's sister, and Violetta's friend in Knevet's Rhodon and Iris. Iris is in love with and is loved by Rhodon (who has recently exchanged Eglantine's for Iris's love). She is complimented by Rhodon and praises him in return, and the rumoured match between them incites Martagon and Cynosbatus to try and come up with "some Stratagem" to separate them. Iris implores the favour of the gods "to gard" Rhodon in his battle against Martagon's army and charges her servant, Panace, to deliver "a gemme whose price doth farre transcend / All estimation" to Rhodon and "pray him weare it for [her] sake." Along with Violetta, Iris "haste[s]" to "Floras fane" in order to "importune" the "Queen" to bring an end to the "troublous broiles." Poneria sends a message to Rhodon in Iris's name requesting a meeting in the mirtle grove, during which time Eglantine pretends to be Iris and offers Rhodon "a precious Philter of rare efficacy" which, she thinks, will make him forget Iris and fall in love with her again. Rhodon believes Eglantine to be Iris, and Poneria's plan goes off without a hitch (although, unbeknownst to Eglantine, the witch provides the shepherdess with a poisonous drink rather than a love potion at Martagon's request, which results in Rhodon's near death). Acanthus initially blames Iris for Rhodon's poisoning as does the shepherd, himself. At Panace's claim that Iris did not meet Rhodon during the previous night, Rhodon states that he "must pardon crave of gentle Iris," while Anthophotus maintains that he would "chaine" his sister "to a fatall stake, / And sacrifice her Corps in hideous flames" if she were guilty of the attempted murder of Rhodon. Iris enters at the play's end with Flora, Eglantine, and Panace in order to witness the orders and punishments which Flora will dole out. During this time, Flora "bestow[s]" Iris upon Rhodon and suggests that everyone "solemnize with mirth" the "nuptiall rites" of the title pair.

IRISCHE, JOHN

Along with John Sholar, John Irische is one of three men who Shrewd Wit and Ill-Will claim will bear witness for them when they are finally caught and confronted by Good Remedy in the anonymous An Interlude of Wealth and Health.

IRISDISION

Begins the interlude of the anonymous Johan The Evangelist by praising holy meditation; after Eugenio enters and criticizes his "pope holiness," Irisdision tells him he will not be saved. He presents to Eugenio an allegory of life as spiritual journey to Holy Zion for the elect, and an oblique, circular path to death for those who do the devil's will. Although Eugenio vows to forsake the path to damnation and invites Irisdision to talk of mirth, Irisdision exits, saying he must go another way.

IRISH BISHOP

The Bishop has been sent to Ireland by Pope Gregory to conquer the land for the Pope and restore it to the Roman Faith in Peele's The Battle of Alcazar. When Sebastian asks the Bishop to join forces with Mahamet, the Bishop replies that to turn away from conquering Ireland in order to aid the Moor of Barbary would betray his vows to the Catholic Church.

IRISH COSTERMONGER

A "ghost character" in Jonson's The Alchemist. The Irish costermonger is father to Dol Common. In his ironic humor, Face instructs Mammon to converse with the lady he was courting (Dol Common in disguise) about her noble origin, while he says in an aside that her father was an Irish costermonger.

IRISH FOOTBOY

Lady Honour takes this disguise in Field's Amends for Ladies. As the footboy, she delivers a letter to Ingen and returns the gloves that he sent her.

IRISH FOOTMAN**1609

The disguised Antonio in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Coxcomb; he hides his true identity so that he can deliver a love-letter from another man, Mercurie, to his own wife, Maria. His enraged and insulted wife orders her servant to lock up this insulting Irishman. Maintaining his disguise as the Irish Footman, Antonio overhears the servants, William and Roger, plot his murder.

IRISH KING

Another name for the King of Brittany in the anonymous King Leir, used by Gonorill when speaking of him to Skalliger and Ragan.

IRISH LORDS
Unindividuated "ghost characters" in the anonymous Captain Thomas Stukeley involved in defending their land from Stukeley and the rest of the English invasion force.

IRISHMAN **1599

He murders his master, the young Richarad Lee, and is caught by Wrotham robbing his master's corpse in Munday, Drayton, Hathaway, and Wilson's Sir John Oldcastle. He is then robbed by Wrotham. He seeks shelter and food from the Host of the Bell Inn, who feeds him and puts him up for the night in his barn, which he ends up sharing with Harpool. During the night the Irishman steals Harpool's clothes and as a result is arrested by the Mayor and Constable of St. Albans on the charge of heresy. He confesses to the murder of Richard Lee and in turn sets up the acquittal of the Oldcastles.

IRISHMAN

Chief mourner in the dumb show that presents Eustace's arrival in Ireland in Thomas Heywood's The Four Prentices of London, the Irishman accompanies Eustace on the crusade.

IRON–FIST

The smith Iron-Fist buys a consignment of supposed iron from Thornton in Brewer's The Lovesick King. Not realizing that it is in fact gold, he rejects it as unsatisfactory and Thornton agrees to take it back and refund his money.

IRONSIDE, CAPTAIN

Soldier and brother to Compass in Jonson's The Magnetic Lady. He agrees reluctantly to attend the reception at Lady Lodestone's for the suitors to Placentia, and to allow his brother to make fun of him in order to lure the other suitors into ridiculous behaviors. He pretends to become enraged and threatens to fight Sir Moth Interest and Sir Diaphanous Silkworm; he and Compass laugh to see them scatter in fear, but the excitement brings on Placentia's labor. Silkworm challenges him, but the duel, after a long bout of verbal sparring, is interrupted by Interest's announcement that Placentia is in labor. Ironside witnesses his brother's marriage to Pleasance and, after all the confusion of the birth and the exposure of the girls' identities, he helps Compass pressure Sir Moth Interest into giving the inheritance to Pleasance. In gratitude, Lady Lodestone offers herself in marriage to him. He gallantly offers to provide a dowry so that Placentia and Needle can marry.

IRONSIDE, EDMOND

Saxon prince, eldest son of the late King Egleredus in the anonymous Edmond Ironside. After his father's death he takes the crown before Canute is legally proclaimed King by the Archbishop of Canterbury. His counselor Edricus deceives both him and his rival Canute several times. But in the end both follow Edricus' advice to have a single combat to the death to decide who should be king. After a chivalric fight the to rivals become friends and decide to share the kingdom. (Historically, Edmond got Wessex, and Canute kept the rest of the country. After Edmond's death Canute became King of all England, Denmark and Norway.)

IRRACIBILIS **1607

A mute character in Tomkis’ Lingua. He attends Appetitus when the latter returns to beat Crapula. The stage direction indicates that he carries a willow in his hand. He has no lines. No one speaks to or of him, and no stage direction indicates when he might exit. This is possibly a misprint, and Appetitus enters “irascibly" with a willow stick to beat Crapula and there is no such character as this at all.

IRRATIONALE

Only mentioned in Zouche's The Sophister. Definition, Division, Opposition, and Description mention Irrationale while attempting to "draw out" for Discourse "the pedigree, which is a true lineall discent of all the chiefest inhabitants within these provinces." She had more than twenty husbands.

IRUS**1596

Irus is the title character in Chapman's The Blind Beggar of Alexandria. By self-report, he is a shepherd's son, born in Memphis. He learned the art of fortune telling from his father and became rich. He also became ambitious, and intends to win the crown of Egypt. In pursuit of this goal, he assumes three additional disguises: By the end of the play, he has conveniently dispatched two of his disguises, Count Hermes (who is swallowed by the Earth) and Leon (who commits suicide), and has reassumed his heroic role as Cleanthes. As the Duke, he leads Egypt's armies to victory and assumes the throne after Ptolemy's death (whether in battle or at the hand of his queen is not clarified).

IRUS**1620

The name assumed by Eugenio on his return to Sicily in the disguise of a poor scholar in May's The Heir. He disguises in order to tell his father, Polymetes, that Eugenio is not dead and to discover why his father should circulate such a rumor. As the harbinger of ostensibly good news, 'Irus' is rewarded, effectively bribed to keep the news from becoming public and left under the supervision of Roscio to make sure he cannot reveal the truth publicly and spoil Polymetes's plot. He observes his sister being wooed by Virro and decides to remain in disguise in order to help her avoid an unwanted marriage. He is present at Polymetes' interrogation of Leucothoë's maid, and thus learns of his sister's love for Philocles as well as their father's plot to allow an elopement to take place before having Philocles arrested and executed for the abduction of an heiress. He agrees to keep this plot secret. Having observed both his sister's worthy choice of a husband and their father's 'bloody and unchristian' malice, he determines to intervene. He believes with his sister that the marriage could reconcile the feuding families. His first step, remaining in the character of a poor and disingenuous scholar, is to dissuade Virro from his suit by revealing Polymetes's fraud. Virro offers him five hundred crowns to murder Eugenio and he agrees to do so, on receipt of a written contract to that effect, which Virro incautiously provides. [Eugenio specifically echoes the Apothecary of Romeo and Juliet by consenting, "'Tis poverty that does it, and not I."] He attends the successful trap of the eloping couple and is again disgusted at his father's malice. Leucothoë is left in his custody. Rather than reveal his identity at this point, he advises her that the King might be persuaded to grant Philocles a pardon and offers to escort her to Court. Eugenio then plans to gain access to the legal proceedings against Philocles: to do this he contrives to be overheard by the Constable and the rest of the Watch feigning a guilty confession to his own murder. They eventually comprehend that they have to arrest the 'murderer' and deliver him to the authorities. The Constable interrupts the trial in time for Eugenio to denounce Virro. The belief that his son is truly dead shocks Polymetes into repentance. Eugenio asks him the crucial question: were Philocles not to die, would he give consent to his daughter's marriage to him? When Eugenio hears the answer 'yes', he reveals his true identity. He, not Leocothoë, is the heir, the charge against Philocles is void and a happy ending is assured. Furthermore, the King appears to thank and congratulate Eugenio, offering him any boon he desires as a reward. He asks for the hand of the King's niece, Leda (whom he has long loved in secret) and a double wedding is arranged.

ISAAC**1538

I.
A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by Moses as an example of God's mercy and guidance.
II.
Isaac is the old blind father of the brothers Esau and Jacob and husband of Rebecca in ?Udall's Jacob and Esau. He first appears led in by Mido as Rebecca is praying for Jacob's success in supplanting Esau's position in the family. He explains to Rebecca that tribulations like his blindness are trials from God for which they should be thankful. When Rebecca wishes Esau were not her son, Isaac states that he is pleased with Esau because he both brings home good food and he is his older son. To her observation about the voice of the Lord which spoke when the boys were conceived, (that the younger would replace the older) he accepts that the Lord can make changes to the normal order of things but that he (Isaac) cannot knowingly commit them. He reminds her it is Nature's law for the older son to have precedence and believes that one day she will be comfortable with this. Isaac later laments that his son Esau rarely visits him, but when Esau, who has been listening, explains it is because his hunting has been unsuccessful, his father tells him to continue hunting and, when he catches something, to prepare him a meal with the meat. He blesses him as his firstborn, praying that he will multiply his seed as God had promised. Rebecca hatches a plan to get Isaac to bless Jacob unknowingly. She arranges for Jacob to provide Isaac with a delicious meal before Esau returns and has him cover his hands and neck with goatskin so that he will seem hairy, like Esau. When Isaac enters, Jacob tells him that he is Esau. Isaac observes that he sounds like Jacob but on feeling Jacob's hands he is satisfied eats the meal and consequently blesses Jacob (believing him to be Esau) with a very elaborate and specific blessing, establishing him as his successor. When Jacob leaves, Mido explains to Isaac that it was Jacob, not Esau, whom he had just blessed. Isaac acknowledges that he cannot take back what he has just done. Isaac addresses God explaining that he accepts God's ways, however strange. He explains to Esau, just returned from a successful hunt, that he is too late for Isaac's blessing–Jacob has received it and nothing can be done to change the situation. At Rebecca's instigation, Isaac instructs Jacob not to marry a Canaanite (where Esau's wives come from) for safety's sake, but to go to his uncle, Laban, marry one of his daughters, and live in Mesopotamia. He blesses Jacob and prays that his seed will multiply. At the end, after Esau explains that his anger is slaked, Isaac asks them all to praise the Lord in song. The play's final twelve lines have Isaac, Rebecca, Jacob and Esau praying respectively for the clergy, the Queen, the Queen's counselors, and the Queen's subjects.

ISAAC **1618

A bassa in Goffe's Raging Turk, Isaack opens the play by placing a crown on the head of Corcutus, son of Baiazet. Hoping to remain the power behind Corcutus' throne, he agrees with Mustapha to lie low while events unfold, but resolves to seek revenge on Achmetes, both for shifting allegiance from Corcutes to Baiazet and for divorcing Isaack's daughter. He schemes to use Achmetes' failure to kill Zemes by telling Baiazet that Achmetes plotted with Zemes to spare his life. He calls up a tradition whereby an emperor may give someone he hates Death's Mantle, a black robe, which means certain death. When the plot is foiled by the janissaries, he advises Baiazet to summon home the distant garrisons on pretense of going to war, and then to have them enter the city by night to murder Achmetes and his followers. This proves unnecessary; Baiazet murders Achmetes, and Isaack joins the other bassas in encouraging Selymus to escape the court in order to return at the head of a reforming army. On Selymus' return, he joins with the other bassas to depose Baiazet. As Selymus is marching to confront Achomates, Isaack is drawn by Cherseogles to a midnight assignation, at which he and his fellow conspirators kill one another.

ISAAC **1626

Isaac is employed in the household of Sir John Belfare in James Shirley's The Wedding. He is charged with inviting a list of guests to the wedding of Belfare's daughter Gratiana, and he is uncommonly outspoken with his master.

ISABEL

See also "ISABELL," "ISABELLA," and related spellings.

ISABEL**1586

A "ghost character" in the anonymous Famous Victories of Henry V. She is mentioned by the Archbishop of Bourges as the wife of Edward III, great grandmother of Henry V.

ISABEL**1597

The true name of Rachel de Prie in Jonson's The Case is Altered.

ISABEL**1614

Sister of Widow in Fletcher's Wit Without Money. She is jealous of her sister's many suitors. She falls in love with Francisco when she first sees him talking to Lance, sends Shorthose to give him money for good clothes–in order to meet him, though she denies this. Angry with Luce for telling Widow about her interest in Francisco, she is also angry with Widow for interfering. She encourages the three suitors to pursue Widow aggressively, knowing it will annoy her.

ISABEL**1624

John Ashburne's Wife in Heywood's The Captives; named Isabel only in a stage direction. Accuses her husband of keeping Palestra and Scribonia as his mistresses within their home, rejecting his claim that his actions were charitable and ordering Palestra and Scribonia to leave. Later, Godfrey fetches her back to join her husband in the celebration of the recovery of their lost daughter Mirabel, who has been disguised as Palestra. She then takes Palestra/Mirabel and Scribonia into her house. When Raphael and Treadway arrive, she enters with Palestra/Mirabel and Scribonia, witnesses Mirabel united with Raphael, and promises to assist Treadway's suit to Scribonia.

ISABEL**1631

King John's second wife and Queen in Davenport's King John and Matilda. Loyal to John in political strategies, she occupies the Bruces's castle with Oxford. There she assures Lady Bruce of Hubert's innocence of the murder of Arthur Plantagenet. The King sends her on to persuade Chester to force Matilda's co-operation. She is, however, violently jealous of Matilda and attacks her physically. Ultimately, Isabel is persuaded that Matilda is innocent of trying to seduce her husband. She is moved when Matilda generously exculpates her to Young Bruce, and so befriends her. Isabel endures the King's fury after Matilda's escape and is sent to pursue Fitzwater. Next, she is sent as the King's envoy to the opposition and treated with courtesy: Richmond arranges the masquers' visit to entertain her with dancing, which turns into a successful attempt by the King and his party, in disguise, to abduct Matilda again. Isabel is again enraged when Matilda seems to be relenting to Hubert's persuasion to accept the King's attentions. She joins Matilda in pleading with Hubert to give Matilda safe conduct to the Abbey where she might become a nun. Isabel is absent when the King discusses divorcing her in order to make Matilda an honorable offer of marriage. She escorts Matilda's cortège in mourning to Windsor, where, with everyone else, she accepts the King's declaration of penitence.

ISABEL**1639

A "ghost character" in Hemming's Fatal Contract. Named by Fredigond as a member of the Dumain family already killed in her vendetta.

ISABEL NUTT

A seaman's wife in Mountfort's The Launching of The Mary. She and Mary Spark are unlike Dorothea: they are pleased when their husbands go to sea, and enjoy the opportunity to take lovers. Later, they meet and discuss bawdy gossip. Isabel claims to be carrying in her basket some silk to work on; but when Thomas Trunnel gets the women drunk he reveals that she is in fact carrying a brickbat.

ISABEL, PRINCESS of SPAIN

A "ghost character," Isabel is offered in marriage to King Sebastian by her father, King Philip; however, they never marry.

ISABEL, QUEEN

Queen Isabel was originally engaged to Hugh le Brun, and her marriage to John caused the first rebellion, shown in dumb show of Munday and Chettle's Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington. She feels neglected by John because of his continuing love for Matilda, but when Salisbury tells her that John is now praising her, she is pleased and agrees to go to Guildford for him and convince Lady Bruce to give up her son as a pledge. She is surprised by Hubert's arrival, and defends herself against Lady Bruce, who claims she was part of a plot to take the castle. During the first battle between John and the rebel lords, Matilda is captured and given to Queen Isabel, who scratches her face out of jealousy. When the tables are reversed, and Isabel is captured by the rebels, Matilda lies to protect her, claiming that soldiers scratched her and that the Queen actually saved her. Queen Isabel, now convinced of Matilda's innocence, is then returned to her husband. She decides to visit Matilda in Dunmow Abbey and arrives, with Oxford, after Matilda has been poisoned, but before she has died. After Matilda dies, the Queen orders her corpse taken to Windsor in an open bier to demonstrate John's cruelty and lust. She confronts John with Matilda's body, but when Leicester plots a rebellion that would put the Dauphin on the throne, she speaks against it, suggesting that Louis might be worse than John.

ISABEL, QUEEN of FRANCE

Isabel, queen of France in Shakespeare's Henry V, twice expresses her sense of her function as a peacemaker. After France has been conquered, when Charles VI and his advisors discuss Henry's demands, Isabel says she will join the discussion to help them accept the terms of the treaty. Later, when Charles consents to a marriage between Henry and Katherine, Isabel offers a maternal blessing replete with images of harmony and accord.

ISABELL

See also "ISABEL," "ISABELLA," and related spellings

ISABELL**1599

Princess Isabell, wife of Prince John, speaks no lines in Chettle's(?) Looke About You. Isabell is present at the final scene at Court.

ISABELL**1630

Isabell is a "keeping-woman" in Brome's The City Wit. She attends Jane Tryman (Jeremy in disguise) in her feigned sickness.

ISBELL BUSBY

Isbell Busby learns from her friend, Alison, of the existence of Misogonus' twin brother in (?)Johnson's Misogonus. A tenant of Philogonus, she wants to be compensated for her knowledge, just as Alison is, so she agrees to tell the truth about Eugonus despite pressure from a disguised Carcurgus to deny that Misogonus has a twin.

ISABELLA

See also "ISABEL," "ISABELL," and related spellings

ISABELLA**1588

Hieronimos's wife, Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. When she discovers her son, Horatio, murdered and hung up in the arbor, she descends into madness. She tears down the arbor and later commits suicide.

ISABELLA**1600

Isabella is the old King Philip's daughter, Fernando and Prince Philip's sister in the anonymous Lust's Dominion. She is in love with Hortenzo, Alvero's son. After the death of the old King Philip, Isabella's father, they decide to leave the court. They reappear towards the end of the play, when the Queen Mother wants to take the crown and Eleazar proposes that Isabella should become Queen instead. Isabella asks Hortenzo to help save her brother Philip and her mother from prison and death. When instead Hortenzo is himself arrested, chained and yoked together with the Queen Mother, Prince Philip and the Cardinal, Isabella bribes Zarack. Zarack sets Philip and Hortenzo free and kills Baltazar. Philip then stabs Zarack. Isabella suggests that Philip and Hortenzo paint their faces black to look like Zarack and Baltazar. In these disguises they are able to trap and kill Eleazar, who mistakes them for his servants.

ISABELLA[?]**1602

A character name is nearly lost, only –lla remains in the anonymous 2 Fortune's Tennis. It is perhaps referring to a character of this name.

ISABELLA**1602

A "ghost character" in Chettle's Hoffman. This Duchess, wife to Ferdinand, dies before play began.

ISABELLA**1602

Isabella is the Marshall's eldest daughter in Heywood's Royal King. The Marshall returns to live with his daughters in the country after being banished from the court. But the King then demands that the Marshall send his fairest daughter to him. The Marshall reluctantly agrees. He chooses Isabella because she's the eldest, pointing out that since the King has never seen them he doesn't know which is really the fairest. They decide that if the King gets her pregnant she should then humiliate him by telling him that she is not in fact the fairer of the two after all. So Isabella goes to the court, where the King falls in love and decides to make her his Queen. She is a good Queen and everyone admires her. But when she begins to suspect that she is pregnant, she reveals to the King that her sister is in fact more beautiful than she. The King is furious and sends her back, along with her dowry, and demands the other daughter. Instead, the Marshall sends Isabella back, in expensive regalia, attended by Katherine as a handmaid, and with the dowry doubled. The King is moved by this generosity, and decides to outdo the Marshall: he keeps his Queen, and allows Katherine to marry the Prince. Later, when the King becomes angry with the Marshall again, and sentences him to death, Isabella, Katherine, the Prince, and the Princess save him by begging the King to remember his familial ties.

ISABELLA**1604

Empress Isabella is wife of Alphonsus in the anonymous Alphonsus Emperor of Germany. She is an Englishwoman, being daughter of King John, sister of Duke Richard, and aunt of Prince Edward. To celebrate the settlement whereby Bohemia is appointed co-Emperor alongside Alphonsus, she organizes "Fortune's revels", a set of revels customarily accompany such coronations. In these revels each character draws lots to discover what role they must take - she herself drawing the lot of chambermaid. She helps Richard and his allies to escape from Alphonsus' castle through her bedroom window, and hides Palatine in her closet, a plan that goes wrong when Alphonsus uses this as a pretext to falsely accuse her of adultery and to kill Palatine on the spot. She is sentenced to death and is to be executed along with Prince Edward on the day of the battle. Alphonsus takes her aside, intending to kill her personally, but is killed before he can complete his plan, and Isabella survives.

ISABELLA**1604

Ieronimo's wife, Horatio's mother in the anonymous First Part of Jeronimo. Together with Lorenzo she surprises Ieronimo and Horatio when they re-read the letter they want to send to Andrea, a letter warning him that Lorenzo wants to kill him when he comes back from Portugal. She jokingly says that it might be a love letter to some Spanish lady.

ISABELLA**1604

Isabella, one of the four Wenches in the anonymous Wit of a Woman, is daughter to Dorio and sister to Filenio. She flirts with Rinaldo, who is impersonating a painter. But Bario the merchant uses Balia to court Isabella: she tricks him and ends the play married to one of the gallants, presumably Rinaldo. N.b. The four Wenches are Erinta, Gianetta, Isabella, and Lodovica.

ISABELLA**1604

The sister of Claudio in Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. She is a novitiate in the sisterhood of Saint Clare, an order known for strictness and self-discipline. When Claudio is arrested and sentenced to execution for fornication, Isabella (with Lucio's encouragement) pleads with Angelo on her brother's behalf. Angelo, aroused by her virtue, attempts to seduce her, promising to pardon Claudio in return for her yielding her virginity to him. Isabella is horrified when Claudio unexpectedly urges her to do so. Duke Vincentio, disguised as a friar, directs her to agree with Angelo's demand but to perform a "bed trick," substituting Mariana for herself. Angelo, thinking he has bedded Isabella, orders Claudio executed anyway to hide his transgression. The Duke, knowing otherwise, tells Isabella that Claudio is dead. The Duke then directs Isabella and Mariana to accuse Angelo publicly before the "returning" Duke and reveal everything. The Duke orders Angelo to be executed, but Isabella, at Mariana's urging, pleads for Angelo; the Duke relents, reveals that Claudio was not executed, and declares that he will marry Isabella. Isabella's response to Vincentio's offer of marriage is not clearly delineated in the text and is the topic of much scholarly and theatrical debate.

ISABELLA**1610

The title character of John Marston's The Insatiate Countess. A widow, she is successfully wooed by Count Roberto, who breaks through her melancholy front and persuades her to marry him. During the festivities for their wedding she is so smitten by one of the dancers, Count Massino, that she immediately decides to leave her new husband. She has her maid Anna prepare her house in Pavia for their tryst. She then falls madly in love with Massino's friend Gniaca upon their arrival. Claiming chastity, she rebuffs her former lover and begins an affair with Gniaca. After Massino writes a raft of angry verses concerning her insatiability, she importunes Gniaca to kill him. But the two friends foil her plan and reconcile. She next uses her wiles to hire Don Sago to shoot Massino, but he is caught. After Don Sago's confession implicating Isabella, she is condemned to death. When her husband Roberto, now a friar, meets her on the scaffold, she remorsefully realizes what she has done and begs his forgiveness, which he gives.

ISABELLA**1612

Isabella is the Queen of Portugal and Castile in Fletcher's Four Plays in One. She marries Emanuel, and the four plays are presented at the celebration of their nuptials.

ISABELLA **1612

Isabella is Francisco's sister and Brachiano's wife in Webster's The White Devil. She is the ingenue. She has some backbone, though, and is willing to take her brother's abuse rather than cause a civil war when she pretends that she will not accept Brachiano back into her bed.

ISABELLA**1615

Sebastian's wife by precontract in Thomas Middleton's The Witch. She marries Antonio because he falsely leads her to believe that her husband is dead. Appalled at Francisca's pregnancy, she threatens to inform Antonio about his sister's secret. However, Francisca tries to forestall this disclosure by leading her brother to believe that his wife is unfaithful. Isabella's contracted husband Sebastian in the disguise of Celio becomes her servant and confidant and is reconciled with her after Antonio's death.

ISABELLA**1620

Claudio's sister, married to the usurer Lopez in Fletcher's Women Pleased. She complains that he keeps her locked up and starving. Unaware that the disguised Claudio is her brother, she agrees to a tryst with him, which is interrupted by Bartello, who also woos her, but against her will. Nearly discovered by Lopez while waiting for Claudio, she pays Jaquenett to receive Lopez' beating and then uses the deception to prove her innocence to Bartello, the Gentleman, and Gentlewomen. She then gains Lopez' trust by convincing him that she was merely trying to expose Bartello's unwanted advances. Her plot to entrap Bartello succeeds, and Lopez is reconciled with her and their neighbors. She arranges a final meeting with "Rugio" (Claudio) and entraps him into promising to murder Lopez; at his exposure she learns that he is her brother and has engineered the whole thing to prove her virtue. Participates as a dancer in the wedding masque for Silvio and the hag.

ISABELLA**1621

Isabella, mother of Sforza in Massinger's The Duke of Milan, hates the Duchess.

ISABELLA **1621

Isabella, who could be made sympathetic is wholly unsympathetic in Middleton's Women Beware Women. She will not commit incest with her uncle, Hippolito, but she does not shy away from adultery with him when her aunt Livia convinces her that Hippolito is not her uncle. She murders her aunt by burning poisoned incense under her as Livia descends as Juno in a masque. She is in turn killed by Livia, who pours a shower of molten gold upon her from above.

ISABELLA**1622

Isabella is the young wife of Alibius, owner of the madhouse in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling. Alibius believes that gallants are visiting his asylum to seduce her, so he commands Lollio to guard her while he is away. Confined to the asylum, Isabella becomes bored, and so Lollio takes her on a guided tour. But he is distracted by a disturbance among the madmen, and Antonio, a gallant disguised as a fool, takes the opportunity to reveal his identity and kiss Isabella. Isabella rebuffs him, but when Antonio tries again, Lollio observes him. Lollio tries to blackmail Isabella for sexual favors, but Isabella discourages him by saying she'll ask Antonio to cut his throat. Isabella and Lollio then learn that the madman Franciscus is also a gallant in disguise, when he sends her a love-letter. Lollio begins to think of Isabella as a curer of madmen, and assists her when she proposes to cure Antonio. She dresses as a madwoman, and approaches Antonio with wild sexual abandon. When Antonio is disgusted, Isabella reveals her identity and says she has rejected him as a lover because he has failed to see beyond her outward attire. Later, when Isabella tells Alibius about the disguised gallants (this event is not dramatized), he and Isabella inform Vermandero. In the conclusion, Isabella tells her husband he is a "jealous coxcomb", and he promises to change into a better husband.

ISABELLA**1623

The name adopted by Ismenia when she disguises as a shepherdess in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill.

ISABELLA **1632

Laurentio’s daughter, Endymion’s sister, and in love with Lucius in Hausted’s Rival Friends. She poses as a boy from the London playhouse dressed up as Constantina to assist in that girl’s escape. She spends most of the play offstage pretending to be Constantina and refusing to speak to anyone. She has also recently inherited three thousand pounds from her uncle. At play’s end, Loveall, having discovered the deceit, drags her in to demand what ‘he’ has done with Constantina. She is discovered to be Isabella and takes Lucius to wed.

ISABELLA**1633

Sister of Sforza in Cokain's Trappolin. Isabella is given to Lavinio as his wife as a reward for Sforza's support in the recent Tuscan wars. Lavinio goes to Milan to wed her, and she becomes Duchess of Tuscany. When she and her new husband arrive in Florence, she is one of the courtly retinue exposed to the alternations between Trappolin's will and that of the true Duke, as Trappolin seeks an opportunity to transform the Duke. Lavinio thinks she is mad, as she accuses him of actions has not taken. She thinks he is mad for the same reason. In an encounter with the disguised Trappolin, she condemns his drunkenness, which is his excuse for the changes of behavior others are witnessing. At the end of the play Duke Lavinio welcomes her to the Florentine court, and promises to explain the confusing events that greeted her on her arrival in Florence.

ISABELLA**1634

The Duchess's Gentlewoman, romantically pursued by Wallenstein's son Albertus in Glapthorne's Albertus Wallenstein. She loves him, but is afraid for her honour and resists being flattered into an illicit affair. Her modesty persuades him to respect her fear of being compromised. He tries again to force his attentions on her, which she so eloquently rejects that he is won over by her goodness and proposes honourable marriage. She feels unworthy because of her humble status but he over-optimistically persuades her that their love will prevail. Their proposed marriage causes great outrage: Albertus quarrels first with his brother, then father, for her sake. She is accused by the Duchess of stealing a jewel and protesting her innocence, is hanged. Albertus is killed by his father trying to prevent her execution, and the Duchess later finds her jewel and laments her part in shedding innocent blood.

ISABELLA**1639

Principal lady-in-waiting to Aphelia after she becomes Clotair's Queen in Hemming's Fatal Contract. She gives bawdy advice on her wedding night, but subsequently helps her abortive escape from Clotair.

ISABELLA**1639

Niece of the Duke of Florence in Dekker's(?) Telltale. Enters to the Duke with the court party. Later, laments Picentio's imprisonment to Lesbia, and wonders if the Duchess took advantage of the favors Isabella sent with her to Picentio to advance the Duchess' own love for Picentio. Lesbia informs Isabella that they have been summoned to court to greet the Venetian ambassadors. Isabella joins Aspero and the court to greet the Ambassadors and witnesses Hortensio's distracted ravings about the Turk as well as the arrival of the Duke disguised as a hermit. She hears from the hermit that the Duke was murdered by associates of the Duchess and Picentio, and that before he died, the Duke willed that Aspero assume authority and that Isabella marry Aspero. Isabella pretends to be pleased. Later, feigning sickness, Isabella is visited by Aspero, along with Cosmo and Gismond, who inquires after her health. The French Doctor (Picentio in disguise) asks to speak with her privately and, after the others exit, tells her that she is not sick but instead is in love with Picentio. Isabella admits that she is not in fact sick and that she is trying to avoid her forced marriage to Aspero. When the French Doctor confirms Isabella's fear that Picentio is dead, she asks him for poison; he offers instead to fetch the ghost of Picentio for her. When Picentio returns as his ghost she asks him if in life he loved her and who killed him; Picentio confirms his love and tells her he was strangled in prison at Aspero's command. As she moves to embrace him he backs away and exits. The French Doctor then returns and promises Isabella a potion that will make Aspero hate her. The start of Isabella's next scene is missing from the manuscript. Aspero, in Isabella's chamber, encounters Picentio, playing the role of his ghost. Isabella insists that he is only imagining and tells him to think of their marriage instead. After Aspero exits, Cosmo, Gismond, and Fernese enter and Isabella asks them for news. They tell her the Duke and Duchess are both alive and are gathering a force at Castle Angelo. Picentio removes his French Doctor disguise briefly to identify himself to them. Bentivoli enters and is informed of the news and then tells a fable, to show their need to rely on themselves alone against Aspero.

ISABELLA, QUEEN

Queen Isabella, wife to Edward II, mother to Edward III, and sister to the King of France in Marlowe's Edward II. She is devoted to her husband but is continually spurned by him in favor of Gaveston. Called Isabel throughout the play, she goes to France with Prince Edward and with Edward II's blessing, but there tries to raise support to put her son on the throne. Joined by Mortimer, who has a romantic interest in her, forces are gathered which defeat Edward II's troops, capture him, and crown the prince King Edward III. In the final scene the young king sends her to the Tower to await trial for complicity in the murder of King Edward II.

ISABELLA, QUEEN of SPAIN

Queen Isabella of Spain marries King Sebastian of Portugal in Heywood's A Challenge for Beauty. She is proud and demands that the Spaniards praise her as the most beautiful and virtuous woman in the world. When Lord Bonavida refuses to be a flatterer, she challenges him to find a woman more beautiful and virtuous than she or lose his head. When Bonavida returns and describes Hellena, Isabella is angry that he has not brought her with him. She throws him in a dungeon and confiscates the carcanet that Hellena gave him. She then orders Pineda and Centella to test Hellena's virtue by trying to retrieve the ring from her. She is triumphant when they succeed. But at the execution of Bonavida, Hellena arrives in time to reveal that the ring was unjustly stolen from her, and Isabella, dazzled by Hellena's beauty and virtue, admits that she was wrong, and orders the release of Bonavida.

ISAIAH

Isaiah is the sixth human to request God's mercy in Bale's God's Promises. He describes humanity as hard-hearted, and asks God to convert them. When God describes the number of people he has slain for idol worship, Isaiah asks again that those remaining be relieved and consoled. God says he cannot turn from his children any more than a mother could forget her own child, and he foretells the coming of Christ. Isaiah rejoices and sings praises to God.

ISBEL

See also ISABEL, ISABELL, ISABELLA, and related spellings.

ISBEL

A "ghost character" in Shakespeare's All's Well. Beloved of Lavatch.

ISBEL MOTLEY

A country wench in the dancing scene in Heywood's A Woman Killed with Kindness.

ISBOSETH

A "ghost character" in Peele's David and Bethsabe. David threatens Hanon at Rabbah by reminding him that God had earlier made David successful over Isboseth by the pool of Gibeon, and Semei later refers to this death as an indication of David's evil.

ISEAS

A courtier, gentleman, and friend of Asprandus and Andrucho in Wilson's The Swisser. Like Asprandus, Iseas is a courtier who tries to keep his position by flattering the right people. When they hear that Arioldus is going to become general, they immediately go to visit him and bring him the news. They hope in this to be regarded his friends. Together with Asprandus and Andrucho, Iseas takes part in a prank they want to play upon Timentes, the fearful general. They tell him that some soldiers want to kill him and hide him in a coffin. Then they dissemble their voices and pretend to drown, hang or burn his body. When they reopen the coffin, Timentes seems to have died of fear. They become fearful that they will be hanged for this, especially when Anthares swears revenge. But Timentes awakes and swears that they have been his friends who saved him from a band of criminals.

ISHMAEL**1538

A "ghost character" in Bale's God's Promises. Mentioned by God as an example of man's sinfulness.

ISHMAEL**1538

A "ghost character" in Bale's John Baptist's Preaching in the Wilderness. John Baptist argues that the Sadducee are like Ishmael, only Abraham's son in the flesh, and not specifically blessed because of it.

ISHMAEL**1592

A "ghost character" in ?Greene's Selimus I. Persian Sophi who won the Levant from Bajazet.

ISIDOR

A usurer's servant in Shakespeare's The Life of Timon of Athens, like most of the servants he carries his master's name. He is one of the besiegers of Timon's house in II.ii.

ISIS

Isis is one of the characters in the masque Ptolemy arranges for Caesar in Fletcher and Massinger's The False One. Nilus sings a song describing Nilus and promising he will come himself. She then describes the life giving effects of the river, and promising if Caesar pays attention to Nilus' song, then his seven heads will appear and dance.

ISLEY, SIR HARRY

Sir Harry Isley is the member of Wyatt's rebellious party in Dekker and Webster's Sir Thomas Wyatt who reports Sir George Harper's defection to the queen's army. A short time later, he appears (without explanation) at the Duke of Norfolk's side with an erroneous report that the Earl of Pembroke has withdrawn.

ISMAEL

A reckless child in the anonymous Nice Wanton. He is the brother of Barnabas and Dalilah and the son of Xantippe. Ismael scorns learning and encourages his sister to find pleasure elsewhere. He cavorts with Iniquity and Dalilah, and when he loses his money gambling, goes out to steal more. Later, having been arrested, he appears before the judge Daniel and is declared guilty of a variety of crimes, including theft and murder. He is sentenced to hanging, but before he is executed, he successfully accuses Iniquity of bringing him to his criminal ways.

ISMENA **1566

A "ghost character" in Gascoigne and Kinwelmershe's Jocasta. Ismena, daughter of Jocasta and Oedipus, does not appear on the stage, but is several times referred to as suffering with the others from the strife between Eteocles and Polynice.

ISMENA**1584

Ismena is a lady at Sapho's court in Lyly's Sapho and Phao.

ISMENIA

Ismenia is the daughter of Bellides in Fletcher and Rowley's The Maid in the Mill. She prevents a fight between the young men of the Bellides and Julio clans by standing between them. There, she falls in love with Antonio of the rival house. He meets her at her balcony and asks her to accompany him on his forthcoming visit to the country. Ismenia does not dare, but follows him in secret, disguised as a shepherdess called Isabella. Antonio falls in love with 'Isabella' and contemplates marrying her. Ismenia reveals her deception, and Antonio is ashamed at his behaviour; she forgives him, and they plan a secret marriage. Their plan is complicated when Aminta tries to trick Antonio into marrying her, but she ends up accidentally marrying Martine. In the final scene, Ismenia appears dressed as 'Isabella' again, and Julio and Bellides demand that Antonio marry her as a punishment for Ismenia's disappearance. 'Isabella' then reveals that she is Ismenia, and the fathers admit that they knew all along and are pleased to see their houses united in marriage.

ISMENUS

Ismenus is the plain-spoken nephew of duke Leontius and the cousin of Leucippus and Hidaspes in Beaumont & Fletcher's Cupid's Revenge. When Leontius decides (on Hidaspes' request) to suppress the cult of Cupid in Licia, he orders Ismenus to smash the statues of Cupid in the palace, to command the city to do the same and to send out proclamations to the rest of the country. Ismenus refuses to destroy the statues himself, though he agrees to deliver Leontius' command. He is about to leave for the wars when he is told by Leontius that he is not needed there; Leontius later changes his mind and send Ismenus and Leucippus away from the court to suppress a supposed rebellion. On their return, Ismenus and Leucippus discuss the death of Hidaspes and the marriage of Leontius and Bacha . Witnessing the exchange between Leontius and Leucippus, and realising that Bacha is scheming against Leucippus, Ismenus attacks Bacha to her face. He advises Leucippus to take revenge against Bacha by killing her daughter Urania, but Leucippus refuses. Ismenus remains faithful to Leucippus as he is condemned and exiled, but Leucippus consistently refuses to take his advice. Ismenus eventually agrees to help Urania to reach Leucippus, having been persuaded that she is not like her mother. After he is stabbed by Bacha, Leucippus names Ismenus as his heir, and asks him to reinstate the cult of Cupid. He dies mid-sentence just as he is asking Ismenus to give Bacha a decent burial. Ismenus declines to bury Bacha, and instead orders that she be thrown in a ditch.

ITALIAN ZANY

The Zany in Dekker's If It Be Not Good is brought to the priory by the devil Shacklesoule with the Courtesans to tempt the Subprior with lusty songs and dances.

ITEM, TIM

He is the apothecary in Jonson's The Magnetic Lady. He is called in to assist Doctor Rut in treating Placentia's "dropsy" (actually pregnancy). Worried about his practice if he is discovered to have lied about Placentia's pregnancy, he convinces his friend Needle (the tailor) to join him in pretending to be mad so that they can't testify to the fact of the birth.

ITHAMORE

Ithamore is a Turkish slave bought by Barabas in Marlowe's The Jew of Malta. He lists a litany of crimes, from cutting throats to crippling pilgrims, that endears him to Barabas. Ithamore delivers a forged challenge to both Mathias and Lodowick, causing them to fight to the death in a duel. On the way back, he sees Bellamira, and wishes that he had Barabas' money so that he could buy her favors. After the death of both Lodowick and Mathias, Ithamore laughingly tells Abigail how her father planned the duel, causing her to rejoin the convent, this time for good. When Barabas find out, he pretends to make Ithamore his heir, and has him deliver poisoned rice to the nuns so that they all, including Abigail, will die. Ithamore objects that the rice is too well seasoned to poison, but does as he is ordered. When Barabas is confronted by the two friars, Ithamore helps kill Bernadine and then has the idea of setting the corpse upright as if begging. When Jacomo strikes the body, Ithamore helps Barabas accuse him of murder. Ithamore is then easily seduced by Bellamira into demanding money from Barabas. When Ithamore reveals to Bellamira and Pilia-Borza the crimes Barabas has committed, they decide to go to Ferneze. Ithamore is brought in with Barabas and confesses to all their crimes. He, along with Bellamira and Pilia-Borza, die shortly afterwards from the poison administered by Barabas.

ITHAY

Son of Achis of Gath in Peele's David and Bethsabe. Ithay joins David in the battle against Hanon at Rabbah. David urges him to withdraw from a fight that is not his, but Ithay insists on staying. It is he who informs David that Achitophel has joined Absalon as chief adviser.

ITHOCLES

Ithocles is the nearest to a villain for purposes of the revenge plot in Ford's The Broken Heart. His action of giving his sister, Penthea, to Bassanes instead of to Orgilus sets up Orgilus' vengeance. From his first entrance, however, he has regretted and repented that act. Unlike villains from other revenge plays of the period, Ithocles sincerely seeks to apologize and make amends from the first. He prefers Orgilus in court, where he is the king's favorite. Furthermore, his motivation in the original wrong was not evil. He was too young to understand that Orgilus and Penthea were in love and so gave her to his best friend, Bassanes, instead. Finally, he willing invites the revenger, Orgilus, to kill him and forgives him as he dies. In fact, his first reference to the wrong is at II.ii.50 where he calls it "a capital fault," that is, a fault worthy capital punishment. His name means "honour of loveliness."

ITIS

Tereus and Progne's son in ?Tarlton's Three Plays in One. Appears in the third playlet. Progne and Philomele kill him and serve his head to Tereus.

IUDICIO

See JUDICIO and related spellings.

IULIO

See under "JULIO."

IUGURTH

Iugurth or Jugurth is the nephew and loyal supporter of Massinissa in Marston's Sophonisba.

IXION

A "ghost character" in Heywood's The Silver Age; Hercules, triumphant in Hades, proposes to rescue this tyrant from his perpetual torment on the wheel.